WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical pharmacology advisory

  1. 76 FR 3912 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... how to optimally utilize mechanistic biomarkers and apply clinical pharmacology tools, such...

  2. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  3. 78 FR 58315 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  4. 77 FR 41790 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  5. 77 FR 42746 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  6. 78 FR 58314 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  7. 75 FR 10488 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  8. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  9. 78 FR 42966 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice...

  10. 75 FR 8368 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... certain drugs; (2) a new patient-centric clinical pharmacology approach to drug safety; (3) the design...

  11. 77 FR 1696 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. This notice... Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General Function of the Committee: To provide advice and... pharmacology aspects of pediatric clinical trial design and dosing to optimize pediatric drug development....

  12. Integrating pharmacology and clinical pharmacology in universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Continuing development of safe and effective new medicines is critically important for global health, social prosperity and the economy. The drug discovery-development pipeline depends critically on close partnerships between scientists and clinicians and on educational programmes that ensure that the pharmacological workforce, in its broadest sense, is fit for purpose. Here I consider factors that have influenced the development of basic and clinical pharmacology in UK universities over the past 40 years and discuss ways in which basic pharmacologists, clinical pharmacologists and scientists from different disciplines can work together effectively, while retaining their professional identities and fostering developments in their disciplines. Specifically, I propose the establishment of Institutes of Drug Discovery and Development, whose activities could include development and implementation of a translational pharmacology research strategy, drawing on the collective expertise of the membership and the university as whole; provision of a forum for regular seminars and symposia to promote the discipline, encourage collaboration and develop a cohesive community; provision of a research advisory service, covering, for example, data management, applications for ethics permission, clinical trials design, statistics and regulatory affairs; liaison with potential funders and leadership of major funding bids, including funding for doctoral training; provision of advice on intellectual property protection and the commercialization of research; liaison with corporate partners to facilitate collaboration, knowledge transfer and effective translation; and leadership of undergraduate and postgraduate education in basic and clinical pharmacology and related sciences for medical and science students, including continuing professional development and transferable skills.

  13. Clinical pharmacology of deferasirox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki

    2014-08-01

    Iron accumulation is a consequence of regular red cell transfusions, and can occur as a result of ineffective erythropoiesis secondary to increased intestinal iron absorption, in patients with various anemias. Without appropriate treatment, iron overload can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Deferasirox is an oral iron chelator effective for reduction of body iron in iron-overloaded patients with transfusion-dependent anemias and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia, with a well-established safety profile. This review summarizes the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug-drug interaction profile of deferasirox, and the claims supporting once-daily dosing for effective chelation. Sustained labile plasma iron suppression is observed with no rebound between doses, protecting organs from potential tissue damage. Increased iron excretion positively correlates with increased deferasirox exposure; to optimize iron removal transfusional iron intake, body iron burden and safety parameters should also be considered. Deferasirox dispersible tablets should be taken ≥30 min before food due to an effect of food on bioavailability. Dosing is consistent across pediatric and adult patients and there is no ethnic sensitivity. Dose adjustment is required for patients with hepatic impairment and may be considered upon coadministration with strong uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase inducers or bile acid sequestrants (coadministration should be avoided where possible), and patients should be monitored upon coadministration with cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5, CYP2C8, or CYP1A2 substrates. Coadministration with hydroxyurea, a fetal hemoglobin modulator, does not appear to impact deferasirox pharmacokinetics. In summary, a substantial body of clinical and pharmacokinetic data are available for deferasirox to guide its optimal use in multiple patient populations and clinical circumstances.

  14. History of clinical pharmacy and clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R R

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the Symposium on Clinical Pharmacy and Clinical Pharmacology is to describe the present and future functional roles of clinical pharmacists and clinical pharmacologists in drug research, professional education, and patient care. Clinical pharmacy is a relatively new professional discipline, being only about 15 years old. This new breed of pharmacists is patient rather than drug product oriented. The discipline arose out of dissatisfaction with old practice norms and the pressing need for a health professional with a comprehensive knowledge of the therapeutic use of drugs. The clinical pharmacy movement began at the University of Michigan in the early 1960s, but much of the pioneering work was done by David Burkholder, Paul Parker, and Charles Walton at the University of Kentucky in the latter part of the 1960s. Clinical pharmacology is a professional discipline that combines basic pharmacology and clinical medicine. Its development began in the early 1950s, primarily as a result of the efforts of Harry Gold. It has had a slower growth than clinical pharmacy but it has made many important contributions to our knowledge of human pharmacology and the rational use of drugs.

  15. Clinical pharmacology of homoharringtonine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savaraj, N.; Lu, K.; Dimery, I.; Feun, L.G.; Burgess, M.; Keating, M.; Loo, T.L.

    1986-12-01

    Clinical pharmacokinetics of homoharringtonine (HHT) were studied in eight patients who received uniformly labeled HHT at 3-4 mg/m2 (150 mu Ci) by continuous 6-hour infusion. The drug and metabolites were quantified by radiochemical and high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques. Computerized nonlinear least-square regression and curve stripping were used to characterize HHT and total (/sup 3/H)HHT equivalent pharmacokinetics. Unchanged HHT in the plasma declined biphasically, with an alpha-half-life of 0.5 +/- 0.1 hours and a beta-half-life of 9.3 +/- 1.4 hours. The total clearance of HHT was 177.4 +/- 27.7 ml X hour-1 X kg-1, and the apparent volume of distribution, estimated from the area under the drug concentration versus time curve, was 2.4 +/- 0.4 L X kg-1. Correspondingly, the total (/sup 3/H)HHT equivalent disappeared from the plasma in a triphasic manner. Compared with the pharmacokinetic parameters of unchanged HHT, the terminal half-life of total /sup 3/H was 67.5 +/- 7.5 hours, 7.4 times longer; the total clearance was 30.9 +/- 3.1 ml X hour-1 X kg-1, 5.5 times slower; but the volume of distribution by area was 2.7 +/- 0.1 L X kg-1, nearly the same. The 72-hour cumulative urinary excretion of total tritium was 28.2% of the administered dose and only 38.3% of this resided in unchanged HHT. Thus, urinary excretion was not a major route of elimination of HHT. Moreover, HHT underwent extensive metabolism; one major and two minor unidentified products were detected in both plasma and urine.

  16. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacok

  17. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2017-03-01

    Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT), the definitive and timely source for advances in human therapeutics, transcends the drug discovery, development, regulation, and utilization continuum to catalyze, evolve, and disseminate discipline-transformative knowledge. Prioritized themes and multidisciplinary content drive the science and practice of clinical pharmacology, offering a trusted point of reference. An authoritative herald across global communities, CPT is a timeless information vehicle at the vanguard of discovery, translation, and application ushering therapeutic innovation into modern healthcare.

  18. Pharmacological and clinical properties of curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Christopher S Beevers¹, Shile Huang²¹Department of Pharmacology, Ross University School of Medicine, Picard-Portsmouth, Commonwealth of Dominica; ²Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, Shreveport, LA, USAAbstract: The polyphenol natural product curcumin has been the subject of numerous studies over the past decades, which have identified and characterized the compound's pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and clinical pharmacological properties. In in vitro and in vivo model systems, curcumin displays potent pharmacological effects, by targeting many critical cellular factors, through a diverse array of mechanisms of action. Despite this tremendous molecular versatility, however, the clinical application of curcumin remains limited due to poor pharmacokinetic characteristics in human beings. The current trend is to develop and utilize unique delivery systems, chemical derivatives, and chemical analogs to circumvent these pharmacological obstacles, in order to optimize the conditions for curcumin as a chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, obesity, Alzheimer's disease, and inflammatory disorders. The present work seeks to review recent studies in the basic pharmacological principles and potential clinical applications of curcumin.Keywords: curcumin, pharmacological properties, signal transduction, cellular targets, cancer, inflammation

  19. Chrysotherapy: pharmacological and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorber, A; Simon, T M; Leeb, J; Carroll, P E

    1975-12-01

    Relationships between gold administration and serum gold content were observed in 56 RA subjects receiving up to five years of weekly chrysotherapy. Wide fluctuations in serum gold responses to standard 50 mg IM injections were noted. Individual adjustments to dosage schedules were made as dictated by patient serum gold responses. Enhanced clinical and laboratory response was prolonged with higher sustained serum gold concentration greater than 300 mug per cent. Maintaining serum levels greater than 300 mug per cent is postulated to facilitate access of gold to "effector sites" within the deeper compartments by providing higher sustained gradients between superficial (blood) and deeper body compartments. The complexity of the system of effector sites responsive to gold and their divergent location within the body likely affects the accessibility of the agent for these sites; hence, affecting the correlation between gold levels and therapeutic response. The application of pharmacokinetic principles in chrysotherapy, nevertheless, provides the basis for optimizing accessibility of the agent and the therapeutic response. (J Rheumatol 2: 401-410, 1975).

  20. Clinical pharmacology considerations in biologics development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHAO; Tian-hua REN; Diane D WANG

    2012-01-01

    Biologics,including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other therapeutic proteins such as cytokines and growth hormones,have unique characteristics compared to small molecules.This paper starts from an overview of the pharmacokinetics (PK) of biologics from a mechanistic perspective,the determination of a starting dose for first-in-human(FIH) studies,and dosing regimen optimisation for phase Ⅱ/Ⅲ clinical trials.Subsequently,typical clinical pharmacology issues along the corresponding pathways for biologics development are summarised,including drug-drug interactions,QTc prolongation,immunogenicity,and studies in specific populations.The relationships between the molecular structure of biologics,their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics,and the corresponding clinical pharmacology strategies are summarised and depicted in a schematic diagram.

  1. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics: the next five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2015-01-01

    It has been nearly ten years since we joined the editorial organization of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (CPT), as part of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT) family. During that tenure, the primary mandate has been the growth of CPT, recognized as one of the key voices of the discipline and the Society. Set goals were realized in concert with a strong editorial team, a diverse editorial board, a dedicated editorial staff, and outstanding authors, leveraging a leading publishing infrastructure and responding to the needs of a global readership, expanding membership, and the discipline as a whole. The impending decade anniversary, and the transition to a new publisher, offers a natural juncture to reflect on progress, and chart plans for the future of the Journal.

  2. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2010 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, J J

    2011-03-14

    This review is based on the previous one published in 2006 -Secades JJ, Lorenzo JL. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2006; 28 (Suppl B): S1-56-, incorporating the new references until now, having all the information available to facilitate the access to the informacion in one document. This review is focused on the main indications of the drug, as acute stroke and its sequelae, including the cognitive impairment, and traumatic brain injury and its sequelae. There are retrieved the most important experimental and clinical data in both indications.

  3. 75 FR 12554 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for..., Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...

  4. 78 FR 6330 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory medicine practice and specific... laboratory services; revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the...

  5. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A

    2008-07-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  6. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered.

  7. 75 FR 1063 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory... under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and laboratory practice of... Testing Workgroup and discussion of the Workgroup's proposals related to good laboratory practices...

  8. Clinical pharmacology in Russia-historical development and current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorodnikova Goryachkina, Ksenia; Burbello, Aleksandra; Sychev, Dmitry; Frolov, Maxim; Kukes, Vladimir; Petrov, Vladimir

    2015-02-01

    Clinical pharmacology in Russia has long history and is currently active, but rather unrecognized internationally. It is governmentally approved as a teaching/scientific specialty since 1983 and as a medical specialty since 1997. Courses of clinical pharmacology are included in the undergraduate curricula in the 5th and/or 6th year of education at all medical schools in the Russian Federation. Postgraduate education includes initial specialization in internal medicine with further residency in clinical pharmacology. Governmental legislation recommends that every healthcare institution has either a department or a single position of clinical pharmacologist. Major routine duties include information about and monitoring of medication use, consultations in difficult clinical situations, pharmacogenetic counseling, therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacovigilance, and participation in drug and therapeutics (formulary) committees. There are official experts in clinical pharmacology in Russia responsible for coordinating relevant legislative issues. The chief expert clinical pharmacologist represents the discipline directly at the Ministry of Health. Research in clinical pharmacology in Russia is extensive and variable, but only some of it is published internationally. Russia is a participant of international societies of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics and collaboration is actively ongoing. There are still certain problems related to the development of the discipline in Russia-some healthcare institutions do not see the need for clinical pharmacology. However, the number of clinical pharmacologists in Russia is increasing as well as their role in physicians' education, national healthcare, and research.

  9. Memantine: Pharmacological properties and clinical uses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Memantine is a relatively new drug specially developed for use in moderate-to-severe dementia. It is an uncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist and reduces glutamatergic excitotoxicity. Though Alzheimer's disease (AD is the commonest cause of dementia in the world, there is no 'cure' available for the same. Cholinesterase inhibitors such as donepezil and rivastigmine have been shown to provide symptomatic relief in patients with AD but have no effect on disease progression or survival. Moreover, they are not helpful in more severe stages of dementia. Memantine has been shown to cause modest improvement in clinical symptoms in severe stages of AD and may retard the disease progression. Moreover, it has been shown to be useful in various forms of dementia including AD, vascular dementia and Wernicke-Korsakoff psychosis. It is also the first drug to cause complete disappearance of pendular nystagmus due to multiple sclerosis. The current review focuses on the pharmacological properties of memantine and examines the recent evidence in favor of memantine.

  10. A manifesto for clinical pharmacology from principles to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K

    2010-07-01

    1. This is a manifesto for UK clinical pharmacology. 2. A clinical pharmacologist is a medically qualified practitioner who teaches, does research, frames policy, and gives information and advice about the actions and proper uses of medicines in humans and implements that knowledge in clinical practice. Those without medical qualifications who practise some aspect of clinical pharmacology could be described as, say, 'applied pharmacologists'. 3. Clinical pharmacology is operationally defined as a translational discipline in terms of the basic tools of human pharmacology (e.g. receptor pharmacology) and applied pharmacology (e.g. pharmacokinetics) and how they are used in drug discovery and development and in solving practical therapeutic problems in individuals and populations. 4. Clinical pharmacologists are employed by universities, health-care services, private organizations (such as drug companies), and regulatory agencies. They are mentors and teachers, teaching laboratory science, clinical science, and all aspects of practical drug therapy as underpinned by the science of pharmacology; they write and edit didactic and reference texts; researchers, covering research described by the operational definition; clinicians, practising general medicine, clinical toxicology, other medical specialties, and general practice; policy makers, framing local, national, and international medicines policy, including formularies, licensing of medicines and prescribing policies. 5. The future of clinical pharmacology depends on the expansion and maintenance of a central core of practitioners (employed by universities or health-care services), training clinical pharmacologists to practise in universities, health-care services, private organizations, and regulatory agencies, and training other clinicians in the principles and practice of clinical pharmacology.

  11. Clinical pharmacology of bruceantin by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, K.L.L.; Ho, D.H.W.; Benjamin, R.S.; Brown, N.S.; Bedikian, A.; Yap, B.S.; Wiseman, C.L.; Bodey, G.P.; Kramer W.

    1982-01-01

    During the phase Y clinical trial of a new antitumor agent, bruceantin, the pharmacology was studied in 18 cancer patients. The drug was infused i.v. for 3 h at doses ranging from 1 to 3.6 mg/m/sup 2/ per for 5. The plasma drug disappearance curves were biphasic, with a fast initial half-life of less than 15 min. The second half-life varied from 0.7 to 38 h among different patients and was not dose-related. The difference between the tsub(1/2..beta..) on day 1 and that on day 5 was not significant. In patients with normal liver function, the mean plasma concentration at the end of infusion was 22 ng/ml, and the value of the area under the concentration x time curve (AUC) was 111 (ng/ml)h. In contrast, in patients with abnormal liver function the corresponding values were 115 ng/ml and 830 (ng/ml)h, respectively. In addition, these patients had a slower elimination half-life of 10.9 h and a decreased total clearance of 157 ml/min/m/sup 2/, as compared with 2.6 h and 671 ml/min/m/sup 2/, respectively, for the normal group. All these differences were statistically significant. Patients with abnormal liver function developed more severe toxicity, including fever, severe nausea, vomiting, and hypotension. Two patients with severe hepatic dysfunction received a reduced dose and developed no toxicity. These results demonstrated the importance of the effects of liver dysfunction on drug disposition and showed that the dosage should be reduced in patients with hepatic dysfunction.

  12. Clinical pharmacology of novel anticancer drug formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, F.E.

    2013-01-01

    Studies outlined in this thesis describe the impact of drug formulations on pharmacology of anticancer drugs. It consists of four parts and starts with a review describing the mechanisms of low oral bioavailability of anti-cancer drugs and strategies for improvement of the bioavailability. The major

  13. [Clinical report on pharmacological treatment of autism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivierge, J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the pharmacology of autism and briefly overviews its use, history and novelties. "Autism" does not refer to any pathophysiology currently known. And no drug or class of drugs can cure this illness which includes many. Before using drugs, efficient in relieving symptoms, it is important to consider the potential benefit of behavioral approaches. Developments in research give hope that drugs will cure or prevent this brain illness.

  14. 76 FR 5379 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory..., revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and laboratory practice of proposed revisions to the standards; and the modification of the standards...

  15. Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacokinetics of Levetiracetam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanin Clark Wright

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Status epilepticus and acute repetitive seizures still pose a management challenge despite the recent advances in the field of epilepsy. Parenteral formulations of old anticonvulsants are still a cornerstone in acute seizure management and are approved by the FDA. Intravenous levetiracetam, a second generation anticonvulsant, is approved by the FDA as an adjunctive treatment in patients 16 years or older when oral administration is not available. Data have shown that it has a unique mechanism of action, linear pharmacokinetics and no known drug interactions with other anticonvulsants. In this paper, we will review the current literature about the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of intravenous levetiracetam and the safety profile of this new anticonvulsant in acute seizure management of both adults and children.

  16. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Glucocorticosteroids

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a product of the adrenal cortex and perform a staggering number of physiological effects essential for life. Their clinical use is largely predicated on their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, but they also have notable efficacy in the prophylaxis of postoperative nausea and vomiting. This article reviews the basic functions of glucocorticoids and their clinical use in dental practice.

  17. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secades, Julio J; Lorenzo, José Luis

    2006-09-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine, CDP-choline, or citicoline is an essential intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of structural phospholipids in cell membranes, particularly phosphatidylcholine. Following administration by both the oral and parenteral routes, citicoline releases its two main components, cytidine and choline. Absorption by the oral route is virtually complete, and bioavailability by the oral route is therefore approximately the same as by the intravenous route. Once absorbed, citicoline is widely distributed throughout the body, crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches the central nervous system (CNS), where it is incorporated into the membrane and microsomal phospholipid fraction. Citicoline activates biosynthesis of structural phospholipids of neuronal membranes, increases brain metabolism, and acts upon the levels of different neurotransmitters. Thus, citicoline has been experimentally shown to increase norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the CNS. Owing to these pharmacological mechanisms, citicoline has a neuroprotective effect in hypoxic and ischemic conditions, decreasing the volume of ischemic lesion, and also improves learning and memory performance in animal models of brain aging. In addition, citicoline has been shown to restore the activity of mitochondrial ATPase and membrane Na+/K+ATPase, to inhibit activation of certain phospholipases, and to accelerate reabsorption of cerebral edema in various experimental models. Citicoline has also been shown to be able to inhibit mechanisms of apoptosis associated to cerebral ischemia and in certain neurodegeneration models, and to potentiate neuroplasticity mechanisms. Citicoline is a safe drug, as shown by the toxicological tests conducted, that has no significant systemic cholinergic effects and is a well tolerated product. These pharmacological characteristics and the action mechanisms of citicoline suggest that this product may be indicated for treatment of cerebral vascular disease, head

  18. Pharmacologic and clinical evaluation of posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason N; Healy, Jason R; Kraft, Walter K

    2015-05-01

    Posaconazole, a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent, is approved for the prevention of invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis in addition to the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis. There is evidence of efficacy in the treatment and prevention of rarer, more difficult-to-treat fungal infections. Posaconazole oral suspension solution has shown limitations with respect to fasting state absorption, elevated gastrointestinal pH and increased motility. The newly approved delayed-release oral tablet and intravenous solution formulations provide an attractive treatment option by reducing interpatient variability and providing flexibility in critically ill patients. On the basis of clinical experience and further clinical studies, posaconazole was found to be a valuable pharmaceutical agent for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. This review will examine the development history of posaconazole and highlight the most recent advances.

  19. Pharmacological effect on pyeloureteric dynamics with a clinical perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Frimodt-Møller, Poul C; Osther, Palle J;

    2006-01-01

    We searched to review experimental and clinical trials concerning the capabilities of impacting on the ureteric and pelvic activity by means of pharmacological stimulation. Ureteropyeloscopy may cause high renal pelvic pressure. The normal pressure is in the range of 5-15 mmHg whereas pressure...

  20. Pharmacology and clinical pharmacology of methylarginines used as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke

    2014-01-01

    The methylarginines asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and monomethylarginine (L-NMMA) are endogenously formed inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), which have extensively been investigated as risk markers and used as pharmacological tools to study the L-arginine-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in vitro and in vivo. It is the aim of the present review to summarize the clinical and experimental data on the pharmacological properties that are of relevance when planning and conducting experiments and clinical studies involving methylarginines. Key pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic data including IC50 values of ADMA and L-NMMA for NOS isoforms and transport proteins, as well as metabolism by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolases (DDAH1 and DDAH2) and alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) are discussed.

  1. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish...... healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local...... in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric...

  2. [Clinical pharmacology of current antiplatelet drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenk, D; Nührenberg, T; Stratz, C; Valina, C M; Hochholzer, W

    2014-11-01

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and an inhibitor of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor is the standard treatment for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or undergoing elective coronary interventions according to the current guidelines published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). New generation P2Y12 inhibitors, such as prasugrel and ticagrelor exert stronger and more consistent inhibition of the P2Y12 receptor. In clinical studies enrolling patients with ACS these drugs decreased the incidence of ischemic events compared to the standard therapy with clopidogrel and ASA; however, this beneficial effect was associated with an increase in bleeding events. Alternative therapeutic approaches via addition of drugs with different modes of action showed an overall reduction of ischemic events but also failed to uncouple this beneficial effect from an increased bleeding risk.

  3. Topical corticosteroids: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J A; Munro, D D

    1980-02-01

    The development of topical corticosteroids has enabled many dermatoses to be more effectively treated than previously, but there is also no doubt that misuse of these preparations can lead to troublesome local effects and potentially serious systemic problems. The most effective assay for comparing different compounds has been their vasoconstrictive activity, and this on the whole correlates well with clinical effect. To be effective, corticosteroid must be absorbed and the importance of concentration, occlusion, the type of vehicle, added penetrants such as urea and the anatomical site, on the amount of absorption and therefore on clinical activity has been demonstrated. Ointments have been shown to be more effective than creams but because of the considerable choice of potencies now available most dermatologists tend to prescribe the different formulations according to the wishes of the patient. For the same reason, dilution of the commercially marketed preparations is now not generally recommended. The main therapeutic activity of topical corticosteroids is their nonspecific anti-inflammatory effect, thought to be primarily a result of their action on the chemical mediators of inflammation. They have also been shown to be antimitotic which may well be relevant not only to the treatment of scaling dermatoses but also to their dermal thinning effect resulting from inhibition of fibroblasts. Combinations of corticosteroids with antibacterial and antifungal agents have been shown to be very effective in flexural eruptions and secondarily infected dermatoses. As a general rule, the use of topical corticosteroids in outpatients, unless badly misused, is not associated with any significant risk of adrenal axis suppression, but care must be exercised as to the amount prescribed, especially if large areas of the body are to be treated with highly potent preparations. Certain groups such as young children and patients with liver failure, and certain anatomical sites such

  4. Clinical pharmacology of carbapenems in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria; Allegaert, Karel

    2014-04-01

    Carbapenems are an effective tool to treat complicated bacterial infections. This review aims to summarize the available information on carbapenems in neonates to guide clinicians on drug choice and indications in neonates. Moreover, identification of knowledge gaps may stimulate researchers to design studies to further improve pharmacotherapy in neonates. To do so, a bibliographic search [infant/newborn and meropenem, imipenem, panipenem, ertapenem, doripenem or imipenem] was performed (PubMed, EMBASE) and public clinical trial registries (clinicaltrials.gov, EU registry) were searched to summarize the available information. Carbapenem clearance in neonates is low. Variability relates to maturation (weight, age) and renal function (creatinine clearance), while observations in neonates with renal failure are absent. Pharmacodynamics are almost exclusively limited to meropenem, and the available information will further increase (NeoMero-1-2, necrotizing enterocolitis, meningitis). Finally, there are also some ongoing doripenem pharmacokinetics (PK) studies in neonates. It was concluded that observations on carbapenems in neonates are limited, but studies (NeoMero, doripenem) are ongoing. Until this information becomes available, off label prescription of meropenem seems to be the most reasonable choice when a carbapenem is appropriate. Knowledge gaps relate to PK in neonates with renal failure and to the potential benefit of prolonged compared to short duration of infusion.

  5. Extending worldwide clinical pharmacology education through a pricing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Barbara

    2005-09-01

    Financial instruments, such as professional membership fees, are part of the science and technology policy toolkit for creating an environment conducive to developing an international health knowledge network. To minimize a hurdle to global knowledge exchange in clinical pharmacology, the American College of Clinical Pharmacology reevaluated fees for its international members. Secondary market research was conducted on salary data available from US-based multinational firms. Salary comparisons for the same position based in the United States and in a developing economy were used to generate an index ratio. Applying this ratio, a tiered-membership fee structure was constructed for the approximately 120 countries where gross national income meets the World Bank classification of "developing economy." The index ratio serves as a paradigm for structuring fees across a variety of programs. With the implementation of an adjusted dues structure, information and networks of colleagues are now more accessible to clinical pharmacologists in developing economies.

  6. Corticosteroids: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, S L; Dluhy, R G

    1978-09-01

    The widespread use of corticosteroids in clinical practice emphasises the need for a thorough understanding of their metabolic effects. In general, the actions of corticosteroids on carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism result in increased hepatic capacity for gluconeogenesis and enhanced catabolic actions upon muscle, skin, lymphoid, adipose and connective tissues. Because of the morbidity associated with steroid therapy, the clinician must carefully consider in each case the gains that can reasonably be expected from corticosteroid therapy versus the inevitable undesirable side effects of prolonged therapy. Thus, it is important to remember that the enhanced anti-inflammatory activity of the various synthetic analogues of cortisol is not dissociated from the expected catabolic actions of glucocorticoid hormones. Replacement therapy with physiological doses of cortisol in primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency is intended to simulate the normal daily secretion of cortisol. Short term, high dose suppressive glucocorticoid therapy is indicated in the treatment of medical emergencies such as necrotising vasculitis, status asthmaticus and anaphylactic shock. With improvement of the underlying disorder, the steroid dosage can be rapidly tapered and then discontinued over a 2 to 3 day period. Long term, high dose suppressive therapy is often commonly used to treat certain diseases (see sections 4.7.2 and 4.7.3). In this setting, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis may persist for as long as 9 to 12 months following steroid withdrawal if steroid doses are administered in the supraphysiological range for longer than 2 weeks. In general, higher doses, longer duration of usage, and frequent daily administration are all correlated with the severity of pituitary ACTH suppression. When steroid therapy is to be withdrawn, gradual tapering of the dosage is necessary; the steroid dosage should also be given as a single morning dose if possible. Rapid

  7. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei-Chiang; Lye, Phui-Yan; Wong, Siu-Kuin

    2016-01-01

    The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive summary on the botany, utility, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Morus alba (mulberry or sang shu). The mulberry foliage has remained the primary food for silkworms for centuries. Its leaves have also been used as animal feed for livestock and its fruits have been made into a variety of food products. With flavonoids as major constituents, mulberry leaves possess various biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-diabetic, glucosidase inhibition, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, cardioprotective, and cognitive enhancement activities. Rich in anthocyanins and alkaloids, mulberry fruits have pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-obesity, and hepatoprotective activities. The root bark of mulberry, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and stilbenoids, has antimicrobial, skin-whitening, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Other pharmacological properties of M. alba include anti-platelet, anxiolytic, anti-asthmatic, anthelmintic, antidepressant, cardioprotective, and immunomodulatory activities. Clinical trials on the efficiency of M. alba extracts in reducing blood glucose and cholesterol levels and enhancing cognitive ability have been conducted. The phytochemistry and pharmacology of the different parts of the mulberry tree confer its traditional and current uses as fodder, food, cosmetics, and medicine. Overall, M. alba is a multi-functional plant with promising medicinal properties.

  8. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  9. Peer review in Clinical Pharmacology using the 8-D Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Barry G.

    2017-01-01

    The requirement for editors of clinical pharmacology journals to maintain an overview of the peer review process for manuscripts submitted can be facilitated by use of the 8-D Assessment. The 8-D Assessment comprises peer review criteria to determine if the:1. Design of the study, 2. Diagnoses employed, 3. Drug molecules involved, 4. Dosages applied, 5. Data collected, 6. Discussion of the findings, 7. Deductions made, and 8. Documentation are in accord with the objectives of the study and meet the requirements of evidence-based medicine. This tool, although easy to apply, requires a high level of clinical pharmacology expertise, especially in the fields of drug disposition, pharmacokinetics, and drug action. PMID:28218890

  10. Nadroparin calcium: a review of its basic and clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina-González, Diego Alexander; Universidad de los Andes; Martínez, Jairo Andrés; Universidad de los Andes; Cifuentes, Luis Fernando; Universidad de los Andes

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate critically the evidence on the basic and clinical pharmacology of nadroparin calcium. Data source: We conducted a literature review from October 1985 to September 2010 in the electronic databases: Pubmed, Cochrane, MD Cosult, Medscape, Scielo and Instituto Nacional de Vigilancia de Medicamentos y Alimentos (INVIMA).Study selection: Studies published in English, Spanish or French made in humans and animals for experimentation which reviewed the basic and clinical pharmac...

  11. 78 FR 19717 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee: Notice of Change of Meeting Schedule AGENCY: Food and...

  12. Approach to pharmacological and clinical applications of Anisi aetheroleum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Mohamed Koriem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisi aetheroleum is the oil obtained from Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum by steam distillation. P. anisum seeds were air-dried, and then the dry seeds were crushed, pulverized, and weighed in sequence for anise oil preparation. P. anisum is one of the oldest medicinal plants that belong to family Apiaceae. The fruit of P. anisum is harvested in August and September. P. anisum is widespread in Asia, Africa and Europe. Local names of P. anisum include anise, anisoon, roomy, saunf, sweet cumin and yansoon. The anise oil odour is aromatic while the oil tastes sweet. The average daily dose of Anisi aetheroleum is 0.3 g. trans-Anethole is the major ingredient of the anise oil. Anisi aetheroleum also displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. In addition, Anisi aetheroleum increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat. The plant oil have pharmacological (antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, estrogenic, expectorant and insecticidal effects and clinical effects on nausea, constipation, menopausal period, virus, diabetes, obesity and sedative action. Owing to the wide application of Anisi aetheroleum in pharmacological and clinical fields, it is recommended for more clinical trails to discover a new medication from the active constituents of the plant oil in the future to treat human diseases especially chronic ones.

  13. Approach to pharmacological and clinical applications of Anisi aetheroleum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khaled; Mohamed; Mohamed; Koriem

    2015-01-01

    Anisi aetheroleum is the oil obtained from Pimpinella anisuin L.(P.anisuin) by steam distillation.P.anisuin seeds were air-dried,and then the dry seeds were crushed,pulverized,and weighed in sequence for anise oil preparation.P.anisuin is one of the oldest medicinal plants that belong to family Apiaceae.The fruit of P.anisuin is harvested in August and September.P.anisuin is widespread in Asia,Africa and Europe.Local names of P.anisuin include anise,anisoon,roomy,saunf,sweet cumin and yansoon.The anise oil odour is aromatic while the oil tastes sweet.The average daily dose of Anisi aetheroleum is 0.3 g.transAnethole is the major ingredient of the anise oil.Anisi aetheroleum also displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.In addition.Anisi aetheroleum increases glucose absorption and reduces urine output in the rat.The plant oil have pharmacological(antimicrobial,hepatoprotective.anticonvulsant,anti-inflammatory,antispasmodic,bronchodilator.estrogenic,expectorant and insecticidal) effects and clinical effects on nausea,constipation,menopausal period,virus,diabetes,obesity and sedative action.Owing to the wide application of Anisi aetheroleum in pharmacological and clinical fields,it is recommended for more clinical trails to discover a new medication from the active constituents of the plant oil in the future to treat human diseases especially chronic ones.

  14. Clinical Pharmacology in Denmark in 2016 - 40 Years with the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology and 20 Years as a Medical Speciality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøsen, Kim; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup; Borregaard, Jeanett; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Christensen, Palle Mark; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Damkier, Per; Hallas, Jesper; Heisterberg, Jens; Jessen, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Kampmann, Jens Peter Konnerup; Laursen, Britt Elmedal; Laursen, Torben; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; Andersen, Ljubica Vukelic; Senderovitz, Thomas; Sonne, Jesper

    2016-12-01

    The Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology was founded in 1976, and mainly thanks to the persistent efforts of the society, clinical pharmacology became an independent medical speciality in Denmark in 1996. Since then, clinical pharmacology has gone from strength to strength. In the Danish healthcare system, clinical pharmacology has established itself as an indispensible part of the efforts to promote the rational, safe and economic use of drugs. Clinical pharmacologists are active in drug committees both in hospitals and in the primary sector. All clinical pharmacology centres offer a local medicines information service. Some centres have established an adverse drug effect manager function. Only one centre offers a therapeutic drug monitoring service. Clinical pharmacologists are responsible for the toxicological advice at the Danish Poison Information Centre at Bispebjerg University Hospital in the Capital Region. The Department of Clinical Pharmacology at Aarhus University Hospital works closely together with forensic toxicologists and pathologists, covering issues regarding illicit substances, forensic pharmacology, post-mortem toxicology, expert testimony and research. Therapeutic geriatric and psychiatric teach-inns for specialist and junior doctors are among the newest initiatives organized by clinical pharmacologists. Clinical pharmacologists work also in the Danish Medicines Agency and in the Danish pharmaceutical industry, and the latter has in particular a great growth potential for creating new jobs and career opportunities for clinical pharmacologists. As of July 2016, the Danish Society of Clinical Pharmacology has 175 members, and 70 of these are specialists in clinical pharmacology corresponding to approximately 2.5 specialists per 1000 doctors (Denmark has in total 28,000 doctors) or approximately 12 specialists per one million inhabitants.

  15. The BPS Diploma in Advanced Pharmacology: a training opportunity for clinical pharmacologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Judith M

    2007-04-01

    Coinciding with its 75th anniversary, the British Pharmacological Society (BPS) has launched a Diploma in Advanced Pharmacology (BPS Dip Pharmacol). This award is open to clinical and non-clinical scientists and those in related occupations. The Diploma is designed to appeal to those who want to further their pharmacological knowledge or gain an appreciation of basic and clinical aspects of the subject through participation in an advanced programme of non-clinical and clinical pharmacological study. The Diploma is unique in the UK. It provides not only a mechanism for continuing and updating education in basic pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, and therapeutics, but also a range of networking opportunities for non-clinical and clinical scientists in industry and academia.

  16. Drug repurposing: translational pharmacology, chemistry, computers and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2013-01-01

    The process of discovering a pharmacological compound that elicits a desired clinical effect with minimal side effects is a challenge. Prior to the advent of high-performance computing and large-scale screening technologies, drug discovery was largely a serendipitous endeavor, as in the case of thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum or cancer drugs in general derived from flora located in far-reaching geographic locations. More recently, de novo drug discovery has become a more rationalized process where drug-target-effect hypotheses are formulated on the basis of already known compounds/protein targets and their structures. Although this approach is hypothesis-driven, the actual success has been very low, contributing to the soaring costs of research and development as well as the diminished pharmaceutical pipeline in the United States. In this review, we discuss the evolution in computational pharmacology as the next generation of successful drug discovery and implementation in the clinic where high-performance computing (HPC) is used to generate and validate drug-target-effect hypotheses completely in silico. The use of HPC would decrease development time and errors while increasing productivity prior to in vitro, animal and human testing. We highlight approaches in chemoinformatics, bioinformatics as well as network biopharmacology to illustrate potential avenues from which to design clinically efficacious drugs. We further discuss the implications of combining these approaches into an integrative methodology for high-accuracy computational predictions within the context of drug repositioning for the efficient streamlining of currently approved drugs back into clinical trials for possible new indications.

  17. Considerations for clinical pharmacology studies for biologics in emerging markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Bharat; White, Robert; Wang, Huifen Faye

    2015-03-01

    Registration of innovative biologics in Emerging Markets (EMs) poses many opportunities and challenges. The BRIC-MT countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, Mexico, and Turkey) that are the fastest growing markets and regulators in these countries have imposed certain requirements, including the need for local clinical studies, for registration of biologics. The regulatory landscape in these countries is rapidly evolving, which necessitates an up-to-date understanding of such requirements. There is growing evidence which suggests that race, after accounting for body weight differences, may not influence the pharmacokinetics of biologics to the same extent that it does for small molecules. Thus, the requirements for clinical pharmacology trials in EMs are driven mainly by regulatory needs set forth by local Ministry of Health. In addition to the clinical Phase I to III studies done in the global program that supports registration in large geographies, countries such as China require local single and multiple dose Phase I studies. Participating in global studies with clinical sites within their country may be sufficient for some markets, while other regulators may be satisfied with a Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product. This paper discusses the current requirements for registration of innovative biologics in key EMs.

  18. CNS pharmacology and clinical therapeutic effects of oxiracetam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M; Menon, G N; Songar, A; Itil, K Z

    1986-01-01

    Oxiracetam, a new substance found to be a nootropic in experimental pharmacological studies, was tested in three clinical trials: a single rising dose tolerance and dose-finding study with quantitative pharmaco-electroencephalogram (pharmaco-EEG) and quantitative pharmacopsychology in healthy volunteers; a dose-finding study, at three dose levels for 3 months, with quantitative pharmaco-EEG in mild to moderate dementia patients; and a safety and efficacy study with increasing dosages for 12 weeks with subjective and objective tests in elderly patients with dementia. In single and repeated oral dosages up to 2,400 mg, oxiracetam is a safe compound. According to HZI Data Bank Classification Systems, oxiracetam is a vigilance-enhancing compound with some effects on spontaneous memory. The therapeutic effect of oxiracetam can be discriminated from placebo, and in comparison with piracetam, oxiracetam exhibits greater improvement in memory factor.

  19. World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN IV: Clinical pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbotosho Grace O

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Antimalarial Resistance Network (WARN database has the potential to improve the treatment of malaria, through informing current drug selection and use and providing a prompt warning of when treatment policies need changing. This manuscript outlines the contribution and structure of the clinical pharmacology component of this database. The determinants of treatment response are multi-factorial, but clearly providing adequate blood concentrations is pivotal to curing malaria. The ability of available antimalarial pharmacokinetic data to inform optimal dosing is constrained by the small number of patients studied, with even fewer (if any studies conducted in the most vulnerable populations. There are even less data relating blood concentration data to the therapeutic response (pharmacodynamics. By pooling all available pharmacokinetic data, while paying careful attention to the analytical methodologies used, the limitations of small (and thus underpowered individual studies may be overcome and factors that contribute to inter-individual variability in pharmacokinetic parameters defined. Key variables for pharmacokinetic studies are defined in terms of patient (or study subject characteristics, the formulation and route of administration of the antimalarial studied, the sampling and assay methodology, and the approach taken to data analysis. Better defining these information needs and criteria of acceptability of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD studies should contribute to improving the quantity, relevance and quality of these studies. A better understanding of the pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarials and a more clear definition of what constitutes "therapeutic drug levels" would allow more precise use of the term "antimalarial resistance", as it would indicate when treatment failure is not caused by intrinsic parasite resistance but is instead the result of inadequate drug levels. The clinical pharmacology component

  20. Clinical and practical considerations in the pharmacologic management of narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpy, Michael J; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Despite published treatment recommendations and the availability of approved and off-label pharmacologic therapies for narcolepsy, the clinical management of this incurable, chronic neurologic disorder remains challenging. While treatment is generally symptomatically driven, decisions regarding which drug(s) to use need to take into account a variety of factors that may affect adherence, efficacy, and tolerability. Type 1 narcolepsy (predominantly excessive daytime sleepiness with cataplexy) or type 2 narcolepsy (excessive daytime sleepiness without cataplexy) may drive treatment decisions, with consideration given either to a single drug that targets multiple symptoms or to multiple drugs that each treat a specific symptom. Other drug-related characteristics that affect drug choice are dosing regimens, tolerability, and potential drug-drug interactions. Additionally, the patient should be an active participant in treatment decisions, and the main symptomatic complaints, treatment goals, psychosocial setting, and use of lifestyle substances (ie, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, and cannabis) need to be discussed with respect to treatment decisions. Although there is a lack of narcolepsy-specific instruments for monitoring therapeutic effects, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness (eg, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Maintenance of Wakefulness Test) can be used to provide guidance on whether treatment goals are being met. These considerations are discussed with the objective of providing clinically relevant recommendations for making treatment decisions that can enhance the effective management of patients with narcolepsy.

  1. ASPECTS OF THE AMLODIPINE PLEIOTROPY IN BIOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasma Vitolina, Aivars Krauze, Gunars Duburs and Astrida Velena*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine is the third generation calcium antagonist, 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative with the prolonged duration of the antihypertensive action, especially blocking L-type Ca2+ ion channels. It promotes beneficial therapeutic effect by coronary and other blood vessel diseases and thus delays development of the atherosclerosis. It has several known trade names, the most mentioned is Norvasc. Amlodipine is well tolerated in the clinics, it could be used in combinations with other drugs – diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, statins. Amlodipine at nanomolar concentrations binds to the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels. It possesses optimal lipophylicity. Amlodipine also influences the NO-dependent metabolic processes, stimulates NO synthesis and prolongs NO action duration. Results of the studies of the amlodipine pharmacological and clinical properties are summarized in several reviews. The present review contains opinion from the scientific works of the last decades about the multisided or pleiotropic amlodipine mechanisms of action, it contains information about sometimes controversial clinical studies of the amlodipine vaso- and cardioprotective activity.

  2. Pharmacological and clinical overview of cloperastine in treatment of cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Catania

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Antonietta Catania1, Salvatore Cuzzocrea1,21Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine and Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Messina; 2IRCCS Centro Neurolesi “Bonino-Pulejo”, Messina, ItalyAbstract: Cough constitutes an impressive expression of the normal defense mechanisms of the respiratory system. Productive cough associated with catarrh is an important protective system for the lung because it favors the upward movement of secretions and foreign bodies to the larynx and mouth. Cough may also appear without bronchial secretions, as dry cough, which may be persistent when inflammatory disease is chronic or when, in the early stages of respiratory disease, bronchial secretions are not yet fluid. Sometimes bronchitis-induced cough does not significantly affect quality of life, whilst in other cases cough may become so intense as to impair daily activities severely, resulting in permanent disability. This type of cough is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical advice. The use of cough suppressants may be appropriate for reaching a precise diagnosis and when dry cough is persistent. Cloperastine has been investigated in various types of cough and, unlike codeine, has been shown to possess dual activity. It also acts as a mild bronchorelaxant and has antihistaminic activity, without acting on the central nervous system or the respiratory center. Here we review the preclinical and clinical evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of cloperastine.Keywords: cough, cloperastine, inflammation, bronchitis

  3. MR arthrography: pharmacology, efficacy and safety in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Gebhard, M.; Wohlgemuth, W.A.; Fischer, W.; Zentner, J.; Bohndorf, K. [Department of Radiology, Klinikum Augsburg, Stenglinstrasse 2, 86156 Augsburg (Germany); Wegener, R.; Balzer, T. [Clinical Development Diagnostics and Radiopharmaceuticals II, Schering AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    A meta-analysis was carried out of clinical trials published between 1987 and 2001 in respect of the clinical pharmacology and safety as well as the diagnostic efficacy of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) for direct intra-articular injection before MRI examination.Design. Scientific papers (clinical, postmortem and experimental studies) and information from the manufacturer regarding intra-articular injection of Gd-DTPA that addressed questions of mode of action, optimal concentration and dose, elimination and safety were reviewed. Clinical studies were classified according to their study design. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR arthrography (MRA) were compared with a ''gold standard'' (arthroscopy, arthrotomy) and other radiological evidence for different joints.Results. Fifty-two clinical studies of the overall 112 studies addressed aspects of diagnostic efficacy of MRA in patients or in healthy volunteers. The shoulder was the most assessed joint (29 of 52 studies). Good (>80%) or even excellent (90-100%) sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were found for MRA in most indications, especially for the shoulder and knee joints and induced extension of rotator cuff lesions, labrum abnormalities and postoperative meniscal tears. Two millimoles per liter has proven to be the best concentration for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. After passive complete diffusion from the joint within 6-24 h, complete and rapid renal elimination takes place after intra-articular injection. Local safety proved to be excellent after intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA. Regarding systemic tolerance almost no side effects have been reported, but the same safety considerations apply for intra-articular administration of Gd-DTPA as for intravenous injection.Conclusions. The diagnostic efficacy of intra-articular MRA in most clinical conditions affecting major joints is greater than that of plain MRI. In some diagnostic problems MRA achieves almost

  4. Application of optimal design methodologies in clinical pharmacology experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Dokoumetzidis, Aristides; Aarons, Leon

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics data are often analysed by mixed-effects modelling techniques (also known as population analysis), which has become a standard tool in the pharmaceutical industries for drug development. The last 10 years has witnessed considerable interest in the application of experimental design theories to population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments. Design of population pharmacokinetic experiments involves selection and a careful balance of a number of design factors. Optimal design theory uses prior information about the model and parameter estimates to optimize a function of the Fisher information matrix to obtain the best combination of the design factors. This paper provides a review of the different approaches that have been described in the literature for optimal design of population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments. It describes options that are available and highlights some of the issues that could be of concern as regards practical application. It also discusses areas of application of optimal design theories in clinical pharmacology experiments. It is expected that as the awareness about the benefits of this approach increases, more people will embrace it and ultimately will lead to more efficient population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic experiments and can also help to reduce both cost and time during drug development.

