WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical problem-solving skills

  1. Problem solving skills for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J; Li, Chunbo

    2007-04-18

    The severe and long-lasting symptoms of schizophrenia are often the cause of severe disability. Environmental stress such as life events and the practical problems people face in their daily can worsen the symptoms of schizophrenia. Deficits in problem solving skills in people with schizophrenia affect their independent and interpersonal functioning and impair their quality of life. As a result, therapies such as problem solving therapy have been developed to improve problem solving skills for people with schizophrenia. To review the effectiveness of problem solving therapy compared with other comparable therapies or routine care for those with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (September 2006), which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. We inspected references of all identified studies for further trials. We included all clinical randomised trials comparing problem solving therapy with other comparable therapies or routine care. We extracted data independently. For homogenous dichotomous data we calculated random effects, relative risk (RR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and, where appropriate, numbers needed to treat (NNT) on an intention-to-treat basis. For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) using a random effects statistical model. We included only three small trials (n=52) that evaluated problem solving versus routine care, coping skills training or non-specific interaction. Inadequate reporting of data rendered many outcomes unusable. We were unable to undertake meta-analysis. Overall results were limited and inconclusive with no significant differences between treatment groups for hospital admission, mental state, behaviour, social skills or leaving the study early. No data were presented for global state, quality of life or satisfaction. We found insufficient evidence to confirm or refute the benefits of problem solving therapy as an additional

  2. The Dreyfus model of clinical problem-solving skills acquisition: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Adolfo

    2010-06-14

    The Dreyfus model describes how individuals progress through various levels in their acquisition of skills and subsumes ideas with regard to how individuals learn. Such a model is being accepted almost without debate from physicians to explain the 'acquisition' of clinical skills. This paper reviews such a model, discusses several controversial points, clarifies what kind of knowledge the model is about, and examines its coherence in terms of problem-solving skills. Dreyfus' main idea that intuition is a major aspect of expertise is also discussed in some detail. Relevant scientific evidence from cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience is reviewed to accomplish these aims. Although the Dreyfus model may partially explain the 'acquisition' of some skills, it is debatable if it can explain the acquisition of clinical skills. The complex nature of clinical problem-solving skills and the rich interplay between the implicit and explicit forms of knowledge must be taken into consideration when we want to explain 'acquisition' of clinical skills. The idea that experts work from intuition, not from reason, should be evaluated carefully.

  3. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly accepted…

  4. [Investigation of problem solving skills among psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Póos, Judit; Annus, Rita; Perczel Forintos, Dóra

    2008-01-01

    According to our present knowledge depression and hopelessness play an important role in attempted suicide and the development of hopelessness seems to be closely associated with poor problem solving skills. In the present study we have used the internationally well-known MEPS (Means-Ends Problem Solving Test; a measure of social problem solving ability) in Hungary for the first time and combined with other tests. We intended to explore the cognitive risk factors that potentially play a role in the suicidal behavior in clinical population. In our study we compared a group of individuals who had attempted suicide to a nonsuicidal psychiatric control group and a normal control group (61 subjects in each group). Our results confirm the findings of others that psychiatric patients have difficulties in social problem solving compared to normal controls. Moreover, they generate less and poorer solutions. According to our data problem solving skills of the two clinical groups were similar. A strong positive correlation was found between poor problem solving skills, depression and hopelessness which may suggest that the development of problem solving skills could help to reduce negative mood.

  5. A method of teaching clinical problem-solving skills to primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-14

    Mar 14, 2009 ... was named the Diploma in Clinical Nursing Science, Health Assessment,. Treatment and ... Seeks relevant and discriminating physical signs to help confirm or refute working .... related to allergies e.g. pets, pollens, smoke.

  6. A method of teaching clinical problem-solving skills to primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solving process to primary health care nurses/clinical nurse practitioners (PHC nurses). The process was developed in the Soweto PHC Nurse Training Unit over the past 30 years as a result of the changing availability and role of nurse and doctor ...

  7. Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout their B.Sc. Course. ... there is a need for explicitly identifying important cognitive skills and strategies and ... Keywords: Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' ...

  8. Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

    2014-01-01

    Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

  9. The Effect of Problem Solving Teaching with Texts of Turkish Lesson on Students’ Problem Solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Havva ILGIN; Derya ARSLAN

    2012-01-01

    In this research, by carrying out activities based on texts, effect of providing problem solving skill on students’ levels of problem solving attainment was tried to be identified. Research was performed according to pretest-posttest Experimental Model with Control Group, in 2008-2009 educational year at second grade of an elementary school in Denizli province. For nine weeks, four hours in a week, while teacher guide book was being followed in control group in Turkish language lesson, texts ...

  10. Students' Competence in some Problem Solving Skills throughout ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Cognitive skills, thinking skills, problem solving, students' difficulties with cognitive skills. 1. Introduction ... storage of information in memory, and the retrieval and use of ..... 18 P. Eggen and D. Kauchak, Educational Psychology, Windows on.

  11. Understanding adults’ strong problem-solving skills based on PIAAC

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic, work-related and everyday life factors that are associated with a strong problem-solving performance. Design/methodology/approach The study builds...

  12. Elementary School Students Perception Levels of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Günes; Yasemin, Deringöl; Arslan, Çigdem

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the perception levels of problem solving skills of elementary school students. The sample of the study is formed by totally 264 elementary students attending to 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th grade in a big city in Turkey. Data were collected by means of "Perception Scale for Problem Solving Skills" which…

  13. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; MacKay, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called "Problems and Puzzles," which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom…

  14. Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin

    2015-01-01

    We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'…

  15. Specificity of problem-solving skills training in mothers of children newly diagnosed with cancer: results of a multisite randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Dolgin, Michael J; Phipps, Sean; Fairclough, Diane L; Askins, Martha A; Katz, Ernest R; Noll, Robert B; Butler, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Diagnosis of cancer in a child can be extremely stressful for parents. Bright IDEAS, a problem-solving skills training (PSST) intervention, has been shown to decrease negative affectivity (anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of newly diagnosed patients. This study was designed to determine the specificity of PSST by examining its direct and indirect (eg, social support) effects compared with a nondirective support (NDS) intervention. This randomized clinical trial included 309 English- or Spanish-speaking mothers of children diagnosed 2 to 16 weeks before recruitment. Participants completed assessments prerandomization (T1), immediately postintervention (T2), and at 3-month follow-up (T3). Both PSST and NDS consisted of eight weekly 1-hour individual sessions. Outcomes included measures of problem-solving skill and negative affectivity. There were no significant between-group differences at baseline (T1). Except for level of problem-solving skill, which was directly taught in the PSST arm, outcome measures improved equally in both groups immediately postintervention (T2). However, at the 3-month follow-up (T3), mothers in the PSST group continued to show significant improvements in mood, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress; mothers in the NDS group showed no further significant gains. PSST is an effective and specific intervention whose beneficial effects continue to grow after the intervention ends. In contrast, NDS is an effective intervention while it is being administered, but its benefits plateau when active support is removed. Therefore, teaching coping skills at diagnosis has the potential to facilitate family resilience over the entire course of treatment.

  16. Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, November). Fostering information problem solving skills through completion problems and prompts. Poster presented at the ICO Fall School 2012, Girona, Spain.

  17. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, September). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills Through Completion Problems and Prompts. Poster presented at the EARLI SIG 6 & 7 "Instructional Design" and "Learning and Instruction with Computers", Bari, Italy.

  18. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Wismath

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course. These changes can be posited to reveal three underlying threshold concepts in the evolution and establishment of students’ problem-solving skills.

  19. Problem Solving and Critical Thinking Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın KANBAY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and

  20. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  2. Threshold Concepts in the Development of Problem-solving Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly Wismath; Doug Orr; Bruce MacKay

    2015-01-01

    Problem-solving skills are often identified as a key component of 21st century education. This study collected data from students enrolled in a university-level Liberal Education science course called Problems and Puzzles, which introduced students to the theory and practice of problem solving via puzzles. Based on classroom observation and other qualitative data collected over three semesters, we have identified three significant changes in student behaviour at specific points in the course....

  3. Integrating Study Skills and Problem Solving into Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Jonathan; Guy, G. Michael; Beckford, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Students at a large urban community college enrolled in seven classes of an experimental remedial algebra programme, which integrated study skills instruction and collaborative problem solving. A control group of seven classes was taught in a traditional lecture format without study skills instruction. Student performance in the course was…

  4. Investigation of Environmental Problem Solving Skills of Preschool Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulutas, Aysegül; Köksalan, Bahadir

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine problem-solving skills of preschool age children on environment as well as factors affecting this skill. For this purpose, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together in the study and the research was designed in the screening model. This study is a descriptive type research since it…

  5. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  6. The Effects of a Problem Solving Intervention on Problem Solving Skills of Students with Autism during Vocational Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubova, Gulnoza

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…

  7. Teaching effective problem solving skills to radiation protection students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Problem solving skills are essential for all radiation protection personnel. Although some students have more natural problem solving skills than others, all students require practice to become comfortable using these skills. At the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), a unique one-semester course was developed as part of the core curriculum to teach students problem solving skills and elements of modelling and simulation. The underlying emphasis of the course was to allow students to develop their own problem solving strategies, both individually and in groups. Direction was provided on how to examine problems from different perspectives, and how to determine the proper root problem statement. A five-point problem solving strategy was presented as: 1) Problem definition; 2) Solution generation; 3) Decision; 4) Implementation; 5) Evaluation. Within the strategy, problem solving techniques were integrated from diverse areas such as: De Bono 's six thinking hats, Kepner-Tregoe decision analysis, Covey's seven habits of highly effective people, Reason's swiss cheese theory of complex failure, and Howlett's common failure modes. As part of the evaluation step, students critically explore areas such as ethics and environmental responsibility. In addition to exploring problem solving methods, students learn the usefulness of simulation methods, and how to model and simulate complex phenomena of relevance to radiation protection. Computational aspects of problem solving are explored using the commercially available MATLAB computer code. A number of case studies are presented as both examples and problems to the students. Emphasis was placed on solutions to problems of interest to radiation protection, health physics and nuclear engineering. A group project, pertaining to an accident or event related to the nuclear industry is a course requirement. Students learn to utilize common time and project management tools such as flowcharting, Pareto

  8. The effects of problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury attending mainstream schools: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D Y K; Fong, K N K

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of an explicit problem-solving skills training programme based on metacognitive principles for children with acquired brain injury (ABI) who attend mainstream schools. Thirty-two children with moderate to severe ABI studying in mainstream schools were allocated randomly by matched pairs to either an experimental or a comparison group. The participants in the experimental group received problem-solving skills training based on metacognitive principles, while those in the comparison group were on a waiting list to receive the experimental intervention shortly after the intervention in the experimental group had been completed. All participants were measured pre- and post-intervention using measures of abstract reasoning, metacognition, problem-solving functional behaviour in the home environment or social situations and individual goal-directed behaviour. Significant differences in post-test scores were found for all measurements between children in the experimental group and those in the comparison group, using the baselines of dependent variables, years of schooling and the full IQ scores as the covariates. The results of this study supported the use of explicit problem-solving skills training to improve daily functioning for children with ABI, and the need for a larger-scale, randomised controlled study with long-term follow-up.

  9. What Do Employers Pay for Employees' Complex Problem Solving Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, Peer; Nedelkoska, Ljubica; Patt, Alexander; Castellazzi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the market value that employers assign to the complex problem solving (CPS) skills of their employees, using individual-level Mincer-style wage regressions. For the purpose of the study, we collected new and unique data using psychometric measures of CPS and an extensive background questionnaire on employees' personal and work history.…

  10. Learning Styles and Problem Solving Skills of Turkish Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencel, Ilke Evin

    2015-01-01

    Global changes in educational discourse have an impact on educational systems, so teacher education programs need to be transformed to better train teachers and to contribute to their professional development. In this process learning styles and problem solving skills should be considered as individual differences which have an impact in…

  11. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  12. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  13. Teaching problem-solving skills to nuclear engineering students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

    2012-08-01

    Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and accurate analysis of the problems, design of solutions (focusing on public safety, environmental stewardship and ethics), solution execution and monitoring results. A three-month course in problem solving, modelling and simulation was designed and a collaborative approach was undertaken with instructors from both industry and academia. Training was optimised for the laptop-based pedagogy, which provided unique advantages for a course that includes modelling and simulation components. The concepts and tools learned as part of the training were observed to be utilised throughout the duration of student university studies and interviews with students who have entered the workforce indicate that the approaches learned and practised are retained long term.

  14. Improving mathematical problem solving skills through visual media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, S. A.; Darhim; Ikhwanudin, T.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to find out the enhancement of students’ mathematical problem solving by using visual learning media. The ability to solve mathematical problems is the ability possessed by students to solve problems encountered, one of the problem-solving model of Polya. This preliminary study was not to make a model, but it only took a conceptual approach by comparing the various literature of problem-solving skills by linking visual learning media. The results of the study indicated that the use of learning media had not been appropriated so that the ability to solve mathematical problems was not optimal. The inappropriateness of media use was due to the instructional media that was not adapted to the characteristics of the learners. Suggestions that can be given is the need to develop visual media to increase the ability to solve problems.

  15. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach problem-solving skills. The present study, as a first study in Turkey, may provide valuable insight for nurse academicians employed at üniversities. Purpose of ...

  16. Contribution of problem-solving skills to fear of recurrence in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akechi, Tatuo; Momino, Kanae; Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Tsunoda, Nobuyuki; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-05-01

    Although fear of recurrence is a major concern among breast cancer survivors after surgery, no standard strategies exist that alleviate their distress. This study examined the association of patients' problem-solving skills and fear of recurrence and psychological distress among breast cancer survivors. Randomly selected, ambulatory, female patients with breast cancer participated in this study. They were asked to complete the Concerns about Recurrence Scale (CARS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine their associations. Data were obtained from 317 patients. Patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with all subscales of fear of recurrence and overall worries measured by the CARS. In addition, patients' problem-solving skills were significantly associated with both their anxiety and depression. Our findings warrant clinical trials to investigate effectiveness of psychosocial intervention program, including enhancing patients' problem-solving skills and reducing fear of recurrence among breast cancer survivors.

  17. Do problem-solving skills affect success in nursing process applications? An application among Turkish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayindir Çevik, Ayfer; Olgun, Nermin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between problem-solving and nursing process application skills of nursing. This is a longitudinal and correlational study. The sample included 71 students. An information form, Problem-Solving Inventory, and nursing processes the students presented at the end of clinical courses were used for data collection. Although there was no significant relationship between problem-solving skills and nursing process grades, improving problem-solving skills increased successful grades. Problem-solving skills and nursing process skills can be concomitantly increased. Students were suggested to use critical thinking, practical approaches, and care plans, as well as revising nursing processes in order to improve their problem-solving skills and nursing process application skills. © 2014 NANDA International, Inc.

  18. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T.; von Davier, Alina A.; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses. PMID:29238314

  19. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Polyak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  20. Computational Psychometrics for the Measurement of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Stephen T; von Davier, Alina A; Peterschmidt, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a psychometrically-based approach to the measurement of collaborative problem solving skills, by mining and classifying behavioral data both in real-time and in post-game analyses. The data were collected from a sample of middle school children who interacted with a game-like, online simulation of collaborative problem solving tasks. In this simulation, a user is required to collaborate with a virtual agent to solve a series of tasks within a first-person maze environment. The tasks were developed following the psychometric principles of Evidence Centered Design (ECD) and are aligned with the Holistic Framework developed by ACT. The analyses presented in this paper are an application of an emerging discipline called computational psychometrics which is growing out of traditional psychometrics and incorporates techniques from educational data mining, machine learning and other computer/cognitive science fields. In the real-time analysis, our aim was to start with limited knowledge of skill mastery, and then demonstrate a form of continuous Bayesian evidence tracing that updates sub-skill level probabilities as new conversation flow event evidence is presented. This is performed using Bayes' rule and conversation item conditional probability tables. The items are polytomous and each response option has been tagged with a skill at a performance level. In our post-game analysis, our goal was to discover unique gameplay profiles by performing a cluster analysis of user's sub-skill performance scores based on their patterns of selected dialog responses.

  1. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  2. Problem-Solving Training: Effects on the Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Efficacy of Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Gulsum

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Problem-Solving (PS) skills have been determined to be an internationally useful strategy for better nursing. That is why PS skills underlie all nursing practice, teamwork, and health care management, and are a main topic in undergraduate nursing education. Thus, there is a need to develop effective methods to teach…

  3. Using Problem-solving Therapy to Improve Problem-solving Orientation, Problem-solving Skills and Quality of Life in Older Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdley-Kass, Shiloh D; Kass, Darrin S; Gellis, Zvi D; Bogner, Hillary A; Berger, Andrea; Perkins, Robert M

    2017-08-24

    To determine the effectiveness of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) in older hemodialysis (HD) patients by assessing changes in health-related quality of life and problem-solving skills. 33 HD patients in an outpatient hemodialysis center without active medical and psychiatric illness were enrolled. The intervention group (n = 15) received PST from a licensed social worker for 6 weeks, whereas the control group (n = 18) received usual care treatment. In comparison to the control group, patients receiving PST intervention reported improved perceptions of mental health, were more likely to view their problems with a positive orientation and were more likely to use functional problem-solving methods. Furthermore, this group was also more likely to view their overall health, activity limits, social activities and ability to accomplish desired tasks with a more positive mindset. The results demonstrate that PST may positively impact mental health components of quality of life and problem-solving coping among older HD patients. PST is an effective, efficient, and easy to implement intervention that can benefit problem-solving abilities and mental health-related quality of life in older HD patients. In turn, this will help patients manage their daily living activities related to their medical condition and reduce daily stressors.

  4. Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.

    1971-01-01

    The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.

  5. Clinical Reasoning Terms Included in Clinical Problem Solving Exercises?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, John L; Morris, Jason; Estrada, Carlos A; Kraemer, Ryan R

    2016-05-01

    Background Published clinical problem solving exercises have emerged as a common tool to illustrate aspects of the clinical reasoning process. The specific clinical reasoning terms mentioned in such exercises is unknown. Objective We identified which clinical reasoning terms are mentioned in published clinical problem solving exercises and compared them to clinical reasoning terms given high priority by clinician educators. Methods A convenience sample of clinician educators prioritized a list of clinical reasoning terms (whether to include, weight percentage of top 20 terms). The authors then electronically searched the terms in the text of published reports of 4 internal medicine journals between January 2010 and May 2013. Results The top 5 clinical reasoning terms ranked by educators were dual-process thinking (weight percentage = 24%), problem representation (12%), illness scripts (9%), hypothesis generation (7%), and problem categorization (7%). The top clinical reasoning terms mentioned in the text of 79 published reports were context specificity (n = 20, 25%), bias (n = 13, 17%), dual-process thinking (n = 11, 14%), illness scripts (n = 11, 14%), and problem representation (n = 10, 13%). Context specificity and bias were not ranked highly by educators. Conclusions Some core concepts of modern clinical reasoning theory ranked highly by educators are mentioned explicitly in published clinical problem solving exercises. However, some highly ranked terms were not used, and some terms used were not ranked by the clinician educators. Effort to teach clinical reasoning to trainees may benefit from a common nomenclature of clinical reasoning terms.

  6. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  7. Problem-solving skills training for mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: A pilot feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cathina T; Fairclough, Diane L; Noll, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training is an intervention designed to teach coping skills that has shown to decrease negative affectivity (depressive symptoms, negative mood, and post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of children with cancer. The objective of this study was to see whether mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder would be receptive to receiving problem-solving skills training (feasibility trial). Participants were recruited from a local outpatient developmental clinic that is part of a university department of pediatrics. Participants were to receive eight 1-h sessions of problem-solving skills training and were asked to complete assessments prior to beginning problem-solving skills training (T1), immediately after intervention (T2), and 3 months after T2 (T3). Outcome measures assessed problem-solving skills and negative affectivity (i.e. distress). In total, 30 mothers were approached and 24 agreed to participate (80.0%). Of them, 17 mothers completed problem-solving skills training (retention rate: 70.8%). Mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder who completed problem-solving skills training had significant decreases in negative affectivity and increases in problem-solving skills. A comparison to mothers of children with cancer shows that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder displayed similar levels of depressive symptoms but less negative mood and fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress. Data suggest that problem-solving skills training may be an effective way to alleviate distress in mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Data also suggest that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder were moderately receptive to receiving problem-solving skills training. Implications are that problem-solving skills training may be beneficial to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder; modifications to improve retention rates are suggested. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The Enhancement of Communication Skill and Prediction Skill in Colloidal Concept by Problem Solving Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...

  9. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SÜLEYMAN DÜNDAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...

  10. Enabling Metacognitive Skills for Mathematics Problem Solving: A Collective Case Study of Metacognitive Reflection and Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, Divan; van der Walt, Marthie

    2016-01-01

    Metacognition encompasses knowledge and regulation that, through reflection, sustain problem solving behaviour. How metacognitive awareness is constructed from reflection on metacognitive knowledge and regulation and how these reflections enable metacognitive skills for Mathematics problem solving remain unclear. Three secondary schools…

  11. Problem-solving skills and perceived stress among undergraduate students: The moderating role of hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Carlbring, Per; Harvey, Richard; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hardiness, and perceived stress and to test the moderating role of hardiness in the relationship between problem-solving skills and perceived stress among 500 undergraduates from Malaysian public universities. The analyses showed that undergraduates with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and approach-avoidance style were more likely to report perceived stress. Hardiness moderated the relationships between problem-solving skills and perceived stress. These findings reinforce the importance of moderating role of hardiness as an influencing factor that explains how problem-solving skills affect perceived stress among undergraduates.

  12. The Impact of Parental Attitudes on Problem Solving Skills in High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tösten, Rasim; Han, Bünyamin; Anik, Sabri

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving skill is one of the important skills which are expected to be gained during the educational programs. In the development of children's skills and shaping the behaviors, parental attitudes are believed to be effective. That means problem-solving skills and behavioral characteristics of individuals are closely related. From that…

  13. Scientific Approach to Improve Mathematical Problem Solving Skills Students of Grade V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roheni; Herman, T.; Jupri, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the skills of elementary school students’ in problem solving through the Scientific Approach. The purpose of this study is to determine mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Scientific Approach is better than mathematical problem solving skills of students by using Direct Instruction. This study is using quasi-experimental method. Subject of this study is students in grade V in one of state elementary school in Cirebon Regency. Instrument that used in this study is mathematical problem solving skills. The result of this study showed that mathematical problem solving skills of students who learn by using Scientific Approach is more significant than using Direct Instruction. Base on result and analysis, the conclusion is that Scientific Approach can improve students’ mathematical problem solving skills.

  14. Problem-Solving Skills among Precollege Students in Clinical Immunology and Microbiology: Classifying Strategies with a Rubric and Artificial Neural Network Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowith-Klein, Susan; Stave, Mel; Stevens, Ron; Casillas, Adrian M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates methods for classifying problem solving strategies of high school students who studied infectious and non-infectious diseases by using a software system that can generate a picture of students' strategies in solving problems. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  15. VET workers problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults skills to date. The present study (N=50 369) focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults problem-solving sk...

  16. VET workers’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults’ skills to date. The present study (N=50 369) focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults’ problem-solving...

  17. Teachers' ICT and Problem-Solving Skills: Competencies and Needs. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The education sector performs well for information and communication technology (ICT) and problem-solving skills, although it still lags behind the professional, scientific and technical activities sector. Primary and secondary teachers have better ICT and problem-solving skills than the general population, and similar skills to other…

  18. Development and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Skills in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuytema, Eunice C.; And Others

    A problem solving, laboratory experience was devised in which first-year medical students were given a case description and then required to make judgments about what microbiology specimens should be collected and to analyze the results of laboratory tests in terms of implications for patient care. Over a four-year period revisions were made in…

  19. Cognitive load and the acquisition of a problem solving skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoe, van R.R.G.; Brouwer-Janse, M.D.; Harrington, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    Current theories of leaming consider the restructuring of the components of a weak problem solving sequence into a domain-specific procedure to be the fundamental leaming mechanism in complex knowledge domains. Within the context of cognitive load theory, there is growing evidence that applying weak

  20. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Cathy

    2011-03-01

    To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children. Children (8-11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N= 27) and low (N= 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and perceived control). High and low worry groups differed significantly on measures of anxiety and problem-solving beliefs (confidence and control) but not on problem-solving skills. Consistent with findings with adults, worry in children was associated with cognitive distortions, not skills deficits. Interventions for worried children may benefit from a focus on increasing positive problem-solving beliefs. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs in primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Monika; Creswell, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To examine the association between worry and problem-solving skills and beliefs (confidence and perceived control) in primary school children.\\ud Method. Children (8–11 years) were screened using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for Children. High (N ¼ 27) and low (N ¼ 30) scorers completed measures of anxiety, problem-solving skills (generating alternative solutions to\\ud problems, planfulness, and effectiveness of solutions) and problem-solving beliefs(confidence and perceived ...

  2. Problem solving strategies integrated into nursing process to promote clinical problem solving abilities of RN-BSN students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Jy; Lo, Chi-Hui Kao; Ku, Ya-Lie

    2004-11-01

    A set of problem solving strategies integrated into nursing process in nursing core courses (PSNP) was developed for students enrolled in a post-RN baccalaureate nursing program (RN-BSN) in a university in Taiwan. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effectiveness of PSNP on students' clinical problem solving abilities. The one-group post-test design with repeated measures was used. In total 114 nursing students with 47 full-time students and 67 part-time students participated in this study. The nursing core courses were undertaken separately in three semesters. After each semester's learning, students would start their clinical practice, and were asked to submit three written nursing process recordings during each clinic. Assignments from the three practices were named post-test I, II, and III sequentially, and provided the data for this study. The overall score of problem solving indicated that score on the post-test III was significantly better than that on post-test I and II, meaning both full-time and part-time students' clinical problem solving abilities improved at the last semester. In conclusion, problem-solving strategies integrated into nursing process designed for future RN-BSN students are recommendable.

  3. The Effects of Authentic Tasks on Preservice Teachers' Attitudes towards Classes and Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, Sinan; Zembat, Rengin

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of authentic tasks on preschool preservice teachers' attitudes towards the course and problem solving skills. The study was designed in accordance with the pretest-posttest control group model. The data were collected by using the "Problem Solving Skills Inventory", the "Course Attitude…

  4. Requisite for Honing the Problem Solving Skill of Early Adolescents in the Digital Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitha, S.; Jose, Rexlin

    2016-01-01

    Problems can be the cause of stress, tension, emotional instability and physical strain. Especially, adolescents should have the skill of solving a problem in order to reach his/her desired ambitions in life. The problem solving skill requires some abstract thinking to arrive at a clear solution. Problem solving ability helps them to meet their…

  5. Assessing Leadership and Problem-Solving Skills and Their Impacts in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohs, F. Richard; Langone, Christine A.

    1993-01-01

    A pretest-posttest control group design was used to assess the leadership and problem-solving skills of 281 participants and 110 controls in a statewide community leadership development program. Quantitative and qualitative data demonstrate that the program has been a catalyst to influence leadership and problem-solving skills for community…

  6. Skills and Dispositions for Creative Problem Solving during the Artmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitri, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Eliza Pitri states, "when allowed to make and explain their own choices, students develop invaluable creative problem-solving skills." Opportunities for such critical thinking abound in the art classroom. The importance of identifying how skills and dispositions related to creative problem solving are expressed in a…

  7. Understanding Adults' Strong Problem-Solving Skills Based on PIAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; De Wever, Bram; Nissinen, Kari; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Research has shown that the problem-solving skills of adults with a vocational education and training (VET) background in technology-rich environments (TREs) are often inadequate. However, some adults with a VET background do have sound problem-solving skills. The present study aims to provide insight into the socio-demographic,…

  8. Toward Teaching Methods that Develop Learning and Enhance Problem Solving Skills in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loji, K.

    2012-01-01

    Problem solving skills and abilities are critical in life and more specifically in the engineering field. Unfortunately, significant numbers of South African students who are accessing higher education lack problem solving skills and this results in poor academic performance jeopardizing their progress especially from first to second year. On the…

  9. The Investigation of Elementary Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Problem Solving Skills According to Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Deniz; Izgiol, Dilek; Kesan, Cenk

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine elementary mathematics teacher candidates' problem solving skills and analyze problem solving skills according to various variables. The data were obtained from total 306 different grade teacher candidates receiving education in Department of Elementary Mathematics Education, Buca Faculty of Education, Dokuz Eylul…

  10. Perceived Problem Solving Skills: As a Predictor of Prospective Teachers' Scientific Epistemological Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the level of perceived problem solving skills of prospective teachers and the relations between these skills and their scientific epistemological beliefs. The study was conducted in the fall semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Prospective teachers were applied Problem Solving Inventory which was developed by Heppner…

  11. Learning problem-solving skills in a distance education physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampho, G. J.; Ramorola, M. Z.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of combinations of delivery modes of distance education in learning problem-solving skills in a distance education introductory physics course. A problem-solving instruction with the explicit teaching of a problem-solving strategy and worked-out examples were implemented in the course. The study used the ex post facto research design with stratified sampling to investigate the effect of the learning of a problem-solving strategy on the problem-solving performance. The number of problems attempted and the mean frequency of using a strategy in solving problems in the three course presentation modes were compared. The finding of the study indicated that combining the different course presentation modes had no statistically significant effect in the learning of problem-solving skills in the distance education course.

  12. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-05-17

    Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students' problem solving skills. The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. They were selected through convenience sampling technique and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught through metacognitive instruction during ten two-hour sessions and for the control group, problem solving skills were taught via conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection included problem solving inventory (Heppner, 1988), which was administered before and after instruction. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been previously confirmed. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested by t-test and ANCOVA. The findings of the posttest showed that the total mean scores of problem solving skills in the experimental and control groups were 151.90 and 101.65, respectively, indicating a significant difference between them (pproblem solving skills and its components, including problem solving confidence, orientation-avoidance coping style and personal control (pproblem solving skills and is required to enhance academic achievement, metacognitive strategies are recommended to be taught to the students.

  13. Internet Addiction Levels and Problem-Solving Skills in the Teaching Profession: An Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibili, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the relationship between Internet addiction levels among teaching candidates and their problem-solving aptitude and self-efficacy perceptions towards the teaching profession was investigated. In addition, the effects of gender, department, Internet use and sporting habits on the Internet addiction, problem-solving skills and…

  14. Dynamics of Undergraduate Student Generic Problem-Solving Skills Captured by a Campus-Wide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; McKeown, Stephanie Barclay; Hurren, Heather; Spielman, Lindsay Joy; Stuart, Maegan; Bahniwal, Manpreet

    2017-01-01

    The ability to effectively problem solve is a highly valued competency expected of university graduates, independent of their area of study. Evaluation of problem-solving skill (PSS) development is hindered by a shortage of available tools for monitoring student progress and by lack of defined instructional strategies for development of these…

  15. Enhanced Critical Thinking Skills through Problem-Solving Games in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Scott Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and…

  16. Examining the Critical Thinking Dispositions and the Problem Solving Skills of Computer Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Özcan

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is an indispensable part of engineering. Improving critical thinking dispositions for solving engineering problems is one of the objectives of engineering education. In this sense, knowing critical thinking and problem solving skills of engineering students is of importance for engineering education. This study aims to determine…

  17. The Transitory Phase to the Attainment of Self-Regulatory Skill in Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazakidou, G.; Paraskeva, F.; Retalis, S.

