WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical pet application

  1. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Song W.; Choi, Chang W.; Yang, Seong Dae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    PET gives various methabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 250 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 180,000,000 won. 50,000,000 won was deposited for the 1998 PET clinical research. Second year PET clinical research should be managed under unified project. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18}FDG in a day purchase of HPLC pump and {sup 68}Ga pin source which was delayed due to economic crisis, should be done early in 1998. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Clinical application of PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomena, Francisco [Hospital Clinico Villarroel, Barcelona (Spain). Nuclear Medicine]. E-mail: flomena@clinic.ub.es; Soler, Marina [CETIR Grup Medic. Esplkugues de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain). PET Unit

    2005-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging modality that gives information on tissue metabolism and functionalism, different from other imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provide anatomical or structural information. PET has reached its development in biomedical research because of its capacity to use analogous compounds of many endogenous substance as tracers, and to measure, in vivo and in a non-invasive way, their consumption by the different organs and tissues of the mammalian body. Fluorodeoxyglucose-F 18 (FDG) PET has been proven to be a tracer adequate for clinical use in oncology and in many neurological diseases, with an excellent cost-efficiency ratio. The current PET-CT scanners can come to be the best tools for exploring patients who suffer from cancer.(author)

  3. Clinical application of pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lomeña

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is an imaging modality that gives information on tissue metabolism and functionalism, different from other imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, which provide anatomical or structural information. PET has reached its development in biomedical research because of its capacity to use analogous compounds of many endogenous substance as tracers, and to measure, in vivo and in a non-invasive way, their consumption by the different organs and tissues of the mammalian body. Fluordeoxyglucose-F18 (FDG PET has been proven to be a tracer adequate for clinical use in oncology and in many neurological diseases, with an excellent cost-efficiency ratio. The current PET-CT scanners can come to be the best tools for exploring patients who suffer from cancer.A tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET é uma técnica de diagnóstico por imagem que fornece informação sobre o metabolismo e funcionamento dos tecidos, diferente de outras técnicas de imagens como tomografia computadorizada (TC e ressonância magnética (RM, as quais fornecem informações estruturais ou anatômicas. O PET alcançou seu desenvolvimento em investigação biomédica devido à sua capacidade de usar traçadores análogos a muitas substâncias endógenas e de medir in vivo e de forma não invasiva seu consumo em diferentes órgãos e tecidos dos mamíferos 18Fluordesoxiglicose (FDG PET tem provado ser uma exploração de uso clínico com excelente relação custo benefício em oncologia e em muitas doenças neurológicas. Os atuais tomógrafos por PET-CT podem chegar a ser a melhor ferramenta de diagnóstico nos pacientes que sofrem de câncer.

  4. PET/MRI. Methodology and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrio, Ignasi [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona, Hospital Sant Pau (Spain). Dept. Medicina Nuclear; Ros, Pablo (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Case, Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Provides detailed information on the methodology and equipment of MRI-PET. Covers a wide range of clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Written by an international group of experts in MRI and PET. PET/MRI is an exciting novel diagnostic imaging modality that combines the precise anatomic and physiologic information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the molecular data obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). PET/MRI offers the promise of a simplified work flow, reduced radiation, whole-body imaging with superior soft tissue contrast, and time of flight physiologic information. It has been described as the pathway to molecular imaging in medicine. In compiling this textbook, the editors have brought together a truly international group of experts in MRI and PET. The book is divided into two parts. The first part covers methodology and equipment and comprises chapters on basic molecular medicine, development of specific contrast agents, MR attenuation and validation, quantitative MRI and PET motion correction, and technical implications for both MRI and PET. The second part of the book focuses on clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Imaging of major neoplasms, including lymphomas and tumors of the breast, prostate, and head and neck, is covered in individual chapters. Further chapters address functional and metabolic cardiovascular examinations and major central nervous system applications such as brain tumors and dementias. Risks, safety aspects, and healthcare costs and impacts are also discussed. This book will be of interest to all radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians who wish to learn more about the latest developments in this important emerging imaging modality and its applications.

  5. Clinical Utility and Future Applications of PET/CT and PET/CMR in Cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jonathan A.; Salerno, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, there have been major advances in cardiovascular positron emission tomography (PET) in combination with either computed tomography (CT) or, more recently, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). These multi-modality approaches have significant potential to leverage the strengths of each modality to improve the characterization of a variety of cardiovascular diseases and to predict clinical outcomes. This review will discuss current developments and potential future uses of PET/CT and PET/CMR for cardiovascular applications, which promise to add significant incremental benefits to the data provided by each modality alone. PMID:27598207

  6. Clinical application of FDG-PET/CT in metastatic infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, I.J.E.; Vos, F.J.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.; Oyen, W.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT has proven its clinical value and cost-effectiveness in diagnosing metastatic infections in patients with Gram-positive bacteremia. In identification of metastatic foci, FDG-PET/CT is useful as a screening method when localizing symptoms are absent because it provides whole-body coverage.

  7. Resolution improvement of brain PET images using prior information from MRI: clinical application on refractory epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva-Rodríguez, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Tsoumpas, Charalampos [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Aguiar, Pablo; Cortes, Julia [Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Urdaneta, Jesus Lopez [Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2015-05-18

    An important counterpart of clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for early diagnosis of neurological diseases is its low resolution. This is particularly important when evaluating diseases related to small hypometabolisms such as epilepsy. The last years, new hybrid systems combining PET with Magnetic Resonance (MR) has been increasingly used for several different clinical applications. One of the advantages of MR is the production of high spatial resolution images and a potential application of PET-MR imaging is the improvement of PET resolution using MR information. A potential advantage of resolution recovery of PET images is the enhancement of contrast delivering at the same time better detectability of small lesions or hypometabolic areas and more accurate quantification over these areas. Recently, Shidahara et al (2009) proposed a new method using wavelet transforms in order to produce PET images with higher resolution. We optimised Shidahara’s method (SFS-RR) to take into account possible shortcomings on the particular clinical datasets, and applied it to a group of patients diagnosed with refractory epilepsy. FDG-PET and MRI images were acquired sequentially and then co-registered using software tools. A complete evaluation of the PET/MR images was performed before and after the correction, including different parameters related with PET quantification, such as atlas-based metabolism asymmetry coefficients and Statistical Parametric Mapping results comparing to a database of 87 healthy subjects. Furthermore, an experienced physician analyzed the results of non-corrected and corrected images in order to evaluate improvements of detectability on a visual inspection. Clinical outcome was used as a gold standard. SFS-RR demonstrated to have a positive impact on clinical diagnosis of small hypometabolisms. New lesions were detected providing additional clinically relevant information on the visual inspection. SPM sensitivity for the detection of small

  8. Applications of PET-CT in clinical practice: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Durval Campos [IBILI, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: dcosta@ibili.uc.pt

    2007-02-15

    Radionuclide imaging and specially positron emission tomography (PET) has already demonstrated its benefits in three major medical subjects, i.e. neurology, cardiology and particularly clinical oncology. More recently the combination of PET and X-ray computed tomography (CT) as PET-CT led to a significant increment of the already large number of clinical applications of this imaging modality. This 'anatomy-metabolic fusion' also known as Metabolic Imaging has its future assured if we can: (1) improve resolution reducing partial volume effect, (2) achieve very fast whole body imaging (3) obtain accurate quantification of specific functions with higher contrast resolution and, if possible, (4) reduce exposure rates due to the unavoidable use of ionizing radiation.

  9. Clinical evaluation of female pelvic tumors. Application fields of integrated PET/MRI; Lokal- und Ganzkoerperdiagnostik weiblicher Beckentumore. Anwendungsfelder der integrierten PET-MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueneisen, J.; Umutlu, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen, Institut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Essen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning has recently become established in clinical imaging. Various studies have demonstrated the great potential of this new hybrid imaging procedure for applications in the field of oncology and the diagnostics of inflammatory processes. With initial studies demonstrating the feasibility and high diagnostic potential of PET/MRI comparable to PET-computed tomography (CT), the focus of future studies should be on the identification of application fields with a potential diagnostic benefit of PET/MRI over other established diagnostic tools. Both MRI and PET/CT are widely used in the diagnostic algorithms for malignancies of the female pelvis. A simultaneous acquisition of PET and MRI data within a single examination provides complementary information which can be used for a more comprehensive evaluation of the primary tumor as well as for whole body staging. Therefore, the aim of this article is to outline potential clinical applications of integrated PET/MRI for the diagnostic work-up of primary or recurrent gynecological neoplasms of the female pelvis. (orig.) [German] Integrierte Positronenemissionstomographie-Magnetresonanztomographen (PET-MRT) stehen seit wenigen Jahren fuer die klinische Diagnostik zur Verfuegung. Diverse Arbeiten konnten bereits das grosse Potenzial dieser neuen hybriden Bildgebungsmodalitaet zur Anwendung in der onkologischen und inflammatorischen Diagnostik aufzeigen. Nachdem initiale Studien die Durchfuehrbarkeit und diagnostische Vergleichbarkeit der PET-MRT zur etablierten PET-Computertomographie (PET-CT) gezeigt haben, sollte fuer eine Implementierung in der Routinediagnostik der Fokus zukuenftiger Studien darin liegen, eindeutige Indikationen zu definieren, in denen die simultane PET-MRT-Bildgebung einen definitiven Vorteil verglichen mit den etablierten diagnostischen Verfahren bietet. Sowohl die MRT als auch die PET-CT finden bereits eine

  10. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Testicular Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Joon Kee [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET has a higher diagnostic accuracy than CT in initial staging of testicular cancer. In seminoma, it can discriminate residual tumor from necrosis/fibrosis or mature teratoma. {sup 18}F-FDG PET is also useful for the response evaluation of chemotherapy. However, there's no clinical evidence for the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of testicular cancer.

  11. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Alzheimer's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    PET of the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose is increasingly used to support the clinical diagnosis in the examination of patients with suspected major neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance, especially, very high sensitivity in the diagnosis and clinical assessment of therapeutic efficacy. According to clinical research data hitherto, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in early and differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Since 2004, Medicare covers {sup 18}F-FDG PET scans for the differential diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) under specific requirements; or, its use in a CMS approved practical clinical trial focused on the utility of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in the diagnosis or treatment of dementing neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Salivary Gland Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, You Jung [East-West Neo Medical Center, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Salivary gland tumors are relatively rare, constituting 3% of all head and neck neoplasms. In patients with salivary gland malignancies, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is clinically useful in initial staging, histologic grading, and monitoring after treatment. According to clinical research data hitherto, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in the management of salivary gland tumors.

  13. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeng, Jin Chul [Seoul national University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. In diagnostic assessment of neuroblastoma, {sup 18}F-FDG PET has been reported to have high diagnostic performance, especially, very high sensitivity in staging, restaging, and assessment of therapeutic efficacy. In comparison with conventional diagnostic imaging modalities including CT, bone scan, and MIBG scan, 18F-FDG PET showed better diagnostic performance. According to clinical research data hitherto, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be an effective diagnostic tool in the management of neuroblastoma.

  14. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Wilms Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seok, Ju Won [College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Wilms Tumor is a great therapeutic success story within pediatric oncology. Therefore, accurate initial staging is needed to assess tumor spread and to assign patients appropriately to the different risk branches. However, it is recognized that FDG-PET can provide useful information about tumor and has better accuracy than CT and MRI for staging, but its role in Wilms tumor is unclear. According to clinical research data, FDG PET may be useful for the management of selected patients with Wilms tumors.

  15. 基于文献计量法的我国PET-CT临床应用现状研究%A study on clinical application of PET-CT in China batted on biblioMetrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟开; 马云川; 陈东红; 熊杰明; 莫陶欣; 王秋樵; 李佳根

    2013-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study was to promote the clinical application of PET-CT and scientific research,and to realize the clinical application of PET-CT in China.Methods:By using the method of bibliometric,2 528 articles were retrieved by the key words of "PET-CT" or the title of "PET-CT" in CNKI since CNKI was built to February 2013.We carried out statistical analysis based on literature database.Results:The numbers of PET-CT clinical application article and scientific research were increasing year by year,the number of articles in PET-CT of tumor was the largest(1 651 articles,65.4%),the number of articles in PET-CT of lung cancer and gynecological tumor,head and neck neoplasms was the top three.Conclusions:The increase of the number of PET-CT articles is connected with the increase of the number of medical equipment and the regional distribution,PET-CT in clinical application and research in our country presents imbalance,we suggest that PET-CT in clinical application should be developed.%目的:掌握我国PET-CT临床应用现状,为促进PET-CT的临床应用和科学研究提供建议和参考.方法:本研究运用文献计量法,以“PET-CT”为关键词或以“PET-CT"为篇名,在CNKI中国知网上检索出建库以来至2013年2月20日的文献2 528篇,在形成文献数据库的基础上进行计量统计分析.结果:PET-CT临床应用的文章数量和资助课题数量逐年增加,应用于肿瘤领域的文章数量最多(1651篇,占65.4%),其中肺部肿瘤、妇科肿瘤和头颈部肿瘤的文章数量居前3位.结论:PET-CT文章数量的增加与该医疗设备数量的增加及地域分布有关,PET-CT在我国的临床应用及研究呈现出不均衡状态,建议开拓更广泛的PET-CT应用领域.

  16. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Bae, Jin Ho [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common type of human cancer worldwide. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the head and neck. Since {sup 18}F-FDG PET is very sensitive to detecting squamous cell carcinoma, it has been widely used in patients with head and neck cancers for initial staging, management of recurrent cancers, and therapeutic monitoring. According to clinical research data, {sup 18}F-FDG PET is expected to be a very helpful diagnostic tool in the management of head and neck cancer.

  17. Clinical Application of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Il Ki [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Primary brain tumor accounts for 1.4% of entire cancer. For males between the ages of 15 and 34 years, central nervous system tumors account for the leading cause of cancer death. 18F-FDG PET has been reported that it can provide important diagnostic information relating to tumor grading and differentiation from non- tumorous condition. In addition, the degree of FDG metabolism carries prognostic significance. By mapping the metabolic pattern of heterogeneous tumors, 18F-FDG PET can aid in targeting for stereotactic biopsy by selecting the subregions within the tumor that are most hypermetabolic and potentially have the highest grade. According to clinical research data, FDG PET is expected to be a helpful diagnostic tool in the management of brain tumors.

  18. 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET in neuroendocrine tumors : Basic aspects and emerging clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Pieter L.; Chirakal, Raman; Marriott, Christopher J.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET has emerged as a new diagnostic tool for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. This application is based on the unique property of neuroendocrine tumors to produce and secrete various substances, a process that requires the upt

  19. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: I. Concept, acquisition protocol optimization and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A; Lodge, Martin A; Tahari, Abdel K; Zhou, Y; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-21

    Static whole-body PET/CT, employing the standardized uptake value (SUV), is considered the standard clinical approach to diagnosis and treatment response monitoring for a wide range of oncologic malignancies. Alternative PET protocols involving dynamic acquisition of temporal images have been implemented in the research setting, allowing quantification of tracer dynamics, an important capability for tumor characterization and treatment response monitoring. Nonetheless, dynamic protocols have been confined to single-bed-coverage limiting the axial field-of-view to ~15-20 cm, and have not been translated to the routine clinical context of whole-body PET imaging for the inspection of disseminated disease. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. We investigate solutions to address the challenges of: (i) long acquisitions, (ii) small number of dynamic frames per bed, and (iii) non-invasive quantification of kinetics in the plasma. In the present study, a novel dynamic (4D) whole-body PET acquisition protocol of ~45 min total length is presented, composed of (i) an initial 6 min dynamic PET scan (24 frames) over the heart, followed by (ii) a sequence of multi-pass multi-bed PET scans (six passes × seven bed positions, each scanned for 45 s). Standard Patlak linear graphical analysis modeling was employed, coupled with image-derived plasma input function measurements. Ordinary least squares Patlak estimation was used as the baseline regression method to quantify the physiological parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V on an individual voxel basis. Extensive Monte Carlo simulation studies, using a wide set of published kinetic FDG parameters and GATE and XCAT platforms, were conducted to optimize the acquisition protocol from a range of ten different clinically

  20. Medical application of PET technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  1. 乳腺专用PET临床初步应用%The preliminary clinical application of MAMMI dedicated breast PET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓; 姚之丰; 张勇平; 章英剑; 胡四龙; 程竞仪; 杨忠毅; 刘帅; 刘芮; 孙艺斐; 王思阳; 刘畅

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the preliminary clinical application value of MAMMI dedicated breast PET.Methods:A total of 76 patients with positive breast lesions on whole-body18F-lfuorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT or suspicious occult breast cancer voluntarily underwent MAMMI PET in prone position after whole-body18F-FDG PET/CT. The maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were compared according to lesion size, ultrasound grading and molecular subtype of breast cancer. Results:MAMMI PET visualized 63 lesions in 48 patients with speciifc pathologic diagnosis. The smallest lesion was 0.3 cm indiameter. Malignant lesions were classiifed into 3 groups based on diameter as follows: grade 1, 1 cm or smaller; grade 2, 1 to 2 cm; and grad 3, larger than 2 cm. The mean values of SUVmax of them were 4.58 ±2.01, 7.51 ±3.10 and 11.27±5.29, respectively, and there were signiifcant differences in SUVmax through pairwise comparison (P2 cm时,SUVmax平均值分别为4.58±2.01、7.51±3.10和11.27±5.29,两两比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01或P<0.05);乳腺影像报告和数据系统(BI-RADS)4级与5级之间SUVmax差异也有统计学意义(P<0.05);各分子亚型之间SUVmax差异无统计学意义。结论:乳腺专用PET对探测乳腺小病灶、多中心、多原发病灶具有很好的临床应用价值。

  2. PET and PET/CT in clinical cardiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Cardiac PET emerged as a powerful tool that allowed in vivo quantification of physiologic processes including myocardial perfusion and metabolism, as well as neuronal and receptor function for more than 25 years. Now PET imaging has been playing an important role in the clinical evaluation of patients with known or suspected ischemic heart disease. This important clinical role is expected to grow with the availability of PET/CT scanner that allow a true integration of structure and function. The objective of this review is to provide and update on the current and future role of PET in clinical cardiology with a special eye on the great opportunities now offered by PET/CT.