  5. Clinical Pharmacology of Furosemide in Neonates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria Pacifici

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Furosemide is the diuretic most used in newborn infants. It blocks the Na+-K+-2Cl− symporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle increasing urinary excretion of Na+ and Cl−. This article aimed to review the published data on the clinical pharmacology of furosemide in neonates to provide a critical, comprehensive, authoritative and, updated survey on the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and side-effects of furosemide in neonates. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases as search engines; January 2013 was the cutoff point. Furosemide half-life (t1/2 is 6 to 20-fold longer, clearance (Cl is 1.2 to 14-fold smaller and volume of distribution (Vd is 1.3 to 6-fold larger than the adult values. t1/2 shortens and Cl increases as the neonatal maturation proceeds. Continuous intravenous infusion of furosemide yields more controlled diuresis than the intermittent intravenous infusion. Furosemide may be administered by inhalation to infants with chronic lung disease to improve pulmonary mechanics. Furosemide stimulates prostaglandin E2 synthesis, a potent dilator of the patent ductus arteriosus, and the administration of furosemide to any preterm infants should be carefully weighed against the risk of precipitation of a symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus. Infants with low birthweight treated with chronic furosemide are at risk for the development of intra-renal calcifications.

  6. Clinical pharmacology of fentanyl in preterm infants. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria

    2015-06-01

    Fentanyl is a synthetic opioid that is very important in anesthetic practice because of its relatively short time to peak analgesic effect and the rapid termination of action after small bolus doses. The objective of this survey is to review the clinical pharmacology of fentanyl in preterm infants. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and EMBASE databases as search engines. In addition, the books Neofax: A manual of drugs used in neonatal care and Neonatal formulary were consulted. Fentanyl is N-dealkylated by CYP3A4 into the inactive norfentanyl. Fentanyl may be administered as bolus doses or as a continuous infusion. In neonates, there is a remarkable interindividual variability in the kinetic parameters. In neonates, fentanyl half-life ranges from 317 minutes to 1266 minutes and in adults it is 222 minutes. Respiratory depression occurs when fentanyl doses are >5 μg/kg. Chest wall rigidity may occur in neonates and occasionally is associated with laryngospasm. Tolerance to fentanyl may develop after prolonged use of this drug. Significant withdrawal symptoms have been reported in infants treated with continuous infusion for 5 days or longer. Fentanyl is an extremely potent analgesic and is the opioid analgesic most frequently used in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  7. 78 FR 104 - Advisory Committees; Tentative Schedule of Meetings for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... dates to be determined. Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory April 17 and other date(s) to Committee... Pharmaceutical Date(s), if needed, to be Science and Clinical Pharmacology. determined. Psychopharmacologic...

  8. Children with schizophrenia: clinical picture and pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Gabriele; Mucci, Maria; Pari, Cinzia

    2006-01-01

    these clinical patterns, such as multidimensionally impaired disorder and multiple complex developmental disorder. In the context of a multimodal approach, including behavioral, social, scholastic and familial interventions, a pharmacological treatment is usually the core treatment. Available experience from the few controlled studies, open studies and case reports on pharmacotherapy in children with schizophrenia aged <12 years is critically analysed in this review, with particular reference to the use of atypical antipsychotics in clinical practice. To date, the major evidence supports the efficacy of risperidone and olanzapine, while clozapine seems an effective option in treatment-refractory cases. Published experience with newer atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole) is still lacking in this age range. Safety data (namely extrapyramidal symptoms, weight gain, hyperprolactinaemia, haematological adverse effects, seizures, hepatotoxicity, metabolic effects, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and cardiovascular effects) are reviewed and discussed, along with strategies for management.

  9. Clinical relevance of pharmacological and physiological data in intrathecal baclofen therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, Herre W; Staal, Michael; Proost, Johannes H; van Laar, Teus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review all pharmacological and physiological data available on intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy and to evaluate its use in clinical practice and future research. Data Sources: PubMed was searched for relevant anatomic, physiological, and pharmacological data available on ITB. Study S

  10. [Clinical-pharmacological aspects to accelerate the development process from the preclinical to the clinical phase/1st communication: The contribution of clinical pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    To improve the transition from research to development a critical evaluation of the individual project by research and disease area teams is required to include input from pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, galenics, clinical pharmacology, clinical as well as regulatory experts and marketing. Decisions on the individual development strategy should be made prior to the start of development and all projects should be reviewed at predefined stages throughout the product development life cycle. This ensures consistency of decision-making not only during the development of individual products but throughout the entire development pipeline. Studies in the exploratory stage of drug development should be designed for decision making in contrast to later clinical trials in the confirmatory stage that require power for proof-of-safety and proof-of-efficacy. The more thorough and profound studies have been carried out during this exploratory stage of drug development, the earlier a decision can be made on the continuation or discontinuation of further development, thus saving development time and money and assessing and considerably reducing the risk for the patients and increasing the success rate of the project in the later confirmatory effectiveness trial with an adequate number of subjects receiving the new therapy under typical conditions of use. Strategies which may be helpful to improve the quality of decisions in drug discovery and drug development are: discovery experiments should be done to critically evaluate the compound, the "killer" experiments should be done as early as possible, continuous effort on preclinical disease models is necessary to improve predictability of efficacy in patients ("humanized" research): genomic technology should be used to identify novel, disease-related targets and to characterise preclinical test systems, improvement of knowledge and experience concerning the relevance of new technologies for the clinical picture; genotyping

  11. Safety pharmacology: an essential interface of pharmacology and toxicology in the non-clinical assessment of new pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Jean-Roger; Claude, Nancy

    2004-06-15

    Safety pharmacology studies are defined as the studies that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a substance on physiological functions in relation to exposure. In consequence, these studies are an integral part of the non-clinical safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals, in association with toxicological studies. A retrospective shows the evolution of the discipline in these last years. Safety pharmacology studies are of special interest, and some drawbacks and pitfalls must be considered (i.e. invasive methods, difficulties related to GLP (good laboratory practices) requirements, choice of a strategy). In the future, some priority should be given to education, promotion of scientific activities, reinforcement of the links between pharmacologists and toxicologists and implementation of relevant guidelines.

  12. Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure Research Clinical Advisory Panel (RCAP) Meeting. [Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) Research and Clinical Advisory Panel convened on December 1, 2014 at the ISS Conference Facility in Houston. The panel members were provided updates to the current clinical cases and treatment plans along with the latest research activities (http://humanresearchroadmap.nasa.gov/Risks/?i=105) and preliminary study results. The following is a summary of this meeting.

  13. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVIII. Histamine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panula, Pertti; Chazot, Paul L; Cowart, Marlon; Gutzmer, Ralf; Leurs, Rob; Liu, Wai L S; Stark, Holger; Thurmond, Robin L; Haas, Helmut L

    2015-07-01

    Histamine is a developmentally highly conserved autacoid found in most vertebrate tissues. Its physiological functions are mediated by four 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (H1R, H2R, H3R, H4R) that are all targets of pharmacological intervention. The receptors display molecular heterogeneity and constitutive activity. H1R antagonists are long known antiallergic and sedating drugs, whereas the H2R was identified in the 1970s and led to the development of H2R-antagonists that revolutionized stomach ulcer treatment. The crystal structure of ligand-bound H1R has rendered it possible to design new ligands with novel properties. The H3R is an autoreceptor and heteroreceptor providing negative feedback on histaminergic and inhibition on other neurons. A block of these actions promotes waking. The H4R occurs on immuncompetent cells and the development of anti-inflammatory drugs is anticipated.

  14. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use.

  15. Pre-clinical pharmacology training in a student-centered veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buur, Jennifer L

    2009-01-01

    The appropriate use of therapeutics is important to both human and animal health. The field of pharmacology is rapidly progressing such that it is impossible to convey to students every possible piece of information they will need to know throughout their veterinary careers. Instead, it is more important to train students for lifelong and self-directed learning so that they will be able to adapt to the ever-changing pharmaceutical landscape. Western University of Health Sciences College of Veterinary Medicine teaches pharmacology using a student-centered and problem-based curriculum designed to teach students not only the basics of pharmacology and clinical pharmacology, but also the personal skills needed to continue to learn beyond their formal education. The aim of this manuscript is to document the pharmacology curriculum during phase I of the veterinary curriculum. Review of the graduating class of 2010's exposure to pharmacology learning issues reveals broad-based coverage of major functional and mechanistic drug classes as well as peripheral topics, including pharmacokinetics, legal and ethical issues, and dosing regimen calculations. Previous classes have scored well on external examinations leading to a belief that this pharmacology curriculum provides adequate training for graduate veterinarians.

  16. Clinical pharmacology in leishmaniasis: treatment optimization of a neglected disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents various novel applications of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the treatment of leishmaniasis, by which diverse clinically relevant issues, mainly related to the efficacy and safety of miltefosine, could be elucidated. Throughout this thesis, the added value of

  17. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF A NEW COMPLEX HEPATOPROTECTIVE PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenenko M. P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of the studies of the influence of a new complex hepatoprotective preparation on the basic system of the body, the mechanism of occurrence and manifestation of its biological effects, the dependence of this action from the components that are parts of the preparation, the dose, as well as the regularity of manifestation of possible side effects. The effect of the different doses of the preparation (1% and 2% on the average daily weight gain and morphological and biochemical indices of the birds’ blood was studied. The conducted research determined a stimulatory influence of the preparation on the growth, development and safety of broiler chickens. The new hepatoprotector exhibits the properties aimed on revitalizing the erythro- and hematopoiesis and magnification of the cellular immunity against the exogenous influence. The use of the preparation helps to improve liver function and reduce the toxic load on hepatocytes, which manifests an increase in a number of metabolic parameters, such as total protein, glucose, calcium, phosphorus. We have noted an expressed hepatoprotective effect on the enzyme activity of AST and the remission of the cytolytic syndrome of the experimental chickens. Thereby it was found out that the complex hepatoprotective preparation has a pronounced pharmacological activity, providing a significant impact on the energy of the broiler chickens’ growth and their safety, morphological and biochemical indices of the blood and metabolic processes in the body of the bird

  18. Clinical Pharmacology of Alpha-1 Blockers Improving Drug-profile through Novel Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Rajan P; Ved, Jignesh K

    2014-09-01

    Clinical pharmacology is an essential consideration in chronic therapies, and may play a significant role in modifying the pharmacological characteristics of drug formulations. Improvement in drug formulations may ensure their safe and effective use over a period of time. This has been particularly observed with α-1 adrenergic blockers in hypertension management. Advancements in formulations like prazosin GITS, have resulted in improvement in tolerability profile and smoother, more effective blood pressure control, which reasonably translate into improvement in patient compliance and better clinical outcomes.

  19. Integrating historical clinical and financial data for pharmacological research

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh Vikrant G; Sower N Brett; Hunter Cheri Y; Mitchell Joyce A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Retrospective research requires longitudinal data, and repositories derived from electronic health records (EHR) can be sources of such data. With Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act meaningful use provisions, many institutions are expected to adopt EHRs, but may be left with large amounts of financial and historical clinical data, which can differ significantly from data obtained from newer systems, due to lack or inconsistent use o...

  20. Clinical Pharmacology of Citrus bergamia: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Carmen; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Squeri, Raffaele; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2017-01-01

    Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau ("Bergamot") originated from the Mediterranean ecoregion (southern Italy, Calabria). Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is used in perfumes, cosmetics, and for stress reduction. Juice from C. bergamia has been used for hyperlipidemia. We evaluated literature published on C. bergamia clinical applications. Clinical trials on C. bergamia not combined with other substances, published in English, were searched. We selected ten articles, six describing BEO effects on stress, three reporting effects of polyphenolic fraction of C. bergamia juice in hyperlipidemia and the last describing BEO effects in chronic psoriasis. Clinical studies were analyzed following Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials for herbal therapy. Studies were conducted on small sample sizes and not have high quality level. Analysis indicates that BEO aromatherapy could be safe and useful to reduce stress symptoms. One study suggests its potential supportive role in ultraviolet B therapy against psoriasis. Supplementation with polyphenols from bergamot juice reduces plasma lipids and improves lipoprotein profile in moderate hyperlipidemia. Effectiveness and safety of C. bergamia cannot be definitively drawn because of publication bias and low quality level of the majority of studies. Further large-scale trials with rigorous design are required to define the role of C. bergamia in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology and Child Health:A Canadian Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stuart Macleod

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction Canadian academic centres and children's hospitals have had a longstanding interest in the improvement of drug therapy for children through research conducted across the four pillars of activity identified as being of critical importance by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research(viz,basic research,clinical research,population health research,applied health and policy research)[1].

  2. Integrating historical clinical and financial data for pharmacological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh Vikrant G

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retrospective research requires longitudinal data, and repositories derived from electronic health records (EHR can be sources of such data. With Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH Act meaningful use provisions, many institutions are expected to adopt EHRs, but may be left with large amounts of financial and historical clinical data, which can differ significantly from data obtained from newer systems, due to lack or inconsistent use of controlled medical terminologies (CMT in older systems. We examined different approaches for semantic enrichment of financial data with CMT, and integration of clinical data from disparate historical and current sources for research. Methods Snapshots of financial data from 1999, 2004 and 2009 were mapped automatically to the current inpatient pharmacy catalog, and enriched with RxNorm. Administrative metadata from financial and dispensing systems, RxNorm and two commercial pharmacy vocabularies were used to integrate data from current and historical inpatient pharmacy modules, and the outpatient EHR. Data integration approaches were compared using percentages of automated matches, and effects on cohort size of a retrospective study. Results During 1999-2009, 71.52%-90.08% of items in use from the financial catalog were enriched using RxNorm; 64.95%-70.37% of items in use from the historical inpatient system were integrated using RxNorm, 85.96%-91.67% using a commercial vocabulary, 87.19%-94.23% using financial metadata, and 77.20%-94.68% using dispensing metadata. During 1999-2009, 48.01%-30.72% of items in use from the outpatient catalog were integrated using RxNorm, and 79.27%-48.60% using a commercial vocabulary. In a cohort of 16304 inpatients obtained from clinical systems, 4172 (25.58% were found exclusively through integration of historical clinical data, while 15978 (98% could be identified using semantically enriched financial data. Conclusions

  3. Clinical pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of cis-platinum and analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaud, P; Gouveia, J; Bonnay, M; Mathe, G

    1981-01-01

    cis-Platinum (DDP), the first metal coordination complex introduced into clinical trials, is remarkable for its therapeutic index. A short review of the numerator of this index, ie, the clinical activities of DDP given as a single agent or in combination therapy is presented. Toxicity of DDP, the denominator of the index, is given more attention, particularly nephrotoxicity, whose cumulative character and molecular mechanism are still in question and which can most often be prevented by following certain safety rules that are detailed in this paper. Pharmacokinetics data of free and filterable platinum are reviewed and discussed according to the different modalities of administration of DDP, and to what is known about its toxicity and its mechanism of cell kill. The rationale for using DDP in combination treatment is presented and the question of possible long-term toxicities is raised. cis-platinum analogs are sought for the purpose of enlarging the spectrum of activity, increasing selectivity and diminishing toxicity. Malonato-platinum has been shown not to be cross-resistant with DDP and to be clinically effective in adult acute leukemia. In a phase I study, malonato-platinum, which is poorly soluble, was administered in 6-24-hour infusions to 49 patients in doses ranging from 3 to 32 mg/kg. GI toxicity was universal. Hematological toxicity appeared to be mild and not clearly dose-related (the 3-32 mg/kg patients were not yet evaluable). Platinum pharmacokinetics in urine and plasma were performed using flameless absorption spectrophotometry. Preliminary results have suggested that malonato-platinum presented several pharmacokinetic features in common with DDP. Minor responses were seen in four solid tumor patients, three of whom were refractory to DDP. Other analogs soon to be introduced into clinical trials are listed.

  4. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia: a critical review of the pharmacology and clinical effects of current and future therapeutic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, S; Miyake, N; Jarskog, L F; Fleischhacker, W W; Lieberman, J A

    2012-12-01

    of comparable or superior efficacy and side-effect profiles to existing APDs; (2) development of novel (and presumably non-D(2)) mechanism APDs; (3) development of compounds to be used as adjuncts to APDs to augment efficacy by targeting specific symptom dimensions of schizophrenia and particularly those not responsive to traditional APD treatment. In addition, efforts are being made to determine if the products of susceptibility genes in schizophrenia, identified by genetic linkage and association studies, may be viable targets for drug development. Finally, a focus on early detection and early intervention aimed at halting or reversing progressive pathophysiological processes in schizophrenia has gained great influence. This has encouraged future drug development and therapeutic strategies that are neuroprotective. This article provides an update and critical review of the pharmacology and clinical profiles of current APDs and drugs acting on novel targets with potential to be therapeutic agents in the future.

  5. Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA...

  6. North-south collaboration in clinical pharmacological research of HIV treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, Rafaëlla Francisca Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents the first output of a North-South (Europe-Africa) collaboration in clinical pharmacological research of HIV treatment. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs are highly variable in the paediatric population as children mature and grow rapidly and individually until they are ad

  7. [History of clinical pharmacology in France: adaptation, evaluation, defense and illustration of drug in France 1978-1981].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This text illustrates some unknown aspects of the history and beginnings of clinical pharmacology in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s From the current situation, development and objectives of clinical pharmacology are recalled as well as obstacles necessary to overcome to change the paradigm in the field of drug evaluation and appropriate use in France. The text recalls this important moment where French medicine and medical pharmacology entered the modern era.

  8. Antiplatelet agents and Anticoagulants: from pharmacology to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoumani, Maria E; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2017-01-24

    Thrombosis is the formation of potentially deadly blood clots in the artery (arterial thrombosis) or vein (venous thrombosis). Since thrombosis is one of the main causes of death worldwide, the development of antithrombotic agents is a global medical priority. They are subdivided into antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants. Antiplatelet agents inhibit clot formation by preventing platelet activation and aggregation, while anticoagulants primarily inhibit the coagulation cascade and fibrin formation. Therapeutics within each category differs with respect to the mechanism of action, time to onset, duration of effect and route of administration. In this review, we critically discuss their main pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics as well as recent advances in daily clinical practice.

  9. [Main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhen-zhen; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuan-jie; Zhang, Chen-feng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-03-01

    Guizhi Fuling capsule is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of five kinds of medicinal plants, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Poria, Moutan Cortex, Persicae Semen, and Paeoniae Radix Alba. Pharmacology studies have shown that Guizhi Fuling capsule has many activities: anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, regulating smooth muscle, endocrine regulation and enhancing immunity. It achieved obvious effects in the treatment of uterine fibroids, pelvic inflammatory disease, dysmenorrheal, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, breast hyperplasia and other gynecological diseases. This paper reviewed the main progress on studies of pharmacological activities and clinical applications of Guizhi Fuling capsule in recent years.

  10. Impulse control disorders: updated review of clinical characteristics and pharmacological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E Grant

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders (ICDs are characterized by urges and behaviors that are excessive and/or harmful to oneself or others and cause significant impairment in social and occupational functioning, as well as legal and financial difficulties. ICDs are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by the general public, clinicians, and individuals struggling with the disorder. Although ICD treatment research is limited, studies have shown ICDs may respond well to pharmacological treatment. This article presents a brief overview about the clinical characteristics of ICDs and pharmacological treatment options for individuals with ICDs.

  11. [Clinical and pharmacological aspects of pancreatic enzyme substitution therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, C; Fölsch, U R

    1991-03-01

    The adequate therapy of pancreatic enzyme replacement in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is still a difficult clinical problem especially in patients following pancreatectomys, with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis or cystic fibrosis. The substitution of lipase to eliminate steatorrhoea is the most important aim but due to its acid lability even the most serious problem in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy. Various different medications are meanwhile available: conventional preparations from porcine pancreatin or fungal enzymes as rizolipase, enteric-coated tablets or even enteric-coated microspheres or adjunctive therapy with H2-receptor antagonists. While dosage requirements vary widely and therefore have to be tried out individually, the choice of the adequate preparation should be influenced by the realization of the physiological and pathophysiological characteristics of the individual patient and the pharmaceutical characteristics of the different supplements. The advantages and disadvantages of the various medications for enzyme replacement therapy in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency are reviewed in this article.

  12. Pharmacological basis and clinical evidence of dabigatran therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redondo Santiago

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dabigatran is an emerging oral anticoagulant which is a direct inhibitor of thrombin activity. It has been approved in the European Union and the United States of America for the prevention of thrombosis after major orthopedic surgery. It has also been approved by the American Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the prevention of stroke in chronic atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran provides a stable anticoagulation effect without any need to perform periodical laboratory controls. Of note, there is a growing amount of clinical evidence which shows its safety and efficacy. For these reasons, dabigatran may suppose a revolution in oral anticoagulation. However, two important limitations remain. First, it is contraindicated in patients with end-stage renal disease. Second, there is no evidence of the prevention of thrombosis in mechanical heart valves.

  13. Preliminary clinical pharmacological investigations of tylosin and tiamulin in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G

    1980-10-15

    The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin and tylosin for mycoplasma, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative micro-organisms isolated from chickens were determinated by the agar dilution method. Median MIC values for tiamulin against Mycoplasma gallisepticum (0.05 microgram/ml) and Mycoplasma synoviae (0.10 microgram/ml) were 2 to 4 times lower than the corresponding values for tylosin. Tiamulin was also slightly more effective in vitro in inhibiting Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, and beta-haemolytic streptococci than was tylosin. Groups of chicken were offered tiamulin medicated drinking water at rates of 125 and 250 mg/litre for 48 hours. Average serum tiamulin concentrations were 0.38 and 0.78 microgram/ml, respectively. When tylosin tartrate was added to the drinking water at 500 and 700 mg/litre, average serum drug levels were 0.12 and 0.17 microgram/ml, respectively. Tiamulin was 45% bound in chicken serum, as against 30% serum protein binding for tylosin. Correlations were made between free (non protein bound) serum drug levels and the MIC values of the two drugs. Such comparisons suggest that when tiamulin is given in the drinking water at rates of 125 to 250 mg/litre, better antimycoplasmal activity is to be expected in vivo than by giving tylosin tartrate in the drinking water at 500 to 700 mg/litre. Based on these data, no clinical efficacy of these dose rates can be expected in flocks infected by gram-negative micro-organisms such as E. coli or P. multocida. The tylosin tartrate rate of 500 to 700 mg/litre, may be clinical ineffective the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections.

  14. [Note on the epistemology of clinical pharmacology: comparison with the approach of Karl Popper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P

    1999-01-01

    Is clinical pharmacology a science or only an application of science? Karl Popper suggested a method to identify science and to sort it out from other logical activities such as metaphysics, whereby the falsification criterion he proposed can apply to the theory in such a way that the theory could be refuted. The clinical pharmacologist's approach requires the build-up of a therapeutic model on the basis of two other models: the physiopathologic and the pharmacological. The three-model construct is a theory. Is it scientific in the Popperian sense? From the therapeutic model, one can predict the efficacy of a drug, and the corresponding statement is tested by a clinical trial. Whatever the original statement, it is modified into a refutable one because of the use of the statistical approach in clinical trials. Furthermore, the predicate represents a hypothesis of the model validity, which will then be confronted with 'reality' through clinical experiment. As the therapeutic model is refutable, clinical pharmacology is a science in the Popperian sense.

  15. The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, Paul; Shaw, Monica; McCarthy, Suzanne; Sallee, Floyd R

    2012-03-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment options include pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches. In North America, psychostimulants (amphetamine and methylphenidate) are considered first-line pharmacological treatments for patients (children, adolescents and adults) with ADHD. However, in the UK, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines have placed short-acting d-amphetamine as a third-line treatment option due to a lack of contemporary, published clinical trials on its efficacy and the concerns from clinical and patient experts regarding the potential for increased abuse and/or misuse compared with methylphenidate. These guidelines do not account for some of the more recent amphetamine products that have been developed to alleviate some of these concerns, but that are not currently approved in the UK or other European countries. The purpose of this review is to describe the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of various amphetamine compositions, as well as to explore the apparent differences in these compositions and their associated risks and benefits. A PubMed literature search was conducted to investigate amphetamine pharmacology, clinical efficacy and safety and ADHD outcomes in the published literature from 1980 through March 2011. Search terms included the keywords 'ADHD' or 'ADD' or 'hyperkinetic disorder' and any of the following keywords combined with 'or': 'amphetamine', 'dexamphetamine', 'mixed amphetamine salts', 'lisdexamfetamine' and 'methamphetamine'. The search included English-language primary research articles and review articles but excluded editorial articles and commentaries. The literature search resulted in 330 articles. Pertinent articles relating to amphetamine pharmacology, compositions, clinical efficacy and safety, effectiveness and tolerability, ADHD outcomes and abuse liability were included in this review. The different delivery profiles of amphetamine compositions result in

  16. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher's role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components.

  17. [Discussion on strengthening yin of chinese herbs with bitter-flavor clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Mei; Bao; Zhaorigetu; Zhuang, Xin-Ying; Que, Ling; Tian, Chang-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is the subject that study of basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, property of Chinese materia medica and clinical application. The study on the standardization research of the terminology of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology is an important premise and foundation to standardization, modernization and internationalization, informationization construction of clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology and is also the important content of the subject construction. To provide some exploring ideas for clinical traditional Chinese pharmacology noun terminology standardization, this article elaborates the concept of strengthening Yin with bitter-flavor herbs in several aspects, such as connotation and the historical origin, the clinical application in the traditional, modern clinic application, and the modern basic research and so on.

  18. Bryophyllum pinnatum and Related Species Used in Anthroposophic Medicine: Constituents, Pharmacological Activities, and Clinical Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürer, Karin; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; von Mandach, Ursula; Hamburger, Matthias; Potterat, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. Kalanchoe pinnata) is a succulent perennial plant native to Madagascar that was introduced in anthroposophic medicine in the early 20th century. In recent years, we conducted a large collaborative project to provide reliable data on the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, and clinical efficacy of Bryophyllum. Here, we comprehensively review the phytochemistry, as well as the pharmacological and clinical data. As to the pharmacology, special emphasis is given to properties related to the use in anthroposophic medicine as a treatment for "hyperactivity diseases", such as preterm labor, restlessness, and sleep disorders. Studies suggesting that B. pinnatum may become a new treatment option for overactive bladder syndrome are also reviewed. Tolerability is addressed, and toxicological data are discussed in conjunction with the presence of potentially toxic bufadienolides in Bryophyllum species. The few data available on two related species with medicinal uses, Bryophyllum daigremontianum and Bryophyllum delagoense, have also been included. Taken together, current data support the use of B. pinnatum for the mentioned indications, but further studies are needed to fully understand the modes of action, and to identify the pharmacologically active constituents.

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Identification of Practical Pharmacology Skills Useful for Good Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shilpa, R. Divya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness about animal ethics is increasing everywhere. This increased awareness coupled with strict regulations discouraging the use of animals for routine experiments have tied the hands of many pharmacologists. They are now forced to develop alternative experiments without using animals. At present, there is acute need to come out with more innovative and useful practical exercises for pharmacology practical sessions. In this background, the present study was undertaken to develop the much-needed alternative experiments. Aims and Objective: To identify new pharmacological practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Material and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to 110 doctors of different categories like house surgeons, postgraduate students, assistant professors and professors who are working in a tertiary care hospital. They were asked to give their suggestions regarding new pharmacology practical skills useful for good clinical practice. Statistical analysis: Responses of the participants to the questions asked were tabulated and analyzed. Suggestions given by them were listed out and studied. Results: Use of emergency drugs, dosage calculation, drugs used in pregnancy, case discussions and prescription writing exercises received a lot of support from the participants. Research methodology, cost calculation, animal experiments and interpretation of data of animal experiments did not receive support from the participants. Suggestions given by the participants regarding useful pharmacological skills belonged to the areas like therapeutics, safe use of drugs, recent advances, analysis of information given by the medical representatives and analyzing articles in journals for knowing the efficacy of drugs. Conclusion: Exercises relevant to the clinical practice, as identified in this study, can be introduced as practical pharmacology exercises. Steps are to be taken to highlight the importance of research

  20. Development and validation of evaluation tools of nursing students’ clinical pharmacology unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabi, Nasrin; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Shamsalinia, Abbas; Faghani, Safieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The need for valid, reliable, and objective tools has always been emphasized in studies related to the clinical assessment of nursing students. The aims of this study were to develop and assess the validity and reliability of the tools used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit. Methods This study was a methodological one, conducted in 2016. An item pool was developed based on the literature review and personal interviews with faculty members. The tool’s validity was determined through assessment of face validity, content validity, and construct validity, using exploratory factor analysis on the data provided by 264 second- and third-semester nursing students of the Islamic Azad University of Babol University of Medical Sciences. Reliability was determined through internal and external consistency, using a Cronbach’s coefficient of the correlation between classes. Results Based on the exploratory factor analysis, all items with a special value of >1 were grouped into six factors: 1) professional behavior; 2) effective communication; 3) recognition of medical terminology; 4) nursing actions before administering medicine; 5) nursing actions while administering medicine; and 6) nursing actions after administering medicine. These factors explained 77% of the total variance of the concept of assessment of the clinical pharmacology unit. In this study, reliability was demonstrated by a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.96; the correlation coefficient between floors for the total tool was 0.91, ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 in its dimensions. Conclusion The evaluation tool of the clinical pharmacology unit has an acceptable construct validity and satisfactory reliability and validity. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the clinical pharmacology unit in the nursing education system in Iran. PMID:28008285

  1. How should teaching of undergraduates in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Simon R J

    2012-06-01

    Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics is the academic discipline that informs rational prescribing of medicines. There is accumulating evidence that a significant minority of prescriptions in the UK National Health Service contain errors. This comes at a time when the approach to and success of undergraduate education in this area has been called into question. Various stakeholders are now in agreement that this challenging area of undergraduate education needs to be strengthened. The principles that should form the basis of future educational strategy include greater visibility of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in the curriculum, clear learning outcomes that are consistent with national guidance, strong and enthusiastic leadership, a student formulary, opportunities to practice prescribing, a robust assessment of prescribing competencies and external quality control. Important new developments in the UK are Prescribe, a repository of e-learning materials to support education in clinical pharmacology and prescribing, and the Prescribing Skills Assessment, a national online assessment designed to allow medical students to demonstrate that they have achieved the core competencies required to begin postgraduate training.

  2. Optimizing oncology therapeutics through quantitative translational and clinical pharmacology: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, K; Friberg, L E; Ouellet, D; Mettetal, J T; Stein, A; Trocóniz, I F; Bruno, R; Mehrotra, N; Gobburu, J; Mould, D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in biomedical research that have deepened our understanding of cancer hallmarks, resulting in the discovery and development of targeted therapies, the success rates of oncology drug development remain low. Opportunities remain for objective dose selection informed by exposure-response understanding to optimize the benefit-risk balance of novel therapies for cancer patients. This review article discusses the principles and applications of modeling and simulation approaches across the lifecycle of development of oncology therapeutics. Illustrative examples are used to convey the value gained from integration of quantitative clinical pharmacology strategies from the preclinical-translational phase through confirmatory clinical evaluation of efficacy and safety.

  3. Pharmacology of dextromethorphan: Relevance to dextromethorphan/quinidine (Nuedexta®) clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles P; Traynelis, Stephen F; Siffert, Joao; Pope, Laura E; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2016-08-01

    Dextromethorphan (DM) has been used for more than 50years as an over-the-counter antitussive. Studies have revealed a complex pharmacology of DM with mechanisms beyond blockade of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and inhibition of glutamate excitotoxicity, likely contributing to its pharmacological activity and clinical potential. DM is rapidly metabolized to dextrorphan, which has hampered the exploration of DM therapy separate from its metabolites. Coadministration of DM with a low dose of quinidine inhibits DM metabolism, yields greater bioavailability and enables more specific testing of the therapeutic properties of DM apart from its metabolites. The development of the drug combination DM hydrobromide and quinidine sulfate (DM/Q), with subsequent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration for pseudobulbar affect, led to renewed interest in understanding DM pharmacology. This review summarizes the interactions of DM with brain receptors and transporters and also considers its metabolic and pharmacokinetic properties. To assess the potential clinical relevance of these interactions, we provide an analysis comparing DM activity from in vitro functional assays with the estimated free drug DM concentrations in the brain following oral DM/Q administration. The findings suggest that DM/Q likely inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and also blocks NMDA receptors with rapid kinetics. Use of DM/Q may also antagonize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly those composed of α3β4 subunits, and cause agonist activity at sigma-1 receptors.

  4. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... person on or before July 19, 2011. Oral presentations from the public will be scheduled between... discuss presentations by the Office of Generic Drugs (OGD) on bioequivalence issues and quality standards relative to narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drug products as a class. In response to feedback during...

  5. Genetic variability of pain perception and treatment--clinical pharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötsch, Jörn

    2011-06-01

    Evidence of a genetic control of pain has led to efforts to exploit genotyping information from pain patients for the development of analgesics and for the selection of pharmacological approaches to pain. Research on translating the genetic bases of familial insensitivity to pain has contributed to the discovery of crucial molecular pathways of pain and to the identification of new analgesic targets (e.g., the Na(v)1.7 sodium channel, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptors, nerve growth factor). Moreover, human genetic variants leading to enhanced or reduced function of specific molecular pathways are employed as substitutes for the lack of modulator molecules usable in humans, enabling nociceptive or anti-nociceptive pathways in humans to be studied before drug development. Translational approaches have also been used to verify the importance of experimentally discovered pain pathways in humans, such as GTP cyclohydrolase 1 and the potassium channel K(v)9.1. In addition to these uses of genetics as a research tool, an individualized pharmacological therapy based on the patient's genotype has been attempted. In terms of analgesics in clinical use, such an approach is at the present time only marginally available. For future analgesic targeting, for example, Na(v)1.7 or TRPA1, the genotype may be the target of a selective cure for syndromes caused by increased-function mutations in the coding genes. The consideration of human genetics in drug studies may accelerate analgesic drug development while reducing cost because the clinical success may be partly anticipated by including information of functional genetic variants that mimic the action of future analgesics. These developments show that genotyping information obtained from studies on pain patients plays a role in the clinical pharmacology of pain.

  6. Ethynilestradiol 20 mcg plus Levonorgestrel 100 mcg: Clinical Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Estroprogestins (EPs are combinations of estrogen and progestin with several actions on women’s health. The different pharmacological composition of EPs is responsible for different clinical effects. One of the most used low-dose EP associations is ethinylestradiol 20 mcg plus levonorgestrel 100 mcg in monophasic regimen (EE20/LNG100. This review summarizes clinical pharmacology, cycle control, and effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, coagulation, body weight/body composition, acne, and sexuality of EE20/LNG100. Overall, EE20/LNG100 combination is safe and well tolerated, and in several studies the incidence of adverse events in the treated group was comparable to that of the placebo group. Cycle control was effective and body weight/body composition did not vary among treated and untreated groups in most studies. The EE20/LNG100 combination shows mild or no effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. Lastly, EE20/LNG100 is associated with a low risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE. In conclusion, in the process of decision making for the individualization of EPs choice, EE20/LNG100 should be considered for its favorable clinical profile.

  7. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  8. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXVII. Kisspeptin Receptor Nomenclature, Distribution, and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Helen R.; Maguire, Janet J.; Colledge, William H.; Davenport, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    Kisspeptins are members of the Arg-Phe amide family of peptides, which have been identified as endogenous ligands for a G-protein-coupled receptor encoded by a gene originally called GPR54 (also known as AXOR12 or hOT7T175). After this pairing, the gene has been renamed KISS1R. The International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification recommends that the official name for the receptor is the kisspeptin receptor to follow the conventi...

  9. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XC. multisite pharmacology: recommendations for the nomenclature of receptor allosterism and allosteric ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, Arthur; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Burris, Thomas P; Cidlowski, John A; Olsen, Richard W; Peters, John A; Neubig, Richard R; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Sexton, Patrick M; Kenakin, Terry P; Ehlert, Frederick J; Spedding, Michael; Langmead, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    Allosteric interactions play vital roles in metabolic processes and signal transduction and, more recently, have become the focus of numerous pharmacological studies because of the potential for discovering more target-selective chemical probes and therapeutic agents. In addition to classic early studies on enzymes, there are now examples of small molecule allosteric modulators for all superfamilies of receptors encoded by the genome, including ligand- and voltage-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. As a consequence, a vast array of pharmacologic behaviors has been ascribed to allosteric ligands that can vary in a target-, ligand-, and cell-/tissue-dependent manner. The current article presents an overview of allostery as applied to receptor families and approaches for detecting and validating allosteric interactions and gives recommendations for the nomenclature of allosteric ligands and their properties.

  10. Recent developments in studies of l-stepholidine and its analogs: chemistry, pharmacology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiao; Guo, Yang; Yang, Yu-She; Shen, Jing-Shan; Jin, Guo-Zhang; Zhen, Xuechu

    2007-01-01

    Tetrahydroprotoberberines (THPBs) represent a series of compounds extracted from the Chinese herb Corydalis ambigua and various species of Stephania. THPBs, dependent on the presence of hydroxyl groups in its structure, are divided into three types: nonhydroxyl-THPBs, monohydroxyl-THPBs and dihydroxyl-THPBs. THPBs are identified as a new category of dopamine receptor ligands. Among all THPBs, dihydroxyl-THPBs attracted particular attention because of their dual actions on dopamine (DA) receptors. They exhibit D(1) receptor agonistic activity while acting as D(2) receptor antagonists. This unique pharmacological profile made dihydroxyl-THPBs such as l-stepholidine (l-SPD) potential agents in the treatment of drug addiction, Parkinson's disease, and especially, schizophrenia. Clinical studies have shown that co-administration of l-SPD with a typical antipsychotic drug significantly enhances the therapeutic effects and remarkably reduces the tardive dyskinesia induced by the typical antipsychotic drug used with schizophrenic patients. Moreover, l-SPD alone was shown to have therapeutic value without inducing significant extrapyramidal side effects and also seemed to reduce the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This is confirmed in experimental studies using animal models of schizophrenia, in which l-SPD improved social interaction and cognitive function, inhibited hyperactivity in schizophrenic animals. This review discusses the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical implications of l-THPBs in the drug development for psychosis and neurobiological diseases.

  11. Clinical pharmacology of tyrosine kinase inhibitors becoming generic drugs: the regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Niels; Röper, Lea; Haas, Bodo; Potthast, Henrike; Hermes, Ulrike; Unkrig, Christoph; Naumann-Winter, Frauke; Enzmann, Harald

    2014-02-07

    Over the last decades, billions have been spent and huge efforts have been taken in basic and clinical cancer research [CA Cancer J Clin63:11-30]. About a decade ago, the arms race between drugs and cancer cells reached a new level by introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) into pharmacological anti-cancer therapy. According to their molecular mechanism of action, TKI in contrast to so-called "classic" or "conventional" cytostatics belong to the group of targeted cancer medicines, characterized by accurately fitting with biological structures (i.e. active centers of kinases). Numerous (partly orphan) indications are covered by this new class of substances. Approximately ten years after the first substances of this class of medicines were authorized, patent protection will end within the next years. The following article covers clinical meaning and regulatory status of anti-cancer TKI and gives an outlook to what is expected from the introduction of generic anti-cancer TKI.

  12. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions.

  13. Long-term randomized clinical trials of pharmacological treatment of obesity: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Castañeda-González

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has become a public health problem. The increment in energy intake and the reduction of caloric expenditure as a result of sedentary lifestyles promotes a positive energetic balance resulting in the increase of fat deposits. In response to this, the prescription of pharmacological treatments has also increased. Objective: To evaluate the long-term weight loss effectiveness of pharmacological treatments. Methodology: A systematic review was conducted on randomized clinical trials registered in Pub Med, Scielo, and EBSCOHOST from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2008, including those with an intervention program with orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant equal or greater to two years. Two hundred and twelve articles were identified, 201 studies were excluded, and eleven were analyzed; seven from orlistat, two from sibutramine, and two from rimonabant. Information of design, intervention time, number of patients, age, body mass index and weight loss, difference between the intervention group versus the placebo, significance level, and methodological quality were obtained. Main findings: The percentage of weight loss with orlistat ranged between 5 and 12%, the mean weight loss was 8 kg, and a difference between IG vs. placebo of 3.7 kg. Weight loss with sibutramine ranged between 4 and 10%, the mean weight loss was 7.4 kg and a difference between the intervention group versus placebo was 5.5 kg. Weight loss with rimonabant was 7% with a mean weight loss of 7.3 kg, and the difference compared with the placebo was 4.4 kg. Conclusions: Weight loss with pharmacotherapy is modest; weight regain after interruption of treatment, adverse effects, costs and lack of evidence related to long-term morbi-mortality, do not justify the generalized use of pharmacological treatment of obesity.

  14. Long-term randomized clinical trials of pharmacological treatment of obesity: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Castañeda-González

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity has become a public health problem. The increment in energy intake and the reduction of caloric expenditure as a result of sedentary lifestyles promotes a positive energetic balance resulting in the increase of fat deposits. In response to this, the prescription of pharmacological treatments has also increased.Objective: To evaluate the long-term weight loss effectiveness of pharmacological treatments.Methodology: A systematic review was conducted on randomized clinical trials registered in Pub Med, Scielo, and EBSCOHOST from January 1st 1999 to December 31st 2008, including those with an intervention program with orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant equal or greater to two years. Two hundred and twelve articles were identified, 201 studies were excluded, and eleven were analyzed; seven from orlistat, two from sibutramine, and two from rimonabant. Information of design, intervention time, number of patients, age, body mass index and weight loss, difference between the intervention group versus the placebo, significance level, and methodological quality were obtained.Main findings: The percentage of weight loss with orlistat ranged between 5 and 12%, the mean weight loss was 8 kg, and a difference between IG vs. placebo of 3.7 kg. Weight loss with sibutramine ranged between 4 and 10%, the mean weight loss was 7.4 kg and a difference between the intervention group versus placebo was 5.5 kg. Weight loss with rimonabant was 7% with a mean weight loss of 7.3 kg, and the difference compared with the placebo was 4.4 kg.Conclusions: Weight loss with pharmacotherapy is modest; weight regain after interruption of treatment, adverse effects, costs and lack of evidence related to long-term morbi-mortality, do not justify the generalized use of pharmacological treatment of obesity.