    2007-01-01

    Three phases of development of self-regulatory skill in the domain of mathematical problem solving were designed to examine students' behaviour and the effects on their problem solving ability. Forty-eight Grade 4 students (10 year olds) participated in this pilot study. The students were randomly assigned to one of three groups, each representing…

  18. An Intervention Framework Designed to Develop the Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Shan; Zhu, Wenbo; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Considerable effort has been invested in innovative learning practices such as collaborative inquiry. Collaborative problem solving is becoming popular in school settings, but there is limited knowledge on how to develop skills crucial in collaborative problem solving in students. Based on the intervention design in social interaction of…

  19. The Investigation of Problem Solving Skill of the Mountaineers in Terms of Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Burak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate problem solving skills of the individuals involved in mountaineering. 315 volunteers participated in the study. The research data were collected by problem solving scale developed by Heppner and Peterson and the Turkish version of which was conducted by Sahin et al. There are totally 35 items and only 3…

  20. Problem Solving Skills of People Doing Sporty Recreation Activities in Karaman Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birol, Sefa Sahan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine the problem solving skills of people who are doing sporty recreation activities in Karaman Province. A total of 143 people participated in this study (51 females and 92 males) Their age mean was 1.2168 ± 0.41350. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson, was used to measure the problem solving…

  1. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  2. The Problem-Solving Skills of the Teachers in Various Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Veysel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the problem-solving skills of the teachers in various branches in Çat town of Erzurum Province in Turkey, using some variables. A total of 153 teachers (84 females, 69 males and age: 1.6536±0.72837) from different departments participated in the study. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and…

  3. The Improvement of Basic Support and Advance Clarification Skill with Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Novi Ayu; Diawati, Chansyanah; Rosilawati, Ila

    2013-01-01

    The low-creative critical thinking skill of the student is because many schools use low-level abilities in learning. The use of problem solving model in the learning is one of the efforts for practice the critical thinking skill students. This research aimed to describe the problem solving model that are effective in improving the basic support and advance clarification skill. This research using a quasi-experimental methods with Non Equivalent Control Group Design. The sampling technique use...

  4. The effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbay, Yalçın; Okanlı, Ayşe

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills. This study was conducted with 93 nursing students, 49 in the control group and 44 in the education group. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Problem-solving Inventory were administered to them before and after 12 weeks of critical thinking education. The education group's mean critical thinking score was 253.61 on the pretest and 268.72 on the posttest. This increase was statistically significant (p skills of education group increased significantly (p critical thinking education improves problem-solving skills.

  5. Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerejean, Jimmy; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Frerejean, J., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Kirschner, P. A. (2013, August). Fostering Information Problem Solving Skills: Effects of Worked Examples and Learner Support. Paper presented at the biennial EARLI Conference for Research in Learning and Instruction, Münich, Germany.

  6. The Improvement of Simple Explanation and Inferencetion Skills with Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Dewanti, Fransiska Olivia; Diawati, Chansyanah; Fadiawati, Noor

    2013-01-01

    The learning process is strongly influenced by the ability and accuracy of teachers in selecting and applying the learning model. The model can be applied to improve of  simple explanation and inferencetion skill is a model of problem solving. The purpose of this study was to describe the model of problem solving that are effective in improving simple explanation and inferencetion skills on the material electrolyte and non-electrolyte solution. This research use a quasi-experimental methods ...

  7. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students? problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. T...

  8. The Importance of Monitoring Skills in Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Marlina; Talib, Corrienna-Abd; Hasniza Ibrahim, Nor; Surif, Johari; Halim Abdullah, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how important "monitoring" is as metacognitive skills in solving physics problems in the field mechanics. Based on test scores, twenty one students were divided into two groups: more successful (MS) and less successful (LS) problem solvers. Students were allowed to think-aloud while they worked on…

  9. Problem-Solving Skills and Suicidal Ideation Among Malaysian College Students: the Mediating Role of Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation has increased among Malaysian college students over the past two decades; therefore, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among Malaysian college students. The participants included 500 undergraduate students from two Malaysian public universities who completed the self-report questionnaires. Structural equation modeling estimated that college students with poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Hopelessness partially mediated the relationship between problem-solving skills and suicidal ideation. These findings reinforce the importance of poor problem-solving skills and hopelessness as risk factors for suicidal ideation among college students.

  10. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Depression is associated with poor social problem solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for…

  11. Junior High School Students’ Understanding and Problem Solving Skills on the Topics of Line and Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsal, I. L.; Jupri, A.; Prabawanto, S.

    2017-09-01

    Line and angles is important topics to learn to develop the geometry skills and also mathematics skills such as understanding and problem solving skills. But, the fact was given by Indonesian researcher show that Indonesian students’ understanding and problem solving skills still low in this topics. This fact be a background to investigate students’ understanding and problem solving skills in line and angles topics. To investigate these skills, this study used descriptive-qualitative approach. Individual written test (essay) and interview was used in this study. 72 students grade 8th from one of Junior High School in Lembang, worked the written test and 18 of them were interviewed. Based on result, almost of student were have a good instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in same area, but almost all student have a low instrumental understanding in line and angles topic in different area. Almost all student have a low relational understanding. Also, almost all student have a low problem solving skills especially in make and use strategy to solve the problem and looking back their answer. Based on result there is need a meaningfulness learning strategy, which can make students build their understanding and develop their problem solving skill independently.

  12. The Strengthening Families Program 10-14: influence on parent and youth problem-solving skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Y; Brown, R L; Riesch, S K; Zywicki, M; Hopper, J; Henriques, J B

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the results of a preliminary examination of the efficacy of the Strengthening Families Program (SFP) 10-14 in improving parent and youth problem-solving skill. The Hypotheses in this paper include: (1) youth and parents who participated in SFP would have lower mean scores immediately (T2) and 6 months (T3) post intervention on indicators of hostile and negative problem-solving strategies; (2) higher mean scores on positive problem-solving strategies; and (3) youth who participated in SFP would have higher mean scores at T2 and at T3 on indicators of individual problem solving and problem-solving efficacy than youth in the comparison group. The dyads were recruited from elementary schools that had been stratified for race and assigned randomly to intervention or comparison conditions. Mean age of youth was 11 years (SD = 1.04). Fifty-seven dyads (34-intervention&23-control) were videotaped discussing a frequently occurring problem. The videotapes were analysed using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS) and data were analysed using Dyadic Assessment Intervention Model. Most mean scores on the IFIRS did not change. One score changed as predicted: youth hostility decreased at T3. Two scores changed contrary to prediction: parent hostility increased T3 and parent positive problem solving decreased at T2. SFP demonstrated questionable efficacy for problem-solving skill in this study.

  13. The Improvement of Communication and Inference Skills in Colloid System Material by Problem Solving Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    maisarera, yunita; diawati, chansyanah; fadiawati, noor

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the effectiveness of problem solving learning in improving communication and inference skills in colloid system material. Subjects in this research were students of XIIPA1 and XI IPA2 classrooms in Persada Junior High School in Bandar Lampung in academic year 2011-2012 where students of both classrooms had the same characteristics. This research used quasi experiment method and pretest-posttest control group design. Effectiveness of problem solving le...

  14. Problem-solving skills of futsal players with regard to some socio-demographic variables

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, Kürşat; CON, Musa; CANKAYA, Soner; TASMEKTEPLIGIL, Mehmet Yalcin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate problem-solving skills of female futsal teams that compete in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation in terms of some socio-demographic variables. In total, 144 students from female futsal teams of 10 universities competing in the Futsal League of Turkish Universities Sports Federation voluntarily took part in this study. In the study, “Problem-Solving Inventory” that was developed by Heppner & Petersen was used. With this inve...

  15. Enhanced Critical Thinking Skills through Problem-Solving Games in Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D McDonald

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this through an interactive teaching method. Methodology: Three classes of Vietnamese high school stude...

  16. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Problem-solving Skills in Projectile Motion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarno, S.; Setiawan, A.; Kaniawati, I.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-09-01

    This study is a preliminary research aiming at exploring pre-service physics teachers’ skills in applying the stage of problem-solving strategies. A total of 76 students of physics education study program at a college in Bengkulu Indonesia participated in the study. The skills on solving physics problems are being explored through exercises that demand the use of problem-solving strategies with several stages such as useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, physics equation, mathematical procedures, and logical progression. Based on the results of data analysis, it is found that the pre-service physics teachers’ skills are in the moderate category for physics approach and mathematical procedural, and low category for the others. It was concluded that the pre-service physics teachers’ problem-solving skills are categorized low. It is caused by the learning of physics that has done less to practice problem-solving skills. The problems provided are only routine and poorly trained in the implementation of problem-solving strategies.The results of the research can be used as a reference for the importance of the development of physics learning based on higher order thinking skills.

  17. Investigating the psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin Pinar, Sukran; Yildirim, Gulay; Sayin, Neslihan

    2018-05-01

    The high level of psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem solving skills of midwife candidates play an important role in increasing the quality of health care and in fulfilling their responsibilities towards patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological resilience, self-confidence and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates. It is a convenience descriptive quantitative study. Students who study at Health Sciences Faculty in Turkey's Central Anatolia Region. Midwife candidates (N = 270). In collection of data, the Personal Information Form, Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults (PRSA), Self-Confidence Scale (SCS), and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used. There was a negatively moderate-level significant relationship between the Problem Solving Inventory scores and the Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults scores (r = -0.619; p = 0.000), and between Self-Confidence Scale scores (r = -0.524; p = 0.000). There was a positively moderate-level significant relationship between the Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults scores and the Self-Confidence Scale scores (r = 0.583; p = 0.000). There was a statistically significant difference (p Problem Solving Inventory and the Psychological Resilience Scale for Adults scores according to getting support in a difficult situation. As psychological resilience and self-confidence levels increase, problem-solving skills increase; additionally, as self-confidence increases, psychological resilience increases too. Psychological resilience, self-confidence, and problem-solving skills of midwife candidates in their first-year of studies are higher than those who are in their fourth year. Self-confidence and psychological resilience of midwife candidates aged between 17 and 21, self-confidence and problem solving skills of residents of city centers, psychological resilience of those who perceive their monthly income as sufficient are high

  18. Problem-Solving Skills Appraisal Mediates Hardiness and Suicidal Ideation among Malaysian Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation is increased among university students, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among university students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal, hardiness, and suicidal ideation among university students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) as a potential mediator between hardiness and suicidal ideation. Methods The participants consisted of 500 undergraduate students from Malaysian public universities. Results Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) estimated that undergraduate students with lower hardiness, poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style was associated with higher suicidal ideation. Problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) partially mediated the relationship between hardiness and suicidal ideation. Conclusion These findings underline the importance of studying mediating processes that explain how hardiness affects suicidal ideation. PMID:25830229

  19. Problem-solving skills appraisal mediates hardiness and suicidal ideation among malaysian undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that suicidal ideation is increased among university students, it is essential to increase our knowledge concerning the etiology of suicidal ideation among university students. This study was conducted to examine the relationships between problem-solving skills appraisal, hardiness, and suicidal ideation among university students. In addition, this study was conducted to examine problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) as a potential mediator between hardiness and suicidal ideation. The participants consisted of 500 undergraduate students from Malaysian public universities. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) estimated that undergraduate students with lower hardiness, poor problem-solving confidence, external personal control of emotion, and avoiding style was associated with higher suicidal ideation. Problem-solving skills appraisal (including the three components of problem-solving confidence, approach-avoidance style, and personal control of emotion) partially mediated the relationship between hardiness and suicidal ideation. These findings underline the importance of studying mediating processes that explain how hardiness affects suicidal ideation.

  20. Improving Students’ Scientific Reasoning and Problem-Solving Skills by The 5E Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani Endang Susilowati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology learning in MA (Madrasah Aliyah Khas Kempek was still dominated by teacher with low students’ involvement. This study would analyze the effectiveness of the 5E (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Elaboration, Evaluation learning model in improving scientific knowledge and problems solving. It also explained the relationship between students’ scientific reasoning with their problem-solving abilities. This was a pre-experimental research with one group pre-test post-test. Sixty students of MA Khas Kempek from XI MIA 3 and XI MIA 4 involved in this study. The learning outcome of the students was collected by the test of reasoning and problem-solving. The results showed that the rises of students’ scientific reasoning ability were 69.77% for XI MIA 3 and 66.27% for XI MIA 4, in the medium category. The problem-solving skills were 63.40% for XI MIA 3, 61.67% for XI MIA 4, and classified in the moderate category. The simple regression test found a linear correlation between students’ scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability. This study affirms that reasoning ability is needed in problem-solving. It is found that application of 5E learning model was effective to improve scientific reasoning and problem-solving ability of students.

  1. Construction and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Problem-Solving Skills of Suburban High School Physical Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herak, Patrick James

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a problem-solving instrument that could easily be used by a classroom teacher. The research questions were (1) can the Problem-Solving Skills Assessments (PSSAs) differentiate between students with varying levels of selected problem-solving skills? (2) Can the PSSAs measure student growth due to…

  2. Information Problem-Solving Skills in Small Virtual Groups and Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Consuelo; Badia, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the frequency of use of information problem-solving (IPS) skills and its relationship with learning outcomes. During the course of the study, 40 teachers carried out a collaborative IPS task in small virtual groups in a 4-week online training course. The status of IPS skills was collected through self-reports handed in over…

  3. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills toward Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Sendil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the pre-service science teachers' reflective thinking skills toward problem solving and the effects of gender, grade level, academic achievement, type of graduated high school and father and mother's education level on these skills. The study was conducted through the survey method with the…

  4. VET Workers' Problem-Solving Skills in Technology-Rich Environments: European Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Cincinnato, Sebastiano; Malin, Antero; De Wever, Bram

    2014-01-01

    The European workplace is challenging VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs). So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults' skills to date. The present study (N = 50 369) focuses on gaining insight…

  5. Enhancing Arithmetic and Word-Problem Solving Skills Efficiently by Individualized Computer-Assisted Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoppek, Wolfgang; Tulis, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The fluency of basic arithmetical operations is a precondition for mathematical problem solving. However, the training of skills plays a minor role in contemporary mathematics instruction. The authors proposed individualization of practice as a means to improve its efficiency, so that the time spent with the training of skills is minimized. As a…

  6. The Effectiveness of Problem Solving Therapy on Coping Skills in Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hoseini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Since problem solving group training is a comprehensive, active program and based-on cognitive behavioral approach, the aim of present study was to determine the effectiveness of problem solving therapy on depression and coping style in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In an experimental design the study was done with pretest-posttest with control group. Totally 30 female clients who had inclusion criteria with score of 20-28 in Beck Depression Inventory was selected from Prophet Mohammad hospital in Tehran and divided to two groups. Then coping skills questionnaire was completed by experimental and control group. The experimental group participated in seven sessions on problem solving therapy, while the control group received no intervention. T-test analysis and variance analysis with repeated measures on one variable were used for data analysis. Results: The results of variance analysis show that teaching problem solving therapy on Zurilla and Goldfried model lead to significant reducing emotion focused coping skills and significant increasing problem focused coping skills among patients with type 2 diabetes on the experimental group. The results also indicated significant reducing depression between this individual in experimental groups. Discussion: The results of this study indicated that problem solving therapy could be effective way for improvement coping skill and reducing depression in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  7. Analysis of problem solving skill in learning biology at senior high school of Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, D.; Sajidan; Ashadi

    2018-04-01

    Problem solving is a critical component of comprehensive learning in 21st century. Problem solving is defined as a process used to obtain the best answer from a problem. Someone who can solve the problem is called a problem solver. Problem solver obtains many benefits in the future and has a chance to be an innovator, such as be an innovative entrepreneur, modify behavior, improve creativity, and cognitive skills. The goal of this research is to analyze problem solving skills of students in Senior High School Surakarta in learning Biology. Participants of this research were students of grade 12 SMA (Senior High School) N Surakarta. Data is collected by using multiple choice questions base on analysis problem solving skills on Mourtus. The result of this research showed that the percentage of defining problem was 52.38%, exploring the problem was 53.28%, implementing the solution was 50.71% for 50.08% is moderate, while the percentage of designing the solution was 34.42%, and evaluating was low for 39.24%. Based on the result showed that the problem solving skills of students in SMAN Surakarta was Low.

  8. Memory functioning and negative symptoms as differential predictors of social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Sixty outpatients (aged 21-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J. H.; de Koning, Björn B.; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME. PMID:26925012

  10. Word problem solving in contemporary math education: A plea for reading comprehension skills training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton eBoonen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME, however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  11. Word Problem Solving in Contemporary Math Education: A Plea for Reading Comprehension Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Anton J H; de Koning, Björn B; Jolles, Jelle; van der Schoot, Menno

    2016-01-01

    Successfully solving mathematical word problems requires both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. In Realistic Math Education (RME), however, students primarily learn to apply the first of these skills (i.e., representational skills) in the context of word problem solving. Given this, it seems legitimate to assume that students from a RME curriculum experience difficulties when asked to solve semantically complex word problems. We investigated this assumption under 80 sixth grade students who were classified as successful and less successful word problem solvers based on a standardized mathematics test. To this end, students completed word problems that ask for both mental representation skills and reading comprehension skills. The results showed that even successful word problem solvers had a low performance on semantically complex word problems, despite adequate performance on semantically less complex word problems. Based on this study, we concluded that reading comprehension skills should be given a (more) prominent role during word problem solving instruction in RME.

  12. Research on problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eroğlu Başak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the problem solving skills of orienteering athletes in terms of different variables. 157 male and 43 female orienteering athletes, making a total of 200 athletes that joined the 3rd Level of Turkey Championship in 2015 have participated in this study which is in a survey model. The data collection tools were the Problem Solving Inventory and Personal Information Form that were formed by Heppner & Peterson (1982 and adapted into Turkish by Şahin, Şahin & Heppner (1993. In the data analysis, descriptive statics, anova, t test and Tukey test have been utilized. In the line with the findings, it has been determined that the difference between the total mean values (85.55+20.45 that the orienteering athletes got from the problem solving inventory and their age, marital status, sports age, the years of practice in orienteering sports, and the status of being national player is significant (p<0.05. It has been found that male orienteering athletes perform higher evaluating approach compared to the female athletes, and that as the age levels increase, the problem solving skill is affected more positively. Furthermore, it has been determined that the perceptions of the participants that have more experience and sports age in orienteering sports and that do orienteering sports at a national level are more positive in the matter of problem solving skills.

  13. Problem-solving skills and hardiness as protective factors against stress in Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Talib, Mansor Abu; Yaacob, Siti Nor; Ismail, Zanariah

    2014-02-01

    Nursing is a stressful occupation, even when compared with other health professions; therefore, it is necessary to advance our knowledge about the protective factors that can help reduce stress among nurses. The present study sought to investigate the associations among problem-solving skills and hardiness with perceived stress in nurses. The participants, 252 nurses from six private hospitals in Tehran, completed the Personal Views Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Problem-Solving Inventory. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to analyse the data and answer the research hypotheses. As expected, greater hardiness was associated with low levels of perceived stress, and nurses low in perceived stress were more likely to be considered approachable, have a style that relied on their own sense of internal personal control, and demonstrate effective problem-solving confidence. These findings reinforce the importance of hardiness and problem-solving skills as protective factors against perceived stress among nurses, and could be important in training future nurses so that hardiness ability and problem-solving skills can be imparted, allowing nurses to have more ability to control their perceived stress.

  14. Reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of school of health students and their social skill levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Ergün; Buket Şimşek Arslan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of health high school students and their social skill levels.  It was planned to be descriptive. The universe of the research was composed of nursing students in the health high school. The sample was determined to be the whole of the universe. A written permission was taken from the management of the health high school regarding the research. Problem Solving Inventory and Social Skill Inventory; the form towards ...

  15. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  16. Problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent communication, dyadic functioning, and distress among adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Adrienne; Taggi-Pinto, Alison; Sahler, Olle Jane Z; Alderfer, Melissa A; Devine, Katie A

    2018-05-01

    Some adolescents with cancer report distress and unmet needs. Guided by the disability-stress-coping model, we evaluated associations among problem-solving skills, parent-adolescent cancer-related communication, parent-adolescent dyadic functioning, and distress in adolescents with cancer. Thirty-nine adolescent-parent dyads completed measures of these constructs. Adolescents were 14-20 years old on treatment or within 1 year of completing treatment. Better problem-solving skills were correlated with lower adolescent distress (r = -0.70, P communication problems and dyadic functioning were not significantly related to adolescent distress (rs < 0.18). Future work should examine use of problem-solving interventions to decrease distress for adolescents with cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education. The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher...... education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers......Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem...

  18. Assessment of collaborative problem solving skills in Undergraduate Medical Students at Ziauddin College of Medicine, Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Arsalan Manzoor; Shaikh, Sirajul Haque

    2018-01-01

    Collaborative Problem Solving Empirical Progressions from the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) framework were used to determine the level of collaborative problem solving skills (CPS) in first, second and third year MBBS students at Ziauddin College of Medicine during Problem-Based Learning (PBL) sessions. Variations based on gender and roles were studied. It is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study in which seven PBL groups were selected per year by non-probability convenient sampling. Data was collected using the Collaborative Problem Solving Five Strands Empirical Progressions by the primary investigator through observation of the students during PBL sessions. Duration of study was six months. We found that in our students, development of social dimension skills is facilitated to a greater extent than the development of cognitive dimension skills through the process of PBL. These skills are generally better developed in the leader compared to the scribe and members in a group. They are also more developed in females compared to males. Modification in them is also observed as the year's progress. Although PBLs facilitate development of CPS skills' progression however in our curriculum, PBLs mainly focus on social skills development and have less emphasis on cognitive skill development. Thus, hybrid instructional strategies with components from TBL and mentorship are recommended for better development of CPS skills.

  19. Assessment of collaborative problem solving skills in Undergraduate Medical Students at Ziauddin College of Medicine, Karachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Arsalan Manzoor; Shaikh, Sirajul Haque

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Collaborative Problem Solving Empirical Progressions from the Assessment and Teaching of 21st Century Skills (ATC21S) framework were used to determine the level of collaborative problem solving skills (CPS) in first, second and third year MBBS students at Ziauddin College of Medicine during Problem-Based Learning (PBL) sessions. Variations based on gender and roles were studied. Methods: It is an analytical comparative cross-sectional study in which seven PBL groups were selected per year by non-probability convenient sampling. Data was collected using the Collaborative Problem Solving Five Strands Empirical Progressions by the primary investigator through observation of the students during PBL sessions. Duration of study was six months. Results: We found that in our students, development of social dimension skills is facilitated to a greater extent than the development of cognitive dimension skills through the process of PBL. These skills are generally better developed in the leader compared to the scribe and members in a group. They are also more developed in females compared to males. Modification in them is also observed as the year's progress. Conclusion: Although PBLs facilitate development of CPS skills' progression however in our curriculum, PBLs mainly focus on social skills development and have less emphasis on cognitive skill development. Thus, hybrid instructional strategies with components from TBL and mentorship are recommended for better development of CPS skills. PMID:29643904

  20. The profile of students’ problem-solving skill in physics across interest program in the secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jua, S. K.; Sarwanto; Sukarmin

    2018-05-01

    Problem-solving skills are important skills in physics. However, according to some researchers, the problem-solving skill of Indonesian students’ problem in physics learning is categorized still low. The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of problem-solving skills of students who follow the across the interests program of physics. The subjects of the study were high school students of Social Sciences, grade X. The type of this research was descriptive research. The data which used to analyze the problem-solving skills were obtained through student questionnaires and the test results with impulse materials and collision. From the descriptive analysis results, the percentage of students’ problem-solving skill based on the test was 52.93% and indicators respectively. These results indicated that students’ problem-solving skill is categorized low.

  1. Scaffolding the Development of Problem-Solving Skills in Chemistry: Guiding Novice Students out of Dead Ends and False Starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuriev, Elizabeth; Naidu, Som; Schembri, Luke S.; Short, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    To scaffold the development of problem-solving skills in chemistry, chemistry educators are exploring a variety of instructional techniques. In this study, we have designed, implemented, and evaluated a problem-solving workflow--''Goldilocks Help''. This workflow builds on work done in the field of problem solving in chemistry and provides…

  2. The Effects of Child-Teacher Relationships on Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Sakire

    2010-01-01

    Early positive relationships between children and adults are critical in the acquisition of children's problem-solving skills. The early teacher-child relationship has an important role in how a child negotiates the conflicts and manages relationships with peers. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the teacher-child relationship at…

  3. The Effects of Teaching Programming via Scratch on Problem Solving Skills: A Discussion from Learners' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalelioglu, Filiz; Gülbahar, Yasemin

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is perceived as an important competence for the development of problem solving skills in addition to logical reasoning. Hence, its integration throughout all educational levels, as well as the early ages, is considered valuable and research studies are carried out to explore the phenomenon in more detail. In light of these…

  4. Relationship between Teachers' Perceptions of Mobbing and Their Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu Gö?men, Nejla; Güle?, Selma

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between classroom teachers' perception of mobbing phenomenon and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study is composed of 208 classroom teachers working in the primary schools in the Osmangazi district of Bursa during the 2013-2014 educational year. The data required for the…

  5. Effects of "Handep" Cooperative Learning Based on Indigenous Knowledge on Mathematical Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitra; Sarjoko

    2018-01-01

    Indigenous people of Dayak tribe in Kalimantan, Indonesia have traditionally relied on a system of mutual cooperation called "handep." The cultural context has an influence on students mathematics learning. The "handep" system might be suitable for modern learning situations to develop mathematical problem-solving skill. The…

  6. Community leaders can improve problem-solving skills at Virginia Tech Institute Feb. 10-12

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Development of better community problem-solving skills is the goal of the LeadershipPlenty¨ Institute to be hosted by Virginia Tech's Center for Organizational and Technological Advancement Feb. 10-12, 2008, at The Hotel Roanoke and Conference Center in Roanoke, Va.

  7. Moving towards the Assessment of Collaborative Problem Solving Skills with a Tangible User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, Eric; Krkovic, Katarina; Greiff, Samuel; Tobias, Eric; Maquil, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The research on the assessment of collaborative problem solving (ColPS), as one crucial 21st Century Skill, is still in its beginnings. Using Tangible User Interfaces (TUI) for this purpose has only been marginally investigated in technology-based assessment. Our first empirical studies focused on light-weight performance measurements, usability,…

  8. Promoting Collaborative Problem-Solving Skills in a Course on Engineering Grand Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tracy X. P.; Mickleborough, Neil C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to solve problems with people of diverse backgrounds is essential for engineering graduates. A course on engineering grand challenges was designed to promote collaborative problem-solving (CPS) skills. One unique component is that students need to work both within their own team and collaborate with the other team to tackle engineering…

  9. Reflective Learning and Prospective Teachers' Conceptual Understanding, Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Mathematical Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junsay, Merle L.

    2016-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that explored the effects of reflective learning on prospective teachers' conceptual understanding, critical thinking, problem solving, and mathematical communication skills and the relationship of these variables. It involved 60 prospective teachers from two basic mathematics classes of an institution of higher…

  10. Mobile App Development to Increase Student Engagement and Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekhane, Sonal; Xu, Xin; Tsoi, Mai Yin

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a project designed to promote problem solving and critical thinking skills in a general education, computing course at an open access institution. A visual programming tool, GameSalad, was used to enable students to create educational apps for mobile platforms. The students worked on a game development project for the entire…

  11. Individual Differences in Students' Complex Problem Solving Skills: How They Evolve and What They Imply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Murphy, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the demands posed by increasingly complex workplaces in the 21st century have raised the importance of nonroutine skills such as complex problem solving (CPS). However, little is known about the antecedents and outcomes of CPS, especially with regard to malleable external factors such as classroom climate. To investigate the relations…

  12. Students' Achievement, Skill and Confidence in Using Stepwise Problem-Solving Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Problem-Solving Strategy Steps (PSSS) on students' achievement, skill, and confidence. The study was conducted in a two-year college classroom with 70 students from two different groups enrolled in a physics course. One of them was randomly selected as an experimental group (EG) and the…

  13. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training in the Treatment of Self-Poisoning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, B. C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of interpersonal problem-solving skills training (IPSST) for the treatment of self-poisoning patients. Subjects were assigned randomly either to IPSST or to a control treatment. Although both treatments reduced the number of presenting problems, the IPSST was more effective as determined by other outcome measures. (RJM)

  14. School Violence: To What Extent Do Perceptions of Problem Solving Skills Protect Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkum, Ayse Sibel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether adolescents' perceptions of problem solving skills differ according to their sex, experiences of exposure to violence, age and grade, and the variables predicting their experiences of exposure to violence. Data were collected from 600(298 females, 302 males) 14-19 year-old students attending various types of high…

  15. Improving Critical Thinking Skills Using Learning Model Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggrianto, Desi; Churiyah, Madziatul; Arief, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to know the effect of Logan Avenue Problem Solving (LAPS)-Heuristic learning model towards critical thinking skills of students of class X Office Administration (APK) in SMK Negeri 1 Ngawi, East Java, Indonesia on material curve and equilibrium of demand and supply, subject Introduction to Economics and…

  16. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

  17. Effects of the TIP Strategy on Problem Solving Skills of Young Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Youjia; Woods-Groves, Suzanne; Kaldenberg, Erica R.; Lucas, Kristin G.; Therrien, William J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching a three-step cognitive strategy (TIP) using the schema broadening procedures on functional mathematical problem solving skills of young adults with intellectual disability (ID). We randomly assigned 14 learners with ID to the control and experimental group before the…

  18. Evaluation of Students' Mathematical Problem Solving Skills in Relation to Their Reading Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Gökhan; Kuruyer, Hayriye Gül; Çakiroglu, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between students' reading levels and mathematical problem solving skills. The present study was conducted in line with a qualitative research method, i.e., the phenomenological method. The study group of the current research is composed of six third grade students with different…

  19. Exploring Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Problem-Solving Skills through Socioscientific Inquiry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadzil, Hidayah Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Developing problem solving skills is often accepted as a desirable goal in many educational settings. However, there is little evidence to support that students are better problem solvers after graduating. The students can solve routine problems but they confronted difficulties when adapting their prior knowledge for the solution of new problems.…

  20. An Investigation of Problem-Solving Skills of Preservice Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiyar, Asiye; Can, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in science and technology have created problems for some people who have difficulties adapting to the new environment. Improving problem solving skills of these people is very important for them to so have the ability to cope with new problems. From the education perspective, it is believed that teachers should help students by not…

  1. Investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Elif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, investigation of physics thought experiments’ effects on students’ logical problem-solving skills in collaborative groups. In this context, it was requested to undergraduate students who have taken General Physics I and General Physics II to develop thought experiments in order to solve daily life problems. At the next stage, students’ thought experiments were classified according to common issues in cooperative groups and were asked to try to solve the problems by using thought experiments’ process from each group. As a result of this study; students’ thought experiments related to daily life were developed and problem solving processes have been presented in detail.

  2. Developing creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills in a financial services organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Cherylene De Jager; Anton Muller; Gert Roodt

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations. Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and probl...

  3. Education and working life: VET adults' problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments

    OpenAIRE

    Hämäläinen, Raija; Wever, Bram De; Malin, Antero; Cincinnato, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly-advancing technological landscape in the European workplace is challenging adults’ problem-solving skills. Workers with vocational education and training need flexible abilities to solve problems in technology-rich work settings. This study builds on Finnish PIAAC data to understand adults’ (N=4503) skills for solving problems in technology-rich environments. The results indicate the critical issue that more than two thirds of adults with vocational education and train...

  4. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills in Mathematics of Grade-7 Public Secondary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil C. Alcantara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.