  3. Advances in Clinical PET/MRI Instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Hans; Lerche, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the first whole-body PET/MRI scanners installed for clinical use were the sequential Philips PET/MRI with PMT-based, TOF-capable technology and the integrated simultaneous Siemens PET/MRI. Avalanche photodiodes as non-magneto-sensitive readout electronics allowed PET integrated within the MRI. The experiences with these scanners showed that improvements of software aspects, such as attenuation correction, were necessary and that efficient protocols combining optimally PET and MRI must be still developed. In 2014, General Electric issued an integrated PET/MRI with SiPM-based PET detectors, allowing TOF-PET. Looking at the MRI components of current PET/MR imaging systems, primary improvements come from sequences and new coils.

  4. (18)F-FDG PET/CT quantification in head and neck squamous cell cancer: principles, technical issues and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Gianpiero; Vanzi, Eleonora; Rubello, Domenico; Giammarile, Francesco; Grassetto, Gaia; Wong, Ka Kit; Perkins, Alan C; Colletti, Patrick M; Volterrani, Duccio

    2016-07-01

    (18)F-FDG PET/CT plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The major clinical applications of this method include diagnosing an unknown primary tumour, identifying regional lymph node involvement and distant metastases, and providing prognostic information. (18)F-FDG PET/CT is also used for precise delineation of the tumour volume for radiation therapy planning and dose painting, and for treatment response monitoring, by detecting residual or recurrent disease. Most of these applications would benefit from a quantitative approach to the disease, but the quantitative capability of (18)F-FDG PET/CT is still underused in HNSCC. Innovations in PET/CT technology promise to overcome the issues that until now have hindered the employment of dynamic procedures in clinical practice and have limited "quantification" to the evaluation of standardized uptake values (SUV), de facto a semiquantitative parameter, the limits of which are well known to the nuclear medicine community. In this paper the principles of quantitative imaging and the related technical issues are reviewed so that professionals involved in HNSCC management can reflect on the advantages of "true" quantification. A discussion is then presented on how semiquantitative information is currently used in clinical (18)F-FDG PET/CT applications in HNSCC, by discussing the improvements that could be obtained with more advanced and "personalized" quantification techniques.

  5. Initial results and clinical application of non dedicated 18-FDG/PET in head and neck oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Luiz Mauricio; Priante, Antonio Vitor; Carvalho, Andre Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia do Pescoco e da Cabeca]. E-mail: lp_kowalski@uol.com.br; Torres, Ivone Goncalves; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia

    2005-07-01

    Imaging procedures are important methods for proper stage and treatment planning. Especially in previously treated patients, although not perfectly accurate. PET scan is a functional and imaging technique that has been used to diagnose and stage recurrent cancer from different sites. The combination of computed tomography coupled with FDG-PET (18-FDG-PET/CT) reaches high quality anatomical and functional images. Objective: to describe the initial results of FDG-PET/CT performed at a single institution. Material and methods: this technique was used in 63 patients with head and neck tumors. The purposes of the exam were to rule out recurrent disease - 55 patients; to search for hidden primary tumor - 2 patients; and postoperative follow-up of residual disease - 6 patients. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 56 cases (88.9%). Pathological confirmation was obtained in 24 cases (38.1%), all the remaining cases were considered negative based on clinical follow-up information with no evidence of recurrent disease 12 months after the PET/CT exam. Results: overall results for the accuracy of FDG-PET were: 93.9% of sensitivity, 64.2% of specificity, 75.6% of positive predictive value and 90.0% of negative predictive value. FDG-PET was able to find 1 out of 2 undetected primary tumors (base of the tongue). The best results were obtained regarding the detection of local and distant recurrences of larynx, thyroid and oral cavity cancers. Conclusion: the FDG-PET/CT fusion image makes anatomical localization easier and the accuracy for detection of recurrent disease was found to be higher than CT alone. (author)

  6. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT quantification in head and neck squamous cell cancer: principles, technical issues and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, Gianpiero; Volterrani, Duccio [University Hospital of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Vanzi, Eleonora [University Hospital of Siena, Service of Medical Physics, Siena (Italy); Rubello, Domenico; Grassetto, Gaia [Santa Maria della Misericordia Rovigo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rovigo (Italy); Giammarile, Francesco [Faculte Charles Merieux, Medecine Nucleaire, Centre Hospitalier and Biophysique, Lyon (France); Wong, Ka Kit [University of Michigan Hospital, Nuclear Medicine/Radiology Department, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nuclear Medicine Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Perkins, Alan C. [University of Nottingham, Department of Radiological Sciences, School of Medicine, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Colletti, Patrick M. [Southern University of California, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and management of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). The major clinical applications of this method include diagnosing an unknown primary tumour, identifying regional lymph node involvement and distant metastases, and providing prognostic information. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is also used for precise delineation of the tumour volume for radiation therapy planning and dose painting, and for treatment response monitoring, by detecting residual or recurrent disease. Most of these applications would benefit from a quantitative approach to the disease, but the quantitative capability of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT is still underused in HNSCC. Innovations in PET/CT technology promise to overcome the issues that until now have hindered the employment of dynamic procedures in clinical practice and have limited ''quantification'' to the evaluation of standardized uptake values (SUV), de facto a semiquantitative parameter, the limits of which are well known to the nuclear medicine community. In this paper the principles of quantitative imaging and the related technical issues are reviewed so that professionals involved in HNSCC management can reflect on the advantages of ''true'' quantification. A discussion is then presented on how semiquantitative information is currently used in clinical {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT applications in HNSCC, by discussing the improvements that could be obtained with more advanced and ''personalized'' quantification techniques. (orig.)

  7. Clinical FDG PET CT in the Investigation of Suspected Inflammatory and Infective Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenz, Eleanor; Wig, Surabhi; Prakash, Vineet

    PURPOSE          F18 FDG PET CT is an established molecular imaging technique most commonly used in the diagnosis and staging of oncological conditions. A rapidly growing clinical application of PET CT is in the investigation of inflammatory and infectious diseases. A review of PET CT scans perfo...

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and breast cancer in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, Robert [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France)], E-mail: cab.lav@wanadoo.fr; Cabee, Anne-Elizabeth [Centre d' Imagerie Paris-Nord, 1, avenue Charles Peguy, 95200 Sarcelles (France); Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); Centre RMX, 80, avenue Felix Faure, 75105 Paris (France); Filmont, Jean-Emmanuel [Institut du Sein Henri Hartmann (ISHH), 1, rue des Dames Augustines, 92200 Neuilly sur Seine (France); American Hospital of Paris, Nuclear Medicine, 63, boulevard Victor Hugo - BP 109, 92202 Neuilly sur Seine Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15

    The landscape of oncologic practice has changed deeply during the past few years and there is now a need, through a multidisciplinary approach, for imaging to provide accurate evaluation of morphology and function and to guide treatment (Image Guided Therapy). Increasing emphasis has been put on Position Emission Tomography (PET) role in various cancers among clinicians and patients despite a general context of healthcare expenditure limitation. Positron Emission Tomography has currently a limited role in breast cancer, but also general radiologists and specialists should be aware of these indications, especially when staging aggressive cancers and looking for recurrence. Currently, the hybrid systems associating PET and Computed Tomography (CT) and in the same device [Rohren EM, Turkington TG, Coleman RE. Clinical applications of PET in oncology. Radiology 2004;231:305-32; Blodgett TM, Meltzer CM, Townsend DW. PET/CT: form and function. Radiology 2007;242:360-85; von Schulthess GK, Steinert HC, Hany TF. Integrated PET/CT: current applications and futures directions. Radiology 2006;238(2):405-22], or PET-CT, are more commonly used and the two techniques are adding their potentialities. Other techniques, MRI in particular, may also compete with PET in some instance and as far as ionizing radiations dose limitation is considered, some breast cancers becoming some form of a chronic disease. Breast cancer is a very complex, non-uniform, disease and molecular imaging at large may contribute to a better knowledge and to new drugs development. Ongoing research, Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) and new tracers, are likely to bring improvements in patient care [Kelloff GJ, Hoffman JM, Johnson B, et al. Progress and promise of FDG-PET Imaging for cancer patient management and oncologic drug development. Clin Cancer Res 2005;1(April (8)): 2005].

  9. PET-CT在乳腺癌术前诊断与分期中的临床应用%The clinical application of PET-CT in preoperative diagnosing and staging for breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪世存; 方雷; 潘博; 展凤麟; 谢强; 谢吉奎

    2011-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the clinical application of PET-CT in preoperative diagnosing and staging for breast cancer. Methods The 56 patients who were presumed by clinical manifestation and physical examination as breast cancer in our hospital underwent PET-CT examination which included primary breast lesion , area lymphaden and other organs of the whole body. After complete routine scanning , we should rescan breast by particular scanning mode and carry out PET projection collection and CT thin slice scanning. Then, both the results of PET-CT examination should be analyzed and contrasted with pathology results of after operation or paracentesis. Results There were 4 cases of Phase Ⅰ ,31 cases of phase Ⅱ .6 cases of phase Ⅲ were and 15 cases of phase Ⅳ in 56 patients. In the 35 cases of.there were 34 cases of Axillary lymph nodes metastasis .4 cases of homonymy internal mammary lymph nodes metastasis and 1 case of supraclavicular lymph nodes metastasis. Meanwhile.in the 21 cases of phase JII ancl lV .there were 8 cases of pulmonary metastasis.8 cases of hepatic metastasis , bony 11 cases of metastasis( including 5 cases of osteogenesis and 6 cases of mixed type) and 1 case of brain metastases.The pathology results of afteroperation or paracentesis can prompt that there were 2 cases of carcinoma in situ.21 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ with local micro invasion.33 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma and 31 cases of axillary lymph nodes metastasis( 31/34) . The diagnostic accuracy was 91. 2% . Conclusion PET-CT imaging has higher sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing breast cancer, especially in diagnosing area lymphaden and metastasis ,which can guide us to choose therapy way%目的 探讨PET-CT在乳腺癌术前诊断与分期中的临床价值.方法 对该院临床表现和体格检查提示为乳腺癌的56例患者行PET-CT检查,检查范围包括乳腺癌原发病灶、区域淋巴结及全身脏器;完成常规扫描后,再应用特殊的乳腺扫

  10. Types and clinical application of PET apparatus%PET显像仪的类型及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翼; 马黎明

    2006-01-01

    近几年来,核医学PET显像发展迅速,在临床应用中发挥着越来越重要的作用.目前,PET显像仪共有三种类型:专用型PET(dedicated PET)、混合型PET(hybrid PET)和组合型PET(combined PET).PET与CT组合即PET-CT,不仅能反映人体解剖结构改变,更重要的是可以提供体内功能代谢信息,从分子水平揭示疾病发病机理和治疗效应,是临床诊断心脑疾病和肿瘤的重要手段.PET-CT临床应用十分广泛,尤其是在肿瘤、神经系统、心血管系统等病变的临床应用方面具有其独特的功能和作用.

  11. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  13. Joint PET-MR respiratory motion models for clinical PET motion correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian F.; Wan, Simon; McClelland, Jamie; Barnes, Anna; Arridge, Simon; Ourselin, Sébastien; Atkinson, David

    2016-09-01

    Patient motion due to respiration can lead to artefacts and blurring in positron emission tomography (PET) images, in addition to quantification errors. The integration of PET with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in PET-MR scanners provides complementary clinical information, and allows the use of high spatial resolution and high contrast MR images to monitor and correct motion-corrupted PET data. In this paper we build on previous work to form a methodology for respiratory motion correction of PET data, and show it can improve PET image quality whilst having minimal impact on clinical PET-MR protocols. We introduce a joint PET-MR motion model, using only 1 min per PET bed position of simultaneously acquired PET and MR data to provide a respiratory motion correspondence model that captures inter-cycle and intra-cycle breathing variations. In the model setup, 2D multi-slice MR provides the dynamic imaging component, and PET data, via low spatial resolution framing and principal component analysis, provides the model surrogate. We evaluate different motion models (1D and 2D linear, and 1D and 2D polynomial) by computing model-fit and model-prediction errors on dynamic MR images on a data set of 45 patients. Finally we apply the motion model methodology to 5 clinical PET-MR oncology patient datasets. Qualitative PET reconstruction improvements and artefact reduction are assessed with visual analysis, and quantitative improvements are calculated using standardised uptake value (SUVpeak and SUVmax) changes in avid lesions. We demonstrate the capability of a joint PET-MR motion model to predict respiratory motion by showing significantly improved image quality of PET data acquired before the motion model data. The method can be used to incorporate motion into the reconstruction of any length of PET acquisition, with only 1 min of extra scan time, and with no external hardware required.

  14. TOF PET offset calibration from clinical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a timing calibration technique for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) that eliminates the need for a specialized data acquisition. By eliminating the acquisition, the process becomes fully automated, and can be performed with any clinical data set and whenever computing resources are available. It also can be applied retroactively to datasets for which a TOF offset calibration is missing or suboptimal. Since the method can use an arbitrary data set to perform a calibration prior to a TOF reconstruction, possibly of the same data set, one also can view this as reconstruction from uncalibrated data. We present a performance comparison with existing calibration techniques.

  15. Pediatric oncologic imaging. A key application of combined PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatidis, Sergios; La Fougere, C.; Schaefer, J.F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2016-04-15

    Pediatric imaging has been identified as a key application of combined whole-body PET/MRI. First studies have revealed the clinical feasibility and possible advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT and MRI. Besides a significant reduction in radiation exposure of about 50 - 75 %, combined whole-body PET/MRI offers the diagnostic advantage of the multiparametric characterization of pathophysiologic processes and helps reduce the number of necessary imaging studies. However, very few studies focusing on pediatric PET/MRI have been published to date. Additional studies are necessary in order to fully appreciate the clinical impact of this novel method. This review article shall summarize the existing literature concerning pediatric PET/MRI and give insight into the practical experience derived from over 160 pediatric PET/MRI examinations that were performed in Tuebingen.

  16. Clinical application of /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO for cerebral blood flow imaging by SPECT. Comparison with cerebral blood flow study by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inugami, Atsushi; Uemura, Kazuo; Shishido, Fumio; Tomura, Noriaki; Higano, Shuichi; Fujita, Hideaki; Kanno, Iwao

    1988-02-01

    Recently, a new tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF) study; /sup 99m/Tc-labelled-hexamethyl-propyleneamine-oxime (/sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO) was developed by Amersham international institute. In this paper, we reported the initial experience of tomographic CBF imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO in the comparison of CBF study using positron CT (PET) and 0 approx. 15 labelled CO/sub 2/. Thirty-nine patients with cerebro-vascular disease were examined mainly in the acute phase. All the subjects showed verious disturbances of CBF, which corresponded well to the PET study. However, the image-contrast with /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO were inferior to those of the PET study. /sup 99m/Tc-HM-PAO is considered to a good radiopharmaceutical which is readily applicable to eaven an emergency cases.

  17. Clinical application of ~(18)F-FDG PET/CT in the staging of esophageal carcinoma%~(18)F-FDG PET/CT显像在食管癌分期中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娟; 吴湖炳; 王全师; 王明芳; 周文兰; 李洪生

    2009-01-01

    对30例食管癌初诊患者于手术或放化疗前一周内进行~(18)F-FDG PET/CT检查,将15例手术治疗患者的130枚区域淋巴结的PET/CT结果与病理学检查相比较.所有患者的远处转移灶及15例非手术治疗患者的区域淋巴结转移根据活组织病理学检查、多种影像学检查临床随访而定,随访时间均大于6个月.结果显示:30例食管癌患者,原发病灶~(18)F-FDG PET/CT均为高代谢病灶(100%),病灶界限显示清晰.以患者为单位计算,30例食管癌患者,20例(66.7%)证实有区域淋巴结转移,~(18)F-FDG PET/CT真阳性18例,假阳性2例,假阴性2例,诊断的灵敏度、特异性和准确性分别为90.0%、80.0%、86.7%.以淋巴结为单位计算,在15例手术治疗患者的共130枚淋巴结中,病理学检查证实为淋巴结转移33枚(25.4%),PET/CT真阳性23枚.~(18)F-FDG PET/CT对区域淋巴结转移诊断的灵敏度、特异性及准确性分别为69.7%、97.9%、90.8%.检出远处转移4例(13.3%),分布于肝脏、肺及骨骼.30例PET/CT显像后,16例提高了临床分期;1例降低了临床分期;13例与~(18)F-FDG PET/CT显像前的临床分期一致.%PET/CT scan was performed for 30 newly diagnosed esophageal carcinoma patients within the week before operation and radio- and/or chemo-therapy. The diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma was established according to the histopathology examination. In 15 patients with operation, the findings of PET/CT of 130 regional lymph nodes were compared with the histopathology examination. The distant metastasis of all patients and the regional lymph node metastasis of 15 patients without operation were diagnosed by the pathological examination, other imaging findings or/and clinical follow up for over 6 months. The results show that all the primary lesions had very intense ~(18)F-FDG uptake. The sensitivity of PET/CT was 100%. The lymph nodes metastasis was proved in 20 patients (66.7%). PET/CT was true positive in 18 patients, false

  18. Cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and their clinical use at the Austin PET Centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon-Danguy, H.J. [Centre for PET, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre

    1997-12-31

    A Centre for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has been established within the Department of Nuclear Medicine at the Austin and Repatriation Medical Centre in Melbourne. PET is a non-invasive technique based on the use of biologically relevant compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18. The basic equipment consists of a medical cyclotron (10 MeV proton and 5 MeV deuteron), six lead-shielded hot cells with associated radiochemistry facilities and a whole body PET scanner. During its first five years of operation, the Melbourne PET Centre, has pursued a strong radiolabelling development program, leading to an ambitious clinical program in neurology, oncology and cardiology. This presentation will describe the basic principles of the PET technique and review the cyclotron-produced radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. Radiolabelling development programs and clinical applications are also addressed. 30 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  19. Clinical evaluation of 4D PET motion compensation strategies for treatment verification in ion beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Chiara; Kurz, Christopher; Riboldi, Marco; Bauer, Julia; Fontana, Giulia; Baroni, Guido; Debus, Jürgen; Parodi, Katia