  15. Carthami flos: a review of its ethnopharmacology, pharmacology and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Tu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCarthami flos, the dried floret of Carthamus tinctorius L., Asteraceae (safflower, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a broad range of ailments, such as coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, gynecologic disease, stroke, and hypertension. However, although several studies on Carthami flos have been done consecutively, the results are usually scattered across various documents. This review aims to provide up-to-date information on the traditional uses, pharmacology, clinical applications, and toxicology of Carthami flos in China and thereby to provide a basis for further investigation of its use to treat dissimilar diseases. Various ethnomedical uses of Carthami flos have been documented in many ancient Chinese books. Crude extracts and isolated compounds from Carthami flos show a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as protective effects on brain tissue, on osteoblasts, and in myocardial ischemia, as well as anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antitumor, and antidiabetic activities. To date, safflower and safflor yellow injections have been used to treat coronary heart disease, chronic pulmonary heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, orthopedic diseases, and diabetes mellitus. Regarding the toxicology of Carthami flos, among the side effects that have been observed are allergic reaction, spermatogenetic failure, fatty liver, and nephrotoxicity.

  16. Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: clinical and pharmacological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquin, M R; Scipioni, O; Vaamonde, J; Gershanik, O; Obeso, J A

    1992-01-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be classified into three main categories: "On" dyskinesias, diphasic dyskinesias (DD), and "off" periods. The study of 168 parkinsonian patients showed that about half (n = 84) showed one pattern of LID only. A combination of two was present in 68, and 16 had the three presentation patterns. A fairly good correlation between type of dyskinesia and presentation pattern was established. Chorea, myoclonus, and dystonic movements occurred during the "on" period. Dystonic postures, particularly affecting the feet, were mainly present in the "off" period, but a few patients had a diphasic presentation. Repetitive stereotyped movements of the lower limbs always corresponded to DD. Acute pharmacological tests using dopamine agonists (subcutaneous apomorphine 3-8 mg; intravenous lisuride 0.1-0.15 mg) and dopamine antagonists (intravenous sulpiride 200-400 mg and intravenous chlorpromazine 25 mg) were performed in 40 patients. Dopamine agonists enhanced "on" dyskinesias and markedly reduced or abolished "off" period dystonia and DD. Dopamine antagonists reduced all types of LID but usually aggravated parkinsonism. These clinical and pharmacological results indicate that LID in PD are a heterogeneous phenomenon difficult to explain on the basis of a single pathophysiological mechanism.

  17. An updated review on the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical trials of Salacia oblonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Singh Kushwaha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Salacia oblonga (S. oblonga, a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. oblonga and to review the scientific data including active components and their multi-targeted mechanisms of action against various metabolic syndromes. We also included clinical trials related to this plant in this review. The overview would assist researchers to gather scientific information related to S. oblonga in future.

  18. An Updated Review on the Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Clinical Trials of Salacia oblonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Priya Singh; Singh, Ashok K.; Keshari, Amit K.; Maity, Siddhartha; Saha, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga (S. oblonga), a perennial herb, has been used for thousands of years in ayurvedic medicine and is closely associated with prevention, treatment, and cure of various human ailments such as obesity and diabetes. A vast and wide range of chemical compounds such as polyphenols, friedelane-type triterpenes, norfriedelane-type triterpenes, eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes including various glycosides had been isolated from this plant. This review is aimed to survey the literature covering the phytochemistry and pharmacology of S. oblonga and to review the scientific data including active components and their multi-targeted mechanisms of action against various metabolic syndromes. We also included clinical trials related to this plant in this review. The overview would assist researchers to gather scientific information related to S. oblonga in future. PMID:28082793

  19. Applied clinical pharmacology and public health in rural Asia – preventing deaths from organophosphorus pesticide and yellow oleander poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Eddleston, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Self-poisoning with pesticides or plants is a major clinical problem in rural Asia, killing several hundred thousand people every year. Over the last 17 years, our clinical toxicology and pharmacology group has carried out clinical studies in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka to improve treatment and reduce deaths. Studies have looked at the effectiveness of anti-digoxin Fab in cardiac glycoside plant poisoning, multiple dose activated charcoal in all poisoning, and pralidoxime in moder...

  20. Design and practice of the integrated pharmacology course in the organ- and system-based clinical medicine undergraduate teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHU; Zheng-xing RONG; Yong-yao CUI; Hong CHEN; Juan LI; Hong-zhuan CHEN

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacology is a discipline bridging basic medicine and clinical medicine. Under the disciplinebased structure,derived from the characteristics of drugs,students study pharmacology for the rational use of the drugs targeting pathophysiological status according to the diseases and the symptoms. Under the organsystem-based teaching systems,the part of the principle of pharmacology is put into the basic medicine integrated module system and the other parts are divided into the according organ-system integrated courses,respectively. It is important for clinical teaching that the domestic and international status,the role and mutual relationship in and between the integrated course system,the designation and practice of the course,the problems to be addressed of the course can be understood.

  1. How should training of graduates in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics be delivered and assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The UK postgraduate curriculum in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT) incorporates the common competencies required of all physicians and shows how trainees from other specialties, including primary care, can train in CPT. Various models of training and assessment are possible. Evolution of the current system to meet new challenges would maintain an established tradition, with a ready source of training funds. However, this would require greater input from all consultants in CPT, including the training and assessment of trainees. A joint venture with the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Medicine would have the advantage, if the Faculty agreed, of introducing ready-made curriculum modules and assessment tools that have been accepted by the General Medical Council. However, extra modules relevant to CPT would have to be constructed to complement the common areas already in the pharmaceutical medicine curriculum, and there would be a perceived loss of the independence that clinical pharmacologists currently enjoy when making decisions about manufacturers' products. Abandoning externally approved training in CPT would allow the specialty to devise its own training and assessment in the necessary skills. Critically, however, this would impair the status of the specialty and would incur loss of financial support from postgraduate Deaneries. To attract high-calibre trainees, we must completely define CPT training and assessment structures. Most clinical pharmacologists seem to prefer to allow the current structures to evolve under external guidance. However, this will not succeed unless all trained clinical pharmacologists contribute to development of both the curriculum and specific assessment tools, and open their teaching and assessment skills to scrutiny.

  2. Comments on: Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Comments on:Qaseem A., Humphrey L.L., Sweet D.E., Starkey M., Shekelle P. Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Feb 7;156(3):218-31.

  3. Comments on: Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A Pigarova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on:Qaseem A., Humphrey L.L., Sweet D.E., Starkey M., Shekelle P. Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012 Feb 7;156(3:218-31.

  4. Clinical and Pharmacologic Study of the Novel Prodrug Delimotecan (MEN 4901/T-0128) in Patients with Solid Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, Stephan A.; Witteveen, Els O.; Capriati, Angela; Crea, Attilio; Animati, Fabio; Voogel-Fuchs, Marja; van den Heuvel, Ingeborg J. G. M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Voest, Emile E.; Schellens, Jan H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate i.v. administration of delimotecan (MEN 4901/T-0128), a carboxymethyldextran polymer prodrug of the active camptothecin derivative T-2513, and to assess the maximum tolerated dose, safety profile, clinical pharmacology, and antitumor activity of delimotecan and metabolites. E

  5. Special issue of clinical pharmacology: advances and applications in new protein therapeutics modulating tumor immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankel AE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Arthur E Frankel Department of Internal Medicine, Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Until recent decades, the role of the immune system in harnessing tumor growth was based on anecdotal observations of increased cancers in immune-compromised patients, the benefits of graft-versus-leukemia in allogeneic stem cell transplants, and the limited but reproducible anticancer activity of several lymphokines, including interferon and interleukin (IL-2. Vaccine studies and infusions of "activated" lymphocytes yielded variable clinical responses and disease control. An improved understanding of the molecular and cell mechanisms of the innate and adaptive immune system in cancer-bearing animals and the discovery of an immune-suppressive tumor microenvironment then led to development and testing of a battery of new drug and cell-based approaches to trigger antitumor immunity. This issue of Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications highlights some of the new protein-based compounds that are radically changing the cancer therapeutic landscape. The purpose of this collection of reviews is to inform the readership regarding the importance of the seismic change in cancer therapeutics and stimulate efforts to find novel niches and combinations of agents similar to recent advances in the application of cancer pathway inhibitors.

  6. Betahistine in the treatment of vertigo. History and clinical implications of recent pharmacological researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, E

    2001-06-01

    A short profile of betahistine and its activity in treatment of Menière's disease and other forms of peripheral vertigo is presented. The clinical efficacy of betahistine is documented by a series of more than twenty controlled clinical studies, performed in the years 1966-2000. Basic researches initially proved that bethaistine acts trough a vasodilating action on inner ear and cerebral blood flow (Suga and Snow, 1969; Martinez, 1972). In the following years this activity was confirmed using the modern laser doppler flowmetry technique (Laurikainen et al, 1998). Further recent studies proved that betahistine acts on the central vestibular histaminergic system as a weak H1 agonist and a strong H3 antagonist (Arrang et al., 1985), improving the process of vestibular compensation (Tighilet et al., 1995) as well as on peripheral labyrinthine receptors, reducing the spontaneous firing rate but not the activity induced by thermal or mechanical stimulation (Botta et al., 1998). More than forty years after its discovery, this series of studies carried out in the second half of the 90s leads to the conclusion that betahistine is a drug which maintains its scientific interest and its pharmacological potential in the treatment of vertigo.

  7. Advancing pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, S A; Terzic, A

    2012-11-01

    Pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology are emerging as principal quantitative sciences within drug development and experimental therapeutics. In recognition of the importance of pharmacometrics and systems pharmacology to the discipline of clinical pharmacology, the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT), in collaboration with Nature Publishing Group and Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, has established CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology to inform the field and shape the discipline.

  8. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu; Daimí Sarmiento González; Mario Isaías Alzuri Falcato; Anais Leyva Madrigales

    2016-01-01

    Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of...

  9. European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Part II: pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessner, Veit; Plessen, Kerstin J; Rothenberger, Aribert;

    2011-01-01

    provide the first comprehensive overview of all reports on pharmacological treatment options for TS through a MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE search for all studies that document the effect of pharmacological treatment of TS and other tic disorders between 1970 and November 2010. We present a summary...

  10. Evaluation of impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics to medical undergraduates and interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mira K; Panchal, Jigar R; Shah, Samdih; Iyer, Geetha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics (CPT) to medical undergraduates (UGs) and interns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on three UGs batches and interns using two pretested validated structured questionnaires, modified from the work of Tobaiqy et al. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. The value of P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 379 UGs and 96 interns participated in this study. Mean knowledge score of interns was significantly reduced as compared to UGs (P < 0.0001). A significant increase in confidence for unsupervised prescribing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (99%), oral rehydration salt, iron salts was perceived among interns as compared to UGs (P < 0.05). However, 63.5% confessed problems in selection of drugs, drug–drug interactions, prescribing in special patient population. Although they were confident prescribing fixed dose combination for adult patients (89.5%), majority were hesitant to prescribe opioids (77%), steroids (76%), vaccines (75%), and antihypertensives (62%). Conclusion: The theoretical CPT teaching transfers knowledge to UGs; however, it is not retained in internship and does not adequately prepare interns to prescribe safe and rational drugs. PMID:27563589

  11. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant.

  12. Evolving paradigms in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huard, J; Mu, X; Lu, A

    2016-08-01

    Progressive muscle weakness and degeneration due to the lack of dystrophin eventually leads to the loss of independent ambulation by the middle of the patient's second decade, and a fatal outcome due to cardiac or respiratory failure by the third decade. More specifically, loss of sarcolemmal dystrophin and the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein (DAG) complex promotes muscle fiber damage during muscle contraction. This process results in an efflux of creatine kinase (CK), an influx of calcium ions, and the recruitment of T cells, macrophages, and mast cells to the damaged muscle, causing progressive myofiber necrosis. For the last 20 years, the major goal in the development of therapeutic approaches to alleviate muscle weakness in DMD has been centered on the restoration of dystrophin or proteins that are analogous to dystrophin, such as utrophin, through a variety of modalities including cell therapy, gene therapy, gene correction, and the highly promising techniques utilizing CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Despite the development of new therapeutic options, there still exist numerous challenges that we must face with regard to these new strategies and, consequently, we still do not have any feasible options available to ultimately slow the progression of this devastating disease. The purpose of this article is to highlight the current knowledge and advancements in the evolving paradigms in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics for this devastating musculoskeletal disease.

  13. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  14. [Nursing care for patients undergoing pharmacological stress echocardiography: implications for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goes, Marta Georgina Oliveira; Lautert, Liana; Lucena, Amália Fátima

    2012-06-01

    The study aim was both to identify signs and symptoms previous to and during the pharmacological stress echocardiography test and to describe the nurse's role and nursing care principles for this exam. This is a descriptive study, carried out in cardiac care unit in a University Hospital in Porto Alegre, RS. Two hundred forty-six records of patients submitted to stress echocardiography were retrospectively reviewed, according to four different pharmacological schedules. The statistical comparison showed that signs and symptoms were related to the type of drug used during the exam, namely: typical angina, precordial ache, tiredness, headache and premature complexes. These results enabled a better understanding of pharmacological stress echocardiography and the instrumentalization of nurses in order to plan individualized and qualified nursing care assistance. Aside from helping develop nursing practices for the pharmacological stress echocardiography test this knowledge could also be used by nurses who carry out their activities in institutions that use this diagnostic method.

  15. Pharmacological versus microvascular decompression approaches for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: clinical outcomes and direct costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida A

    2011-08-01

    therapies, while after MDV surgery several patients showed important side effects. Data reinforce that, (1 TN patients should be carefully evaluated before choosing therapy for pain control, (2 different pharmacological approaches are available to initiate pain control at low costs, and (3 criteria for surgical interventions should be clearly defined due to important side effects, with the initial higher costs being strongly reduced with time.Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia, carbamazepine, gabapentin associated with ropivacaine, microvascular decompression, clinical outcomes, direct costs 

  16. A new generation of antipsychotics: pharmacology and clinical utility of cariprazine in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccia S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Silvio Caccia, Roberto William Invernizzi, Alessandro Nobili, Luca Pasina IRCCS-Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy Abstract: Cariprazine is a potential antipsychotic awaiting approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. It is a dopamine D2- and D3-receptor partial agonist, with higher affinity for D3 receptors, as opposed to the D2 antagonism of most older antipsychotic agents. Like most lipophilic antipsychotics, it undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP, mainly the highly variable 3A4, with the formation of active metabolites. However, the parent compound – particularly its active didesmethyl derivative – is cleared very slowly, with elimination half-lives in schizophrenic patients ranging from 2–5 days for cariprazine to 2–3 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine. Exposure to the latter was several times that for cariprazine, although didesmethyl-cariprazine did not reach steady state within the 3 weeks of 12.5 mg/day dosing. Preliminary information on its therapeutic role comes from press releases and a few abstracts presented at scientific meetings. In short-term controlled trials, it was more effective than placebo in reducing positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, with an effective dose range of 1.5–12 mg/day. Although cariprazine was associated with a higher incidence of akathisia and extrapyramidal side effects than placebo, it did not cause weight gain, metabolic abnormalities, prolactin increase, or corrected QT prolongation. Similarly, cariprazine's efficacy and tolerability for the treatment of bipolar disorder (manic/mixed and depressive episodes was established in the dose range of 3–12 mg/day, although again no long-term data are available. Well-designed clinical trials, mainly direct "head-to-head" comparisons with other second-generation antipsychotic agents, are needed to define the therapeutic role and safety profile of cariprazine in schizophrenia and

  17. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) - How much, how often, and when? A clinical-pharmacological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Dieter; Belz, Gustav G

    2016-08-01

    The dose of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) commonly used in the prevention and treatment of arteriosclerotic angiopathies is equal to or less than 100 mg daily. This choice of dose is predominantly based on molecular-pharmacological findings showing an inhibition in synthesis of the prothrombotic thromboxane (TXB2) and an irreversible inhibition in blood platelet aggregation. However, an analysis of ASA dose-effect relationships for doses of 50 - 500 mg (PO and IV) shows that doses of ASA up to 100 mg daily produce only a small or moderate inhibition in collagen/epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation and have no significant effect on the important platelet factors, PF3 and PF4. Doses of ASA 300 - 500 mg, on the other hand, inhibit platelet aggregation almost completely and, in addition, produce a 50 - 70% inhibition in PF3 and PF4 lasting at least 24 hours. There is also evidence that doses of ASA above 100 mg daily markedly inhibit thromboxane synthesis for up to 24 hours and that doses of 500 mg daily produce a clinically relevant inhibition in platelet adhesion to vessel walls for up 72 hours and prevent procoagulatory shape changes for up to 12 hours. These findings suggest that a dose of ≥ 300 mg at intervals of 2 - 3 days would be more appropriate for primary and secondary prophylaxis of arteriosclerotic angiopathies and that the benefit-risk ratio would be greater because of the increased availability of mucoprotective prostaglandins, PGI2 (prostacyclin) and the gastroprotective, PGE2. Our viewpoint, predominantly based on findings with biomarkers, could serve as a basis for further randomized controlled studies.

  18. Pharmacologic sensitivity of paclitaxel to its delivery vehicles drives distinct clinical outcomes of paclitaxel formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Nianhang; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Paclitaxel, an effective antitumor agent, is formulated in various vehicles serving as carriers to deliver the hydrophobic paclitaxel to tissue. The approved formulations in the U.S. are paclitaxel formulated in Cremophor EL (currently known as Kolliphor EL) and nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel). Despite having the same active ingredient (paclitaxel), different formulations produce distinct products with unique efficacy and safety profiles. A semimechanistic model was developed to describe the pharmacologic sensitivity of paclitaxel under different formulations. Circulating paclitaxel concentration data from patients treated with nab-paclitaxel or Cremophor EL-paclitaxel were analyzed in NONMEM using a semimechanistic model with simultaneous disposition of paclitaxel-carrier complexes and the total paclitaxel released from the complexes. The key factors driving paclitaxel exposure in circulation and peripheral tissues were explored via sensitivity analysis. The rapid decline of total paclitaxel concentration following intravenous administration of nab-paclitaxel and Cremophor EL-paclitaxel was attributed to rapid tissue distribution of the paclitaxel-carrier complexes, with minor contribution of free and protein-bound paclitaxel. Distribution of nab-paclitaxel to peripheral tissue was 4-fold faster and 10-fold more extensive than that of Cremophor EL-paclitaxel micelles, resulting in distinct tissue paclitaxel profiles. Sensitivity analyses showed the plasma paclitaxel-time profile was insensitive to the rapid rates of tissue distribution and decomposition of paclitaxel-carrier complexes but that the tissue distribution profile of paclitaxel was highly sensitive. Tissue distribution of paclitaxel is carrier complex system-dependent. Different delivery systems result in distinct tissue paclitaxel profiles but similar paclitaxel concentration-time profiles in plasma or blood, rendering the paclitaxel plasma profile a poor surrogate for its

  19. The use of functional neuroimaging to evaluate psychological and other non-pharmacological treatments for clinical pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Karin B.; Berna, Chantal; Loggia, Marco L.; Wasan, Ajay; Edwards, Robert R; Randy L Gollub

    2012-01-01

    A large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, m...

  20. Establishing a clinical pharmacology fellowship program for physicians, pharmacists, and pharmacologists: a newly accredited interdisciplinary training program at the Ohio State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1,4 Mitch A Phelps,2 Marjorie V Neidecker,3 Glen Apseloff41Center for Pharmacogenomics, Colleges of Medicine and of Engineering, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 2Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine, Pharmacoanalytic Shared Resources Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 3Colleges of Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, 4Department of Pharmacology, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Studying the effect of drugs on humans, clinical pharmacologists play an essential role in many academic medical and research teams, within the pharmaceutical industry and as members of government regulatory entities. Clinical pharmacology fellowship training programs should be multidisciplinary and adaptable, and should combine didactics, applied learning, independent study, and one-on-one instruction. This article describes a recently developed 2 year clinical pharmacology fellowship program – one of only nine accredited by the American Board of Clinical Pharmacology – that is an integrative, multi faceted, adaptable method for training physicians, pharmacists, and scientists for leadership roles in the pharmaceutical industry, in academia, or with regulatory or accreditation agencies. The purpose of this article is to provide information for academic clinicians and researchers interested in designing a similar program, for professionals in the field of clinical pharmacology who are already affiliated with a fellowship program and may benefit from supplemental information, and for clinical researchers interested in clinical pharmacology who may not be aware that such training opportunities exist. This article provides the details of a recently accredited program, including design, implementation, accreditation, trainee success, and future directions.Keywords: clinical pharmacology education, clinical pharmacology fellowship

  1. Clinical pharmacology of indomethacin in preterm infants: implications in patent ductus arteriosus closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, Gian Maria

    2013-10-01

    Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin E(2) synthesis. After birth, the ductus arteriosus closes spontaneously within 2-4 days in term infants. The major factor closing the ductus arteriosus is the tension of oxygen, which increases significantly after birth. Prostaglandin E(2) has the opposite effect to that of oxygen; it relaxes smooth muscle and tends to inhibit the closure of the ductus arteriosus. In preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome, the ductus arteriosus fails to close (patent ductus arteriosus [PDA]) because the concentration of prostaglandin E2 is relatively high. PDA occurs in more than 70 % of neonates weighing less than 1,500 g at birth. The aim of this article was to review the published data on the clinical pharmacology of indomethacin in preterm infants in order to provide a critical analysis of the literature and a useful tool for physicians. The bibliographic search was performed electronically using the PubMed and EMBASE databases as search engines and February 2012 was the cutoff point. A remarkable interindividual variability was observed for the half-life (t(½)), clearance (CL), and volume of distribution (V(d)) of indomethacin. Prophylactic indomethacin consists of a continuous infusion of low levels of indomethacin and may be useful in preterm infants. Extremely preterm infants are less likely to respond to indomethacin. Infants with a postnatal age of 2 months do not respond to treatment with indomethacin. Indomethacin has several adverse effects, the most common of which is renal failure. An increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.5 % mg/dL after indomethacin was observed in about 10-15 % of the patients and creatinine returns to a normal level about 1 week after cessation of therapy. Indomethacin should be administered intravenously by syringe pump for at least 30 min to minimize adverse effects on cerebral, gastrointestinal, and renal blood flow velocities. A

  2. PRESENTING CLINICAL-PHARMACOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS - A PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH FOR CHOOSING AND PRESCRIBING DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, TPGM

    1993-01-01

    As a guide to the rational choice and prescribing of drugs a normative (ideal) problem-solving model has been developed. This model combines medical problem solving and decision analysis, practical medical aspects, and pharmacological facts and basic principles. It consists of a set of actions or st

  3. Reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety: case studies in clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, David M

    2003-07-01

    Today, reducing medication errors and improving patient safety have become common topics of discussion for the president of the United States, federal and state legislators, the insurance industry, pharmaceutical companies, health care professionals, and patients. But this is not news to clinical pharmacologists. Improving the judicious use of medications and minimizing adverse drug reactions have always been key areas of research and study for those working in clinical pharmacology. However, added to the older terms of adverse drug reactions and rational therapeutics, the now politically correct expression of medication error has emerged. Focusing on the word error has drawn attention to "prevention" and what can be done to minimize mistakes and improve patient safety. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary has several definitions of error, but the one that seems to be most appropriate in the context of medication errors is "an act that through ingnorance, deficiency, or accident departs from or fails to achieve what should be done." What should be done is generally known as "the five rights": the right drug, right dose, right route, right time, and right patient. One can make an error of omission (failure to act correctly) or an error of commission (acted incorrectly). This article now summarizes what is currently known about medication errors and translates the information into case studies illustrating common scenarios leading to medication errors. Each case is analyzed to provide insight into how the medication error could have been prevented. "System errors" are described, and the application of failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) is presented to determine the part of the "safety net" that failed. Examples of reengineering the system to make it more "error proof" are presented. An error can be prevented. However, the practice of medicine, pharmacy, and nursing in the hospital setting is very complicated, and so many steps occur from "pen to patient" that there

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIX. Cannabinoid receptors and their ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertwee, R G; Howlett, A C; Abood, M E

    2010-01-01

    There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid ¿(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor...... antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands activate or block one type of cannabinoid receptor more potently than the other type. This review summarizes current data indicating the extent to which cannabinoid receptor ligands undergo orthosteric or allosteric interactions with non-CB(1), non....../or CB(2) receptors are likely to display significantly different pharmacological profiles. The review also lists some criteria that any novel "CB(3)" cannabinoid receptor or channel should fulfil and concludes that these criteria are not currently met by any non-CB(1), non-CB(2) pharmacological receptor...

  5. Blended learning for reinforcing dental pharmacology in the clinical years: A qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eachempati, Prashanti; Kiran Kumar, K. S.; Sumanth, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Blended learning has become the method of choice in educational institutions because of its systematic integration of traditional classroom teaching and online components. This study aims to analyze student’s reflection regarding blended learning in dental pharmacology. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College among 3rd and 4th year BDS students. A total of 145 dental students, who consented, participate in the study. Students were divided into 14 groups. Nine online sessions followed by nine face-to-face discussions were held. Each session addressed topics related to oral lesions and orofacial pain with pharmacological applications. After each week, students were asked to reflect on blended learning. On completion of 9 weeks, reflections were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative analysis was done using thematic analysis model suggested by Braun and Clarke. Results: The four main themes were identified, namely, merits of blended learning, skill in writing prescription for oral diseases, dosages of drugs, and identification of strengths and weakness. In general, the participants had a positive feedback regarding blended learning. Students felt more confident in drug selection and prescription writing. They could recollect the doses better after the online and face-to-face sessions. Most interestingly, the students reflected that they are able to identify their strength and weakness after the blended learning sessions. Conclusions: Blended learning module was successfully implemented for reinforcing dental pharmacology. The results obtained in this study enable us to plan future comparative studies to know the effectiveness of blended learning in dental pharmacology. PMID:28031603

  6. Molecular targets of Chinese herbs: a clinical study of hepatoma based on network pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Wang, Xiao-dong; Niu, Yang-yang; Duan, Dan-dan; Yang, Xue; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-hong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Ke-xin; Qin, Xue-mei; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat tumors for years and has been demonstrated to be effective. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of herbs remain unclear. This study aims to ascertain molecular targets of herbs prolonging survival time of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on network pharmacology, and to establish a research method for accurate treatment of TCM. The survival benefit of TCM treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) was proved by Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis among 288 patients. The correlation between herbs and survival time was performed by bivariate correlation analysis. Network pharmacology method was utilized to construct the active ingredient-target networks of herbs that were responsible for the beneficial effects against HCC. Cox regression analysis showed CHM was an independent favorable prognostic factor. The median survival time was 13 months and the 5-year overall survival rates were 2.61% in the TCM group, while there were 6 months, 0 in the non-TCM group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that 8 herbs closely associated with prognosis. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that the 8 herbs regulated multiple HCC relative genes, among which the genes affected proliferation (KRAS, AKT2, MAPK), metastasis (SRC, MMP), angiogenesis (PTGS2) and apoptosis (CASP3) etc. PMID:27143508

  7. Application of a utility analysis to evaluate a novel assessment tool for clinically oriented physiology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Nicholas; Asmar, Abdo; Gorman, Laurel; Gros, Bernard; Harris, David; Howard, Thomas; Hussain, Mujtaba; Salazar, Sergio; Kibble, Jonathan D

    2016-09-01

    Multiple-choice questions are a gold-standard tool in medical school for assessment of knowledge and are the mainstay of licensing examinations. However, multiple-choice questions items can be criticized for lacking the ability to test higher-order learning or integrative thinking across multiple disciplines. Our objective was to develop a novel assessment that would address understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacology, evaluate learning at the levels of application, evaluation and synthesis, and allow students to demonstrate clinical reasoning. The rubric assesses student writeups of clinical case problems. The method is based on the physician's traditional postencounter Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan note. Students were required to correctly identify subjective and objective findings in authentic clinical case problems, to ascribe pathophysiological as well as pharmacological mechanisms to these findings, and to justify a list of differential diagnoses. A utility analysis was undertaken to evaluate the new assessment tool by appraising its reliability, validity, feasibility, cost effectiveness, acceptability, and educational impact using a mixed-method approach. The Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan assessment tool scored highly in terms of validity and educational impact and had acceptable levels of statistical reliability but was limited in terms of acceptance, feasibility, and cost effectiveness due to high time demands on expert graders and workload concerns from students. We conclude by making suggestions for improving the tool and recommend deployment of the instrument for low-stakes summative assessment or formative assessment.

  8. American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (ASCPT)-111th annual meeting. 17-20 March 2010, Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veryard, Claire

    2010-05-01

    The 111th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, held in Atlanta, included topics covering disclosures of new data in the field of pharmacokinetics and drug interactions. This conference report highlights selected presentations on pharmacokinetic studies of several investigational drugs, including evatanepag (Pfizer Inc), AEG-33773 (Aegera Therapeutics Inc), JNJ-16269110 (Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC), PF-3716539 (ViiV Healthcare), MK-0736 (Merck & Co Inc), a combination of Ginkgo biloba and cilostazol (Renexin SK Chemicals Co Ltd), PP-101 (Pacific Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd), ACT-178882 (Acetlion Ltd/Merck & Co Inc) and edoxaban (Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd).

  9. 交叉过敏的临床药学干预%Clinical Pharmacological Intervention on Cross Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严磊; 寿军; 周权; 王华芬

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To promote the clinical awareness of cross allergy and prevent the occurrence of medical errors. METHODS Prescribing information on cross allergy in "Contraindications" was derived from a software. Records of drug counseling, cases of medical errors and near misses in an online reporting system were analyzed. Data mining was performed. Clinical pharmacological interventions were conducted and the effects were evaluated. RESULTS Besides 27 kinds of drugs within pharmacologically similar class involving cross allergy, there were seven kinds of drugs with complete different pharmacological effects. Similarity in chemical structures was the main case of cross allergy. Excipients were related with cross allergy. Prescribing information in some drugs had unscientific descriptions on cross allergy associated contraindications, lacking clinical value in guiding safe use of medication. There were difference in descriptions on cross allergy in some drugs within pharmacologically similar clas, and some domestic and imported products. The problem of cross allergy of drugs involving different pharmacological effects was dangerous and not easy to be detected. After pharmacological interventions, awareness was greatly increased and the occurrence rate of medical errors and similar mistake decreased by 97%. CONCLISION Severe potential safety hazard might exist if more attentions are not paid to cross allergy aspect. The comprehensive pharmacological interventions are very effective. Applications of information technology and data maintenance are pivotal for continuous quality improvement in cross allergy aspect.%目的 促进临床医护人员对药物交叉过敏的意识,防范用药失误发生.方法 对药物说明书禁忌症中有关交叉过敏的描述进行信息分析和数据挖掘.对药物咨询、用药失误和近似错误在线呈报系统记录进行分析.实施临床药学综合性干预措施,并评估干预效果.结果 除药理作用相似的27

  10. Establishing a clinical pharmacology fellowship program for physicians, pharmacists, and pharmacologists: a newly accredited interdisciplinary training program at the Ohio State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmiller, Joseph P; Phelps, Mitch A; Neidecker, Marjorie V; Apseloff, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Studying the effect of drugs on humans, clinical pharmacologists play an essential role in many academic medical and research teams, within the pharmaceutical industry and as members of government regulatory entities. Clinical pharmacology fellowship training programs should be multidisciplinary and adaptable, and should combine didactics, applied learning, independent study, and one-on-one instruction. This article describes a recently developed 2 year clinical pharmacology fellowship program - one of only nine accredited by the American Board of Clinical Pharmacology - that is an integrative, multi faceted, adaptable method for training physicians, pharmacists, and scientists for leadership roles in the pharmaceutical industry, in academia, or with regulatory or accreditation agencies. The purpose of this article is to provide information for academic clinicians and researchers interested in designing a similar program, for professionals in the field of clinical pharmacology who are already affiliated with a fellowship program and may benefit from supplemental information, and for clinical researchers interested in clinical pharmacology who may not be aware that such training opportunities exist. This article provides the details of a recently accredited program, including design, implementation, accreditation, trainee success, and future directions.

  11. The use of functional neuroimaging to evaluate psychological and other non-pharmacological treatments for clinical pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin B.; Berna, Chantal; Loggia, Marco L.; Wasan, Ajay; Edwards, Robert R.; Gollub, Randy L.

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, mental imagery, physical therapy/exercise, biofeedback, and mirror therapy. To date, the results from studies that used neuroimaging to evaluate these methods have not been conclusive and the experimental methods have been suboptimal for assessing clinical pain. Still, several different psychological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities were associated with increased painrelated activations of executive cognitive brain regions, such as the ventral- and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was also evidence for decreased pain-related activations in afferent pain regions and limbic structures. If future studies will address the technical and methodological challenges of today’s experiments, neuroimaging might have the potential of segregating the neural mechanisms of different treatment interventions and elucidate predictive and mediating factors for successful treatment outcomes. Evaluations of treatment-related brain changes (functional and structural) might also allow for sub-grouping of patients and help to develop individualized treatments. PMID:22445888

  12. The use of functional neuroimaging to evaluate psychological and other non-pharmacological treatments for clinical pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin B; Berna, Chantal; Loggia, Marco L; Wasan, Ajay D; Edwards, Robert R; Gollub, Randy L

    2012-06-29

    A large number of studies have provided evidence for the efficacy of psychological and other non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of chronic pain. While these methods are increasingly used to treat pain, remarkably few studies focused on the exploration of their neural correlates. The aim of this article was to review the findings from neuroimaging studies that evaluated the neural response to distraction-based techniques, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), clinical hypnosis, mental imagery, physical therapy/exercise, biofeedback, and mirror therapy. To date, the results from studies that used neuroimaging to evaluate these methods have not been conclusive and the experimental methods have been suboptimal for assessing clinical pain. Still, several different psychological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities were associated with increased pain-related activations of executive cognitive brain regions, such as the ventral- and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. There was also evidence for decreased pain-related activations in afferent pain regions and limbic structures. If future studies will address the technical and methodological challenges of today's experiments, neuroimaging might have the potential of segregating the neural mechanisms of different treatment interventions and elucidate predictive and mediating factors for successful treatment outcomes. Evaluations of treatment-related brain changes (functional and structural) might also allow for sub-grouping of patients and help to develop individualized treatments.

  13. Training pediatric clinical pharmacology and therapeutics specialists of the future: the needs, the reality, and opportunities for international networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazarian, Madlen

    2009-01-01

    In recent years there has been a rapid and marked increase in global recognition of the need for better medicines for children, with various initiatives being implemented at global and regional levels. These exciting developments are matched by recognition of the need to build greater capacity in the field of pediatric clinical pharmacology and therapeutics to help deliver on the promise of better medicines for children. A range of pediatric medicines researchers, educators, clinical therapeutics practitioners, and experts in drug evaluation, regulation, and broader medicines policy are needed on a larger scale, in both developed and developing world settings. The current and likely future training needs to meet these diverse challenges, the current realities of trying to meet such needs, and the opportunities for international networking to help meet future training needs are discussed from a global perspective.

  14. [Clinical-pharmacological aspects to accelerate the development process from the preclinical to the clinical phase/2nd communication: promising strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    To improve the transition from research to development a critical evaluation of the individual project by research and disease area teams is required to include input from pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, galenics, clinical pharmacology, clinical as well as regulatory experts and marketing. Decisions on the individual development strategy should be made prior to the start of development and all projects should be reviewed at predefined stages throughout the product development life cycle. This ensures consistency of decision-making not only during the development of individual products but throughout the entire development pipeline. Studies in the exploratory stage of drug development should be designed for decision making in contrast to later clinical trials in the confirmatory stage that require power for proof-of-safety and proof-of-efficacy. The more thorough and profound studies have been carried out during this exploratory stage of drug development, the earlier a decision can be made on the continuation or discontinuation of further development, thus saving development time and money and assessing and considerably reducing the risk for the patients and increasing the success rate of the project in the later confirmatory effectiveness trial with an adequate number of subjects receiving the new therapy under typical conditions of use. Strategies which may be helpful to improve the quality of decisions in drug discovery and drug development are: discovery experiments should be done to critically evaluate the compound, the "killer" experiments should be done as early as possible, continuous effort on preclinical disease models is necessary to improve predictability of efficacy in patients ("humanized" research): genomic technology should be used to identify novel, disease-related targets and to characterise preclinical test systems, improvement of knowledge and experience concerning the relevance of new technologies for the clinical picture, genotyping

  15. 护理药理学教学改革探讨%Pharmacological action and clinical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃梦岚

    2015-01-01

    Through finding the problems encountered in nursing pharmacology teaching, from rational use of materials, training of teachers team, teaching skills and memory, enrich the teaching means, to achieve the goal of emotion etc. five aspects put forward and to explore the effective methods of teaching reform, provides the reference for other teachers.%文章通过寻找护理药理学教学中遇到的问题,从合理使用教材、培养师资团队、传授技巧记忆、充实教学手段、实现情感目标等5个方面提出和探讨行之有效的教学改革方法,为其他教师提供参考。

  16. An overview of the clinical pharmacology of N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartate (PALA), a new antimetabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlichman, C

    1980-01-01

    N-Phosphonacetyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) is new synthetic antimetabolite which inhibits de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Its significant activity against Lewis lung carcinoma, B16 melanoma, and glioma 26 suggested that it might be useful in the treatment of human solid tumors. Phase I trials revealed that dose-limiting toxicity included skin reactions, diarrhea, and stomatitis. Pharmacologic studies demonstrated rapid renal excretion of more than 70% of the unmetabolized drug in 24 h. Peak plasma levels correlated with dose of PALA administered. Partial responses to PALA were seen in one patient with melanoma, one with chondrosarcoma, and one with colon carcinoma. The potential for PALA's use in combination chemotherapy, particularly with 5-fluorouracil, is discussed.

  17. Trace Amines and the Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1: Pharmacology, Neurochemistry, and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yue; Asif-Malik, Aman; Canales, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines are a collection of endogenous molecules that play pivotal roles as neurotransmitters and hormones. In addition to the "classical" biogenic amines resulting from decarboxylation of aromatic acids, including dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin (5-HT), and histamine, other biogenic amines, present at much lower concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS), and hence referred to as "trace" amines (TAs), are now recognized to play significant neurophysiological and behavioral functions. At the turn of the century, the discovery of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), a phylogenetically conserved G protein-coupled receptor that is responsive to both TAs, such as β-phenylethylamine, octopamine, and tyramine, and structurally-related amphetamines, unveiled mechanisms of action for TAs other than interference with aminergic pathways, laying the foundations for deciphering the functional significance of TAs and its mammalian CNS receptor, TAAR1. Although, its molecular interactions and downstream targets have not been fully elucidated, TAAR1 activation triggers accumulation of intracellular cAMP, modulates PKA and PKC signaling and interferes with the β-arrestin2-dependent pathway via G protein-independent mechanisms. TAAR1 is uniquely positioned to exert direct control over DA and 5-HT neuronal firing and release, which has profound implications for understanding the pathophysiology of, and therefore designing more efficacious therapeutic interventions for, a range of neuropsychiatric disorders that involve aminergic dysregulation, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, mood disorders, and addiction. Indeed, the recent development of novel pharmacological tools targeting TAAR1 has uncovered the remarkable potential of TAAR1-based medications as new generation pharmacotherapies in neuropsychiatry. This review summarizes recent developments in the study of TAs and TAAR1, their intricate neurochemistry and

  18. Prescribing knowledge in the light of undergraduate clinical pharmacology and therapeutics teaching in India: views of first-year postgraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyaya P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prerna Upadhyaya,1 Vikas Seth,2 Monika Sharma,1 Mushtaq Ahmed,1 Vijay Vasant Moghe,1 Zafar Yab Khan,1 Vinay Kumar Gupta,1 Shipra Vikram Jain,1 Utkarsh Soni,1 Manohar Bhatia,1 Kumar Abhijit,1 Jaswant Goyal11Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College, Jaipur, 2Department of Pharmacology, Hind Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, IndiaObjectives: The study aimed to review the prescribing knowledge of first-year postgraduate doctors in a medical college in India, using the principles of good prescribing, to suggest strategies to improve rational prescribing, and to recommend what curriculum planners can do to accomplish this objective.Methods: Fifty first-year postgraduate doctors were asked to fill in a structured questionnaire that sought information regarding their undergraduate training in clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, prescribing habits, and commonly consulted drug information sources. Also, the questionnaire assessed any perceived deficiencies in their undergraduate clinical pharmacology teaching and sought feedback regarding improvement in the teaching.Results: Eighty-eight percent of residents said that they were taught prescription writing in undergraduate pharmacology teaching; 48% of residents rated their prescribing knowledge at graduation as average, 28% good, 4% excellent, 14% poor, and 4% very poor; 58% felt that their undergraduate training did not prepare them to prescribe safely, and 62% felt that their training did not prepare them to prescribe rationally. Fifty-eight percent of residents felt that they had some specific problems with writing a prescription during their internship training, while 92% thought that undergraduate teaching should be improved. Their suggestions for improving teaching methods were recorded.Conclusions: This study concludes that efforts are needed to develop a curriculum that encompasses important aspects of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics along with incorporation of

  19. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos was conducted between 2008 and 2012. Demographic variables, in addition to variables related to clinical data and pharmacotherapeutic aspects were analyzed. Results: sixty five point seven percent of patients were adolescents and 77.1% were of urban origin. The most common diagnoses were acute and transient psychotic disorder and schizophrenia. Sixty three percent had a family history of psychiatric disorder. Forty percent were treated with trifluoperazine and an equal percent took haloperidol. Psychotic symptoms were controlled in 58% of patients during the first weeks. Conclusion: white adolescent patients from urban areas with a family history of psychiatric illness predominated. They received regular psychiatric attention and experienced the symptoms for a short time before being treated. The most frequently prescribed medications were typical antipsychotic drugs, which caused adverse reactions in a third of the patients. In the first few weeks, psychotic symptoms were controlled in most patients, although half of them experienced a recurrence of symptoms, which evolved into conditions with worse prognosis.

  20. Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Quattropani, Maria C; Calapai, Fabrizio; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2014-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia lavandulaefolia L. have a longstanding use as traditional herbal remedies that can enhance memory and improve cognitive functions. Pharmacological actions of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia on healthy subjects and on patients suffering of cognitive decline have been investigated. Aim of this review was to summarize published clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia in the enhancement of cognitive performance in healthy subjects and neurodegenerative illnesses. Furthermore, to purchase a more complete view on safety of S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia, we collected and discussed articles regarding toxicity and adverse reactions. Eight clinical studies investigating on acute effects of S. officinalis on healthy subjects were included in the review. Six studies investigated on the effects of S. officinalis and S. lavandaeluaefolia on cognitive performance in healthy subjects. The two remaining were carried out to study the effects of sage on Azheimer's disease. Our review shows that S. officinalis and S. lavandulaefolia exert beneficial effects by enhancing cognitive performance both in healthy subjects and patients with dementia or cognitive impairment and is safe for this indication. Unfortunately, promising beneficial effects are debased by methodological issues, use of different herbal preparations (extracts, essential oil, use of raw material), lack of details on herbal products used. We believe that sage promising effects need further higher methodological standard clinical trials.

  1. Sonidegib: mechanism of action, pharmacology, and clinical utility for advanced basal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sachin Jain,1 Ruolan Song,2 Jingwu Xie2 1Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Herman B Wells Center for Pediatric Research, Indianapolis, IN, USA Abstract: The Hedgehog (Hh pathway is critical for cell differentiation, tissue polarity, and stem cell maintenance during embryonic development, but is silent in adult tissues under normal conditions. However, aberrant Hh signaling activation has been implicated in the development and promotion of certain types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC, medulloblastoma, and gastrointestinal cancers. In 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved sonidegib, a smoothened (SMO antagonist, for treatment of advanced BCC (aBCC after a successful Phase II clinical trial. Sonidegib, also named Odomzo, is the second Hh signaling inhibitor approved by the FDA to treat BCCs following approval of the first SMO antagonist vismodegib in 2012. What are the major features of sonidegib (mechanism of action; metabolic profiles, clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability profiles? Will the sonidegib experience help other clinical trials using Hh signaling inhibitors in the future? In this review, we will summarize current understanding of BCCs and Hh signaling. We will focus on sonidegib and its use in the clinic, and we will discuss ways to improve its clinical application in cancer therapeutics. Keywords: Hedgehog, smoothened, inhibitor, cancer, basal cell carcinoma, sonidegib

  2. [Cerebral hemorrhage induced by low-dose streptokinase: a pharmacologic paradox? Report of a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, F; Skouse, D; Messina, A

    1997-01-01

    A case of an important intracranial hemorrhage after a low dose (approx. 500,000 UI) of streptokinase in a 60 year-old woman suffering from myocardial infarction is presented. Clinical, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, lab and tomographic findings are described. The authors suggest a pharmacokinetic mechanism which could be responsible of a "paradox effect" (a powerful and dangerous effect of the drug when given in low dose) and they wonder whether in case of allergic reactions should it be better not to stop the infusion of the thrombolytic drug and be more liberal with the "symptomatic" drugs. Tha patient is still alive and the clinical conditions slowly progressing.