  5. Assessing problem-solving skills in construction education with the virtual construction simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronovo, Fadi

    The ability to solve complex problems is an essential skill that a construction and project manager must possess when entering the architectural, engineering, and construction industry. Such ability requires a mixture of problem-solving skills, ranging from lower to higher order thinking skills, composed of cognitive and metacognitive processes. These skills include the ability to develop and evaluate construction plans and manage the execution of such plans. However, in a typical construction program, introducing students to such complex problems can be a challenge, and most commonly the learner is presented with only part of a complex problem. To support this challenge, the traditional methodology of delivering design, engineering, and construction instruction has been going through a technological revolution, due to the rise of computer-based technology. For example, in construction classrooms, and other disciplines, simulations and educational games are being utilized to support the development of problem-solving skills. Previous engineering education research has illustrated the high potential that simulations and educational games have in engaging in lower and higher order thinking skills. Such research illustrated their capacity to support the development of problem-solving skills. This research presents evidence supporting the theory that educational simulation games can help with the learning and retention of transferable problem-solving skills, which are necessary to solve complex construction problems. The educational simulation game employed in this study is the Virtual Construction Simulator (VCS). The VCS is a game developed to provide students in an engaging learning activity that simulates the planning and managing phases of a construction project. Assessment of the third iteration of the VCS(3) game has shown pedagogical value in promoting students' motivation and a basic understanding of construction concepts. To further evaluate the benefits on

  6. Developing creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills in a financial services organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherylene De Jager

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: An important evaluation function is to determine whether creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills can be developed through training and to assess whether these skills, on their own, are sufficient to ignite innovation in organisations. Research purpose: The evaluation question that the present study aimed to address is whether employees in a corporate context, such as a financial services organisation, can develop creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills through an intervention such as a workshop. Motivation for the study: A financial services organisation commissioned the primary author of this article to design a workshop with the intent to develop the creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of their employees in order to ignite innovation and competitiveness. Research design, approach and method: This study employed mainly qualitative research. Utilisation-focused evaluation (UFE was employed and findings from the literature review, questionnaires, pen-and-paper tests and interviews were used. The unit of analysis was a niche business unit in a South African financial services organisation. Main findings: From this study’s point of view, the most critical finding related to the confirmation that individuals can acquire creative and innovative thinking and problemsolving skills. The acquisition of these skills, however, is not sufficient on its own to establish a culture supportive of creativity and sustainable innovation. Practical/managerial implications: The development of creative and innovative thinking and problem-solving skills of employees is not sufficient on its own to support sustainable innovation. Managers should consciously establish determinants on an organisational as well as an individual level to create an environment supportive of sustainable innovation. Contribution/value-add: The present study indicated how a workshop can assist

  7. VET workers’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments: European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raija Hämäläinen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European workplace is challenging VET adults’ problem-solving skills in technology-rich environments (TREs. So far, no international large-scale assessment data has been available for VET. The PIAAC data comprise the most comprehensive source of information on adults’ skills to date. The present study (N=50 369 focuses on gaining insight into the problem-solving skills in TREs of adults with a VET background. When examining the similarities and differences in VET adults’ problem-solving skills in TREs across 11 European countries, two main trends can be observed. First, our results show that only a minority of VET adults perform at a high level. Second, there seems to be substantial variation between countries with respect to the proportion of VET adults that can be identified as “at-risk” or “weak” performers. For the future, our findings indicate the variations that can be used as a starting point to identify beneficial VET approaches.

  8. Report from a Multi-Institutional Randomized Clinical Trial Examining Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Skills Training for English- and Spanish-Speaking Mothers of Children with Newly Diagnosed Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Sherman, Sandra A.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Butler, Robert W.; Katz, Ernest R.; Dolgin, Michael J.; Varni, James W.; Noll, Robert B.; Phipps, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA)-based supplement for maternal Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) and to explore Spanish-speaking mothers’ experiences with it. Methods Mothers (n = 197) of children with newly diagnosed cancer were randomized to traditional PSST or PSST + PDA 8-week programs. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Profile of Mood States, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised pre-, post-treatment, and 3 months after completion of the intervention. Mothers also rated optimism, logic, and confidence in the intervention and technology. Results Both groups demonstrated significant positive change over time on all psychosocial measures. No between-group differences emerged. Despite technological “glitches,” mothers expressed moderately high optimism, appreciation for logic, and confidence in both interventions and rated the PDA-based program favorably. Technology appealed to all Spanish-speaking mothers, with younger mothers showing greater proficiency. Conclusions Well-designed, supported technology holds promise for enhancing psychological interventions. PMID:19091804

  9. DEVELOPING PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS FOR LIFELONG LEARNING THROUGH WORK-BASED LEARNING AMONG COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Azlinda Wan Mohamed; Badrul Omar; Mohd Faroul Rafiq Romli

    2010-01-01

    Many training providers are working to improve their curricula to meet the demand of today’s industries. The Malaysian College Communities, one of the major providers for lifelong learning program, had introduced the Work-Based Learning (WBL) concept since 2007 to ensure that their graduates met these demands. One of the key skills required by industry is problem solving skill. The ability to solve a complex or an ill-structured work problem in the workplace is the kind of skill demanded at a...

  10. Promoting students’ mathematical problem-solving skills through 7e learning cycle and hypnoteaching model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, H.; Suryadi, D.; Dahlan, J. A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out whether 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model can enhance students’ mathematical problem-solving skill. This research was quasi-experimental study. The design of this study was pretest-posttest control group design. There were two groups of sample used in the study. The experimental group was given 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model, while the control group was given conventional model. The population of this study was the student of mathematics education program at one university in Tangerang. The statistical analysis used to test the hypothesis of this study were t-test and Mann-Whitney U. The result of this study show that: (1) The students’ achievement of mathematical problem solving skill who obtained 7E learning cycle under hypnoteaching model are higher than the students who obtained conventional model; (2) There are differences in the students’ enhancement of mathematical problem-solving skill based on students’ prior mathematical knowledge (PMK) category (high, middle, and low).

  11. The Effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) Instruction on Students' Motivation and Problem Solving Skills of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaw, Aweke Shishigu; Haile, Beyene Bashu; Ayalew, Beyene Tesfaw; Kuma, Shiferaw Gadisa

    2017-01-01

    Through the learning of physics, students will acquire problem solving skills which are relevant to their daily life. Determining the best way in which students learn physics takes a priority in physics education. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of problem based learning strategy on students' problem solving skills and…

  12. Contributions of Self-Efficacy and Problem Solving Skills on Secretaries' Job Performance in Ogun State Public Service, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abosede, Subuola Catherine; Adesanya, Adebimpe Olusola

    2017-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining the contributions of self-efficacy and problem solving skills to the job performance of secretaries. The study also ascertained the relationship among self-efficacy, problem solving skills and job performance of the secretaries. The study employed the descriptive research design. Ten (10) secretaries were…

  13. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  14. The Relationship between Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills and Self-Regulated Learning through Homework Behaviours, Motivation, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Zeynep Çigdem

    2016-01-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving…

  15. An Investigation of Maternal Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Children's Self-Perceptions, and Social Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…

  16. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  17. Investigating Pre-Service Science Teachers' Critical Thinking Dispositions and Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills based on gender, grade level and graduated high school variables. Also relationship between pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills was examined based on gender, grade level and…

  18. Curriculum providing cognitive knowledge and problem-solving skills for anesthesia systems-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-12-01

    Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency.

  19. The Effect of Training Problem-Solving Skills on Coping Skills of Depressed Nursing and Midwifery Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Barzanjeh Atri, Shirin; Ghavipanjeh, Somayeh; Farnam, Alireza; Gholizadeh, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses have a considerable role in caring and health promotion. Depressed nurses are deficient in their coping skills that are important in mental health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of training problem-solving skills on coping skills of depressed nursing and midwifery students. Methods: The Beck Depression Scale and coping skills questionnaire were administered in Tabriz and Urmia nursing and midwifery schools. 92 students, who had achieved a score above 10 on the Beck Depression Scale, were selected. 46 students as study group and 46 students as control group were selected randomly. The intervention group received six sessions of problem-solving training within three weeks. Finally, after the end of sessions, coping skills and depression scales were administered and analyzed for both groups. Results: Comparing the mean coping skills showed that before the intervention there were no significant differences between the control and study groups. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the control group and the study group. By comparing the mean coping skills before and after the intervention, a significant difference was observed in the study group. Conclusion: Training problem-solving skills increased the coping skills of depressed students. According to the role of coping skills in people's mental health, increasing coping skills can promote mental health, provide the basis for caring skills, and improve the quality of nurses’ caring skills. PMID:25276704

  20. The effect of training problem-solving skills on coping skills of depressed nursing and midwifery students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Barzanjeh Atri, Shirin; Ghavipanjeh, Somayeh; Farnam, Alireza; Gholizadeh, Leyla

    2013-03-01

    Nurses have a considerable role in caring and health promotion. Depressed nurses are deficient in their coping skills that are important in mental health. This study evaluated the effectiveness of training problem-solving skills on coping skills of depressed nursing and midwifery students. The Beck Depression Scale and coping skills questionnaire were administered in Tabriz and Urmia nursing and midwifery schools. 92 students, who had achieved a score above 10 on the Beck Depression Scale, were selected. 46 students as study group and 46 students as control group were selected randomly. The intervention group received six sessions of problem-solving training within three weeks. Finally, after the end of sessions, coping skills and depression scales were administered and analyzed for both groups. Comparing the mean coping skills showed that before the intervention there were no significant differences between the control and study groups. However, after the intervention, a significant difference was observed between the control group and the study group. By comparing the mean coping skills before and after the intervention, a significant difference was observed in the study group. Training problem-solving skills increased the coping skills of depressed students. According to the role of coping skills in people's mental health, increasing coping skills can promote mental health, provide the basis for caring skills, and improve the quality of nurses' caring skills.

  1. Examining of the social problem solving skills in preschool children in terms of different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuheda Bozkurt Yükçü

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine preschool children's social problem solving skills in terms of various variables. The population of the study consisted of parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya county of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample of the study selected by simple random sampling method, consisted of 240 parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya counties of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. In this study conducted by descriptive screenning model, General Information Form and Wally Child Social Problem Solving Detective Game Test were used. Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Independent Groups T Test, One Way Anova were used to analyze of data. According to the results of this study, social problem solving skills of children differ based on child’s age but do not differ based on gender, number of siblings, montly income, parents’s age, educational status and working status. The findings were discussed and interpreted within the scope of the literature.

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in emotionally distressed individuals referred for a depression prevention intervention: relationship to problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasckow, J; Brown, C; Morse, J; Begley, A; Bensasi, S; Reynolds, C F

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the rates of syndromal and subthreshold post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and PTSD symptom scores in participants with symptoms of emotional distress, subsyndromal depression, and a history of traumatic exposure. Participants had been referred to a study of an indicated depression prevention intervention using problem-solving therapy in primary care. We hypothesized that higher severity of PTSD symptom scores would predict poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, some reports have suggested that there are higher rates of PTSD in minority populations relative to Caucasians; thus we hypothesized that race would also predict problem-solving skills in these individuals. We examined the rates of traumatic exposure, syndromal, and subthreshold PTSD. In those exposed to trauma, we performed a multiple linear regression to examine the effects of PTSD symptoms, depression symptoms, race, age, and gender on social problem-solving skills. Of the 244 participants, 64 (26.2%) reported a traumatic event; 6/234 (2.6%) had syndromal PTSD, and 14/234 (6.0%) had subthreshold PTSD. By way of regression analysis, higher PTSD symptom scores predicted poorer problem-solving skills. In addition, racial status (Caucasian vs. African American) predicted problem-solving skills; Caucasians exhibited lower levels of problem-solving skills. Individuals presenting with subsyndromal depressive symptoms may also have a history of traumatic exposure, subthreshold and syndromal PTSD. Thus, screening these individuals for PTSD symptoms is important and may inform clinical management decisions because problem-solving skills are lower in those with more severe PTSD symptoms (even after adjusting for race, age, gender, and depressive symptoms). Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Clinical Audit for Referral Guidelines: A Problem Solving Tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedios, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, the Health Act of 1999 places the responsibility of monitoring and improving the quality of health care with hospital and primary care trusts. All National Health Service employees must perform audits, and in some cases pay progression is limited if there is no evidence that a clinical audit has been carried out. An audit cycle or spiral facilitates a continuing system for quality improvement. About 40 local internal clinical audits are contained in the Royal College of Radiologists' AuditLive, which encourages participation in clinical audits. (author)

  4. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Examining the Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Critical Thinking Disposition, Problem Solving Skills and Teacher Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansoy, Ramazan; Türkoglu, Muhammet Emin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the pre-service teachers' critical thinking disposition, problem-solving skills and self-efficacy beliefs. The participants of the study were 519 pre-service teachers from Afyon Kocatepe University, Education Faculty. Critical Thinking Disposition, Problem Solving Inventory, and…

  6. The Assessment of 21st Century Skills in Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Complex and Collaborative Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Neubert, Jonas; Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    In the current paper, we highlight why and how industrial and organizational psychology can take advantage of research on 21st century skills and their assessment. We present vital theoretical perspectives, a suitable framework for assessment, and exemplary instruments with a focus on advances in the assessment of Human Capital. Specifically, Complex Problem Solving (CPS) and Collaborative Problem Solving (ColPS) are two transversal skills (i.e., skills that span multiple domains) that are...

  7. A comparison of problem-based and traditional education on nursing students' locus of control and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günüşen, Neslihan Partlak; Serçekuş, Pınar; Edeer, Aylin Durmaz

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the locus of control and problem-solving skills of nursing students studying with the problem-based learning method with those of nursing students studying with the traditional method. This is a descriptive and comparative study. For data collection, the Problem-Solving Skills Inventory and the Locus of Control Scale were used. The study sample included 680 nursing students. It was determined that the problem-based learning method was more effective in the development of problem-solving skills and internal locus of control than was the traditional method. © 2014 NANDA International.

  8. Group problem-solving skills training for self-harm: randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    McAuliffe, Carmel; McLeavey, Breda C.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Corcoran, Paul; Carroll, Bernie; Ryan, Louise; Fitzgerald, Eva; O'Regan, Mary; Mulqueen, Jillian; Arensman, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services. Aims: To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services. Method: A total of 433 participants (aged 18-64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU...

  9. The Effect of Problem-Solving Video Games on the Science Reasoning Skills of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanetti, Tina M.

    As the world continues to rapidly change, students are faced with the need to develop flexible skills, such as science reasoning that will help them thrive in the new knowledge economy. Prensky (2001), Gee (2003), and Van Eck (2007) have all suggested that the way to engage learners and teach them the necessary skills is through digital games, but empirical studies focusing on popular games are scant. One way digital games, especially video games, could potentially be useful if there were a flexible and inexpensive method a student could use at their convenience to improve selected science reasoning skills. Problem-solving video games, which require the use of reasoning and problem solving to answer a variety of cognitive challenges could be a promising method to improve selected science reasoning skills. Using think-aloud protocols and interviews, a qualitative study was carried out with a small sample of college students to examine what impact two popular video games, Professor Layton and the Curious Village and Professor Layton and the Diabolical Box, had on specific science reasoning skills. The subject classified as an expert in both gaming and reasoning tended to use more higher order thinking and reasoning skills than the novice reasoners. Based on the assessments, the science reasoning of college students did not improve during the course of game play. Similar to earlier studies, students tended to use trial and error as their primary method of solving the various puzzles in the game and additionally did not recognize when to use the appropriate reasoning skill to solve a puzzle, such as proportional reasoning.

  10. Integration of the information problem-solving skill in an educational programme: The effects of learning with authentic tasks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan

    2008-01-01

    Brand-Gruwel, S., & Wopereis, I. (2006). Integration of the information problem-solving skill in an educational programme: The effects of learning with authentic tasks. Technology, Instruction, Cognition, and Learning, 4, 243-263.

  11. Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Sweller, J., Clark, R., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics. Notices of the American Mathematical Society, 57, 1303-1304.

  12. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The Examination Of Preschool Period Children’s Problem Solving Skills According To Their Chess Training Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe ÇUBUKCU

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether chess education makes a difference in social problem solving skills of the preschool children or not. Totally 160 samples were reached; including 80 preschool students who had chess education and 80 preschool students who did not have chess education. In order to examine the problem solving skills of the children who had chess education and the ones who did not, “Problem Solving Skills Scale”, which was developed by Oğuz and Koksal-Akyol (2015, was used. In order to examine the problem solving skills of the children who took chess education and the ones who did not, Independent Samples t-Test was used and the findings obtained were interpreted. According to the findings obtained from the research, a significance difference was encountered between the problem solving skills of the children on behalf of the ones who took chess education. This research indicate that chess education affect the problem solving skills of the children in a positive way

  14. Effect of training problem-solving skill on decision-making and critical thinking of personnel at medical emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Shahbazi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of problem-solving training on decision-making skill and critical thinking in emergency medical personnel. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental study that performed in 95 emergency medical personnel in two groups of control (48) and experimental (47). Then, a short problem-solving course based on 8 sessions of 2 h during the term, was performed for the experimental group. Of data gathering was used demographic and researcher made decision-making and California critical thinking skills questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The finding revealed that decision-making and critical thinking score in emergency medical personnel are low and problem-solving course, positively affected the personnel’ decision-making skill and critical thinking after the educational program (P problem-solving in various emergency medicine domains such as education, research, and management, is recommended. PMID:28149823

  15. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

  16. The Effects of Problem Solving Applications on the Development of Science Process Skills, Logical Thinking Skills and Perception on Problem Solving Ability in the Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Hatice Güngör

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted with 98 prospective science teachers, who were composed of 50 prospective teachers that had participated in problem-solving applications and 48 prospective teachers who were taught within a more researcher-oriented teaching method in science laboratories. The first aim of this study was to determine the levels of…

  17. Perfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, A.; Jabro, J.

    2012-04-01

    PPerfecting Scientists' Collaboration and Problem-Solving Skills in the Virtual Team Environment Numerous factors have contributed to the proliferation of conducting work in virtual teams at the domestic, national, and global levels: innovations in technology, critical developments in software, co-located research partners and diverse funding sources, dynamic economic and political environments, and a changing workforce. Today's scientists must be prepared to not only perform work in the virtual team environment, but to work effectively and efficiently despite physical and cultural barriers. Research supports that students who have been exposed to virtual team experiences are desirable in the professional and academic arenas. Research supports establishing and maintaining established protocols for communication behavior prior to task discussion provides for successful team outcomes. Research conducted on graduate and undergraduate virtual teams' behaviors led to the development of successful pedagogic practices and assessment strategies.

  18. How Does the Degree of Guidance Support Students' Metacognitive and Problem Solving Skills in Educational Robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmatzidou, Soumela; Demetriadis, Stavros; Nika, Panagiota

    2018-02-01

    Educational robotics (ER) is an innovative learning tool that offers students opportunities to develop higher-order thinking skills. This study investigates the development of students' metacognitive (MC) and problem-solving (PS) skills in the context of ER activities, implementing different modes of guidance in two student groups (11-12 years old, N1 = 30, and 15-16 years old, N2 = 22). The students of each age group were involved in an 18-h group-based activity after being randomly distributed in two conditions: "minimal" (with minimal MC and PS guidance) and "strong" (with strong MC and PS guidance). Evaluations were based on the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory measuring students' metacognitive awareness and on a think-aloud protocol asking students to describe the process they would follow to solve a certain robot-programming task. The results suggest that (a) strong guidance in solving problems can have a positive impact on students' MC and PS skills and (b) students reach eventually the same level of MC and PS skills development independently of their age and gender.

  19. Problem Solving Skills Training for Parents of Children with Chronic Pain: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Bromberg, Maggie; Fales, Jessica; Eccleston, Christopher; Wilson, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of parental problem solving skills training (PSST) compared to treatment as usual (TAU) on improving parental mental health symptoms, physical health and well-being, and parenting behaviors. Effects of parent PSST on child outcomes (pain, emotional and physical functioning) were also examined. Participants included 61 parents of children aged 10–17 years with chronic pain randomized to PSST (n = 31) or TAU (n = 30). Parents receiving PSST participated in 4–6 individual sessions of training in problem solving skills. Outcomes were assessed at pre-treatment, immediately post-treatment, and at 3-month follow up. Feasibility was determined by therapy session attendance, therapist ratings, and parent treatment acceptability ratings. Feasibility of PSST delivery in this population was demonstrated by high compliance with therapy attendance, excellent retention, high therapist ratings of treatment engagement, and high parent ratings of treatment acceptability. PSST was associated with post-treatment improvements in parental depression (d = −0.68), general mental health (d = 0.64), and pain catastrophizing (d = −0.48), as well as in child depression (d = −0.49), child general anxiety (d = −0.56), and child pain-specific anxiety (d = −0.82). Several effects were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings demonstrate that PSST is feasible and acceptable to parents of youth with chronic pain. Treatment outcome analyses show promising but mixed patterns of effects of PSST on parent and child mental health outcomes. Further rigorous trials of PSST are needed to extend these pilot results. PMID:26845525

  20. The relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and self-regulated learning through homework behaviours, motivation, and metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğdem Özcan, Zeynep

    2016-04-01

    Studies highlight that using appropriate strategies during problem solving is important to improve problem-solving skills and draw attention to the fact that using these skills is an important part of students' self-regulated learning ability. Studies on this matter view the self-regulated learning ability as key to improving problem-solving skills. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between mathematical problem-solving skills and the three dimensions of self-regulated learning (motivation, metacognition, and behaviour), and whether this relationship is of a predictive nature. The sample of this study consists of 323 students from two public secondary schools in Istanbul. In this study, the mathematics homework behaviour scale was administered to measure students' homework behaviours. For metacognition measurements, the mathematics metacognition skills test for students was administered to measure offline mathematical metacognitive skills, and the metacognitive experience scale was used to measure the online mathematical metacognitive experience. The internal and external motivational scales used in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) test were administered to measure motivation. A hierarchic regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between the dependent and independent variables in the study. Based on the findings, a model was formed in which 24% of the total variance in students' mathematical problem-solving skills is explained by the three sub-dimensions of the self-regulated learning model: internal motivation (13%), willingness to do homework (7%), and post-problem retrospective metacognitive experience (4%).

  1. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divided and assigned to problem-solving skills (n = 26), relaxation (n = 26), and control groups (n = 28). Interventions were implemented for 6 weeks and the subjects again completed Eysenck self-esteem scale 9 weeks after delivery. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by SPSS software. The findings showed that the mean of self-esteem scale scores was 117.9 ± 9.7 after intervention in the problem-solving group, 117.0 ± 11.8 in the relaxation group, and 113.5 ± 10.4 in the control group and there was significant difference between the groups of relaxation and problem solving, and also between intervention groups and control group. According to the results, problem-solving skills and relaxation can be used to prevent and recover from postpartum depression.

  2. The development and evaluation of a web-based programme to support problem-solving skills following brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Laurie Ehlhardt; Wild, Michelle R; Glang, Ann; Ibarra, Summer; Gau, Jeff M; Perez, Amanda; Albin, Richard W; O'Neil-Pirozzi, Therese M; Wade, Shari L; Keating, Tom; Saraceno, Carolyn; Slocumb, Jody

    2017-10-24

    Cognitive impairments following brain injury, including difficulty with problem solving, can pose significant barriers to successful community reintegration. Problem-solving strategy training is well-supported in the cognitive rehabilitation literature. However, limitations in insurance reimbursement have resulted in fewer services to train such skills to mastery and to support generalization of those skills into everyday environments. The purpose of this project was to develop and evaluate an integrated, web-based programme, ProSolv, which uses a small number of coaching sessions to support problem solving in everyday life following brain injury. We used participatory action research to guide the iterative development, usability testing, and within-subject pilot testing of the ProSolv programme. The finalized programme was then evaluated in a between-subjects group study and a non-experimental single case study. Results were mixed across studies. Participants demonstrated that it was feasible to learn and use the ProSolv programme for support in problem solving. They highly recommended the programme to others and singled out the importance of the coach. Limitations in app design were cited as a major reason for infrequent use of the app outside of coaching sessions. Results provide mixed evidence regarding the utility of web-based mobile apps, such as ProSolv to support problem solving following brain injury. Implications for Rehabilitation People with cognitive impairments following brain injury often struggle with problem solving in everyday contexts. Research supports problem solving skills training following brain injury. Assistive technology for cognition (smartphones, selected apps) offers a means of supporting problem solving for this population. This project demonstrated the feasibility of a web-based programme to address this need.

  3. Self-monitoring of blood glucose is associated with problem-solving skills in hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zgibor, Janice; Matthews, Judith T; Charron-Prochownik, Denise; Sereika, Susan M; Siminerio, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and problem-solving skills in response to detected hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained from the American Association of Diabetes Educators Outcome System, implemented in 8 diabetes self-management education programs in western Pennsylvania. SMBG was measured by asking patients how often they checked, missed checking, or checked blood glucose later than planned. Problem-solving skill was measured by asking how often they modified their behaviors after detecting high or low blood glucose. Most patients checked their blood glucose at least once per day. However, when blood glucose was high or low, many of them reported doing nothing, and only some of them resolved the problem. There were significant associations between self-monitoring of blood glucose and problem-solving skills for hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, after controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, education, and time since diagnosis. Patients reported poor problem-solving skills when detecting hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia via SMBG. Patients need to learn problem-solving skills along with SMBG training to achieve glycemic control.

  4. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  5. Problem-Solving Skills Training for Mothers of Children Recently Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cathina T.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Noll, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-solving skills training is an intervention designed to teach coping skills that has shown to decrease negative affectivity (depressive symptoms, negative mood, and post-traumatic stress symptoms) in mothers of children with cancer. The objective of this study was to see whether mothers of children recently diagnosed with autism spectrum…

  6. Exploring Effects of High School Students' Mathematical Processing Skills and Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Concepts on Algorithmic Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Nejla; Yalcin Celik, Ayse; Kilic, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students' conceptual understanding of chemical concepts and mathematical processing skills on algorithmic problem-solving skills. The sample (N = 554) included grades 9, 10, and 11 students in Turkey. Data were collected using the instrument "MPC Test" and with interviews. The MPC…

  7. Selective Spatial Working Memory Impairment in a Group of Children with Mathematics Learning Disabilities and Poor Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passolunghi, Maria Chiara; Mammarella, Irene Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This study examines visual and spatial working memory skills in 35 third to fifth graders with both mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) and poor problem-solving skills and 35 of their peers with typical development (TD) on tasks involving both low and high attentional control. Results revealed that children with MLD, relative to TD children,…

  8. Efficacy of an Online Resource for Teaching Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills to Women Graduate Students in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Jennifer M.; Bernstein, Bianca; Fabert, Natalie; Gildar, Natalie; Way, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal problem solving skills allow engineers to prevent interpersonal difficulties more effectively and to manage conflict, both of which are critical to successful participation on teams. This research provides evidence that the "Career"WISE online learning environment can improve those skills among women in engineering graduate…

  9. How Does the Degree of Guidance Support Students' Metacognitive and Problem Solving Skills in Educational Robotics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmatzidou, Soumela; Demetriadis, Stavros; Nika, Panagiota

    2018-01-01

    Educational robotics (ER) is an innovative learning tool that offers students opportunities to develop higher-order thinking skills. This study investigates the development of students' metacognitive (MC) and problem-solving (PS) skills in the context of ER activities, implementing different modes of guidance in two student groups (11-12 years…

  10. Responsive parenting: establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R

    2006-07-01

    Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains.

  11. Teaching Creative Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kip W.; Martin, Loren

    1992-01-01

    Interpersonal and cognitive skills, adaptability, and critical thinking can be developed through problem solving and cooperative learning in technology education. These skills have been identified as significant needs of the workplace as well as for functioning in society. (SK)

  12. A self-help problem-solving video for parents and teens : social validity and generalization of acquired skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hook, Richard J.

    1993-01-01

    A self-administered problem-solving skill training video for nonclinical families with teens is evaluated. The study focuses on the generalization of skills to naturalistic family conversations and the program's social validity: potential iatrogenic aggravation of family problems, perceived effectiveness, and program enjoyment. Seventy families with young teens were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. One group (skill) viewed a skill training program that included information about ...

  13. Pedagogy and/or technology: Making difference in improving students' problem solving skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Lodder, Katherine; Shaw, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Pen input computers combined with interactive software may have substantial potential for promoting active instructional methodologies and for facilitating students' problem solving ability. An excellent example is a study in which introductory physics students improved retention, conceptual understanding and problem solving abilities when one of three weekly lectures was replaced with group problem solving sessions facilitated with Tablet PCs and DyKnow software [1,2]. The research goal of the present study was to isolate the effect of the methodology itself (using additional time to teach problem solving) from that of the involved technology. In Fall 2011 we compared the performance of students taking the same introductory physics lecture course while enrolled in two separate problem-solving sections. One section used pen-based computing to facilitate group problem solving while the other section used low-tech methods for one third of the semester (covering Kinematics), and then traded technologies for the middle third of the term (covering Dynamics). Analysis of quiz, exam and standardized pre-post test results indicated no significant difference in scores of the two groups. Combining this result with those of previous studies implies primacy of pedagogy (collaborative problem solving itself) over technology for student learning in problem solving recitations.

  14. Organizational/Memory Tools: A Technique for Improving Problem Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Esther R.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether students would use a computer-presented organizational/memory tool as an aid in problem solving, and whether and how locus of control would affect tool use and problem-solving performance. Learners did use the tools, which were most effective in the learner control with feedback condition. (MBR)

  15. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  16. A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE VALUE BEHAVIOUR AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saide Özbey

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...

  17. Effects of the Problem-Posing Approach on Students' Problem Solving Skills and Metacognitive Awareness in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akben, Nimet

    2018-05-01

    The interrelationship between mathematics and science education has frequently been emphasized, and common goals and approaches have often been adopted between disciplines. Improving students' problem-solving skills in mathematics and science education has always been given special attention; however, the problem-posing approach which plays a key role in mathematics education has not been commonly utilized in science education. As a result, the purpose of this study was to better determine the effects of the problem-posing approach on students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness in science education. This was a quasi-experimental based study conducted with 61 chemistry and 40 physics students; a problem-solving inventory and a metacognitive awareness inventory were administered to participants both as a pre-test and a post-test. During the 2017-2018 academic year, problem-solving activities based on the problem-posing approach were performed with the participating students during their senior year in various university chemistry and physics departments throughout the Republic of Turkey. The study results suggested that structured, semi-structured, and free problem-posing activities improve students' problem-solving skills and metacognitive awareness. These findings indicated not only the usefulness of integrating problem-posing activities into science education programs but also the need for further research into this question.

  18. Promotion of Problem Solving Skills by Using Metacognitive-based Instruction in Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya safari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Studies have indicated that metacognitive strategies control and direct cognitive strategies. Thus, application of metacognitive and cognitive strategies together is essential for successful learning to happen. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of metacognitive-oriented instruction on development of problem solving skills in students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pretest/posttest and control group design. The study sample included the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (n=4283 in the academic year of 2013-2014. A total number of 40 students were selected through convenient sampling method as the study sample. The samples were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught based on metacognitive strategies in 8 sessions, each session for 1 and half hours. For the control group, however, problem solving skills were taught through conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection was Heppner’s problem solving inventory (1988 whose validity and reliability were confirmed previously. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and the hypotheses were tested through t-test. Results: The results of the posttest showed that the total mean of scores for problem solving skills in the experimental group (99.75 was higher than that of the control group (26.800 (p<0.0001. This difference was significant in the case of confidence, approach/avoidance and personal control components (p<0.0001. Moreover, the mean of students’ scores was not significant in terms of gender and major. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of metacognitive strategies on the students’ performance and the necessity of teaching metacognition for the sake of academic achievement, these strategies are recommended to be

  19. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M.; Law, Emily F.; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable. PMID:25422795

  20. Reduced memory specificity predicts the acquisition of problem solving skills in psychoeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Tom; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Research has shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a valid predictor for the course of depression. It is not known, however, whether OGM also moderates information uptake and consolidation in a psychoeducation program to prevent stress, anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate whether the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams, & Broadbent, 1986) is a valid predictor for the actual unfolding of skills learned through psychoeducation. The questionnaire included primarily the AMT and the Stress Anxiety Depression Means-Ends Problem Solving Questionnaire (SAD-MEPS). It was filled in prior to and after the psychoeducational course by 23 participants. Correlations were calculated for the AMT at baseline and the differences between the pre and post measurements on the SAD-MEPS. Significant correlations were observed between the number of specific responses and the changes in the number of relevant means (r = .49, p < .01). The sample size was rather small, but several checks were able to reduce the chance of spurious findings. These findings may have important implications for the guidance to and the setup of psychoeducational interventions. Suggestions include screening and memory specificity training prior to course commencement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Group problem-solving skills training for self-harm: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; McLeavey, Breda C; Fitzgerald, Tony; Corcoran, Paul; Carroll, Bernie; Ryan, Louise; O'Keeffe, Brian; Fitzgerald, Eva; Hickey, Portia; O'Regan, Mary; Mulqueen, Jillian; Arensman, Ella

    2014-01-01

    Rates of self-harm are high and have recently increased. This trend and the repetitive nature of self-harm pose a significant challenge to mental health services. To determine the efficacy of a structured group problem-solving skills training (PST) programme as an intervention approach for self-harm in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) as offered by mental health services. A total of 433 participants (aged 18-64 years) were randomly assigned to TAU plus PST or TAU alone. Assessments were carried out at baseline and at 6-week and 6-month follow-up and repeated hospital-treated self-harm was ascertained at 12-month follow-up. The treatment groups did not differ in rates of repeated self-harm at 6-week, 6-month and 12-month follow-up. Both treatment groups showed significant improvements in psychological and social functioning at follow-up. Only one measure (needing and receiving practical help from those closest to them) showed a positive treatment effect at 6-week (P = 0.004) and 6-month (P = 0.01) follow-up. Repetition was not associated with waiting time in the PST group. This brief intervention for self-harm is no more effective than treatment as usual. Further work is required to establish whether a modified, more intensive programme delivered sooner after the index episode would be effective.