    2016-06-01

    A clinical trial named PROMETHEUS is currently ongoing for inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT, Germany). In this framework, 4D PET-CT datasets are acquired shortly after the therapeutic treatment to compare the irradiation induced PET image with a Monte Carlo PET prediction resulting from the simulation of treatment delivery. The extremely low count statistics of this measured PET image represents a major limitation of this technique, especially in presence of target motion. The purpose of the study is to investigate two different 4D PET motion compensation strategies towards the recovery of the whole count statistics for improved image quality of the 4D PET-CT datasets for PET-based treatment verification. The well-known 4D-MLEM reconstruction algorithm, embedding the motion compensation in the reconstruction process of 4D PET sinograms, was compared to a recently proposed pre-reconstruction motion compensation strategy, which operates in sinogram domain by applying the motion compensation to the 4D PET sinograms. With reference to phantom and patient datasets, advantages and drawbacks of the two 4D PET motion compensation strategies were identified. The 4D-MLEM algorithm was strongly affected by inverse inconsistency of the motion model but demonstrated the capability to mitigate the noise-break-up effects. Conversely, the pre-reconstruction warping showed less sensitivity to inverse inconsistency but also more noise in the reconstructed images. The comparison was performed by relying on quantification of PET activity and ion range difference, typically yielding similar results. The study demonstrated that treatment verification of moving targets could be accomplished by relying on the whole count statistics image quality, as obtained from the application of 4D PET motion compensation strategies. In particular, the pre-reconstruction warping was shown to represent a promising choice when combined with intra

  20. Clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in detecting residual lesions or recurrence foci'of hepatocellular carcinoma after TACE treatment%18F-FDG PET/CT显像在肝细胞癌TACE术后残留或复发病灶检出中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辽河; 胡晓燕; 李杰; 丁久荣; 邱大胜; 张建廷; 魏崇健

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in detecting residual lesions or recurrence foci of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). Methods Twenty-three patients with residual lesions or recurrence foci of HCC underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging within 1.5-7 months after TACE treatment. After 7 days DSA and interventional therapy were performed in all these patients. The findings of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were compared with the results of DSA. Taking the results of DSA as gold standard, the lesion-detecting sensitivity and specificity of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging were analyzed and compared with those of DSA. Results 18F-FDG PET/CT and DSA were performed in all cases. DSA demonstrated 46 residual lesions and recurrent foci of HCC, while PET/CT imaging revealed 45 residual lesions and recurrent foci of HCC. Taking the results of DSA as reference standard, the lesion-detecting sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 18F-FDG PET/CT were 97.8%, 100% and 97.9%, respectively. The differences in lesion - detecting sensitivity, specificity and accuracy between DSA and 18F-FDG PET/CT were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The DSA findings were strongly consistent with 18F -FDG PET/CT results (k = 0.657, P = 0.000). Moreover, 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging disclosed extra -hepatic metastases in 3 cases,including metastasis of both lungs (n = 1), metastasis of lymph nodes in right adrenal gland, hepatic hilum as well as in retroperitoneal region (n - 1), and metastasis of left iliac bone (n = 1). Conclusion The residual lesions or recurrence foci of HCC after TACE treatment can be clearly and directly displayed on 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging. Besides, 18F - FDG PET/CT whole body imaging appears to be a most effective method for the detection of distant metastasis, which can be used for making a comprehensive evaluation of the patient's condition. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging is also very helpful in drawing up

  1. PET-Based Personalized Management in Clinical Oncology: An Unavoidable Path for the Foreseeable Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sandip; Alavi, Abass

    2016-07-01

    It is imperative that the thrust of clinical practice in the ensuing years would be to develop personalized management model for various disorders. PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) based molecular functional imaging has been increasingly utilized for assessment of tumor and other nonmalignant disorders and has the ability to explore disease phenotype on an individual basis and address critical clinical decision making questions related to practice of personalized medicine. Hence, it is essential to make a concerted systematic effort to explore and define the appropriate place of PET-CT in personalized clinical practice in each of malignancies, which would strengthen the concept further. The potential advantages of PET based disease management can be classified into broad categories: (1) Traditional: which includes assessment of disease extent such as initial disease staging and restaging, treatment response evaluation particularly early in the course and thus PET-CT response adaptive decision for continuing the same regimen or switching to salvage schedules; there has been continuous addition of newer application of PET based disease restaging in oncological parlance (eg, Richter transformation); (2) Recent and emerging developments: this includes exploring tumor biology with FDG and non-FDG PET tracers. The potential of multitracer PET imaging (particularly new and novel tracers, eg, 68Ga-DOTA-TOC/NOC/TATE in NET, 68Ga-PSMA and 18F-fluorocholine in prostate carcinoma, 18F-fluoroestradiol in breast carcinoma) has provided a scientific basis to stratify and select appropriate targeted therapies (both radionuclide and nonradionuclide treatment), a major boost for individualized disease management in clinical oncology. Integrating the molecular level information obtained from PET with structural imaging further individualizing treatment plan in radiation oncology, precision of interventions and biopsies of a particular lesion and forecasting disease prognosis.

  2. PET-CT工作原理及应用%Principle and application of PET-CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀文; 张永寿; 刘乃智

    2012-01-01

    Objective: PET-CT is to use to achieve image fusion of PET and CT in the same machine, is functional imaging equipment. With the rapid spread of its application, it goes beyond the existing areas of PET alone and separate CT for medical research and clinical diagnostics, it provides a great convenience. Methods: PET is deferent with CT in the imaging principle, the combination of these two equipment can get the image of anatomical structure, abundant physiological and biochemical functions. It can provide the quantitative, qualitative diagnostic basis for the identify and locate the precise location of tumors. Results: PET-CT fusion images can be used to describe the role of disease on the biochemical processes, identify physiological and pathological uptake. It can detect the early onset of signs of disease anatomical evidence and even very small subclinical tumor correctly. It has an important value in determining the clinical radiotherapy planning target volume, the detection process of treatment drugs and radiation effects to provide the best treatment options to improve the clinical cure rate. Conclusion: The work is in good condition or not determines by the maintenance. Firstly we should clear the equipment requirements of the environment in the process of routine maintenance carefully. Maintain equipment environment requires qualified engineering and technical personnel familiar with every aspect of the usually diligent maintenance, did not miss any possible hazards to more good to ensure that the operation of the equipment.%目的:PET-CT实现了同机图像融合,是一种功能性医学影像学设备,通过了解其工作原理,掌握设备的日常维护方法,为医学研究和临床诊断提供便利.方法:分别介绍PET与CT两种设备同机组合的不同成像原理以及设备应用时对环境的要求.结果:了解PET-CT的工作原理,掌握一般维护保养项目和方法,使PET-CT融合影像为临床正确确定放疗的计划靶区、

  3. The application of PET imaging in psychoneuroimmunology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannestad, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a research tool that allows in vivo measurements of brain metabolism and specific target molecules. PET imaging can be used to measure these brain variables in a variety of species, including human and non-human primates, and rodents. PET imaging can therefore be combined with various experimental and clinical model systems that are commonly used in psychoneuroimmunology research.

  4. PET: the importance of physicists for the clinical arena

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    David Townsend giving a seminar at CERN on 9 February. The past few years have seen significant advances in the development of instrumentation for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The recent appearance of combined PET and Computed Tomography (CT) scanners that can simultaneously image both anatomy and function is of particular importance. This was the main subject of "Advances in PET imaging: from physics to physician", a seminar presented at CERN by David Townsend on Wednesday 9 February  and organized by the TT and PH groups. David Townsend, who started his career at CERN in the 1970s, is now Professor at the Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center (Knoxville, TN). Recipient of the 2004 Clinical Scientist of the Year Award, he is an internationally renowned researcher and PET physicist, with over 25 years of experience in the field. His 1999 image of the year, an award from the Society of Nuclear Medicine in the US, was produced using a combined state-of-the art PET and a true d...

  5. Clinical relevance of molecular diagnosis in pet allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, S A; Sastre, J

    2016-07-01

    We describe the pattern of sensitisation to pet IgE components and its association with clinical symptoms. Hundred and fifty nine consecutive patients with rhinitis/asthma sensitised to dog, cat, and horse were recruited. Specific IgE to whole extracts and to pet recombinant allergens were performed. Only 5% of patients were monosensitised to animal allergens. Specific IgE to Can f 1 was significantly associated with persistent rhinitis, Can f 2 with asthma diagnosis, Can f 3 with moderate/severe rhinitis (M/S-R) and asthma diagnosis (AD), and Can f 5 with persistent and M/S-R. Positive IgE to Fel d 2 was significantly associated with M/S-R and AD, Equ c 1 with M/S-R and Equ c 3 with persistent rhinitis, AD and severe asthma. Sensitisation to ≥2 molecules or to pet albumins was associated with more severe respiratory symptoms. Molecular diagnosis in patients with pet allergy may also help clinicians to predict clinical symptoms and their severity.

  6. Clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosis of multiple myeloma%18F-FDG PET/CT在诊断多发性骨髓瘤中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭烽; 赵文锐; 川玲; 梁英魁; 王升; 雷霄

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of 18F-FDG PET/CT for multiple myeloma (MM) and to explore the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of MM. Methods 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging findings were retrospectively analyzed in 19 patients with MM proved by bone marrow aspiration biopsy. SUVmeam of those lesions were measured. Results All patients suffered from multiple lesions in bone. A total of 221 lesions(about 85.3% of all lesions) were found by CT, which showed as punched out or bubbly lytic destructions of bone. All lesions were mostly found in none marrow of axial skeleton, and rarely formed soft tissue masses and extr-amedullary organ involvement. A total of 198 lesions(about 76.4% ) in bone got focal 1SF-FDG uptake increasing in PET and SUVmeam was 3.1 ±1.4(1.3 -7.4). PET of the lesions with hvpermetabolism were generally matched with CT results, but not matched completely in some lesions. Characteristics of PET/CT images were categorized into three types: ①Multiple bone destructions were shown by CT in partial patients, which mismatched with the hvpermetabolism lesions by PET. ②Some lesions were found with hyperme-tabolism by PET, but no bone destructions in CT. ③The bone destructions combined with soft tissue mass with hypermetabolism in PET were similar to CT results. Two patients with negative results by routine bone marrow aspiration were proved as MM by bone marrow biopsy guided by PET/CT. Conclusion. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging has an important value in diagnosing MM. Bone marrow aspiration biopsy guided by "F-FDG PET/CT can improve the diagnostic sensitivity, especially in those false-negative patients.%目的 分析多发性骨髓瘤的PET/CT表现,探讨其在诊断多发性骨髓瘤中的作用. 方法 19例经骨髓穿刺活检证实为多发性骨髓瘤患者,均行全身PET/CT检查,分析影像形态、功能代谢的特点,并测量平均标准摄取值(SUVmean). 结果 19例患者均表现为全身多发骨病变.CT共检出病灶221

  7. Application of PET/SPECT imaging in vascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, M. G.; Meerwaidt, R.; Slart, R. H. J. A.; van Dam, G. M.; Tio, R. A.; Zeebregts, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Nuclear medicine imaging differs from other imaging modalities by showing physiological processes instead of anatomical details. Objective. To describe the current applications of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as a diagnostic to

  8. Main Technical Parameters and Clinical Application of Biograph 64 True Point PET/CT%Biograph 64 TruePoint PET/CT的主要技术参数及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培秀; 王国军; 张俊权; 姜杉

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT设备的基本结构、主要参数及其在肿瘤系统、心血管系统和神经系统中的临床应用价值进行了简要介绍.64层PET/CT在冠心病诊断和治疗指导中具有特别的意义,它可将F-FDG的PET心肌代谢与64层CT冠脉成像同机同时进行,确定心肌活性及供血冠状动脉分布,时治疗方案的选择起决定性作用.

  9. Development and experimental medicine applications of PET in oncology: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry; Price, Pat

    2012-03-01

    Nearly 90 years of scientific research have led to the use of PET and the ability to forge advances in the field of oncology. In this Historial Review we outline the key developments made with this imaging technique, including the evolution of cyclotrons and scanners, together with the associated advances made in image reconstruction, presentation, analysis of data, and radiochemistry. The applications of PET to experimental medicine are summarised, and we cover how these are related to the use and development of PET, especially in the assessment of tumour biology and pharmacology. The use of PET in clinical oncology and for tissue pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies as a means of supporting drug development is detailed. The current limitations of the technology are also discussed.

  10. Sustainable Engineering and Improved Recycling of PET for High-Value Applications: Transforming Linear PET to Lightly Branched PET with a Novel, Scalable Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Cynthia; Torkelson, John

    2009-03-01

    A major challenge for the most effective recycling of poly(ethylene terephthalate) concerns the fact that initial melt processing of PET into a product leads to substantial degradation of molecular weight. Thus, recycled PET has insufficient melt viscosity for reuse in high-value applications such as melt-blowing of PET bottles. Academic and industrial research has tried to remedy this situation by synthesis and use of ``chain extenders'' that can lead to branched PET (with higher melt viscosity than the linear recycled PET) via condensation reactions with functional groups on the PET. Here we show that simple processing of PET via solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) leads to enhanced PET melt viscosity without need for chemical additives. We hypothesize that this branching results from low levels of chain scission accompanying SSSP, leading to formation of polymeric radicals that participate in chain transfer and combination reactions with other PET chains and thereby to in situ branch formation. The pulverized PET exhibits vastly enhanced crystallization kinetics, eliminating the need to employ cold crystallization to achieve maximum PET crystallinity. Results of SSSP processing of PET will be compared to results obtained with poly(butylene terephthalate).

  11. 18F-FDG PET/CT在食管癌中的临床应用%The clinical application of 18F-FDG PET/CT in esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菲; 黄俊星; 张俊

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer has high incidence and mortality rates in our country. The number of mortality is greater than that of incidence, thus indicating that many problems still occur in esophageal cancer diagnosis and treatment. The present diagnosis of esophageal cancer includes gastrointestinal angiography, endoscopic biopsy, and CT, among others. As a new method, PET/CT breaks through the limitation of traditional inspection by combining the metabolic and CT images. This combination has a unique value in diagnosis, tumor staging, efficacy evaluation, prognosis, and other aspects of esophageal cancer. This article reviews the latest research.%食管癌在我国具有较高的发病率和病死率,且病死率较发病率的排序靠前,表明该病在诊断及治疗方面仍存在很多问题。目前食管癌的诊断主要包括消化道造影、内镜活检、 CT等。 PET/CT作为一种新型检查方法,突破了传统检查的禁锢,将代谢图像和CT图像融合,在食管癌诊断、分期、疗效评价及预后判断等方面显示出了独特的应用价值。笔者将对18F-FDG PET/CT在食管癌中的最新研究进展进行综述。

  12. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  13. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  14. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  15. Clinical Features and Outcome in Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Presenting with PET/CT-Ascertained Focal Skeletal Lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Hutchings, Martin; Juul Mylam, Karen;

    Clinical Features and Outcome in Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Presenting with PET/CT-Ascertained Focal Skeletal Lesions......Clinical Features and Outcome in Newly Diagnosed Hodgkin Lymphoma Patients Presenting with PET/CT-Ascertained Focal Skeletal Lesions...

  16. Recent Advances in the Development and Application of Radiolabeled Kinase Inhibitors for PET Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bernard-Gauthier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, intensive investigation and multiple clinical successes targeting protein kinases, mostly for cancer treatment, have identified small molecule kinase inhibitors as a prominent therapeutic class. In the course of those investigations, radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for positron emission tomography (PET imaging have been synthesized and evaluated as diagnostic imaging probes for cancer characterization. Given that inhibitor coverage of the kinome is continuously expanding, in vivo PET imaging will likely find increasing applications for therapy monitoring and receptor density studies both in- and outside of oncological conditions. Early investigated radiolabeled inhibitors, which are mostly based on clinically approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI isotopologues, have now entered clinical trials. Novel radioligands for cancer and PET neuroimaging originating from novel but relevant target kinases are currently being explored in preclinical studies. This article reviews the literature involving radiotracer design, radiochemistry approaches, biological tracer evaluation and nuclear imaging results of radiolabeled kinase inhibitors for PET reported between 2010 and mid-2015. Aspects regarding the usefulness of pursuing selective vs. promiscuous inhibitor scaffolds and the inherent challenges associated with intracellular enzyme imaging will be discussed.

  17. 4D offline PET-based treatment verification in ion beam therapy. Experimental and clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Christopher

    2014-06-12

    Due to the accessible sharp dose gradients, external beam radiotherapy with protons and heavier ions enables a highly conformal adaptation of the delivered dose to arbitrarily shaped tumour volumes. However, this high conformity is accompanied by an increased sensitivity to potential uncertainties, e.g., due to changes in the patient anatomy. Additional challenges are imposed by respiratory motion which does not only lead to rapid changes of the patient anatomy, but, in the cased of actively scanned ions beams, also to the formation of dose inhomogeneities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to verify the actual application of the treatment and to detect possible deviations with respect to the planned irradiation. At present, the only clinically implemented approach for a close-in-time verification of single treatment fractions is based on detecting the distribution of β{sup +}-emitter formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions during the irradiation by means of positron emission tomography (PET). For this purpose, a commercial PET/CT (computed tomography) scanner has been installed directly next to the treatment rooms at the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). Up to present, the application of this treatment verification technique is, however, still limited to static target volumes. This thesis aimed at investigating the feasibility and performance of PET-based treatment verification under consideration of organ motion. In experimental irradiation studies with moving phantoms, not only the practicability of PET-based treatment monitoring for moving targets, using a commercial PET/CT device, could be shown for the first time, but also the potential of this technique to detect motion-related deviations from the planned treatment with sub-millimetre accuracy. The first application to four exemplary hepato-cellular carcinoma patient cases under substantially more challenging clinical conditions indicated potential for improvement by taking organ motion into

  18. Accuracy of a clinical PET/CT vs. a preclinical μPET system for monitoring treatment effects in tumour xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmowski, Karin [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Thoraxklinik Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Winz, Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Rix, Anne; Bzyl, Jessica [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Behrendt, Florian F.; Verburg, Frederic A.; Mottaghy, Felix M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH-Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Academic Radiology Baden Baden, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Small animal imaging is of growing importance for preclinical research and drug development. Tumour xenografts implanted in mice can be visualized with a clinical PET/CT (cPET); however, it is unclear whether early treatment effects can be monitored. Thus, we investigated the accuracy of a cPET versus a preclinical μPET using {sup 18}F-FDG for assessing early treatment effects. Materials and methods: The spatial resolution and the quantitative accuracy of a clinical and preclinical PET were evaluated in phantom experiments. To investigate the sensitivity for assessing treatment response, A431 tumour xenografts were implanted in nude mice. Glucose metabolism was measured in untreated controls and in two therapy groups (either one or four days of antiangiogenic treatment). Data was validated by γ-counting of explanted tissues. Results: In phantom experiments, cPET enabled reliable separation of boreholes ≥ 5 mm whereas μPET visualized boreholes ≥ 2 mm. In animal studies, μPET provided significantly higher tumour-to-muscle ratios for untreated control tumours than cPET (3.41 ± 0.87 vs. 1.60 ± .0.28, respectively; p < 0.01). During treatment, cPET detected significant therapy effects at day 4 (p < 0.05) whereas μPET revealed highly significant therapy effects even at day one (p < 0.01). Correspondingly, γ-counting of explanted tumours indicated significant therapy effects at day one and highly significant treatment response at day 4. Correlation with γ-counting was good for cPET (r = 0.74; p < 0.01) and excellent for μPET (r = 0.85; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Clinical PET is suited to investigate tumour xenografts ≥ 5 mm at an advanced time-point of treatment. For imaging smaller tumours or for the sensitive assessment of very early therapy effects, μPET should be preferred.