  3. Ziprasidone: from pharmacology to the clinical practice. One year of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, E; Azanza, J R; Giner, J; Saiz-Ruiz, J; Vallejo, J; Diez, T; Madrigal, M

    2005-01-01

    More than a year after the marketing of the atypical anti-psychotic ziprasidone, data from research studies and clinical practice have provided a fair amount of useful information for its practical use in the treatment of schizophrenia. Its pharmacodynamical characteristics and the results from clinical trials with a flexible dose seem to justify the need to administer doses in a range higher than what was initially foreseen, with an initial minimum of 120 mg per day and a fast titulation up to 160 mg per day. Such doses make it possible to achieve sufficient plasma concentrations to occupy at least 60 % of the D2 receptors from which the anti-psychotic effect derives. Moreover, its anti-depressive activity and its non-sedative profile have been confirmed, with a favorable effect on attention and other cognitive functions of the patient, according to its high affinity for 5HT1A and D1 receptors and the inhibition of serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake. Finally, the low affinity of this drug for alpha-adrenergic, histaminergic and muscarinic receptors favors a good tolerability profile, with a neutral effect on weight, and a lack of anti-cholinergic effects. Results from different clinical trials show that the use of doses in the higher range is associated to a faster and more pronounced clinical improvement without adding a higher risk of adverse events.

  4. Early Clinical Detection of Pharmacologic Response in Insulin Action in a Nondiabetic Insulin-Resistant Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha S. Shankar, MD

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Significant changes in insulin action across multiple insulin-sensitive tissues can be detected within 2 weeks of initiation of insulin-sensitizing therapy with pioglitazone in obese patients with nondiabetic insulin resistance. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01115712.

  5. Simulated drug administration : An emerging tool for teaching clinical pharmacology during anesthesiology training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, M. M. R. F.; De Smet, T.; Mortier, E. P.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the dose-response relationship is required for optimizing the efficacy of anesthetics while minimizing adverse drug effects.(1) Nowadays, except for the inhaled anesthetics (for which end-tidal concentrations can be measured online), most of the drugs used in clinical ane

  6. Suprofen: the pharmacology and clinical efficacy of a new non-narcotic peripheral analgesic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, E L; Rosenthale, M E; Capetola, R J; McGuire, J L

    1984-08-01

    Suprofen is a potent, peripherally-acting, non-narcotic analgesic agent. The mechanism of action of the compound involves inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and, perhaps, direct antagonism of the peripheral, pain inducing actions of prostaglandins, bradykinin and other pain mediators. Suprofen at a dose of 200 mg appears to be equal or greater in efficacy as an analgesic modality than those of ibuprofen, propoxyphene, naproxen and diflunisal or a combination of 650 mg aspirin plus 60 mg codeine. Its clinical utility has been amply demonstrated in the treatment of a number of types of pain including general and orthopedic surgery, episiotomy, post-partum pain, dysmenorrhea, dental pain and musculoskeletal disorders. Suprofen represents a new class of orally effective nonnarcotic analgesics with potential for effective clinical use in the treatment of pain.

  7. The matching quality of experimental and control interventions in blinded pharmacological randomised clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Wei, Maoling; Hilden, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    to systematically identify and analyse studies of matching quality in drug trials. Our primary objective was to assess the proportion of studies that concluded that the matching was inadequate; our secondary objective was to describe mechanisms for inadequate matching. Methods: Systematic review. We searched Pub......Background: Blinding is a pivotal method to avoid bias in randomised clinical trials. In blinded drug trials, experimental and control interventions are often designed to be matched, i.e. to appear indistinguishable. It is unknown how often matching procedures are inadequate, so we decided......Med, Google Scholar and Web of Science Citation Index for studies that assessed whether supposedly indistinguishable interventions (experimental and control) in randomized clinical drug trials could be distinguished based on physical properties (e.g. appearance or smell). Two persons decided on study...

  8. Development of innovative teaching materials: clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units: comparison with patient-oriented problem-solving units and problem-based learning--a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, Claire M; Smith, Cedric M

    2002-05-01

    The First Teaching Clinic in Clinical Pharmacology, sponsored by the American College of Clinical Pharmacology in September 1992, was designed for the preparation and development of new clinical pharmacology problem-solving (CPPS) units. CPPS units are case histories that illustrate pertinent principles in clinical pharmacology. Each unit consists of the following sections: introduction, learning objectives, pretest, four clinical pharmacology scenarios, posttest, answers to pre- and posttest questions, and selected references. The clinical pharmacology content of the CPPS units place greater emphasis on clinical information, drug selection, and risk/benefit analyses, and thus they complement the basic pharmacology presented in the patient-oriented problem-solving (POPS) units. In general, the CPPS units are intended for use by students more advanced in clinical pharmacology than first- and second-year medical students. The CPPS unit "Clinical Pharmacology of Antiepileptic Drug Use: Clinical Pearls about the Perils of Patty" was developed for use by third- and fourth-year medical students doing rotations in neurology or clinical pharmacology; advanced pharmacy students; residents in neurology, pediatrics, internal medicine, and family practice; fellows in clinical pharmacology, and those taking the board examination in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Geriatric Clinical Psychopharmacology" was written for third- and fourth-year medical students; residents in psychiatry, family practice, and internal medicine;fellows in clinical pharmacology; and those studying for boards in clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit "Anisocoria and Glaucoma" was written for more advanced students of clinical pharmacology. The CPPS unit titled "Antiepileptic Drugs" was intended for second-year medical students. The second teaching clinic was held in November 1993 and focused on the development and editing of the CPPS units and their evaluations by faculty and students from

  9. Overview on Pharmacological and Clinical Study of Earthworm%地龙的药理与临床研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙姹; 张长林

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes the pharmacological effect and clinical application of earthworm, in order to provide the reference for the further research and development of earthworm.%为进一步研究和开发地龙,本文对地龙的药理作用及临床研究的进展做一综述.

  10. Effective use of real-life events as tools for teaching-learning clinical pharmacology in a problem-based learning curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper describes how in a problem-based learning (PBL medical curriculum, having identified the learning outcomes, problems can be developed from real-life events for teaching-learning clinical pharmacology topics for which PBL cases might be inadequate. Such problems can be very interesting and educational. Methodology: Using the story of the development and withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx ® , we developed a problem for undergraduate medical students to address important issues related to clinical pharmacology and therapeutics such as new drug development, preclinical testing, clinical trials, adverse drug reactions, professionalism, and critical appraisal of literature. These topics would otherwise be difficult to address in patient-based problems. Results: The evaluation of the problem based on pooled feedback from 57 tutorial groups, each comprising 8-10 students, collected over 5 years, supported the effectiveness of the problem. Conclusion: A systematic approach described in this paper can be used for the development and validation of educational material for introducing focal topics of pharmacology/clinical pharmacology integrated with other disciplines in innovative medical (and other health profession curricula.

  11. Canagliflozin use in patients with renal impairment-Utility of quantitative clinical pharmacology analyses in dose optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Manoj; Vaidyanathan, Jayabharathi; Marathe, Anshu; Mehrotra, Nitin; Sahajwalla, Chandrahas G; Zineh, Issam; Jain, Lokesh

    2015-06-01

    Canagliflozin (INVOKANA™) is approved as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin inhibits renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2), thereby, reducing reabsorption of filtered glucose and increasing urinary glucose excretion. Given the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, we assessed the interplay between renal function, efficacy (HbA1c reduction), and safety (renal adverse reactions). The focus of this article is to highlight the FDA's quantitative clinical pharmacology analyses that were conducted to support the regulatory decision on dosing in patients with renal impairment (RI). The metrics for assessment of efficacy for T2DM drugs is standard; however, there is no standard method for evaluation of renal effects for diabetes drugs. Therefore, several analyses were conducted to assess the impact of canagliflozin on renal function (as measured by eGFR) based on available data. These analyses provided support for approval of canagliflozin in T2DM patients with baseline eGFR ≥ 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , highlighting a data-driven approach to dose optimization. The availability of a relatively rich safety dataset (ie, frequent and early measurements of laboratory markers) in the canagliflozin clinical development program enabled adequate assessment of benefit-risk balance in various patient subgroups based on renal function.

  12. Trends in Qualifying Biomarkers in Drug Safety. Consensus of the 2011 Meeting of the Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez, José A. G.; del Barrio, Jaime; Padró, Teresa; Stephens, Camilla; Farré, Magí; Andrade, Raúl J.; Badimon, Lina; García-Martín, Elena; Vilahur, Gemma; Lucena, M. Isabel

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the consensus view on the use of qualifying biomarkers in drug safety, raised within the frame of the XXIV meeting of the Spanish Society of Clinical Pharmacology held in Málaga (Spain) in October, 2011. The widespread use of biomarkers as surrogate endpoints is a goal that scientists have long been pursuing. Thirty years ago, when molecular pharmacogenomics evolved, we anticipated that these genetic biomarkers would soon obviate the routine use of drug therapies in a way that patients should adapt to the therapy rather than the opposite. This expected revolution in routine clinical practice never took place as quickly nor with the intensity as initially expected. The concerted action of operating multicenter networks holds great promise for future studies to identify biomarkers related to drug toxicity and to provide better insight into the underlying pathogenesis. Today some pharmacogenomic advances are already widely accepted, but pharmacogenomics still needs further development to elaborate more precise algorithms and many barriers to implementing individualized medicine exist. We briefly discuss our view about these barriers and we provide suggestions and areas of focus to advance in the field. PMID:22294980

  13. 苯达莫司汀的药理与临床研究%Pharmacological and clinical studies of bendamustine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈祥峰; 马俊杰

    2011-01-01

    As a new generation of anti-cancer drugs, bendamustine has an obvious effect on a wide range of cancers. The clinical practice indicated that its monotherapy or combination therapy has a curative effect on nonHodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and breast carcinoma. Besides, bendamustine significantly reduces the relapse rate and mortality with lower adverse reactions. It is safe and worthy of a wide use for cancer patients. This article summarized its pharmacology and the clinical research.%盐酸苯达莫司汀作为新一代抗癌药物,对多种癌症具有明显的治疗作用.临床应用表明,本品单独治疗或联合用药治疗非霍奇金淋巴瘤、多发性骨髓瘤、慢性淋巴细胞白血病和乳腺癌等,疗效确切,明显降低复发率与死亡率,而且不良反应小,安全性高,值得推广应用.文中对其药理作用、临床研究及安全性进行综述.

  14. Epoetin zeta in the management of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease, differential pharmacology and clinical utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis-Ajami ML

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Lynn Davis-Ajami,1 Jun Wu,2 Katherine Downton,3 Emilie Ludeman,3 Virginia Noxon4 1Organizational Systems and Adult Health, University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Greenville, SC, USA; 3Health Sciences and Human Services Library, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Outcomes Science, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, USA Abstract: Epoetin zeta was granted marketing authorization in October 2007 by the European Medicines Agency as a recombinant human erythropoietin erythropoiesis-stimulating agent to treat symptomatic anemia of renal origin in adult and pediatric patients on hemodialysis and adults on peritoneal dialysis, as well as for symptomatic renal anemia in adult patients with renal insufficiency not yet on dialysis. Currently, epoetin zeta can be administered either subcutaneously or intravenously to correct for hemoglobin concentrations ≤10 g/dL (6.2 mmol/L or with dose adjustment to maintain hemoglobin levels at desired levels not in excess of 12 g/dL (7.5 mmol/L. This review article focuses on epoetin zeta indications in chronic kidney disease, its use in managing anemia of renal origin, and discusses its pharmacology and clinical utility. Keywords: biosimilar, chronic kidney disease, epoetin alfa, erythropoiesis, renal anemia, Retacrit®

  15. Incretin-based therapies– review of the physiology, pharmacology and emerging clinical experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, JH; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Gorrell, MD

    2011-01-01

    primarily in response to oral nutrient ingestion. They have various effects, but those most relevant to metabolic dysfunction include stimulation of insulin and suppression of glucagon secretion, with resultant reduction in fasting and postprandial glucose. Incretin secretion and/or action is impaired......-resistant peptides that bind to and activate the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. In this review, we address aspects of incretin biology and pharmacotherapy with a view to highlighting potentially clinically relevant issues and areas of basic research that may impinge on these....

  16. Menaquinone-7 as a novel pharmacological therapy in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Mahran S; Alkady, Eman A M; Ahmed, Sameh

    2015-08-15

    Menaquinones (MKs) have been reported to induce apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Recently, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) was proven as a new potential agent for the treatment of RA. However, menaquinone-7 (MK-7) has greater bioavailability and efficacy than MK-4 after oral administration. Yet, the therapeutic benefits of MK-7 in the management of patients with RA have never been addressed. This study was designed to clarify the therapeutic role of MK-7 added to normal therapeutic regimen of RA in patients with different stages of the disease with a clinical follow up through a randomized clinical trial. In a cross sectional study, 84 RA patients (24 male, 60 female) (average age=47.2 years) were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into MK-7 treated group (n=42) and MK-7 naïve group (n=42). MK-7 capsules were administered in a dose of 100µg/day for three months in the first group without changing in other medications. The clinical and biochemical markers on RA patients treated with MK-7 and naïve group were assessed. In MK-7 treated group, serum concentrations of MK-7 were monitored before and after three months of MK-7 administration. In the cross sectional study, a significant decrease in MK-7 treated group for the levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), disease activity score assessing 28 joints with ESR (DAS28-ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-3) was found. In MK-7 treated group, a marked decrease in RA clinical and biochemical markers for moderate and good response compared to non-responders was observed in ucOC, ESR and DAS28-ESR. A marked increase in the levels of MK-7 for the moderate and good responders compared to non-responders was observed. The results suggest that MK-7 improves disease activity in RA patients. Therefore, MK-7 represents a new promising agent for RA in combination therapy with other disease modifying antirheumatic drugs.

  17. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  18. Clinical Pharmacology Research Internships at the Interface between Academia and Industry: Students' Perceptions and Scientific Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulooze, Sebastiaan C; Franson, Kari L; Cohen, Adam F; Rissmann, Robert

    2017-01-08

    The Centre for Human Drug Research (CHDR) is a non-profit clinical research institute at the interface between academia and the pharmaceutical industry. CHDR hosts a research internship programme for undergraduate (bio)medical students. The aim of this study was (i) to investigate the student perceptions of the undergraduate research internship and (ii) to quantify the scientific output related to these internships. We surveyed former interns at the CHDR from the year 2007 to 2014 and quantified their scientific output with a PubMed search. There was a response rate to the survey of 61%, with a good overall rating of the internships. Many students considered their internship at CHDR to be (much) more broad (55%) and with a (much) stricter planning (48%), compared to previous internships at academic research groups. In turn, there were many aspects reported to be similar to academic research internships such as focus on research methodology and 'outcome-drivenness'. Twenty-four per cent of the internships resulted in a co-authorship on papers published in peer-reviewed journals with an average impact factor of 3.3. In conclusion, with appropriate management and supervision, effective research electives are possible in the more commercial environment of a clinical research organization.

  19. Pediatric Clinical Pharmacology of Voriconazole: Role of Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling in Pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Rajendra S; Van Den Anker, Johannes N

    2016-09-01

    Voriconazole is a potent antifungal agent used for the treatment of invasive fungal infections caused by Aspergillus and Candida species in adult and pediatric patients. Voriconazole has a narrow therapeutic index and a large intra- and inter-individual pharmacokinetics (PK) variability. Several factors including non-linear PK, age, body weight, cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype, concomitant drugs, liver function, and food are responsible for the large variability in voriconazole PK. A combination of a narrow therapeutic index with a large PK variability results in treatment failure in many patients at clinically recommended doses. There is an urgent need to establish an optimal dosing regimen for pediatric patients 60 %) treatment failure rates. Therapeutic drug monitoring is commonly used in clinical practice to optimize the voriconazole dosing regimens in pediatric patients, but it is associated with several practical limitations. Implementation of a PK model-guided individualized dose selection will help in reducing the PK variability and will improve therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we have summarized the covariates influencing the PK of voriconazole in adult and pediatric patients, emphasizing that the clearance of voriconazole is significantly different between adult and pediatric patients owing to developmental changes in the major clearance pathways. Moreover, we have provided the limitations of the current dosing regimens and have proposed a new dosing method using a PK model-guided dose individualization of voriconazole in pediatric patients.

  20. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  1. Verapamil for cluster headache. Clinical pharmacology and possible mode of action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Verapamil is used mainly in cardiovascular diseases. High-dose verapamil (360-720 mg) is, however, currently the mainstay in the prophylactic treatment of cluster headache. The oral pharmacokinetics are variable. The pharmacodynamic effect of verapamil, the effect on blood pressure, also varies...... considerably among subjects. The dose of verapamil used for cluster headache is approximately double the dose used in cardiovascular disease, most likely because verapamil is a substrate for the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in the blood-brain barrier. The access of verapamil to the central nervous system...... is therefore limited. The clinical use of verapamil in cluster headache is reviewed and several relevant drug interactions are mentioned. Finally, its possible mode of action in cluster headache is discussed. The effect of verapamil in cluster headache most likely takes place in the hypothalamus...

  2. Chronic neuropathic facial pain after intense pulsed light hair removal. Clinical features and pharmacological management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Párraga-Manzol, Gabriela; Sánchez-Torres, Alba; Moreno-Arias, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Intense Pulsed Light (IPL) photodepilation is usually performed as a hair removal method. The treatment is recommended to be indicated by a physician, depending on each patient and on its characteristics. However, the use of laser devices by medical laypersons is frequent and it can suppose a risk of damage for the patients. Most side effects associated to IPL photodepilation are transient, minimal and disappear without sequelae. However, permanent side effects can occur. Some of the complications are laser related but many of them are caused by an operator error or mismanagement. In this work, we report a clinical case of a patient that developed a chronic neuropathic facial pain following IPL hair removal for unwanted hair in the upper lip. The specific diagnosis was painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, reference 13.1.2.3 according to the International Headache Society (IHS). Key words:Neuropathic facial pain, photodepilation, intense pulse light. PMID:26535105

  3. Clinical pharmacology review of opicapone for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Margherita; Rosa, Mario M; Ferreira, Joaquim J

    2016-10-01

    Two catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors are currently used as add-on therapy to levodopa for the amelioration of end-of-dose motor fluctuations in Parkinson's disease patients: entacapone, which has moderate efficacy and requires multiple dosing, and tolcapone, which has a poor safety profile. Opicapone (OPC) is a novel, long-acting, peripherally selective, once daily, third-generation catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor. Two Phase III clinical trials demonstrated OPC efficacy in reducing OFF-time by an average of about 60 min daily compared with placebo, without increasing ON-time with troublesome dyskinesias, with a good drug safety profile. In June 2016, the European Commission granted a marketing authorization valid throughout the European Union for OPC, indicated as adjunctive of levodopa decarboxylase inhibitors in adult patients with Parkinson's disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations.

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCVI. Pattern recognition receptors in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Clare E; Orr, Selinda; Ferguson, Brian; Symmons, Martyn F; Boyle, Joseph P; Monie, Tom P

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Toll, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, as the first described pattern recognition receptor (PRR) in 1996, many families of these receptors have been discovered and characterized. PRRs play critically important roles in pathogen recognition to initiate innate immune responses that ultimately link to the generation of adaptive immunity. Activation of PRRs leads to the induction of immune and inflammatory genes, including proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. It is increasingly clear that many PRRs are linked to a range of inflammatory, infectious, immune, and chronic degenerative diseases. Several drugs to modulate PRR activity are already in clinical trials and many more are likely to appear in the near future. Here, we review the different families of mammalian PRRs, the ligands they recognize, the mechanisms of activation, their role in disease, and the potential of targeting these proteins to develop the anti-inflammatory therapeutics of the future.

  5. Pharmacology and clinical potential of vortioxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Enric Alvarez,1,2 Victor Perez,4,2 Francesc Artigas3,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Hospital de Sant Pau, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Institut de Recerca Biomedica Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 2Ministry of Science and Innovation, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain; 3Institut d’Investigacions Biomediques de Barcelona, CSIC, Barcelona, Spain; 4Institut de Neuropsiquiatria I Adiccions, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Vortioxetine is a new multimodal action antidepressant with two types of action: serotonin transporter (SERT blockade and a strong affinity for several serotoninergic receptors. It is an antagonist of the 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptors, a partial agonist of 5-HT1B, and an agonist of 5-HT1A. Its combined action on SERT and four subtypes of serotoninergic receptors increases the extracellular concentration of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline. Twelve ­clinical trials have been carried out, nine of which had positive results versus placebo. When active comparators were included in the study design, no significant differences were found except in one study in which the efficacy of vortioxetine was superior to the comparator (agomelatine in depression resistant to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI/serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI treatment. Tolerability studies indicate that the drug does not cause any important problems on blood tests, vital signs, or on electrocardiography. The lack of weight gain and induction of metabolic syndrome and the lack of significant changes in the QTc are especially important. The incidence rate of sexual dysfunction is low and similar to placebo in various trials. Similarly, cognitive function remains intact with vortioxetine. Keywords: depression, clinical trial, efficacy

  6. A HUMANIZED CLINICALLY CALIBRATED QUANTITATIVE SYSTEMS PHARMACOLOGY MODEL FOR HYPOKINETIC MOTOR SYMPTOMS IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eGeerts

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current treatment of Parkinson’s disease with dopamine-centric approaches such as L-DOPA and dopamine agonists, although very succesfull, is in need of alternative treatment strategies, both in terms of disease modification and symptom management. Various non-dopaminergic treatment approaches did not result in a clear clinical benefit, despite showing a clear effect in preclinical animal models. In addition, polypharmacy is common, sometimes leading to unintended effects on non-motor symptoms such as in cognitive and psychiatric domains. To explore novel targets for symptomatic treatment and possible synergistic pharmacodynamic effects between different drugs, we developed a Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP platform of the closed cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical basal ganglia loop of the dorsal motor circuit. This mechanism-based simulation platform is based on the known neuro-anatomy and neurophysiology of the basal ganglia and explicitly incorporates domain expertise in a formalized way. The calculated beta/gamma power ratio of the local field potential in the subthalamic nucleus correlates well (R2=0.71 with clinically observed extra-pyramidal symptoms triggered by antipsychotics during schizophrenia treatment (43 drug-dose combinations. When incorporating Parkinsonian (PD pathology and reported compensatory changes, the computer model suggests a major increase in b/g ratio (corresponding to bradykinesia and rigidity from a dopamine depletion of 70% onwards. The correlation between the outcome of the QSP model and the reported changes in UPDRS III Motor Part for 22 placebo-normalized drug-dose combinations is R2=0.84. The model also correctly recapitulates the lack of clinical benefit for perampanel, MK-0567 and flupirtine and offers a hypothesis for the translational disconnect. Finally, using human PET imaging studies with placebo response, the computer model predicts well the placebo response for chronic treatment, but not

  7. Gastrointestinal Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saps, Miguel; Miranda, Adrian

    2017-02-25

    There is little evidence for most of the medications currently used to treat functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) in children. Not only are there very few clinical trials, but also most have significant variability in the methods used and outcomes measured. Thus, the decision on the most appropriate pharmacological treatment is frequently based on adult studies or empirical data. In children, peppermint oil, trimebutine, and drotaverine have shown significant benefit compared with placebo, each of them in a single randomized clinical trial. A small study found that cyproheptadine was beneficial in the treatment of FAPDs in children. There are conflicting data regarding amitriptyline. While one small study found a significant benefit in quality of life compared with placebo, a large multicenter study found no benefit compared with placebo. The antidepressant, citalopram, failed to meet the primary outcomes in intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. Rifaximin has been shown to be efficacious in the treatment of adults with IBS. Those findings differ from studies in children where no benefit was found compared to placebo. To date, there are no placebo-controlled trials published on the use of linaclotide or lubiprostone in children. Alpha 2 delta ligands such as gabapentin and pregabalin are sometimes used in the care of this group of children, but no clinical trials are available in children with FAPDs. Similarly, novel drugs that have been approved for the care of irritable bowel with diarrhea in adults such as eluxadoline have yet to be studied in children.

  8. Pharmacology, toxicology, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of calcium polycarbophil, an enteral hydrosorptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhof, I E

    1982-01-01

    Calcium polycarbophil is the calcium salt of polyacrylic acid crosslinked with divinyl glycol. It is chemically and physiologically inert. In dilute alkali it possesses marked hydrophilic capacity (60 to 100 times its weight), which is the basis for its therapeutic use. In daily dosages of 4 to 5 g in adults, it appears to be quite safe, is non-toxic, does not interfere with digestion or absorption, and does not cause gastrointestinal irritation. It appears to be effective in the treatment of both constipation and diarrhea due to functional or organic causes. Several days of continuous use are necessary before effectiveness becomes apparent. Clinical studies, of which there are relatively few, range from uncontrolled, unblinded evaluations of an almost anecdotal nature to well controlled, double-blind, crossover studies. Additional carefully controlled studies on dietary influences, exercise, and patient compliance would be helpful. Adverse effects, which are minimal, include epigastric fullness or heaviness, abdominal distention and bloating, and flatulence. As with all bulk-forming agents, calcium polycarbophil should not be used by persons who have stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Differential pharmacology and clinical utility of sonidegib in advanced basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Mohd; Jawed, Arshad; Dar, Sajad Ahmad; Mandal, Raju K; Haque, Shafiul

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from advanced basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have very limited treatment options. Sonidegib selectively inhibits the growth of Hedgehog pathway-dependent tumors and can treat locally advanced BCC patients who are not candidates for surgery or radiation therapy. The BOLT clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the efficacy/potency of sonidegib in the treatment of advanced BCC or metastatic BCC. The patients were randomized in 1:2 ratios to receive 200 or 800 mg oral sonidegib daily, stratified by disease, histological subtype and geographical region. The primary efficacy analyses showed that 18 patients in the 200 mg group and 35 patients in the 800 mg group show an objective response (Central Review Committee) that corresponds to 43% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 28–59) and 38% (95% CI: 28–48) in their respective categories. Disease control was found in 93% (39 patients) and 80% (74 patients) of the patients administered 200 and 800 mg sonidegib, respectively. The adverse events were assessed by the Central Review Committee as well as the investigator review team as per the guidelines of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.03. The most frequently found adverse events reported in BOLT trials were muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia (taste disturbance), nausea, elevated blood creatine kinase and fatigue. Comparatively, the patients administered 200 mg sonidegib showed fewer adverse events than those in the 800 mg sonidegib category. Thus, the benefit of using the 200 mg dose of sonidegib outweighs the associated risks and it can be inferred that it would be judicious to choose doses of lesser strength. PMID:28182134

  10. Human primary osteoclasts: in vitro generation and applications as pharmacological and clinical assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamurovic Natasa

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoclasts are cells of hematopoietic origin with a unique property of dissolving bone; their inhibition is a principle for treatment of diseases of bone loss. Protocols for generation of human osteoclasts in vitro have been described, but they often result in cells of low activity, raising questions on cell phenotype and suitability of such assays for screening of bone resorption inhibitors. Here we describe an optimized protocol for the production of stable amounts of highly active human osteoclasts. Mononuclear cells were isolated from human peripheral blood by density centrifugation, seeded at 600,000 cells per 96-well and cultured for 17 days in α-MEM medium, supplemented with 10% of selected fetal calf serum, 1 μM dexamethasone and a mix of macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF, 25 ng/ml, receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL, 50 ng/ml, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, 5 ng/ml. Thus, in addition to widely recognized osteoclast-generating factors M-CSF and RANKL, other medium supplements and lengthy culture times were necessary. This assay reliably detected inhibition of osteoclast formation (multinucleated cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and activity (resorbed area and collagen fragments released from bone slices in dose response curves with several classes of bone resorption inhibitors. Therefore, this assay can be applied for monitoring bone-resorbing activity of novel drugs and as an clinical test for determining the capacity of blood cells to generate bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Isolation of large quantities of active human osteoclast mRNA and protein is also made possible by this assay.

  11. Pharmacological and clinical evidence of nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena J

    2012-11-01

    extended release, efficacy, safety, resistance, clinical practice

  12. Progress on pharmacology and clinical research of eribulin mesylate%eribulin mesylate的药理与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪倩; 封宇飞; 傅得兴; 孙春华

    2012-01-01

    By literature review, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical study, and safety of eribulin mesylate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer ( MBC) were evaluated in the paper. As a microtuhule inhibitor, eribulin mesylate has a good effect on multiple drug resistance of chemotherapy medicines in patients with MBC. The main adverse drug reaction is neutropenia. Eribulin mesylate could extend overall survival in patients with MBC. However, further studies should be conducted.%通过文献回顾,评价eribulin mesylate治疗转移性乳腺癌中的药理作用、药动学、临床研究和安全性.本品作为微管抑制剂,临床试验结果显示,对化疗药物产生多重耐药性的转移性乳腺癌具有很好的疗效,主要的不良反应为中性粒细胞减少症.本品可延长转移性乳腺癌患者的总存活时间,更多的研究有待进一步的评价.

  13. Comparison of the pharmacologic and clinical profiles of new combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen JT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey T Jensen,1 Johannes Bitzer,2 Marco Serrani3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Department of Social Medicine and Psychosomatics, Women’s Hospital, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Global Medical Affairs, Women’s Healthcare, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany Abstract: Three estradiol (E2-containing oral contraceptives, estradiol valerate/cyproterone acetate (E2V/CPA, Femilar®, estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG, Qlaira®/Natazia™, and estradiol/nomegestrol acetate (E2/NOMAC; Zoely®, have received approval for use in general practice. Only Finnish women currently have access to all three E2-based formulations. E2/NOMAC is currently approved only in Europe, while E2V/DNG is approved globally. To assist clinicians counseling women considering use of one of these formulations, we conducted a review of the published information about the current E2-containing oral contraceptives. A literature search was conducted using the Ovid interface and a combination of free search terms relevant to estradiol and oral contraception to identify suitable articles for inclusion in this review. The available data show that E2V/DNG, E2/NOMAC, and E2V/CPA are all effective oral contraceptives. While direct comparisons are lacking, indirect evidence suggests that E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC may have better bleeding profiles than E2V/CPA. E2V/DNG is also approved for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Both E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC have minimal influence on hemostatic, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters, or induce less change in these parameters relative to ethinylestradiol-based oral contraceptives. However, the predictive value of these surrogate parameters is a matter of debate, and whether these differences can be translated into meaningful clinical outcomes needs to be established in large-scale, post-marketing, prospective, Phase IV cohort

  14. In vitro and in vivo clinical pharmacology of dimethyl benzoylphenylurea, a novel oral tubulin-interactive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, Michelle A; Zhao, Ming; Smith, Nicola F; Robey, Robert W; He, Ping; Hallur, Gurulingappa; Khan, Saeed; Hidalgo, Manuel; Jimeno, Antonio; Colevas, A Dimitrios; Messersmith, Wells A; Wolff, Antonio C; Baker, Sharyn D

    2005-12-01

    Dimethyl benzoylphenylurea (BPU) is a novel tubulin-interactive agent with poor and highly variable oral bioavailability. In a phase I clinical trial of BPU, higher plasma exposure to BPU and metabolites was observed in patients who experienced dose-limiting toxicity. The elucidation of the clinical pharmacology of BPU was sought. BPU, monomethylBPU, and aminoBPU were metabolized by human liver microsomes. Studies with cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 enzymes revealed that BPU was metabolized predominantly by CYP3A4 and CYP1A1 but was also a substrate for CYP2C8, CYP2D6, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. BPU was not a substrate for the efflux transporter ABCG2. Using simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection, we identified six metabolites in human liver microsomes, plasma, or urine: monomethylBPU, aminoBPU, G280, G308, G322, and G373. In patient urine, aminoBPU, G280, G308, and G322 collectively represented BPU dose. G280, G308, G322, and G373 showed minimal cytotoxicity. When BPU was given p.o. to mice in the presence and absence of the CYP3A and ABCG2 inhibitor, ritonavir, there was an increase in BPU plasma exposure and decrease in metabolite exposure but no overall change in cumulative exposure to BPU and the cytotoxic metabolites. Thus, we conclude that (a) CYP3A4 and CYP1A1 are the predominant cytochrome P450 enzymes that catalyze BPU metabolism, (b) BPU is metabolized to two cytotoxic and four noncytotoxic metabolites, and (c) ritonavir inhibits BPU metabolism to improve the systemic exposure to BPU without altering cumulative exposure to BPU and the cytotoxic metabolites.

  15. Amphotericin B and its new formulations: pharmacologic characteristics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiphine, M; Letscher-Bru, V; Herbrecht, R

    1999-12-01

    candidiasis. Several comparative studies have confirmed that this formulation has similar or superior efficacy relative to amB in various fungal infections and also in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia. Renal and general tolerability is excellent. The optimal dosing remains unclear but is generally between 3 and 5 mg/kg/day. A double-blind trial comparing the tolerance of liposomal amB and ABLC demonstrated that both infusion-related events and nephrotoxicity were significantly lower for liposomal amB. In sum, the new lipid formulations of amB are effective in various invasive fungal infections. The three formulations exhibit reduced nephrotoxicity compared with conventional amB. Large-scale comparative clinical trials may clarify issues of relative efficacy in various forms of mycotic infections.

  16. Pharmacological Effects of Mangiferin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Zhi-quan; DENG Jia-gang; YAN Li

    2011-01-01

    Mango leaves have been widely used in the clinical practice for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine.Mangiferin,an effective constituent in the mango leaves,has multiple pharmacological actions involved in some basic pathological processes,such as inflammation,oxidative injury,tumor growth,micro-organism infections,metabolic regulations,and immunological regulations.The pharmacological effects of mangiferin from some published data are reviewed in this article.

  17. Clinical pharmacology of levosimendan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Saila; Sundberg, Stig; Lehtonen, Lasse A

    2007-01-01

    Levosimendan has been developed for the treatment of decompensated heart failure and is used intravenously when patients with heart failure require immediate initiation of drug therapy. It increases cardiac contractility and induces vasodilatation. The pharmacokinetics of levosimendan are linear at the therapeutic dose range of 0.05-0.2 microg/kg/minute. The short half-life (about 1 hour) of the parent drug, levosimendan, enables fast onset of drug action, although the effects are long-lasting due to the active metabolite OR-1896, which has an elimination half-life of 70-80 hours in patients with heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class III-IV). Although levosimendan is administered intravenously, it is excreted into the small intestine and reduced by intestinal bacteria to an amino phenolpyridazinone metabolite (OR-1855). This metabolite is further metabolised by acetylation to N-acetylated conjugate (OR-1896). The circulating metabolites OR-1855 and OR-1896 are formed slowly, and their maximum concentrations are seen on average 2 days after stopping a 24-hour infusion. The haemodynamic effects after levosimendan seem to be similar between fast and slow acetylators despite the fact that the enzyme N-acetyltransferase-2, which is responsible for the metabolism of OR-1855 to OR-1896, is polymorphically distributed in the population. Levosimendan reduces peripheral vascular resistance and has direct contractility-enhancing effects on the failing left ventricle. It also improves indices of diastolic function and seems to improve the function of stunned myocardium. Despite an improvement in ventricular function, levosimendan does not increase myocardial oxygen uptake significantly. An increase in coronary blood flow and a reduction in coronary vascular resistance have been observed. Levosimendan reduces plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) levels substantially, and a decrease in plasma endothelin-1 has been observed. Levosimendan also exerts beneficial effects on proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis mediators. The effects of a 24-hour levosimendan infusion on filling pressure, ventricular function and BNP, as well as NT-proBNP, last for at least 7 days.

  18. Flupirtine : Clinical pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Harish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flupirtine is neither an opioid nor a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID producing its analgesic action through blockade of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. It is devoid of adverse effects of routinely used analgesic drugs, but is equally efficacious in reducing pain sensation. It has a distinctive mechanism of action, exerting a dual therapeutic effect with both analgesic and muscle relaxant properties that has utility in the treatment of pain, including that associated with muscle tension.

  19. Intern’s knowledge of clinical pharmacology and therapeutics at Puducherry: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internship is the intermediate period between under-graduation and general practice. The dexterity of health professional relies upon prescribing practices. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics (CPT is a crucial discipline for interns to acquire safe and rational prescription of drugs. Cultivating sound knowledge about CPT during under graduation is, henceforth, mandatory. Aims and objectives: 1.To assess whether the undergraduate CPT teaching and internship training had prepared interns adequately for safe and rational prescription. 2.To assess the awareness and reporting of adverse drug reaction (ADR. Methods: 110 interns were enrolled after obtaining informed written consent. A structured questionnaire was given to them including basic demographic information, undergraduate CPT teaching, experience of ADR and any deficiency in the under-graduate CPT teaching. Results: Response rate was 91 % in which 53 were males and 47 females. 81 considered themselves aware of CPT. 56% & 57% interns were able to prescribe drug safely and rationally respectively. Without supervision, they were confident to prescribe antacids (93%, vitamins and minerals (90%, NSAIDS (85%, antihistamines (82%, antibiotics (75%, antiemetics (62% and antiasthmatics (52%. Only 22% had reported ADR and opined that it could lead to hospitalization (51%, prolonged hospital stay (33%, morbidity (16% and death (21%. According to interns, the topics where more emphasis needed were ADR, dosage calculation, pediatric and emergency medicine and therapeutic drug monitoring during undergraduate CPT teaching. Conclusion: CPT teaching should be improved at undergraduate level for safe and rational prescribing including ADR monitoring, ADR reporting and dosage calculation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(5.000: 622-628

  20. Clinical Application and Pharmacological Actions of Ligustrazine Chuanxiong%川芎的药理作用及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文海

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究川芎的药理作用及临床应用。方法收集关于川穹药理作用及临床应用的相关文献,对文献进行总结分析。结果川芎具有活血化瘀、镇静镇痛、抑制氧自由基释放等方面的药理作用。结论川芎在治疗呼吸系统疾病、冠心病、心绞痛、肾病综合征等方面具备比较好的临床疗效。%ObjectiveTo study the pharmacological action and clinical application of Ligusticum chuanxiong. Methods colected the relevant literatures on the pharmacological effects and clinical application of Ligusticum chuanxiong dome, to summarize the literature.Results Ligusticum chuanxiong with pharmacological effects of Huoxue Huayu, sedation and analgesia, inhibit the release of oxygen free radicals.Conclusion Ligusticum chuanxiong in the treatment of respiratory system disease, coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, nephrotic syndrome has better clinical efficacy.

  1. The pharmacology of neuroplasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation: building models for the clinical use of CNS active drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael A; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Paulus, Walter; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-10-01

    The term neuroplasticity encompasses structural and functional modifications of neuronal connectivity. Abnormal neuroplasticity is involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases, such as dystonia, epilepsy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease, fronto-temporal degeneration, schizophrenia, and post cerebral stroke. Drugs affecting neuroplasticity are increasingly used as therapeutics in these conditions. Neuroplasticity was first discovered and explored in animal experimentation. However, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has enabled researchers recently to induce and study similar processes in the intact human brain. Plasticity induced by NIBS can be modulated by pharmacological interventions, targeting ion channels, or neurotransmitters. Importantly, abnormalities of plasticity as studied by NIBS are directly related to clinical symptoms in neuropsychiatric diseases. Therefore, a core theme of this review is the hypothesis that NIBS-induced plasticity can explore and potentially predict the therapeutic efficacy of CNS-acting drugs in neuropsychiatric diseases. We will (a) review the basics of neuroplasticity, as explored in animal experimentation, and relate these to our knowledge about neuroplasticity induced in humans by NIBS techniques. We will then (b) discuss pharmacological modulation of plasticity in animals and humans. Finally, we will (c) review abnormalities of plasticity in neuropsychiatric diseases, and discuss how the combination of NIBS with pharmacological intervention may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of abnormal plasticity in these diseases and their purposeful pharmacological treatment.

  2. Application of a Static Fluorescence-based Cytometer (the CellScan in Basic Cytometric Studies, Clinical Pharmacology, Oncology and Clinical Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Harel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The CellScan apparatus is a laser scanning cytometer enabling repetitive fluorescence intensity (FI and polarization (FP measurements in living cells, as a means of monitoring lymphocyte activation. The CellScan may serve as a tool for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE as well as other autoimmune diseases by monitoring FP changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs following exposure to autoantigenic stimuli. Changes in FI and FP in atherosclerotic patients' PBLs following exposure to various stimuli have established the role of the immune system in atherosclerotic disease. The CellScan has been evaluated as a diagnostic tool for drug-allergy, based on FP reduction in PBLs following incubation with allergenic drugs. FI and FP changes in cancer cells have been found to be well correlated with the cytotoxic effect of anti-neoplastic drugs. In conclusion, the CellScan has a variety of applications in cell biology, immunology, cancer research and clinical pharmacology.

  3. Healthspan Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2015-12-01

    The main goal of this paper is to present the case for shifting the focus of research on aging and anti-aging from lifespan pharmacology to what I like to call healthspan pharmacology, in which the desired outcome is the extension of healthy years of life rather than lifespan alone. Lifespan could be influenced by both genetic and epigenetic factors, but a long lifespan may not be a good indicator of an optimal healthspan. Without improving healthspan, prolonging longevity would have enormous negative socioeconomic outcomes for humans. Therefore, the goal of aging and anti-aging research should be to add healthy years to life and not merely to increase the chronological age. This article summarizes and compares two categories of pharmacologically induced lifespan extension studies in animal model systems from the last two decades-those reporting the effects of pharmacological interventions on lifespan extension alone versus others that include their effects on both lifespan and healthspan in the analysis. The conclusion is that the extrapolation of pharmacological results from animal studies to humans is likely to be more relevant when both lifespan and healthspan extension properties of pharmacological intervention are taken into account.

  4. Efforts and success world-wide in the field of clinical pharmacology. A personal review on the occasion of Folke Sjöqvist's 80th birthday.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this personal review I describe my early expectations and experiences when I first came to work with Prof. Folke Sjöqvist as a training fellow in the early 1970s. At that time Prof. Sjöqvist and his unit had already earned an international reputation, and in the following decades this success has been magnified many times. Although a description of the research performed by Prof. Sjöqvist during his long career is not the main objective of this article, it is clear that the research carried out in his unit has been instrumental in the development of his international reputation. Over an 18-year period from 1994 onwards, some 272 papers bearing the name of Folke Sjöqvist have been cited over 13,000 times, with an average of over 50 citations per paper. In terms of training clinical pharmacologists from around the world, at the last count 112 individuals from 37 different countries have received a substantial part of their training in his unit. As another measure of his world-wide success, 33 individuals from 18 different countries who received a substantial part of their training in his unit between 1968 and 1996 have gone on to become professors of clinical pharmacology. Prof. Sjöqvist has been requested to consult on various aspects of clinical pharmacology in 15 different countries, from Russia to Spain and from Egypt to Latvia. Here I describe the long-term involvement that Prof. Sjöqvist has had with IUPHAR (now the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology) and with institutions such as the World Health Organisation (WHO). In particular, I recount his role in the long-term saga involved in updating the original WHO manifesto on clinical pharmacology published in 1970 up to the eventual success of the new manifesto published by WHO in 2012. Finally, I briefly describe the international honours that have been bestowed on Prof. Sjöqvist, including various prizes, designated lectureships and honorary Doctorates (5). Taken together, these

  5. Lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia: a clinical overview and applications with home-based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedberg F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fred Friedberg,1 David A Williams,2 William Collinge31Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 3Collinge and Associates, Kittery, Maine, USAAbstract: Fibromyalgia (FM is a persistent and disabling widespread pain condition often accompanied by chronic fatigue, cognitive problems, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, and headache. To date, the most thoroughly studied non-pharmacological approaches to managing FM are those with a focus on changing patient activities and beliefs that affect the illness. These interventions are intended to facilitate enduring improvement in pain and functional status. Lifestyle-oriented treatments include patient education, aerobic or other physical exercise, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT. These interventions in FM can be delivered in medical or behavioral health care settings by trained professionals, through patient-oriented treatment manuals, or via remote-access technologies. Non-pharmacological treatments, in particular exercise and CBT, have yielded effect sizes and cost–benefit ratios comparable to medications. This paper describes lifestyle-oriented non-pharmacological treatments for FM and highlights selected literature reviews of these interventions. In addition, behavioral and practical issues are addressed that may affect these non-pharmacological treatments, including patient expectations, participant burden, and treatment availability. Recommendations are made to facilitate these interventions and potentially improve outcomes. In particular, the increasing availability of convenient home-based mobile technologies to deliver these non-pharmacological treatments is described.Keywords: cognitive-behavior therapy, exercise, education, mobile technology

  6. Clinical Analysis the Pharmacologic Action of Alprostadil%前列地尔的药理作用临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2016-01-01

    Alprostadil the common drugs in treatment of chronic disease, there has speciifc function of elderly patient clinical therapy, which is continuously extending the clinial appplication range, has higher value of clinical application. At present, the clinical application study increase gradually about the pharmacologic action of alprostadil. This article analysis the research progress, pharmacologic, application status of alprostadil, aim at provide some reference in alprostadil clinical application.%前列地尔是治疗较多慢性疾病的常用药,其在老年疾病的临床治疗中有特殊的作用,临床应用范围也不断扩大,有较高的临床应用价值。当前,关于前列地尔药理作用及临床应用研究逐渐增多,本文对前列地尔应用现状、药理作用及研究进展进行分析,以期为前列地尔临床应用提供借鉴。

  7. 化瘀通闭丸的药理作用及临床应用%Pharmacological Action and Clinical Application of Huayu Tongbi Pill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭国富

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨化疼通闭丸的药理作用和临床应用.方法:结合科研及实际,对化瘀通用丸的药理作用及临床应用进行归纳和总结.结果:化瘀通闭丸具有抗炎消炎、抑菌杀菌、镇痛、提高免疫力等作用,临床用于治疗泌尿系统及生殖系统炎症.结论:化瘀通闭丸治疗泌尿系统及生殖系统炎症疗效确切、安全可靠.%Objective;To investigate the pharmacological effects of huayu tongbi pill in clinical application. Methods:Pharmacological function and clinical application of huayu tongbi pill are summarized combined with scientific research and practice. Results; Huayu tongbi pill has anti - inflammatory, antibacterial sterilization .analgesia and immunity function improvement, the clinic for the treatment of urinary system and reproductive system inflammation. Conclusion;The curative effect of huayu tongbi pill in the treatment of urinary system and reproductive system inflammation is accurate,safe and reliable.