  2. Adaptation of Problem-Solving Skills Training (PSST) for Parent Caregivers of Youth with Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Essner, Bonnie; Jessen-Fiddick, Tricia; Eccleston, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Research on the experience of parents caring for a child with chronic pain indicates that high levels of parental role stress, feelings of frustration over an inability to help, and psychological distress are common. Moreover, parental distress adversely influences child adjustment to chronic pain. Therefore, intervening with parents of youth with chronic pain may, in turn, result in positive outcomes for children in their ability to engage in positive coping strategies, reduce their own distress, and to function competently in their normal daily lives. Our aim was to adapt an intervention, Problem-Solving Skills Training, previously proven effective in reducing parental distress in other pediatric illness conditions to the population of caregivers of youth with chronic pain. In the first phase, the intervention was adapted based on expert review of the literature and review of parent responses on a measure of pain-related family impact. In the second phase, the intervention was tested in a small group of parents to evaluate feasibility, determined by response to treatment content, ratings of acceptability, and ability to enroll and deliver the treatment visits. This phase included piloting the PSST intervention and all outcome measures at pre-treatment and immediately post-treatment. In an exploratory manner we examined change in parent distress and child physical function and depression from pre- to post-treatment. Findings from this feasibility study suggest that PSST can be implemented with parents of youth with chronic pain, and they find the treatment acceptable.

  3. THE PHYSICAL LABORATORY ACTIVITIES WITH PROBLEM SOLVING APPROACH TO INCREASE CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND UNDERSTANDING STUDENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Trisnowati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the description of the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills and the concept understanding by implementing the problem-solving approach. This study was in laboratory activities. This study was done in four times meeting. The try out subjects was 31 students of grades X of MAN Yogyakarta III. This research is using the quasi experimental method with the pretest-posttest design. The data were collected by using multiple choices tests with assessment rubric and observation sheets. The data are analyzed by using multivariate analysis. Based on the result, the gain standard value of students’ conceptual understanding and students’ critical thinking skills for grade X who learned through student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called treatment class, are higher than students who learned without student’s worksheet with a problem-solving approach, called control class.

  4. Effects of the SOLVE Strategy on the Mathematical Problem Solving Skills of Secondary Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…

  5. The Effect of Digital Documentary Production through Field Work on Geography Students' Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adanali, Rukiye

    2018-01-01

    In this study, views of students about the applicability of the digital documentary production through fieldwork model and the effect of it on their problem-solving skills were examined. The study was conducted in Turkey, in 2016-2017 spring term with 15 geography teacher candidates who chosen by convenience sampling method. In this study, within…

  6. An Exploration of Developing Active Exploring and Problem Solving Skill Lego Robot Course by the Application of Anchored Instruction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, researches had shown that the development of problem solving skill became important for education, and the educational robots are capable for promoting students not only understand the physical and mathematical concepts, but also have active and constructive learning. Meanwhile, the importance of situation in education is rising,…

  7. Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills Within Food Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, J.; Gruppen, H.; Hartog, R.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related

  8. Elementary School Counselors' Perceptions of Reality Play Counseling in Students' Relationship Building and Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric S.; Clark, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this qualitative study, eight school counselors participated in a series of reality play counseling trainings introducing techniques appropriate for counseling upper-grade elementary school students to enhance positive relationship building and problem solving skills. Participants were interviewed and their transcripts were analyzed using…

  9. Promoting Social Inclusion: A Structured Intervention for Enhancing Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in providing students with disabilities, who are at risk of social isolation, with opportunities to develop social competence and self-determination. Specifically, the provision of opportunities for teaching these students to promote social problem-solving skills is potentially useful for facilitating their…

  10. Large-Scale Studies on the Transferability of General Problem-Solving Skills and the Pedagogic Potential of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashood, K. K.; Singh, Vijay A.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that problem-solving skills are transferable across domains. This claim, however, needs further empirical substantiation. We suggest correlation studies as a methodology for making preliminary inferences about transfer. The correlation of the physics performance of students with their performance in chemistry and mathematics in…

  11. Exploring Factors of a Web-Based Seminar that Influence Hispanic Preservice Teachers' Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Criselda G.; Hooper, H. H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the qualitative study using a phenomenological approach was to gain insight of preservice teachers' experiences with a WebCT seminar designed to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in a Hispanic-Serving Institution's teacher education program. By applying a "holistic approach" to analyze data, NVivo software was…

  12. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew M.; Carrano, Andres L.; Dannels, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and…

  13. Medical education and cognitive continuum theory: an alternative perspective on medical problem solving and clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Eugène J F M

    2013-08-01

    Recently, human reasoning, problem solving, and decision making have been viewed as products of two separate systems: "System 1," the unconscious, intuitive, or nonanalytic system, and "System 2," the conscious, analytic, or reflective system. This view has penetrated the medical education literature, yet the idea of two independent dichotomous cognitive systems is not entirely without problems.This article outlines the difficulties of this "two-system view" and presents an alternative, developed by K.R. Hammond and colleagues, called cognitive continuum theory (CCT). CCT is featured by three key assumptions. First, human reasoning, problem solving, and decision making can be arranged on a cognitive continuum, with pure intuition at one end, pure analysis at the other, and a large middle ground called "quasirationality." Second, the nature and requirements of the cognitive task, as perceived by the person performing the task, determine to a large extent whether a task will be approached more intuitively or more analytically. Third, for optimal task performance, this approach needs to match the cognitive properties and requirements of the task. Finally, the author makes a case that CCT is better able than a two-system view to describe medical problem solving and clinical reasoning and that it provides clear clues for how to organize training in clinical reasoning.

  14. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  15. A logical and structural thinking development tool (LST to enhance fundamental problem-solving skills of learners of information technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Jordaan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of information technology in modern education has increased significantly over the past two decades [14]. The opportunity to develop an interactive software system with the aim of enhancing fundamental problem-solving skills of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics programs at tertiary institutions is possible with object-oriented programming techniques and multi-dimensional graphic design. The definition of fundamental problem-solving skills includes cognitive functional skills such as logical thinking, conceptualism with prior knowledge, relationship forming and objective analysis. Experiments done for this research indicate that given the right educational tools, cognitive functional skills of learners can be stimulated, developed and enhanced. This, in turn, may lead to an increase in the graduation rates of learners enrolled for the Computer Science, Information Technology and Mathematics program and ultimately contribute to the reshaping of the educational experience.

  16. Generic Science Skills Enhancement of Students through Implementation of IDEAL Problem Solving Model on Genetic Information Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirconia, A.; Supriyanti, F. M. T.; Supriatna, A.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine generic science skills enhancement of students through implementation of IDEAL problem-solving model on genetic information course. Method of this research was mixed method, with pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this study were chemistry students enrolled in biochemistry course, consisted of 22 students in the experimental class and 19 students in control class. The instrument in this study was essayed involves 6 indicators generic science skills such as indirect observation, causality thinking, logical frame, self-consistent thinking, symbolic language, and developing concept. The results showed that genetic information course using IDEAL problem-solving model have been enhancing generic science skills in low category with of 20,93%. Based on result for each indicator, showed that there are indicators of generic science skills classified in the high category.

  17. Effects of an explicit problem-solving skills training program using a metacomponential approach for outpatients with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth N K; Howie, Dorothy R

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an explicit problem-solving skills training program using a metacomponential approach with 33 outpatients with moderate acquired brain injury, in the Hong Kong context. We compared an experimental training intervention with this explicit problem-solving approach, which taught metacomponential strategies, with a conventional cognitive training approach that did not have this explicit metacognitive training. We found significant advantages for the experimental group on the Metacomponential Interview measure in association with the explicit metacomponential training, but transfer to the real-life problem-solving measures was not evidenced in statistically significant findings. Small sample size, limited time of intervention, and some limitations with these tools may have been contributing factors to these results. The training program was demonstrated to have a significantly greater effect than the conventional training approach on metacomponential functioning and the component of problem representation. However, these benefits were not transferable to real-life situations.

  18. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Clinical and Cognitive Characteristics Associated with Mathematics Problem Solving in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Tasha M; Beck, Jonathan S; Iosif, Ana-Maria; McCauley, James B; Gilhooly, Leslie J; Matter, John C; Solomon, Marjorie

    2016-04-01

    Mathematics achievement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been understudied. However, the ability to solve applied math problems is associated with academic achievement, everyday problem-solving abilities, and vocational outcomes. The paucity of research on math achievement in ASD may be partly explained by the widely-held belief that most individuals with ASD are mathematically gifted, despite emerging evidence to the contrary. The purpose of the study was twofold: to assess the relative proportions of youth with ASD who demonstrate giftedness versus disability on applied math problems, and to examine which cognitive (i.e., perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, working memory) and clinical (i.e., test anxiety) characteristics best predict achievement on applied math problems in ASD relative to typically developing peers. Twenty-seven high-functioning adolescents with ASD and 27 age- and Full Scale IQ-matched typically developing controls were assessed on standardized measures of math problem solving, perceptual reasoning, verbal ability, and test anxiety. Results indicated that 22% of the ASD sample evidenced a mathematics learning disability, while only 4% exhibited mathematical giftedness. The parsimonious linear regression model revealed that the strongest predictor of math problem solving was perceptual reasoning, followed by verbal ability and test anxiety, then diagnosis of ASD. These results inform our theories of math ability in ASD and highlight possible targets of intervention for students with ASD struggling with mathematics. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of Problem-Solving Therapy and Clinical Case Management on Disability in Low-Income Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areán, Patricia A; Raue, Patrick J; McCulloch, Charles; Kanellopoulos, Dora; Seirup, Joanna K; Banerjee, Samprit; Kiosses, Dimitris N; Dwyer, Eleanor; Alexopoulos, George S

    2015-12-01

    To test the following hypotheses: (1) Clinical case management integrated with problem-solving therapy (CM-PST) is more effective than clinical case management alone (CM) in improving functional outcomes in disabled, impoverished patients and (2) improvement in depression, self-efficacy, and problem-solving skills mediates improvement of disability. Using a randomized controlled trial with a parallel design, 271 individuals were screened and 171 were randomized to 12 weekly sessions of either CM or CM-PST at 1:1 ratio. Raters were blind to patients' assignments. Participants were at least age 60 years with major depression, had at least one disability, were eligible for home-based meals services, and had income no more than 30% of their counties' median. The WHO Disability Assessment Scale was used. Both interventions resulted in improved functioning by 12 weeks (t = 4.28, df = 554, p = 0.001), which was maintained until 24 weeks. Contrary to hypothesis, CM was noninferior to CM-PST (one-sided p = 0.0003, t = -3.5, df = 558). Change in disability was not affected by baseline depression severity, cognitive function, or number of unmet social service needs. Improvements in self efficacy (t = -2.45, df = 672, p = 0.021), problem-solving skill (t = -2.44, df = 546, p = 0.015), and depression symptoms (t = 2.25, df = 672, p = .025) by week 9 predicted improvement in function across groups by week 12. CM is noninferior to CM-PST for late-life depression in low-income populations. The effect of these interventions occur early, with benefits in functional status maintained as long as 24 weeks after treatment initiation (clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00540865). Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adapting Experiential Learning to Develop Problem-Solving Skills in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Engineering Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew M; Carrano, Andres L; Dannels, Wendy A

    2016-10-01

    Individuals who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) professions, and this may be due in part to their level of preparation in the development and retention of mathematical and problem-solving skills. An approach was developed that incorporates experiential learning and best practices of STEM instruction to give first-year DHH students enrolled in a postsecondary STEM program the opportunity to develop problem-solving skills in real-world scenarios. Using an industrial engineering laboratory that provides manufacturing and warehousing environments, students were immersed in real-world scenarios in which they worked on teams to address prescribed problems encountered during the activities. The highly structured, Plan-Do-Check-Act approach commonly used in industry was adapted for the DHH student participants to document and communicate the problem-solving steps. Students who experienced the intervention realized a 14.6% improvement in problem-solving proficiency compared with a control group, and this gain was retained at 6 and 12 months, post-intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Problem Solving Skills in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Sabahattin

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and problem solving. The sample set of the research was taken from the Faculty of Education of Mugla University by the random sampling method. The participants were 386 students--prospective teachers--(224 females; 182 males) who took part in the study voluntarily.…

  3. Success Skills for the Textile Industry: Problem Solving (SS3). Workforce 2000 Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterprise State Junior Coll., AL.

    This curriculum package on problem solving is a product of the Workforce 2000 Partnership, which combined the resources of four educational partners and four industrial partners in Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina to provide education and training in communication, computation, and critical thinking to employees in the apparel, carpet, and…

  4. A Flowchart-Based Intelligent Tutoring System for Improving Problem-Solving Skills of Novice Programmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooshyar, D.; Ahmad, R. B.; Yousefi, M.; Yusop, F. D.; Horng, S.-J.

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent tutoring and personalization are considered as the two most important factors in the research of learning systems and environments. An effective tool that can be used to improve problem-solving ability is an Intelligent Tutoring System which is capable of mimicking a human tutor's actions in implementing a one-to-one personalized and…

  5. Developing Student Programming and Problem-Solving Skills with Visual Basic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2009-01-01

    Although most computer users will never need to write a computer program, many students enjoy the challenge of creating one. Computer programming enhances students' problem solving by forcing students to break a problem into its component pieces and reassemble it in a generic format that can be understood by a nonsentient entity. It promotes…

  6. Probabilities and Predictions: Modeling the Development of Scientific Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The IMMEX (Interactive Multi-Media Exercises) Web-based problem set platform enables the online delivery of complex, multimedia simulations, the rapid collection of student performance data, and has already been used in several genetic simulations. The next step is the use of these data to understand and improve student learning in a formative manner. This article describes the development of probabilistic models of undergraduate student problem solving in molecular genetics that detailed the spectrum of strategies students used when problem solving, and how the strategic approaches evolved with experience. The actions of 776 university sophomore biology majors from three molecular biology lecture courses were recorded and analyzed. Each of six simulations were first grouped by artificial neural network clustering to provide individual performance measures, and then sequences of these performances were probabilistically modeled by hidden Markov modeling to provide measures of progress. The models showed that students with different initial problem-solving abilities choose different strategies. Initial and final strategies varied across different sections of the same course and were not strongly correlated with other achievement measures. In contrast to previous studies, we observed no significant gender differences. We suggest that instructor interventions based on early student performances with these simulations may assist students to recognize effective and efficient problem-solving strategies and enhance learning. PMID:15746978

  7. Investigating and Developing Engineering Students' Mathematical Modelling and Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-01-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced…

  8. Foundational Skills and Dispositions for Learning: An Experience with Information Problem Solving on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviglia, Francesco; Delfino, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Active participation in the information society requires the ability to find some order in the chaotic nature of the Web and not to get lost within the endemic presence of inaccurate, misleading, biased and false information. This article presents an approach to Information Problem Solving (IPS)--that is, finding, understanding and assessing…

  9. Gauging the gaps in student problem-solving skills: assessment of individual and group use of problem-solving strategies using online discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William L; Mitchell, Steven M; Osgood, Marcy P

    2008-01-01

    For the past 3 yr, faculty at the University of New Mexico, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology have been using interactive online Problem-Based Learning (PBL) case discussions in our large-enrollment classes. We have developed an illustrative tracking method to monitor student use of problem-solving strategies to provide targeted help to groups and to individual students. This method of assessing performance has a high interrater reliability, and senior students, with training, can serve as reliable graders. We have been able to measure improvements in many students' problem-solving strategies, but, not unexpectedly, there is a population of students who consistently apply the same failing strategy when there is no faculty intervention. This new methodology provides an effective tool to direct faculty to constructively intercede in this area of student development.

  10. Collective Problem-Solving: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Skill, and Prior Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorit Geifman

    2015-12-01

    In a controlled experiment, 632 participants in 47 markets traded a solution to a complex problem, a naïve framing of the knapsack problem. Contrary to earlier research, we find that technical and functional self-efficacy perceptions are indistinguishable, probably due to a focus on outcomes rather than on resources. Further, results demonstrate that prediction markets are an effective collective problem-solving platform that correctly aggregates individual knowledge and is resilient to traders’ self-efficacy.

  11. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W. S.; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Baddeley and Hitch’s multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7–9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. PMID:24212504

  12. Fractionating the neural correlates of individual working memory components underlying arithmetic problem solving skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Arron W S; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Menon, Vinod

    2013-10-01

    Baddeley and Hitch's multi-component working memory (WM) model has played an enduring and influential role in our understanding of cognitive abilities. Very little is known, however, about the neural basis of this multi-component WM model and the differential role each component plays in mediating arithmetic problem solving abilities in children. Here, we investigate the neural basis of the central executive (CE), phonological (PL) and visuo-spatial (VS) components of WM during a demanding mental arithmetic task in 7-9 year old children (N=74). The VS component was the strongest predictor of math ability in children and was associated with increased arithmetic complexity-related responses in left dorsolateral and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortices as well as bilateral intra-parietal sulcus and supramarginal gyrus in posterior parietal cortex. Critically, VS, CE and PL abilities were associated with largely distinct patterns of brain response. Overlap between VS and CE components was observed in left supramarginal gyrus and no overlap was observed between VS and PL components. Our findings point to a central role of visuo-spatial WM during arithmetic problem-solving in young grade-school children and highlight the usefulness of the multi-component Baddeley and Hitch WM model in fractionating the neural correlates of arithmetic problem solving during development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Enhancement of Junior High School Students' Abilities in Mathematical Problem Solving Using Soft Skill-based Metacognitive Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Murni, Atma; Sabandar, Jozua; S. Kusumah, Yaya; Kartasamita, Bana Goerbana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to know the differences of enhancement in mathematical problem solving ability (MPSA) between the students who received soft skill- based metacognitive learning (SSML) with the students who got conventional learning (CL). This research is a quasi experimental design with pretest-postest control group. The population in this study is the students of Junior High School in Pekanbaru city. The sample consist of 135 students, 68 of them are from the high-level...

  14. The feasibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Friederichs-Fitzwater M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marlene M von Friederichs-Fitzwater1, Frederick J Meyers21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAObjective: Young adults with cancer have unique psychosocial needs and often lack the problem-solving and coping skills for effective resolution. We conducted a study to clarify these needs and then developed and tested an educational intervention to coach young adults with cancer in problem-solving and coping skills using a new conversational agent technology that uses a multi-media format to simulate face-to-face encounters.Methods: We qualitatively assessed online focus groups and chat rooms with 45 young adults with cancer and used the results to develop and test an online 15-minute educational prototype using a new conversational agent technology with 49 young adults (18–35 years of age with cancer.Results: Young adults with cancer are most concerned about reproductive issues, emotional issues, communicating with healthcare providers, and the risks and benefits of treatments. The study participants found the I-COPE prototype to be useful, easy to use, and worth recommending to others. They wanted to have more video segments about the experiences of other young adults with cancer; more video segments of actual procedures and treatments; more Internet links to information and resources; and more opportunities to interact with the conversational agent.Conclusion: New conversational agent technology is useful in coaching problem-solving and coping skills to empower young adults with cancer.Practice implications: New conversational agent technology is a useful tool in patient education and skill development, particularly among young adults.Keywords: young adult cancer patients, conversational agent technology, problem-solving, coping, self-efficacy, survivorship

  15. A Comparison of Students in Physical Education and Sports College and the Students in Other Departments in Terms of Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görücü, Alpaslan; Cantav, Erkan

    2017-01-01

    In this research, it is aimed to analyze the problem solving skills of university students in terms of different variables and to analyze the differences among the levels of perceived problem solving skill of the students of Physical Education and Sports College and other branch students. The sample consists of the university students from the…

  16. Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2009-07-01

    One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.

  17. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  18. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  19. Investigating and developing engineering students' mathematical modelling and problem-solving skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedelin, Dag; Adawi, Tom; Jahan, Tabassum; Andersson, Sven

    2015-09-01

    How do engineering students approach mathematical modelling problems and how can they learn to deal with such problems? In the context of a course in mathematical modelling and problem solving, and using a qualitative case study approach, we found that the students had little prior experience of mathematical modelling. They were also inexperienced problem solvers, unaware of the importance of understanding the problem and exploring alternatives, and impeded by inappropriate beliefs, attitudes and expectations. Important impacts of the course belong to the metacognitive domain. The nature of the problems, the supervision and the follow-up lectures were emphasised as contributing to the impacts of the course, where students show major development. We discuss these empirical results in relation to a framework for mathematical thinking and the notion of cognitive apprenticeship. Based on the results, we argue that this kind of teaching should be considered in the education of all engineers.

  20. Developing Creativity and Problem-Solving Skills of Engineering Students: A Comparison of Web- and Pen-and-Paper-Based Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Andrew; Belski, Iouri; Hamilton, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    Problem-solving is a key engineering skill, yet is an area in which engineering graduates underperform. This paper investigates the potential of using web-based tools to teach students problem-solving techniques without the need to make use of class time. An idea generation experiment involving 90 students was designed. Students were surveyed…

  1. Adult Language, Literacy, Numeracy and Problem-Solving Skills in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasou, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of the eight major occupational categories across the four skill areas of the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey. The results indicated that some 38-64% of employed Australians were below minimal competence (at Level 1 or Level 2) in one of the four skill areas of prose literacy, document literacy, numeracy…

  2. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanping; Xiao, Wengang; Li, Chengren; Liu, Yunlai; Qin, Maolin; Wu, Yi; Xiao, Lan; Li, Hongli

    2014-04-09

    Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p 0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p effects of the VM system in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, ease of communication and confidence. The VM system is an effective tool at Chinese medical university to promote undergraduates' active learning and problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform.

  3. Impact of problem-based learning in a large classroom setting: student perception and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better problem-solving skills and an increase in overall motivation. However, very little research has been done on the educational benefits of PBL in a large classroom setting. Here, we describe a PBL approach (using tutorless groups) that was introduced as a supplement to standard didactic lectures in University of British Columbia Okanagan undergraduate biochemistry classes consisting of 45-85 students. PBL was chosen as an effective method to assist students in learning biochemical and physiological processes. By monitoring student attendance and using informal and formal surveys, we demonstrated that PBL has a significant positive impact on student motivation to attend and participate in the course work. Student responses indicated that PBL is superior to traditional lecture format with regard to the understanding of course content and retention of information. We also demonstrated that student problem-solving skills are significantly improved, but additional controlled studies are needed to determine how much PBL exercises contribute to this improvement. These preliminary data indicated several positive outcomes of using PBL in a large classroom setting, although further studies aimed at assessing student learning are needed to further justify implementation of this technique in courses delivered to large undergraduate classes.

  4. Examination of the relationship between preservice science teachers' scientific reasoning and problem solving skills on basic mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ibrahim; Ates, Salih

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine relationship between scientific reasoning and mechanics problem solving skills of students in science education program. Scientific Reasoning Skills Test (SRST) and Basic Mechanics Knowledge Test (BMKT) were applied to 90 second, third and fourth grade students who took Scientific Reasoning Skills course at science teaching program of Gazi Faculty of Education for three successive fall semesters of 2014, 2015 and 2016 academic years. It was found a statistically significant positive (p = 0.038 <0.05) but a low correlation (r = 0.219) between SRST and BMKT. There were no significant relationship among Conservation Laws, Proportional Thinking, Combinational Thinking, Correlational Thinking, Probabilistic Thinking subskills of reasoning and BMKT. There were significant and positive correlation among Hypothetical Thinking and Identifying and Controlling Variables subskills of reasoning and BMKT. The findings of the study were compared with other studies in the field and discussed.

  5. Investigation of Problem Solving Skills among 12th Grade Engineering Students

    OpenAIRE

    Shanta, Susheela

    2017-01-01

    US competitiveness in the 21st century global economy depends on a workforce that is science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) literate, and has knowledge and skills to tackle complex technological problems. In response to the need for a STEM literate workforce equipped with 21st century skills there is a push for K-12 educational reform. STEM literacy is the ability to use content knowledge and skills in science, technology, engineering and math in solving human problems in a c...

  6. Adults, Computers and Problem Solving: "What's the Problem?" OECD Skills Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ji Eun; Elliott, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The "OECD Skills Studies" series aims to provide a strategic approach to skills policies. It presents OECD internationally comparable indicators and policy analysis covering issues such as: quality of education and curricula; transitions from school to work; vocational education and training (VET); employment and unemployment; innovative…

  7. Developing Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skills through Wilderness Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rachel H.; Sibthorp, Jim; Gookin, John

    2016-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) has become an increasingly critical skill. Students who enter adult roles with the cognitive skills to address ISPs will be better able to assume roles in the emerging economies. Opportunities to develop and practice these skills…

  8. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divi...

  9. The Effect of Scratch- and Lego Mindstorms Ev3-Based Programming Activities on Academic Achievement, Problem-Solving Skills and Logical-Mathematical Thinking Skills of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…

  10. The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ates, S; Cataloglu, E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are relationships among freshmen/first year students' reasoning abilities, conceptual understandings and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics. The sample consisted of 165 freshmen science education prospective teachers (female = 86, male = 79; age range 17-21) who were enrolled in an introductory physics course. Data collection was done during the fall semesters in two successive years. At the beginning of each semester, the force concept inventory (FCI) and the classroom test of scientific reasoning (CTSR) were administered to assess students' initial understanding of basic concepts in mechanics and reasoning levels. After completing the course, the FCI and the mechanics baseline test (MBT) were administered. The results indicated that there was a significant difference in problem-solving skill test mean scores, as measured by the MBT, among concrete, formal and postformal reasoners. There were no significant differences in conceptual understanding levels of pre- and post-test mean scores, as measured by FCI, among the groups. The Benferroni post hoc comparison test revealed which set of reasoning levels showed significant difference for the MBT scores. No statistical difference between formal and postformal reasoners' mean scores was observed, while the mean scores between concrete and formal reasoners and concrete and postformal reasoners were statistically significantly different

  11. Effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon-Sook; Park, Hyung-Ran

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of case-based learning on communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation in sophomore nursing students. In this prospective, quasi-experimental study, we compared the pretest and post-test scores of an experimental group and a nonequivalent, nonsynchronized control group. Both groups were selected using convenience sampling, and consisted of students enrolled in a health communication course in the fall semesters of 2011 (control group) and 2012 (experimental group) at a nursing college in Suwon, South Korea. The two courses covered the same material, but in 2011 the course was lecture-based, while in 2012, lectures were replaced by case-based learning comprising five authentic cases of patient-nurse communication. At post-test, the case-based learning group showed significantly greater communication skills, problem-solving ability, and learning motivation than the lecture-based learning group. This finding suggests that case-based learning is an effective learning and teaching method. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Using a Standardized Patient to Improve Collaboration and Problem Solving Skills With CPAP Usage in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Margaret G; Ruhs, Joan

    2017-06-01

    A review of literature revealed a lack of research pertaining to nurses' or student nurses' knowledge of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the ability to troubleshoot CPAP malfunction. This study sought to answer the following questions: What are associate degree nursing (ADN) students' knowledge, interdisciplinary communication, and problem-solving skills regarding patients' home use of CPAP? Is there a change after participation in a simulation with a patient on CPAP in home setting? Twenty-one ADN students enrolled in small Midwest college participated. A preexperimental design of one group pretest posttest was used. Each student completed a demographic questionnaire, Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale, Interprofessional collaborative simulation experience survey, and a CPAP knowledge base survey before and upon completion of the simulation. There were no changes in students' comfort, baseline knowledge, and basic understanding regarding CPAP. However, after the simulation, students described more detailed problem-solving skills, which included using respiratory therapists, durable medical equipment providers, and community resources. On the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale, all 16 items demonstrated improved scores (baseline mean = 21.65 and postsimulation mean = 25.6).

  13. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Abazarian

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients′ depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety.

  14. Effects of team-based learning on problem-solving, knowledge and clinical performance of Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Ran; Song, Yeoungsuk; Lindquist, Ruth; Kang, Hee-Young

    2016-03-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) has been used as a learner-centered teaching strategy in efforts to improve students' problem-solving, knowledge and practice performance. Although TBL has been used in nursing education in Korea for a decade, few studies have studied its effects on Korean nursing students' learning outcomes. To examine the effects of TBL on problem-solving ability and learning outcomes (knowledge and clinical performance) of Korean nursing students. Randomized controlled trial. 63 third-year undergraduate nursing students attending a single university were randomly assigned to the TBL group (n=32), or a control group (n=31). The TBL and control groups attended 2h of class weekly for 3weeks. Three scenarios with pulmonary disease content were employed in both groups. However, the control group received lectures and traditional case study teaching/learning strategies instead of TBL. A questionnaire of problem-solving ability was administered at baseline, prior to students' exposure to the teaching strategies. Students' problem-solving ability, knowledge of pulmonary nursing care, and clinical performance were assessed following completion of the three-week pulmonary unit. After the three-week educational interventions, the scores on problem-solving ability in the TBL group were significantly improved relative to that of the control group (t=10.89, pproblem-solving ability, knowledge and clinical performance. More research on other specific learning outcomes of TBL for nursing students is recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. More than just fun and games: the longitudinal relationships between strategic video games, self-reported problem solving skills, and academic grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem solving skills among a sample of 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female), over the four high school years. The results showed that more strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills over time than less strategic video game play. In addition, the results showed support for an indirect association between strategic video game play and academic grades, in that strategic video game play predicted higher self-reported problem solving skills, and, in turn, higher self-reported problem solving skills predicted higher academic grades. The novel findings that strategic video games promote self-reported problem solving skills and indirectly predict academic grades are important considering that millions of adolescents play video games every day.

  16. How to make university students solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: The "Adventurous Problem Solving" approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees

    2003-01-01

    Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential

  17. Group training in interpersonal problem-solving skills for workplace adaptation of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study describes preliminary data from a group format manual-based intervention, the Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme, aimed at improving the cognitive and metacognitive process of social problem-solving skills focusing on typical social situations in the workplace based on mediation as the main strategy. A total of 50 adults with Asperger syndrome received the programme and were compared with a control group of typical development. The feasibility and effectiveness of the treatment were explored. Participants were assessed at pre-treatment and post-treatment on a task of social problem-solving skills and two secondary measures of socialisation and work profile using self- and caregiver-report. Using a variety of methods, the results showed that scores were significantly higher at post-treatment in the social problem-solving task and socialisation skills based on reports by parents. Differences in comparison to the control group had decreased after treatment. The treatment was acceptable to families and subject adherence was high. The Interpersonal Problem-Solving for Workplace Adaptation Programme appears to be a feasible training programme. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Proposal of thinking process model based on putting a question to oneself for problem solving by skilled engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Toshihiko; Kishi, Yoshiki

    2007-01-01

    The retirement of the skilled engineers and researchers, who have been working in the field of water chemistry of BWRs since the establishment of Japanese BWRs, has been accelerating so that it is necessary to preserve and share the knowledge and know-how of these skilled engineers and to effectively and securely inherit them to the following generations. Moreover, in order for other engineers to share knowledge, including the tacit knowledge of a skilled engineer, it is necessary not only to understand the knowledge obtained as the results of the thinking of the skilled engineers but also to externalize and experience their thinking processes as the processes of problem solving that produced the results. The target of this research is to build a new thinking process model that can externalize thinking processes effectively by analyzing the knowledge and thinking contents of the skilled engineers for investigating causes of changes in the quality of reactor water in boiling water reactor type power plants. As part of this research, we found out a new metacognitive activity, Putting a Question to Oneself, which plays a large role in the thinking process structure. In addition, we developed a new fundamental thinking process model, which can externalize thinking processes effectively by integrating the concept of Putting a Question to Oneself into the thinking process model. (author)

  19. Combining project based learning with exercises in problem solving in order to train analytical mathematical skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friesel, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the contents and the teaching methods used in the fourth semester course - REG4E - an important subject in engineering, namely Control Theory and Dynamical Systems. Control Theory courses in engineering education are usually related to exercises in the laboratory or to projects....... However, in order to understand complexity of control systems, the students need to possess an analytical understanding of abstract mathematical problems. Our main goal is to illustrate the theory through the robot project, but at the same time we force our students to train their analytical skills...