  19. Use of visual and permanent identification for pets by veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, P A; Levy, J K; Rockey, L E; Crandall, M M

    2014-07-01

    It is estimated that more than 5 million stray dogs and cats enter animal shelters in the USA each year, but less than half are ever reunited with their owners. Lost pets with identification microchips are up to 21 times more likely to be reunited than those without. Finders of lost pets are more likely to consult veterinarians than shelters for assistance, and pet owners look first to veterinarians for advice regarding pet health, protection, and welfare. An online survey of 1086 veterinary clinics in the South-Eastern USA was conducted to evaluate how veterinary clinics functioned as a part of the pet identification network. Scanning and microchip implants were offered by 91% of surveyed clinics and 41% used 'global' scanners capable of detecting all currently used microchip brands. Clinics more frequently relied on pet owners to register contact information rather than providing this service for clients (52% vs. 43%, respectively). Even though lost dogs are more likely to be reunited with owners than lost cats, microchips and collars were more likely to be recommended for all dogs (85% and 93%, respectively) than for all cats (67% and 61%, respectively). Only half of clinics that recommended identification collars made them available to their clients. Veterinarians can protect animals, pet owners and the human-animal bond by integrating pet identification into preventive health care.

  20. High prevalence of closely-related Acinetobacter baumannii in pets according to a multicentre study in veterinary clinics, Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, O; Pailhoriès, H; Kempf, M; Gaultier, M P; Lemarié, C; Ramont, C; Joly-Guillou, M L; Eveillard, M

    2014-06-04

    Our objective was to study the carriage of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) in pets in Reunion Island (RI), a French territory in Indian Ocean. Overall, 138 pets were sampled (rectum, mouth, wounds if applicable) in 9 veterinary clinics (VC). The prevalence of AB carriage was 6.5% (95%CI; 2.4, 10.6) and 9 carriers were identified from 4 VC. Hospitalization in a VC and antimicrobial treatment administered within the 15 preceding days were significantly associated with AB carriage (P90% similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis). Additional studies are needed to improve the understanding about interactions between the different reservoirs of AB in RI.

  1. Clinical Translation of an Albumin-Binding PET Radiotracer 68Ga-NEB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lang, Lixin; Zhu, Zhaohui; Li, Fang; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Suitably labeled Evans blue dye has been successfully applied to evaluate cardiac function, vascular permeability, and lymphatic imaging in preclinical settings. This study documented the first-inhuman application of 68Ga-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N′,N″-triacetic acid (NOTA)-NEB. Methods The NOTA-conjugated truncated form of Evans blue, NEB, was labeled with 68Ga and tested in BALB/C mice for dynamic PET and ex vivo biodistribution studies. Three healthy volunteers (2 men and 1 woman) underwent 90-min whole-body dynamic PET. The absorbed doses for major organs and whole body were calculated using OLINDA/EXM software. Eleven patients with focal hepatic lesions diagnosed by enhanced CT or MR imaging were subjected to whole-body PET/CT acquisitions at 30 min after intravenous injection of 111–148 MBq (3–4 mCi) of 68Ga-NEB. Results NEB dye was labeled with 68Ga (half-time, 68 min) with high yield and purity. After intravenous injection, 68Ga-NEB formed a complex with serum albumin, thus most of the radioactivity was retained in blood circulation. The tracer was demonstrated to be safe in both healthy volunteers and recruited patients without side effects or allergies. Among the 11 patients, hemangiomas showed much higher 68Ga-NEB signal intensity than the surrounding normal hepatic tissues, whereas no apparent difference between lesions and hepatic tissues was identified on 18F-FDG PET. All other focal hepatic lesions including hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic cysts, and neuroendocrine tumor liver metastases showed negative 68Ga-NEB contrast to hepatic tissues. Conclusion As a blood-pool imaging agent, 68Ga-NEB is safe to use in the clinic, and our preliminary studies demonstrate the value of differentiating hepatic hemangioma from other benign or malignant focal hepatic lesions. Easy labeling with different positron emitters of various half-lives, excellent pharmacokinetics, and imaging quality warrant further clinical applications of NEB-based PET tracers

  2. FDG-PET in the clinical management of Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Eigtved, Annika I; Specht, Lena

    2004-01-01

    ). FDG-PET has within recent years become the most important nuclear medicine imaging modality in the management of lymphoma. This review summarizes the data published so far concerning the value of FDG-PET in staging, treatment monitoring, therapy planning, and follow-up of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). FDG-PET...... detects more disease sites and involved organs than conventional staging procedures including computerized tomography (CT) and has a large influence on staging. FDG-PET during and after therapy appears to provide considerable prognostic information. However, the impact on patient outcome is not clear......Positron emission tomography (PET) is a molecular functional imaging technique that provides qualitative and quantitative information about the localization and activity of pathophysiological processes. The most commonly used tracer for oncological purposes is 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG...

  3. Clinical evaluation of PET image reconstruction using a spatial resolution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming Littrup; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Loft, Annika;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: PET image resolution is variable across the measured field-of-view and described by the point spread function (PSF). When accounting for the PSF during PET image reconstruction image resolution is improved and partial volume effects are reduced. Here, we evaluate the effect of PSF......-based reconstruction on lesion quantification in routine clinical whole-body (WB) PET/CT imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 41 oncology patients were referred for a WB-PET/CT examination (Biograph 40 TruePoint). Emission data were acquired at 2.5min/bed at 1hpi of 400 MBq [18F]-FDG. Attenuation-corrected PET images were...... of view (FOV). There was no significant difference in SUV(mean) in homogenous liver tissue between R1 and R2. CONCLUSION: In whole-body FDG-PET/CT using routine clinical protocols, PSF-based PET reconstruction increases lesion detection and affects SUV(max) measurements compared to standard AW-OSEM PET...

  4. Clinical studies on the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in Germany. An update; Klinische Studien zum Einsatz der PET in der Bestrahlungsplanung in Deutschland. Ein Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, U.; Mix, M.; Weber, W.; Grosu, A.L. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg (Germany). Kliniken fuer Strahlenheilkunde und Nuklearmedizin

    2011-07-15

    In recent years, PET and PET/CT have well been established for staging and restaging of various malignancies. Increasingly, the modality is also used for radiotherapy treatment planning. However, clinical studies investigating the patients benefit by the inclusion of those modalities into RT treatment planning are mandatory, simultaneously defining standards for future care. Chances and problems of such studies are discussed using the examples of the PET-Plan and GLIAA trials. (orig.)

  5. AUTOMATION FOR THE SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATION OF PET RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexoff, D.L.

    2001-09-21

    The development of automated systems supporting the production and application of PET radiopharmaceuticals has been an important focus of researchers since the first successes of using carbon-11 (Comar et al., 1979) and fluorine-18 (Reivich et al., 1979) labeled compounds to visualize functional activity of the human brain. These initial successes of imaging the human brain soon led to applications in the human heart (Schelbert et al., 1980), and quickly radiochemists began to see the importance of automation to support PET studies in humans (Lambrecht, 1982; Langstrom et al., 1983). Driven by the necessity of controlling processes emanating high fluxes of 511 KeV photons, and by the tedium of repetitive syntheses for carrying out these human PET investigations, academic and government scientists have designed, developed and tested many useful and novel automated systems in the past twenty years. These systems, originally designed primarily by radiochemists, not only carry out effectively the tasks they were designed for, but also demonstrate significant engineering innovation in the field of laboratory automation.

  6. PET-based dose delivery verification in proton therapy: a GATE based simulation study of five PET system designs in clinical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Charlotte; Fourrier, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Stute, Simon; Gueth, Pierre; Grevillot, Loïc; Buvat, Irène

    2013-10-01

    PET is a promising technique for in vivo treatment verification in hadrontherapy. Three main PET geometries dedicated to in-beam treatment monitoring have been proposed in the literature: the dual-head PET geometry, the OpenPET geometry and the slanted-closed ring geometry. The aim of this work is to characterize the performance of two of these dedicated PET detectors in realistic clinical conditions. Several configurations of the dual-head PET and OpenPET systems were simulated using GATE v6.2. For the dual-head configuration, two aperture angles (15° and 45°) were studied. For the OpenPET system, two gaps between rings were investigated (110 and 160 mm). A full-ring PET system was also simulated as a reference. After preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution using a Derenzo phantom, a real small-field head and neck treatment plan was simulated, with and without introducing patient displacements. No wash-out was taken into account. 3D maps of the annihilation photon locations were deduced from the PET data acquired right after the treatment session (5 min acquisition) using a dedicated OS-EM reconstruction algorithm. Detection sensitivity at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) varied from 5.2% (45° dual-head system) to 7.0% (full-ring PET). The dual-head systems had a more uniform efficiency within the FOV than the OpenPET systems. The spatial resolution strongly depended on the location within the FOV for the ϕ = 45° dual-head system and for the two OpenPET systems. All investigated architectures identified the magnitude of mispositioning introduced in the simulations within a 1.5 mm accuracy. The variability on the estimated mispositionings was less than 2 mm for all PET systems.

  7. PET radiopharmaceuticals for neuroreceptor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Routine clinical PET radiopharmaceuticals for the noninvasive imaging of brain receptors, transporters,and enzymes are commonly labeled with positron emitting nuclides such as carbon-11 or fluorine-18. Certain minimal conditions need to be fulfilled for these PET ligands to be used as imaging agents in vivo. Some of these prerequisites are discussed and examples of the most useful clinical PET radiopharmaceuticals that have found application in the central nervous system are reviewed.

  8. Clinical Utility of Positron Emission Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET-MRI) in Gastrointestinal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Robert; Choi, Minsig

    2016-09-09

    Anatomic imaging utilizing both CT (computed tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) limits the assessment of cancer metastases in lymph nodes and distant organs while functional imaging like PET (positron emission tomography) scan has its limitation in spatial resolution capacity. Hybrid imaging utilizing PET-CT and PET-MRI are novel imaging modalities that are changing the current landscape in cancer diagnosis, staging, and treatment response. MRI has shown to have higher sensitivity in soft tissue, head and neck pathology, and pelvic disease, as well as, detecting small metastases in the liver and bone compared to CT. Combining MRI with PET allows for detection of metastases that may have been missed with current imaging modalities. In this review, we will examine the clinical utility of FDG PET-MRI in the diagnosis and staging of gastrointestinal cancers with focus on esophageal, stomach, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers. We will also explore its role in treatment response and future directions associated with it.

  9. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Christensen, Janne Buck;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. METHODS: To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging...... the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). RESULTS: We found the following important...... results from the literature review: 1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). 2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). 3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out...

  10. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker;

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of 18F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131 ...

  11. Simultaneous PET/MR head–neck cancer imaging: Preliminary clinical experience and multiparametric evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, M., E-mail: echoplanare@gmail.com [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Cavaliere, C.; Aiello, M.; Cianelli, M.S. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, M.; Iorio, B. [Department of Otorhinolaryngoiatry, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Rossi, A.; Nicolai, E. [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 111-113 – 80143, Naples (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simultaneous PET/MRI is a suitable tool for head/neck T-staging. • No significant differences have been found for PET measures get by both PET/CT and PET/MRI. • SUV 2D and 3D measures in HN lesion offer comparable estimations. • Multiparametric evaluation allows a complete characterization of HN lesions. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the role of simultaneous hybrid PET/MR imaging and to correlate metabolic PET data with morpho-functional parameters derived by MRI in patients with head–neck cancer. Methods: Forty-four patients, with histologically confirmed head and neck malignancy (22 primary tumors and 22 follow-up) were studied. Patients initially received a clinical exam and endoscopy with direct biopsy. Next patients underwent whole body PET/CT followed by PET/MR of the head/neck region. PET and MRI studies were separately evaluated by two blinded groups (both included one radiologist and one nuclear physician) in order to define the presence or absence of lesions/recurrences. Regions of interest (ROIs) analysis was conducted on the primary lesion at the level of maximum size on metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sup trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) parameters. Results: PET/MR examinations were successfully performed on all 44 patients. Agreement between the two blinded groups was found in anatomic allocation of lesions by PET/MR (Primary tumors: Cohen's kappa 0.93; Follow-up: Cohen's kappa 0.89). There was a significant correlation between CT-SUV measures and MR (e.g., CT-SUV VOI vs. MR-SUV VOI: ρ = 0.97, p < 0.001 for the entire sample). There was also significant positive correlations between the ROI area, SUV measures, and the metabolic parameters (SUV and MTV) obtained during both PET/CT and PET/MR. A significant negative correlation was observed between ADC and K{sup trans} values in the primary tumors. In addition, a significant negative correlation existed between MR SUV and ADC in

  12. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  13. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian;

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... Medicine & PET at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen we installed an integrated PET/MRI in December 2011. Here, we describe our first clinical PET/MR cases and discuss some of the areas within oncology where we envision promising future application of integrated PET/MR imaging in clinical routine. Cases...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...

  14. Impact of F-18 FDG-PET for the Clinical Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash, Vineet; Vestergård, Karsten; Frost, Majbritt;

    .                       CONCLUSION            F-18 FDG-PET changed management in 44 % of patients seen in a specialist mutlidisciplinary dementia clinic.PET has promising clinical value for management decisions in patients where clinical evaluations combined with lab CSF results and dedicated MR imaging are equivocal for Alzheimers......PURPOSE            Dementia is a challenging clinical diagnosis. Compared with conventional clinical evaluations, F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has been reported to improve not only the diagnostic accuracy of dementia but also help better define the underlying  type. This is because FDG PET...... demonstrates metabolic patterns reflecting neuronal function specific to different dementias.To assess the impact of PET on a multidisciplinary  dementia clinic for patients with suspected dementia by comparing it with the initial clinical evaluation and paraclinical tests.                       METHOD...

  15. Positron emission tomography clinical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Valk, Peter E; Bailey, Dale L; Townsend, David W; Maisey, Michael N

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a contemporary reference to the science, technology and clinical applications of PET and PET/CT. The opening chapters summarize the scientific aspects of PET and PET/CT including physics, instrumentation, radiation dosimetry and radiation protection. A chapter on normal variants in FDG PET imaging serves as an introduction to the clinical chapters, which cover oncology applications and have been updated to include the impact of FDG PET/CT imaging in oncology. The book concludes with chapters on the use of PET and PET/CT in cardiology and neurology and PET imaging of infectio

  16. PET imaging with ⁸⁹Zr: from radiochemistry to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deri, Melissa A; Zeglis, Brian M; Francesconi, Lynn C; Lewis, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    The advent of antibody-based cancer therapeutics has led to the concomitant rise in the development of companion diagnostics for these therapies, particularly nuclear imaging agents. A number of radioisotopes have been employed for antibody-based PET and SPECT imaging, notably ⁶⁴Cu, ¹²⁴I, ¹¹¹In, and (99m)Tc; in recent years, however, the field has increasingly focused on ⁸⁹Zr, a radiometal with near ideal physical and chemical properties for immunoPET imaging. In the review at hand, we seek to provide a comprehensive portrait of the current state of ⁸⁹Zr radiochemical and imaging research, including work into the production and purification of the isotope, the synthesis of new chelators, the development of new bioconjugation strategies, the creation of novel ⁸⁹Zr-based agents for preclinical imaging studies, and the translation of ⁸⁹Zr-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to the clinic. Particular attention will also be dedicated to emerging trends in the field, ⁸⁹Zr-based imaging applications using vectors other than antibodies, the comparative advantages and limitations of ⁸⁹Zr-based imaging compared to that with other isotopes, and areas that would benefit from more extensive investigation. At bottom, it is hoped that this review will provide both the experienced investigator and new scientist with a full and critical overview of this exciting and fast-developing field.

  17. Clinical evaluation of 2D versus 3D whole-body PET image quality using a dedicated BGO PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvikis, D. [CHU Morvan, U650 INSERM, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), Brest (France); Griffiths, D. [Lister Healthcare, London PET Centre, London (United Kingdom); Costa, D.C. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom); HPP Medicina Molecular, SA Porto (Portugal); Bomanji, J.; Ell, P.J. [Middlesex Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Free and University College Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    Three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D PET) results in higher system sensitivity, with an associated increase in the detection of scatter and random coincidences. The objective of this work was to compare, from a clinical perspective, 3D and two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions in terms of whole-body (WB) PET image quality with a dedicated BGO PET system. 2D and 3D WB emission acquisitions were carried out in 70 patients. Variable acquisition parameters in terms of time of emission acquisition per axial field of view (aFOV) and slice overlap between sequential aFOVs were used during the 3D acquisitions. 3D and 2D images were reconstructed using FORE+WLS and OSEM respectively. Scatter correction was performed by convolution subtraction and a model-based scatter correction in 2D and 3D respectively. All WB images were attenuation corrected using segmented transmission scans. Images were blindly assessed by three observers for the presence of artefacts, confidence in lesion detection and overall image quality using a scoring system. Statistically significant differences between 2D and 3D image quality were only obtained for 3D emission acquisitions of 3 min. No statistically significant differences were observed for image artefacts or lesion detectability scores. Image quality correlated significantly with patient weight for both modes of operation. Finally, no differences were seen in image artefact scores for the different axial slice overlaps considered, suggesting the use of five slice overlaps in 3D WB acquisitions. 3D WB imaging using a dedicated BGO-based PET scanner offers similar image quality to that obtained in 2D considering similar overall times of acquisitions. (orig.)