  8. 丹参的药理分析及临床应用研究%Pharmacological Analysis of and Study on Clinical Application of Salvia Miltiorrhiza

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高波

    2016-01-01

    丹参是一味临床常用药材,在我国医疗上应用历史悠久,随着对丹参药理作用的深入研究以及临床应用,该种药材具有祛瘀止痛、活血通经、清心除烦等诸多疗效,在肝硬化、恶性肿瘤、冠心病、消化性溃疡等疾病的临床治疗中具有显著的应用效果,并且其药用价值已经得到了医学界和患者的广泛认可,并且在临床上的应用也越来越广泛。本文主要对丹参的药理作用进行简要分析,并就其在临床上的应用进行研究。%Salvia miltiorrhiza is an ordinary medication ingredient in clinical treatment with a long history. With a deep pharmacological analysis on salvia miltiorrhiza and its clinical application, salvia miltiorrhiza has extraordinary effects on getting rid of bruise, relieving pain, activating blood circulation and dispeling upset and irritation. Besides, salvia miltiorrhiza is quite efficiency in clinical treatment of liver cirrhosis, malignant tumor, coronary heart disease, peptic ulcer and other diseases. Its medication value has been recognized widely by medical experts and patients and it has been applied clinicaly more and more widespread. This paper mainly makes a brief analysis on pharmacological function and a study on clinical application of salvia miltiorrhiza.

  9. 2013 Pharmacology Risk SRP Status Review Comments to Chief Scientist. The Risk of Clinically Relevant Unpredicted Effects of Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On December 5, 2013, the Pharmacology Risk SRP, participants from the JSC, HQ, the NSBRI, and NRESS participated in a WebEx/teleconference. The purpose of the call (as stated in the Statement of Task) was to allow the SRP members to: 1. Receive an update by the HRP Chief Scientist or Deputy Chief Scientist on the status of NASA's current and future exploration plans and the impact these will have on the HRP. 2. Receive an update on any changes within the HRP since the 2012 SRP meeting. 3. Receive an update by the Element or Project Scientist(s) on progress since the 2012 SRP meeting. 4. Participate in a discussion with the HRP Chief Scientist, Deputy Chief Scientist, and the Element regarding possible topics to be addressed at the next SRP meeting.

  10. FDG PET in non-pharmacological therapy in Alzheimer's disease; cerebral metabolic increase correlates with clinical improvement after cognitive therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Park, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In management of AD, pharmacological treatment alone using acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is general consensus, and provides beneficial effect to prolong their progression. Combined non-pharmacological therapy, especially cognitive therapy is recently having attention with expectation of improvement in cognitive ability. This study examined the effect of combined cognitive therapy in AD patients who were maintaining AChEI using FDG PET. Four patients (689 yrs) who diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria participated in this study. 12-week cognitive therapy comprised seven fields to enhance orientation, memory, recall, visuo-motor organization, categorization and behavior modification/sequencing. They received 45-minute sessions twice per week with maintaining their previous medication. Clinical improvement was assessed by comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Two FDG PET studies were performed before cognitive therapy and in the middle of the therapy, and compared to evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy to cerebral metabolism. Two of 4 patients whose initial cognitive impairment was milder had clinical improvement after 12 weeks, the rest who were more severely impaired failed to have clinical improvement. Regional cerebral hypometabolism on initial PET was correlated with their functional status. Follow up PET of two responders demonstrated the increases in regional metabolism in the temporal and/or frontal cortex, which was associated their functional improvement. Cerebral metabolism in poor responders were minimally increased or no changed. This preliminary data suggests that cognitive therapy is potentially useful to stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance in AD patients with relatively mild cognitive dysfunction. And FDG PET could demonstrate possible candidates for cognitive therapy and the effect of the therapy.

  11. Pharmacological and clinical differences among transmucosal fentanyl formulations for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corli, O; Roberto, A

    2014-10-01

    Breakthrough pain (BTP) is highly prevalent (59.2%) in chronic cancer patients and normally needs rescue treatments' with opioids when pain flares up. Transmucosal oral/nasal fentanyl formulations are commonly used in clinical practice. The different methods of release influence the pharmacokinetics and clinical properties of these formulations. The aim of this review was to assess and weigh these differences. Clinical trials comparing one transmucosal fentanyl with placebo or another active drug were included. We searched Medline for the last ten years and analyzed 13 studies, totaling 1447 patients. Clinical data on efficacy and safety were compared. In parallel, we report the differences in delivery systems, bioavailability, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), plasma half-life, and time to reach Cmax (tmax). Considerable variability emerged between formulations. This suggests some considerations on the choice of the fentanyl formulation in the light of the BTP features in each clinical case.

  12. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons

    OpenAIRE

    Rituparna Maiti; José Luis Alloza

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinic...

  13. CFTR pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarra-Moran, Olga; Galietta, Luis J V

    2017-01-01

    CFTR protein is an ion channel regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and expressed in many types of epithelial cells. CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate secretion play an important role in the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Pharmacological modulators of CFTR represent promising drugs for a variety of diseases. In particular, correctors and potentiators may restore the activity of CFTR in cystic fibrosis patients. Potentiators are also potentially useful to improve mucociliary clearance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. On the other hand, CFTR inhibitors may be useful to block fluid and electrolyte loss in secretory diarrhea and slow down the progression of polycystic kidney disease.

  14. 聚卡波非钙的药理及临床研究%Progress on pharmacology and clinical research of calcium polycarbophil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振杰; 袁耀宗

    2012-01-01

    通过文献回顾,评价聚卡波非钙治疗肠易激综合征及其他原因所致便秘的药理作用、药动学、临床研究和安全性.本品为高分子聚合物,临床试验显示其对肠易激综合症及其他原因引起的便秘具有很好的疗效,主要的不良反应为消化道症状.%By literature review, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical study, and safety of calcium polycarbophil in the treatment of constipation in irritable bowel syndrome and others were evaluated in the paper. As a polymer, calcium polycarbophil has a positive effect on IBS and other constipation. The main adverse drug reaction is the digestive system symptoms.

  15. Study on the pharmacological action and clinical application SanQi%三七的药理作用及其临床应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓凤

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the pharmacological action and clinical application of three seven. Methods: Thechemical constituents of three seven analysis, pharmacological action and summarize three seven in chemical composition in clinical application effect. Results:Sanqi can affect the central nervous system, circulatory system, digestive system, urinary system, reproductive system and the immune system and other systems, but also has anti-aging, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Conclusion:as a kind of natural plant medicine,three seven and its extract medicinal extensive effect, less side effect, is worth paying attention to anddeveloped a taste of traditional Chinese medicine.%目的:讨论三七的药理作用及临床应用。方法:对三七的化学成分进行分析,总结三七的药理作用及其在化学成分在临床的应用效果。结果:三七能够对中枢神经系统、循环系统、消化系统、泌尿系统、生殖系统以及免疫系统等系统产生影响,还具有抗衰老、抗肿瘤和抗炎的作用。结论:作为一种天然的植物药,三七及其提取物药用作用广泛,副作用少,是一味值得重视和开发的中药。

  16. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Maiti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  17. Social pharmacology: expanding horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of "social pharmacology" is not covered by the so-called "Phase IV" alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the "life cycle" of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences.

  18. Effect of vitamin B/sub 6/ on the neurotoxicity and pharmacology of desmethylmisonidazole and misonidazole: clinical and laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.N.; Hirst, V.K.; Brown, D.M.; Halsey, J.

    1984-08-01

    The clinical usefulness of misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) is severely limited by neurotoxicity. Based on theoretical considerations and on laboratory data suggesting that pyridoxine (PN) decreased MISO toxicity in mice. The authors attempted to ameliorate the clinical neuropathy of DMM using oral PN. Pharmacokinetic analysis suggested interaction of PN and DMM but no protection against neuropathy was observed. Serial experiments with C3H and BALB/c mice were done using various forms of vitamin B/sub 6/ (PN, pyridoxal, pyridoxal phosphate) administered orally and i.p. No consistent protection was observed. Dexamethasone did not alter MISO toxicity in mice, contrary to the clinical findings. They conclude that vitamin B/sub 6/ is not useful in preventing clinical neurotoxicity of MISO or DMM.

  19. The pharmacology of regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, George J; Saul, Justin M; Furth, Mark E; Andersson, Karl-Erik

    2013-07-01

    Regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary, translational research enterprise whose explicit purpose is to advance technologies for the repair and replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. Scientific progress in the field has been steady and expectations for its robust clinical application continue to rise. The major thesis of this review is that the pharmacological sciences will contribute critically to the accelerated translational progress and clinical utility of regenerative medicine technologies. In 2007, we coined the phrase "regenerative pharmacology" to describe the enormous possibilities that could occur at the interface between pharmacology, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering. The operational definition of regenerative pharmacology is "the application of pharmacological sciences to accelerate, optimize, and characterize (either in vitro or in vivo) the development, maturation, and function of bioengineered and regenerating tissues." As such, regenerative pharmacology seeks to cure disease through restoration of tissue/organ function. This strategy is distinct from standard pharmacotherapy, which is often limited to the amelioration of symptoms. Our goal here is to get pharmacologists more involved in this field of research by exposing them to the tools, opportunities, challenges, and interdisciplinary expertise that will be required to ensure awareness and galvanize involvement. To this end, we illustrate ways in which the pharmacological sciences can drive future innovations in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and thus help to revolutionize the discovery of curative therapeutics. Hopefully, the broad foundational knowledge provided herein will spark sustained conversations among experts in diverse fields of scientific research to the benefit of all.

  20. Vernakalant (RSD1235) in the management of atrial fibrillation: a review of pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, Peter; Andersson, Charlotte; Brendorp, Bente;

    2008-01-01

    Vernakalant (RSD1235) is a novel antiarrhythmic agent for conversion of rapid onset atrial fibrillation (AF). It is an atria-selective multichannel ion blocker (blocks I(Kur), I(Na), I(Ca, L), I(to) and I(Kr)), with a small effect on ventricular repolarization. In clinical Phase II and III studie...

  1. Systematic Review of Randomized Clinical Trials on Safety and Efficacy of Pharmacological and Nonpharmacological Treatments for Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sacchetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Several treatments have been proposed to slow down progression of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP, a hereditary retinal degenerative condition leading to severe visual impairment. The aim of this study is to systematically review data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs evaluating safety and efficacy of medical interventions for the treatment of RP. Methods. Randomized clinical trials on medical treatments for syndromic and nonsyndromic RP published up to December 2014 were included in the review. Visual acuity, visual field, electroretinogram, and adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results. The 19 RCTs included in this systematic review included trials on hyperbaric oxygen delivery, topical brimonidine tartrate, vitamins, docosahexaenoic acid, gangliosides, lutein, oral nilvadipine, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and valproic acid. All treatments proved safe but did not show significant benefit on visual function. Long term supplementation with vitamin A showed a significantly slower decline rate in electroretinogram amplitude. Conclusions. Although all medical treatments for RP appear safe, evidence emerging from RCTs is limited since they do not present comparable results suitable for quantitative statistical analysis. The limited number of RCTs, the poor clinical results, and the heterogeneity among studies negatively influence the strength of recommendations for the long term management of RP patients.

  2. 酸枣仁的药理作用及现代临床应用研究%Pharmacological effects and modern clinical application research of Suanzao Ren

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡明亚

    2012-01-01

      According to the TCM Suanzao Ren flat sweet and sour, Bugan, Ning Xin, Lianhan, Shengjin as its main active ingredient Jujuboside, Suanzao Ren flavonoids, Suanzao Ren oil, and some experimental results to explore Suanzao Ren has a sedative and hypnotic, anticonvulsant, anti-arrhythmic, anti-ischemic, blood pressure, cholesterol, and so enhance the immune pharmacological effects, as well as in modern clinical applications, and for further research to explore Suanzao Ren clinical applications providing valuable materials.%  根据中药酸枣仁性平味甘酸,具有补肝、宁心、敛汗、生津之功,其主要有效成分为酸枣仁皂苷、酸枣仁黄酮、酸枣仁油等,并根据一些实验结果探讨酸枣仁具有镇静催眠、抗惊厥、抗心律失常、抗心肌缺血、降压、降血脂等,增强免疫等药理作用,以及在现代临床上的应用,并为进一步研究探索酸枣仁的临床应用提供了有价值的材料。

  3. Aliskiren – an orally active renin inhibitor. Review of pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, kinetics, and clinical potential in the treatment of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Allikmets

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Kristina AllikmetsDepartment of Drug Development and Medical Affairs, Nycomed Group, Roskilde, DenmarkAbstract: The importance of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS in diseases such as hypertension, congestive heart failure and chronic renal failure has long ago been recognized. It has also been established that inhibition of RAAS, using inhibitors of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB, is an effective way to intervene with the pathogenesis of these disorders. Renin inhibitors block the RAAS at the highest level, at its origin, and might thus offer a new exciting approach for pharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension. Aliskiren is the first in a new class of orally active, non-peptide, low molecular weight renin inhibitors, and so far the only renin inhibitor that has progressed to phase III clinical trials. This review summarizes the available data on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of aliskiren and its clinical development for treatment of arterial hypertension.Keywords: aliskiren, hypertension, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin inhibition, essential hypertension

  4. Pharmacological and clinical profile of recently approved second-generation antipsychotics: implications for treatment of schizophrenia in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Jeffrey; Janicak, Philip G

    2012-10-01

    Antipsychotics are frequently used in elderly patients to treat a variety of conditions, including schizophrenia. While extensively studied for their impact in younger populations, there is comparatively limited evidence about the effectiveness of these agents in older patients. Further complicating this situation are the high comorbidity rates (both psychiatric and medical) in the elderly; age-related changes in pharmacokinetics that lead to a heightened proclivity for adverse effects; and the potential for multiple, clinically relevant drug interactions. With this background in mind, we review diagnostic and treatment-related issues specific to elderly patients suffering from schizophrenia. We then focus on the potential role of the most recently approved second-generation antipsychotics, paliperidone (both the extended-release oral formulation and the long-acting injectable formulation), iloperidone, asenapine and lurasidone, given the limited clinical experience with these agents in the elderly. While there is limited data to support their safety, tolerability and efficacy in older patients with schizophrenia, each has unique characteristics that should be considered when used in this population.

  5. Modern Pharmacology Theory Research and Clinical New-application of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx%附子的现代药理研究与临床新用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:总结附子的药用原理,扩展其临床应用范围.方法:总结、归纳近年来的相关文献,用现代药理理论研究附子的医用价值与临床新用手段.结果:附子回阳救逆、补阳助火的功效,用现代医学的理论来说,与强心、抗心律失常、扩张血管、增强肾上腺皮质系统的作用直接相关;而散寒作用可以理解为与增强免疫系统、镇痛、增加血氧等作用相关.附子的药效主要体现在其化合物对神经膜蛋白和激素受体的作用,由于二者的作用机理复杂,交互环节很多,难以用单一化合物的药理来解释附子的作用.结论:附子的药理作用复杂,单一成分的作用还有待进一步研究.%Objective:To summarize the officinal principle of Aconitum Caraiichaeli Debx and extend its clinical application range. Methods : Related literatures in recent years were summarized and concluded, modern pharmacology theory was used to research the medical value and clinical new-application method of Aconitum Garmichaeli Debx. Results: Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx had the effects of regenerating yang and rescue cold limbs, tonifying yang and adding fire, in terms of modern medical theory, the effects had direct relation with stronging heart % resisting arrhythmia, dilating vessel % enhancing function of adrenal cortex system; dispersing cold effects of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx could be interpreted as had relationship with stringing immune system, easing pain, increasing blood oxygen. Pesticide effect of Aconitum Garmichaeli Debx was mainly embodied in its compound had effects on neurilemma protein and hormone receptor, and the two objects had complex functional mechanism and multiple interactive links, thus, the effects of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx could not be explained by single compound. Conclusion; Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx has complex pharmacology function, effect of its single component needs to be further studied.

  6. Pre-Clinical Studies with D-Penicillamine as a Novel Pharmacological Strategy to Treat Alcoholism: Updated Evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Alejandro; Martí-Prats, Lucía; Cano-Cebrián, María J.; Granero, Luis; Polache, Ana; Zornoza, Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    Ethanol, as other drugs of abuse, is able to activate the ventral tegmental area dopamine (VTA-DA) neurons leading to positively motivational alcohol-seeking behavior and use, and, ultimately to ethanol addiction. In the last decades, the involvement of brain-derived acetaldehyde (ACD) in the ethanol actions in the mesolimbic pathway has been widely demonstrated. Consistent published results have provided a mechanistic support to the use of ACD inactivating agents to block the motivational and reinforcing properties of ethanol. Hence, in the last years, several pre-clinical studies have been performed in order to analyze the effects of the sequestering ACD agents in the prevention of ethanol relapse-like drinking behavior as well as in chronic alcohol consumption. In this sense, one of the most explored interventions has been the administration of D-Penicillamine (DP). These pre-clinical studies, that we critically summarize in this article, are considered a critical step for the potential development of a novel pharmacotherapeutic strategy for alcohol addiction treatment that could improve the outcomes of current ones. Thus, on one hand, several experimental findings provide the rationale for using DP as a novel therapeutic intervention alone and/or in combination to prevent relapse into alcohol seeking and consumption. On the other hand, its effectiveness in reducing voluntary ethanol consumption in long-term experienced animals still remains unclear. Finally, this drug offers the additional advantage that has already been approved for use in humans, hence it could be easily implemented as a new therapeutic intervention for relapse prevention in alcoholism. PMID:28326026

  7. Late-onset ankylosing spondylitis and spondylarthritis: an update on clinical manifestations, differential diagnosis and pharmacological therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussirot, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and spondylarthritis (SpA) are generally observed in young male patients but can be diagnosed in the elderly. These cases correspond to late-onset or late-diagnosed AS or SpA. The clinical presentation may be either typical axial disease with a more severe illness compared with young-onset disease, or peripheral oligoarthritis of the lower limbs with pitting oedema (late-onset peripheral spondylarthropathy). New criteria for axial SpA including MRI-determined modifications of the sacroiliac joints may help the clinician with diagnosis. The treatment options for late-onset/-diagnosed AS include the same drugs as those taken by patients with young-onset AS, i.e. NSAIDs, sulfasalazine and anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents. Anti-TNFalpha agents are very effective drugs in young-onset AS and SpA. However, the effectiveness and safety of this drug class has not been specifically evaluated in elderly AS/SpA patients, and caution is therefore required with use of these drugs in elderly patients with co-morbidities and/or polypharmacy. In particular, careful evaluation for the risk of infection and cardiovascular events is recommended before initiating anti-TNFalpha agents in this age category. However, safety data from elderly patients with rheumatoid arthritis seem reassuring. With the increasing life expectancy and the new diagnostic modalities for axial (and peripheral) SpA, it is likely that the number of patients (diagnosed) with late-onset AS/SpA will increase. Thus, the clinician must be familiar with the clinical characteristics and particularities of this group of inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

  8. Pharmacology and clinical application of S(+)-ketamine%右氯胺酮的药理学特点和临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丝濛; 岳云

    2016-01-01

    背景 右氯胺酮在欧洲已广泛使用,与常见的消旋氯胺酮比较,具有药效更强、可控性更好、副作用更少等优势. 目的 对右氯胺酮的药理学特点和目前的临床研究进行综述,为进一步研究和应用于临床提供参考. 内容 通过与常见的消旋氯胺酮比较,阐述右氯胺酮在药效、可控性、副作用等方面的优势.围术期小剂量应用右氯胺酮可减少术后额外镇痛药的用量,延长术后镇痛的时间,提高镇痛质量. 趋向 右氯胺酮可能在一些临床应用中取代消旋氯胺酮.%Background S (+)-ketamine has been widely used in Europe,which has higher efficacy,better controllability,and less adverse effects compared to the racemic mixture.Objective This article reviews the pharmacology and current clinical researches of S(+)-ketamine in order to provide a reference for its clinical application.Content S(+)-ketamine has higher efficacy,better controllability,and less adverse effects compared to the racemic mixture.Small-dose S(+)-ketamine used in perioperative period can prolong analgesic time,reduce postoperative analgesic need,and improve analgesic quality.Trend S (+)-ketamine is likely to replace the racemic mixture in some clinical applications.

  9. Pharmacological interactions of vasoconstrictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-01-01

    This article is the first of a series on pharmacological interactions involving medicaments commonly prescribed and/or used in odontology: vasoconstrictors in local anaesthetics and anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial analgesics. The necessity for the odontologist to be aware of adverse reactions as a result of the pharmacological interactions is due to the increase in medicament consumption by the general population. There is a demographic change with greater life expectancy and patients have increased chronic health problems and therefore have increased medicament intake. The presence of adrenaline (epinephrine) and other vasoconstrictors in local odontological anaesthetics is beneficial in relation to the duration and depth of anaesthesia and reduces bleeding and systemic toxicity of the local anaesthetic. However, it might produce pharmacological interactions between the injected vasoconstrictors and the local anaesthetic and adrenergic medicament administered exogenically which the odontologist should be aware of, especially because of the risk of consequent adverse reactions. Therefore the importance of conducting a detailed clinical history of the general state of health and include all medicaments, legal as well as illegal, taken by the patient.

  10. [Physicochemical and pharmacological characteristic and clinical efficacy of an anti-irritable bowel syndrome agent, polycarbophil calcium (Polyful)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yuji

    2002-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and abnormal defecation. Polycarbophil calcium, a water-absorbing polymer, is expected to improve stool consistency. Polycarbophil calcium decalcified under the acidic condition and then absorbed 70 times its weight of water under the neutral condition. In in situ experiments using rat jejunum and colon, polycarbophil decreased water absorption by the intestine without affecting water secretion. Polycarbophil inhibited prostaglandin E2-, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan- and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice or rats. Polycarbophil calcium also inhibited sennoside-induced diarrhea in dogs. Polycarbophil increased the weight of feces in naive or low-fiber diet feeding rats. In naive dogs, polycarbophil calcium increased stool frequency, stool weight and moisture. Polycarbophil was not absorbed from the gastrointestine, not metabolized and eliminated into feces in rats and dogs. Polycarbophil calcium did not affect the absorption of coadministered drugs in dogs. In the dose-finding clinical study for IBS, polycarbophil calcium was effective both in diarrhea and constipation. In the Phase III study, polycarbophil calcium was superior to trimebutine maleate in efficacy and equal in safety. Emesis/vomiting and thirst were observed, but episodes of diarrhea or constipation by excessive action were few. Polycarbophil calcium seems promising as an anti-IBS agent.

  11. Sumatriptan transdermal iontophoretic patch (NP101-Zelrix™: review of pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and safety in the acute treatment of migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikelis M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Michail Vikelis,1 Dimos D Mitsikostas,2 Alan M Rapoport31Glyfada Headache Center, Glyfada, Greece; 2Neurology Department, Athens Naval Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Migraine is a chronic, painful, and often disabling primary headache disorder, typically presenting with recurrent attacks that may be accompanied by a variety of neurological, gastrointestinal, and autonomic symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms in association with migraine including, nausea, vomiting, and gastroparesis, affect a large proportion of migraine sufferers. These symptoms may result in delays or inconsistencies in the absorption of oral treatments. Hence, the necessity for an innovative, non-invasive, parenteral delivery formulation for quick and effective treatment of migraine attacks is evident. Iontophoresis utilizes minimal amounts of electrical potential to support the fast transfer of ionized medication transdermally and into the general circulation. Two pharmacokinetic clinical trials have shown that iontophoretic delivery of sumatriptan through the skin produces quick and reproducible therapeutic plasma concentrations. A randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III study demonstrated superior efficacy versus placebo and excellent tolerability, with no triptan-related adverse events. The proportion of patients that were pain-free at 2 h post-treatment was 18% for the sumatriptan patch vs 9% for placebo (P = 0.0092; number needed to treat = 11.1. Upon approval from the Food and Drug Administration and other regulatory authorities, the iontophoretic transdermal delivery of sumatriptan will be a good choice for patients experiencing poor absorption of oral medication often associated with migraine and/or for those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events.Keywords: iontophoretic patch, migraine, migraine treatment, sumatriptan, transdermal patch

  12. Beyond the era of NPH insulin--long-acting insulin analogs: chemistry, comparative pharmacology, and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, D R; Bolli, G B

    2008-10-01

    The new rDNA and DNA-derived "basal" insulin analogs, glargine and detemir, represent significant advancement in the treatment of diabetes compared with conventional NPH insulin. This review describes blood glucose homeostasis by insulin in people without diabetes and outlines the physiological application of exogenous insulin in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The requirements for optimal basal insulin treatment are discussed and the methods used in the evaluation of basal insulins are presented. An essential criterion in the development of an "ideal" basal insulin preparation is that the molecular modifications made to the human insulin molecule do not compromise safety. It is also necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the two currently available basal insulin analogs. When comparing glargine and detemir, the different molar concentration ratios of the two insulin formulations should be considered along with the nonspecificity of assay systems used to determine insulin concentrations. However, euglycemic clamp studies in crossover study design provide a good basis for comparing the pharmacodynamic responses. When the latter is analyzed by results of intervention clinical trials, it is concluded that both glargine and detemir are superior to NPH in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that these two long-acting insulin analogs are different in both their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. These differences should be taken into consideration when the individual analogs are introduced to provide basal insulin supplementation to optimize blood glucose control in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well. PubMed-Medline was searched for articles relating to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glargine and detemir. Articles retrieved were reviewed and selected for inclusion if (1) the euglycemic clamp method was used with a

  13. A chemical proteomics approach for the search of pharmacological targets of the antimalarial clinical candidate albitiazolium in Plasmodium falciparum using photocrosslinking and click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penarete-Vargas, Diana Marcela; Boisson, Anaïs; Urbach, Serge; Chantelauze, Hervé; Peyrottes, Suzanne; Fraisse, Laurent; Vial, Henri J

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria which is one of the most prevalent and deadly infectious diseases in the world. The antimalarial therapeutic arsenal is hampered by the onset of resistance to all known pharmacological classes of compounds, so new drugs with novel mechanisms of action are critically needed. Albitiazolium is a clinical antimalarial candidate from a series of choline analogs designed to inhibit plasmodial phospholipid metabolism. Here we developed an original chemical proteomic approach to identify parasite proteins targeted by albitiazolium during their native interaction in living parasites. We designed a bifunctional albitiazolium-derived compound (photoactivable and clickable) to covalently crosslink drug-interacting parasite proteins in situ followed by their isolation via click chemistry reactions. Mass spectrometry analysis of drug-interacting proteins and subsequent clustering on gene ontology terms revealed parasite proteins involved in lipid metabolic activities and, interestingly, also in lipid binding, transport, and vesicular transport functions. In accordance with this, the albitiazolium-derivative was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and trans-Golgi network of P. falciparum. Importantly, during competitive assays with albitiazolium, the binding of choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase (the enzyme involved in the last step of phosphatidylcholine synthesis) was substantially displaced, thus confirming the efficiency of this strategy for searching albitiazolium targets.

  14. Pharmacological and clinical evaluation of the antiepileptic drug clobazam%癫痫治疗新药氯巴占的药理与临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高君伟; 孙搏; 李晓宇; 吴佳琪; 刘皋林

    2013-01-01

    氯巴占为1,5-苯二氮草类药物,具有抗癫痫作用,FDA于2011年10月21日批准其用于难治性癫痫——林-戈综合征(Lennox-Gastaut syndrome)的辅助治疗.本文通过Medline对氯巴占进行文献检索,并对其药理作用、药动学、药物相互作用、临床研究和安全性进行了综述.%Clobazam, a 1 ,5-benzodiazepine, possesses antiepileptic activity. It has been approved by the FDA for treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, one of the refractory epilepsies, in October 21th, 2011. Literature search was conducted by searching MEDLINE with the key words clobazam. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, clinical trials and side effects of clobazam were reviewed in this paper.

  15. A Pharmacological Primer of Biased Agonism

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Bradley T.

    2011-01-01

    Biased agonism is one of the fastest growing topics in G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology; moreover, biased agonists are used in the clinic today: carvedilol (Coreg®) is a biased agonist of beta-adrenergic receptors. However, there is a general lack of understanding of biased agonism when compared to traditional pharmacological terminology. Therefore, this review is designed to provide a basic introduction to classical pharmacology as well as G protein-coupled receptor signal transductio...

  16. Research on Using PASS System in Clinical Pharmacology Teaching%PASS系统在临床药理学教学中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷力力; 王凤芝; 季方茹; 荆洪英; 李艳翠

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索临床药理学教学新的方法和形式.方法 在循环系统、消化系统、呼吸系统用药为主,理论课教学中对部分学生引进并应用PASS系统软件,同时以同年级的其它学生为对照.结果 实验班较对照班的成绩平均高出7分,实验班的合格率高出对照班2倍之多.PASS系统的应用有助于培养学生和提高在自学、分析问题和解决问题等多方面能力,为学生将来进入临床合理用药奠定了基础.结论 临床药理学的教学引进PASS系统软件可行,值得推广使用.%Objective To find a better method and style of clinical pharm acology teaching . Methods In theory course teachig of circulatory system ,digestive system and respiratory system ,the teaching method of applying PASS softw are system was used to teach apart of students and compared with the students those who without applying PASS softw are system in the same grade . Results The average score of experim ental class was seven points more than comparative class. The pass rate of experimental class was 2 times higher than comparative class. T he method of applying PASS softw are system contributes to improve student's self-educated ability, analyzing and abilities of solving problem . Conclusion It is feasible to apply PASS system in clinical pharmacology teaching .

  17. 76 FR 6623 - Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Molecular and Clinical Genetics Panel of the Medical Devices... (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Molecular and Clinical Genetics...

  18. Atorvastatin pharmacological effect and clinical application%阿托伐他汀药理作用以及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨天忠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the pharmacological action and clinical application of atorvastatin. Methods The hospital treated 52 cases of familial hypercholesterolemia patients were given oral atorvastatin treatment, compared before and after treatment of high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG three), total cholesterol (TC), C reactive protein (CRP) and other indicators.Results After treatment than before treatment in patients with HDL-C increased, while LDL-C, TC, TG and CRP were decreased signiifcantly, the treatment, there was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05). Treatment of patients with only 3 patients had mild appetite decrease adverse reactions (without treatment improved), all the patients had no serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Atorvastatin has good clinical efifcacy in treatment of familial hypercholesterolemia, good safety, no serious adverse reactions, it is worthy of clinical use.%目的:探讨阿托伐他汀的药理作用及临床应用。方法2011年7月至2013年6月我院共收治52例家族性高胆固醇血症(FH)患者,治疗方案为口服阿托伐他汀,分别于治疗前后检测高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、三酰甘油(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、C反应蛋白(CRP)指标并进行比较。结果治疗后患者的HDL-C均比治疗前升高,而LDL-C、TC、TG以及CRP均比治疗降低,差异明显,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗期间,有3例患者出现便秘、腹胀、消化不良等可耐受的不良反应,所有患者均未出现的严重不良反应。结论应用阿托伐他汀治疗FH,临床效果显著,而且不良反应发生率低,安全可靠,可在临床应用。

  19. Clinical pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy": the influence of gender and genetics (CYP2D6, COMT, 5-HTT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pardo-Lozano

    Full Text Available The synthetic psychostimulant MDMA (± 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy acts as an indirect serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine agonist and as a mechanism-based inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6. It has been suggested that women are more sensitive to MDMA effects than men but no clinical experimental studies have satisfactorily evaluated the factors contributing to such observations. There are no studies evaluating the influence of genetic polymorphism on the pharmacokinetics (CYP2D6; catechol-O-methyltransferase, COMT and pharmacological effects of MDMA (serotonin transporter, 5-HTT; COMT. This clinical study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and physiological and subjective effects of MDMA considering gender and the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, COMT, and 5-HTT. A total of 27 (12 women healthy, recreational users of ecstasy were included (all extensive metabolizers for CYP2D6. A single oral weight-adjusted dose of MDMA was administered (1.4 mg/kg, range 75-100 mg which was similar to recreational doses. None of the women were taking oral contraceptives and the experimental session was performed during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Principal findings show that subjects reached similar MDMA plasma concentrations, and experienced similar positive effects, irrespective of gender or CYP2D6 (not taking into consideration poor or ultra-rapid metabolizers or COMT genotypes. However, HMMA plasma concentrations were linked to CYP2D6 genotype (higher with two functional alleles. Female subjects displayed more intense physiological (heart rate, and oral temperature and negative effects (dizziness, sedation, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Genotypes of COMT val158met or 5-HTTLPR with high functionality (val/val or l/* determined greater cardiovascular effects, and with low functionality (met/* or s/s negative subjective effects (dizziness, anxiety, sedation. In conclusion, the contribution

  20. Aspirin: Pharmacology and Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma V. Paez Espinosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiplatelet therapy has been documented to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease after acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft, and in chronic atrial fibrillation patients, amongst other risk factors. Conventional management of thrombosis-based disorders includes the use of heparin, oral anticoagulants, and the preferred antiplatelet agent aspirin. Interestingly, aspirin was not intended to be used as an antiplatelet agent; rather, after being repurposed, it has become one of the most widely prescribed antithrombotic drugs. To this end, there have been several milestones in the development of antiplatelet agents in the last few decades, such as adenosine diphosphate receptor inhibitors, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors. However, given some of the limitations of these therapies, aspirin continues to play a major role in the management of thrombotic and cardiovascular disorders and is expected to do so for years to come.

  1. Phase I Clinical Pharmacology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-28

    Organ Cultures el Humnan BEGCUE. SARA SPANGE.NB.RGER. BARBARA A. ReISpnfiy Elowhie’n. £ ARAUDA’. C CRUMP S MARLIN. V`JRUWE LS AND GEORGES PETER Bmw...SUMHARY T.O. #10 JR 6026, an 8-aminoquinoline similar to primaquine, may be a useful agent to treat visceral leishmaniasis and may hold an advantage over

  2. Bleomycin clinical pharmacology by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, S.W.; Strong, J.E.; Broughton, A.; Frazier, M.L.; Benjamin, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Bleomycin pharmacokinetics were studied by radioimmunoassay in 11 patients who received 7-30 U intravenously (IV) and eight patients who received 4-30 U subcutaneously (SC). For patients who received IV bleomycin plasma disappearance was biphasic, with a mean initial half-life of 0.26 h and a terminal half-life of 2.3 h. Mean plasma drug clearance was 67.8 ml/min/m/sup 2/ and the volume of distribution was 13.2 l/m/sup 2/. Urinary excretion accounted for 63.9% of the drug in 24 h. After SC administration peak plasma levels occurred in 1.1 h, with a mean elimination half-life of 4.3 h. Mean plasma drug clearance was 60.5 ml/min/m/sup 2/ and the volume of distribution was 19.2 l/m/sup 2/. Bleomycin plasma clearance correlated well with serum creatinine (r/sup 2/=0.72). Bleomycin has a rapid plasma elimination and urinary excretion. Bleomycin bioavailability after SC administration appears comparable to that seen after IV administration as determined by the areas under the plasma disappearance curves. Prolonged plasma levels are seen after SC injection, suggesting this route of administration can produce plasma concentrations comparable to those attained with continuous IV infusions.

  3. 抗惊厥新药依佐加滨的药理与临床评价%Pharmacology and clinical evaluation of a new anticonvulsant, ezogabine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来海; 张瑞岭; 张萍

    2012-01-01

    依佐加滨是首个治疗癫痫的神经元钾离子通道开放剂,己于2011年6月13日被美国FDA批准用于成人惊厥部分发作的治疗.其作用机制并未完全阐明,可能是通过稳定神经元钾离子通道使其保持“开放”状态,降低其若奋性而产生抗惊厥作用.其常见的不良反应有眩晕、嗜睡、乏力、意识错乱等.本文对依佐加滨的药理作用、药代动力学、药物相互作用、临床评价和安全性等进行介绍.%Ezogabine is the first neuronal potassium channel opener developed for the treatment of epilepsy. It was approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration on June 13, 2011 as an add-on medication to treat seizures associated with epilepsy in adults. The mechanism by which ezogabine exerts its therapeutic effects has not been fully elucidated. The drug may act as an anticonvulsant by reducing excitability through the stabilization of neuronal potassium channels in an "open" state. Studies indicate that ezogabine enhances transmembrane potassium currents mediated by the KCNQ family ion channels. By activating KCNQ channels, ezogabine is thought to stabilize the resting membrane potential and reduce brain excitability. The most common adverse effects were dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue and confusion, etc. The pharmacology, pharmaeokinetics, clinical evaluation, safety and drug interactions of ezogabine were reviewed in this paper.

  4. Quality management of pharmacology and safety pharmacology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Seiler, Jürg P

    2002-01-01

    to safety pharmacology studies, and, when indicated, to secondary pharmacodynamic studies, does not influence the scientific standards of studies. However, applying formal GLP standards will ensure the quality, reliability and integrity of studies, which reflect sound study management. It is important...... to encourage a positive attitude among researchers and academics towards these lines, whenever possible. GLP principles applied to the management of non-clinical safety studies are appropriate quality standards when studies are used in the context of protecting public health, and these quality standards...... of pharmacology studies (ICH S7A): primary pharmacodynamic, secondary pharmacodynamic and safety pharmacology studies, and guidance on the quality standards (expectations for GLP conformity) for these study types have been provided. Primary pharmacodynamic studies are the only study types that are fully exempt...

  5. Pharmacological treatment of depression in older people

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Stephen; Byrne, Andrew; Wattis, John

    2006-01-01

    In the light of recent National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and Committee for the Safety of Medicines (CSM) guidance we discuss the importance of the diagnosis of depression in old age and review pharmacological interventions. An introductory section is followed by sections on each of the main antidepressant groups. This briefly describes their pharmacology and reviews research done specifically relevant to older people. Finally practical clinical applications are discussed.

  6. [Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Pierre

    2013-03-01

    Decades of practice in psychiatriy and hundreds of clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of antipsychotics on symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, the knowledge acquired from non-interventional studies have supplemented the information needed in daily practice by raising the issue of efficiency by incorporating not only the effectiveness and safety of treatment but also its acceptability by the patient. Adherence to antipsychotic treatment has become the key issue of the prognosis. The pharmacological management of patients with an acute episode of schizophrenia requires rapid therapeutic decisions to treat a patient who is likely to be sometimes unhelpful and agitated. The choice of treatment will have a significant impact on the prevention of psychotic relapses, on the overall prognosis and on the quality of life of the patient. In many countries of the recommendations and treatment algorithms for the management of acute psychosis were distributed, considering factors specific to the patient and his environment, his mental characteristics and local care setting.

  7. Quantitative systems pharmacology: a promising approach for translational pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadkar, K; Kirouac, D; Parrott, N; Ramanujan, S

    Biopharmaceutical companies have increasingly been exploring Quantitative Systems Pharmacology (QSP) as a potential avenue to address current challenges in drug development. In this paper, we discuss the application of QSP modeling approaches to address challenges in the translational of preclinical findings to the clinic, a high risk area of drug development. Three cases have been highlighted with QSP models utilized to inform different questions in translational pharmacology. In the first, a mechanism based asthma model is used to evaluate efficacy and inform biomarker strategy for a novel bispecific antibody. In the second case study, a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling model is used to make translational predictions on clinical response and evaluate novel combination therapies. In the third case study, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model it used to guide administration of oseltamivir in pediatric patients.

  8. 76 FR 18757 - Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... AGENCY Monthly Public Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee's Small Community Advisory... Advisory Committee Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Local Government Advisory Committee's... the Local Government Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  9. 77 FR 71591 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory... environmental issues affecting small communities. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) will meet in... INFORMATION CONTACT: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) and Small Communities Advisory...

  10. Pharmacological Ascorbate Radiosensitizes Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Cieslak, John A; Welsh, Jessemae L; Sibenaller, Zita A; Allen, Bryan G; Wagner, Brett A; Kalen, Amanda L; Doskey, Claire M; Strother, Robert K; Button, Anna M; Mott, Sarah L; Smith, Brian; Tsai, Susan; Mezhir, James; Goswami, Prabhat C; Spitz, Douglas R; Buettner, Garry R; Cullen, Joseph J

    2015-08-15

    The toxicity of pharmacologic ascorbate is mediated by the generation of H2O2 via the oxidation of ascorbate. Because pancreatic cancer cells are sensitive to H2O2 generated by ascorbate, they would also be expected to become sensitized to agents that increase oxidative damage such as ionizing radiation. The current study demonstrates that pharmacologic ascorbate enhances the cytotoxic effects of ionizing radiation as seen by decreased cell viability and clonogenic survival in all pancreatic cancer cell lines examined, but not in nontumorigenic pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Ascorbate radiosensitization was associated with an increase in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, which was reversed by catalase. In mice with established heterotopic and orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts, pharmacologic ascorbate combined with ionizing radiation decreased tumor growth and increased survival, without damaging the gastrointestinal tract or increasing systemic changes in parameters indicative of oxidative stress. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical utility of pharmacologic ascorbate as a radiosensitizer in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  11. Pharmacological versus non-pharmacological approaches to managing challenging behaviours for people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tony; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    When people with dementia demonstrate challenging behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, the levels of stress experienced by their carers increases. Furthermore, there is an increased likelihood that the person will be prematurely admitted to a residential care facility. The adverse side-effects that have been associated with the use of antipsychotic medications in older people with dementia have given rise to a renewed emphasis on the use of non-pharmacological approaches to manage challenging behaviours. This article describes the approaches taken by the multi-disciplinary team of a Dementia Behaviour Management Advisory Service in Australia to support people with dementia who have challenging behaviours by using non-pharmacological interventions.

  12. Highlights From the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/ International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion: From the Bench to the Bedside - Clinical Pharmacology Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronaldson, P T; Bauer, B; El-Kattan, A F; Shen, H; Salphati, L; Louie, S W

    2016-11-01

    The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists/International Transporter Consortium Joint Workshop on Drug Transporters in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion was held with the objective of discussing innovative advances in transporter pharmacology. Specific topics included (i) transporters at the blood-brain barrier (BBB); (ii) emerging transport proteins; (iii) recent advances in achieving hepatoselectivity and optimizing clearance for organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrates; (iv) utility of animal models for transporter studies; and (v) clinical correlation of transporter polymorphisms. Here, we present state-of-the-art highlights from this workshop in these key areas of focus.