  20. Perinatal pathology: the role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavino Faa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathologists and clinicians come together and exchange views, they instil in one another doubts, they break down barriers. Asphyxia, respiratory distress, sepsis, multi-organ failure (MOF, cerebral ischemia and neuroprotection, necrotizing enteritis, renal and biliary pathology (including congenital nephrotic syndrome, injury caused by drugs, cardiac decompensation, placental pathology, neonatal issues in mothers with tumor: these are the topics debated, in the true sense of the word, by perinatologists and pathologists. In some pathologies (e.g. MOF the pathophysiology is surprisingly the same in the neonate and the adult.  Different disciplines deal for example with immunohistochemistry and metabolomics with the processing of thousands of data in search of something that cannot be found with the classic criteria of anamnesis, objective examination, laboratory tests and imaging. Big data and information science promise to change the world. To come to grips with the extreme biological complexity of our organism and each of our organs, the completeness of enormous amounts of data is of extraordinary value if assessed holistically with the “omic” disciplines. Thus we have the possibility of understanding our extraordinary interindividual variability. The new technologies and their application do not diminish the role of physicians: on the contrary, they represent a formidable instrument for extending their diagnostic potential and make possible 5-P medicine: personalized, prospective, predictive, preventive, participatory.  Proceedings of the International Course on Perinatal Pathology (part of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · Cagliari (Italy · October 25th, 2014 · The role of the clinical pathological dialogue in problem solving Guest Editors: Gavino Faa, Vassilios Fanos, Peter Van Eyken

  1. Calculation and Word Problem-Solving Skills in Primary Grades--Impact of Cognitive Abilities and Longitudinal Interrelations with Task-persistent Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. Aims: The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and…

  2. Problem-solving skills training for parents of children with chronic pain: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Bromberg, Maggie; Fales, Jessica; Eccleston, Christopher; Wilson, Anna C

    2016-06-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial aimed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of parental problem-solving skills training (PSST) compared with treatment as usual on improving parental mental health symptoms, physical health and well-being, and parenting behaviors. Effects of parent PSST on child outcomes (pain, emotional, and physical functioning) were also examined. Participants included 61 parents of children aged 10 to 17 years with chronic pain randomized to PSST (n = 31) or treatment as usual (n = 30) groups. Parents receiving PSST participated in 4 to 6 individual sessions of training in problem-solving skills. Outcomes were assessed at pretreatment, immediately after treatment, and at a 3-month follow-up. Feasibility was determined by therapy session attendance, therapist ratings, and parent treatment acceptability ratings. Feasibility of PSST delivery in this population was demonstrated by high compliance with therapy attendance, excellent retention, high therapist ratings of treatment engagement, and high parent ratings of treatment acceptability. PSST was associated with posttreatment improvements in parental depression (d = -0.68), general mental health (d = 0.64), and pain catastrophizing (d = -0.48), as well as in child depression (d = -0.49), child general anxiety (d = -0.56), and child pain-specific anxiety (d = -0.82). Several effects were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. Findings demonstrate that PSST is feasible and acceptable to parents of youths with chronic pain. Treatment outcome analyses show promising but mixed patterns of effects of PSST on parent and child mental health outcomes. Further rigorous trials of PSST are needed to extend these pilot results.

  3. Development of Finnish Elementary Pupils’ Problem-Solving Skills in Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Laine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine how Finnish pupils’ problemsolving skills develop from the 3rd to 5th grade. As research data, we use one non-standard problem from pre- and post-test material from a three-year follow-up study, in the area of Helsinki, Finland. The problems in both tests consisted of four questions related to each other. The purpose of the formulation of the problem was to help the pupils to find how many solutions for a certain answer exist. The participants in the study were 348 third-graders and 356 fifth-graders. Pupils’ fluency, i.e. ability to develop different solutions, was found to correlate with their ability to solve the problem. However, the proportions of the pupils (17% of the 3rd graders and 21% of the 5th graders who answered that there were an infinite number of solutions are of the same magnitude. Thus, the pupils’ ability to solve this kind of problem does not seem to have developed from the 3rd to the 5th grade. The lack and insufficiency of pupils’ justifications reveal the importance of the teacher carefully listening to the pupils’ ideas in order to be able to promote pupils’ understanding of the concept of infinity, as well as the basic calculations.

  4. Interactive video tutorials for enhancing problem solving, reasoning, and meta-cognitive skills of introductory physics students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the development of interactive video tutorial-based problems to help introductory physics students learn effective problem solving heuristics. The video tutorials present problem solving strategies using concrete examples in an interactive environment. They force students to follow a systematic approach to problem solving and students are required to solve sub-problems (research-guided multiple choice questions) to show their level of understanding at every stage of prob lem solvin...

  5. The Relationship of Social Problem-Solving Skills and Dysfunctional Attitudes with Risk of Drug Abuse among Dormitory Students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrazadani, Ehteram; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Mahrabi, Tayebeh

    2017-01-01

    Dormitory students encounter multiple social factors which cause pressure, such as new social relationships, fear of the future, and separation from family, which could cause serious problems such as tendency toward drug abuse. This research was conducted with the goal to determine social problem-solving skills, dysfunctional attitudes, and risk of drug abuse among dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytical, correlational, and cross-sectional research. The research sample consisted of 211 students living in dormitories. The participants were selected using randomized quota sampling method. The data collection tools included the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Identifying People at Risk of Addiction Questionnaire. The results indicated an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.0002), a direct relationship between dysfunctional attitude and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.030), and an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and dysfunctional attitude among students ( P = 0.0004). Social problem-solving skills have a correlation with dysfunctional attitudes. As a result, teaching these skills and the way to create efficient attitudes should be considered in dormitory students.

  6. Teachers' Conceptualization and Actual Practice in the Student Evaluation Process at the Upper Secondary School Level in Japan, Focusing on Problem Solving Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Nu Nu; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2001-01-01

    Studied the participation and performance of upper secondary school teachers in Japan through surveys completed by 360 Geography teachers. Findings suggest that the importance of developing problem-solving skills is widely recognized among these teachers. Implementing training in such skills is much more difficult. Developing effective teaching…

  7. Group Training in Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills for Workplace Adaptation of Adolescents and Adults with Asperger Syndrome: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonete, Saray; Calero, María Dolores; Fernández-Parra, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Adults with Asperger syndrome show persistent difficulties in social situations which psychosocial treatments may address. Despite the multiple studies focusing on social skills interventions, only some have focused specifically on problem-solving skills and have not targeted workplace adaptation training in the adult population. This study…

  8. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills, Executive Function and Learning Potential in Preadolescents with High/Low Family Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sara; Gómez-Pérez, M Mar; Molinero, Clara; Calero, M Dolores

    2017-10-30

    Situations generated by high family risk have a negative effect on personal development, especially during preadolescence. Growing up in the presence of risk factors can lead to negative consequences on mental health or on school performance. The objective of this study focuses on individual factors related to this phenomenon during preadolescence. Specifically, we seek to establish whether level of family risk (high vs. low risk) is related to interpersonal problem-solving skills, executive function and learning potential in a sample of preadolescents controlling age, sex, total IQ, verbal comprehension ability and the classroom influences. The participants were 40 children, 23 boys and 17 girls between the ages of 7 and 12, twenty of which had a record on file with the Social and Childhood Protection Services of Information deleted to maintain the integrity of the review process, and therefore, a high family risk situation. The other 20 participants had a low family risk situation. Results show that the preadolescents from high family risk performed worse on interpersonal solving-problem skills and executive function (p family risk. These results highlight the negative effects of high family risk situation in preadolescents and give value of taking into account protective factors such as learning potential when assessing preadolescents from high family risk.

  9. The Use of Classroom Assessment to Explore Problem Solving Skills Based on Pre-Service Teachers’ Cognitive Style Dimension in Basic Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati; Rustaman, Nuryani Y.; Hamidah, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of assessment strategy which can measure problem solving skills of pre-service teachers based on their cognitive style in basic physics course. The sample consisted of 95 persons (male = 15, female = 75). This study used an exploratory research with observation techniques by interview, questionnaire, and test. The results indicated that the lecturer only used paper-pencil test assessment strategy to measure pre-service teachers’ achievement and also used conventional learning strategy. It means that the lecturer did not measure pre-services’ thinking process in learning, like problem solving skills. One of the factors which can influence student problem solving skills is cognitive style as an internal factor. Field Dependent (FD) and Field Independent (FI) are two cognitive styles which were measured with using Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) test. The result showed that 82% of pre-service teachers were FD cognitive style and only 18% of pre-service teachers had FI cognitive style. Furthermore, these findings became the fundamental design to develop a problem solving assessment model to measure pre-service teachers’ problem solving skills and process in basic physics course.

  10. Prompting in Web-Based Environments: Supporting Self-Monitoring and Problem Solving Skills in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Douglas F.; Ge, Xun; Xie, Kui; Chen, Ching-Huei

    2008-01-01

    This study explored Metacognition and how automated instructional support in the form of problem-solving and self-reflection prompts influenced students' capacity to solve complex problems in a Web-based learning environment. Specifically, we examined the independent and interactive effects of problem-solving prompts and reflection prompts on…

  11. The Effectiveness of the Training of Problem-Solving and Decision-Making Skills on the Reduction of Addicts’ Positive Attitudes to Narcotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farxaneh Bahrami

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills on the reduction of addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics. Method: The design of this study was experimental design namely: pre and post test with control group. The population included all addicts referring to Sanandaj self-report centers (500 addicts. By random sampling, 60 addicts were selected and completed the attitude questionnaire to narcotics use. Each of experimental groups was under problem-solving and decision-making skills training for ten 90 minute sessions. No training given to control group. Results: After training, two experimental groups significantly had lower levels of positive attitude to narcotics use. No difference was observed between two experimental groups. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the training of problem-solving and decision-making skills can reduce the addicts’ positive attitudes to narcotics.

  12. The effect of problem-solving skill training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Marziyeh Ghasemi; Kordi, Masoume; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amirian, Maliheh; Eskandarnia, Elnaze

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Using fertility treatment will cause high levels of anxiety and depression. The study was carried out with the objective of determining the effect of problem-solving skills (PSS) training on mental health and the success of treatment of infertile women under intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: this randomized clinical trial was carried out on 72 women referring to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. Individuals were randomly assigned into control and intervention groups. PSS were taught in three sessions in the intervention group, and the control group received usual care. The success rate of therapy and the mean of anxiety and depression on the day of IUI operation were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger Anxiety Inventory in both groups. t-test, Mann–Whitney, paired t-test, Wilcoxon, and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: on the day of IUI operation, the mean score of state anxiety in the control group(5 0. 11 ± 8.51) and PSS (68.12 ± 11.49) was significant (P effect of problem-solving on reducing anxiety and depression, it is suggested that infertility center of this intervention should be used. PMID:29296608

  13. Metacognitive skills and students' motivation toward chemical equilibrium problem solving ability: A correlational study on students of XI IPA SMAN 2 Banjarmasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muna, Khairiatul; Sanjaya, Rahmat Eko; Syahmani, Bakti, Iriani

    2017-12-01

    The demand for students to have metacognitive skills and problem solving ability can be seen in the core competencies of the 2013 curriculum. Metacognitive skills are the skills which affect students' success in solving problems depending on students' motivation. This explains the possibility of the relationship between metacognition and motivation in affecting students' achievement including problem solving. Due to the importance of metacognitive skills to solve problems and the possible relationship between metacognition and motivation, a study to find the relationship among the variables is necessary to conduct, particularly on chemistry problem solving. This one shot case study using quantitative method aimed to investigate the correlation between metacognitive skills and motivation toward problem solving ability focusing on chemical equilibrium. The research population was students of grade XI of majoring Science of Banjarmasin Public High Scool 2 (XI IPA SMAN 2 Banjarmasin) with the samples of 33 students obtained by using purposive sampling technique. The research data were collected using test and non-test and analyzed using multiple regression in SPSS 21. The results of this study showed that (1) the students' metacognitive skills and motivation correlated positively with coefficient of +0.450 to problem solving ability on chemical equilibrium: (2) inter-variables of students' motivation (self-efficacy, active learning strategies, science/chemistry learning value, performance goal, achievement goal, and learning environment stimulations) correlated positively to metacognitive skills with the correlation coefficients of +0.580, +0.537, +0.363, +0.241, +0.516, and +0.271, respectively. Based on the results, it is necessary for teachers to implement learning which develops students' metacognitive skills and motivation, such as learning with scientific approach. The implementation of the learning is also supposed to be complemented with the use of learning

  14. The association of minor and major depression with health problem-solving and diabetes self-care activities in a clinic-based population of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Na; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Langan, Susan; Payne, Jennifer L; Lyketsos, Constantine; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-05-01

    We examined whether problem-solving and diabetes self-management behaviors differ by depression diagnosis - major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MinDD) - in adults with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We screened a clinical sample of 702 adults with T2DM for depression, identified 52 positive and a sample of 51 negative individuals, and performed a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. MDD (n=24), MinDD (n=17), and no depression (n=62) were diagnosed using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) Text Revised criteria. Health Problem-Solving Scale (HPSS) and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA) questionnaires determined problem-solving and T2DM self-management skills, respectively. We compared HPSS and SDSCA scores by depression diagnosis, adjusting for age, sex, race, and diabetes duration, using linear regression. Total HPSS scores for MDD (β=-4.38; pdepression. Total SDSCA score for MDD (β=-10.1; pdepression, and was partially explained by total HPSS. MinDD and MDD individuals with T2DM have impaired problem-solving ability. MDD individuals had impaired diabetes self-management, partially explained by impaired problem-solving. Future studies should assess problem-solving therapy to treat T2DM and MinDD and integrated problem-solving with diabetes self-management for those with T2DM and MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Ikpe, Uduakobong N.; Brooks, Jeannie S.; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided. PMID:25071874

  16. Investigating the Relationship between Pre-School Teachers’ Problem Solving Skills andTheir Epistemological Beliefs, Creativity Levels and Thinking Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdenur Uzunoğlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate whether the epistemological beliefs, creativity levels and thinking styles of pre-school teachers are significant predictors of their problem solving skills and in accordance with this purpose, a correlational survey design was used. The sample of this study consists of 155 pre school teachers working in Isparta in the school year 2011-2012. As data collection tools, “Problem Solving Inventory”, “Epistemological Beliefs Scale, “How Creative Are You?” and lastly, “Thinking Styles Inventory” were used. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. In this study, it has been found that problem solving skills of the teachers are a significant predictor of preschool teachers’ perceptions of their creativity levels positively and perceptions of their conventional thinking styles negatively in the belief that learning depends on ability.

  17. The Effect of Social Problem Solving Skills in the Relationship between Traumatic Stress and Moral Disengagement among Inner-City African American High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L; Ikpe, Uduakobong N; Brooks, Jeannie S; Page, Brian; Sobell, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between traumatic stress, social problem solving, and moral disengagement among African American inner-city high school students. Participants consisted of 45 (25 males and 20 females) African American students enrolled in grades 10 through 12. Mediation was assessed by testing for the indirect effect using the confidence interval derived from 10,000 bootstrapped resamples. The results revealed that social problem-solving skills have an indirect effect on the relationship between traumatic stress and moral disengagement. The findings suggest that African American youth that are negatively impacted by trauma evidence deficits in their social problem solving skills and are likely to be at an increased risk to morally disengage. Implications for culturally sensitive and trauma-based intervention programs are also provided.

  18. Using an Interactive Web-Based Learning NMR Spectroscopy as a Means to Improve Problem Solving Skills for Undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supasorn, Saksri; Vibuljun, Sunantha; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Rajviroongit, Shuleewan

    2005-10-01

    An Interactive Web-Based Learning NMR Spectroscopy course is developed to improve and facilitate student ' s learning as well as achievement of learning objectives in the concepts of multiplicity, chemical shift, and problem solving. This web-based learning course is emphasized on NMR problem solving, therefore, the concepts of multiplicity and chemical shift, basic concepts for practice problem solving, are also emphasized. Most of animations and pictures in this web-based learning are new created and simplified to explain processes and principles in NMR spectroscopy. With meaningful animations and pictures, simplified English language used, step-by-step problem solving, and interactive test, it can be self-learning web site and best on the student ' s convenience

  19. Calculation and word problem-solving skills in primary grades - Impact of cognitive abilities and longitudinal interrelations with task-persistent behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jõgi, Anna-Liisa; Kikas, Eve

    2016-06-01

    Primary school math skills form a basis for academic success down the road. Different math skills have different antecedents and there is a reason to believe that more complex math tasks require better self-regulation. The study aimed to investigate longitudinal interrelations of calculation and problem-solving skills, and task-persistent behaviour in Grade 1 and Grade 3, and the effect of non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning on math skills and task persistence. Participants were 864 students (52.3% boys) from 33 different schools in Estonia. Students were tested twice - at the end of Grade1 and at the end of Grade 3. Calculation and problem-solving skills, and teacher-rated task-persistent behaviour were measured at both time points. Non-verbal intelligence, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning were measured in Grade 1. Cross-lagged structural equation modelling indicated that calculation skills depend on previous math skills and linguistic abilities, while problem-solving skills require also non-verbal intelligence, executive functioning, and task persistence. Task-persistent behaviour in Grade 3 was predicted by previous problem-solving skills, linguistic abilities, and executive functioning. Gender and mother's educational level were added as covariates. The findings indicate that math skills and self-regulation are strongly related in primary grades and that solving complex tasks requires executive functioning and task persistence from children. Findings support the idea that instructional practices might benefit from supporting self-regulation in order to gain domain-specific, complex skill achievement. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. A life history approach to delineating how harsh environments and hawk temperament traits differentially shape children's problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L; Davies, Patrick T; Cicchetti, Dante

    2017-08-01

    Harsh environments are known to predict deficits in children's cognitive abilities. Life history theory approaches challenge this interpretation, proposing stressed children's cognition becomes specialized to solve problems in fitness-enhancing ways. The goal of this study was to examine associations between early environmental harshness and children's problem-solving outcomes across tasks varying in ecological relevance. In addition, we utilize an evolutionary model of temperament toward further specifying whether hawk temperament traits moderate these associations. Two hundred and one mother-child dyads participated in a prospective multimethod study when children were 2 and 4 years old. At age 2, environmental harshness was assessed via maternal report of earned income and observations of maternal disengagement during a parent-child interaction task. Children's hawk temperament traits were assessed from a series of unfamiliar episodes. At age 4, children's reward-oriented and visual problem-solving were measured. Path analyses revealed early environmental harshness and children's hawk temperament traits predicted worse visual problem-solving. Results showed a significant two-way interaction between children's hawk temperament traits and environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving. Simple slope analyses revealed the effect of environmental harshness on reward-oriented problem-solving was specific to children with higher levels of hawk traits. Results suggest early experiences of environmental harshness and child hawk temperament traits shape children's trajectories of problem-solving in an environment-fitting manner. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. The effect of a positive reappraisal coping intervention and problem-solving skills training on coping strategies during waiting period of IUI treatment: An RCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amirian, Maliheh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Waiting period of fertility treatment is stressful, therefore it is necessary to use effective coping strategies to cope with waiting period of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) with the problem-solving skills training (PSS) on the coping strategies of IUI waiting period, in infertile women referred to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 108 women were evaluated into three groups. The control group received the routine care, but in PRCI group, two training sessions were held and they were asked to review the coping thoughts cards and fill out the daily monitoring forms during the waiting period, and in PSS group problem-solving skill were taught during 3 sessions. The coping strategies were compared between three groups on the 10th day of IUI waiting period. Results: Results showed that the mean score for problem-focused were significantly different between the control (28.54±9.70), PSS (33.71±9.31), and PRCI (30.74±10.96) (p=0.025) groups. There were significant differences between the PSS group and others groups, and mean emotion-focused were significantly different between the control (32.09±11.65), PSS (29.20±9.88), and PRCI (28.74±7.96) (p=0.036) groups. There were significant differences between the PRCI and the control group (p=0.047). Conclusion: PSS was more effective to increase problem-focused coping strategies than PRCI, therefore it is recommended that this intervention should be used in infertility treatment centers. PMID:29404530

  2. The effect of a positive reappraisal coping intervention and problem-solving skills training on coping strategies during waiting period of IUI treatment: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah; Amirian, Maliheh

    2017-11-01

    Waiting period of fertility treatment is stressful, therefore it is necessary to use effective coping strategies to cope with waiting period of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. The aim of this study was comparing the effect of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) with the problem-solving skills training (PSS) on the coping strategies of IUI waiting period, in infertile women referred to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. In this randomized clinical trial, 108 women were evaluated into three groups. The control group received the routine care, but in PRCI group, two training sessions were held and they were asked to review the coping thoughts cards and fill out the daily monitoring forms during the waiting period, and in PSS group problem-solving skill were taught during 3 sessions. The coping strategies were compared between three groups on the 10 th day of IUI waiting period. Results showed that the mean score for problem-focused were significantly different between the control (28.54±9.70), PSS (33.71±9.31), and PRCI (30.74±10.96) (p=0.025) groups. There were significant differences between the PSS group and others groups, and mean emotion-focused were significantly different between the control (32.09±11.65), PSS (29.20±9.88), and PRCI (28.74±7.96) (p=0.036) groups. There were significant differences between the PRCI and the control group (p=0.047). PSS was more effective to increase problem-focused coping strategies than PRCI, therefore it is recommended that this intervention should be used in infertility treatment centers.

  3. The effect of a positive reappraisal coping intervention and problem-solving skills training on coping strategies during waiting period of IUI treatment: An RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghasemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Waiting period of fertility treatment is stressful, therefore it is necessary to use effective coping strategies to cope with waiting period of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was comparing the effect of the positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI with the problem-solving skills training (PSS on the coping strategies of IUI waiting period, in infertile women referred to Milad Infertility Center in Mashhad. Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 108 women were evaluated into three groups. The control group received the routine care, but in PRCI group, two training sessions were held and they were asked to review the coping thoughts cards and fill out the daily monitoring forms during the waiting period, and in PSS group problem-solving skill were taught during 3 sessions. The coping strategies were compared between three groups on the 10th day of IUI waiting period. Results: Results showed that the mean score for problem-focused were significantly different between the control (28.54±9.70, PSS (33.71±9.31, and PRCI (30.74±10.96 (p=0.025 groups. There were significant differences between the PSS group and others groups, and mean emotion-focused were significantly different between the control (32.09±11.65, PSS (29.20±9.88, and PRCI (28.74±7.96 (p=0.036 groups. There were significant differences between the PRCI and the control group (p=0.047. Conclusion: PSS was more effective to increase problem-focused coping strategies than PRCI, therefore it is recommended that this intervention should be used in infertility treatment centers.

  4. Evaluation of the Effect of Mathematical Routines on the Development of Skills in Mathematical Problem Solving and School Motivation of Primary School Students in Abitibi-Témiscamingue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajotte, Thomas; Marcotte, Christine; Bureau-Levasseur, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the dropout rate in Abitibi-Témiscamingue is a worrying phenomenon. An analysis of ministerial examination results identifies that students in Abitibi-Témiscamingue have specific difficulties with mathematical problem solving tasks. Among the activities that develop those skills, the daily routines in mathematics seem to be a…

  5. The Investigation of the Effects of Physical Education Lessons Planned in Accordance with Cooperative Learning Approach on Secondary School Students' Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorucu, Alpaslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects of physical education lessons planned in accordance with cooperative learning approach on secondary school students' problem solving skills. The research was conducted on 48 students studying at Konya/Selçuklu Sehit Mustafa Çuhadar Secondary School in fall semester of 2015-2016…

  6. The Effects of Computer Programming on High School Students' Reasoning Skills and Mathematical Self-Efficacy and Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psycharis, Sarantos; Kallia, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether computer programming has an impact on high school student's reasoning skills, problem solving and self-efficacy in Mathematics. The quasi-experimental design was adopted to implement the study. The sample of the research comprised 66 high school students separated into two groups, the experimental and the…

  7. More than Just Fun and Games: The Longitudinal Relationships between Strategic Video Games, Self-Reported Problem Solving Skills, and Academic Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have proposed that video games possess good learning principles and may promote problem solving skills. Empirical research regarding this relationship, however, is limited. The goal of the presented study was to examine whether strategic video game play (i.e., role playing and strategy games) predicted self-reported problem…

  8. Dynamic Modeling as a Cognitive Regulation Scaffold for Developing Complex Problem-Solving Skills in an Educational Massively Multiplayer Online Game Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eseryel, Deniz; Ge, Xun; Ifenthaler, Dirk; Law, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Following a design-based research framework, this article reports two empirical studies with an educational MMOG, called "McLarin's Adventures," on facilitating 9th-grade students' complex problem-solving skill acquisition in interdisciplinary STEM education. The article discusses the nature of complex and ill-structured problem solving…

  9. [Effect of a simulation-based education on cardio-pulmonary emergency care knowledge, clinical performance ability and problem solving process in new nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Hee; Jang, Keum Seong

    2011-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of simulation-based education regarding care in a cardio-pulmonary emergency care as related to knowledge, clinical performance ability, and problem solving process in new nurses. An equivalent control group pre-post test experimental design was used. Fifty new nurses were recruited, 26 nurses for the experimental group and 24 nurses for the control group. The simulation-based cardio-pulmonary emergency care education included lecture, skill training, team-based practice, and debriefing, and it was implemented with the experimental group for a week in May, 2009. Data were analyzed using frequency, ratio, chi-square, Fisher's exact probability and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group who had the simulation-based education showed significantly higher know-ledge (t=5.76, pproblem solving process was not included (t=1.11, p=.138). The results indicate that a simulation-based education is an effective teaching method to improve knowledge and clinical performance ability in new nurses learning cardio-pulmonary emergency care. Further study is needed to identify the effect of a simulation-based team discussion on cognitive outcome of clinical nurses such as problem solving skills.

  10. The Algebra Teacher's Activity-a-Day, Grades 6-12 Over 180 Quick Challenges for Developing Math and Problem-Solving Skills

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Frances McBroom

    2010-01-01

    Fun-filled math problems that put the emphasis on problem-solving strategies and reasoning. The Algebra Teacher's Activity-a-Day offers activities for test prep, warm-ups, down time, homework, or just for fun. These unique activities are correlated with national math education standards and emphasize problem-solving strategies and logical reasoning skills. In many of the activities, students are encouraged to communicate their different approaches to other students in the class.: Filled with dozens of quick and fun algebra activities that can be used inside and outside the classroom; Designed

  11. Bibliotherapy as a Problem-Solving Skill of Counsellors and Teachers for Character and Skills Development in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem, Magaji

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disturbance is a psychological situation in which one's feelings are heightened, causing anxiety to set in. This disturbance can lead to low academic achievements in affected students. It takes away children's attention from realities and this affect their academic, character and skills development that are of benefit to the individual…

  12. The correlation between mothers' participation in infant care in the NICU and their anxiety and problem-solving skill levels in caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakmak, Emine; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2018-01-01

    To examine the correlation between mothers' participation in infant care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and their anxiety and problem-solving skill levels in caregiving. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 340 mothers whose babies were in the NICU. Data were collected with a questionnaire, a Participation in Caregiving Observation Form, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Problem-solving Skills Evaluation Form. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used in the evaluation of the data. The mothers were with their babies an average of 6.28 ± 2.43 (range: 1-20) times a day, participating in many basic procedures of care. A negative correlation was found between the mothers' scores on the Participation in Caregiving Observation Form and their State and Trait Anxiety Inventory scores (respectively, r = -0.48, p Problem-solving Process (r = 0.41, p problem-solving skills with respect to baby care and related problems.

  13. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Cognitive and Cognitive-Metacognitive Strategies based on Mathematical Problem-Solving Skills on 9th Grade Girl Students with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyedeh Somayyeh Jalil-Abkenar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of present research was the comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies based on mathematical problem-solving skills on 9th grade girl students with intellectual disability in Tehran Province. Materials & Methods: The research is an experimental, comparing pre-test and post-test data. The participants were chosen by cluster sampling from three schools three districts of Tehran Province (Gharchak, Shahrerey and Shahryar. Fifteen female students with Intellectual disability were assigned from each school and they were divided into three, one control and two experiment groups. For experimental groups students cognitive & cognitive-metacognitive strategies were taught in the 15 instructional sessions, but the control group students did not receive none of strategies in the same sessions. The instruments consist of Wechsler intelligence test was used for matching the groups in terms of IQ, a teacher performed the tests for mathematical problem-solving and instructional pakage of cognitive and cognitive-metacognitive strategies. The data analysis was done by using descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and frequency table and ANCOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that there was significant increasing in mathematical problem-solving skills in the group receiving cognitive-metacognitive strategies in comparison with the cognitive group (P<0.005 and control group (P<0.001. Beside, the mean difference of the cognitive group was significantly more than the control group (P<0.003. Conclusion: The mathematical problem-solving skill of the students have been improved through cognitive-metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Also, the instruction of cognitive-metacognitive strategies, in compared with cognitive strategy caused more improvement on the performance of mathematical problem-solving skills.

  14. Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

  15. Using Science Inquiry Methods to Promote Self-Determination and Problem-Solving Skills for Students with Moderate Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Doughty, Teresa; Krockover, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of guided science inquiry methods with self-monitoring checklists to support problem-solving for students and increased autonomy during science instruction for students with moderate intellectual disability. Three students with moderate intellectual disability were supported in not only accessing the general…

  16. Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills : a cognitive-load approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Fred G.W.C.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J.G.; van Merrienboer, J.J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Four computer-based training strategies for geometrical problem solving in the domain of computer numerically controlled machinery programming were studied with regard to their effects on training performance, transfer performance, and cognitive load. A low- and a high-variability conventional

  17. The Effect of TMPT Program on Pre-School Children's Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Cagla; Kocak, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Starting Thinking Training at an early age is important. However, few studies were found regarding Thinking Training programs for pre-school children and the contributions of these programs to children's social problem-solving. In this context, the TMPT Program was developed for pre-school children and the effect of the program on 5-6…

  18. The Effect of Inquiry Training Learning Model Based on Just in Time Teaching for Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnip, Betty; Wahyuni, Ida; Tanjung, Yul Ifda

    2016-01-01

    One of the factors that can support successful learning activity is the use of learning models according to the objectives to be achieved. This study aimed to analyze the differences in problem-solving ability Physics student learning model Inquiry Training based on Just In Time Teaching [JITT] and conventional learning taught by cooperative model…

  19. An Observational Study for Evaluating the Effects of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills Training on Behavioural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anliak, Sakire; Sahin, Derya

    2010-01-01

    The present observational study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) programme on behavioural change from aggression to pro-social behaviours by using the DECB rating scale. Non-participant observation method was used to collect data in pretest-training-posttest design. It was hypothesised that the ICPS…

  20. Buffering the Effects of Violence: Communication and Problem-Solving Skills as Protective Factors for Adolescents Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Monique; Self-Brown, Shannon; Shepard, Desti; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2011-01-01

    Although many adolescents exposed to violence evidence negative outcomes, some report few deleterious effects, indicating the presence of moderating variables. This study examined the moderating role of family communication and problem solving on positive and negative outcomes in adolescents exposed to school and neighborhood violence.…

  1. Component analysis of a school-based substance use prevention program in Spain: contributions of problem solving and social skills training content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P; Griffin, Kenneth W; Pereira, Juan R; Orgilés, Mireia; García-Fernández, José M

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to examine the contribution of two intervention components, social skills training and problem solving training, to alcohol- and drug-related outcomes in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 341 Spanish students from age 12 to 15 who received the prevention program Saluda in one of four experimental conditions: full program, social skills condition, problem solving condition, and a wait-list control group. Students completed self-report surveys at the pretest, posttest and 12-month follow-up assessments. Compared to the wait-list control group, the three intervention conditions produced reductions in alcohol use and intentions to use other substances. The intervention effect size for alcohol use was greatest in magnitude for the full program with all components. Problem-solving skills measured at the follow-up were strongest in the condition that received the full program with all components. We discuss the implications of these findings, including the advantages and disadvantages of implementing tailored interventions to students by selecting intervention components after a skills-based needs assessment.