  18. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2013-01-01

    between PET data acquired using the PET/MR system compared to the PET/CT system. The mean difference for SUVmean was -0.18 (p bias towards lower values using the PET/MR system. The 95% limits of agreement were -0.55 to 0...

  19. Initial clinical results for breath-hold CT-based processing of respiratory-gated PET acquisitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fin, Loic; Daouk, Joel; Morvan, Julie; Esper, Isabelle El; Saidi, Lazhar; Meyer, Marc-Etienne [Amiens University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Amiens (France); Bailly, Pascal [Amiens University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Amiens (France); CHU d' Amiens, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, unite TEP, Hopital Sud, Amiens cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    Respiratory motion causes uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) images of chest structures to spread out and misregister with the CT images. This misregistration can alter the attenuation correction and thus the quantisation of PET images. In this paper, we present the first clinical results for a respiratory-gated PET (RG-PET) processing method based on a single breath-hold CT (BH-CT) acquisition, which seeks to improve diagnostic accuracy via better PET-to-CT co-registration. We refer to this method as ''CT-based'' RG-PET processing. Thirteen lesions were studied. Patients underwent a standard clinical PET protocol and then the CT-based protocol, which consists of a 10-min List Mode RG-PET acquisition, followed by a shallow end-expiration BH-CT. The respective performances of the CT-based and clinical PET methods were evaluated by comparing the distances between the lesions' centroids on PET and CT images. SUV{sub MAX} and volume variations were also investigated. The CT-based method showed significantly lower (p=0.027) centroid distances (mean change relative to the clinical method =-49%; range =-100% to 0%). This led to higher SUV{sub MAX} (mean change =+33%; range =-4% to 69%). Lesion volumes were significantly lower (p=0.022) in CT-based PET volumes (mean change =-39%: range =-74% to -1%) compared with clinical ones. A CT-based RG-PET processing method can be implemented in clinical practice with a small increase in radiation exposure. It improves PET-CT co-registration of lung lesions and should lead to more accurate attenuation correction and thus SUV measurement. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of New Inorganic Scintillators for Application in a Prototype Small Animal PET Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Kuntner, C

    2003-01-01

    In the study of new pharmaceuticals as well as brain and genetic research, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a useful method. It has also recently entered the clinical domain in cardiology and particularly in oncology. Small animals such as mice, are often used to validate sophisticated models of human disease. High spatial resolution PET instrumentation is therefore necessary due to the reduced dimensions of the organs. Inorganic scintillators are employed in most of the diagnostic imaging devices. The ultimate performance of the PET scanner is tightly bound to the scintillation properties of the crystals. In the last years there has been an effort to develop new scintillating materials characterized by high light output, high detection efficiency and fast decay time. The most studied systems are mainly Ce3+-doped crystals such as LSO:Ce, YAP:Ce, LuAP:Ce, and recently also mixed Lux(RE3+)1-xAlO3:Ce crystals. These crystals are very attractive for medical application because of their high density (with th...

  1. Interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma: a compass for a safe navigation in clinical trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallamini, Andrea; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2012-12-13

    Despite the rewarding results achieved in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), concerns have been raised regarding the long-term complications induced by therapy. Hence, the current challenge is to develop a new therapeutic strategy maintaining excellent patient outcome while reducing potentially life-threatening late adverse effects. Therefore, it would be beneficial to identify chemoresistant or refractory patients early during therapy for appropriate and timely escalation of treatment. Recently, compelling data have emerged on the prognostic role of interim [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) performed early during the course of treatment to predict ultimate outcome, even proving superior to conventional prognostic factors. Several ongoing prospective trials are exploring the feasibility of treatment de-escalation strategies in patients with a negative interim PET, as well as therapy escalation in advanced-stage HL patients who have a positive interim PET result. In this article, the published reports on the contribution of interim PET to the design of ongoing response-adapted clinical trials are reviewed. Moreover, some of the unresolved issues revolving around the suboptimal positive predictive value of interim PET are addressed with an emphasis on the interpretation criteria. A final remark on the appropriate use of interim PET is also provided.

  2. Initial validation of 4D-model for a clinical PET scanner using the Monte Carlo code gate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Igor F.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Gomes, Marcelo S., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W.; Pacheco, Ludimila M. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, Rosa M. [Instituto de Radium e Supervoltagem Ivo Roesler, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Building exposure computational models (ECM) of emission tomography (PET and SPECT) currently has several dedicated computing tools based on Monte Carlo techniques (SimSET, SORTEO, SIMIND, GATE). This paper is divided into two steps: (1) using the dedicated code GATE (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission) to build a 4D model (where the fourth dimension is the time) of a clinical PET scanner from General Electric, GE ADVANCE, simulating the geometric and electronic structures suitable for this scanner, as well as some phenomena 4D, for example, rotating gantry; (2) the next step is to evaluate the performance of the model built here in the reproduction of test noise equivalent count rate (NEC) based on the NEMA Standards Publication NU protocols 2-2007 for this tomography. The results for steps (1) and (2) will be compared with experimental and theoretical values of the literature showing actual state of art of validation. (author)

  3. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Poul Henning [Vejle Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Holdgaard, Paw Christian [Vejle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Christensen, Janne Buck [Odense University Hospital/University of Southern Denmark, Department of Quality and Research/HTA, Odense University Hospital and Medical Research Library, Odense (Denmark); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2016-10-15

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging, and pre-operative evaluation, we conducted a systematic literature search, review, and quality assessment using the rapid evidence assessment toolkit and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine methodology. The literature search resulted in 4,208 records including 918 reviews, of which 139 met the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). We found the following important results from the literature review: (1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). (2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). (3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out mediastinal lymph node metastasis (recommendation level A). (1) With few exceptions, solitary pulmonary nodules can safely be considered benign if the PET-CT scan is negative. Exceptions consist of small (<1 cm) and non-solid, solitary pulmonary nodules. These abnormalities should be followed up by CT in a structured programme. (2) No curative-intent treatment should be commenced until a PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. (3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should be performed in most patients before mediastinal metastasis is confirmed or ruled out. (orig.)

  4. Recurrent renal cell carcinoma: clinical and prognostic value of FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alongi, Pierpaolo; Picchio, Maria; Gianolli, Luigi [IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuclear Medicine Department, Milan (Italy); Zattoni, Fabio [University of Padua, Department of Oncological and Surgical Sciences, Urology Clinic, Padua (Italy); Spallino, Marianna [University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Saladini, Giorgio; Evangelista, Laura [Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV - IRCCS, Padua, Italy, Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine Unit, Padua (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of our study was 1) to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT), 2) to assess the impact of FDG PET/CT on treatment decision-making, and 3) to estimate the prognostic value of FDG PET/CT in the restaging process among patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). From the FDG PET/CT databases of San Raffaele Hospital in Milan, Italy, and the Veneto Institute of Oncology in Padua, Italy, we selected 104 patients with a certain diagnosis of RCC after surgery, and for whom at least 24 months of post-surgical FDG PET/CT, clinical, and instrumental follow-up data was available. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET/CT were assessed by histology and/or other imaging as standard of reference. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were computed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of outcome. FDG PET/CT resulted in a positive diagnosis in 58 patients and a negative diagnosis in 46 patients. Sensitivity and specificity were 74 % and 80 %, respectively. FDG PET/CT findings influenced therapeutic management in 45/104 cases (43 %). After a median follow-up period of 37 months (± standard deviation 12.9), 51 (49 %) patients had recurrence of disease, and 26 (25 %) had died. In analysis of OS, positive versus negative FDG PET/CT was associated with worse cumulative survival rates over a 5-year period (19 % vs. 69 %, respectively; p <0.05). Similarly, a positive FDG PET/CT correlated with a lower 3-year PFS rate. In addition, univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that a positive scan, alone or in combination with disease stage III-IV or nuclear grading 3-4, was associated with high risk of progression (multivariate analysis = hazard ratios [HRs] of 4.01, 3.7, and 2.8, respectively; all p < 0.05). FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool both in treatment decision-making and for

  5. {sup 18}F-FDG PET of the hands with a dedicated high-resolution PEM system (arthro-PET): correlation with PET/CT, radiography and clinical parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhlanga, Joyce C.; Lodge, Martin [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Carrino, John A. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Hao [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Department of Oncology Biostatistics Division, Baltimore, MD (United States); Wahl, Richard L. [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Baltimore, MD (United States); Johns Hopkins University Hospitals, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to prospectively determine the feasibility and compare the novel use of a positron emission mammography (PEM) scanner with standard PET/CT for evaluating hand osteoarthritis (OA) with {sup 18}F-FDG. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective study in which 14 adults referred for oncological {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT underwent dedicated hand PET/CT followed by arthro-PET using the PEM device. Hand radiographs were obtained and scored for the presence and severity of OA. Summed qualitative and quantitative joint glycolytic scores for each modality were compared with the findings on plain radiography and clinical features. Eight patients with clinical and/or radiographic evidence of OA comprised the OA group (mean age 73 ± 7.7 years). Six patients served as the control group (53.7 ± 9.3 years). Arthro-PET quantitative and qualitative joint glycolytic scores were highly correlated with PET/CT findings in the OA patients (r = 0.86. p = 0.007; r = 0.94, p = 0.001). Qualitative arthro-PET and PET/CT joint scores were significantly higher in the OA patients than in controls (38.7 ± 6.6 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; 37.5 ± 5.4 vs. 32.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.03, respectively). Quantitative arthro-PET and PET/CT maximum SUV-lean joint scores were higher in the OA patients, although they did not reach statistical significance (20.8 ± 4.2 vs. 18 ± 1.8, p = 0.13; 22.8 ± 5.38 vs. 20.1 ± 1.54, p= 0.21). By definition, OA patients had higher radiographic joint scores than controls (30.9 ± 31.3 vs. 0, p = 0.03). Hand imaging using a small field of view PEM system (arthro-PET) with FDG is feasible, performing comparably to PET/CT in assessing metabolic joint activity. Arthro-PET and PET/CT showed higher joint FDG uptake in OA. Further exploration of arthro-PET in arthritis management is warranted. (orig.)

  6. Clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Hein, J; Heusinger, A; Mueller, R S

    2013-03-01

    Systematic studies about pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Questionnaires from both owners (n = 74) of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis and their veterinarians (n = 101) were analysed regarding clinical signs, therapy and data pertinent to zoonotic potential. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was found in 97% of cases. In the weeks preceding the onset of the clinical signs, a new guinea pig joined the household in 43% of cases. One third of the affected guinea pigs had lived in the household for less than 3 months. Predominant clinical signs were alopecia (83%), scaling (73%) and crusting (70%). The most commonly affected body site was the head (75%). In approximately one quarter of the cases humans showed clinical signs of dermatophytosis, in half the households, only children were affected. Skin lesions were seen most often on the face, the neck and the arms. Pet guinea pigs carrying dermatophytes must be considered a serious zoonotic risk for their owners, especially for children. A major risk factor for dermatophytosis seems to be a recent acquisition of a new guinea pig.

  7. The clinical utility of FDG PET/CT among solid organ transplant recipients suspected of malignancy or infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wareham, Neval E; Lundgren, J D; Da Cunha-Bang, C

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk of developing infections and malignancies. (18)F-FDG PET/CT may enable timely detection of these diseases and help to ensure early intervention. We aimed to describe the clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in consecutive, diagnostic...... unresolved SOT recipients transplanted from January 2004 to May 2015. METHODS: Recipients with a post-transplant FDG PET/CT performed as part of diagnostic work-up were included. Detailed chart reviews were done to extract relevant clinical information and determine the final diagnosis related to the FDG PET...

  8. fMRI. Basics and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Stephan; Jansen, Olav (eds.) [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter

    2010-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) and the basic method of BOLD imaging were introduced in 1993 by Seiji Ogawa. From very basic experiments, fMRI has evolved into a clinical application for daily routine brain imaging. There have been various improvements in both the imaging technique as such as well as in the statistical analysis. In this volume, experts in the field share their knowledge and point out possible technical barriers and problems explaining how to solve them. Starting from the very basics on the origin of the BOLD signal, the book covers technical issues, anatomical landmarks, presurgical applications, and special issues in various clinical fields. Other modalities for brain mapping such as PET, TMS, and MEG are also compared with fMRI. This book is intended to give a state-of-the-art overview and to serve as a reference and guide for clinical applications of fMRI. (orig.)

  9. Genotypic characterisation and cluster analysis of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from domestic pets, human clinical cases and retail food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acke Els

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The genetic similarity of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from pets, compared to human clinical cases and retail food isolates collected in Ireland over 2001-2006 was investigated by cluster analysis of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE fingerprinting profiles. Comparison of the PFGE profiles of 60 pet isolates and 109 human isolates revealed that seven (4.1% profiles were grouped in clusters including at least one human and one pet C. jejuni isolate. In total six (1.6% of 60 pet and 310 food profiles were in clusters with at least one food and one pet C. jejuni isolate. The detection of only a small number of genetically indistinguishable isolates by PFGE profile cluster analysis from pets and from humans with enteritis in this study suggests that pets are unlikely to be an important reservoir for human campylobacteriosis in Ireland. However, genetically indistinguishable isolates were detected and C. jejuni from pets may circulate and may contribute to clinical infections in humans. In addition, contaminated food fed to pets may be a potential source of Campylobacter infection in pets, which may subsequently pose a risk to humans.

  10. Generating Evidence for Clinical Benefit of PET/CT in Diagnosing Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Gerke, Oke;

    2011-01-01

    of PET/CT in cancer patients: replacement of an invasive procedure, improved accuracy of initial diagnosis, improved accuracy of staging for curative versus palliative treatment, improved accuracy of staging for radiation versus chemotherapy, response evaluation, and acceleration of clinical decisions...

  11. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdi, M. R.; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D.; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  12. PET based nanocomposite films for microwave packaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Olivieri, R.; Liguori, L.; Albanese, D., E-mail: dalbanese@unisa.it; Di Matteo, M.; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    In recent years, changes in life standards have promoted the diffusion of Ready to Cook (RTC) and Ready to Eat (RTE) products for microwave ovens. However, the main limits in microwave (MW) ovens usage are often related to the proper choice of packaging materials suitable for such technology. In fact, packages for microwaveable RTC and RTE foods should ensure adequate preservation of the product before cooking/heating such as high barriers to gases and aromas and adequate control of water vapor transmission. In addition, microwaveable packaging material must be transparent to MW, thermally stable and resistant to the mechanical stress induced by the accumulation in the head space of volatile substances produced during the cooking. Polymeric materials are good candidates for microwaveable packaging thanks to their transparency to MW. In the last years a great interest is devoted to developing innovative solution based on the use of additives or systems that act as susceptors or heating enhancers for improving the characteristics of polymers in cooking/heating in MW ovens. The present work was focused on the production and characterization of nanocomposite copolyester based films suitable for microwaveable food packaging applications. The matrices selected consist in two PET copolymers modified with carbon black (ULTRA STD) and with titanium oxide (ULTRA NA). Nanocomposite co-extruded multilayer films were produced using different percentages (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) of Cloisite 20A (C20A). Films were analyzed for evaluating the effect of nanofiller on the morphology and barrier properties. Moreover, to verify the effectiveness of the designed systems in reducing the cooking times of meat products, MW heating tests were carried out on pork meat hamburgers in MW oven at varying supplied powers. The cooking tests have pointed out that the selected matrices are efficient in reducing cooking times and that even low concentration of C20A acts as heating enhancers of PET.

  13. Clinical correlates of decreased anteroposterior metabolic gradients in positron emission tomography (PET) of schizophrenic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLisi, L.E.; Buchsbaum, M.S.; Holcomb, H.H.; Dowling-Zimmerman, S.; Pickar, D.; Boronow, J.; Morihisa, J.M.; van Kammen, D.P.; Carpenter, W.; Kessler, R.

    1985-01-01

    The finding in schizophrenic patients of a reversal of the normal frontal to posterior pattern of brain metabolic activity with positron emission tomography (PET) is of interest, but its relevance to psychopathology is unknown. Using PET, the authors studied 21 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Although eight of the 21 patients and only one of the control subjects showed a relatively lower anteroposterior metabolic gradient, no clinical correlates of this finding were noted. In addition, cerebral atrophy, as determined by CAT scan, was not associated with this aberrant metabolic pattern.

  14. Clinical impact of FDG PET-CT in patients with potentially operable metastatic colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.H. [Department of Radiology, Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Chowdhury, F.U. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Lodge, J.P.A. [HPB and Transplant Unit, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarsbrook, A.F., E-mail: andrew.scarsbrook@leedsth.nhs.uk [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Aim: To assess the clinical impact of 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: One hundred and two patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer underwent FDG PET-CT in addition to conventional imaging over an 18-month period. The findings were compared to conventional imaging, with histological or clinico-radiological validation. The impact on subsequent management was evaluated using information from clinico-radiological databases. Results: Of 102 patients (mean age 67 years, range 27-85 years), 94 had liver, five had isolated lung, and three had limited peritoneal metastases. In 31 patients (30%) PET-CT had a major impact on subsequent management, by correctly clarifying indeterminate lesions on conventional imaging as inoperable metastatic disease in 16 patients, detecting previously unsuspected metastatic disease in nine patients, identifying occult second primary tumours in three patients, and correctly down-staging three patients. PET-CT had a minor impact in 12 patients (12%), no impact in 49 cases (48%), and a potentially negative impact in 10 cases (10%). Following PET-CT, 36 (35%) patients were no longer considered for surgery. Of those remaining operative 45 of 66 (68%) underwent potentially curative metastatic surgery. In this cohort PET-CT saved 16 futile laparotomies. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT has a valuable role in selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer by improving staging accuracy and characterizing indeterminate lesions and helps triage patients to the appropriate treatment.