  13. 药物性白细胞减少和粒细胞缺乏症临床分析%Clinical analysis of pharmacologic leukopenia and agranulocytosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡成才

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析一组临床常用药物致白细胞减少和粒细胞缺乏的临床表现,提高对药物所致血液系统损害的认识,促进合理用药,提高临床用药安全性.方法 收集1990年1月至2010年12月经我院血液科诊治的66例药物性白细胞减少和粒细胞缺乏患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 66例药物性白细胞减少和粒细胞缺乏患者中,抗甲状腺功能亢进药所致者16例,占24.2%,抗菌药物9例,占13.6%;抗精神病药物9例,占13.6%;抗癫痫病药物9例,占13.6%;抗类风湿性关节炎药物6例,占9.1%;抗痛风药物4例,占6.1%;降糖药物3例,占4.5%;治疗系统性红斑狼疮皮肤损害的药物3例,占4.5%;治疗胃、十二指肠球部溃疡的药物2例,占3.0%;解热镇痛药物2例,占3.0%;预防乳腺癌根治术后复发的抗雌激素药物2例,占3.0%;口腔科治疗牙痛的中成药制剂1例,占1.5%.临床表现有:白细胞下降(54例,81.8%),粒细胞缺乏(12例,18.2%),骨髓造血功能停滞(3例,4.5%),高热(23例,34.8%),皮肤损害(10例,15.1%),继发各种感染(58例,89%),重症感染(10例,15.1%),感染性休克(3例,4.5%),真菌性败血症(2例,3%),肝功能衰竭(1例,1.5%),肾功能衰竭(1例,1.5%),死亡(3例,4.5%).结论 临床部分常用药物可致白细胞减少、粒细胞缺乏而继发各种感染,可导致病情急剧变化,甚至危及生命,所以要高度重视药物使用的安全性.%Objective By describing the clinical manifestation of a group of commonly used medicines causing pharmacologic leukopenia and agranulocytosis,obtain a better understanding of damage to the blood system by medicines,call attention to rational medication and increase the pharmic safety.Methods Retrospectively analyze the clinical data of the 66 patients of the Department of Hematology in my working hospital from January 1990 to December 2010.Results Among the 66 patients,ADR of 16(24.2

  14. Citizens Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemnock, Suzanne K.

    1968-01-01

    This document contains the results of a national survey designed to determine the composition and location of permanent citizens advisory committees operating within the nation's school districts. The 52 district-wide, continuing citizens advisory bodies identified by 290 responding school systems are listed alphabetically by State. The following…

  15. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Ulrich-Christian; Semb, Synne; Nojgaard, Camilla

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP) based on experimental animal models and clinical trials. Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may...... be useful as prophylaxis against post endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL...

  16. Fisiología y farmacología clínica de los opioides epidurales e intratecales Physiology and clinical pharmacology of epidural and intrathecal opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mugabure

    2005-02-01

    intradural. La metadona es otro fármaco al que se le ha observado una selectividad medular moderada tras su administración epidural. Sin embargo, su prolongada vida media puede resultar en su acumulación plasmática y presencia de efectos supraespinales a lo largo del tiempo. La administración epidural de fentanilo ofrece muy pocas ventajas sobre su utilización intravenosa, salvo en obstetricia donde parece producir una analgesia selectiva medular de grado moderado. Finalmente, la administración epidural de sufentanilo o alfentanilo parece producir analgesia por recaptación sistémica y redistribución hacia los receptores opioides cerebrales.The history of intrathecal and epidural anaesthesia is in parallel with the development of general anaesthesia. The first published report on opioids for intrathecal anaesthesia belongs to a Romanian surgeon, who presented his experience at Paris in 1901. It was almost a century before the opioids were used for epidural analgesia. Epidural and intrathecal opioids are today part of a routine regimen for intra and postoperative analgesia. Over the last 30 years, the use of epidural opioids has became a standard for analgesia in labor and delivery, and for the management of acute and chronic pain. It has been widely asumed that any opioid placed in the epidural or intrathecal spaces will produce highly selective spinally mediated analgesia that is superior to that produced by other analgesic techniques. Unfortunately, this is simply not true. In fact, multiples opioids are currently employed for spinal use despite the fact that clinical evidence has shown that spinal administration does not produce analgesia with a selective spinal mechanism or the analgesia produced is not superior to that produced by intravenous administration. Appropriate use of spinal opioids necessitates under-standing the physiology and clinical pharmacology of these drugs and which opioids produce selective spinal analgesia and which do not. In short, spinal

  17. Pharmacological Treatment Effects on Eye Movement Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, James L.; Lencer, Rebekka; Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Keedy, Sarah; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of eye movement paradigms to assess the functional integrity of brain systems involved in sensorimotor and cognitive processing in clinical disorders requires greater attention to effects of pharmacological treatments on these systems. This is needed to better differentiate disease and medication effects in clinical samples, to…

  18. Pharmacology for the Psychotherapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Myron Michael

    This book covers those areas of pharmacology that are of importance and interest to the psychotherapist. The 1st chapter introduces the various types of drugs. The 2nd chapter presents an overview of pharmacology and its principles. The 3rd chapter reviews aspects of the human body of importance to understanding the workings of psychotropic drugs.…

  19. Pharmacological research in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Andrea; Braguglia, Annabella; Salvatori, Guglielmo

    2011-10-01

    In neonatology unit 40 to 80% of the drugs are used as off-label or unlicensed, particularly in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where it has been described that in a single patient up to 60 parenteral drugs can be administered. The course of a drug inside the organism can be defined in 4 different phases: absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination; for each of these phases the newborn infant has different characteristics than child and adult. In the last years much more attention has been put in pharmacological research specific for the neonatal age and a good trial design should take into account the following points: (1) to define the pediatric disease in terms of natural history, prevalence, severity, treatment and impact of the new drug; (2) to avoid the "try and error" method based on the adult dose corrected for weight or age; (3) to use adapted methodologies (pharmacokinetics); (4) to avoid small clinical trials (limited number of patients), the use of Randomized Controlled Trials rather than observational studies; (5) to consider ethics providing clear information and reducing pain and stress to the baby and its family.

  20. 参附注射液的药理作用研究与临床应用进展%The research of the Pharmacological Effects and the progress of Clinical Applications of Shenfu injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋玉玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨参附注射液的临床应用研究和临床应用进展。方法选取国内外2005至2015年药理作用研究进行总结,对国内临床应用多个、多中心、随机对照研究进行总结。结果参附注射液药理作用确凿,能有效地治疗疾病;应用于临床,临床应用对照试验研究有显著差异,临床症状改善明显。结论参附注射液药理作用科学可靠,临床用于循环系统,呼吸系统,免疫系统,血液病,消化系统,神经系统等多个方面均有疗效明显,具有良好的应用前景。%Objective To investigate the research of the pharmacological effects and the progress of clinical applications of Shenfu injection.Methods Selected the research of the pharmacological effects during 2005 ~2015 at home and abroad for summary,summaried many randomizing controlled studys managed by many research centres in our country.Results The pharmacological effects of Shenfu injection is scientific and reliable,it has manifest effects when being used into circulatory system ,respiratory system ,immune system,blood disease,digestive system,nervous system and so on,as well as good application prospect.

  1. Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    k 7RD-A157 116 PHARMRCOLOGY’ OF PERIODONTAL DISEASE(U) UNIVERSITY OF i/ I HEALTH SCIENCES/CHICAGO MEDICAL SCHOOL DEPT OF I PHARMACOLOGY S F HOFF 24...Region Bethesda, MD 20814-5044 • .RE: Annual Letter Report , ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" Dear Capt. Hancock...Annual Letter Report ONR Contract #N00014-84-K-0562 1,! t "Pharmacology of Periodontal Disease" f Steven F. Hoff, Ph.D. (Principal Investigator) A

  2. Safety and pharmacodynamic effects of a pharmacological chaperone on α-galactosidase A activity and globotriaosylceramide clearance in Fabry disease: report from two phase 2 clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabry disease (FD is a genetic disorder resulting from deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme α-galactosidase A (α-Gal A, which leads to globotriaosylceramide (GL-3 accumulation in multiple tissues. We report on the safety and pharmacodynamics of migalastat hydrochloride, an investigational pharmacological chaperone given orally at 150 mg every-other-day. Methods Two open-label uncontrolled phase 2 studies of 12 and 24 weeks (NCT00283959 and NCT00283933 in 9 males with FD were combined. At multiple time points, α-Gal A activity and GL-3 levels were quantified in blood cells, kidney and skin. GL-3 levels were also evaluated through skin and renal histology. Results Compared to baseline, increased α-Gal A activity of at least 50% was demonstrated in blood, skin and kidney in 6 of 9 patients. Patients’ increased α-Gal A activities paralleled the α-Gal A increases observed in vitro in HEK-293 cells transfected with the corresponding mutant form of the enzyme. The same 6 patients who demonstrated increases of α-Gal A activity also had GL-3 reduction in skin, urine and/or kidney, and had α-Gal A mutations that responded in transfected cells incubated with the drug. The 3 patients who did not show a consistent response in vivo had α-Gal A mutations that did not respond to migalastat HCl in transfected cells. Migalastat HCl was well tolerated. Conclusions Migalastat HCl is a candidate pharmacological chaperone that provides a novel genotype-specific treatment for FD. It enhanced α-Gal A activity and resulted in GL-3 substrate decrease in patients with responsive GLA mutations. Phase 3 studies are ongoing. Trial registration Clinicaltrial.gov: NCT00283959 and NCT00283933

  3. VSWI Wetlands Advisory Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset represents the DEC Wetlands Program's Advisory layer. This layer makes the most up-to-date, non-jurisdictional, wetlands mapping avaiable to the public...

  4. Time-Intensity Curves Obtained after Microbubble Injection Can Be Used to Differentiate Responders from Nonresponders among Patients with Clinically Active Crohn Disease after 6 Weeks of Pharmacologic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaia, Emilio; Sozzi, Michele; Angileri, Roberta; Gennari, Antonio Giulio; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To assess whether contrast material-enhanced ultrasonography (US) can be used to differentiate responders from nonresponders among patients with clinically active Crohn disease after 6 weeks of pharmacologic treatment. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by our ethics committee, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Fifty consecutive patients (26 men and 24 women; mean age, 34.76 years ± 9) with a proved diagnosis of active Crohn disease who were scheduled to begin therapy with biologics (infliximab or adalimumab) were included, with enrollment from June 1, 2013, to June 1, 2015. In each patient, the terminal ileal loop was imaged with contrast-enhanced US before the beginning and at the end of week 6 of pharmacologic treatment. Time-intensity curves obtained in responders (those with a decrease in the Crohn disease endoscopic index of severity score of 25-44 before treatment to 10-15 after treatment, an inflammatory score Crohn disease activity index score compared with baseline) and nonresponders were compared with Mann-Whitney test. Results Responders (n = 31) and nonresponders (n = 19) differed (P Crohn disease. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  5. Pharmacological approach to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulrich Christian Bang; Synne Semb; Camilla Nφjgaard; Flemming Bendtsen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding pharmacological prevention and treatment of acute pancreatitis (AP)based on experimental animal models and clinical trials.Somatostatin (SS) and octreotide inhibit the exocrine production of pancreatic enzymes and may be useful as prophylaxis against Post Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography Pancreatitis (PEP). The protease inhibitor Gabexate mesilate (GM) is used routinely as treatment to AP in some countries, but randomized clinical trials and a meta-analysis do not support this practice. Nitroglycerin (NGL) is a nitrogen oxide (NO) donor, which relaxes the sphincter of Oddi.Studies show conflicting results when applied prior to ERCP and a large multicenter randomized study is warranted. Steroids administered as prophylaxis against PEP has been validated without effect in several randomized trials. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) indomethacin and diclofenac have in randomized studies showed potential as prophylaxis against PEP. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with anti-inflammatory properties but two trials testing IL-10 as prophylaxis to PEP have returned conflicting results.Antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)have a potential as rescue therapy but no clinical trials are currently being conducted. The antibiotics betalactams and quinolones reduce mortality when necrosis is present in pancreas and may also reduce incidence of infected necrosis. Evidence based pharmacological treatment of AP is limited and studies on the effect of potent anti-inflammatory drugs are warranted.

  6. Pharmacology of novel psychoactive substances

    OpenAIRE

    Rickli, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This PhD work consists of an in vitro and in vivo part. In the in vivo part, we investigated the role of dopamine in the acute clinical effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) in healthy human subjects. The role of dopamine in the addictive effects of drug of abuse is well established, but whether it contributes to the acute psychotropic effects of MDMA is unclear. In this pharmacological interaction study, we used the dopamine and weak norepinephrine transporter in...

  7. The pharmacology of psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Seifert, Juergen; Schneider, Udo; Emrich, Hinderk M

    2002-10-01

    Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is the major psychoactive alkaloid of some species of mushrooms distributed worldwide. These mushrooms represent a growing problem regarding hallucinogenic drug abuse. Despite its experimental medical use in the 1960s, only very few pharmacological data about psilocybin were known until recently. Because of its still growing capacity for abuse and the widely dispersed data this review presents all the available pharmacological data about psilocybin.

  8. Analysis on the Pattern for the Teaching Team Construction of Traditional Chinese Pharmacology in Clinical Teaching Hospital%临床教学医院中药学教师队伍建设模式的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常馨予; 郭桂明; 范峥

    2015-01-01

    临床教学是高等医学教育过程中不可或缺的重要组成部分,临床教学质量与教师的教学技能、学术水平、医德医风等息息相关,建立一支高水平、高素质、能力强、与时俱进的药师教师队伍是提高教学质量的关键,也是临床教学医院开展教学工作的坚实基础。文章从建设适应新形势要求的临床教学医院师资队伍出发,探讨临床中药学教师队伍建设的重要意义,提出了从教师基本技能培训、教师队伍建设、医德医风建设、设置特色教学课程及奖励与竞争机制等五方面来加强大学附属医院临床中药学教师队伍建设的建议。%Clinical teaching is the indispensable and important component in the advanced medical education. The clinical teaching quality is closely related to teachers'teaching skill,academic level,medical ethics,etc. Building a pharmacist teaching team of high quality and strong capacity is the key for the improve-ment of teaching quality and is the solid foundation for the clinical teaching hospital to develop teaching pro-gram. In the paper,concerning to the construction of teaching team in clinical teaching hospital for adaption to the requirement of new situation,the importance was discussed on the construction of clinical teaching team of traditional Chinese pharmacology in five aspects,named basic skill training,teaching team construction,medi-cal ethics construction,setting up characteristic teaching program and award and competitive mechanism. As a result,the clinical teaching team of traditional Chinese pharmacology could be strengthened in the affiliated hospital of university.

  9. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of...

  10. 抗精神病新药鲁拉西酮的药理与临床研究进展%Progress in pharmacological and clinical studies of antipsychotic drug:lurasidone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封宇飞

    2011-01-01

    Lurasidone is a novel psychotropic agent with high affinity for dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. Lurasidone has received accelerated approval from the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted using Medline with the key word lurasidone. Its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and drug interactions, clinical study and safety were reviewed in this paper.%鲁拉西酮是一种新型抗精神病药,对多巴胺D和5-HT受体具有高度的亲和性.FDA批准其用于精神分裂症的治疗.文中通过Medline对鲁拉西酮进行文献检索,并对其药理作用、药动学、药物相互作用、临床研究和安全性进行了综述.

  11. 抗感染新药非达霉素的药理作用与临床评价%Pharmacology and clinical evaluation of the new anti-infective drug fidaxomicin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春梅; 刘洋; 王京晶; 张清; 康博欣

    2011-01-01

    Fidaxomicin (edarbi) is the antibiotic with a novel structure of macrolides for the treatment of clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea ( CDAD). Literature was searched from FDA database with the key word edarbi. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical evaluation, safety evaluation and drug interactions of fidaxomicin were reviewed.%非达霉素( fidaxomicin)是一种新型的大环内酯类抗生素,适用于艰难梭菌相关性腹泻(clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea,CDAD)的治疗.本文参考美国FDA的相关资料,对非达霉素的药理作用、药动学、临床评价、安全性评价及药物相互作用等进行综述.

  12. Methodological innovations expand the safety pharmacology horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, M K; Curtis, M J

    2012-09-01

    Almost uniquely in pharmacology, drug safety assessment is driven by the need for elaboration and validation of methods for detecting drug actions. This is the 9th consecutive year that the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) has published themed issues arising from the annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS). The SPS is now past its 10th year as a distinct (from pharmacology to toxicology) discipline that integrates safety pharmacologists from industry with those in academia and the various global regulatory authorities. The themes of the 2011 meeting were (i) the bridging of safety assessment of a new chemical entity (NCE) between all the parties involved, (ii) applied technologies and (iii) translation. This issue of JPTM reflects these themes. The content is informed by the regulatory guidance documents (S7A and S7B) that apply prior to first in human (FIH) studies, which emphasize the importance of seeking model validation. The manuscripts encompass a broad spectrum of safety pharmacology topics including application of state-of-the-art techniques for study conduct and data processing and evaluation. This includes some exciting novel integrated core battery study designs, refinements in hemodynamic assessment, arrhythmia analysis algorithms, and additionally an overview of safety immunopharmacology, and a brief survey discussing similarities and differences in business models that pharmaceutical companies employ in safety pharmacology, together with SPS recommendations on 'best practice' for the conduct of a non-clinical cardiovascular assessment of a NCE.

  13. Pharmacologic management of overactive bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sum Lam

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Sum Lam1,2, Olga Hilas1,31St. John’s University, College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Professions, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Queens, New York, USA; 2Division of Geriatric Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, New York, USA; 3Department of Pharmacy, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a prevalent and costly condition that can affect any age group. Typical symptoms include urinary urgency, frequency, incontinence and nocturia. OAB occurs as a result of abnormal contractions of the bladder detrusor muscle caused by the stimulation of certain muscarinic receptors. Therefore, antimuscarinic agents have long been considered the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for OAB. Currently, there are five such agents approved for the management of OAB in the United States: oxybutynin, tolterodine, trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin. This article summarizes the efficacy, contraindications, precautions, dosing and common side effects of these agents. All available clinical trials on trospium, solifenacin and darifenacin were reviewed to determine its place in therapy.Keywords: overactive bladder, urinary incontinence, pharmacologic management, antimuscarinic agents, anticholinergics

  14. 78 FR 18680 - Genomic Medicine Program Advisory Committee, Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Medicine Program Advisory Committee will meet on April 11, 2013, in Suite 1000 at the United States Access... AFFAIRS Genomic Medicine Program Advisory Committee, Notice of Meeting The Department of Veterans Affairs... Million Veteran Program, as well as the clinical Genomic Medicine Service. The emerging implications...

  15. Mitochondrial biogenesis: pharmacological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Organelle biogenesis is concomitant to organelle inheritance during cell division. It is necessary that organelles double their size and divide to give rise to two identical daughter cells. Mitochondrial biogenesis occurs by growth and division of pre-existing organelles and is temporally coordinated with cell cycle events [1]. However, mitochondrial biogenesis is not only produced in association with cell division. It can be produced in response to an oxidative stimulus, to an increase in the energy requirements of the cells, to exercise training, to electrical stimulation, to hormones, during development, in certain mitochondrial diseases, etc. [2]. Mitochondrial biogenesis is therefore defined as the process via which cells increase their individual mitochondrial mass [3]. Recent discoveries have raised attention to mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential target to treat diseases which up to date do not have an efficient cure. Mitochondria, as the major ROS producer and the major antioxidant producer exert a crucial role within the cell mediating processes such as apoptosis, detoxification, Ca2+ buffering, etc. This pivotal role makes mitochondria a potential target to treat a great variety of diseases. Mitochondrial biogenesis can be pharmacologically manipulated. This issue tries to cover a number of approaches to treat several diseases through triggering mitochondrial biogenesis. It contains recent discoveries in this novel field, focusing on advanced mitochondrial therapies to chronic and degenerative diseases, mitochondrial diseases, lifespan extension, mitohormesis, intracellular signaling, new pharmacological targets and natural therapies. It contributes to the field by covering and gathering the scarcely reported pharmacological approaches in the novel and promising field of mitochondrial biogenesis. There are several diseases that have a mitochondrial origin such as chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and the Kearns- Sayre syndrome (KSS

  16. Cardiac Safety Research Consortium: can the thorough QT/QTc study be replaced by early QT assessment in routine clinical pharmacology studies? Scientific update and a research proposal for a path forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpo, Borje; Garnett, Christine; Benson, Charles T; Keirns, James; Leishman, Derek; Malik, Marek; Mehrotra, Nitin; Prasad, Krishna; Riley, Steve; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Sager, Philip; Sarapa, Nenad; Wallis, Robert

    2014-09-01

    The International Conference on Harmonization E14 guidance for the clinical evaluation of QT/QTc interval prolongation requires almost all new drugs to undergo a dedicated clinical study, primarily in healthy volunteers, the so-called TQT study. Since 2005, when the E14 guidance was implemented in United States and Europe, close to 400 TQT studies have been conducted. In February 2012, the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium held a think tank meeting at Food and Drug Administration's White Oak campus to discuss whether "QT assessment" can be performed as part of routine phase 1 studies. Based on these discussions, a group of experts convened to discuss how to improve the confidence in QT data from early clinical studies, for example, the First-Time-in-Human trial, through collection of serial electrocardiograms and pharmacokinetic samples and the use of exposure response analysis. Recommendations are given on how to design such "early electrocardiogram assessment," and the limitation of not having a pharmacologic-positive control in these studies is discussed. A research path is identified toward collecting evidence to replace or provide an alternative to the dedicated TQT study.

  17. 依托咪酯的药理特点及临床应用%Pharmacological Features and Clinical Application of Etomidate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡红专

    2013-01-01

    Etomidate is a kind of hypnotic intravenous anesthetics. The pharmacological features include short half time of both elimination and instant infusion, rapidly going through the blood-brain barrier, strong hypnotic effect, rapid onset of action , wide safety margin , fast recovery from unconsciousness , little influence on respiratory and circulatory systems and so on. Etomidate is the only drug that does not interfere with the cardiovascular stability in the intravenous anesthetics, and it can also reduce the intracranial pressure and maintain cerebral perfusion. It is especially suitable for the patients of old age, or with coronary heart disease, high blood pressure and shock. Myoclonus, nausea and vomiting, inhibition of adrenocortical function and other side effects may be observed after the application of etonidate.%依托咪酯是一种催眠性静脉麻醉药,其消除半衰期及即时输注半衰期均较短,能迅速通过血-脑脊液屏障,催眠作用强,具有起效快、安全界限大、清醒迅速、对呼吸循环影响小等特点.在静脉麻醉药中,依托咪酯是唯一不干扰心血管稳定性的药物,还可以降低颅内压和维持脑灌注,尤其适用于老年、冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病、高血压及休克患者.应用后可能出现肌阵挛、恶心、呕吐、抑制肾上腺皮质功能等不良反应.

  18. Pharmacological management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otero-Romero, Susana; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Comi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of spasticity poses a major challenge given the complex clinical presentation and variable efficacy and safety profiles of available drugs. We present a systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. METHODS...

  19. An Integrated Approach to Instruction in Pharmacology and Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Robert L.; Walton, Charles A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the clinical faculty on the content of the pharmacology course is described in a discussion of trends in pharmacology instruction. Interfaculty communication and development of course objectives are reviewed, and descriptions of two baccalaureate courses at the University of Texas College of Pharmacy are appended. (LBH)

  20. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect.

  1. 16 CFR 1018.26 - Advisory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory functions. 1018.26 Section 1018.26... Advisory Committees § 1018.26 Advisory functions. (a) Unless otherwise specifically provided by statute, advisory committees shall be utilized solely for advisory functions. (b) The Commission shall ensure...

  2. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in major depressive disorder : state-trait issues, clinical features and pharmacological treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, M. L.; Bus, B. A. A.; Spinhoven, Ph; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Kenis, G.; Prickaerts, J.; Voshaar, R. C. Oude; Elzinga, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence supports 'the neurotrophin hypothesis of depression' in its prediction that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in depression. However, some key questions remain unanswered, including whether abnormalities in BDNF persist beyond the clinical state of depression, whet

  3. A SURVEY ON METHODS OF UNDERGRADUATE PHARMACOLOGY TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHANBABU AMBERKAR, LALIT MOHAN, MEENA KUMARI, BAIRY K.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of pharmacology to choose and prescribe drugs is a major challenge encountered by medical practitioners. A number of initiatives have been carried out to improve the teaching of pharmacology and applied therapeutics.Material & methods-A survey was conducted on medical students,pursuing pharmacology at Kasturba Medical College,Manipal,during the month of August 2010,to obtain information regarding students attitude towards Pharmacology. Result-Two hundred and fourteen students participated.The total median score was 56 (maximum score 80.Majority of them suggested to have more problem based learning than didactic lectures and to have integrated teaching with other clinical subjects. Suggestions to improve pharmacology teaching were noted.Conclusion-The findings of the study would be of interest to medical educators in modifying undergraduate pharmacology teaching programme

  4. Analysis of pharmacological characteristics and clinical application of cephalosporins antibiotics%头孢菌素类抗生素的药理特性及临床应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康庆

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo analyze pharmacological characteristics and clinical application of cephalosporins antibiotics.MethodsClinical data of 110 patients with antibiotics-related adverse reactions were retrospectively analyzed. Observation was made on adverse reactions and involved regions by cephalosporins antibiotics.ResultsThere were 45 cases with adverse reactions by cephalosporins antibiotics among 110 patients, accounting for 40.9%. Main involved regions included digestive system, nervous system, skin and appendages of skin.ConclusionCephalosporins antibiotics-induced adverse reactions mainly involve digestive system, nervous system, skin and appendages of skin. Therefore, understanding pharmacological characteristics and closely observing clinical symptom and vital signs can reduce incidence of adverse reactions and improve curative effects for patients.%目的:探索分析头孢菌素类抗生素的药理特性及临床应用。方法回顾性分析110例抗生素相关不良反应患者的临床资料,观察本组患者中由于头孢菌素类抗生素的应用而出现的不良反应的发生情况、累及部位等。结果110例患者中由于应用头孢菌素类抗生素出现不良反应者45例,占总体的40.9%,累及的部位主要包括消化系统、神经系统、皮肤、皮肤附件等。结论应用头孢菌素类抗生素后,患者出现的不良反应主要涉及消化系统、神经系统、皮肤、皮肤附件等部位,因此在临床用药时,需要掌握药理特性,严密观察患者的临床症状和体征情况,以降低不良反应发生率,提高患者的治疗效果。

  5. Clinical Pharmacology of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”): The Influence of Gender and Genetics (CYP2D6, COMT, 5-HTT)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Pardo-Lozano; Magí Farré; Samanta Yubero-Lahoz; Brian O'Mathúna; Marta Torrens; Cristina Mustata; Clara Pérez-Mañá; Klaus Langohr; Elisabet Cuyàs; Marcel lí Carbó; Rafael de la Torre

    2012-01-01

    The synthetic psychostimulant MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy) acts as an indirect serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine agonist and as a mechanism-based inhibitor of the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6). It has been suggested that women are more sensitive to MDMA effects than men but no clinical experimental studies have satisfactorily evaluated the factors contributing to such observations. There are no studies evaluating the influence of genetic polymorphism on the pharmac...

  6. Developmental paediatric anaesthetic pharmacology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing

    2015-01-01

    Safe and effective drug therapy in neonates, infants and children require detailed knowledge about the ontogeny of drug disposition and action as well how these interact with genetics and co-morbidity of children. Recent advances in developmental pharmacology in children follow the increased...

  7. Progress in pharmacological and clinical studies of miriplatin on interventional therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma%肝癌介入治疗新药米铂的药理与临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊; 马俊杰

    2012-01-01

    米铂是第三代铂类抗肿瘤药物,其与碘化油亲和性高,且肝动脉内给药后滞留于肿瘤部位,混悬液中的铂成分可长时间缓慢释放进入血液或组织中.其与DNA结合,通过阻止DNA合成而产生细胞毒效应.临床研究结果表明,米铂治疗肝细胞癌具有良好的疗效和安全性.现对其药理学、药动学、临床研究及安全性评价等作一综述.%Miriplatin is a third-generation platinum compound developed to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is administered via the hepatic artery using the carrier lipiodol that consists of ethyl esters of iodized poppy seed oil. Miriplatin has a high affinity for lipiodol and it is anticipated to exert antitumor effects with prolonged retention along with local lipiodol at the tumor site. Therefore, it is suggested that the active compound released from miriplatin/lipiodol can bind to DNA and produce a cytotoxic effect. The clinical research shows that miriplatin has beneficial curative effect and safety in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. This article will summarize its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical research, and safety evaluation.

  8. 75 FR 9416 - Advisory Committee Information Hotline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Advisory Committee Information Hotline AGENCY: Food and Drug... revised the Advisory Committee Information Hotline (the hotline). The hotline provides the public with... supersedes all previously published announcements of FDA's Advisory Committee Information Hotline....

  9. 76 FR 64111 - NASA Advisory Council; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public... Advisory Council Administrative Officer, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington,...

  10. 75 FR 28542 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... orient the new Superior Resource Advisory Committee members on their roles and responsibilities. DATES... of the roles and responsibilities of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee members; Election of... Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice...

  11. Clinical pharmacology of single- and multiple-ascending doses of ACT-178882, a new direct renin inhibitor, and its pharmacokinetic interaction with food and midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemanse, Jasper; Nicolas, Laurent; Binkert, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the tolerability, safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of ACT-178882, a new direct renin inhibitor, as well as its interaction with food and midazolam. Healthy male subjects received either single (10-1000 mg) or multiple doses (30-600 mg) administered once daily for 14 days of ACT-178882, placebo, or 20 mg enalapril in the fasted state. Following a 2-week washout, the single dose of 30 mg ACT-178882 was also administered in the fed state. In the multiple-ascending-dose part, subjects were dosed with midazolam on days -2, 2, and 12 to investigate interactions with CYP3A4. Dizziness and headache were the most frequently reported adverse events. No clinically relevant changes occurred for body weight, vital signs, clinical laboratory variables, and ECG although both enalapril and ACT-178882 tended to decrease systolic blood pressure. Following single doses of ACT-178882, t1/2 and tmax varied from 18.7 to 24.7 h and from 3 to 5 h, respectively, and food had no significant effect. Steady-state conditions were achieved after 4-6 days of dosing and accumulation was minimal. ACT-178882 pharmacokinetics were dose proportional. ACT-178882 but not enalapril dose-dependently increased Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve of midazolam. Single and multiple doses of ACT-178882 dose-dependently increased active renin and decreased plasma renin activity, whereas enalapril increased both variables. No effects on urinary excretion of creatinine, potassium, and the 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol ratio were observed, whereas sodium and aldosterone excretion was decreased by both ACT-178882 and enalapril. The current results with ACT-178882 warrant further clinical investigation of this renin inhibitor in hypertensive patients.

  12. Pharmacological treatment of depression in women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegård Andersen, Lærke; Voigt Hansen, Melissa; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    that escitalopram and the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, reboxetine, significantly improved depression and QOL compared with baseline values. In conclusion, depression is a clinical problem in patients with breast cancer. Pharmacological treatment with antidepressants may improve depression and QOL. However...

  13. Pharmacology exercise for undergraduate: MLNMC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh C. Chaurasia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacology is the backbone of clinical discipline of medical science. In the computer era of advancement, paraclinical teachings become more technical and clinical oriented. Regarding to undergraduate practical’s the animal experimentation and dispensing pharmacy are only exercises. But these are matter of critics due to their non-utility in future. Student’s apathy and non-interest are hidden factor to perform such boring experiments. Meanwhile the old-dated exercises have no potential to tone-up adequate clinical skills in future study instead of wastage of time and money. Killing of innocent animals is crucial and should be socially discouraged. Thus Pharmacology practical are matter of debate in current scenario. Being attachment with past sentiment of traditional dispensing pharmacy and animal experimentations, they are difficult to delete completely. The present article highlights some of our efforts in undergraduate exercises. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 495-497

  14. Are erlotinib and gefitinib interchangeable, opposite or complementary for non-small cell lung cancer treatment? Biological, pharmacological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronte, Giuseppe; Rolfo, Christian; Giovannetti, Elisa; Cicero, Giuseppe; Pauwels, Patrick; Passiglia, Francesco; Castiglia, Marta; Rizzo, Sergio; Vullo, Francesca Lo; Fiorentino, Eugenio; Van Meerbeeck, Jan; Russo, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Gefitinib and erlotinib are the two anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) approved for treatment of advanced NSCLC patients. These drugs target one of the most important pathways in lung carcinogenesis and are able to exploit the phenomenon of 'oncogene addiction', with different efficacy according to EGFR gene mutational status in tumor samples. Gefitinib has been approved only for EGFR mutation bearing patients regardless the line of treatment, while erlotinib is also indicated in patients without EGFR mutation who undergo second- or third-line treatment. Some studies evaluated the main differences between these drugs both for direct comparison and to improve their sequential use. In particular, toxicity profile resulted partially different, and these observations may be explained by several molecular and pharmacokinetic features. Therefore, this review integrates preclinical data with clinical evidences of TKIs to guide the optimization of currently available treatments in advanced NSCLC patients.

  15. Cluster headache: conventional pharmacological management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Werner J

    2013-01-01

    Cluster headache pain is very intense, usually increases in intensity very rapidly from onset, and attacks are often frequent. These clinical features result in significant therapeutic challenges. The most effective pharmacological treatment options for acute cluster attack include subcutaneous sumatriptan, 100% oxygen, and intranasal zolmitriptan. Subcutaneous or intramuscular dihydroergotamine and intranasal sumatriptan are additional options. Transitional therapy is applicable mainly for patients with high-frequency (>2 attacks per day) episodic cluster headache, and options include short courses of high-dose oral corticosteroids, dihydroergotamine, and occipital nerve blocks with local anesthetic and steroids. Prophylactic therapy is important both for episodic and chronic cluster headache, and the main options are verapamil and lithium. Verapamil is drug of first choice but may cause cardiac arrhythmias, and periodic electrocardiograms (EKGs) during dose escalation are important. Many other drugs are also in current use, but there is an insufficient evidence base to recommend them.

  16. Pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jun; LIAN Yan-hong; XIE Kang-jie; CAI Shu-nü

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain.Data sources Both Chinese and English language literatures were searched using MEDLINE (1982-2011),Pubmed (1982-2011) and the Index of Chinese Language Literature (1982-2011).Study selection Data from published articles about pharmacological management of phantom limb pain in recent domestic and foreign literature were selected.Data extraction Data were mainly extracted from 96 articles which are listed in the reference section of this review.Results By reviewing the mechanisms and current clinical application of pharmacological interventions for phantom limb pain,including anticonvulsants,antidepressants,local anaesthetics,N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists,non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,tramadol,opioids,calcitonin,capsaicin,beta-adrenergic blockers,clonidine,muscle relaxants,and emerging drugs,we examined the efficacy and safety of these medications,outlined the limitations and future directions.Conclusions Although there is lack of evidence-based consensus guidelines for the pharmacological management of phantom limb pain,we recommend tricyclic antidepressants,gabapentin,tramadol,opioids,local anaesthetics and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists as the rational options for the treatment of phantom limb pain.

  17. Pharmacology and drug distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, L.R.; Weatherall, T.J.

    1979-08-01

    An overview of the pharmacology of drugs in the treatment of cancer is presented. The discussion begins with the simplest relationship of drugs and particles to one another then proceeds to demonstrate the interrelationship in a biologic system to produce a chemobiodynamic response. The basic principles of pharmacokinetics are reviewed and their correlation with investigational and standard drug therapies is discussed. Voids in the consideration of interactions between chemotherapy and radiotherapy are discussed.

  18. An update on the clinical pharmacology of the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor alogliptin used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Tianxin; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Yin-Xue; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-12-01

    Alogliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor that is a class of relatively new oral hypoglycaemic drugs used in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), can be used as monotherapy or in combination with other anti-diabetic agents, including metformin, pioglitazone, sulfonylureas and insulin with a considerable therapeutic effect. Alogliptin exhibits favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles in humans. Alogliptin is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP2D6) and CYP3A4. Dose reduction is recommended for patients with moderate or worse renal impairment. Side effects of alogliptin include nasopharyngitis, upper-respiratory tract infections and headache. Hypoglycaemia is seen in about 1.5% of the T2DM patients. Rare but severe adverse reactions such as acute pancreatitis, serious hypersensitivity including anaphylaxis, angioedema and severe cutaneous reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported from post-marketing monitoring. Pharmacokinetic interactions have not been observed between alogliptin and other drugs including glyburide, metformin, pioglitazone, insulin and warfarin. The present review aimed to update the clinical information on pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and drug interactions, and to discuss the future directions of alogliptin.

  19. Pharmacological Attenuation of Myocardial Reperfusion Injury in a Closed-Chest Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekeløf, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jensen, Jan Skov;

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury is a clinical challenge in interventional cardiology, and at the moment, no pharmacological agent is universally accepted in the prevention. In order to prevent inappropriate clinical trials, a potential pharmacological agent should be proved reproducibly...... effective in clinically relevant experimental studies before initiation of human studies. The closed-chest porcine model is a promising experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the pharmacological treatments evaluated in the closed...

  20. Overview of safety pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goineau, Sonia; Lemaire, Martine; Froget, Guillaume

    2013-12-02

    Safety pharmacology entails the assessment of the potential risks of novel pharmaceuticals for human use. As detailed in the ICH S7A guidelines, safety pharmacology for drug discovery involves a core battery of studies on three vital systems: central nervous (CNS), cardiovascular (CV), and respiratory. Primary CNS studies are aimed at defining compound effects on general behavior, locomotion, neuromuscular coordination, seizure threshold, and vigilance. The primary CV test battery includes an evaluation of proarrhythmic risk using in vitro tests (hERG channel and Purkinje fiber assays) and in vivo measurements in conscious animals via telemetry. Comprehensive cardiac risk assessment also includes full hemodynamic evaluation in a large, anesthetized animal. Basic respiratory function can be examined in conscious animals using whole-body plethysmography. This allows for an assessment of whether the sensitivity to respiratory-depressant effects can be enhanced by exposure to increased CO2 . Other safety pharmacology topics detailed in this unit are the timing of such studies, ethical and animal welfare issues, and statistical evaluation.

  1. Patient advisory groups in practice improvement: sample case presentation with a discussion of best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Kurt B; Bender, Robert O; Bruce, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Using patient advisory groups can affect practice changes and create a patient-centric focus for a primary care practice. A successful patient advisory group has been developed for our primary care clinics. Utilizing this group, we have implemented practice improvement changes that have had a significant impact in patient care. This will be demonstrated in a case presentation involving the implementation of depression care managers at our practice sites. We will review key "best practices," as defined by the group, regarding size, composition, and meeting frequency that can be used for the development of a clinical patient advisory group.

  2. Pharmacology and clinical evaluation of the new antidepressant drug vilazodone%新型抗抑郁药维拉唑酮的药理与临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王来海; 张瑞岭; 李焕芬

    2011-01-01

    Vilazodone, a new type of antidepressant, possesses dual mechanism of action. It was approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder by FDA in January 21, 2011. It is a selective serotonin (5-HT) re-uptake inhibitor and a partial 5-HT1A receptor agonist. The most common adverse reactions of vilazodone are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and insomnia. The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical evaluation, safety and drug interactions of vilazodone were reviewed in this paper.%维拉唑酮为一种双重作用机制的新型抗抑郁药,即选择性5-羟色胺(5-HT)再摄取抑制剂和5-HT1A受体部分激动剂,2011年1月21日获得美国食品药品管理局(FDA)批准,用于成人重症抑郁症(major depressive disorder,MDD)的治疗.其常见不良反应包括腹泻、恶心、呕吐和失眠.文中对维拉唑酮的药理作用、药动学、临床评价、安全性以及药物相互作用等进行了综述.

  3. Pharmacology and clinical evaluation of anti-allergic drug:rupatadine fumarate%抗变态反应药物富马酸卢帕他定的药理及临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婧芝; 熊玉卿

    2011-01-01

    Rupatadine fumarate is a long-acting dual antagonist for both histamine receptor 1 and platelet-acting factor ( PAF) receptors. It was approved in Spain in 2003 , and has been indicated for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Here, the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and clinical evaluations were re-, viewed.%富马酸卢帕他定是一种长效血小板活化因子受体及H1受体双重拮抗剂,它通过特异性阻断上述受体而抑制过敏反应,于2003年3月首次在西班牙上市,目前已广泛用于治疗过敏性鼻炎和慢性荨麻疹等过敏性疾病,获得良好的临床疗效.文中就其药理作用、药动学及其临床研究等作一综述.

  4. Pharmacological characteristics and clinical application of trans-dermal fentanyl in cancer pain management%芬太尼透皮贴剂治疗癌痛的药理特点及其临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程志祥(综述); 王科明(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Cancer pain seriously affects the quality of life of patients and could disturb normal cancer treatment. Therefore, ap-propriate drugs should be chosen to control the pain. Transdermal fentanyl is a type of potent opioid that is widely used in controlling moderate and severe cancer pains. This paper reviews the pharmacological characteristics of transdermal fentanyl and its clinical appli-cation in cancer pain management.%癌痛严重影响患者的生存质量,有时影响正常的肿瘤治疗,因而选择合适的药物控制癌痛至关重要。芬太尼透皮贴剂是一种强阿片类药物,临床上广泛应用于中重度癌痛的治疗,尤其适合一些特别的人群,本文对芬太尼透皮贴剂在癌痛治疗中的药理特点及临床应用进行综述。

  5. A randomized, placebo-controlled double-blinded comparative clinical study of five over-the-counter non-pharmacological topical analgesics for myofascial pain: single session findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avrahami Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To investigate the effects of topical agents for the treatment of Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS and Myofascial Trigger Point (MTRP. Methods Subjects with an identifiable trigger point in the trapezius muscle, age 18-80 were recruited for a single-session randomized, placebo-blinded clinical study. Baseline measurements of trapezius muscle pressure pain threshold (PPT: by pressure algometer along with right and left cervical lateral flexion (rangiometer were obtained by a blinded examiner. An assessor blinded to the outcomes assessments applied one of 6 topical formulations which had been placed in identical plastic containers. Five of these topicals were proposed active formulations; the control group was given a non-active formulation (PLA. Five minutes after the application of the formula the outcome measures were re-tested. Data were analyzed with a 5-way ANOVA and Holms-adjusted t-tests with an alpha level of 0.05. Results 120 subjects were entered into the study (63 females; ages 16-82; 20 subjects randomly allocated into each group. The pre- and post-treatment results for pressure threshold did show significant intra-group increases for the Ben-Gay Ultra Strength Muscle Pain Ointment (BG, the Professional Therapy MuscleCare Roll-on (PTMC roll-on and Motion Medicine Cream (MM with an increased threshold of 0.5 kg/cm2 (+/-0.15, 0.72 kg/cm2 (+/-0.17 and 0.47 Kg/cm2 (+/-0.19 respectively. With respect to the inter-group comparisons, PTMC roll-on showed significant increases in pressure threshold compared with Placebo (PLA (p = 0.002 and Icy Hot Extra Strength Cream (IH (p = 0.006. In addition, BG demonstrated significant increases in pressure threshold compared with PLA (p = 0.0003. Conclusions With regards to pressure threshold, PTMC roll-on, BG and MM showed significant increases in pain threshold tolerance after a short-term application on a trigger points located in the trapezius muscle. PTMC roll-on and BG were both

  6. Prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total risk estimations - challenges and opportunities for practical implementation: highlights of a CardioVascular Clinical Trialists (CVCT) Workshop of the ESC Working Group on CardioVascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zannad, Faiez

    2011-11-03

    This paper presents a summary of the potential practical and economic barriers to implementation of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease guided by total cardiovascular risk estimations in the general population. It also reviews various possible solutions to overcome these barriers. The report is based on discussion among experts in the area at a special CardioVascular Clinical Trialists workshop organized by the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Drug Therapy that took place in September 2009. It includes a review of the evidence in favour of the \\'treat-to-target\\' paradigm, as well as potential difficulties with this approach, including the multiple pathological processes present in high-risk patients that may not be adequately addressed by this strategy. The risk-guided therapy approach requires careful definitions of cardiovascular risk and consideration of clinical endpoints as well as the differences between trial and \\'real-world\\' populations. Cost-effectiveness presents another issue in scenarios of finite healthcare resources, as does the difficulty of documenting guideline uptake and effectiveness in the primary care setting, where early modification of risk factors may be more beneficial than later attempts to manage established disease. The key to guideline implementation is to improve the quality of risk assessment and demonstrate the association between risk factors, intervention, and reduced event rates. In the future, this may be made possible by means of automated data entry and various other measures. In conclusion, opportunities exist to increase guideline implementation in the primary care setting, with potential benefits for both the general population and healthcare resources.