  2. Do social support, stigma, and social problem-solving skills predict depressive symptoms in people living with HIV? A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Worawan; Grant, Joan S; Pryor, Erica R; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E; Raper, James L

    2012-01-01

    Social support, stigma, and social problem solving may be mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, no published studies have examined these individual variables as mediators in PLWH. This cross-sectional, correlational study of 150 PLWH examined whether social support, stigma, and social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between HIV-related sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms. Participants completed self-report questionnaires during their visits at two HIV outpatient clinics in the Southeastern United States. Using multiple regression analyses as a part of mediation testing, social support, stigma, and social problem solving were found to be partial mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms, considered individually and as a set.

  3. Improving Problem Solving Skill and Self Regulated Learning of Senior High School Students through Scientific Approach using Quantum Learning strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sudirman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is quasi experiment with control group pretest-postest design. The sampel in this research using the techique of purposive sampling so the samples used were two classes of the 11th grade students of SMAN 14 Bandung in the academic year 2017/2018. The experiment group uses saintific approach using Quantum Learning strategy and control group uses saintific approach. In collecting the data the researcher will use the test of problem solving ability and self regulated learning as the instrument. The aims of this research are to:1find out the improvement of students mathematical problem solving through scientific approach using Quantum Learning study, 2 find out students self regulated learning through scientific approach using Quantum Learning.

  4. Divergence in problem-solving skills is associated with differential expression of glutamate receptors in wild finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kayello, Lima; Ducatez, Simon; Perillo, Sara; Cauchard, Laure; Howard, Jason T; O'Connell, Lauren A; Jarvis, Erich D; Lefebvre, Louis

    2018-03-01

    Problem solving and innovation are key components of intelligence. We compare wild-caught individuals from two species that are close relatives of Darwin's finches, the innovative Loxigilla barbadensis , and its most closely related species in Barbados, the conservative Tiaris bicolor . We found an all-or-none difference in the problem-solving capacity of the two species. Brain RNA sequencing analyses revealed interspecific differences in genes related to neuronal and synaptic plasticity in the intrapallial neural populations (mesopallium and nidopallium), especially in the nidopallium caudolaterale, a structure functionally analogous to the mammalian prefrontal cortex. At a finer scale, we discovered robust differences in glutamate receptor expression between the species. In particular, the GRIN2B/GRIN2A ratio, known to correlate with synaptic plasticity, was higher in the innovative L. barbadensis . These findings suggest that divergence in avian intelligence is associated with similar neuronal mechanisms to that of mammals, including humans.

  5. A STUDY OF THE DEGREES OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS IN THE WAY OF DANIEL GOLEMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Yalın, Elif; SÖZEN, İlyas

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to reveal the effects of emotional intelligence upon problem-solving for business challenges that an employee meets at any time in business life. For this purpose, it is aimed to analyze behaviors of 135 white collars working in textile and food industry by making them complete self-report surveys. Prior to the survey, it has highly been suggested that emotional traits consisting of intrapersonal, interpersonal, motivation and self management are effective. Daniel Gole...

  6. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simul...

  7. Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

  8. An Integrated Architecture for Engineering Problem Solving

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisan, Yusuf

    1998-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the Integrated Problem Solving Architecture (IPSA) that combines qualitative, quantitative and diagrammatic reasoning skills to produce annotated solutions to engineering problems...

  9. Design and Production of Multimedia Training Programs for Problem Solving Skill and its Effect on the Mental Health of High School Female Students in Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Shahnaz Bahrami; Saeed Vaziri Yazdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and production of multimedia training programs for problem solving skill and its effect on the mental health of high school female students in Kermanshah. The studied group included students sponsored by Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation. From five Relief Foundations in Kermanshah, Foundation Office Region 2 was randomly selected; female students were selected from all male and female students sponsored by the foundation. High school students were selected among ...

  10. The Development of Student’s Activity Sheets (SAS) Based on Multiple Intelligences and Problem-Solving Skills Using Simple Science Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardani, D. S.; Kirana, T.; Ibrahim, M.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to produce SAS based on MI and problem-solving skills using simple science tools that are suitable to be used by elementary school students. The feasibility of SAS is evaluated based on its validity, practicality, and effectiveness. The completion Lesson Plan (LP) implementation and student’s activities are the indicators of SAS practicality. The effectiveness of SAS is measured by indicators of increased learning outcomes and problem-solving skills. The development of SAS follows the 4-D (define, design, develop, and disseminate) phase. However, this study was done until the third stage (develop). The written SAS was then validated through expert evaluation done by two experts of science, before its is tested to the target students. The try-out of SAS used one group with pre-test and post-test design. The result of this research shows that SAS is valid with “good” category. In addition, SAS is considered practical as seen from the increase of student activity at each meeting and LP implementation. Moreover, it was considered effective due to the significant difference between pre-test and post-test result of the learning outcomes and problem-solving skill test. Therefore, SAS is feasible to be used in learning.

  11. Can You Teach a Teen New Tricks? Problem Solving Skills Training Improves Oral Medication Adherence in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Participating in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, Rachel N; Gumidyala, Amitha P; Nguyen, Eve; Plevinsky, Jill M; Poulopoulos, Natasha; Thomason, Molly M; Walter, Jennifer G; Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Blank, Ellen; Gokhale, Ranjana; Kirschner, Barbara S; Miranda, Adrian; Noe, Joshua D; Stephens, Michael C; Werlin, Steven; Kahn, Stacy A

    2015-11-01

    Medication nonadherence is associated with higher disease activity, greater health care utilization, and lower health-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Problem solving skills training (PSST) is a useful tool to improve adherence in patients with chronic diseases but has not been fully investigated in IBD. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of PSST in pediatric IBD. Recruitment occurred during outpatient clinic appointments. After completion of baseline questionnaires, families were randomized to a treatment group or wait-list comparison group. The treatment group received either 2 or 4 PSST sessions. Youth health-related quality of life was assessed at 3 time points, and electronic monitoring of oral medication adherence occurred for the study duration. Seventy-six youth (ages 11-18 years) on an oral IBD maintenance medication participated. High retention (86%) and treatment fidelity rates (95%) supported feasibility. High satisfaction ratings (mean values ≥4.2 on 1-5 scale) supported intervention acceptability. Modest increases in adherence occurred after 2 PSST sessions among those with imperfect baseline adherence (d = 0.41, P 0.05). Phone-delivered PSST was feasible and acceptable. Efficacy estimates were similar to those of lengthier interventions conducted in other chronic illness populations. Older adolescents benefited more from the intervention than their younger counterparts.

  12. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534

  13. The effect of problem solving and decision making skills on tendency to depression and anxiety in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazarian, Elaheh; Baboli, M Teimourzadeh; Abazarian, Elham; Ghashghaei, F Esteki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is the most prevalent disease that has involved 177 million people all over the world and, due to this, these patients suffer from depression and anxiety and they should use special methods for controlling the same. The aim of this research is the study of the effect of problem solving and decision making skill on the rate of the tendency to depression and anxiety. This research is a quasi-experimental (case-control) study. Statistically, the population of the present study was all diabetic patients of Qaemshahr who were controlled by physicians in 2011-2012. Thirty files were selected randomly from them and divided into two 15 patients' groups (control and subject group) randomly. The measurement tools were Back depression inventory (21 items) and Zank anxiety questionnaire that were distributed among two groups. Then, the subject group participated in eight sessions of teaching problem solving and decision making courses separately, and the second group (control group) did not receive any instruction. Finally, both groups had passed post-test and the data obtained from the questionnaires were studied by variance analysis statistical methods. The results showed that teaching problem solving and decision making skills was very effective in reducing diabetic patients' depression and anxiety and resulted in reducing their depression and anxiety.

  14. THE EFFECT OF PROBLEM SOLVING LEARNING MODEL BASED JUST IN TIME TEACHING (JiTT ON SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS (SPS ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PLANT TISSUE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resha Maulida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Problem Solving learning model based Just in Time Teaching (JiTT on students' science process skills (SPS on structure and function of plant tissue concept. This research was conducted at State Senior High School in South Tangerang .The research conducted using the quasi-experimental with Nonequivalent pretest-Postest Control Group Design. The samples of this study were 34 students for experimental group and 34 students for the control group. Data was obtained using a process skill test instrument (essai type that has been tested for its validity and reliability. Result of data analysis by ANACOVA, show that there were significant difference of postest between experiment and control group, by controlling the pretest score (F = 4.958; p <0.05. Thus, the problem-solving learning based on JiTT proved to improve students’ SPS. The contribution of this treatment in improving the students’ SPS was 7.2%. This shows that there was effect of problem solving model based JiTT on students’ SPS on the Structure and function of plant tissue concept.

  15. Does Problem-Solving Training for Family Caregivers Benefit Their Care Recipients With Severe Disabilities? A Latent Growth Model of the Project CLUES Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jack W.; Elliott, Timothy R.; Grant, Joan S.; Edwards, Gary; Fine, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine whether an individualized problem-solving intervention provided to family caregivers of persons with severe disabilities provides benefits to both caregivers and their care recipients. Design Family caregivers were randomly assigned to an education-only control group or a problem-solving training (PST) intervention group. Participants received monthly contacts for 1 year. Participants Family caregivers (129 women, 18 men) and their care recipients (81 women, 66 men) consented to participate. Main Outcome Measures Caregivers completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory–Revised, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, the Satisfaction with Life scale, and a measure of health complaints at baseline and in 3 additional assessments throughout the year. Care recipient depression was assessed with a short form of the Hamilton Depression Scale. Results Latent growth modeling was used to analyze data from the dyads. Caregivers who received PST reported a significant decrease in depression over time, and they also displayed gains in constructive problem-solving abilities and decreases in dysfunctional problem-solving abilities. Care recipients displayed significant decreases in depression over time, and these decreases were significantly associated with decreases in caregiver depression in response to training. Conclusions PST significantly improved the problem-solving skills of community-residing caregivers and also lessened their depressive symptoms. Care recipients in the PST group also had reductions in depression over time, and it appears that decreases in caregiver depression may account for this effect. PMID:22686549

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRONIC TEACHING MATERIALS BY FLIPBOOK ASSISTANCE BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SKILL WITH CTL APPROACH ON LEARNING MATHEMATICS CLASS V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSNILAWATI Eva Gustiana RUSNILAWATI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to produce Flipbook-based Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE based on problem solving skills with CTL Approach on Vocational School Class V learning valid, practical, and effective. This type of research is development research (Development Research. This research developed Flipbook-assisted Electronic Teaching Materials (BAE on the mathematics learning of Class V Primary School by using the 4-D development model developed by Thiagarajan, Semmel, and Semmel. The validation results show that the developed Teaching Materials are worthy of use with a good minimum category. The results of the experiments show that Electronic Materials developed are practical and effective. Completed learning in the classical has reached the minimum criteria of 75% that is for problem-solving test reached 86%. Based on a questionnaire of attitudes toward mathematics, 88% of students showed an increase in attitude scores on mathematics, and 85% of students showed attitudes toward mathematics with a good minimum category.

  17. Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

  18. Toward Solving the Problem of Problem Solving: An Analysis Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching is replete with problem solving. Problem solving as a skill, however, is seldom addressed directly within music teacher education curricula, and research in music education has not examined problem solving systematically. A framework detailing problem-solving component skills would provide a needed foundation. I observed problem solving…

  19. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss. PMID:26317766

  20. Stressors and Caregivers' Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-Solving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.

  1. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education.

  2. The impact of training problem-solving skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls who have irresponsible parents or no parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M

    2015-01-01

    Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people.

  3. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  4. Reflective action assessment with a prospective clinical problem solving tool in the context of rehabilitation medicine: an illustrative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, David; Mpofu, Elias; Madden, Richard

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a case formulation approach applying a prospective ICF derived clinical tool to assess rehabilitation needs for a community dwelling stroke survivor with care from an outpatient rehabilitation medicine clinic. Case history data on the person were assessed for rehabilitation management planning using a prospective tool to interlink current with projected future functional status in everyday settings. Implicit assessment with reflective action informed decision points at each stage of the rehabilitation process. As a result of reflective action using the prospective tool, rehabilitation management led to significant changes in client participation after limitations to mobility and self care were mapped to the living conditions of the stroke survivor. The context sensitive rehabilitative plan resulted in higher subjective health-related quality of life in the stroke survivor and significant other and enhanced their capacity for participation. Reflective action informed assessment applying ICF concepts to clinical problem solving resulted in positive gains in health-related quality of life in a stroke survivor.

  5. The results of STEM education methods for enhancing critical thinking and problem solving skill in physics the 10th grade level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.

    2018-01-01

    This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).

  6. The Enhancement of Students’ Skill in Classifying and Concept Mastery in Salt Hydrolysis Material Through Problem Solving Learning Model

    OpenAIRE

    Safitri, Esty Indriyani; Rosilawati, Ila; Efkar, Tasviri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out effectiveness of problem solving learning model on salt hydrolysis material in improve the skill of classifying and concept mastery. The population of the research was all students in XI science class in SMAN I Way Jepara number in 120 students. The samples were 30 students in XI science 3 class and 30 students in XI science 4 that have equal academic abilities. This research was a quasi experiment using non equivalent (pretest-postest) control grou...

  7. Transfer of Problem Solving Skills from Touchscreen to 3D Model by 3- to 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuik, Joanne; Demaria, Ana; Kaufman, Jordy

    2017-01-01

    Although much published research purports that young children struggle to solve problems from screen-based media and to transfer learning from a virtual to a physical modality, Huber et al. (2016)'s recent study on children solving the Tower of Hanoi (ToH) problem on a touchscreen app offers a clear counter example. Huber et al. (2016) reported that children transferred learning from media to the physical world. As this finding arguably differs from that of prior research in this area, the current study tests whether the Huber et al. (2016) results could be replicated. Additionally, we extended the scope of the Huber et al. (2016) work by testing a broader age range, including children as young as 3 years, and using a culturally distinct participant pool. The results of the current study verified Huber et al.'s (2016) conclusion that 4- to 6-year-old children are capable of transferring the ToH learning from touchscreen devices to the physical version of the puzzle. Children under 4 years of age, in contrast, showed little ability to improve at the ToH problem regardless of the practice modality-suggesting that a different problem-solving task is required to probe very young children's ability to learn from touchscreen apps.

  8. Series: The research agenda for general practice/family medicine and primary health care in Europe. Part 4. Results: specific problem solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Beyer, Martin; Chevallier, Patrick; Eilat-Tsanani, Sophia; Lionis, Christos; Peremans, Lieve; Petek, Davorina; Rurik, Imre; Soler, Jean Karl; Stoffers, Henri Ejh; Topsever, Pinar; Ungan, Mehmet; van Royen, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The 'Research Agenda for General Practice/Family Medicine and Primary Health Care in Europe' summarizes the evidence relating to the core competencies and characteristics of the Wonca Europe definition of GP/FM, and its implications for general practitioners/family doctors, researchers and policy makers. The European Journal of General Practice publishes a series of articles based on this document. The previous articles presented background, objectives, and methodology, as well results on 'primary care management' and 'community orientation' and the person-related core competencies of GP/FM. This article reflects on the general practitioner's 'specific problem solving skills'. These include decision making on diagnosis and therapy of specific diseases, accounting for the properties of primary care, but also research questions related to quality management and resource use, shared decision making, or professional education and development. Clinical research covers most specific diseases, but often lacks pragmatism and primary care relevance. Quality management is a stronghold of GP/FM research. Educational interventions can be effective when well designed for a specific setting and situation. However, their message that 'usual care' by general practitioners is insufficient may be problematic. GP and their patients need more research into diagnostic reasoning with a step-wise approach to increase predictive values in a setting characterized by uncertainty and low prevalence of specific diseases. Pragmatic comparative effectiveness studies of new and established drugs or non-pharmaceutical therapy are needed. Multi-morbidity and complexity should be addressed. Studies on therapy, communication strategies and educational interventions should consider impact on health and sustainability of effects.

  9. Dual Task of Fine Motor Skill and Problem Solving in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goverover, Y; Sandroff, B M; DeLuca, J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) examine and compare dual-task performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HCs) using mathematical problem-solving questions that included an everyday competence component while performing an upper extremity fine motor task; and (2) examine whether difficulties in dual-task performance are associated with problems in performing an everyday internet task. Pilot study, mixed-design with both a within and between subjects' factor. A nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and the community. Participants (N=38) included persons with MS (n=19) and HCs (n=19) who were recruited from a nonprofit rehabilitation research institution and from the community. Not applicable. Participant were presented with 2 testing conditions: (1) solving mathematical everyday problems or placing bolts into divots (single-task condition); and (2) solving problems while putting bolts into divots (dual-task condition). Additionally, participants were required to perform a test of everyday internet competence. As expected, dual-task performance was significantly worse than either of the single-task tasks (ie, number of bolts into divots or correct answers, and time to answer the questions). Cognitive but not motor dual-task cost was associated with worse performance in activities of everyday internet tasks. Cognitive dual-task cost is significantly associated with worse performance of everyday technology. This was not observed in the motor dual-task cost. The implications of dual-task costs on everyday activity are discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of innovative teaching materials: clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units: comparison with patient-oriented problem-solving units and problem-based learning--a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, Claire M; Smith, Cedric M

    2002-05-01

    The First Teaching Clinic in Clinical Pharmacology, sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology in September 1992, was designed for the preparation and development of new clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units. CPPS units are case histories that illustrate pertinent principles in clinical pharmacology. Each unit consists of the following sections: introduction, learning objectives, pretest, four clinical pharmacology scenarios, posttest, answers to pre- and posttest questions, and selected references. The clinical pharmacology content of the CPPS units place greater emphasis on clinical information, drug selection, and risk/benefit analyses, and thus they complement the basic pharmacology presented in the patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) units. In general, the CPPS units are intended for use by students more advanced in clinical pharmacology than first- and second-year medical students. The CPPS unit "Clinical Pharmacology of Antiepileptic Drug Use: Clinical Pearls about the Perils of Patty" was developed for use by third- and fourth-year medical students doing rotations in neurology or clinical pharmacology; advanced pharmacy students; residents in neurology, pediatrics, internal medicine, and family practice; fellows in clinical pharmacology, and those taking the board examination in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Geriatric Clinical Psychopharmacology" was written for third- and fourth-year medical students; residents in psychiatry, family practice, and internal medicine;fellows in clinical pharmacology; and those studying for boards in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit "Anisocoria and Glaucoma" was written for more advanced students of clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Antiepileptic Drugs" was intended for second-year medical students. The second teaching clinic was held in November 1993 and focused on the development and editing of the CPPS units and their evaluations by faculty and students from

  11. A Single-Arm Feasibility Trial of Problem-Solving Skills Training for Parents of Children with Idiopathic Chronic Pain Conditions Receiving Intensive Pain Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Emily F; Fales, Jessica L; Beals-Erickson, Sarah E; Failo, Alessandro; Logan, Deirdre; Randall, Edin; Weiss, Karen; Durkin, Lindsay; Palermo, Tonya M

    2017-05-01

    To adapt problem-solving skills training (PSST) for parents of children receiving intensive pain rehabilitation and evaluate treatment feasibility, acceptability, and satisfaction. Using a prospective single-arm case series design, we evaluated the feasibility of delivering PSST to 26 parents (84.6% female) from one of three pediatric pain rehabilitation programs. Parents completed four to six sessions of PSST delivered during a 2-4-week period. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess treatment acceptability and satisfaction. We also assessed changes in parent mental health and behavior outcomes from pretreatment to immediate posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Parents demonstrated excellent treatment adherence and rated the intervention as highly acceptable and satisfactory. Preliminary analyses indicated improvements in domains of mental health, parenting behaviors, health status, and problem-solving skills. Findings demonstrate the potential role of psychological interventions directed at reducing parent distress in the context of intensive pediatric pain rehabilitation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  12. Effects of a problem-solving intervention (COPE) on quality of life for patients with advanced cancer on clinical trials and their caregivers: simultaneous care educational intervention (SCEI): linking palliation and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Frederick J; Carducci, Michael; Loscalzo, Matthew J; Linder, John; Greasby, Tamara; Beckett, Laurel A

    2011-04-01

    Patients on investigational clinical trials and their caregivers experience poor quality of life (QOL), which declines as the disease progresses. To examine the effect of a standardized cognitive-behavioral problem-solving educational intervention on the QOL of patients enrolled on investigational clinical trials and their caregivers. Prospective, multi-institution, randomized trial. QOL was measured repeatedly over 6 months. Patients were simultaneously enrolled onto phase 1, 2, or 3 Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved cancer clinical trials. Intervention arm dyads participated in three conjoint educational sessions during the first month, learning the COPE problem solving model. Nonintervention arm dyads received usual care. Global QOL was measured by the City of Hope Quality of Life Instruments for Patients or Caregivers; problem solving skills were measured by the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised. The results are reported using the CONSORT statement. The analytic data set included 476 dyads including 1596 patient data points and 1576 care giver data points. Patient QOL showed no significant difference in the rate of change between the intervention and usual care arms (p = 0.70). Caregiver QOL scores in the intervention arm declined, but at less than half the rate in the control arm (p = 0.02). The COPE intervention enabled the average caregiver to come much closer to stable QOL over the 6-month follow-up. Future studies should enroll subjects much earlier in the cancer illness trajectory, a common patient/caregiver theme. The maximum effect was seen in caregivers who completed the 6-month follow-up, suggesting that the impact may increase over time.

  13. Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

  14. Strategy Keys as Tools for Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold-Blasius, Raja

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is one of the main competences we seek to teach students at school for use in their future lives. However, when dealing with mathematical problems, teachers encounter a wide variety of difficulties. To foster students' problem-solving skills, the authors developed "strategy keys." Strategy keys can serve as material to…

  15. Geometry Skill Analysis In Problem Solving Reviewed From The Difference Of Cognitive Style Students Junior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Saparuddin Nur

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the geometry skills in solving problems in terms of cognitive styles differences in the students of SMP Negeri Urumb. The type of this research is descriptive research that is qualitative with case study approach. The subject of this research is all students of SMP Negeri Urumb. Subject selection is done by using snowball sampling technique. The main instrument in this study is the researchers themselves and accompanied by supporting instruments such as diagnostic tests, geometry solving test, and interview guides. Validity and reliability of data is done through credibility test, transferability test, dependability test, and confirmability test. Data analysis consists of data collection, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. The results of this study were (1 reflective FI subjects showing visual, verbal, drawing, and logic skills with level of geometry thinking at level 2 (informal deduction; (2 impulsive FI subjects exhibiting visual, verbal, and drawing skills with geometric thinking level at level 1 (analysis, (3 reflective FD subjects exhibit visual skills, and draw with level of geometric thinking at level 0 (visualization, and (4 impulsive FD subjects exhibit visual, verbal skills with geometric level thinking at level 0 (visualization.

  16. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students’ CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence. PMID:26283992

  17. A longitudinal study of higher-order thinking skills: working memory and fluid reasoning in childhood enhance complex problem solving in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiff, Samuel; Wüstenberg, Sascha; Goetz, Thomas; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hautamäki, Jarkko; Bornstein, Marc H

    2015-01-01

    Scientists have studied the development of the human mind for decades and have accumulated an impressive number of empirical studies that have provided ample support for the notion that early cognitive performance during infancy and childhood is an important predictor of later cognitive performance during adulthood. As children move from childhood into adolescence, their mental development increasingly involves higher-order cognitive skills that are crucial for successful planning, decision-making, and problem solving skills. However, few studies have employed higher-order thinking skills such as complex problem solving (CPS) as developmental outcomes in adolescents. To fill this gap, we tested a longitudinal developmental model in a sample of 2,021 Finnish sixth grade students (M = 12.41 years, SD = 0.52; 1,041 female, 978 male, 2 missing sex). We assessed working memory (WM) and fluid reasoning (FR) at age 12 as predictors of two CPS dimensions: knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. We further assessed students' CPS performance 3 years later as a developmental outcome (N = 1696; M = 15.22 years, SD = 0.43; 867 female, 829 male). Missing data partly occurred due to dropout and technical problems during the first days of testing and varied across indicators and time with a mean of 27.2%. Results revealed that FR was a strong predictor of both CPS dimensions, whereas WM exhibited only a small influence on one of the two CPS dimensions. These results provide strong support for the view that CPS involves FR and, to a lesser extent, WM in childhood and from there evolves into an increasingly complex structure of higher-order cognitive skills in adolescence.

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF QUIZ TEAM AND MURDER METHOD ON LEARNING ACTIVITIES AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE LEARNING FOR 8th GRADE STUDENTS AT UPI LABORATORY JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwanti Darwanti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There are three objectives that shape the study, first, the study is aimed at identifying different problem-solving skills of the students' who were acquainted with quiz team, lecture and MURDER method. Secondly, the study is to point out the difference of students' problem-solving skills when they are exposed to the three methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity. The third objective is to determine interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. Quasi experiment is used as a method of the study by applying two experiment classes, and one controlled factorial designed class. In analyzing the data, a two-way Anova analysis and variants analysis are implemented to measure the interaction level among the three variables. The results of the study indicate that (1 there are differences in students' problem-solving skills who were exposed to quiz team, lecture and MURDER method; (2 there are also differences in students' problem-solving skills when they were exposed by the mentioned methods in a high, moderate, and low intensity; there are no relevant interactions among learning methods, learning activities and problem-solving skills. The current results are presented such that they can be used as an aid to the methods of social science learning.

  19. The Development of Physics Learning Instrument Based on Hypermedia and Its Influence on the Student Problem Solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Bunga Dara; Mahmud, Alimuddin; Muris

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to produce a learning instrument based on hypermedia which is valid, interesting, practical, and effective as well as to know its influence on the problem based skill of students Mathematical and Science Faculty, Makassar State University. This research is a research and development at (R&D) type. The development procedure…

  20. Examination of personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals whose driving licenses have been confiscated due to drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymur, Ibrahim; Budak, Ersin; Duyan, Veli; Kanat, Bilgen Biçer; Önen, Sinay

    2017-01-02

    Drunk driving is one of the major behavioral issues connected with problematic alcohol consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating Solution Options, Solution Implementation and Verification, and Decision Making) were used to evaluate the participants. A positive relationship was found between the Extroversion subscale of the EPQ-RA and the Cognition subscale (P .05). Drinking and driving behaviors appear to be negative or maladaptive behaviors closely related to personality traits and may represent an effort to avoid negative emotions. Evaluation of negative emotions may have an important place in training programs intended to change drunk driving behavior.

  1. LSS, a problem solving skill for graduates and SMEs: Case Study of investigation in a UK Business School curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Alireza; Nabhani, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a systematic Lean Six Sigma (LSS) education through the curriculum of business schools to respond to the existing gap between the graduate’s expectation of employability and skill requirements by the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).\\ud \\ud Design/approach/methodology - One UK business school has been used as a case study to conduct an extensive module and programme review followed by a semi-structured interview with the ...

  2. Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Özdemir, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession.

  3. A randomized trial of teen online problem solving: efficacy in improving caregiver outcomes after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Walz, Nicolay C; Carey, JoAnne; McMullen, Kendra M; Cass, Jennifer; Mark, Erin; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2012-11-01

    To examine the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of Teen Online Problem Solving (TOPS), an online problem solving therapy model, in increasing problem-solving skills and decreasing depressive symptoms and global distress for caregivers of adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Families of adolescents aged 11-18 who sustained a moderate to severe TBI between 3 and 19 months earlier were recruited from hospital trauma registries. Participants were assigned to receive a web-based, problem-solving intervention (TOPS, n = 20), or access to online resources pertaining to TBI (Internet Resource Comparison; IRC; n = 21). Parent report of problem solving skills, depressive symptoms, global distress, utilization, and satisfaction were assessed pre- and posttreatment. Groups were compared on follow-up scores after controlling for pretreatment levels. Family income was examined as a potential moderator of treatment efficacy. Improvement in problem solving was examined as a mediator of reductions in depression and distress. Forty-one participants provided consent and completed baseline assessments, with follow-up assessments completed on 35 participants (16 TOPS and 19 IRC). Parents in both groups reported a high level of satisfaction with both interventions. Improvements in problem solving skills and depression were moderated by family income, with caregivers of lower income in TOPS reporting greater improvements. Increases in problem solving partially mediated reductions in global distress. Findings suggest that TOPS may be effective in improving problem solving skills and reducing depressive symptoms for certain subsets of caregivers in families of adolescents with TBI.

  4. Introspection in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Frank; Schreiber, Cornell

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving research has encountered an impasse. Since the seminal work of Newell und Simon (1972) researchers do not seem to have made much theoretical progress (Batchelder and Alexander, 2012; Ohlsson, 2012). In this paper we argue that one factor that is holding back the field is the widespread rejection of introspection among cognitive…

  5. Problem Solving in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim; Heyck-Williams, Jeff; Timpson Gray, Elicia

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving spans all grade levels and content areas, as evidenced by this compilation of projects from schools across the United States. In one project, high school girls built a solar-powered tent to serve their city's homeless population. In another project, 4th graders explored historic Jamestown to learn about the voices lost to history.…

  6. The Effect of Learning Environments Based on Problem Solving on Students' Achievements of Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…

  7. Students interest in learning science through fieldwork activity encourage critical thinking and problem solving skills among UPSI pre-university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Siti Zaheera Muhamad; Khairuddin, Raja Farhana Raja

    2017-05-01

    Graduates with good critical thinking and problem solving (CTPS) skills are likely to boost their employability to live in 21st century. The demands of graduates to be equipped with CTPS skills have shifted our education system in focusing on these elements in all levels of education, from primary, the secondary, and up to the tertiary education, by fostering interesting teaching and learning activities such as fieldwork activity in science classes. Despite the importance of the CTPS skills, little is known about whether students' interests in teaching and learning activities, such as fieldwork activity, have any influence on the students CTPS skills. Therefore, in this investigation, firstly to examine students interests in learning science through fieldwork activity. Secondly, this study examined whether the students' interest in learning science through fieldwork activity have affect on how the students employ CTPS skills. About 100 Diploma of Science students in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) were randomly chosen to participate in this study. All of the participants completed a survey on how they find the fieldwork activity implemented in their science classes and it relevents towards their CTPS skills development. From our findings, majority of the students (91%) find that fieldwork activity is interesting and helpful in increasing their interest in learning science (learning factor) and accommodate their learning process (utility). Results suggest that students' interest on the fieldwork activity in science classes does have some influence on the students development of CTPS skills. The findings could be used as an initial guideline by incorporating students' interest on other teaching and learning activities that being implemented in science classes in order to know the impacts of these learning activities in enhancing their CTPS skills.