  15. Clinical utility of 18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET/CT scans in patients with suspect ocular tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salil Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic imaging of patients with suspect ocular tuberculosis include chest X-rays and computed tomography (CT scans. Reports have suggested a role for 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT (FDG-PET/CT scans. We report on the clinical utility of 18 FDG PET/CT in two patients. Case 1: A 38-year-old female patient presented with recurrent anterior uveitis. A 18 FDG-PET scan revealed metabolically active supraclavicular and chest lymph nodes. An aspiration cytology of the cervical lymph node revealed caseating granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. Case 2: A 58-year-old female patient presented with recurrent anterior uveitis. A 18 FDG-PET scan revealed metabolically active lymph nodes in the neck. A biopsy of the cervical lymph node revealed epithelioid granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. Both patients were started on standard antitubercular therapy with a subsequent marked reduction of activity. PET/CT scans may suggest the sites of safe high-yield biopsies.

  16. Analytic system matrix resolution modeling in PET: an application to Rb-82 cardiac imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmim, A.; Tang, J.; Lodge, M. A.; Lashkari, S.; Ay, M. R.; Lautamäki, R.; Tsui, B. M. W.; Bengel, F. M.

    2008-11-01

    This work explores application of a novel resolution modeling technique based on analytic physical models which individually models the various resolution degrading effects in PET (positron range, photon non-collinearity, inter-crystal scattering and inter-crystal penetration) followed by their combination and incorporation within the image reconstruction task. In addition to phantom studies, the proposed technique was particularly applied to and studied in the task of clinical Rb-82 myocardial perfusion imaging, which presently suffers from poor statistics and resolution properties in the reconstructed images. Overall, the approach is able to produce considerable enhancements in image quality. The reconstructed FWHM for a Discovery RX PET/CT scanner was seen to improve from 5.1 mm to 7.7 mm across the field-of-view (FoV) to ~3.5 mm nearly uniformly across the FoV. Furthermore, extended-source phantom studies indicated clearly improved images in terms of contrast versus noise performance. Using Monte Carlo simulations of clinical Rb-82 imaging, the resolution modeling technique was seen to significantly outperform standard reconstructions qualitatively, and also quantitatively in terms of contrast versus noise (contrast between the myocardium and other organs, as well as between myocardial defects and the left ventricle).

  17. The need for clinical quantification of combined PET/MRI data in pediatric epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muzik, Otto, E-mail: otto@pet.wayne.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Radiology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Pai, Darshan [Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Juhasz, Csaba [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States); Hua, Jing [Department of Computer Science, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-02-21

    In the past, multimodality integrative analysis of image data has been used to obtain a better understanding of underlying mechanisms of seizure generation and propagation in children with extratemporal lobe epilepsy. However, despite important advances in the combined analysis of PET, MRI, DTI and EEG data, successful surgical outcome is only achieved in about 2/3 of patients undergoing resective surgery. The advent of simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition promises an important advance in neuroimaging through clinical quantification, which will finally translate the strength of PET (which is the ability to absolutely quantify physiological parameters such as metabolic rates and receptor densities) into clinical work. Taking advantage of recently developed integrated PET/MR devices, absolute physiological values will be available in clinical routine, replacing currently used visual assessment of relative tissue tracer uptake. This will allow assessment of global increases/decreases of brain function during critical phases of development and is likely to have a significant impact on patient management in pediatric epilepsy.

  18. Clinical image quality perception and its relation to NECR measurements in PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A [Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, CH-8091 (Switzerland); Wollenweber, Scott D [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, 53186 WI (United States); Schulthess, Gustav von [Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, CH-8091 (Switzerland); Delso, Gaspar [GE Healthcare, Waukesha, 53186 WI (United States); Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Department of Medical Imaging, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, CH-8091 (Switzerland); Department of Medical Imaging, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, CH-8091 (Switzerland)

    2014-12-23

    The purpose of this study is to describe a clinical relation of noise equivalent count rate (NECR) - an objective measurement of positron emission tomography (PET) systems - measured in a large number of patients, to clinical image quality of PET and their relation to 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) activity and patient's weight. A total of 71 consecutive patients were evaluated in this retrospective study. All data was automatically analysed using Matlab to estimate the noise equivalent count rate. Then, image quality was evaluated according to two subjective scores: the IQ local score was a 3-point scale assigned to each bed position in all patients and the IQ global score was a 10-point scale assigned after evaluating the coronal whole-body PET. Patient data was also analysed concerning weight, body mass index, FDG dose at the start of acquisition (D{sub Acq}), presence of bowel uptake and presence of FDG-positive pathologic lesions. Two additional parameters were defined for each patient: the ratio between D{sub Acq} and patient weight (R{sub DW}) and the ratio between D{sub Acq} and patient BMI (R{sub DBMI}). Clinically perceived image quality in PET has a significant positive correlation with NECR measured in patients, R{sub DW}, R{sub DBMI} and presence of pathologic lesions. Clinical image quality furthermore has significant negative correlation with weight, body mass index (BMI) and presence of bowel uptake. Thresholds of R{sub DW} and R{sub DBMI} in which clinical IQ is good to excellent in more than 90% of the patients were 2.6 and 8.0, respectively. Clinically perceived image quality in PET systems is positively and significantly related to NECR measured in patients. An optimal threshold for the R{sub DW} and R{sub DBMI} was defined in which clinical IQ is good to excellent in more than 90% of patients. With this data, it is possible to extrapolate technical as well as clinical image quality to other PET system and to predict clinical image

  19. Value of 18F-FDG PET in Clinical Staging of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suwen Liu; Jinming Yu; Ligang Xing

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility of 18F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET) in the staging of non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).METHODS 105 patients with NSCLC had been examined by 18F-FDG PET before radiotherapy. The results of the 18F-FDG PET examination were compared with those of CT:RESULTS The staging was changed in 38 patients because of 18F-FDG PET findings, with PET resulting in upstaging in 31 patients and downstaging in seven patients. Because of distant metastasis detected by PET, 21 patients received palliative treatment. Six of the seven downstaged patients underwent radical surgery, among which the PET findings were concordant with the pathological findings in five patients. Distant metastasis detected by PET elevated the pre-PET stage: at stage 110.0% (2/20), stage Ⅱ 14.3% (3/21 ) and stage Ⅲ 25.0% (16/64), respectively.CONCLUSION 18F-FDG PET, by changing clinical staging in 36.2% (38/105)of NSCLC patients, has an impact on treatment strategy in NSCLC patients.

  20. Development and Test of a High Performance Multi Channel Readout System on a Chip with Application in PET/MR

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The availability of new, compact, magnetic field tolerant sensors suitable for PET has opened the opportunity to build highly integrated PET scanners that can be included in commercial MR scanners. This combination has long been expected to have big advantages over existing systems combining PET and CT. This thesis describes my work towards building a highly integrated readout ASIC for application in PET/MR within the framework of the HYPERImage and SUBLIMA projects. It also gives a brief ...

  1. Clinical value of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: A systemic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Yu, E-mail: yuoyuolu@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jin-Hua, E-mail: chenjh99@mail.cmu.edu.tw [Biostatistics Center and Graduate Institute of Biostatistics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Liang, Ji-An, E-mail: hope.jal@msa.hinet.net [Department of Radiation Oncology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Hsin-Yi, E-mail: hywang@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Chieh, E-mail: cclin@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Community Medicine and Health Examination Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wan-Yu, E-mail: wylin@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Kao, Chia-Hung, E-mail: d10040@mail.cmuh.org.tw [School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Aim: The purpose of the current study was to conduct a systemic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer. Materials and methods: The authors conducted a systematic MEDLINE search of articles published between January 2000 and December 2010. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of each study. We conducted a meta-analysis of pooled sensitivity and specificity in detecting primary and metastatic lesions of bladder cancer. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET/CT for primary lesion detection of bladder cancer were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70–0.99) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.74–1.00), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG PET or PET/CT for staging or restaging (metastatic lesions) of bladder cancer were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72–0.89) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.95), respectively. Conclusion: The diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET or PET/CT is good in metastatic lesions of urinary bladder cancer. Due to the small number of patients and limited number of studies analyzed, the diagnostic capability of FDG PET or PET/CT in detection of primary bladder wall lesions could not be assessed.

  2. Amyloid PET in European and North American cohorts; and exploring age as a limit to clinical use of amyloid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiotis, Konstantinos [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Carter, Stephen F. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Institute of Brain, Behaviour and Mental Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Farid, Karim [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); APHP, Hotel-Dieu Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Savitcheva, Irina [Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordberg, Agneta [Karolinska Institutet, Department of NVS, Center for Alzheimer Research, Translational Alzheimer Neurobiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Collaboration: for the Diagnostic Molecular Imaging (DiMI) network and the Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2015-09-15

    Several radiotracers that bind to fibrillar amyloid-beta in the brain have been developed and used in various patient cohorts. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of two amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) tracers as well as examine how age affects the discriminative properties of amyloid PET imaging. Fifty-one healthy controls (HCs), 72 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) from a European cohort were scanned with [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB) and compared with an age-, sex- and disease severity-matched population of 51 HC, 72 MCI and 84 AD patients from a North American cohort who were scanned with [18F]Florbetapir. An additional North American population of 246 HC, 342 MCI and 138 AD patients with a Florbetapir scan was split by age (55-75 vs 76-93 y) into groups matched for gender and disease severity. PET template-based analyses were used to quantify regional tracer uptake. The mean regional uptake patterns were similar and strong correlations were found between the two tracers across the regions of interest in HC (ρ = 0.671, p = 0.02), amyloid-positive MCI (ρ = 0.902, p < 0.001) and AD patients (ρ = 0.853, p < 0.001). The application of the Florbetapir cut-off point resulted in a higher proportion of amyloid-positive HC and a lower proportion of amyloid-positive AD patients in the older group (28 and 30 %, respectively) than in the younger group (19 and 20 %, respectively). These results illustrate the comparability of Florbetapir and PIB in unrelated but matched patient populations. The role of amyloid PET imaging becomes increasingly important with increasing age in the diagnostic assessment of clinically impaired patients. (orig.)

  3. Clinical applications of iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberl, S. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, NSW (Australia). Department of PET and Nuclear Medicine

    1998-03-01

    Expectation maximisation (EM) reconstruction largely eliminates the hot and cold streaking artifacts characteristic of filtered-back projection (FBP) reconstruction around localised hot areas, such as the bladder. It also substantially reduces the problem of decreased inferior wall counts in MIBI myocardial perfusion studies due to ``streaking`` from high liver uptake. Non-uniform attenuation and scatter correction, resolution recovery, anatomical information, e.g. from MRI or CT tracer kinetic modelling, can all be built into the EM reconstruction imaging model. The properties of ordered subset EM (OSEM) have also been used to correct for known patient motion as part of the reconstruction process. These uses of EM are elaborated more fully in some of the other abstracts of this meeting. Currently we use OSEM routinely for: (i) studies where streaking is a problem, including all MIBI myocardial perfusion studies, to avoid hot liver inferior wall artifact, (ii) all whole body FDG PET, all lung V/Q SPECT (which have a short acquisition time) and all gated {sup 201}TI myocardial perfusion studies due to improved noise characteristics of OSEM in these studies; (iii) studies with measured, non-uniform attenuation correction. With the accelerated OSEM algorithm, iterative reconstruction is practical for routine clinical applications and we have found OSEM to provide clearly superior reconstructions for the areas listed above and are investigating its application to other studies. In clinical use, we have not found OSEM to introduce artifacts which would not also occur with FBP, e.g. uncorrected patient motion will cause artifacts with both OSEM and FBP.

  4. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  5. Local respiratory motion correction for PET/CT imaging: Application to lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F., E-mail: frederic.lamare@chu-bordeaux.fr; Fernandez, P. [INCIA, UMR 5287, University of Bordeaux, Talence F-33400, France and Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital, Bordeaux 33000 (France); Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM, UMR1101, LaTIM, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest 29609 (France)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Despite multiple methodologies already proposed to correct respiratory motion in the whole PET imaging field of view (FOV), such approaches have not found wide acceptance in clinical routine. An alternative can be the local respiratory motion correction (LRMC) of data corresponding to a given volume of interest (VOI: organ or tumor). Advantages of LRMC include the use of a simple motion model, faster execution times, and organ specific motion correction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of LMRC using various motion models for oncology (lung lesion) applications. Methods: Both simulated (NURBS based 4D cardiac-torso phantom) and clinical studies (six patients) were used in the evaluation of the proposed LRMC approach. PET data were acquired in list-mode and synchronized with respiration. The implemented approach consists first in defining a VOI on the reconstructed motion average image. Gated PET images of the VOI are subsequently reconstructed using only lines of response passing through the selected VOI and are used in combination with a center of gravity or an affine/elastic registration algorithm to derive the transformation maps corresponding to the respiration effects. Those are finally integrated in the reconstruction process to produce a motion free image over the lesion regions. Results: Although the center of gravity or affine algorithm achieved similar performance for individual lesion motion correction, the elastic model, applied either locally or to the whole FOV, led to an overall superior performance. The spatial tumor location was altered by 89% and 81% for the elastic model applied locally or to the whole FOV, respectively (compared to 44% and 39% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). This resulted in similar associated overall tumor volume changes of 84% and 80%, respectively (compared to 75% and 71% for the center of gravity and affine models, respectively). The application of the nonrigid

  6. FDG PET/CT in clinical oncology. Case based approach with teaching points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, Jasna [Novi Sad Univ. (Serbia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Goldsmith, Stanley J. [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imging; Killeen, Ronan P. [St. Vincents Univ. Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2012-07-01

    Organized according to the role of FDG PET/CT in the evaluation and management of oncology patients. 100 informative cases reflecting the issues that clinicians address in their daily practice. Ideal for all newcomers to the field, whether medical students, radiology, nuclear medicine, or oncology fellows, or practicing physicians. FDG PET/CT has rapidly emerged as an invaluable combined imaging modality that can identify tumors on the basis of not only anatomical alterations but also metabolic activity, thus allowing the detection of lesions that would otherwise be too small to distinguish. This book, comprising a collection of images from oncology cases, is organized according to the role of FDG PET/CT in the evaluation and management of oncology patients, and only secondarily by organ or tumor entity. In this way, it reflects the issues that clinicians actually address in their daily practice, namely: identification of an unknown or unsuspected primary; determination of the extent of disease; evaluation of response to therapy; and surveillance after response, i.e., detection of recurrent disease. In total, 100 cases involving different primary tumors are presented to illustrate findings in these different circumstances. FDG PET/CT in Clinical Oncology will be of great value to all newcomers to this field, whether medical students, radiology, nuclear medicine, or oncology fellows, or practicing physicians.

  7. The Clinical Utility of Rectal Gas Distension F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging for the differentiation of the rectal focal uptake lesions. Twenty four patients (M:F=11:13, Age 62.8{+-}12.4 years) underwent rectal gas distension F-18 FDG PET/CT, prospectively: initial image at 50-60 min after the intravenous injection of F-18 FDG and rectal distension image after the infusion of air through the anus. Focally increased uptake lesions on initial images but disappeared on rectal distension images defined a physiological uptake. For the differential evaluation of persistent focal uptake lesions on rectal distension images, colonoscopy and histopathologic examination were performed. Among the 24 patients, 27 lesions of focal rectal uptake were detected on initial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT. Of these, 7 lesions were able to judge with physiological uptake because the focal increased uptake disappeared from rectal distension image. Remaining 3 lesions were non-rectal lesions (2 lesions: rectovesical space, 1 lesion: uterine myoma). Among 17 lesions which was showed persistent increased uptake in rectal distension image, 15 lesions were confirmed as the malignant tumor (SUVmax=15.9{+-}6.8) and 2 lesions were confirmed as the benign lesions including adenoma and inflammatory disease. The rectal distension F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging could be an important noninvasive method for the differentiation of malignant and benign focal rectal uptake lesions including physiologic uptake.

  8. Visualisation of metastatic oesophageal and gastric cancer and prediction of clinical response to palliative chemotherapy using {sup 18}FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzen, S.; Peschel, C.; Lordick, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Haematology/Medical Oncology, Technical Univ. Munich (Germany); Herrmann, K.; Wieder, H.; Schwaiger, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technical Univ. Munich (Germany); Weber, W.A.; Hennig, M. [Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Technical Univ. Munich (Germany); Ott, K. [Dept. of Surgery, Technical Univ. of Munich (Germany); Bredenkamp, R. [Munich Centre for Clinical Studies, Munich (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Aim: This study assessed the value of {sup 18}F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for visualisation and early metabolic response assessment in metastatic gastro-oesophageal cancer. Patients, methods: Twenty-six patients who were treated for metastatic disease (20 adenocarcinomas, 6 squamous cell cancers) underwent FDG-PET before and two weeks after the onset of palliative chemotherapy with either oxaliplatin + 5-FU/LV or with docetaxel + capecitabine. PET results were validated according to clinical response based on RECIST criteria. Results: Twenty-four tumours (92%) could be visualised by FDG-PET and were also assessable by a second PET scan at 2 weeks. The 2 tumours that were not detectable by PET were both gastric cancers belonging to the non-intestinal subtype according to Lauren. Median time to progression and overall survival were not significantly different for metabolic responders and non-responders (6.3 vs 5.3 months and 14.1 vs 12.5 months, respectively). Conclusion: In this heterogeneous study population, FDG-PET had a limited accuracy in predicting clinical response. However, the metabolic response prediction was particularly good in the subgroup of patients with oesophageal squamous cell cancer. Therefore, FDG-PET and assessment of cancer therapy clearly merits further investigation in circumscribed patient populations with metastatic disease. (orig.)

  9. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...... February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology......, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both...