  7. 丹红注射液治疗老年病的临床应用及药理作用研究进展%Research progress of Danhong injection treatment for geriatric diseases in clinic and pharmacological activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕海洋; 莫颖宁

    2016-01-01

    Danhong injection, a Chinese medicine injection, is made of effective components extracted from Salviae miltiorrhizae Bge. (Lamiaceae) and Carthamus tinctorius L. (Composite) using modern preparation technologies based on the guide of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine. It is characterized by activating blood circulation and resolving stasis and used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. In recent years, the application scope is expanding with the deepening of the research on Danhong injection. In the present study, literatures from CNKI and Pubmed were adopted, in order to review the application of Danhong injection on geriatric diseases prevention and treatment as well as the research of pharmacological actions in the recent ten years. It will provide references for the clinical application of Danhong injection.%丹红注射液是以中医理论为指导,采用现代制剂工艺从丹参和红花中提取有效成分制成的中药注射剂。具有活血化瘀作用,临床上常用于治疗心脑血管疾病,如冠心病和缺血性脑病。近年来,随着对丹红注射液研究的深入,其应用范围不断扩展。主要采纳中国知网(CNKI)和 Pubmed 中收录的文献,旨在综述近10年丹红注射液用于防治老年病的临床应用及其药理作用研究进展,为丹红注射液的临床应用提供参考。

  8. The Clinical Curative Effect of Cefmetazole Treatment of Aspiration Pneumonia and Pharmacological Analysis%头孢美唑治疗吸入性肺炎的临床疗效与药理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨头孢美唑治疗吸入性肺炎的药理机制及临床治疗疗效。方法回顾性分析了2010年1月---2012年12月我院收治的240例吸入性肺炎患者的临床资料,随机分为治疗组和对照组,两组均常规治疗,治疗组在此基础上给于头孢美唑治疗,比较两组治疗效果。结果治疗组治疗总有效率为88.33%,对照组治疗总有效率为63.33%,治疗组总有效率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。治疗组不良反应发生率为2.5%,对照组不良反应发生率为3.3%,治疗组不良反应发生率低于对照组,但差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论头孢美唑治疗吸入性肺炎的临床疗效较好,安全,不良反应少,值得临床推广。%Objective To study the pharmacologic mechanism of cefmetazole in treatment of aspiration pneumonia and clinical therapeutic effect .Methods A retro-spective analysis of 2010 January-2012 December in our hospital treated 240 cases of aspiration pneumonia in patients with clinical data,were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,two groups were treated with conventional treatment,the treatment group based on the given Cefmetazole treatment,treatment effects were compared between the two groups.Results Treatment group total effective rate was 88.33%,control group total effective rate was 63.33%,total effective treatment group was obviously higher than that of control group,and the difference was statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion cefmetazole treatment of aspiration pneumonia has good clinical curative effect,safety,less adverse reactions,worthy of clinical promotion.

  9. 76 FR 14009 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, March 30, 2011 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p..., DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory...

  10. 78 FR 55255 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory Council will discuss progress... Advisory Council (TAC) will hold a meeting in the Commission Meeting Room to discuss progress on...

  11. 78 FR 33092 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Thursday, June 13, 2013 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  12. 76 FR 58513 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Tuesday, September 27th, 2011, in the Commission Meeting Room, from...., Washington, DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory...

  13. 77 FR 12839 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, March 28, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p... 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory Council...

  14. 78 FR 67362 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Monday, December 9, 2013 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  15. 77 FR 30289 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Wednesday, June 27, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological Advisory...

  16. Analytical pharmacology: the impact of numbers on pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenakin, Terry; Christopoulos, Arthur

    2011-04-01

    Analytical pharmacology strives to compare pharmacological data to detailed quantitative models. The most famous tool in this regard is the Black/Leff operational model, which can be used to quantify agonism in a test system and predict it in any other system. Here we give examples of how and where analytical pharmacology has been used to classify drugs and predict mechanism of action in pharmacology. We argue for the importance of analytical pharmacology in drug classification and in prediction of drug mechanisms of action. Although some of the specifics of Black's models have been updated to account for new developments, the principles of analytical pharmacology should shape drug discovery for many years to come.

  17. Pharmacological management of hypertension in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterling, Thomas R

    2014-12-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy remains a significant public health problem. Pharmacological management of blood pressure in pregnancy is impacted by changes in maternal drug disposition and by the pharmacodynamic effects of specific agents. This article will review the impact of pregnancy on pathways of drug elimination and the associated clinical implications, the pharmacodynamic effects of specific drugs and classes of drugs in pregnancy, and the data to date on the impact of antihypertensive therapy on mothers and their fetuses.

  18. Pharmacological Curriculum Reform of Vocational Clinical Major Based on the Working Process%基于工作过程的高职临床医学专业药理课程改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚丽雅; 田维忠; 邵红英; 莫莉

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pharmacology curriculum reform effect of vocational clinical major based on the work process and improve the quality of teaching. Methods:To conduct comparison study of two classes with the same teacher. To use traditional teaching methods in control classes; conduct work process-based curriculum reform in experimental class, and design course content in accordance with the patient's diagnosis and treatment process and the drug process, and build five learning contexts, 13 learning units, 56 project tasks, and integrate the teaching content of each unit with a comprehensive training project. After class to investigate the students in experimental class and the teachers about clinical training and internship with education and compare the summative assessment results of two classes. Results:The theoretical results and training assessment scores of experimental class is significantly higher than the control class (P<0.01);98.00%of the students in experimental class think that their self-learning ability is improved, 100%of the teachers think that they create a student-centered learning atmosphere. Conclusion: The pharmacology curriculum reform of vocational clinical major based on the working process adapts to the requirements of higher vocational education reform, and it pays more attention to high-end skilled expertise, and can improve the comprehensive professional abilities of the students.%  目的:探讨基于工作过程的高职临床医学专业药理课程改革效果,提高教学质量。方法:选择同一教师授课的两个班级进行对照研究。对照班采用传统授课方式;实验班实施基于工作过程的课程改革,按照病人的诊疗流程和用药过程设计课程内容,构建5个学习情境、13个学习单元、56个项目任务,每个单元用一个综合实训项目将教学内容串联在一起。授课后用自制调查问卷对实验班学生、临床见习和实习带教教

  19. 78 FR 77443 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, Department of... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770.../oe/services/electricity-advisory-committee-eac . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew...

  20. The pharmacology game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  1. Pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, S; Heres, S; Kissling, W; Davis, J M

    2013-05-01

    We present the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia based on a simple algorithm that starts with the most important decisions starting from the choice of an antipsychotic drug for an acutely ill patient and ends with maintenance treatment. It represents experts opinions, a formal guideline development process was not followed. Concerning acute treatment we present recommendations for the choice of drug in acutely patients, the treatment of agitated patients, persistent depression, negative symptoms and treatment resistance. Concerning maintenance treatment with antipsychotics we discuss indication, choice of drug, continuous versus intermittent treatment, duration of relapse prevention and dose.

  2. Pharmacological Profile of Quinoxalinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Ramli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoxalinone and its derivatives are used in organic synthesis for building natural and designed synthetic compounds and they have been frequently utilized as suitable skeletons for the design of biologically active compound. This review covers updated information on the most active quinoxalinone derivatives that have been reported to show considerable pharmacological actions such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antitumor, and antitubercular activity. It can act as an important tool for chemists to develop newer quinoxalinone derivatives that may prove to be better agents in terms of efficacy and safety.

  3. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S. [EG and G, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  4. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level.

  5. Investigational pharmacology for low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash K Bhandary

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avinash K Bhandary1 , Gary P Chimes2, Gerard A Malanga3 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 3New Jersey Sports Medicine Institute; Overlook Hospital; Mountainside Hospital; Rehabilitation Medicine and Electrodiagnosis, St Michael’s Medical Center; Horizon Healthcare Worker’s Compensation Services, Blue Cross and Blue Shield Worker’s Compensation, Summit, NJ, USAStudy design: Review and reinterpretation of existing literature.Objective: This review article summarizes the anatomy and pathogenesis of disease processes that contribute to low back pain, and discusses key issues in existing therapies for chronic low back pain. The article also explains the scientific rationale for investigational pharmacology and highlights emerging compounds in late development.Results/conclusion: While the diverse and complex nature of chronic low back pain continues to challenge clinicians, a growing understanding of chronic low back pain on a cellular level has refined our approach to managing chronic low back pain with pharmacology. Many emerging therapies with improved safety profiles are currently in the research pipeline and will contribute to a multimodal therapeutic algorithm in the near future. With the heterogeneity of the patient population suffering from chronic low back pain, the clinical challenge will be accurately stratifying the optimal pharmacologic approach for each patient.Keywords: low back pain, investigational, pharmacology, drugs

  6. Systems Pharmacology in Small Molecular Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Drug discovery is a risky, costly and time-consuming process depending on multidisciplinary methods to create safe and effective medicines. Although considerable progress has been made by high-throughput screening methods in drug design, the cost of developing contemporary approved drugs did not match that in the past decade. The major reason is the late-stage clinical failures in Phases II and III because of the complicated interactions between drug-specific, human body and environmental aspects affecting the safety and efficacy of a drug. There is a growing hope that systems-level consideration may provide a new perspective to overcome such current difficulties of drug discovery and development. The systems pharmacology method emerged as a holistic approach and has attracted more and more attention recently. The applications of systems pharmacology not only provide the pharmacodynamic evaluation and target identification of drug molecules, but also give a systems-level of understanding the interaction mechanism between drugs and complex disease. Therefore, the present review is an attempt to introduce how holistic systems pharmacology that integrated in silico ADME/T (i.e., absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity), target fishing and network pharmacology facilitates the discovery of small molecular drugs at the system level. PMID:26901192

  7. 75 FR 20844 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  8. 77 FR 6113 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC's) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  9. 75 FR 70004 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  10. 77 FR 57085 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  11. 78 FR 21354 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  12. 75 FR 6031 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  13. 76 FR 64348 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  14. 75 FR 60458 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  15. 78 FR 39289 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital... Communications Commission's (FCC) Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

  16. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety... International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this... consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS),...

  17. OCLC and Its Advisory Committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shirley K.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) advisory committees in terms of research, public, college and university, and special libraries. All four of the type-of-library advisory groups work to shape OCLC policies and programs, according to the particular needs of each group. OCLC's financial and programmatic success depends upon…

  18. [Pharmacological treatment of hyperinflation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, P; Roche, N

    2009-06-01

    Introduction Lung hyperinflation leads to breathlessness, limitation in exercise capacity and tolerance, and impaired quality of life. Thus, it is important to target this key and characteristic feature of COPD. Current knowledge Available pharmacological approaches rely mainly on bronchodilators, in particular beta2 agonists and anticholinergic agents. These treatments act through the reduction of expiratory airflow limitation. However, changes in classical indices of airflow obstruction do not accurately predict effects on hyperinflation and symptoms. The decrease in operating lung volumes (as reflected by inspiratory capacity or functional residual capacity) at rest and during exercise is one of the mechanisms by which these treatments improve quality of life and maybe also decrease the impact of exacerbations. The effect of beta2 agonists on hyperinflation might be amplified by concurrent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. Perspectives The effect of new treatments targeting airways inflammation on hyperinflation remains to be explored. Conclusions Measuring the reduction in the degree of lung hyperinflation allows a better understanding of the symptomatic effect of COPD pharmacological treatments.

  19. Non-pharmacological approaches to alleviate distress in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Agnelli, Joanne

    2015-11-25

    Distress is one of the most common clinical manifestations associated with dementia. Pharmacological intervention may be appropriate in managing distress in some people. However, best practice guidelines advocate non-pharmacological interventions as the preferred first-line treatment. The use of non-pharmacological interventions encourages healthcare professionals to be more person-centred in their approach, while considering the causes of distress. This article provides healthcare professionals with an overview of some of the non-pharmacological approaches that can assist in alleviating distress for people living with dementia including: reminiscence therapy, reality orientation, validation therapy, music therapy, horticultural therapy, doll therapy and pet therapy. It provides a summary of their use in clinical practice and links to the relevant literature.

  20. [Integrative pharmacology: new paradigm of modernization of Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yu; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Chinese medicinal formulae( CMF) were often used in the clinics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) which were critical for modernization of Chinese medicine to shed light on the interaction between CMF and biological organisms. In current studies, correlation between system and part, macroscopic actions and microcosmic mechanism, ADME process and pharmacologic actions were often neglected. Thus, we put forward integrative pharmacology, which could integrate the correlation between CMF and biological organisms from multi-levels and multi-dimensional views. Integrative pharmacology would reveal the molecular mechanism of CMF for ailments treatment and screen out effective material systematically, which would be the new paradigm of TCM research.

  1. Molecular pharmacology of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, R J

    2016-10-01

    This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology stems from the eighth in the series of meetings on the Molecular Pharmacology of G protein coupled receptors (MPGPCR) held as part of a joint meeting with the Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists (ASCEPT) in Melbourne Australia from 7 to 11 December 2014. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.20/issuetoc.

  2. Pharmacological fMRI; a clinical exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Goekoop, R.

    2006-01-01

    Dit proefschrift beschrijft de resultaten van een verkennend onderzoek naar een nieuwe techniek die gebruikt kan worden om de effecten van geneesmiddelen op hersenaktiviteit af te beelden: pharmacologische functionele magnetic resonance imaging (farmacologische fMRI of phMRI). Met behulp van deze techniek werden de effecten onderzocht van drie verschillende medicijnen (de bètablokker propranolol, de selectieve oestrogeen-receptor modulator (SERM) raloxifene en de cholinesteraseremmer galantam...

  3. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberger, L.; Bergstrom, R.F.; Wolen, R.L.; Farid, N.A.; Enas, G.G.; Aronoff, G.R.

    1985-03-01

    Fluoxetine (30 mg), administered for 7 days to normal volunteers, produced a 66% inhibition of tritiated serotonin uptake into platelets. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine correlated positively with inhibition of serotonin uptake. Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral administration in both the fed and fasted states and demonstrates dose proportionality. Fluoxetine disappears from plasma with a half-life of 1-3 days; its metabolite norfluoxetine has a plasma half-life of 7-15 days. After administration of /sup 14/C-fluoxetine, approximately 65% of the administered dose of radioactivity is recovered in urine and about 15% in feces. Fluoxetine, given as a single dose or in multiple doses over 8 days, did not produce significant effects on the plasma disappearance of warfarin, diazepam, tolbutamide, or chlorothiazide. Coadministration of fluoxetine and ethanol did not result in an increase from control values in the blood ethanol levels, nor did it produce significant changes in physiologic, psychometric, or psychomotor activity. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in the elderly and normal volunteers appear to be similar. In addition, pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment did not show significant differences from healthy subjects.

  4. Clinical pharmacology of ifosfamide and metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerbusch, T.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction Ifosfamide is an alkylating agent, which is used in the treatment of various types of malignant diseases in adults and childeren. Its use, however, can be accompanied by severe haematological, neuro- and nephrotoxicities. Since its development in the middle of the 1960’s, most of its ex

  5. Clinical pharmacology of tiamulin in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, G; Levisohn, S L; Bar-Moshe, B; Bor, A; Soback, S

    1983-03-01

    Median values for the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of tiamulin for Mycoplasma and Acholeplasma isolated from ruminants were 0.05 micrograms/ml and 0.025 micrograms/ml, respectively. These values were close to the MIC values of tylosin and considerably lower than the respective values for spectinomycin, Spiramycin and oxytetracycline. The serum concentration--time profile of tiamulin after intramuscular (i.m.) injection to goats, ewes, cows and calves, and after oral administration to preruminant calves was characterized by a rapid absorption phase (absorption t1/2 of less than 30 min.), a short plateau phase, an elimination t1/2 ranging between 3 and 6 h, and low peak serum drug levels. The serum elimination t1/2 of the drug after intravenous (i.v.) injection was 25 min. It appears that tiamulin is extensively metabolized in ruminants and is well distributed throughout the body. Drug concentrations in the lungs, liver, and the kidneys 1 h after i.v. injection were four to seven times higher than in blood. The drug penetrated very rapidly into the milk after i.m. administration; mean peak drug concentrations in normal milk and in milk secreted from inflamed glands of cows were 7.5 times and 1.2 times higher respectively, than the mean peak serum drug concentrations. Concentrations of tiamulin of potential therapeutic value in the treatment of mycoplasmal infections can be maintained in the lungs for at least 12 h after i.m. injection at 10 mg/kg, and in preruminant calves after an oral dose of 20 mg/kg. However, tiamulin possesses several very serious side-effects and the i.v. route of administration is definitely contraindicated.

  6. 78 FR 28237 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... Telecommunications Advisory Committee, National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland...

  7. Pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for chronic pain in individuals with HIV: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jessica S; Bulls, Hailey W; Vucovich, Lee A; Edelman, E Jennifer; Starrels, Joanna L

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pain occurs in as many as 85% of individuals with HIV and is associated with substantial functional impairment. Little guidance is available for HIV providers seeking to address their patients' chronic pain. We conducted a systematic review to identify clinical trials and observational studies that examined the impact of pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic interventions on pain and/or functional outcomes among HIV-infected individuals with chronic pain in high-development countries. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria and were mostly low or very low quality. Seven examined pharmacologic interventions (gabapentin, pregabalin, capsaicin, analgesics including opioids) and four examined non-pharmacologic interventions (cognitive behavioral therapy, self-hypnosis, smoked cannabis). The only controlled studies with positive results were of capsaicin and cannabis, and had short-term follow-up (≤12 weeks). Among the seven studies of pharmacologic interventions, five had substantial pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. These findings highlight several important gaps in the HIV/chronic pain literature that require further research.

  8. Characteristic Analysis of the Elsholtzia's Chemistry and Pharmacology in Clinical Application%香薷的化学、药理与临床应用特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 苗明三

    2015-01-01

    香薷含有挥发油类、黄酮类、香豆素类等多种活性成分,具有抗病原微生物、消炎、解热、镇痛、解痉、增强免疫等药理作用,临床上常用于发汗解暑,行水散湿,温胃调中,夏月感寒饮冷,头痛发热,恶寒无汗,胸痞腹痛,呕吐腹泻,水肿,脚气等。香薷作为药食同源的植物具有广泛的应用性和广阔的应用前景,积极研究香薷的药用价值具有重要意义。%Elsholtzia includes many active ingredients,such as essential oil,flavonoid,coumarins,and so on. The pharmacologic action of elsholtzia is resistant microorganisms,anti-inflammatory,antipyretic and analgesic,spasmolysis,enhance immunity. In clinic,the elsholt-zia was used for diaphoresis relieving summer-heat,flowing water and dispersing damp,warm the stomach,in summer have a cold,have a headache and fever,aversion to cold and adiapneustia,feeling of stuffiness in chest and abdominal pain,vomit and diarrhea,edema, beriberi. Elsholtzia has extensive applicability and wide application prospect as a plant of homology of medicine and food. It has signifi-cant for study the medicinal value of elsholtzia.

  9. 探讨抗感冒药物成分的药理特征以及临床用药分析%To study the pharmacological feature of cold resistance ingredient and the analysis of the clinical drug use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄纯友

    2014-01-01

    Objective :To study the pharmacological characteristics of cold resistance ingredient and analysis of clinical drug use. Methods select our hospital issued 870 prescription in the treatment of cold diseases, record the brand name drugs and generic names, analysis of cold medicine composition and medications. Results There were 15 in 870 prescription unreasonable prescriptions, including repeated drug ingredients, medication does not suit the two, according to the role of the pharmaceutical ingredients into the contraction of vascular, analgesia, antivirus, antitussive expectorant, antihistamines, central six types such as excitement. Conclusion Clinician should be mastered in prescribing according to cold prescription drug ingredients, irrational drug use situation.%目的:研究抗感冒药物成分的药理特征并分析临床用药情况。方法选取我院开具的治疗感冒疾病的870张处方,记录药物的商品名和通用名,分析感冒用药成分和用药情况。结果在870张处方中有15张不合理处方,包括药物成分重复、用药不对症2张,根据药物成分的作用分为收缩血管、解热镇痛、抗病毒、镇咳祛痰、抗组胺、中枢兴奋等六种类型。结论临床医师在开据处方过程应掌握感冒药物的处方成分,降低不合理用药情况。

  10. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  11. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  12. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Qing-xia; WU Hai-feng; GUO Jian; NAN Hai-jiang; CHEN Shi-lin; YANG Jun-shan; XU Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L.(Polygonaceae).Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarbroots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function.About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone,anthrone,stilbene,flavonoids,acylglucoside,and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic,diuretic,anticancer,hepatoprotective,anti-inflammatory,and analgesic effects,as well as toxicological effects.Chemical fingerprint,LC-MS,and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb.This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation,pharmacological activities,and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s.In addition,pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  13. Review of Rhubarbs: Chemistry and Pharmacology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Qing-xia; WU; Hai-feng; GUO; Jian; NAN; Hai-jiang; CHEN; Shi-lin; YANG; Jun-shan; XU; Xu-dong

    2013-01-01

    Rhubarb is a perennial herb belonging to the genus Rheum L. (Polygonaceae). Rhei Radix et Rhizoma (rhubarb roots and rhizomes) is one of the most popular Chinese materia medica and has been widely used for strong laxative function. About 200 compounds with six different types of skeletons (anthraquinone, anthrone, stilbene, flavonoids, acylglucoside, and pyrone) have so far been isolated from eighteen species of the genus Rheum L. These constituents showed extensive pharmacological activities including cathartic, diuretic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects, as well as toxicological effects. Chemical fingerprint, LC-MS, and other analytical techniques have been used for the quality control of rhubarb. This comprehensive review summarizes the researches into the isolation, pharmacological activities, and phytochemical analysis reported since investigations began in the late 1940s. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies and clinical application of rhubarb are also discussed in present paper.

  14. PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CITRUS FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Tomar *, Mridula Mall and Pragya Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the pharmacological importance of citrus fruits. Citrus fruits are used for various pharmacological importance. According to literature the citrus fruit possess anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective properties.

  15. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Serge Peraire with regard to exceptional advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 17 to 31 May 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  16. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Judith Igo-Kemenes concerning the application of procedures foreseen by Administrative Circular N§ 26 (Rev. 3). As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 6 to 20 June 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  17. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mrs Maria DIMOU with regard to a periodic one-step increase. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 30 April to 14 May 2004. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  18. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Aloïs Girardoz with regard to classification and advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the Board's report and the Director-General's decision will be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 15 to 29 August 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  19. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Bertrand Nicquevert with regard to the non-resident allowance. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 29 November to 13 December 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  20. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Jack Blanchard with regard to 'non recognition of specific functions'. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 12th to 26th April 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  1. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Antonio Millich with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 27 September to 11 October 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  2. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Poul Frandsen concerning his assimilation into the new career structure. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 13 to 24 January 2003. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  3. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Luc Vos with regard to advancement. As the appellant has not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 14 to 28 June 2002. Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  4. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Personnel Division

    1999-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Joào Bento with regard to residential category. As the appellant has not objected, the recommendations of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article RÊVIÊ1.20 of the Staff Regulations.The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N¡ 60) from 29 October to 12 November 1999.Personnel DivisionTel. 74128

  5. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to advancement. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (No. 60) from 24 March to 10 April 2006. Human Resources Department Tel. 74128

  6. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to award him a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 500) from 17 March to 30 March 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 73911

  7. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a former member of the personnel, a beneficiary of the CERN Pension Fund, against the calculation of his pension in the framework of the Progressive Retirement Programme.   The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be available from 26 July to 11 August 2013 at the following link. HR Department Head Office

  8. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  9. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 500) from 26 May to 6 June 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  10. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has requested that the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General be brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (Bldg. 60) from 24 September to 7 October 2007. Human Resources Department

  11. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine an internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel with regard to the decision not to grant him an indefinite contract. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the notice of the members of the personnel, in accordance with Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations. These documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main Building (Bldg. 60) from 21 January to 3 February 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  12. Joint Advisory Appeals Board

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board has examined the internal appeal lodged by a member of the personnel against the decision to grant him only a periodic one-step advancement for the 2006 reference year. The person concerned has not objected to the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General being brought to the attention of the members of the personnel. In application of Article R VI 1.18 of the Staff Regulations, these documents will therefore be posted on the notice board of the Main building (bldg. 500) from 1 September to 14 September 2008. Human Resources Department (73911)

  13. Phage therapy pharmacology phage cocktails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Benjamin K; Abedon, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Phage therapy is the clinical or veterinary application of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) as antibacterial "drugs." More generally, phages can be used as biocontrol agents against plant as well as foodborne pathogens. In this chapter, we consider the therapeutic use of phage cocktails, which is the combining of two or more phage types to produce more pharmacologically diverse formulations. The primary motivation for the use of cocktails is their broader spectra of activity in comparison to individual phage isolates: they can impact either more bacterial types or achieve effectiveness under a greater diversity of conditions. The combining of phages can also facilitate better targeting of multiple strains making up individual bacterial species or covering multiple species that might be responsible for similar disease states, in general providing, relative to individual phage isolates, a greater potential for presumptive or empirical treatment. Contrasting the use of phage banks, or even phage isolation against specific etiologies that have been obtained directly from patients under treatment, here we consider the utility as well as potential shortcomings associated with the use of phage cocktails as therapeutic antibacterial agents.

  14. Pharmacological treatment of vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, Timothy C; Uddin, Mohammed

    2003-01-01

    This review discusses the physiology and pharmacological treatment of vertigo and related disorders. Classes of medications useful in the treatment of vertigo include anticholinergics, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, calcium channel antagonists and dopamine receptor antagonists. These medications often have multiple actions. They may modify the intensity of symptoms (e.g. vestibular suppressants) or they may affect the underlying disease process (e.g. calcium channel antagonists in the case of vestibular migraine). Most of these agents, particularly those that are sedating, also have a potential to modulate the rate of compensation for vestibular damage. This consideration has become more relevant in recent years, as vestibular rehabilitation physical therapy is now often recommended in an attempt to promote compensation. Accordingly, therapy of vertigo is optimised when the prescriber has detailed knowledge of the pharmacology of medications being administered as well as the precise actions being sought. There are four broad causes of vertigo, for which specific regimens of drug therapy can be tailored. Otological vertigo includes disorders of the inner ear such as Ménière's disease, vestibular neuritis, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and bilateral vestibular paresis. In both Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis, vestibular suppressants such as anticholinergics and benzodiazepines are used. In Ménière's disease, salt restriction and diuretics are used in an attempt to prevent flare-ups. In vestibular neuritis, only brief use of vestibular suppressants is now recommended. Drug treatments are not presently recommended for BPPV and bilateral vestibular paresis, but physical therapy treatment can be very useful in both. Central vertigo includes entities such as vertigo associated with migraine and certain strokes. Prophylactic agents (L-channel calcium channel antagonists, tricyclic antidepressants, beta-blockers) are the mainstay of treatment

  15. Pharmacology of Heparin and Related Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulloy, Barbara; Hogwood, John; Gray, Elaine; Lever, Rebecca; Page, Clive P

    2016-01-01

    Heparin has been recognized as a valuable anticoagulant and antithrombotic for several decades and is still widely used in clinical practice for a variety of indications. The anticoagulant activity of heparin is mainly attributable to the action of a specific pentasaccharide sequence that acts in concert with antithrombin, a plasma coagulation factor inhibitor. This observation has led to the development of synthetic heparin mimetics for clinical use. However, it is increasingly recognized that heparin has many other pharmacological properties, including but not limited to antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and antimetastatic actions. Many of these activities are independent of its anticoagulant activity, although the mechanisms of these other activities are currently less well defined. Nonetheless, heparin is being exploited for clinical uses beyond anticoagulation and developed for a wide range of clinical disorders. This article provides a "state of the art" review of our current understanding of the pharmacology of heparin and related drugs and an overview of the status of development of such drugs.

  16. The clinical effectiveness of a brief consultation and advisory approach compared to treatment as usual in child and adolescent mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarry, Joan

    2008-07-01

    A brief consultation and advice (BCA) approach to dealing with routine referrals was introduced into a child and adolescent mental health service (CAMHS) over an 18-month period. This is a time-limited, client-centred and solution-focused approach to dealing with common non-complex referrals. The model proposes that all families are seen for an initial \\'consultation\\' appointment followed by a maximum of two further appointments. A randomized controlled study compared the clinical effectiveness of BCA treatment with treatment as usual (TAU) over a 6-month period. The parents of children referred to CAMHS were eligible to participate if their child was deemed \\'non-complex\\'. Ethical approval was granted by the relevant ethics committee. Families who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated to either the BCA or TAU group. Sixty children enrolled in the study. Both groups showed improvements on a number of variables at 3 months post treatment, but only those receiving BCA showed continued improvement at 6 months. Participants in both groups showed high levels of satisfaction with the treatment received. Participants in the TAU group expressed dissatisfaction with long waiting times and had a higher drop out rate than the BCA treatment group. During the time frame studied, the introduction of the BCA approach did not lead to a decrease in overall mean waiting time. These results and the usefulness of a BCA model are discussed.

  17. The pharmacology of salmeterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M

    1990-01-01

    The pharmacology of salmeterol hydroxynaphthoate (SALM) has been investigated in respiratory tissues in vitro and in animal models in vivo. In guinea pig trachea and human bronchial smooth muscle, SALM was more potent than isoprenaline (ISO), salbutamol (SALB), and clenbuterol (CLEN). The duration of action was greater than 7 h, whereas that for ISO, SALB, and CLEN was 2, 11, and 45 min, respectively. The sustained activity of SALM was reversed by sotalol, but was reestablished when the beta-blocker was removed. SALM was greater than 3000-fold weaker than ISO in cardiac tissues, indicating high beta 2-adrenoceptor selectivity. In the conscious guinea pig, aerosolized SALM, SALB, and CLEN caused dose-related bronchodilatation. The activity of SALM persisted for at least 6 h, compared with less than 2 h for SALB and CLEN. SALM is also a potent inhibitor of mediator release from human lung, this effect being sustained for up to 20 hours. In guinea pig airways in vivo, SALM inhibited histamine-induced plasma protein extravasation for approximately 8 h. Salmeterol is a potent and selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist with a unique profile of action. It induces persistent bronchodilatation, sustained suppression of mediator release, and long-lasting inhibition of edema formation. This combination of properties may represent an important new advance in the treatment of bronchial asthma.

  18. [Pharmacological effects of hordenine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, H J; Strathmann, W

    1995-06-01

    Hordenine is an ingredient of some plants which are used as feed for animals, i.e. in sprouting barley. After ingestion of such feed hordenine may be detected in blood or urine of horses which in case of racing horses may be the facts of using prohibited compounds. Results of some experiments in pharmacological models show that hordenine is an indirectly acting adrenergic drug. It liberates norepinephrine from stores. In isolated organs and those structures with reduced epinephrine contents the hordenine-effect is only very poor. Experiments in intact animals (rats, dogs) show that hordenine has a positive inotropic effect upon the heart, increases systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peripheral blood flow volume, inhibits gut movements but has no effect upon the psychomotorical behaviour of mice. All effects are short and only possible after high doses which are not to be expected after ingestion of hordenine containing feed for horses. A measurable increase of the performance of racing horses is quite improbable.

  19. [Pharmacological treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomis Barbará, R

    2004-01-01

    The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite.

  20. 新生儿疼痛非药物止痛措施的临床效果分析%Analysis on clinical effect of pain relief measures on neonates by non-pharmacological analgesic therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启乐; 李炳灿

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨对新生儿疼痛进行非药物性止痛措施的临床效果。方法随机选取2014年4月至2015年12月在我院住院的,需短时间操作的(如输液、采血等)新生儿100例,随机分为两组,其中50例为研究组,采用非药物性止痛措施;50例为对照组,不采取任何措施,用新生儿疼痛量表( NIPS)通过对新生儿接受操作前后的疼痛进行评分,评价新生儿的疼痛程度。结果接受操作后研究组的疼痛评分比对照组低,两组间差异有统计学意义。结论非药物性止痛措施可减轻疼痛对新生儿造成的不利影响,且简便安全,疗效确切,值得推广。%Objective To analyze the clinical effect of pain relief measures on neonates by using non-pharmacological analgesic therapy.Methods In our hospital from April 2014 to December 2015, selecting in random 100 cases of the newborn hospitalized ( e.g., infusion, blood collection, etc) divided randomly into two groups, of which 50 cases were for the research team, employing non-pharmaceutical pain relief measures; 50 cases as control group without taking any measures, grading the neonatal pain degree with neonatal infant pain scale ( NIPS) through the kindred accepted pain before and after operation in a short time and evaluating the pain of degree.Results The research team's pain score was lower than that of the control group after accepted operation, and the differences between the two groups enjoy statistical significance.Conclusions Non-medicine analgesic measures alleviates the pain of the adverse impact on the newborn, which is simple and safe, definite curative effect and worthy of being generalized.

  1. 75 FR 22754 - Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the Chief of Engineers Environmental Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory...

  2. 75 FR 22560 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee...

  3. 78 FR 77663 - Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... of the Secretary Threat Reduction Advisory Committee; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting... Federal advisory committee meeting of the Threat Reduction Advisory Committee (``the Committee''). This... Wednesday, January 29, 2014, from, 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: National Geospatial-Intelligence...

  4. 77 FR 15751 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory... requests for appearances requires it. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) will meet at EPA's...: Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact Frances Eargle at (202) 564-3115 or email at...

  5. 77 FR 2539 - Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Small Communities Advisory Subcommittee and the Local Government Advisory... if the number of requests for appearances requires it. The Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC... at davis.catherinem@epa.gov . For the Local Government Advisory Committee (LGAC) contact...

  6. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory... and amendment of the Charter of the International Space Station Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Pursuant... Space Station Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  7. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  8. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  9. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  11. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  12. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  13. Inflammation and Pharmacological Treatment in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Gverović Antunica, Antonela; Salopek Rabatić, Jasminka; Ljubić, Spomenka

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is estimated to be the leading cause of new blindness in the working population of developed countries. Primary interventions such as intensive glycemic control, strict blood pressure regulation, and lipid-modifying therapy as well as local ocular treatment (laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy) can significantly reduce the risk of retinopathy occurrence and progression. Considering the limitations of current DR treatments development of new therapeutic strategies, it becomes necessary to focus on pharmacological treatment. Currently, there is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes have a considerable role in the pathogenesis of DR with multiple studies showing an association of various systemic as well as local (vitreous and aqueous fluid) inflammatory factors and the progression of DR. Since inflammation is identified as a relevant mechanism, significant effort has been directed to the development of new concepts for the prevention and treatment of DR acting on the inflammatory processes and the use of pharmacological agents with anti-inflammatory effect. Inhibiting the inflammatory pathway could be an appealing treatment option for DR in future practices, and as further prospective randomized clinical trials accumulate data, the role and guidelines of anti-inflammatory pharmacologic treatments will become clearer. PMID:24288441

  14. Inflammation and Pharmacological Treatment in Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR, the most common microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus, is estimated to be the leading cause of new blindness in the working population of developed countries. Primary interventions such as intensive glycemic control, strict blood pressure regulation, and lipid-modifying therapy as well as local ocular treatment (laser photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy can significantly reduce the risk of retinopathy occurrence and progression. Considering the limitations of current DR treatments development of new therapeutic strategies, it becomes necessary to focus on pharmacological treatment. Currently, there is increasing evidence that inflammatory processes have a considerable role in the pathogenesis of DR with multiple studies showing an association of various systemic as well as local (vitreous and aqueous fluid inflammatory factors and the progression of DR. Since inflammation is identified as a relevant mechanism, significant effort has been directed to the development of new concepts for the prevention and treatment of DR acting on the inflammatory processes and the use of pharmacological agents with anti-inflammatory effect. Inhibiting the inflammatory pathway could be an appealing treatment option for DR in future practices, and as further prospective randomized clinical trials accumulate data, the role and guidelines of anti-inflammatory pharmacologic treatments will become clearer.

  15. 77 FR 57086 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  16. 77 FR 74661 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  17. 78 FR 16852 - Open Internet Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ... COMMISSION Open Internet Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of the Open Internet Advisory... Open Internet rules, and to provide any recommendations it deems appropriate to the...

  18. 76 FR 3633 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the rechartering of the Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... ``Commission'') regarding consumer issues within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate...

  19. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  20. 76 FR 56454 - Consumer Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee (Committee). The purpose of the Committee is to make recommendations to the Commission regarding...

  1. 75 FR 9898 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee (``Committee''). The purpose of the ] Committee is to make recommendations to the Commission regarding...

  2. 75 FR 4819 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee (``Committee''). The purpose of the Committee is to make recommendations to the Commission regarding...

  3. 76 FR 34230 - Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... persons that the Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) Technological Advisory Council will hold a... Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, Office of Engineering and Technology 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Technical Advisory Council members have...

  4. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  5. [Pharmacological treatment of chronic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willimann, Patrick

    2011-09-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic pain differs from acute pain management. In chronic non-cancer pain patients pharmacological treatment is only one element of an interdisciplinary approach. Not pain reduction only but gain in physical and social functioning is mandatory for continuation of therapy. The developpement of a strategy is the most important and difficult step toward an individual and sustained pharmacological pain treatment. Simple practical guidelines can help to find an individual therapeutic straight. Outcome parameters have to be determined. Check-ups for discontinuation of the therapy have to be done periodically. Exact documentation of effect and side effects prevents ungrateful and potential dangerous treatments. The WHO ladder remains the cornerstone of pharmacological pain treatment. Further analgesics as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are important in treatment of neuropathic or mixed pain states. Special considerations have to be done in opioid treatment of non-cancer pain regarding the lack of evidence in long term outcome and possible side effects and risks.

  6. The pharmacological action of sufentanil and its clinical application in maxillofacial surgery anesthesia%舒芬太尼的药理作用及其在颌面外科麻醉中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晓君(综述); 张谰成(审校)

    2016-01-01

    Sufentanil was made artiifcially in the 1970s, having the strongest analgesic effect in the opioids currently. Sufentanil can be highly selective combined with μ opioid receptor, thus exerts its pharmacological effect, which is obvious. For more than 90% of sufentanil can combine with plasma proteins,and be easy to cross the blood-brain barrier,so it can fast reach the effective blood drug concentration.Sufentanil mainly metabolizes in the liver and its residues discharging from the kidney are to 1%.It may be administered intravenously, and has small hemodynamic impacts on patients and strong fat-soluble.So it is a potent opioid. Clinically,it is applied in the induction of general anesthesia, intraoperative and postoperative analgesia,having a series of advantages,such as small intubation response,stable hemodynamics, quick recovery after operation,light respiratory depression,strong analgesic effect.Especially being suitable for patients who should be given anesthesia induction and maintenance or postoperative analgesia.There are various administration by vein , nose, eye conjunctiva, etc.It is safe and reliable clinically. The effect is better than that of fentanyl.And it is worthy of promotion.%舒芬太尼在上世纪七十年代由人工研制而成,是目前阿片类镇痛药物中效果最强的。舒芬太尼可以和阿片类μ受体高度选择性的结合,从而发挥其药理作用,其镇痛效果十分强大。因超过90%的舒芬太尼可与血浆蛋白结合,且因其容易透过血-脑屏障,所以其达到有效血药浓度的速度十分快速。舒芬太尼主要在肝脏代谢,从肾脏以原形排出的药物<1%,可经静脉给药,且对患者全身血流动力学的影响小,脂溶性强,是一种强效阿片类镇痛药。临床应用于全麻诱导,术中维持及术后镇痛,插管反应小,血流动力学平稳,术后苏醒快,呼吸抑制轻,镇痛效果强,尤其适用于颌面外科患者麻醉的

  7. Pharmacological Analysis and Comparative Clinical Study of Oxiracetam and Piracetam%奥拉西坦与吡拉西坦的药理分析及临床对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂臣

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To summarize the pharmacological effects of Oxiracetam and Piracetam,to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of Oxiracetam in the treatment of the cognitive dysfunction after stroke.Method:100 patients with cognitive dysfunction after stroke admitted to our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were selected and divided into the observation group and the control group according to random number table method,50 cases in each group.The observation group was given Oxiracetam for treatment.The control group was given Piracetam for treatment,the course of the two groups was 6 months.The changes of the Montreal cognitive assessment scale (MoCA),Mini mental state examination scale(MMSE) and Activities of daily living scale(ADL) score of the two groups before and after treatment were observed,and the curative effect and drug safety were evaluated. Result:The MoCA,MMSE,ADL scores of the two groups before treatment had no statistical significance differences (P>0.05).After treatment,the MoCA,MMSE,ADL scores of the two groups were improved obviously,the improvement above indexes in the observation group were significantly better than the control group, the differences were statistically significant(P0.05).Conclusion:The Oxiracetam can obviously improve the cognitive function of patients with stroke,the clinical curative effect is better than that of Piracetam,and has good security.%目的:总结奥拉西坦与吡拉西坦的药理作用,探讨奥拉西坦治疗脑卒中后认知功能障碍的临床疗效和安全性。方法:选取2012年1月-2013年12月本院收治的脑卒中后认知功能障碍患者100例,按照随机数字表法将其分为观察组和对照组,每组各50例。观察组给予奥拉西坦治疗,对照组给予吡拉西坦治疗,两组疗程均为6个月。观察两组治疗前后蒙特利尔认知评估量表(MoCA)、简易智能量表(MMSE)及日常生活能力量表(ADL)评分的变化,并评价疗效

  8. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology: Brief history and main scientific contributions to the discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Bruni, Sergio F; Acosta, Gabriela B

    2016-07-01

    Argentina Biomedical Science has been historically strong. The development of Human and Veterinary Pharmacology in our country as a pivotal discipline has been acknowledged worldwide because of the quality of its contributions. Argentinean Society of Experimental Pharmacology (SAFE) is a non- profit association whose research fields include Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology. SAFE main goals are described as follow (a) To meet active researchers for studying concerns regarding Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology (b) To launch an initiative for development of the discipline in mainly our country and other collaborative countries worldwide (c) To spread the pharmacological know-how obtained from different research teams (d) To strengthen relations between pharmacologists (e) To facilitate the presentation and discussion of scientific papers. This current article shows the SAFE's more important scientific contribution to pharmacology through its former research scientists to the present.

  9. Pharmacological Overview of Galactogogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Penagos Tabares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Galactogogues are substances used to induce, maintain, and increase milk production, both in human clinical conditions (like noninfectious agalactias and hypogalactias and in massification of production in the animal dairy industry. This paper aims to report the state of the art on the possible mechanisms of action, effectiveness, and side effects of galactogogues, including potential uses in veterinary and human medicine. The knowledge gaps in veterinary clinical practice use of galactogogues, especially in the standardization of the lactogenic dose in some pure drugs and herbal preparations, are reviewed.

  10. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were perform...

  11. JOINT ADVISORY APPEALS BOARD

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Joint Advisory Appeals Board was convened to examine the appeal lodged by Mr Neil Calder, Mrs Sudeshna Datta Cockerill, Mrs Andrée Fontbonne, Mrs Moniek Laurent and Mr Ulrich Liptow with regard to membership in the Pension Fund under the period with a Paid Associate contract, appeals dealt with on a collective basis. As the appellants have not objected, the report of the Board and the final decision of the Director-General are brought to the notice of the personnel in accordance with Article R VI 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. The relevant documents will therefore be posted on the notice boards of the Administration Building (N° 60) from 10 to 31 August 2001.

  12. 39 CFR 447.31 - Advisory service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Advisory Services and Post-Employment Activities § 447.31 Advisory service. (a) The Ethical Conduct Officer is responsible for the administration of the ethics program of the Postal Service. In the exercise of that responsibility, the Ethical Conduct Officer shall coordinate the advisory service provided by...

  13. 77 FR 476 - Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Science Advisory Board AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and... agenda of a forthcoming meeting of the NOAA Science Advisory Board. The members will discuss and provide... be reviewed prior to the meeting date. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Science Advisory Board...