  8. Improving mathematical problem solving : A computerized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, EG; Suhre, CJM

    Mathematics teachers often experience difficulties in teaching students to become skilled problem solvers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of two interactive computer programs for high school mathematics problem solving. Both programs present students with problems accompanied by instruction

  9. IDEAL Problem Solving dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Susiana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most educators agree that problem solving is among the most meaningful and importantkinds of learning and thingking. That is, the central focus of learning and instructionshould be learning to solve problems. There are several warrants supporting that claims.They are authenticity, relevance, problem solving engages deeper learning angtherefore enhances meaning making, and constructed to represent problems (problemsolving is more meaningful. It is the reason why we must provide teaching and learningto make student’s problem solving skill in progress. There are many informationprocessingmodels of problem solving, such as simplified model of the problem-solvingprocess by Gicks, Polya’s problem solving process etc. One of them is IDEAL problemsolving. Each letter of IDEAL is stand for an aspect of thinking that is important forproblem solving. IDEAL is identify problem, Define Goal, Explore possible strategies,Anticipate outcme and Act, and Look back and learn. Using peer interaction andquestion prompt in small group in IDEAL problem solving teaching and Learning canimprove problem solving skill.Kata kunci: IDEAL Problem Solving, Interaksi Sebaya, Pertanyaan Penuntun, KelompokKecil.

  10. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

    2013-03-01

    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Creativity and Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving...... approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools....

  12. Creativity and problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Victor Valqui Vidal

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some modern and interdisciplinary concepts about creativity and creative processes of special relevance for Operational Research workers. Central publications in the area Creativity-Operational Research are shortly reviewed. Some creative tools and the Creative Problem Solving approach are also discussed. Finally, some applications of these concepts and tools are outlined. Some central references are presented for further study of themes related to creativity or creative tools.

  13. Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative Effects of Problem-Solving and Concept Mapping Instructional ... mapping strategies are also discussed and their significance and importance to students. ... development of problem solving skills before the end of SSCE Programmebr ...

  14. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  15. Teaching Effective Problem Solving Strategies for Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Louis L.

    2005-01-01

    This qualitative study investigates what problem solving strategies interns learn from their clinical teachers during their internships. Twenty-four interns who completed their internship in the elementary grades shared what problem solving strategies had the greatest impact upon them in learning how to deal with problems during their internship.…

  16. Appreciative Problem Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, David

    2012-01-01

    Many industrial production work systems have increased in complexity, and their new business model scompete on innovation, rather than low cost.At a medical device production facility committed to Lean Production, a research project was carried out to use Appreciative Inquiry to better engage...... employee strengths in continuou simprovements of the work system. The research question was: “How can Lean problem solving and Appreciative Inquiry be combined for optimized work system innovation?” The research project was carried out as a co-creation process with close cooperation between researcher...

  17. Simon on problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2006-01-01

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organisational issues, specifically new organisational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organisational forms and to point to some design problems that characterise these forms.......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are 'The Architecture of Complexity' and 'The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems.' We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  18. Development and validation of the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Jaser, Sarah S; Rothman, Russell L; Russell, William E; Pittel, Eric J; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2014-10-01

    Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13-17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Empirical elimination of items using principal components analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the diabetes adolescent problem solving questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 56% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, pproblem solving in youth with T1D and is associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distributed Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents a p......, what can educators at higher education learn from the ways creative groups solve problems? How can artists contribute to inspiring higher education?......This chapter aims to deconstruct some persistent myths about creativity: the myth of individualism and of the genius. By looking at literature that approaches creativity as a participatory and distributed phenomenon and by bringing empirical evidence from artists’ studios, the author presents...... a perspective that is relevant to higher education. The focus here is on how artists solve problems in distributed paths, and on the elements of creative collaboration. Creative problem-solving will be looked at as an ongoing dialogue that artists engage with themselves, with others, with recipients...

  20. [Out of hopelessness--problem solving training in suicide prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel Forintos, Dóra; Póos, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Psychological studies have great importance in suicide prevention since psychological factors belong to the modifiable risk factors in suicide. These are the negative cognitive triad and hopelessness which are related to vague, over-generalized autobiographical memory and lead to poor problem solving abilities. In this paper we review the most relevant clinical psychology studies and models such as the cognitive model of suicide as well as the entrapment theory by Williams (2004). In the second part we describe the frequently used method of problem solving training/therapy which can be used in either individual or group format. We hope that the problem solving skill training will soon become a part of suicide prevention in Hungary also, since short,focused and evidence based interventions are much needed in psychiatric care.

  1. Using Systemic Problem Solving (SPS) to Assess Student ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the uses of systemic problem solving in chemistry at the tertiary level. Traditional problem solving (TPS) is a useful tool to help teachers examine recall of information, comprehension, and application. However, systemic problem solving (SPS) can challenge students and probe higher cognitive skills ...

  2. Using Digital Mapping Tool in Ill-Structured Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Scaffolding students' problem solving and helping them to improve problem solving skills are critical in instructional design courses. This study investigated the effects of students' uses of a digital mapping tool on their problem solving performance in a design case study. It was found that the students who used the digital mapping tool…

  3. The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir

    2013-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…

  4. Problem-Solving After Traumatic Brain Injury in Adolescence: Associations With Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Shari L; Cassedy, Amy E; Fulks, Lauren E; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Kirkwood, Michael W; Yeates, Keith O; Kurowski, Brad G

    2017-08-01

    To examine the association of problem-solving with functioning in youth with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cross-sectional evaluation of pretreatment data from a randomized controlled trial. Four children's hospitals and 1 general hospital, with level 1 trauma units. Youth, ages 11 to 18 years, who sustained moderate or severe TBI in the last 18 months (N=153). Problem-solving skills were assessed using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) and the Dodge Social Information Processing Short Stories. Everyday functioning was assessed based on a structured clinical interview using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) and via adolescent ratings on the Youth Self Report (YSR). Correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations among measures. The TBI group endorsed lower levels of maladaptive problem-solving (negative problem orientation, careless/impulsive responding, and avoidant style) and lower levels of rational problem-solving, resulting in higher total problem-solving scores for the TBI group compared with a normative sample (Pproblem-solving composites were associated with overall functioning on the CAFAS, only maladaptive problem-solving (PProblem-solving after TBI differs from normative samples and is associated with functional impairments. The relation of problem-solving deficits after TBI with global functioning merits further investigation, with consideration of the potential effects of problem-solving interventions on functional outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Using Brainstorming Strategy in Developing Creative Problem Solving Skills among Male Students in Kuwait: A Field Study on Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait City

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMutairi, Abdullahi Naser Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using brainstorm strategy in developing creative problem solving skills among male students in Saud Al-Kharji School in Kuwait. The sample of the study consisted of (98) male students. The sample was distributed into two classes, the first represents the experimental group totaling (47)…

  6. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders : A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, C.S.; Loong, D.; Bonato, S.; Joosen, Margot

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence

  7. Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Improve Gross Motor and Problem-Solving Skills in Young North Indian Children: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Taneja, Sunita; Kumar, Tivendra; Hysing, Mari; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Bhandari, Nita; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate are associated with delayed development and neurological manifestations. The objective of this study was to measure the effect of daily supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid on development in young North Indian children. In a randomized, double blind trial, children aged six to 30 months, received supplement with placebo or vitamin B12 and/or folic acid for six months. Children were allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio in a factorial design and in blocks of 16. We measured development in 422 children by the Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3rd ed. at the end of the intervention. Compared to placebo, children who received both vitamin B12 and folic acid had 0.45 (95% CI 0.19, 0.73) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.02, 0.54) higher SD-units in the domains of gross motor and problem solving functioning, respectively. The effect was highest in susceptible subgroups consisting of stunted children, those with high plasma homocysteine (> 10 μmol/L) or in those who were younger than 24 at end study. With the exception of a significant improvement on gross motor scores by vitamin B12 alone, supplementation of either vitamin alone had no effect on any of the outcomes. Our findings suggest that supplementation of vitamin B12 and folic acid benefit development in North Indian Children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00717730.

  8. Problem solving therapy - use and effectiveness in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, David

    2012-09-01

    Problem solving therapy (PST) is one of the focused psychological strategies supported by Medicare for use by appropriately trained general practitioners. This article reviews the evidence base for PST and its use in the general practice setting. Problem solving therapy involves patients learning or reactivating problem solving skills. These skills can then be applied to specific life problems associated with psychological and somatic symptoms. Problem solving therapy is suitable for use in general practice for patients experiencing common mental health conditions and has been shown to be as effective in the treatment of depression as antidepressants. Problem solving therapy involves a series of sequential stages. The clinician assists the patient to develop new empowering skills, and then supports them to work through the stages of therapy to determine and implement the solution selected by the patient. Many experienced GPs will identify their own existing problem solving skills. Learning about PST may involve refining and focusing these skills.

  9. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Joosen, Margot C W

    2015-06-15

    This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of these RTW interventions? Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review was based on publically available peer-reviewed studies. Five electronic databases were searched: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit and (5) Web of Science. The focus was on RTW interventions for workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. RTW intervention included work-focused problem-solving skills. RTW rates and length of sickness absences. There were 4709 unique citations identified. Of these, eight articles representing a total of six studies were included in the review. In terms of bias avoidance, two of the six studies were rated as excellent, two as good and two as weak. Five studies were from the Netherlands; one was from Norway. There was variability among the studies with regard to RTW findings. Two of three studies reported significant differences in RTW rates between the intervention and control groups. One of six studies observed a significant difference in sickness absence duration between intervention and control groups. There is limited evidence that combinations of interventions that include work-related problem-solving skills are effective in RTW outcomes. The evidence could be strengthened if future studies included more detailed examinations of intervention adherence and changes in problem-solving skills. Future studies should also examine the long-term effects of problem-solving skills on sickness absence recurrence and work productivity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  10. The effectiveness of return-to-work interventions that incorporate work-focused problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Loong, Desmond; Bonato, Sarah; Joosen, Margot C W

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews the current state of the published peer-reviewed literature related to return-to-work (RTW) interventions that incorporate work-related problem-solving skills for workers with sickness absences related to mental disorders. It addresses the question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of these RTW interventions? Design Using a multiphase screening process, this systematic literature review was based on publically available peer-reviewed studies. Five electronic databases were searched: (1) Medline Current, (2) Medline In-process, (3) PsycINFO, (4) Econlit and (5) Web of Science. Setting The focus was on RTW interventions for workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Participants Workers with medically certified sickness absences related to mental disorders. Interventions RTW intervention included work-focused problem-solving skills. Primary and secondary outcome measures RTW rates and length of sickness absences. Results There were 4709 unique citations identified. Of these, eight articles representing a total of six studies were included in the review. In terms of bias avoidance, two of the six studies were rated as excellent, two as good and two as weak. Five studies were from the Netherlands; one was from Norway. There was variability among the studies with regard to RTW findings. Two of three studies reported significant differences in RTW rates between the intervention and control groups. One of six studies observed a significant difference in sickness absence duration between intervention and control groups. Conclusions There is limited evidence that combinations of interventions that include work-related problem-solving skills are effective in RTW outcomes. The evidence could be strengthened if future studies included more detailed examinations of intervention adherence and changes in problem-solving skills. Future studies should also examine the long-term effects of problem-solving

  11. Comparative effectiveness of family problem-solving therapy (F-PST for adolescents after traumatic brain injury: Protocol for a randomized, multicenter, clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad G. Kurowski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this manuscript is to describe the methodology that will be used to test the comparative effectiveness, feasibility, and acceptability of three formats of family problem solving therapy (F-PST for improving functional outcomes of complicated mild to severe adolescent TBI. Methods: Three-arm comparative effectiveness, randomized clinical trial (RCT design. We describe the protocol of a three-arm RCT comparing the effectiveness of three modalities of F-PST to reduce executive dysfunction and behavior problems following TBI in adolescence. The RCT will compare the relative effectiveness among face-to-face; online and self-directed; and therapist-supported online modes of treatment. Ethics and dissemination: It is anticipated that findings from this work will inform future clinical care practices, with implications for treatment of other patient populations of youth with psychological symptoms arising from neurological conditions. Institutional review board approval will be obtained from all sites prior to commencement of the study. Clinical Trials Registration: NCT:02368366, Keywords: Pediatric traumatic brain injury, Telehealth, Problem solving, Behavior, Executive function

  12. A method of teaching clinical problem-solving skills to primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link ...

  13. Problem Solving in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lindsay Lile

    2018-01-01

    Problem solving is recognized as a critical component to becoming a self-determined individual. The development of this skill should be fostered in the early years through the use of age-appropriate direct and embedded activities. However, many early childhood teachers may not be providing adequate instruction in this area. This column provides a…

  14. [Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E

    1984-01-01

    The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter

  15. Problem Solving on a Monorail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)

  16. On Teaching Problem Solving in School Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Pehkonen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with a brief overview of the situation throughout the world regarding problem solving. The activities of the ProMath group are then described, as the purpose of this international research group is to improve mathematics teaching in school. One mathematics teaching method that seems to be functioning in school is the use of open problems (i.e., problem fields. Next we discuss the objectives of the Finnish curriculum that are connected with problem solving. Some examples and research results are taken from a Finnish–Chilean research project that monitors the development of problem-solving skills in third grade pupils. Finally, some ideas on “teacher change” are put forward. It is not possible to change teachers, but only to provide hints for possible change routes: the teachers themselves should work out the ideas and their implementation.

  17. Psycho-education with problem solving (PEPS therapy for adults with personality disorder: A pragmatic multi-site community-based randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duggan Conor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairment in social functioning is a key component of personality disorder. Therefore psycho-education and problem solving (PEPS therapy may benefit people with this disorder. Psycho-education aims to educate, build rapport, and motivate people for problem solving therapy. Problem solving therapy aims to help clients solve interpersonal problems positively and rationally, thereby improving social functioning and reducing distress. PEPS therapy has been evaluated with community adults with personality disorder in an exploratory trial. At the end of treatment, compared to a wait-list control group, those treated with PEPS therapy showed better social functioning, as measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ. A definitive evaluation is now being conducted to determine whether PEPS therapy is a clinically and cost-effective treatment for people with personality disorder Methods This is a pragmatic, two-arm, multi-centre, parallel, randomised controlled clinical trial. The target population is community-dwelling adults with one or more personality disorder, as identified by the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE. Inclusion criteria are: Living in the community (including residential or supported care settings; presence of one or more personality disorder; aged 18 or over; proficiency in spoken English; capacity to provide informed consent. Exclusion criteria are: Primary diagnosis of a functional psychosis; insufficient degree of literacy, comprehension or attention to be able to engage in trial therapy and assessments; currently engaged in a specific programme of psychological treatment for personality disorder or likely to start such treatment during the trial period; currently enrolled in any other trial. Suitable participants are randomly allocated to PEPS therapy plus treatment as usual (TAU or TAU only. We aim to recruit 340 men and women. The primary outcome is social functioning as measured

  18. Teachers Beliefs in Problem Solving in Rural Malaysian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palraj, Shalini; DeWitt, Dorothy; Alias, Norlidah

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving is the highest level of cognitive skill. However, this skill seems to be lacking among secondary school students. Teachers' beliefs influence the instructional strategies used for students' learning. Hence, it is important to understand teachers' beliefs so as to improve the processes for teaching problem solving. The purpose of…

  19. Development of a problem solving evaluation instrument; untangling of specific problem solving assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Wendy Kristine

    The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.

  20. Autobiographical memory specificity and the persistence of depressive symptoms in HIV-positive patients: rumination and social problem-solving skills as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Paula K; Morse, Gene; Hsiao, Chiu-Bin; Simms, Leonard; Roberts, John E

    2012-01-01

    Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at elevated risk for depressive conditions, which in turn can negatively impact health-related behaviours and the course of illness. The present study tested the role of autobiographical memory specificity and its interaction with perceived stress in the persistence of depressive symptoms among dysphoric HIV-positive individuals. Additionally, we examined whether rumination and social problem solving mediated these effects. Results indicated that memory specificity moderated the impact of perceived stress, such that perceived stress was more strongly associated with follow-up depressive symptoms among those with greater memory specificity. Rumination, but not social problem solving, mediated this effect. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. Mothers' problem-solving skill and use of help with infant-related issues: the role of importance and need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Chang, A S; Hansen, M F

    1987-08-01

    Examination was made of the relationship of mothers' appraisal of the importance of and need for action around infant-related issues to maternal experience (parity and time since birth), use of help, and perceived problem-solving competence. Sixty-two mothers (38 primiparae and 24 multiparae) kept for 90 days post-birth a daily log of issues, rated for importance and for need for action, and of help used. Mothers also reported perceived problem-solving competence on an 11-item scale. Findings indicated tentativeness in ratings of importance and action. Ratings of importance were associated with action ratings, except for temperament issues. Action ratings for baby care and illness issues decreased significantly with time. Otherwise, maternal experience had no effect on ratings. More of the variance in perceived competence than use of help was explained by action and importance ratings.

  2. The Development of Learning Model Based on Problem Solving to Construct High-Order Thinking Skill on the Learning Mathematics of 11th Grade in SMA/MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, Edi; Surya, Edy

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a summary study of team Postgraduate on 11th grade. The objective of this study is to develop a learning model based on problem solving which can construct high-order thinking on the learning mathematics in SMA/MA. The subject of dissemination consists of Students of 11th grade in SMA/MA in 3 kabupaten/kota in North Sumatera, namely:…

  3. Block Model Approach in Problem Solving: Effects on Problem Solving Performance of the Grade V Pupils in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Niño Jose P.; Belecina, Rene R.

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of mathematics involves problem solving skills which prove to be difficult on the part of the pupils due to misrepresentation of the word problems. Oftentimes, pupils tend to represent the phrase "more than" as addition and the word difference as "- ". This paper aims to address the problem solving skills of grade…

  4. Problem Solving with General Semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)

  5. Interactive Problem-Solving Interventions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frew Demeke Alemu

    concerted efforts of unofficial actors to establish unofficial communication ... Frew Demeke Alemu (LLB, LLM in International Human Rights Law from Lund ..... 24 Tamra Pearson d'Estrée (2009), “Problem-Solving Approaches”, (in The SAGE ...

  6. Transformational and transactional leadership and problem solving in restaurant industry

    OpenAIRE

    Huhtala, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The study tries to give information on the leadership behavior of restaurant managers in their problem solving. The results of the study were collected by evaluating three restaurant managers by interviewing them. The restaurant managers’ answers were compared to transformational and transactional leadership model and the aspects of it. Their problem solving skills were evaluated by the help of a rational and creative problem solving model. The study showed that restaurant managers have both ...

  7. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Problem-solving rubrics revisited: Attending to the blending of informal conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students’ problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student’s expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value “communication” between the student’s qualitative description of the physical situation and the student’s formal mathematical descriptions (usually equations) at two points: when initially setting up the equations, and when evaluating the final mathematical answer for meaning and plausibility. We argue that (i) neither the rubrics nor the associated problem-solving strategies explicitly value this kind of communication during mathematical manipulations of the chosen equations, and (ii) such communication is an aspect of problem-solving expertise. To make this argument, we present a case study of two students, Alex and Pat, solving the same kinematics problem in clinical interviews. We argue that Pat’s solution, which connects manipulation of equations to their physical interpretation, is more expertlike than Alex’s solution, which uses equations more algorithmically. We then show that the types of problem-solving rubrics currently available do not discriminate between these two types of solutions. We conclude that problem-solving rubrics should be revised or repurposed to more accurately assess problem-solving expertise.

  9. Problem Solving Model for Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberida, H.; Lufri; Festiyed; Barlian, E.

    2018-04-01

    This research aims to develop problem solving model for science learning in junior high school. The learning model was developed using the ADDIE model. An analysis phase includes curriculum analysis, analysis of students of SMP Kota Padang, analysis of SMP science teachers, learning analysis, as well as the literature review. The design phase includes product planning a science-learning problem-solving model, which consists of syntax, reaction principle, social system, support system, instructional impact and support. Implementation of problem-solving model in science learning to improve students' science process skills. The development stage consists of three steps: a) designing a prototype, b) performing a formative evaluation and c) a prototype revision. Implementation stage is done through a limited trial. A limited trial was conducted on 24 and 26 August 2015 in Class VII 2 SMPN 12 Padang. The evaluation phase was conducted in the form of experiments at SMPN 1 Padang, SMPN 12 Padang and SMP National Padang. Based on the development research done, the syntax model problem solving for science learning at junior high school consists of the introduction, observation, initial problems, data collection, data organization, data analysis/generalization, and communicating.

  10. Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingjng; Anderson, Richard C.; Perry, Michelle; Lin, Tzu-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Social skills involved in leadership were examined in a problem-solving activity in which 252 Chinese 5th-graders worked in small groups on a spatial-reasoning puzzle. Results showed that students who engaged in peer-managed small-group discussions of stories prior to problem solving produced significantly better solutions and initiated…

  11. Glogs as Non-Routine Problem Solving Tools in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew T.

    2013-01-01

    In mathematical problem solving, American students are falling behind their global peers because of a lack of foundational and reasoning skills. A specific area of difficulty with problem solving is working non-routine, heuristic-based problems. Many students are not provided with effective instruction and often grow frustrated and dislike math.…

  12. Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    2013-01-01

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…

  13. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…

  14. A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…

  15. Interpersonal Problem-Solving Deficits in Self-Poisoning Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeavey, Breda C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared self-poisoning patients with psychiatric patients and nonpatient controls on problem-solving skills and locus of control. The psychiatric and self-poisoning groups showed deficits on interpersonal problem solving compared with nonpatient controls. The self-poisoning group performed below or at the level of the psychiatric group. Locus of…

  16. Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)

  17. Using Everyday Materials To Promote Problem Solving in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatti, Laura; Brown-DuPaul, Judy; Keyes, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines benefits of and skills involved in problem solving. Details how an environment rich in materials that foster cause-and-effect or trial-and-error explorations promote cognitive development among toddlers. Offers examples of problem-solving experiences and lists materials for use in curriculum planning. Describes the teacher' role as one of…

  18. The problem solving skills and student generated representations (SGRs) profile of senior high school students in Bandung on the topic of work and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alami, Y.; Sinaga, P.; Setiawan, A.

    2018-05-01

    Based on recommendations from the Physics Education literature recommend the use of multiple representations to help students solve problems. The use of some good representations is considered important to study physics, so many good motivations to learn how students use multiple representations while solving problems and to learn how to solve problems using multiple representations. This study aims to explore the profile of high school students’ problem solving abilities and this study is part of a larger research focus on improving this ability in students in physics. The data is needed to determine the appropriate treatment to be used in subsequent research. A purposive sampling technique was used in this study and a survey was conducted to collect data. 74 students from one high school in Bandung were involved in this research.

  19. Simon on Problem-Solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    as a general approach to problem solving. We apply these Simonian ideas to organizational issues, specifically new organizational forms. Specifically, Simonian ideas allow us to develop a morphology of new organizational forms and to point to some design problems that characterize these forms.Keywords: Herbert...... Simon, problem-solving, new organizational forms. JEL Code: D23, D83......Two of Herbert Simon's best-known papers are "The Architecture of Complexity" and "The Structure of Ill-Structured Problems." We discuss the neglected links between these two papers, highlighting the role of decomposition in the context of problems on which constraints have been imposed...

  20. Interactive problem solving using LOGO

    CERN Document Server

    Boecker, Heinz-Dieter; Fischer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    This book is unique in that its stress is not on the mastery of a programming language, but on the importance and value of interactive problem solving. The authors focus on several specific interest worlds: mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and games; however, their approach can serve as a model that may be applied easily to other fields as well. Those who are interested in symbolic computing will find that Interactive Problem Solving Using LOGO provides a gentle introduction from which one may move on to other, more advanced computational frameworks or more

  1. Inference rule and problem solving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, S

    1982-04-01

    Intelligent information processing signifies an opportunity of having man's intellectual activity executed on the computer, in which inference, in place of ordinary calculation, is used as the basic operational mechanism for such an information processing. Many inference rules are derived from syllogisms in formal logic. The problem of programming this inference function is referred to as a problem solving. Although logically inference and problem-solving are in close relation, the calculation ability of current computers is on a low level for inferring. For clarifying the relation between inference and computers, nonmonotonic logic has been considered. The paper deals with the above topics. 16 references.

  2. Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

  3. Human Problem Solving in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a bibliography of 263 references related to human problem solving, arranged by subject matter. The references were taken from PsycInfo and Academic Premier data-base. Journal papers, book chapters, and dissertations are included. The topics include human development, education, neuroscience, and research in applied settings. It…

  4. Error Patterns in Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Beatrice C.

    Although many common problem-solving errors within the realm of school mathematics have been previously identified, a compilation of such errors is not readily available within learning disabilities textbooks, mathematics education texts, or teacher's manuals for school mathematics texts. Using data on error frequencies drawn from both the Fourth…

  5. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  6. Measuring health-related problem solving among African Americans with multiple chronic conditions: application of Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia

    2015-10-01

    Identification of patients with poor chronic disease self-management skills can facilitate treatment planning, determine effectiveness of interventions, and reduce disease complications. This paper describes the use of a Rasch model, the Rating Scale Model, to examine psychometric properties of the 50-item Health Problem-Solving Scale (HPSS) among 320 African American patients with high risk for cardiovascular disease. Items on the positive/effective HPSS subscales targeted patients at low, moderate, and high levels of positive/effective problem solving, whereas items on the negative/ineffective problem solving subscales mostly targeted those at moderate or high levels of ineffective problem solving. Validity was examined by correlating factor scores on the measure with clinical and behavioral measures. Items on the HPSS show promise in the ability to assess health-related problem solving among high risk patients. However, further revisions of the scale are needed to increase its usability and validity with large, diverse patient populations in the future.

  7. Social problem solving, autobiographical memory, trauma, and depression in women with borderline personality disorder and a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurex, Liselotte; Lekander, Mats; Nilsonne, Asa; Andersson, Eva E; Asberg, Marie; Ohman, Arne

    2010-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the retrieval of autobiographical memory and the social problem-solving performance of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of suicide attempts, with and without concurrent diagnoses of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to that of controls. Additionally, the relationships between autobiographical memory, social problem-solving skills, and various clinical characteristics were examined in the BPD group. Individuals with BPD who had made at least two suicide attempts were compared to controls with regard to specificity of autobiographical memory and social problem-solving skills. Autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving skills were further studied in the BPD group by comparing depressed participants to non-depressed participants; and autobiographical memory specificity was also studied by comparing participants with and without PTSD. A total of 47 women with a diagnosis of BPD and 30 controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, assessing memory specificity, and the means-end problem solving-procedure, measuring social problem-solving skills. The prevalence of suicidal/self-injurious behaviour, and the exposure to violence, was also assessed in the BPD group. Compared to controls, participants with BPD showed reduced specificity of autobiographical memory, irrespective of either concurrent depression, previous depression, or concurrent PTSD. The depressed BPD group displayed poor problem-solving skills. Further, an association between unspecific memory and poor problem-solving was displayed in the BPD group. Our results confirmed that reduced specificity of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of BPD individuals with a history of suicide attempt, independent of depression, or PTSD. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory was further related to poor social problem-solving capacity in the BPD group.

  8. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Gojani, Marzieh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Asgharipour, Negar; Esmaeili, Habibollah

    2018-04-01

    The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI) and problem-solving skills training (PSS) on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treatment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. On the 10 th th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42) and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05) and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7) (P<0.001), but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of The Effects of A Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention and Problem-Solving Skills Training on Depression during The Waiting Period of The Result of Intrauterine Insemination Treatment: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ghasemi gojani, , ,

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The outcomes of fertility treatments are unpredictable, and levels of depressive symptoms increase in patients during the waiting period of the result of intrauterine insemination (IUI treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a positive reappraisal coping intervention (PRCI and problem-solving skills training (PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI Treatment. Materials and Methods This randomized control clinical trial was done among 108 women undergoing IUI treat- ment. In the control group, the women received routine care. In the PRCI group, women attended two training sessions and were asked to complete coping thoughts cards and fill out daily monitoring forms during the waiting period. In the PSS group, PSS were taught over three sessions. The depression was measured by the beck depression inventory. Results On the 10th day of the IUI waiting period, there were significant differences between the control group (21.42 ± 11.42 and the PSS group (12.52 ± 8.05 and PRCI groups (13.14 ± 9.7 (P<0.001, but no significant difference between the PRCI group and the PSS group. Conclusion According to the results of this randomized control trial there is no difference between a PRCI and PSS on depression during the waiting period of the result of IUI treatment. This suggests that both interventions can be used to help infertile women combat depression during the waiting period of the result of fertility treatments (Registration number: IRCT2016020926490N1.

  10. Effects of Concept Mapping and Problem Solving Instructional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    (iii). lack of organizational skill in solving quantitative problems. (Onwu, 1982, Onwu ... improved in terms of conceptual thinking, intuitive knowledge and insightful ... Problem Solving: This is a cognitive learning strategy which has to do with ...

  11. ACTIVE AND PARTICIPATORY METHODS IN BIOLOGY: PROBLEM-SOLVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela NEMEŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We face with considerable challenge of developing students’ problem solving skills in our difficult environment. Good problem solving skills empower managers in their professional and personal lives. Problem solving skills are valued by academics and employers. The informations in Biology are often presented in abstract forms without contextualisation. Creative problem-solving process involves a few steps, which together provide a structured procedure for identifying challenges, generating ideas and implementing innovative solutions: identifying the problem, searching for possible solutions, selecting the most optimal solution and implementing a possible solution. Each aspect of personality has a different orientation to problem solving, different criteria for judging the effectiveness of the process and different associated strengths. Using real-world data in sample problems will also help facilitate the transfer process, since students can more easily identify with the context of a given situation. The paper describes the use of the Problem-Solving in Biology and the method of its administration. It also presents the results of a study undertaken to evaluate the value in teaching Biology. Problem-solving is seen as an essential skill that is developed in biology education.

  12. The Effect of an Extended Wilderness Education Experience on Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Skill Development in Emerging Adult Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rachel H.

    2014-01-01

    In a society that is becoming more dynamic, complex, and diverse, the ability to solve ill-structured problems has become an increasingly critical skill. Emerging adults are at a critical life stage that is an ideal time to develop the skills needed to solve ill-structured problems (ISPs) as they are transitioning to adult roles and starting to…

  13. Complex Problem Solving in Radiologic Technology: Understanding the Roles of Experience, Reflective Judgment, and Workplace Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to explore the process of learning and development of problem solving skills in radiologic technologists. The researcher sought to understand the nature of difficult problems encountered in clinical practice, to identify specific learning practices leading to the development of professional expertise, and to…

  14. El desarrollo de habilidades investigativas en la educación superior: otros eslabones de la habilidad solucionar problemas (5 Research skills development in higher education: other links of the problem solving skill (5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio F Machado Ramírez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo los autores realizan el tratamiento de otros eslabones de la compleja e integradora habilidad solucionar problemas. Al igual que en los artículos anteriores, se fundamenta la importancia que poseen estos eslabones en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en la educación superior y la posibilidad de formar un egresado competente para enfrentar los retos del nuevo milenio. Se proponen diversos conceptos y categorías que enriquecen el tratamiento didáctico del currículo en este nivel y, como colofón, se argumenta la estrategia didáctica Aprendizaje Basado en la Solución de Tareas Investigativas.In this article, the authors focus on other links of the complex integrative problem solving skill. As in previous articles, we support the important role of these links in the teaching-learning process in higher education and the achievable formation of a competent graduate who can deal with challenges of the new millennium. We propose diverse concepts and categories enhancing the didactic treatment of the curriculum in this level; and, as coda, we support the didactic strategy called Learning Based on Research Tasks Solution.

  15. El desarrollo de habilidades investigativas en la educación superior: la solución de problemas profesionales. (3 Research skills development in higher education: professional problem solving. (3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelio F Machado Ramírez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como propósito realizar un análisis de diversas definiciones que se han otorgado al concepto investigación para llegar a reformularlo desde una perspectiva aplicable a los propósitos del estudio. Especial énfasis además se presta a la fundamentación de la habilidad solucionar problemas (profesionales como habilidad investigativa compleja de mayor nivel de integración en el ámbito de formación del profesional de la educación superior; y en su primera y externa representación, el modelo y los eslabones que la componen, los cuales se constituyen en el escenario propicio para la dirección del proceso enseñanza-aprendizaje en función de su desarrollo.This article analyzes various definitions of research so as to re-express it from a viewpoint related to this study. The foundations of the professional problem solving skill are specially emphasized as a complex research skill of a higher integration level within professional formation in higher education. Herein, we present the model and links of professional problem solving, which promote the development of the teaching-learning process direction.