  10. Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and European Association for Neuro-Oncology recommendations for the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nathalie L; Weller, Michael; Suchorska, Bogdana; Galldiks, Norbert; Soffietti, Riccardo; Kim, Michelle M; la Fougère, Christian; Pope, Whitney; Law, Ian; Arbizu, Javier; Chamberlain, Marc C; Vogelbaum, Michael; Ellingson, Ben M; Tonn, Joerg C

    2016-09-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the use of PET imaging in gliomas. The review examines established clinical benefit in glioma patients of PET using glucose ((18)F-FDG) and amino acid tracers ((11)C-MET, (18)F-FET, and (18)F-FDOPA). An increasing number of studies have been published on PET imaging in the setting of diagnosis, biopsy, and resection as well radiotherapy planning, treatment monitoring, and response assessment. Recommendations are based on evidence generated from studies which validated PET findings by histology or clinical course. This guideline emphasizes the clinical value of PET imaging with superiority of amino acid PET over glucose PET and provides a framework for the use of PET to assist in the management of patients with gliomas.

  11. Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT, clinical relevance?; Zerebrale Aktivierungsstudien mit PET und fMRT, klinische Relevanz?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, T. [Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum Grosshadern, Muenchen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Cerebral activation studies by PET and fMRT will gain increasing clinical relevance for functional neuroanatomy (reading, speaking), localisation of largely unknown cortical functions (vestibular cortex), imaging of subjective complaints of functional impairments (pain, smell, memory), and documentation of neurological rehabilitation at neuronal level (regeneration, compensation, substitution, learning). (orig.) [Deutsch] Zerebrale Aktivierungsstudien mit PET und fMRT erlangen zunehmend klinische Bedeutung fuer die funktionelle Neuroanatomie einzelner und komplexer Hirnleistungen (Lesen, Sprechen), die Lokalisation bislang unzureichend erforschter Hirnfunktionen (vestibulaerer Kortex), die Objektivierung subjektiver Beschwerden und Funktionsausfaelle (Schmerz, Riechen, Gedaechtnis) und die Dokumentation neurologischer Rehabilitation auf neuronaler Ebene (Regeneration, Kompensation, Substitution, Lernen). (orig.)

  12. Application of18F-FDG PET/CT in Rare Metastatic Locations of Esophageal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lan; GUAN Dan; DING Qi-yong; SHU Yong-qian; LIU Lian-ke

    2015-01-01

    Background: Esophageal carcinoma is a kind of malignant tumor commonly seen in clinic. In recent years, positron emission tomography (PET)/CT can accurately locate the general tumor nidi and PET/CT detection is recommended to determine the clinical stages of esophageal carcinoma. The common metastatic locations of esophageal carcinoma include lymph nodes (including cervical, supraclavicular and celiac lymph nodes), lung, liver and bone. This study aimed to summarize the distribution and incidence of rare metastatic locations and the characteristics of 18F-FDG PET/CT image in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods:A total of 185 patients with esophageal carcinoma undergoing18F-FDG PET/CT detection in our hospital from August, 2009 to August, 2013 were collected to retrospectively analyze their clinical data. Metastatic nidi in rare locations were conifrmed according to the results of clinical evaluation, imageological methods and follow-up. Results:A total of 19 patients with esophageal carcinoma suffered from metastases in rare locations according to the18F-FDG PET/CT detection, with incidence of 10.27%. The rare locations included pleura (28.6%), peritoneum (23.8%), adrenal gland (1.6%), axillary lymph nodes (14.3%), nasal septum (4.8%), cerebellum (4.8%) and napes (4.8%). Conclusion:18F-FDG PET/CT detection can excellently detect the metastatic nidi in rare or uncommon locations and increase the accuracy of clinical staging and re-staging in patients with esophageal carcinoma, which has great guiding signiifcance for clinical therapy.

  13. Quantitative comparison of OSEM and penalized likelihood image reconstruction using relative difference penalties for clinical PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G; Asma, Evren; Miao, Jun; Jin, Xiao; Cheng, Lishui; Wollenweber, Scott D; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M

    2015-08-07

    Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is the most widely used algorithm for clinical PET image reconstruction. OSEM is usually stopped early and post-filtered to control image noise and does not necessarily achieve optimal quantitation accuracy. As an alternative to OSEM, we have recently implemented a penalized likelihood (PL) image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET using the relative difference penalty with the aim of improving quantitation accuracy without compromising visual image quality. Preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated visual image quality including lesion conspicuity in images reconstructed by the PL algorithm is better than or at least as good as that in OSEM images. In this paper we evaluate lesion quantitation accuracy of the PL algorithm with the relative difference penalty compared to OSEM by using various data sets including phantom data acquired with an anthropomorphic torso phantom, an extended oval phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom; clinical data; and hybrid clinical data generated by adding simulated lesion data to clinical data. We focus on mean standardized uptake values and compare them for PL and OSEM using both time-of-flight (TOF) and non-TOF data. The results demonstrate improvements of PL in lesion quantitation accuracy compared to OSEM with a particular improvement in cold background regions such as lungs.

  14. Metformin and cancer: Technical and clinical implications for FDG-PET imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selene; Capitanio; Cecilia; Marini; Gianmario; Sambuceti; Silvia; Morbelli

    2015-01-01

    Metformin is the most widely used hypoglycemic agent. Besides its conventional indications, increasing evidence demonstrate a potential efficacy of this biguanide as an anticancer drug. Possible mechanisms of actions seem to be independent from its hypoglycemic effect and seemto involve the interference with key pathways in cellular proliferation and glycolysis. To date, many clinical trials implying the use of metformin in cancer treatment are on-going. The increasing use of 18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyd-glucose positron emission tomography(FDG-PET) in cancer evaluation raises a number of questions about the possible interference of the biguanide on FDG distribution. In particular, the interferences exerted by metformin on AMP-activated protein kinase pathway(the cellular energy sensor), on insulin levels and on Hexokinase could potentially have repercussion on glucose handling and thus on FDG distribution. A better comprehension of the impact of metformin on FDG uptake is needed in order to optimize the use of PET in this setting. This evaluation would be useful to ameliorate scans interpretation in diabetic patients under chronic metformin treatment and to critically interpret images in the context of clinical trials. Furthermore, collecting prospective data in this setting would help to verify whether FDG-PET could be a valid tool to appreciate the anticancer effect of this new therapeutic approach.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the oncologic clinical practice; Tomografia por Emision de Positrones (PET) en la practica clinica oncologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serna M, J.A.; Luviano, C.; Martinez V, D. [Hospital Angeles del Pedregal Mexico DF (Mexico); Maldonado S, A. [Centro PET Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    We intended to determine the frequency with that the computer axial tomography (TAC), it was able to visualize the lesions extra neoplasia detected by the PET tomography in patients with fully identified primary malignant neoplasia. (Author)

  16. Use of a clinical PET/MR scanner for preclinical research with first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chary, Karthik; Teuho, Jarmo; Virta, Jenni; Sipilä, Hannu; Saunavaara, Virva; Roivainen, Anne; Teräs, Mika [Turku PET Centre, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)

    2014-07-29

    This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of preclinical imaging in a clinical PET/MR system. Preliminary sequences were evaluated for establishing preclinical protocols for rat brain and rabbit knee. Rats were placed in a stereotactic holder, allowing a 30 minute scan time before re-administration of anesthesia. In-house developed warm-water heating system was used to maintain the body temperature at 37.5°C, monitored using an MR-compatible rectal probe. Brain imaging was performed with a dedicated 4 channel phased array receive coil (RAPID Biomedical GmbH, Germany). High resolution coronal images were acquired using conventional T1-SE (0.30x0.30x1.2mm) and T2-TSE (0.23x0.23x0.7mm) with a total scan time of 30 min. PET/MR imaging was performed on two white rabbits. The rabbits were imaged in a custom wooden holder. PET/MR protocol had a total duration of 45 minutes. No external heating was used. MR protocol consisted of anatomical T1, T2 and PDW of the knees, using a SENSE Flex-S coil. MR attenuation correction (MRAC) was acquired with 3D T1-FFE using three-class segmentation. A dynamic 30 minute PET acquisition was started on injection of 33.8MBq of Ga-68. Animal coils enabled high resolution images to be acquired in reasonable acquisition time with regards to animal handling and anesthesia. T1 and T2 images provided good differentiation of anatomy in the rat brain with high contrast. T1, T2 and PDW images of the rabbit knee had high resolution and differentiation of anatomical structures. MRAC was able to distinguish the knees and the body contour. Image fusion of PET and MR was able to localize the infection, which was confirmed by a physician. Pre-clinical imaging with the Ingenuity TF was deemed feasible, although PET imaging is limited by the resolution of the scanner. The preliminary sequences were successfully implemented for future studies on the Ingenuity TF.

  17. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Dementia and Neuro-Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølby Henriksen, Otto; Marner, Lisbeth; Law, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems allows simultaneous multimodality image acquisition of high technical quality. This technique is well suited for the brain, and particularly in dementia and neuro-oncology. In routine use combinations of well-established MRI sequences and PET tracers....../MRI using [18F]-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (FET) also abide to the expectations of the adaptive and versatile diagnostic tool necessary in neuro-oncology covering both simple 20 min protocols for routine treatment surveillance and complicated 90 min brain and spinal cord protocols in pediatric neuro......-oncology under general anesthesia. The clinical value of adding advanced MRI sequences in multiparametric imaging setting, however, is still undocumented....

  18. Clinical Applications for Estetrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visser M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the potential clinical applications for the human fetal estrogen estetrol (E4 are presented based on recently obtained data in preclinical and clinical studies. In the past E4 has been classified as a weak estrogen due to its rather low estrogen receptor affinity. However, recent research has demonstrated that due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties, especially the slow elimination and long half-life, E4 is an effective orally bioavailable estrogen agonist with estrogen antagonistic effects on the breast in the presence of estradiol. Based on the pharmacokinetic properties, the pharmacological profile and the safety and efficacy results in human studies, E4 seems potentially suitable as a drug for human use in applications such as hormone replacement therapy (vaginal atrophy and vasomotor symptoms, contraception, osteoporosis and breast cancer.

  19. FDG PET/CT response in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Reader variability and association with clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Ji; O, Joo Hyun; Yoon, Hyukjin; Jung, Seung Eun; Park, Gyeongsin; Choi, Byung Ock; Cho, Seok-Goo

    2016-09-01

    F-18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is essential for monitoring response to treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and qualitative interpretation is commonly applied in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the interobserver agreements of qualitative PET/CT response in patients with DLBCL and the predictive value of PET/CT results for clinical outcome.PET/CT images were obtained for patients with DLBCL 3 times: at baseline, after 3 cycles of first-line chemotherapy (interim), and after completion of chemotherapy. Two nuclear medicine physicians (with 3 and 8 years of experience with PET/CT) retrospectively assessed response to chemotherapy blinded to the clinical outcome using International Harmonization Project (IHP) criteria and Deauville 5-point score. The associations between PET/CT results and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Cox regression analysis.A total of 112 PET/CT images were included from 59 patients with DLBCL (36 male, 23 female; mean age 53 ± 14 years). Using the IHP criteria, interobserver agreement was substantial (Cohen κ = 0.76) with absolute agreement consistency of 89%. Using the Deauville score, interobserver agreement was moderate (Cohen weighted κ = 0.54) and absolute consistency was 62%. The most common cause of disagreements was discordant interpretation of residual tumor uptake. With median follow-up period of 60 months, estimated 5-year PFS and OS were 81% and 92%, respectively. Neither interim nor posttreatment PET/CT results by both readers were significantly associated with PFS. Interim PET/CT result by the more experienced reader using Deauville score was a significant factor for OS (P = 0.019).Moderate-to-substantial interobserver agreement was observed for response assessments according to qualitative PET/CT criteria, and interim PET/CT result could predict OS in patients with DLBCL. Further

  20. Clinical application of FDG PET/CT to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of proton radiation therapy in body tumors%FDG PET/CT显像评价体部恶性肿瘤质子放射治疗疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健; 吕杰; 朱滨; 赵涛; 石志钢; 孙波

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨PET/CT显像在体部恶性肿瘤质子放射治疗疗效评价中的临床价值.方法:22例经最终病理检查及临床诊断的恶性肿瘤患者,质子放射治疗前后各行1次18F-FDG PET/CT显像,以最大标准摄取值(SUVmax)的变化来评价质子放射治疗的疗效,并与质子放射治疗后CT等常规影像及临床随访结果进行对比分析.结果:①质子放射治疗前,PET/CT显像共发现22例肿瘤患者46处病灶,SUVmax在6.9~37之间(16.36±9.35),常规影像发现病灶38处.②质子放射治疗后,46处病灶代谢活度均降低,SUVmax降低24%~88%,SUVmax在2.5~24之间(6.64±5.37).而CT等常规影像显示41%(19/46)肿块消失或缩小,而59%(27/46)的肿块无明显改变.临床随访3~9个月证实经质子放射治疗的46处病灶均得到有效控制.结论:PET/CT显像可以早期、有效地评价恶性肿瘤质子放射治疗的效果.

  1. PET performance and MRI compatibility evaluation of a digital, ToF-capable PET/MRI insert equipped with clinical scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schug, David; Wehner, Jakob; Dueppenbecker, Peter Michael; Weissler, Bjoern; Gebhardt, Pierre; Goldschmidt, Benjamin; Salomon, Andre; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2015-09-01

    We evaluate the MR compatibility of the Hyperion-IID positron emission tomography (PET) insert, which allows simultaneous operation in a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. In contrast to previous investigations, this work aims at the evaluation of a clinical crystal configuration. An imaging-capable demonstrator with an axial field-of-view of 32 mm and a crystal-to-crystal spacing of 217.6 mm was equipped with LYSO scintillators with a pitch of 4 mm which were read out in a one-to-one coupling scheme by sensor tiles composed of digital silicon photomultipliers from Philips Digital Photon Counting (DPC 3200-22). The PET performance degradation (energy resolution and coincidence resolution time (CRT)) was evaluated during simultaneous operation of the MRI scanner. We used clinically motivated imaging sequences as well as synthetic gradient stress test sequences. Without activity of the MRI scanner, we measured for trigger scheme 1 (first photon trigger) an energy resolution of 11.4% and a CRT of 213 ps for a narrow energy (NE) window using five 22Na point-like sources. When applying the synthetic gradient sequences, we found worst-case relative degradations of the energy resolution by 5.1% and of the CRT by 33.9%. After identifying the origin of the degradations and implementing a fix to the read-out hardware, the same evaluation revealed no degradation of the PET performance anymore even when the most demanding gradient stress tests were applied. The PET performance of the insert was initially evaluated using the point sources, a high-activity phantom and hot-rod phantoms in order to assess the spatial resolution. Trigger schemes 2-4 delivered an energy resolution of 11.4% as well and CRTs of 279 ps, 333 ps and 557 ps for the NE window, respectively. An isocenter sensitivity of 0.41% using the NE window and 0.71% with a wide energy window was measured. Using a hot-rod phantom, a spatial resolution in the order of 2 mm was demonstrated and the

  2. A sub-millimeter resolution detector module for small-animal PET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, I.; Dohle, R.; Fischer, P.; Gola, A.; Piemonte, C.; Ritzert, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a gamma detection module optimized for very high resolution PET applications, able to resolve arrays of scintillating crystals with sub-millimeter pitch. The detector is composed of a single ceramic substrate (LTCC): it hosts four flip-chip mounted PETA5 ASICs on the bottom side and an array of SiPM sensors on the top surface, fabricated in HD-RGB technology by FBK. Each chip has 36 channels, for a maximum of 144 readout channels on a sensitive area of about 32 mm × 32 mm. The module is MR-compatible. The thermal decoupling of the readout electronics from the photon sensors is obtained with an efficient internal liquid channel, integrated within the ceramic substrate. Two modules have been designed, based on different SiPM topologies: • Light spreader-based: an array of 12 × 12 SiPMs, with an overall pitch of 2.5 mm, is coupled with a scintillators array using a 1 mm thick glass plate. The light from one crystal is spread over a group of SiPMs, which are read out in parallel using PETA5 internal neighbor logic. • Interpolating SiPM-based: ISiPMs are intrinsic position-sensitive sensors. The photon diodes in the array are connected to one of the four available outputs so that the center of gravity of any bunch of detected photons can be reconstructed using a proper weight function of the read out amplitudes. An array of ISiPMs, each 7.5 mm× 5 mm sized, is directly coupled with the scintillating crystals. Both modules can clearly resolve LYSO arrays with a pitch of only 0.833 mm. The detector can be adjusted for clinical PET, where it has already shown ToF resolution of about 230 ps CRT at FWHM. The module designs, their features and results are described.

  3. Recent advances in iterative reconstruction for clinical SPECT/PET and CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutton, Brian F. (Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)), e-mail: brian.hutton@uclh.nhs.uk

    2011-08-15

    Statistical iterative reconstruction is now widely used in clinical practice and has contributed to significant improvement in image quality in recent years. Although primarily used for reconstruction in emission tomography (both single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET)) there is increasing interest in also applying similar algorithms to x-ray computed tomography (CT). There is increasing complexity in the factors that are included in the reconstruction, a demonstration of the versatility of the approach. Research continues with exploration of methods for further improving reconstruction quality with effective correction for various sources of artefact

  4. Established, emerging and future applications of FDG-PET/CT in the uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitajima, K., E-mail: kitajima@med.kobe-u.ac.j [PET Diagnosis, Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Murakami, K. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kaji, Y. [Radiology, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu (Japan); Sakamoto, S. [PET center, Dokkyo Medical University Hospital, Mibu (Japan); Sugimura, K. [Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is a useful technique to acquire both glucose metabolic and anatomic imaging data using a single device in a single diagnostic session and has opened a new field in clinical oncologic imaging. FDG-PET/CT has been used successfully for the staging, optimization of treatment, re-staging, therapy monitoring, and prognostic prediction of uterine cervical cancer and endometrial cancer as well as various malignant tumours. The present review discusses the current role of FDG-PET/CT in the management of uterine cancer, discussing its usefulness and limitations in the imaging of these patients.

  5. Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology working group and European Association for Neuro-Oncology recommendations for the clinical use of PET imaging in gliomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nathalie L; Weller, Michael; Suchorska, Bogdana

    2016-01-01

    This guideline provides recommendations for the use of PET imaging in gliomas. The review examines established clinical benefit in glioma patients of PET using glucose ((18)F-FDG) and amino acid tracers ((11)C-MET, (18)F-FET, and (18)F-FDOPA). An increasing number of studies have been published...... on PET imaging in the setting of diagnosis, biopsy, and resection as well radiotherapy planning, treatment monitoring, and response assessment. Recommendations are based on evidence generated from studies which validated PET findings by histology or clinical course. This guideline emphasizes the clinical...