  14. 76 FR 63664 - Arts Advisory Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Doc No: 2011-26421] NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES National Endowment for the Arts Arts Advisory Panel Pursuant to Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), as amended, notice is hereby given that thirteen meetings of the Arts Advisory Panel to the...

  15. 5 CFR 724.403 - Advisory guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory guidelines. 724.403 Section 724.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... RETALIATION ACT OF 2002 Best Practices § 724.403 Advisory guidelines. OPM will issue advisory guidelines...

  16. 48 CFR 401.371 - AGAR Advisories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false AGAR Advisories. 401.371... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Agency Acquisition Regulations 401.371 AGAR Advisories. The SPE may issue AGAR Advisories, consistent with the policies of the FAR and the AGAR, for the following purposes: (a)...

  17. 77 FR 4238 - Advisory Committee Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... Part 8 RIN 1400-AC64 Advisory Committee Management AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Final rule... establish uniform administrative guidelines and management controls for advisory committees established by... of Subjects in 22 CFR Part 8 Advisory Committee Management. Accordingly, under the authority of 22...

  18. 77 FR 10486 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463, 86 Stat. 770... INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Rosenbaum, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S....

  19. 76 FR 10577 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... reestablished Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat... of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, U.S. Department of Energy, Forrestal Building,...

  20. 75 FR 61454 - Electricity Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy...-established DOE Electricity Advisory Committee. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat...: David Meyer, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability,...

  1. 78 FR 9038 - Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Electricity Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability... Electricity Advisory Committee (EAC). The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Matthew Rosenbaum, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability,...

  2. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Linzhang; Zhao, Hongfang; Huang, Baokang; Zheng, Chengjian; Peng, Wei; Qin, Luping

    2011-02-01

    Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (Araliaceae), also called Siberian Ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Ciwujia in Chinese, is a widely used traditional Chinese herb that could invigorate qi, strengthen the spleen, and nourish kidney in the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. With high medicinal value, Acanthopanax senticosus (AS, thereafter) is popularly used as an "adaptogen" like Panax ginseng. In recent decades, a great number of chemical, pharmacological, and clinical studies on AS have been carried out worldwide. Several kinds of chemical compounds have been reported, including triterpenoid saponins, lignans, coumarins, and flavones, among which, phenolic compounds such as syringin and eleutheroside E, were considered to be the most active components. Considerable pharmacological experiments both in vitro and in vivo have persuasively demonstrated that AS possessed anti-stress, antiulcer, anti-irradiation, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc. The present review is an up-to-date and comprehensive analysis of the botany, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical trials of AS.

  3. Exploring pharmacological significance of chalcone scaffold: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, N K; Balbhadra, S S; Choudhary, J; Kohli, D V

    2012-01-01

    Chalcones (1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-ones) and their heterocyclic analogues, belong to the flavonoid family, which possess a number of interesting biological properties such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antiulcer, antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory activities. Several pure chalcones have been approved for clinical use or tested in humans. Clinical trials have shown that these compounds reached reasonable plasma concentration and are well-tolerated. For this reason they are an object of continuously growing interest amongst the scientists. However, much of the pharmacological potential of chalcones is still not utilized. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacological activity of naturally occurring and synthetic chalcones. This review highlights more recent pharmacological screening of these compounds, their mechanisms of action and relevant structure-activity relationships.

  4. Undergraduate pharmacology curriculum at an international medical college in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Vasudha; Bhat, Vishal; Shenoy, Ganesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacology is an important aspect of rational therapeutics. There has been a long-standing need for a change in the undergraduate medical curriculum of pharmacology. A review of literature throws up different approaches to improve the curriculum and to provide more importance to conceptualization and relevance to clinical practice. This article describes the undergraduate pharmacology curriculum which is revised to meet the needs of our unique status as an international medical college in India. We highlight how our curriculum prepares the students for future clinical practice by inculcating higher cognitive skills and soft skills. This article also provides a model for program evaluation and also challenges faced by our department while executing the planned curriculum. PMID:28031601

  5. Pharmacologic treatment of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mark T; Curatolo, Paolo

    2004-03-01

    Autism is a chronic and lifelong pervasive developmental disorder for which there is yet no effective cure, and medical management remains a major challenge for clinicians. In spite of the possible similarities with conditions that have an established pharmacotherapy, and despite improvements in some associated "problematic behaviors" following the use of available medications, effective medical treatment for the core symptoms involving language and social cognition remains elusive. The purpose of the present article is to review current biologic knowledge about autism in an attempt to correlate clinical trials with known mechanisms of disease. In addition, the need for controlled studies and for the creation of homogeneous subgroups of patients based on clinical and genetic characteristics is emphasized. The application of molecular genetic investigations and pharmacogenetics in the diagnostic work-up of autistic patients can lead to more effective individualized medical care.

  6. 76 FR 77543 - Clinical Center; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... of Committee: NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. Date: January 30, 2012. Time: 10 a.m. to 1:15... meeting of the NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. The meeting will be open to the public as... assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify...

  7. 77 FR 12602 - Clinical Center Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... of Committee: NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. Date: March 26, 2012. Time: 10 a.m. to 1:15 p... meeting of the NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. The meeting will be open to the public as... assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify...

  8. 78 FR 736 - Clinical Center; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... of Committee: NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. Date: January 28, 2013. Time: 10:00 a.m. to 1... meeting of the NIH Advisory Board for Clinical Research. The meeting will be open to the public as... assistance, such as sign language interpretation or other reasonable accommodations, should notify...

  9. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Uncover the Pharmacological Mechanism of XuanHuSuo Powder on Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Luo, Shilin; Zhang, Baixia; Duan, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhiqian; Wang, Wenqi; Wang, Yun; Sun, Yikun

    2016-01-01

    As the most familiar type of arthritis and a chronic illness of the joints, Osteoarthritis (OA) affects a great number of people on the global scale. XuanHuSuo powder (XHSP), a conventional herbal formula from China, has been extensively applied in OA treatment. Nonetheless, its pharmacological mechanism has not been completely expounded. In this research, a network pharmacology approach has been chosen to study the pharmacological mechanism of XHSP on OA, and the pharmacology networks were established based on the relationship between four herbs found in XHSP, compound targets, and OA targets. The pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the significant bioprocess networks of XHSP on OA were regulation of inflammation, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and nitric oxide (NO) biosynthetic process, response to cytokine or estrogen stimuli, and antiapoptosis. These effects have not been reported previously. The comprehensive network pharmacology approach developed by our research has revealed, for the first time, a connection between four herbs found in XHSP, corresponding compound targets, and OA pathway systems that are conducive to expanding the clinical application of XHSP. The proposed network pharmacology approach could be a promising complementary method by which researchers might better evaluate multitarget or multicomponent drugs on a systematic level. PMID:27110264

  10. The shifting landscape of safety pharmacology in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugsley, Michael K; Authier, Simon; Stonerook, Michael; Curtis, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The relative importance of the discipline of safety pharmacology (which integrates physiology, pharmacologyand toxicology) has evolved since the incorporation of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) as an entity on August 10, 2000. Safety pharmacology (SP), as a synthesis of these other fields of knowledge, is concerned with characterizing the safety profile (or potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and biologicals. Initially focused on the issue of drug-induced QT prolongation it has developed into an important discipline over the past 15years with expertise beyond its initial focus on torsades de pointes (TdP). It has become a repository for interrogation of models for drug safety studies and innovative non-clinical model development, validation and implementation. Thus, while safety pharmacology consists of the triumvirate obligatory cardiovascular, central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system core battery studies it also involves assessing drug effects on numerous other physiological systems (e.g., ocular, auditory, renal, gastrointestinal, blood, immune) leveraging emerging new technologies in a wide range of non-clinical drug safety testing models. As with previous editorials that preface the themed issue on safety pharmacology methods published in the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM), we highlight here the content derived from the most recent (2014) SPS meeting held in Washington, DC. The dynamics of the discipline remain fervent and method development, extension and refinement are reflected in the content. This issue of the JPTM continues the tradition of providing a publication summary of articles (reviews, commentaries and methods) with impact on the discipline of safety pharmacology.

  11. An algorithm for the pharmacological treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Nolen, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Non-response to treatment with antidepressants (AD) is a clinical problem. Method: The algorithm for pharmacological treatment of the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for depression is compared with four other algorithms. Results: The Dutch algorithm consists of five subsequent steps. Tr

  12. An algorithm for the pharmacological treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Non-response to treatment with antidepressants (AD) is a clinical problem. Method: The algorithm for pharmacological treatment of the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline for depression is compared with four other algorithms. Results: The Dutch algorithm consists of five subsequent steps.

  13. High-Throughput Screening of Ototoxic and Otoprotective Pharmacological Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinec, Federico

    2005-01-01

    Drug ototoxicity research has relied traditionally on animal models for the discovery and development of therapeutic interventions. More than 50 years of research, however, has delivered few--if any--successful clinical strategies for preventing or ameliorating the ototoxic effects of common pharmacological drugs such as aminoglycoside…

  14. The pharmacology of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R

    2014-10-01

    Statins, inhibitors of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase enzyme, are molecules of fungal origin. By inhibiting a key step in the sterol biosynthetic pathway statins are powerful cholesterol lowering medications and have provided outstanding contributions to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Their detection in mycetes traces back to close to 40 years ago: there were, originally, widely opposing views on their therapeutic potential. From then on, intensive pharmaceutical development has led to the final availability in the clinic of seven statin molecules, characterized by differences in bioavailability, lipo/hydrophilicity, cytochrome P-450 mediated metabolism and cellular transport mechanisms. These differences are reflected in their relative power (mg LDL-cholesterol reduction per mg dose) and possibly in parenchymal or muscular toxicities. The impact of the antagonism of statins on a crucial step of intermediary metabolism leads, in fact, both to a reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis as well as to additional pharmacodynamic (so called "pleiotropic") effects. In the face of an extraordinary clinical success, the emergence of some side effects, e.g. raised incidence of diabetes and cataracts as well as frequent muscular side effects, have led to increasing concern by physicians. However, also in view of the present relatively low cost of these drugs, their impact on daily therapy of vascular patients is unlikely to change.

  15. Chemical and Pharmacological Aspects of Capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Reyes-Escogido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid found primarily in the fruit of the Capsicum genus and is what provides its spicy flavor. Generally extracted directly from fruit, high demand has driven the use of established methods to increase production through extraction and characterization. Over time these methods have improved, usually be applying existing techniques in conjunction. An increasingly wide range of potential applications has increased interest in capsaicin. Especially compelling are the promising results of medical studies showing possible beneficial effects in many diseases. Capsaicin’s pungency has limited its use in clinical trials to support its biological activity. Characterization and extraction/ synthesis of non-pungent analogues is in progress. A review is made of capsaicin research focusing mainly on its production, synthesis, characterization and pharmacology, including some of its main potential clinical uses in humans.

  16. Chemical and pharmacological aspects of capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Escogido, Maria de Lourdes; Gonzalez-Mondragon, Edith G; Vazquez-Tzompantzi, Erika

    2011-01-28

    Capsaicin is a unique alkaloid found primarily in the fruit of the Capsicum genus and is what provides its spicy flavor. Generally extracted directly from fruit, high demand has driven the use of established methods to increase production through extraction and characterization. Over time these methods have improved, usually be applying existing techniques in conjunction. An increasingly wide range of potential applications has increased interest in capsaicin. Especially compelling are the promising results of medical studies showing possible beneficial effects in many diseases. Capsaicin's pungency has limited its use in clinical trials to support its biological activity. Characterization and extraction/ synthesis of non-pungent analogues is in progress. A review is made of capsaicin research focusing mainly on its production, synthesis, characterization and pharmacology, including some of its main potential clinical uses in humans.

  17. Developing an interactive microsimulation method in pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Angela S; Graves, Barbara A; Gullette, Donna; Edwards, Rebecca

    2010-07-01

    Pharmacology decision making requires clinical judgment. The authors created interactive microsimulation applying drug information to varying patients' situations. The theory-based microsimulation requires situational analysis for each scenario. The microsimulation uses an interactive format that allows the participant to navigate through three separate virtual clients' situations. Correct clinical decisions are rewarded by sounds and by video footage of the patient improving. Conversely, incorrect choices show video footage of the patient decompensating. This micro-simulation was developed to help students learn from the consequences of incorrect medication decision making in the virtual world without harming patients. The feedback of watching an incorrect decision on a patient helps students associate cause and effect on patient outcomes. The microsimulation reinforces the ease with which medication errors can occur and the extent of possible sequalae. The development process used to incorporate the technology in the nursing curriculum is discussed.

  18. Pharmacology and toxicology of sensitizers: mechanism studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauth, A.M.

    1984-08-01

    Nitroimidazoles are being studied extensively as hypoxic cell radiosensitizers. Besides their ability to selectively sensitize hypoxic cells to radiation, which depends on the parent compound, nitroimidazoles have a variety of other effects in vitro, in vivo and clinically which appear to require reductive metabolism. As a first step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these other biological effects, a summary has been made of the known oxidative and reductive products of the two most widely studied radiosensitizers, metronidazole and misonidazole. As a second step to suggesting possible mechanisms for these biological effects, it is important to view the problem in terms of the in vivo situation where distribution and sites of metabolism of the drug and its reduction products will be important factors. Combining basic information about the reduction chemistry of nitroimidazoles with knowledge about the pharmacology of drugs and their reduced products should allow a better assessment of mechanism of action as well as a better implementation of these drugs clinically.

  19. Rufinamide: Pharmacology, clinical trials, and role in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Hakimian, A; Anderson, G D; Miller, J W

    2006-11-01

    Rufinamide is a structurally novel compound with anticonvulsant activity that is undergoing evaluation through the European Medicines Agency and the American Food and Drug Administration. Its mechanism of action is thought to be inhibition of sodium-dependent action potentials in neurons, with possible membrane-stabilising effects. Absorption of the drug is significantly enhanced in the fed state. The drug is extensively metabolised by non-CYP450 systems with a half-life of 8-12 h. Most common adverse effects noted are somnolence, fatigue and tremor. Efficacy against partial seizures in adults and adolescents has been demonstrated in three randomised, placebo-controlled trials. Efficacy against seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, a severe, disabling childhood onset epilepsy syndrome, was shown in a single randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Efficacy against partial onset seizures in children has been suggested in an open-label trial. Should rufinamide become commercially available, reserving the drug as a second- or third-line agent should be considered.

  20. 77 FR 4370 - NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Commercial Space Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... announces a meeting of the Commercial Space Committee (CSC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). DATES... Admission to the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Commercial Space Committee (CSC).'' For security...

  1. 75 FR 22553 - Technology Innovation Program Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Technology Innovation Program Advisory Board AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Technology Innovation Program Advisory Board, National Institute of Standards and Technology... Technology Innovation Program (TIP) Advisory Board is composed of ten members appointed by the Director...

  2. 75 FR 2923 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  3. 75 FR 72863 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that the Agency's Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee...

  4. 75 FR 50797 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  5. 75 FR 29384 - Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that its Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee (MCSAC)...

  6. 78 FR 20685 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) will meet in Arlington, VA. This.... L. 92-463). The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) provides advice and...

  7. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  8. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  9. 76 FR 14647 - Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Sabine National Forest Resource Advisory Committee (RAC)...

  10. 75 FR 51169 - OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department... Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee will renew for a two-year period beginning August 2... Depository Institutions Advisory Committee (MDIAC). The purpose of the OTS Minority Depository...

  11. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  12. 77 FR 20643 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... following links. Blood Products Advisory Committee Web Cast Link May 15...

  13. 77 FR 67013 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... public. Name of Committee: Blood Products Advisory Committee. General Function of the Committee: To... links: December 4, 2012: Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 1:...

  14. 75 FR 3913 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee...: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be meeting by... telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA),...

  15. 77 FR 24728 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... SECURITY President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Protection... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory... telecommunications policy. Agenda: The committee will meet in open session to receive a briefing on the...

  16. 75 FR 29781 - President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... SECURITY National Communications System President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee... meeting. SUMMARY: The President's National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC) will be... preparedness telecommunications policy. Notice of this meeting is given under the Federal Advisory...

  17. 76 FR 43988 - National Technical Information Service Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... National Technical Information Service National Technical Information Service Advisory Board AGENCY: National Technical Information Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the next meeting of the National Technical Information Service Advisory Board (the Advisory...

  18. 78 FR 61337 - National Technical Information Service Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... National Technical Information Service National Technical Information Service Advisory Board AGENCY: National Technical Information Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting SUMMARY: This notice announces the next meeting of the National Technical Information Service Advisory Board (the Advisory...

  19. 78 FR 16255 - National Technical Information Service Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... National Technical Information Service National Technical Information Service Advisory Board AGENCY: National Technical Information Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the next meeting of the National Technical Information Service Advisory Board (the Advisory...

  20. 77 FR 57559 - National Technical Information Service Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... National Technical Information Service National Technical Information Service Advisory Board AGENCY: National Technical Information Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces the next meeting of the National Technical Information Service Advisory Board (the Advisory...

  1. Restructuring the syllabus for MD Pharmacology: Retrospection of bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Mulkalwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Career prospects in Pharmacology are witnessing a sea change due to fast and unanticipated development in the field of clinical research. Numerous openings exist now in academia, pharmaceutical industry, Clinical Research Organizations (CRO or as regulatory consultants, experimental pharmacologists, etc. In short, there are various options to choose from, depending on one′s interest. It′s high time we ponder now over the training programme for post-graduate students in Pharmacology. It needs to be revised keeping in mind the job prospects & uniqueness of the MD Pharmacology degree. Aim: To take suggestions of experienced pharmacologists on the present syllabus for MD Pharmacology and their opinion on continuation of Bioassay experiment which is currently an important part of it . Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was given to 30 experienced pharmacologists to seek their opinion on MD Pharmacology syllabus & continuation of Bioassay as a part of MD practical. Results: Out of 30 participants, 29 (96.6% did not use their knowledge of Bioassay during their 10 years of post MD career, whether in pharmaceutical industry or in academics. Only 5 of them (16.6% feel that experiment on bioassay should be continued in the current state. 76.7% of them wish it to be modified to a Dose Response Curve ( DRC . 6.71% feel that it should be totally scrapped. All the participants feel the need of revising current MD Pharmacology syllabus. Current syllabus is inclined more towards preparing good academicians but it lacks the proper training for creating good clinical research professionals. Medical writing, writing necessary documents for clinical trials including regulatory documents, writing an article for medical journals, marketing communication, product monograph and patient information of a clinical trial could be incorporated. They should be aware of the regulatory requirements for conducting studies on investigational drugs

  2. [Tenofovir: pharmacology and interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, José Ramón; García Quetglas, Emilio; Sádaba, Belén; Gómez-Giu, Almudena

    2008-06-01

    Tenofovir is a nucleotide analogue and consequently its mechanism of action differs from that of nucleoside analogues. This drug is administered orally in the form of disoproxil ester, which is deesterified to achieve a bioavailability of more than 20%. This bioavailability slightly increases if tenofovir is taken with a fat-rich meal. This drug has broad tissue distribution, aided by its small molecular size and very low protein binding, and is eliminated as unchanged drug in the urine through glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion. Because of this latter characteristic, dosage adjustments are required in patients with renal insufficiency. The intracellular half-life of tenofovir is more than 10 times greater than the plasma half-life. Because of the pharmacokinetic profile of tenofovir, interactions with other drugs are scarce. Within the class of antiretroviral agents, an increase in the bioavailability of didanosine has been described, leading to the recommendation that the dose of didanosine be reduced when used in combination with tenofovir. Tenofovir can be used without adjustments with other nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Equally, tenofovir seems to have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors although these latter agents may produce a slight increase in the bioavailability of tenofovir, which seems to be of little clinical relevance. The absence of interactions with other non-antiretroviral agents has been reported.

  3. Contemporary pharmacological obesity treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszubska Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, obesity has become a global epidemic. Consequently, worldwide costs associated with managing obesity and obesity-related comorbidities are huge. Numerous studies have focused on discerning the appropriate proper treatment of weight related problems such as overweight and obesity. Moreover, many clinical trials have been conducted for many years in order to introduce effective anti-obesity drugs. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of current and future pharmacotherapy for obesity, and to provide the reader with a determination of the concentration and composition of long and short term anti-obesity drugs, doing so by placing emphasis on pharmacotherapy and up-to-day solutions. It should be noted that, currently, the worldwide pharmacotherapy is represented by phendimetrazine, benzphetamine and diethylpropion, as well as by orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide. In our paper, individual cases of patients’ needs are thoroughly illustrated by way of examples. Medical prescriptions and contraindications are also described.

  4. Pharmacology of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicman, A T

    2008-06-01

    Athletes and bodybuilders have recognized for several decades that the use of anabolic steroids can promote muscle growth and strength but it is only relatively recently that these agents are being revisited for clinical purposes. Anabolic steroids are being considered for the treatment of cachexia associated with chronic disease states, and to address loss of muscle mass in the elderly, but nevertheless their efficacy still needs to be demonstrated in terms of improved physical function and quality of life. In sport, these agents are performance enhancers, this being particularly apparent in women, although there is a high risk of virilization despite the favourable myotrophic-androgenic dissociation that many xenobiotic steroids confer. Modulation of androgen receptor expression appears to be key to partial dissociation, with consideration of both intracellular steroid metabolism and the topology of the bound androgen receptor interacting with co-activators. An anticatabolic effect, by interfering with glucocorticoid receptor expression, remains an attractive hypothesis. Behavioural changes by non-genomic and genomic pathways probably help motivate training. Anabolic steroids continue to be the most common adverse finding in sport and, although apparently rare, designer steroids have been synthesized in an attempt to circumvent the dope test. Doping with anabolic steroids can result in damage to health, as recorded meticulously in the former German Democratic Republic. Even so, it is important not to exaggerate the medical risks associated with their administration for sporting or bodybuilding purposes but to emphasize to users that an attitude of personal invulnerability to their adverse effects is certainly misguided.

  5. Pharmacological modeling and biostatistical analysis of a new drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Ananthakrishnan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Revathi Ananthakrishnan1, Philimon Gona21Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Boston University, Mathematics and Statistics Department, 111 Cummington St, Boston, MA-02215, USAAbstract: Clinical research and clinical trials of experimental drugs to treat human diseases have gained greater importance in recent years. Phase I–IV clinical trials offer patients the opportunity to gain access to a new, more efficacious and safer medication to alleviate or cure their disease. There are potential side effects of every new drug; however, such trials and studies are crucial for drug development and testing in humans. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA regulated process of evaluating a new drug for treating a particular disease in humans is long, rigorous, and includes the stages starting from preclinical research through the entire human clinical trials process. This review synthesizes results from the above stages and describes the entire mechanism of the clinical study of a new drug for human disease. It emphasizes the associated mathematical modeling and statistical analyses, and bridges pharmacological modeling and biostatistics in clinical research and also provides a basic theoretical overview to biomedical experimentalists. The modern trend in clinical research involves a unified approach among several biomedical subspecialties and it is hoped that even more integrated studies of new drugs will continue to be carried out, leading to novel drugs that are highly effective in curing the associated condition.Keywords: PK/PD pharmacological modeling, biostatistical analyses of clinical trials data, clinical trials, phases of clinical trials, types and designs of clinical trials

  6. 77 FR 70434 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Monday, December 10, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p..., DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological...

  7. 77 FR 52332 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Technological Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Advisory Council will hold a meeting on Monday, September 24, 2012 in the Commission Meeting Room, from 1 p..., DC 20554. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Walter Johnston, Chief, Electromagnetic Compatibility Division, 202-418-0807; Walter.Johnston@FCC.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FCC Technological...

  8. Chemotaxonomy and pharmacology of Gentianaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Schripsema, Jan

    2002-01-01

    the remaining six are members of the Gentianeae. Based on the above results, a tentative list of chemical characteristics for the tribes of the Gentianaceae is presented. Finally, some pharmacologically interesting properties of plant extracts or compounds from taxa within Gentianaceae are listed....

  9. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  10. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  11. The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Lindequist

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.

  12. 75 FR 53694 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... Doc No: 2010-21890] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital Age AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... on Diversity for Communications in the Digital Age (``Diversity Committee'') will hold a meeting...

  13. 76 FR 5160 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Advisory Committee on Diversity for Communications in the Digital Age AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of intent to renew charter. SUMMARY:...

  14. 78 FR 11142 - The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Economic Development Administration The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Innovation and Entrepreneurship (NACIE) has cancelled its open meeting, originally planned for...

  15. 76 FR 51122 - National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC); Notice of Federal Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council (NEMSAC... (NHTSA), Department of Transportation (DOT). Title: National Emergency Medical Services Advisory Council... services representatives and consumers to provide advice and recommendations regarding Emergency...

  16. 78 FR 5772 - The National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Meeting of the National Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The National Advisory Council on Innovation and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Economic Development Administration The National Advisory Council on Innovation and...

  17. [Pharmacological treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Yves-Marie; Giraud, Frédérique; Huchon, Gérard; Roche, Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    The pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can significantly improve quality of life by reducing exacerbations, dyspnea and exercise intolerance, thereby limiting the degree of handicap and improving daily activities. Recently, large randomised trials showed that some treatments can alter the decline in FEV1, which was previously only accessible to smoking cessation, and maybe reduce mortality. Bronchodilators are the first-line pharmacological treatment of COPD. Their clinical efficacy cannot be predicted by the inconstant changes in FEV(1.) Their main mechanism of action is the reduction in lung hyperinflation. Theophylline has a lower efficacy/tolerance ratio than inhaled bronchodilators. In symptomatic patients with FEV1 regeneration are also being studied. Medications must be associated with non-pharmacological measures (including help towards smoking cessation, education, exercise training...). Systemic manifestations of COPD must also be taken into account.

  18. Pharmacological potentials of Premna integrifolia L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Premna integrifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae is an important constituent of the formulation of ten roots of herbs known as Daśamūla and is widely used for treating various ailments in the Indian system of medicine. Aim of this review is to provide comprehensive information on the pharmacological activities of various parts of P. integrifolia. All the relevant universally accepted electronic databases were searched with respect to the terms “Agnimanthā”, “Headache tree”, “Premna integrifolia”, “Premna obtusifolia”, “Premna serratifolia” including Indian classical texts, pharmacopoeias, Ayurvedic books, journals, etc., for information without specific timeline. Complete information of the plant has been collected manually since the year 1964 and has been arranged chronologically. The collected data reflects that many ethno-medicinal claims have been confirmed through the modern in-vitro and in-vivo pharmacological studies using different extracts and their isolates of P. integrifolia. The isolation of active constituents, their biological actions, clinical safety and validation of traditional uses of P. integrifolia could provide leads for further scientific research. The information collected here will be useful to set-up research protocols for modern drugs and Ayurvedic formulation development.

  19. Pharmacological treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Howard S; Argoff, Charles E

    2011-03-26

    Neuropathic pain continues to be a difficult and challenging clinical issue to deal with effectively. Painful diabetic polyneuropathy is a complex pain condition that occurs with reasonable frequency in the population and it may be extremely difficult for clinicians to provide patients with effective analgesia. Chronic neuropathic pain may occur in approximately one of every four diabetic patients. The pain may be described as burning or a deep-seated ache with sporadic paroxysms of lancinating painful exacerbations. The pain is often constant, moderate to severe in intensity, usually primarily involves the feet and generally tends to worsen at night. Treatment may be multimodal but largely involves pharmacological approaches. Pharmacological therapeutic options include antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), α2δ ligands and topical (5%) lidocaine patch. Other agents may be different antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate), topical capsaicin, tramadol and other opioids. Progress continues with respect to understanding various mechanisms that may contribute to painful diabetic neuropathy. Agents that may hold some promise include neurotrophic factors, growth factors, immunomodulators, gene therapy and poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors. It is hoped that in the future clinicians will be able to assess patient pathophysiology, which may help them to match optimal therapeutic agents to target individual patient aberrant mechanisms.

  20. Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic aspects of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Bueno, Lionel; de Ponti, Fabrizio; Fioramonti, Jean; Lydiard, R Bruce; Tack, Jan

    2006-04-01

    Medications are commonly used for the treatment of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders. The general goal of this report is to review the pharmacokinetics and pharmacology of medications used in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods included literature review, consensus evaluation of the evidence for each topic assigned originally to 1 or 2 authors, and broader review at a harmonization session as part of the Rome III process. This report reviews the animal models that have been validated for the study of effects of pharmacologic agents on sensation and motility; the preclinical pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology usually required for introduction of novel therapeutic agents; the biomarkers validated for studies of sensation and motility end points with experimental medications in humans; the pharmacogenomics applied to these medications and disorders; and the pharmacology of agents that are applied or have potential for treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including psychopharmacologic agents. Clinician and basic investigators involved in the treatment or investigation of functional gastrointestinal disorders or disease models need to have a comprehensive understanding of a vast range of medications. It is anticipated that the interaction between investigators of basic science, basic and applied pharmacology, and clinical trials will lead to better treatment of these disorders.

  1. Systems pharmacology modeling: an approach to improving drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jane P F; Fontana, Robert J; Price, Nathan D; Sangar, Vineet

    2014-01-01

    Advances in systems biology in conjunction with the expansion in knowledge of drug effects and diseases present an unprecedented opportunity to extend traditional pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling/analysis to conduct systems pharmacology modeling. Many drugs that cause liver injury and myopathies have been studied extensively. Mitochondrion-centric systems pharmacology modeling is important since drug toxicity across a large number of pharmacological classes converges to mitochondrial injury and death. Approaches to systems pharmacology modeling of drug effects need to consider drug exposure, organelle and cellular phenotypes across all key cell types of human organs, organ-specific clinical biomarkers/phenotypes, gene-drug interaction and immune responses. Systems modeling approaches, that leverage the knowledge base constructed from curating a selected list of drugs across a wide range of pharmacological classes, will provide a critically needed blueprint for making informed decisions to reduce the rate of attrition for drugs in development and increase the number of drugs with an acceptable benefit/risk ratio.

  2. 77 FR 41403 - Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... AGENCY Meetings of the Local Government Advisory Committee and the Small Communities Advisory.../or Title VI, and other environmental issues of importance to local governments. ADDRESSES: EPA's Local Government Advisory Committee meetings will be held via teleconference. Meeting summaries will...

  3. 78 FR 17993 - Request for Nominations for the General Advisory Committee and the Scientific Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ...-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) as well as to a Scientific Advisory Subcommittee of the General... for Nominations for the General Advisory Committee and the Scientific Advisory Subcommittee to the United States Section to the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission SUMMARY: The Department of State...

  4. 75 FR 18824 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ..., intelligence, and policy-related issues to the Commander, U.S. Strategic Command, during the development of the... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group; Closed... announces that the U.S. Strategic Command Strategic Advisory Group will meet on May 6 and 7, 2010....

  5. O tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar: uma revisão sistemática e crítica dos aspectos metodológicos dos estudos clínicos modernos The pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic and critical review of the methodological aspects of modern clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Cheniaux

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar sistematicamente os principais estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar e fazer uma análise crítica de seus aspectos metodológicos. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma busca nas bases de dados Medline, ISI e PsycINFO, utilizando-se os seguintes termos de busca: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Foram selecionados estudos clínicos randomizados, duplo-cegos e controlados por placebo sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar. Além disso, de acordo com os nossos critérios, as amostras deveriam ser de no mínimo 100 pacientes e a substância testada deveria ser usada como monoterapia. RESULTADOS: 34 artigos se adequaram aos critérios de seleção. Todas as substâncias atualmente indicadas para mania, depressão bipolar e para o tratamento de manutenção foram mais eficazes que o placebo em pelo menos um estudo. Todavia, esses estudos tiveram amostras altamente selecionadas, altas taxas de abandono e baixas taxas de resposta clínica. CONCLUSÃO: Os modernos estudos clínicos sobre o tratamento farmacológico do transtorno bipolar apresentam algumas importantes limitações metodológicas. Assim, seus resultados devem ser considerados com cautela.OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the main clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder and to make a critical analysis of their methodological aspects. METHOD: A search in Medline, ISI and PsycINFO databases was conducted, using the following search terms: "bipolar", "randomized", "placebo" e "controlled". Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials on the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Besides, according to our criteria, samples had to consist of at least 100 patients and experimental drug had to be used as monotherapy. RESULTS: 34 articles met our selection criteria. All drugs currently indicated for mania, bipolar depression and maintenance treatment of

  6. Paradoxical pharmacology: turning our pharmacological models upside down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clive

    2011-04-01

    Paradoxical pharmacology is a term first suggested by Richard Bond to refer to intriguing observations that chronic use of some drug types can have the opposite biological effect(s) to those seen following acute administration of the same drug. A good example of 'paradoxical pharmacology' is the research Richard has pioneered showing that whereas acute administration of β-blockers is contraindicated in the treatment of asthma, chronic use of certain β-blockers can have therapeutic benefit. It would appear that those β-blockers that can act as inverse agonists at the β2 receptor particularly show this paradoxical effect and the findings of Richard's research not only challenge the dogma of the treatment of asthma but also challenge many of the pharmacological principles of ligand/receptor interactions established by Sir James Black and others. In this paper, I discuss Richard's efforts to evaluate the chronic effects of β-blockers in the airways and how this research caught the imagination of Sir James Black.

  7. A review on pharmacological action of active principle in gastrodia elata and the clinical application%天麻有效成分的药理作用与临床应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧君

    2016-01-01

    本论文主要通过文献查阅,对天麻的药理作用进行了归纳和整理。天麻在药理上对中枢神经系统有镇静、镇痛、抗惊厥的作用,对心血管系统有降血压、抗血小板聚集作用,还能够改善记忆、延缓衰老、增强免疫力等。%In this article, pharmacological action of active principle in gastrodia elata was generalized through consulting the literatures. The results shows that gastrodia elata on central nervous system play roles of sedation, analgesia and anticonvulsant, and on cardiovascular system play roles of lowering blood pressure, anti-platelet aggregation, and could improve memory, aging, strengthening the immune system and so on.

  8. Pharmacology teaching and its reform in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-dong LI; Yuan ZHANG; Cai-li ZHANG; Xiu-mei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The general situation of pharmacology teaching in China was introduced and the educational reform in China in recent decade is summarized. The aim of the article is to provide those who are interested in teaching of pharmacology to be acquainted with the teaching of pharmacology, including the teaching of both principles and practice, in China.

  9. Translational paradigms in pharmacology and drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullane, Kevin; Winquist, Raymond J; Williams, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The translational sciences represent the core element in enabling and utilizing the output from the biomedical sciences and to improving drug discovery metrics by reducing the attrition rate as compounds move from preclinical research to clinical proof of concept. Key to understanding the basis of disease causality and to developing therapeutics is an ability to accurately diagnose the disease and to identify and develop safe and effective therapeutics for its treatment. The former requires validated biomarkers and the latter, qualified targets. Progress has been hampered by semantic issues, specifically those that define the end product, and by scientific issues that include data reliability, an overt reductionistic cultural focus and a lack of hierarchically integrated data gathering and systematic analysis. A necessary framework for these activities is represented by the discipline of pharmacology, efforts and training in which require recognition and revitalization.

  10. Vascular dementia: Pharmacological treatment approaches and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Baskys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Andrius Baskys1,3, Anthony C Hou21Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior; 2Program in Geriatrics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California; 3Memory Disorders Program, VA Health Care System Long Beach, Long Beach, California, USAAbstract: Vascular dementia is a common condition for which there are no effective approved pharmacological treatments available. Absence of effective treatments creates a difficult situation for those suffering from the disease, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. This review will address our current understanding of the mechanisms of nerve cell damage due to ischemia and summarize available clinical trial data on several commonly used compounds including memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDPcholine, folic acid, as well as such nonpharmacological approaches as validation therapy.Keywords: vascular dementia, excitotoxicity, treatment, NMDA, memantine, donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, nimodipine, hydergine, nicergoline, CDP-choline, folic acid

  11. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  12. Individualized pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfert, S M; Reimer, M; Höper, J; Baron, R

    2015-02-01

    Patients with the same disease may suffer from completely different pain symptoms yet receive the same drug treatment. Several studies elucidate neuropathic pain and treatment response in human surrogate pain models. They show promising results toward a patient stratification according to the mechanisms underlying the pain, as reflected in their symptoms. Several promising new drugs produced negative study results in clinical phase III trials. However, retrospective analysis of treatment response based on baseline pain phenotyping could demonstrate positive results for certain subgroups of patients. Thus, a prospective classification of patients according to pain phenotype may play an increasingly important role in personalized treatment of neuropathic pain states. A recent prospective study using stratification based on pain-related sensory abnormalities confirmed the concept of personalized pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain.

  13. 78 FR 33049 - Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Grain Inspection Service operations-market overview, international programs, moisture meter... orally address the Advisory Committee. The meeting will be open to the public. Persons with...

  14. Pharmacological potential of cerium oxidenanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celardo, Ivana; Pedersen, Jens Z.; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2011-04-01

    Nanotechnology promises a revolution in pharmacology to improve or create ex novo therapies. Cerium oxidenanoparticles (nanoceria), well-known as catalysts, possess an astonishing pharmacological potential due to their antioxidant properties, deriving from a fraction of Ce3+ ions present in CeO2. These defects, compensated by oxygen vacancies, are enriched at the surface and therefore in nanosized particles. Reactions involving redox cycles between the Ce3+ and Ce4+oxidation states allow nanoceria to react catalytically with superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, mimicking the behavior of two key antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, potentially abating all noxious intracellularreactive oxygen species (ROS) via a self-regenerating mechanism. Hence nanoceria, apparently well tolerated by the organism, might fight chronic inflammation and the pathologies associated with oxidative stress, which include cancer and neurodegeneration. Here we review the biological effects of nanoceria as they emerge from in vitro and in vivo studies, considering biocompatibility and the peculiar antioxidant mechanisms.

  15. In silico methods for drug repurposing and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodos, Rachel A; Kidd, Brian A; Shameer, Khader; Readhead, Ben P; Dudley, Joel T

    2016-05-01

    Data in the biological, chemical, and clinical domains are accumulating at ever-increasing rates and have the potential to accelerate and inform drug development in new ways. Challenges and opportunities now lie in developing analytic tools to transform these often complex and heterogeneous data into testable hypotheses and actionable insights. This is the aim of computational pharmacology, which uses in silico techniques to better understand and predict how drugs affect biological systems, which can in turn improve clinical use, avoid unwanted side effects, and guide selection and development of better treatments. One exciting application of computational pharmacology is drug repurposing-finding new uses for existing drugs. Already yielding many promising candidates, this strategy has the potential to improve the efficiency of the drug development process and reach patient populations with previously unmet needs such as those with rare diseases. While current techniques in computational pharmacology and drug repurposing often focus on just a single data modality such as gene expression or drug-target interactions, we argue that methods such as matrix factorization that can integrate data within and across diverse data types have the potential to improve predictive performance and provide a fuller picture of a drug's pharmacological action. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:186-210. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1337 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  16. The Role of Pharmacology in Ureteral Physiology and Expulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerde, Travis J.; Nakada, Stephen Y.

    2007-04-01

    Research in the field of ureteral physiology and pharmacology has traditionally been directed toward relaxation of ureteral spasm as a mechanism of analgesia during painful ureteral obstruction, most often stone-induced episodes. However, interest in this field has expanded greatly in recent years with the expanded use of alpha-blocker therapy for inducing stone passage, a usage now termed "medical expulsive therapy". While most clinical reports involving expulsive therapy have focused on alpha receptor or calcium channel blockade, there are diverse studies investigating pharmacological ureteral relaxation with novel agents including cyclooxygenase inhibitors, small molecule beta receptor agonists, neurokinin antagonists, and phosphodiesterase inhibitors. In addition, cutting edge molecular biology research is revealing promising potential therapeutic targets aimed at specific molecular changes that occur during the acute obstruction that accompanies stone disease. The purpose of this report is to review the use of pharmacological agents as ureteral smooth muscle relaxants clinically, and to look into the future of expulsive therapy by reviewing the available literature of ureteral physiology and pharmacology research.

  17. [Specialist pharmacist training from the viewpoint of sports pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashi, Kumiko

    2012-01-01

    When athletes consult sports outpatient or orthopedic clinics it is possible to undergo drug treatment with the medical staff having prior knowledge of that patient being an athlete. However, if athletes seek any other diagnosis and treatment as an ordinary patient, the possibility of medical staff realizing the potential for imposing a doping issue on the athlete is extremely low. As a result, if the athlete fails to provide medical staff with information regarding anti-doping regulations when receiving clinical treatment, drug treatment administered as part of medical practices could be viewed as doping, resulting in the athlete being disciplined. In order to avoid this, pharmacist should participate in training in order to be able to provide information for anti-doping purposes. It is my personal opinion that knowledge regarding anti-doping is something that should be shared by all pharmacists, as pharmacists are educated in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics during the pharmacy education process, and sports pharmacology is a part of this. However, in order for pharmacists to understand sports pharmacology, it is necessary to provide education not only on the benefits and adverse effects of pharmaceutical products, but also on the concept of banned substances. It can be considered one of the pharmacist's duties to protect athletes who purchase drugs at a pharmacy or consult medical institutions as patients. With this, I would like to propose considering the potential for introducing sports pharmacology to pharmaceutical education, and specialist pharmacist training in the sports spectrum.

  18. Pharmacological study on chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf%丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟晓凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分药理研究及临床应用,为新药的研制奠定基础。方法:通过参阅大量相关文献,对丹参和白花丹参叶的化学成分、药理研究及临床应用进行分析总结。结果:丹参和白花丹参叶所具有的抗氧化作用均能较好的预防脑梗塞,与根相比叶对脑缺血的保护作用更强,在对心脑血管疾病的防预治疗中被广泛应用;白花丹参叶中的水提物对糖尿病代谢紊乱症状的改善能够起到长期稳定的效果;另外丹参叶在治疗扁平疣、冠心病心绞痛等方面也具有较好的效果。结论:丹参和白花丹参叶均具有稳定的药理作用,但目前在抗氧化和保护脑梗塞的药理研究中仍以白花丹参叶为主,对于丹参叶的药理研究和临床应用则很少。因此对丹参叶主要化学成分进行深入的药理研究是很有必要的。%Objective:To study the pharmacological effects of chemical composition and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf, lay the foundation for the development of new drugs. Method: by referring to a large number of relevant literature, chemical constituents,pharmacological study and clinical application of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf were analyzed. Results:the antioxidant effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf has can prevent cerebral infarction better, compared with a protective effect on cerebral ischemia of the leaf is stronger, is widely used in the treatment ofcardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease prevention; Salvia miltiorrhiza bge.f.alba leaf water extract on diabetic metabolic disorder symptoms can playthe long-term stability of the effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge;in addition alsohas a good effect on the treatment of flat wart, such as coronary heart disease and angina. Conclusion: Salvia miltiorrhiza and Salvia

  19. [The teaching of pharmacology in medical schools: current status and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carranza, Rodolfo; Vidrio, Horacio; Campos-Sepúlveda, Efraín

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacology is a core course in all medical school curricula. In most medical schools, pharmacology is taught during the second year and teaching covers both basic aspects and useful drugs for the treatment of human diseases. It is assumed that relevant pharmacologic knowledge is revisited during the clinical clerkships and that students are adequately trained to prescribe drugs upon graduation. However, for many years it has been noted that pharmacological training is sometimes insufficient and that inadequate and irrational prescription of drugs is a very common problem in clinical settings. Information overload and proliferation of new drugs have been recognized as two of the major contributing factors. To address this issue, many authors have recommended the development of a core curricula in pharmacology which all students would have to complete coupled with a restricted list of drugs. Based on our own teaching experience we have identified what should constitute the core content of pharmacology courses in medical schools and have written a study guide for this discipline. Both documents provide an organizational framework to help second year medical students ascertain what part of the vast knowledge in pharmacology they need to learn. The number of drugs that students have to manage is limited to 168. Our program constitutes the first effort to medicalize the teaching of pharmacology in medical schools. We expect that most medical schools will follow our guidelines as our program is applicable to all curricula modalities.

  20. [Pharmacologic treatment of Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    Asperger syndrome is associated with various dysfunctional and problematic behaviors, in addition to the core features of communication and social skills dysfunction that define these conditions. Although there is currently no pharmacologic cure for the core features of Asperger syndrome. This article discusses the various medications for the behavioral symptoms of Asperger syndrome, which include hyperactivity, aggression, tantrums, self-injury, depression, obsession and so on. Methylphenidate, SSRIs, atypical antipsychotics and mood stabilizer were introduced.