  16. Effective Teaching in Case-Based Education: Patterns in Teacher Behavior and Their Impact on the Students' Clinical Problem Solving and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Stephan; van Keulen, Hanno; Kremer, Wim; Pilot, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Case-based learning formats, in which relevant case information is provided just in time, require teachers to combine their scaffolding role with an information-providing one. The objective of this study is to establish how this combination of roles affects teacher behavior and that, in turn, mediates students' reasoning and problem solving. Data…

  17. Applying Cooperative Techniques in Teaching Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Barczi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching how to solve problems – from solving simple equations to solving difficult competition tasks – has been one of the greatest challenges for mathematics education for many years. Trying to find an effective method is an important educational task. Among others, the question arises as to whether a method in which students help each other might be useful. The present article describes part of an experiment that was designed to determine the effects of cooperative teaching techniques on the development of problem-solving skills.

  18. Programming languages for business problem solving

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shouhong

    2007-01-01

    It has become crucial for managers to be computer literate in today's business environment. It is also important that those entering the field acquire the fundamental theories of information systems, the essential practical skills in computer applications, and the desire for life-long learning in information technology. Programming Languages for Business Problem Solving presents a working knowledge of the major programming languages, including COBOL, C++, Java, HTML, JavaScript, VB.NET, VBA, ASP.NET, Perl, PHP, XML, and SQL, used in the current business computing environment. The book examin

  19. Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D. Johnson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian reasoning relative to normalized formats (e.g. probabilities, percentages, both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on transparent Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e. transparent problem structures at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct versus incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual difference might influence this time point.

  20. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  1. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  2. Model Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning pada Perkuliahan Dasar-dasar Kimia Analitik

    OpenAIRE

    Indarini Dwi Pursitasari; Anna Permanasari

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning Model on Foundation of Analytical Chemistry. This study was conducted to know the effects of Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning (IPSBL) model on problem solving skills and cognitive ability of pre-service teachers. The subjects of the study were 41 pre- service teachers, 21 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The data were collected through a test on problem solving skills, a test on cognitive ability, and a questio...

  3. Model Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning Pada Perkuliahan Dasar-dasar Kimia Analitik

    OpenAIRE

    Pursitasari, Indarini Dwi; Permanasari, Anna

    2012-01-01

    : Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning Model on Foundation of Analytical Chemistry. This study was conducted to know the effects of Integrated Problem Solving Based Learning (IPSBL) model on problem solving skills and cognitive ability of pre-service teachers. The subjects of the study were 41 pre- service teachers, 21 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The data were collected through a test on problem solving skills, a test on cognitive ability, and a questionnaire o...

  4. Problem solving and inference mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, K; Nakajima, R; Yonezawa, A; Goto, S; Aoyama, A

    1982-01-01

    The heart of the fifth generation computer will be powerful mechanisms for problem solving and inference. A deduction-oriented language is to be designed, which will form the core of the whole computing system. The language is based on predicate logic with the extended features of structuring facilities, meta structures and relational data base interfaces. Parallel computation mechanisms and specialized hardware architectures are being investigated to make possible efficient realization of the language features. The project includes research into an intelligent programming system, a knowledge representation language and system, and a meta inference system to be built on the core. 30 references.

  5. Applied cognitive behavioral analysis as an effective tool for the development of communication skills and problem solving behavior in adolescents diagnosed with Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Spilka, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    This Rigorosum Thesis work puts mind to questions how to effectively work with adolescents they were diagnosed with Aspereger's Syndrome. Based on author-led concrete development project, it proves the high efficiency of cognitive behavior techniques for the social learning and the training and improvement of communication skills or additionally for problem behavior solving. Together with those frequently used tools it shows other opportunities how to raise efficiency - especially of Kaizen p...

  6. Secondary prevention of work-related disability in nonspecific low back pain: does problem-solving therapy help? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Johanna H C; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Heuts, Peter H T G; Zijlema, Johan H L; Wijnen, Joseph A G

    2003-01-01

    Given the individual and economic burden of chronic work disability in low back pain patients, there is a need for effective preventive interventions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether problem-solving therapy had a supplemental value when added to behavioral graded activity, regarding days of sick leave and work status. Randomized controlled trial. Employees who were recently on sick leave as a result of nonspecific low back pain were referred to the rehabilitation center by general practitioner, occupational physician, or rehabilitation physician. Forty-five employees had been randomly assigned to the experimental treatment condition that included behavioral graded activity and problem-solving therapy (GAPS), and 39 employees had been randomly assigned to behavioral graded activity and group education (GAGE). Days of sick leave and work status. Data were retrieved from occupational health services. Data analyses showed that employees in the GAPS group had significantly fewer days of sick leave in the second half-year after the intervention. Moreover, work status was more favorable for employees in this condition, in that more employees had a 100% return-to-work and fewer patients ended up receiving disability pensions one year after the intervention. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. The addition of problem-solving therapy to behavioral graded activity had supplemental value in employees with nonspecific low back pain.

  7. LETTERS AND COMMENTS: Comment on 'The effects of students' reasoning abilities on conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills in introductory mechanics'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Savinainen, Antti; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2008-09-01

    In a recent article, Ates and Cataloglu (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 1161-71), in analysing results for a course in introductory mechanics for prospective science teachers, found no statistically significant correlation between students' pre-instruction scores on the Lawson classroom test of scientific reasoning ability (CTSR) and post-instruction scores on the force concept inventory (FCI). As a possible explanation, the authors suggest that the FCI does not probe for skills required to determine reasoning abilities. Our previously published research directly contradicts the authors' finding. We summarize our research and present a likely explanation for their observation of no correlation.

  8. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  9. Patterns of problem-solving in children's literacy and arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

    2009-11-01

    Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years I and 2 on the arithmetic (addition and subtraction) than literacy-based tasks (reading and spelling). However, across all four tasks, the children showed a tendency to move from less sophisticated procedural-based strategies, which included phonological strategies for reading and spelling and counting-all and finger modellingfor addition and subtraction, to more efficient retrieval methods from Years I to 2. Distinct patterns in children's problem-solving skill were identified on the literacy and arithmetic tasks using two separate cluster analyses. There was a strong association between these two profiles showing that those children with more advanced problem-solving skills on the arithmetic tasks also showed more advanced profiles on the literacy tasks. The results highlight how different-aged children show flexibility in their use of problem-solving strategies across literacy and arithmetical contexts and reinforce the importance of studying variations in children's problem-solving skill across different educational contexts.

  10. Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Case Libraries in Supporting Collaborative Problem-Solving in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Andrew A.; Sánchez, Lenny; Saparova, Dinara

    2014-01-01

    Various domains require practitioners to encounter and resolve ill-structured problems using collaborative problem-solving. As such, problem-solving is an essential skill that educators must emphasize to prepare learners for practice. One potential way to support problem-solving is through further investigation of instructional design methods that…

  12. Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…

  13. Using Coaching to Improve the Teaching of Problem Solving to Year 8 Students in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargas, Christine Anestis; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how to improve the teaching of problem solving in a large Melbourne secondary school. Coaching was used to support and equip five teachers, some with limited experiences in teaching problem solving, with knowledge and strategies to build up students' problem solving and reasoning skills. The results showed increased…

  14. Assessing Student Written Problem Solutions: A Problem-Solving Rubric with Application to Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Dornfeld, Jay; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Jackson, Koblar Alan; Mason, Andrew; Ryan, Qing X.; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic…

  15. An Assessment of the Effect of Collaborative Groups on Students' Problem-Solving Strategies and Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Cox, Charles T., Jr.; Nammouz, Minory; Case, Edward; Stevens, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Improving students' problem-solving skills is a major goal for most science educators. While a large body of research on problem solving exists, assessment of meaningful problem solving is very difficult, particularly for courses with large numbers of students in which one-on-one interactions are not feasible. We have used a suite of software…

  16. Problem-Solving and Mental Health Outcomes of Women and Children in the Wake of Intimate Partner Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Maddoux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental stress of intimate partner violence is common and often results in mental health problems of depression, anxiety, and PTSD for women and behavioral dysfunctions for their children. Problem-solving skills can serve to mitigate or accentuate the environmental stress of violence and associated impact on mental health. To better understand the relationship between problem-solving skills and mental health of abused women with children, a cross-sectional predictive analysis of 285 abused women who used justice or shelter services was completed. The women were asked about social problem-solving, and mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD as well as behavioral functioning of their children. Higher negative problem-solving scores were associated with significantly P<0.001 greater odds of having clinically significant levels of PTSD, anxiety, depression, and somatization for the woman and significantly P<0.001 greater odds of her child having borderline or clinically significant levels of both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. A predominately negative problem-solving approach was strongly associated with poorer outcomes for both mothers and children in the aftermath of the environmental stress of abuse. Interventions addressing problem-solving ability may be beneficial in increasing abused women’s abilities to navigate the daily stressors of life following abuse.

  17. Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

    2013-05-01

    It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

  18. LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

  19. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Participant Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    These materials are the handouts for school administrators participating in RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops. The purposes of the workshops are to develop skills for improving schools and to increase teamwork skills. The handouts correspond to the 16 subsets that make up the five-day workshop: (1) orientation; (2) identifying…

  20. Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Ryan, Qing

    The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.

  1. Examination Of Gifted Students’ Probability Problem Solving Process In Terms Of Mathematical Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdal BALTACI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is a widely known fact that gifted students have different skills compared to their peers. However, to what extent gifted students use mathematical thinking skills during probability problem solving process emerges as a significant question. Thence, the main aim of the present study is to examine 8th grade gifted students’ probability problem-solving process related to daily life in terms of mathematical thinking skills. In this regard, a case study was used in the study. The participants of the study were six students at 8th grade (four girls and two boys from the Science and Art Center. One of the purposeful sampling methods, maximum variation sampling was used for selecting the participants. Clinical interview and problems were used as a data collection tool. As a results of the study, it was determined that gifted students use reasoning and strategies skill, which is one of the mathematical thinking skills, mostly on the process of probability problem solving, and communication skills at least.

  2. Perbedaan Keterampilan Pemecahan Masalah pada Pembelajaran Fisika Menggunakan Metode Problem Posing dan Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Adetya; Hartini, Sri; An'nur, Syubhan

    2015-01-01

    Teachers should be able to choose the method of learning that can help students in learning physics, namely the method of problem posing and problem solving method. The purposes of this study are : (1) describe the learning physics skills by using problem posing method, (2) describe the learning physics skills by using problem solving method, and (3) know difference between learning physics skills by using problem posing method and problem solving method in class XI of Science SMAN 6 Banjarma...

  3. Nudging Students' Creative Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dana

    2011-01-01

    People often make choices that go against their own best interests. In the controversial bestseller "Nudge," Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein argue that people can benefit from simple "nudges" to improve their decision-making. In an upper-level undergraduate course on political decision-making, I created a series of assignments around "Nudge." In…

  4. Genetics problem solving and worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Esther

    The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.

  5. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  6. PEMBELAJARAN KONTEKSTUAL OPEN ENDED PROBLEM SOLVING DENGAN KOMIK MATEMATIKA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KETERAMPILAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Kurniati

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this research to develop a mathematics learning instrument using contextual open ended problem solving with mathematic comic to increase the problem solving skill which valid, practical and effective. The type of research used in this study is development research using modification of Plomp model. Learning instrumen that have been develop are: syllabus, Lesson plan, worksheet, mathematics comic, and problem solving ability test. The results showed: (1 device developed valid; (2 practical learning is characterized by the positive response of students and good teachers ability, (3 Effectiveness characterized by (a problem solving ability score of the experimental class higher than minimum completeness criterion, (b learn interest and problem solving skill, both affected the problem solving ability positively,  (c problem solving ability of the experimental class score is higher than the control class, (d problem solving skill of the experimental class is increasing by 31%, the problem solving ability of the experimental class higher than the control class.. Because of the learning instrument develope are valid, practice and effective, it is shows that the research has ben reach out. Keywords: contextual teaching and learning, open ended problem solving, mathematics comic, problem solving.

  7. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Natalie E. Strand; José P. Mestre; Brian H. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in w...

  8. A Problem Solving Intervention for hospice caregivers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, George; Oliver, Debra Parker; Washington, Karla; Fruehling, Lynne Thomas; Haggarty-Robbins, Donna; Doorenbos, Ardith; Wechkin, Hope; Berry, Donna

    2010-08-01

    The Problem Solving Intervention (PSI) is a structured, cognitive-behavioral intervention that provides people with problem-solving coping skills to help them face major negative life events and daily challenges. PSI has been applied to numerous settings but remains largely unexplored in the hospice setting. The aim of this pilot study was to demonstrate the feasibility of PSI targeting informal caregivers of hospice patients. We enrolled hospice caregivers who were receiving outpatient services from two hospice agencies. The intervention included three visits by a research team member. The agenda for each visit was informed by the problem-solving theoretical framework and was customized based on the most pressing problems identified by the caregivers. We enrolled 29 caregivers. Patient's pain was the most frequently identified problem. On average, caregivers reported a higher quality of life and lower level of anxiety postintervention than at baseline. An examination of the caregiver reaction assessment showed an increase of positive esteem average and a decrease of the average value of lack of family support, impact on finances, impact on schedules, and on health. After completing the intervention, caregivers reported lower levels of anxiety, improved problem solving skills, and a reduced negative impact of caregiving. Furthermore, caregivers reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention, perceiving it as a platform to articulate their challenges and develop a plan to address them. Findings demonstrate the value of problem solving as a psycho-educational intervention in the hospice setting and call for further research in this area.

  9. Psychoeducation with problem-solving (PEPS) therapy for adults with personality disorder: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial to determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a manualised intervention to improve social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurran, Mary; Crawford, Mike J; Reilly, Joe; Delport, Juan; McCrone, Paul; Whitham, Diane; Tan, Wei; Duggan, Conor; Montgomery, Alan A; Williams, Hywel C; Adams, Clive E; Jin, Huajie; Lewis, Matthew; Day, Florence

    2016-07-01

    If effective, less intensive treatments for people with personality disorder have the potential to serve more people. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of psychoeducation with problem-solving (PEPS) therapy plus usual treatment against usual treatment alone in improving social problem-solving with adults with personality disorder. Multisite two-arm, parallel-group, pragmatic randomised controlled superiority trial. Community mental health services in three NHS trusts in England and Wales. Community-dwelling adults with any personality disorder recruited from community mental health services. Up to four individual sessions of psychoeducation, a collaborative dialogue about personality disorder, followed by 12 group sessions of problem-solving therapy to help participants learn a process for solving interpersonal problems. The primary outcome was measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ). Secondary outcomes were service use (general practitioner records), mood (measured via the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and client-specified three main problems rated by severity. We studied the mechanism of change using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory. Costs were identified using the Client Service Receipt Inventory and quality of life was identified by the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire. Research assistants blinded to treatment allocation collected follow-up information. There were 739 people referred for the trial and 444 were eligible. More adverse events in the PEPS arm led to a halt to recruitment after 306 people were randomised (90% of planned sample size); 154 participants received PEPS and 152 received usual treatment. The mean age was 38 years and 67% were women. Follow-up at 72 weeks after randomisation was completed for 62% of participants in the usual-treatment arm and 73% in the PEPS arm. Intention-to-treat analyses compared individuals as randomised, regardless of treatment received or

  10. Solution Tree Problem Solving Procedure for Engineering Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Illustrations are provided in the thermofluid engineering area to showcase the procedure's applications. This approach has proved to be a veritable tool for enhancing the problem-solving and computer algorithmic skills of engineering students, eliciting their curiosity, active participation and appreciation of the taught course.

  11. (CBTP) on knowledge, problem-solving and learning approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the first instance attention is paid to the effect of a computer-based teaching programme (CBTP) on the knowledge, problem-solving skills and learning approach of student ... In the practice group (oncology wards) no statistically significant change in the learning approach of respondents was found after using the CBTP.

  12. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  13. Pendekatan Problem Solving berbantuan Komputer dalam Pembelajaran Matematika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laswadi Laswadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating effective mathematics learning is a complex and continuous undertaking. Using the right approach of learning and utilizing technological developments is an attempt to improve the quality of learning. This paper examines the problem solving learning computer-assisted and how its potential in developing high-order thinking skills of students. 

  14. Beyond Assertiveness Training: A Problem-Solving Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Nancy A.

    1979-01-01

    Assertiveness training models show shortcomings in those situations where assertiveness results in stalemates or conflicts, or both. Deadlocks may occur when antagonists demonstrate appropriate assertive behavior. Conflict management using problem-solving skills allows individuals to learn appropriate methods of dealing with conflictual or…

  15. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  16. RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Charles; And Others

    This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…

  17. Cultivating Peace through Design Thinking: Problem Solving with PAST Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaner, Kat; McCreery-Kellert, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Design thinking is a methodology that emphasizes reasoning and decision-making as part of the problem-solving process. It is a structured framework for identifying challenges, gathering information, generating potential solutions, refining ideas, and testing solutions. Design thinking offers valuable skills that will serve students well as they…

  18. Problem solving strategies used by RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Nancy L; Hung, Wei-Chen

    2010-04-01

    It is essential that nursing students develop the problem solving and critical thinking skills required in the current health care environment. Problem-based learning has been promoted as a way to help students acquire those skills; however, gaps exist in the knowledge base of the strategies used by learners. The purpose of this case study was to gain insight into the problem solving experience of a group of six RN-to-BSN students in an online problem-based learning course. Data, including discussion transcripts, reflective papers, and interview transcripts, were analyzed using a qualitative approach. Students expanded their use of resources and resolved the cases, identifying relevant facts and clinical applications. They had difficulty communicating their findings, establishing the credibility of sources, and offering challenging feedback. Increased support and direction are needed to facilitate the development of problem solving abilities of students in the problem-based learning environment.

  19. Using the Habit App for Weight Loss Problem Solving: Development and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoto, Sherry; Tulu, Bengisu; Agu, Emmanuel; Waring, Molly E; Oleski, Jessica L; Jake-Schoffman, Danielle E

    2018-06-20

    Reviews of weight loss mobile apps have revealed they include very few evidence-based features, relying mostly on self-monitoring. Unfortunately, adherence to self-monitoring is often low, especially among patients with motivational challenges. One behavioral strategy that is leveraged in virtually every visit of behavioral weight loss interventions and is specifically used to deal with adherence and motivational issues is problem solving. Problem solving has been successfully implemented in depression mobile apps, but not yet in weight loss apps. This study describes the development and feasibility testing of the Habit app, which was designed to automate problem-solving therapy for weight loss. Two iterative single-arm pilot studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the Habit app. In each pilot study, adults who were overweight or obese were enrolled in an 8-week intervention that included the Habit app plus support via a private Facebook group. Feasibility outcomes included retention, app usage, usability, and acceptability. Changes in problem-solving skills and weight over 8 weeks are described, as well as app usage and weight change at 16 weeks. Results from both pilots show acceptable use of the Habit app over 8 weeks with on average two to three uses per week, the recommended rate of use. Acceptability ratings were mixed such that 54% (13/24) and 73% (11/15) of participants found the diet solutions helpful and 71% (17/24) and 80% (12/15) found setting reminders for habits helpful in pilots 1 and 2, respectively. In both pilots, participants lost significant weight (P=.005 and P=.03, respectively). In neither pilot was an effect on problem-solving skills observed (P=.62 and P=.27, respectively). Problem-solving therapy for weight loss is feasible to implement in a mobile app environment; however, automated delivery may not impact problem-solving skills as has been observed previously via human delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  20. Creativity and Insight in Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnabi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the thought process involved in problem solving and its categorization as creative thinking as defined by psychologist R. Weisberg (2006). Additionally, the notion of insight, sometimes present in unconscious creative thinking and often leading to creative ideas, is discussed in the context of geometry problem solving. In…

  1. Conceptual Problem Solving in High School Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-01-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an…

  2. Concept mapping instrumental support for problem solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, S.; Stoyanov, Slavi; Kommers, Petrus A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The main theoretical position of this paper is that it is the explicit problem-solving support in concept mapping software that produces a stronger effect in problem-solving performance than the implicit support afforded by the graphical functionality of concept mapping software. Explicit

  3. Problem Solving Methods in Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvig, Susanne C

    1999-01-01

    This short paper discusses typical engineering tasks and problem solving methods, based on a field study of engineering tasks at a Danish engineering firm. The field study has identified ten classes of design tasks and in this paper these classes are related to problem solving methods. The descri...

  4. Problem Solving Strategies among Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Wun Thiam; Lian, Lim Hooi; Meng, Chew Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine problem solving strategies among primary school teachers. The researchers employed survey research design to examine their problem solving strategies. The participants of this study consisted of 120 primary school teachers from a public university in Peninsula Malaysia who enrolled in a 4-year Graduating…

  5. A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John

    2013-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…

  6. Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

  7. Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Dolničar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.

  8. Ensinar capacidades gerais de resolução de problemas não é uma substituição, nem um complemento viável, a ensinar matemática [Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Sweller, J., Clark, R. E., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012). Ensinar capacidades gerais de resolução de problemas não é uma substituição, nem um complemento viável, a ensinar matemática [Teaching general problem-solving skills is not a substitute for, or a viable addition to, teaching mathematics]. Gazeta

  9. Community-powered problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections.

  10. Problem-solving in a Constructivist Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Chien Sing

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic challenges of an increasingly borderless world buoyed by advances in telecommunications and information technology has resulted in educational reform and subsequently, a reconceptualisation of what constitutes a learner, learning and the influence of the learning environment on the process of learning. In keeping up with the changing trends and challenges of an increasingly networked, dynamic and challenging international community, means to provide an alternative environment that stimulates inquiry and equips learners with the skills needed to manage technological change and innovations must be considered. This paper discusses the importance of interaction, cognition and context, collaboration in a networked computer-mediated environment, the problem-solving approach as a catalyst in stimulating creative and critical thinking and in providing context for meaningful interaction and whether the interactive environment created through computer-mediated collaboration will motivate learners to be responsible for their own learning and be independent thinkers. The sample involved learners from three schools in three different countries. Findings conclude that a rich interactive environment must be personally relevant to the learner by simulating authentic problems without lowering the degree of cognitive complexity. Review in curriculum, assessment and teacher training around constructivist principles are also imperative as these interrelated factors form part of the learning process system.

  11. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  12. Indoor Air Quality Problem Solving Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use the IAQ Problem Solving Tool to learn about the connection between health complaints and common solutions in schools. This resource provides an easy, step-by-step process to start identifying and resolving IAQ problems found at your school.

  13. Problem solving using soft systems methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, L

    This article outlines a method of problem solving which considers holistic solutions to complex problems. Soft systems methodology allows people involved in the problem situation to have control over the decision-making process.

  14. Investigasi Kemampuan Problem Solving dan Problem Posing Matematis Mahasiswa Via Pendekatan Realistic

    OpenAIRE

    Afriansyah, Ekasatya Aldila

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical problem solving and problem posing skill are the mathematical skills that need to be owned by students. By having this skill, students can be more creative in expressing ideas by connecting the knowledge that they held previously. But in reality, there are some students who are lack of problem solving skill; therefore it is really important to improve learning through appropriate approach. Realistic approach had been chosen as the learning theory to be applied in the class. This ...

  15. Assessing student written problem solutions: A problem-solving rubric with application to introductory physics

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Docktor; Jay Dornfeld; Evan Frodermann; Kenneth Heller; Leonardo Hsu; Koblar Alan Jackson; Andrew Mason; Qing X. Ryan; Jie Yang

    2016-01-01

    Problem solving is a complex process valuable in everyday life and crucial for learning in the STEM fields. To support the development of problem-solving skills it is important for researchers and curriculum developers to have practical tools that can measure the difference between novice and expert problem-solving performance in authentic classroom work. It is also useful if such tools can be employed by instructors to guide their pedagogy. We describe the design, development, and testing of...

  16. The art and science of problem solving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will document that real-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking. First, the concepts of art and science will be discussed; differences and similarities will be enhanced. Thereafter the concept of group problem...... solving facilitation both as science and art will be presented. A case study related to examination's planning will be discussed to illustrate the main concepts in practice. In addition, other cases studies will also be shortly presented....

  17. How Is Health Related to Literacy, Numeracy, and Technological Problem-Solving Skills among U.S. Adults? Evidence from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Monnat, Shannon; Clymer, Carol; Toso, Blaire Wilson

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC) to analyze the relationship between U.S. adults' self-reported health and proficiencies in literacy, numeracy, and technological problem solving. Ordinal logistic regression analyses showed that scores on all three scales were positively and…

  18. The Use of a Bar Model Drawing to Teach Word Problem Solving to Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lisa L.; Watson, Silvana M. R.; Hester, Peggy; Raver, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    For students with mathematics difficulties (MD), math word problem solving is especially challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a problem-solving strategy, bar model drawing, on the mathematical problem-solving skills of students with MD. The study extended previous research that suggested that schematic-based…

  19. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  20. The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N

    2002-01-01

    This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving.

  1. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lizett Olivares-Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 experts in medical education and applied to 135 registered students on the sixth year of the M.D. Physician Surgeon program at a private medical school. Cronbach’s alpha indicated an internal consistency of 0.751. The findings suggest that selected items have both homogeneity and validity. The factor analysis resulted in components that were associated with three problem-solving subcategories. The students’ perceptions are higher in the pattern recognition and application of general strategies for problem solving subcategories of the Problem solving disposition model.

  2. The Missing Curriculum in Physics Problem-Solving Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mobolaji

    2018-05-01

    Physics is often seen as an excellent introduction to science because it allows students to learn not only the laws governing the world around them, but also, through the problems students solve, a way of thinking which is conducive to solving problems outside of physics and even outside of science. In this article, we contest this latter idea and argue that in physics classes, students do not learn widely applicable problem-solving skills because physics education almost exclusively requires students to solve well-defined problems rather than the less-defined problems which better model problem solving outside of a formal class. Using personal, constructed, and the historical accounts of Schrödinger's development of the wave equation and Feynman's development of path integrals, we argue that what is missing in problem-solving education is practice in identifying gaps in knowledge and in framing these knowledge gaps as questions of the kind answerable using techniques students have learned. We discuss why these elements are typically not taught as part of the problem-solving curriculum and end with suggestions on how to incorporate these missing elements into physics classes.

  3. Medical Problem-Solving: A Critique of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Christine H.

    1985-01-01

    Prescriptive, decision-analysis of medical problem-solving has been based on decision theory that involves calculation and manipulation of complex probability and utility values to arrive at optimal decisions that will maximize patient benefits. The studies offer a methodology for improving clinical judgment. (Author/MLW)

  4. Self-Assessment of Problem Solving Disposition in Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Olivares, Silvia Lizett; López-Cabrera, Mildred Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Medical schools are committed to both students and society to develop capabilities required to succeed in health care environments. Present diagnosis and treatment methods become obsolete faster, demanding that medical schools incorporate competency-based education to keep pace with future demands. This study was conducted to assess the problem solving disposition of medical students. A three-subcategory model of the skill is proposed. The instrument was validated on content by a group of 17 ...

  5. Video games and problem solving effectiveness of primary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Jakoš, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose is to find out whether video games can have positive effects on children and whether we can use those effects for educational purposes at school. The thesis contains theories of the leading authors of developmental psychology in the field of cognitive development as well as an insight into the processes of learning and using problem solving skills. In the second half of the theoretical part, the essential information on video games, their effects researched until now and the means...

  6. The Effects of Polya's Heuristic and Diary Writing on Children's Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensberry, Karina K. R.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed at increasing students' problem-solving skills. Polya's (1985) heuristic for problem solving was used and students were required to articulate their thought processes through the use of a structured diary. The diary prompted students to answer questions designed to engage them in the phases of…

  7. Relative Effects of Three Questioning Strategies in Ill-Structured, Small Group Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung; Cerreto, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the relative effectiveness of using three different question-prompt strategies on promoting metacognitive skills and performance in ill-structured problem solving by examining the interplay between peer interaction and cognitive scaffolding. An ill-structured problem-solving task was given to three…

  8. Testing After Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A.J.M. van Gog (Tamara); L. Kester (Liesbeth); K. Dirkx (Kim); V. Hoogerheide (Vincent); J. Boerboom (Joris); P.P.J.L. Verkoeijen (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractFour experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n = 120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance,

  9. Testing After Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n=120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance, which

  10. Testing After Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P J L

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n = 120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of isomorphic problem solving or example recall on final test performance, which

  11. Developing Creative Problem Solving and Professional Identity through ICT in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2017-01-01

    This chapter regards creative problem solving as a professional identity skill that can be fostered by creative learning environments supported by ICT. A systematic literature review is provided in order to build relationships between creative problem solving, creative learning environments, ICT,...

  12. Developing Creative Problem Solving and Professional Identity through ICT in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter regards creative problem solving as a professional identity skill that can be fostered by creative learning environments supported by ICT. A systematic literature review is provided in order to build relationships between creative problem solving, creative learning environments, ICT,...

  13. Testing after Worked Example Study Does Not Enhance Delayed Problem-Solving Performance Compared to Restudy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth; Dirkx, Kim; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Boerboom, Joris; Verkoeijen, Peter P. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Four experiments investigated whether the testing effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills from worked examples. Experiment 1 (n?=?120) showed no beneficial effects of testing consisting of "isomorphic" problem solving or "example recall" on final test performance, which consisted of isomorphic problem…

  14. Connecting Problem-Solving Style to Peer Evaluations of Performance in Secondary Cooperative Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah A.; Friedel, Curtis R.; Hoerbert, Lindsey R.; Broyles, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    With an evolving and expanding agricultural industry, it is crucial to provide future professionals with valuable experiences and skills in problem solving, communication, and teamwork. Agricultural summer programs for secondary students, which provide cooperative learning experiences with a focus on group work and problem solving, aim to help…

  15. Problem-Solving Rubrics Revisited: Attending to the Blending of Informal Conceptual and Formal Mathematical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Michael M.; Kuo, Eric; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Much research in engineering and physics education has focused on improving students' problem-solving skills. This research has led to the development of step-by-step problem-solving strategies and grading rubrics to assess a student's expertise in solving problems using these strategies. These rubrics value "communication" between the…

  16. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, José P.; Ross, Brian H.

    2015-12-01

    Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  17. Conceptual problem solving in high school physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Docktor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers’ implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.

  18. Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between problem solving and suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Vivian M; Neander, Lucía L

    2018-03-15

    This study examined whether three facets of impulsivity previously shown to be associated with suicidal ideation and attempts (negative urgency, lack of premeditation, and lack of perseverance) help to account for the established association between problem solving deficits and suicidal ideation. Emerging adult college student drinkers with a history of at least passive suicidal ideation (N = 387) completed measures of problem solving, impulsivity, and suicidal ideation. A path analysis was conducted to examine the mediating role of impulsivity variables in the association between problem solving (rational problem solving, positive and negative problem orientation, and avoidance style) and suicidal ideation. Direct and indirect associations through impulsivity, particularly negative urgency, were found between problem solving and severity of suicidal ideation. Interventions aimed at teaching problem solving skills, as well as self-efficacy and optimism for solving life problems, may help to reduce impulsivity and suicidal ideation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Analysis of the Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Parent-Adolescent Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, Yulia Yuriyivna; Brown, Roger L; Riesch, Susan K

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a two-group longitudinal partially nested randomized controlled trial to examine whether young adolescent youth-parent dyads participating in Mission Possible: Parents and Kids Who Listen, in contrast to a comparison group, would demonstrate improved problem-solving skill. The intervention is based on the Circumplex Model and Social Problem-Solving Theory. The Circumplex Model posits that families who are balanced, that is characterized by high cohesion and flexibility and open communication, function best. Social Problem-Solving Theory informs the process and skills of problem solving. The Conditional Latent Growth Modeling analysis revealed no statistically significant differences in problem solving among the final sample of 127 dyads in the intervention and comparison groups. Analyses of effect sizes indicated large magnitude group effects for selected scales for youth and dyads portraying a potential for efficacy and identifying for whom the intervention may be efficacious if study limitations and lessons learned were addressed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…