  6. Application of MR/PET in oncologic imaging; Einsatz von MR/PET in der onkologischen Bildgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, N.F.; Pfannenberg, C.; Werner, M.K. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reischl, G. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Praeklinische Bildgebung und Radiopharmazie; Schmidt, H. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Praeklinische Bildgebung und Radiopharmazie

    2012-09-15

    The present review aims to depict the possibilities offered by hybrid imaging with magnetic resonance positron emission tomography (MR/PET). Recently, new whole-body MR/PET scanners were introduced allowing for the combination of both modalities outside the brain. This is a challenge for both modalities: For MRI, it is essential to provide anatomical images with high resolution. Additionally, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), proton spectroscopy, but also dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging plays an important role. With regard to PET, the technical challenge mainly consists of obtaining an appropriate MR-based attenuation correction for the PET data. Using MR/PET, it is possible to acquire morphological and functional data in one examination. In particular, children and young adults will benefit from this new hybrid technique, especially in oncologic imaging with multiple follow-up examinations. However, it is expected that PET/CT will not be replaced completely by MR/PET because PET/CT is less cost-intensive and more widely available. Moreover, in lung imaging, MRI limitations still have to be accepted. Concerning research, simultaneous MR/PET offers a variety of new possibilities, for example cardiac imaging, functional brain studies or the evaluation of new tracers in correlation with specific MR techniques. (orig.)

  7. [(18)F]-Organotrifluoroborates as Radioprosthetic Groups for PET Imaging: From Design Principles to Preclinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, David M

    2016-07-19

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is revolutionizing our ability to visualize in vivo targets for target validation and personalized medicine. Of several classes of imaging agents, peptides afford high affinity and high specificity to distinguish pathologically distinct cell types by the presence of specific molecular targets. Of various available PET isotopes, [(18)F]-fluoride ion is preferred because of its excellent nuclear properties and on-demand production in hospitals at Curie levels. However, the short half-life of (18)F and its lack of reactivity in water continue to challenge peptide labeling. Hence, peptides are often conjugated to a metal chelator for late-stage, one-step labeling. Yet radiometals, while effective, are neither as desirable nor as available as [(18)F]-fluoride ion. Despite considerable past success in identifying semifeasible radiosyntheses, significant challenges continue to confound tracer development. These interrelated challenges relate to (1) isotope/prosthetic choice; (2) bioconjugation for high affinity; (3) high radiochemical yields, (4) specific activities of >1 Ci/μmol to meet FDA microdose requirements; and (5) rapid clearance and in vivo stability. These enduring challenges have been extensively highlighted, while a single-step, operationally simple, and generally applicable means of labeling a peptide with [(18)F]-fluoride ion in good yield and high specific activity has eluded radiochemists and nuclear medicine practitioners for decades. Radiosynthetic ease is of primordial importance since multistep labeling reactions challenge clinical tracer production. In the past decade, as we sought to meet this challenge, appreciation of reactions with aqueous fluoride led us to consider organotrifluoroborate (RBF3(-)) synthesis as a means of rapid aqueous peptide labeling. We have applied principles of mechanistic chemistry, knowledge of chemical reactivity, and synthetic chemistry to design stable RBF3(-)s. Over the past 10 years

  8. Application of machine learning methodology for PET-based definition of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhet, A; Small, C; Quon, H; Riauka, T; Schrader, L; Greiner, R; Yee, D; McEwan, A; Roa, W

    2010-02-01

    We applied a learning methodology framework to assist in the threshold-based segmentation of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumours in positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) imaging for use in radiotherapy planning. Gated and standard free-breathing studies of two patients were independently analysed (four studies in total). Each study had a pet-ct and a treatment-planning ct image. The reference gross tumour volume (GTV) was identified by two experienced radiation oncologists who also determined reference standardized uptake value (SUV) thresholds that most closely approximated the GTV contour on each slice. A set of uptake distribution-related attributes was calculated for each PET slice. A machine learning algorithm was trained on a subset of the PET slices to cope with slice-to-slice variation in the optimal suv threshold: that is, to predict the most appropriate suv threshold from the calculated attributes for each slice. The algorithm's performance was evaluated using the remainder of the pet slices. A high degree of geometric similarity was achieved between the areas outlined by the predicted and the reference SUV thresholds (Jaccard index exceeding 0.82). No significant difference was found between the gated and the free-breathing results in the same patient. In this preliminary work, we demonstrated the potential applicability of a machine learning methodology as an auxiliary tool for radiation treatment planning in NSCLC.

  9. Automated quantitation of cold-inducible human brown adipose tissue with FDG PET/CT with application to fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José V; Lee, Joel T; Larson, Robert C; Thuras, Paul; Larson, Alice A

    2017-01-01

    Increasing recognition of the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) motivates the development of reproducible and quantitative methods for measuring it. Positron emission tomography (PET)/computerized tomography (CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has become the principal method to non-invasively detect brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans. Improvements in quantitation and standardization will drive further clinical application. One disorder hypothesized to involve dysregulation in thermoregulation and the processing of pain involving BAT is fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). This report describes an approach with additional technical standardization to measure cold-inducible, BAT activity (ci-BAT) semi-quantitatively and reliably with minimal operator intervention with the FDG PET/CT technique. Ci-BAT was measured to test whether FMS patients have decreased BAT activation compared to normal controls. Threshold parameters to optimally separate ci-BAT from non-ci-BAT were developed based on the distribution of the pixel-wise parametric data from each merged PET/CT scan for each study session occurring on different days. BAT activity was the same under warm conditions in both control and FMS subjects attesting to reproducibility and reliability. However, considerable variability arose between groups at cool temperatures consistent with other literature. Increases in ci-BAT activity were significantly less in FMS patients than in controls, as hypothesized. Ci-BAT recruitment can be quantified non-invasively using FDG PET/CT using semi-automated techniques in human subjects across different diagnostic groups or within groups undergoing manipulations of interest. PMID:28123865

  10. Qualification of NCI-Designated Cancer Centers for Quantitative PET/CT Imaging in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Joshua S; Reddin, Janet S; Opanowski, Adam; Kinahan, Paul E; Siegel, Barry A; Shankar, Lalitha K; Karp, Joel S

    2017-03-02

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed the Centers for Quantitative Imaging Excellence (CQIE) initiative in 2010 to pre-qualify imaging facilities at all of the NCI-designated Comprehensive and Clinical Cancer Centers for oncology trials using advanced imaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET). This paper reviews the CQIE PET/CT (Computed Tomography) scanner qualification process and results in detail. Methods: Over a period of approximately 5 years, sites were requested to submit a variety of phantom, including uniform and ACR (American College of Radiology) phantoms, PET/CT images, as well as examples of clinical images. Submissions were divided into 3 distinct time points: initial submission (T0), followed by two requalification submissions (T1 and T2). Images were analyzed using standardized procedures and scanners received a pass or fail designation. Sites had the opportunity to submit new data for failed scanners. Quantitative results were compared: across scanners within a given time point and across time points for a given scanner. Results: 65 unique PET/CT scanners across 42 sites were submitted for CQIE T0 qualification, with 64 passing qualification. 44 (68%) of the scanners from T0 had data submitted for T2. From T0 to T2 the percentage of scanners passing the CQIE qualification on the first attempt rose from 38% in T1 to 67% in T2. The most common reasons for failure were: standardized uptake value (SUV) out of specifications, incomplete data submission and uniformity issues. Uniform phantom and ACR phantom results between scanner manufacturers are similar. Conclusion: The results of the CQIE process show that periodic requalification may decrease the frequency of deficient data submissions. The CQIE project also highlighted the concern within imaging facilities about the burden of maintaining different qualifications and accreditations. Finally, we note that for quantitative imaging-based trials the relationships between

  11. FDG PET/CT in Crohn's disease: correlation of quantitative FDG PET/CT parameters with clinical and endoscopic surrogate markers of disease activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saboury, Babak; Salavati, Ali; Brothers, Alex; Basu, Sandip; Torigian, Drew A. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kwee, Thomas C.; Lam, Marnix G.E.H. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hustinx, Roland [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Liege (Belgium); Louis, Edouard [University Hospital of Liege, Division of Gastroenterology, Liege (Belgium); Alavi, Abass [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and potential clinical utility of assessment of Crohn's disease (CD) activity by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT employing a new quantitative approach. A total of 22 subjects (mean age 37) with CD who had undergone FDG PET/CT followed by ileocolonoscopy within 1 week were included in this analysis. The CD endoscopy index of severity (CDEIS) for various bowel segments was calculated. The CD activity index (CDAI) was evaluated, and fecal calprotectin was measured. On PET, regions with increased FDG uptake in large bowel were segmented with an adaptive contrast-oriented thresholding algorithm, and metabolically active volume (MAV), uncorrected mean standardized uptake value (SUV{sub mean}), partial volume-corrected SUV{sub mean} (PVC-SUV{sub mean}), SUV{sub max}, uncorrected total lesion glycolysis (TLG = MAV x SUV{sub mean}), and PVC total lesion glycolysis (PVC-TLG = MAV x PVC-SUV{sub mean}) were measured. Global CD activity score (GCDAS) was calculated as the sum of PVC-TLG over all clinically significant FDG-avid regions in each subject. Correlations between regional PET quantification measures (SUVs, TLGs) and CDEIS were calculated. Correlations between the global PET quantification measure (GCDAS, global SUVs) with CDAI, fecal calprotectin, CDEIS, and CRP level were also calculated. SUV{sub max}, PVC-SUV{sub mean}, and PVC-TLG significantly correlated with segment CDEIS subscores (r = 0.50, r = 0.69, and r = 0.31, respectively; p < 0.05). GCDAS significantly correlated with CDAI and fecal calprotectin (r = 0.64 and r = 0.51, respectively; p < 0.05). By employing this new quantitative approach, we were able to calculate indices of regional and global CD activity, which correlated well with both clinical and pathological disease activity surrogate markers. This approach may be of clinical importance in measuring both global disease activity and treatment response

  12. Clinical impact of {sup 18}F-choline PET/CT in patients with recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyka, Jan D.; Muster, Marco A.; Schmid, Daniel T.; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Strobel, Klaus; Schaefer, Niklaus G.; Hany, Thomas F. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Burkhardt [University of Zurich, Division of Biostatistics, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Schick, Ulrike; Miralbell, Raymond [University Hospital Geneva, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Geneva (Switzerland); Jorcano, Sandra [Instituto Oncologico Teknon, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Barcelona (Spain); Zaugg, Kathrin [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation-Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Seifert, Hans-Helge [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Urology, Zurich (Switzerland); Husarik, Daniela B. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    To investigate the clinical value of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT (CH-PET/CT) in treatment decisions in patients with recurrent prostate cancer (rPCA). The study was a retrospective evaluation of 156 patients with rPCA and CH-PET/CT for restaging. Questionnaires for each examination were sent to the referring physicians 14-64 months after examination. Questions included information regarding initial extent of disease, curative first-line treatment, and the treatment plan before and after CH-PET/CT. Additionally, PSA values at diagnosis, after initial treatment, before CH-PET/CT and at the end of follow-up were also obtained from the questionnaires. Mean follow-up was 42 months. The mean Gleason score was 6.9 at initial diagnosis. Initial treatment was: radical prostatectomy in 110 patients, radiotherapy in 39, and combined prostatectomy and radiotherapy in 7. Median PSA values before CH-PET/CT and at the end of follow-up were 3.40 ng/ml and 0.91 ng/ml. PSA levels remained stable, decreased or were below measurable levels in 108 patients. PSA levels increased in 48 patients. In 75 of the 156 patients (48%) the treatment plan was changed due to the CH-PET/CT findings. In 33 patients the therapeutic plan was changed from palliative treatment to treatment with curative intent. In 15 patients treatment was changed from curative to palliative. In 8 patients treatment was changed from curative to another strategy and in 2 patients from one palliative strategy to another. In 17 patients the treatment plan was adapted. CH-PET/CT has an important impact on the therapeutic strategy in patients with rPCA and can help to determine an appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  13. Clinical Evaluation of Zero-Echo-Time Attenuation Correction for Brain 18F-FDG PET/MRI: Comparison with Atlas Attenuation Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Tetsuro; Ter Voert, Edwin E G W; Warnock, Geoffrey; Buck, Alfred; Huellner, Martin; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Delso, Gaspar

    2016-12-01

    Accurate attenuation correction (AC) on PET/MR is still challenging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical feasibility of AC based on fast zero-echo-time (ZTE) MRI by comparing it with the default atlas-based AC on a clinical PET/MR scanner.

  14. Application of PET-CT imaging in pediatric oncology%PET-CT在儿科肿瘤中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王嘉兴; 朱汇庆

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric oncology is one of the important cause of children death. PET-CT, which can provide functional and anatomical images in the same scanning session, has a high sensitivity and specialty in the diagnosis of tumors. During the examination of children, careful preparation and individualized dosage are the keys to make it. PET-CT has a great value in making the personal therapy strategy during the clinical activity, including staging, grading, evaluation of therapy, and the items of prognosis and follow-up.%儿科肿瘤是儿童死亡的重要原因之一.对儿童进行PET-CT检查,充分做好检查前准备和选择合适的剂量是顺利且合理完成检查的关键步骤.PET-CT可以用于分期、分级、疗效的评价,以及作为预后随访的指标,这使得PET-CT在儿科肿瘤治疗中制定个体化方案有很大的价值.

  15. Simultaneous hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate MRI and (18)F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and (18)F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate results in an increase of (13)C-lactate, (13)C-alanine and (13)C-CO2 ((13)C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of (13)C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of (13)C-pyruvate to (13)C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with (18)F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq (18)F-FDG. (13)C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate. Peak heights of (13)C-pyruvate and (13)C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic (1)H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased (13)C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high (18)F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high (18)F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high (13)C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly

  16. COMPET: High resolution high sensitivity MRI compatible pre-clinical PET scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Hines, Kim-Eigard; Skretting, Arne; Rohne, Ole; Bjaalie, Jan G; Volgyes, David; Rissi, Michael; Dorholt, Ole; Stapnes, Steinar

    2013-01-01

    COMPET is a pre-clinical MRI compatible PET scanner which decouples sensitivity and resolution by the use of a novel detector design. The detector has been built using 8 x 8 cm(2) square layers consisting of 30 LYSO crystals (2 x 3 x 80 mm(2)) interleaved with 24 Wavelength Shifting Fibers (WLS) (3 x 1 x 80 mm(3)). By stacking several layers into a module, the point-of-interaction (POI) can be measured in 3D. Four layers form a PET ring where the sensitivity can be increased by stacking several layers. The layers can be stacked so that no inter-crystal or inter-module gap is formed. COMPET has used four assembled layers for module and scanner characterization. The modules are connected to the COMPET data-acquisition chain and the reconstructed images are produced with the novel geometry-independent COMPET image reconstruction algorithm. Time and energy resolution have been resolved and found to be around 4 as and 14% respectively. Tests for MRI interference and count rate performance have been carried out The...

  17. OSSI-PET: Open-Access Database of Simulated [(11)C]Raclopride Scans for the Inveon Preclinical PET Scanner: Application to the Optimization of Reconstruction Methods for Dynamic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marie-Paule; Charil, Arnaud; Callaghan, Paul; Wimberley, Catriona; Busso, Florian; Gregoire, Marie-Claude; Bardies, Manuel; Reilhac, Anthonin

    2016-07-01

    A wide range of medical imaging applications benefits from the availability of realistic ground truth data. In the case of positron emission tomography (PET), ground truth data is crucial to validate processing algorithms and assessing their performances. The design of such ground truth data often relies on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques. Since the creation of a large dataset is not trivial both in terms of computing time and realism, we propose the OSSI-PET database containing 350 simulated [(11)C]Raclopride dynamic scans for rats, created specifically for the Inveon pre-clinical PET scanner. The originality of this database lies on the availability of several groups of scans with controlled biological variations in the striata. Besides, each group consists of a large number of realizations (i.e., noise replicates). We present the construction methodology of this database using rat pharmacokinetic and anatomical models. A first application using the OSSI-PET database is presented. Several commonly used reconstruction techniques were compared in terms of image quality, accuracy and variability of the activity estimates and of the computed kinetic parameters. The results showed that OP-OSEM3D iterative reconstruction method outperformed the other tested methods. Analytical methods such as FBP2D and 3DRP also produced satisfactory results. However, FORE followed by OSEM2D reconstructions should be avoided. Beyond the illustration of the potential of the database, this application will help scientists to understand the different sources of noise and bias that can occur at the different steps in the processing and will be very useful for choosing appropriate reconstruction methods and parameters.

  18. PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Integrin Expression: Tracers in Clinical Studies and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Haubner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noninvasive determination of integrin expression has become an interesting approach in nuclear medicine. Since the discovery of the first 18F-labeled cyclic RGD peptide as radiotracer for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in vivo, there have been carried out enormous efforts to develop RGD peptides for PET imaging. Moreover, in recent years, additional integrins, including α5β1 and αvβ6, came into the focus of pharmaceutical radiochemistry. This review will discuss the tracers already evaluated in clinical trials and summarize the preliminary outcome. It will also give an overview on recent developments to further optimize the first-generation compounds such as [18F]Galacto-RGD. This includes recently developed 18F-labeling strategies and also new approaches in 68Ga-complex chemistry. Furthermore, the approaches to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin α5β1 and αvβ6 will be summarized and discussed.

  19. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  20. Comparison of clinical efficacy of second look operation and FDG-PET scan in patients with ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sang Young

    1999-12-01

    This study is to investigate whether FDG-PET scan can substitute for second look operation in patients with ovarian cancer showing complete response with chemotherapy. From Jan. 1999 to Oct. 1999, 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who showed clinical complete response with 6 cycles of combination chemotherapy were registered in KCCH. These patients showed no residual tumors in conventional radiologic imaging studies (CT or MRI), normal tumor marker, no evidence of disease by physical examination. PET scans and second look operation were performed in 10 patients with advanced ovarian cancer (3 patients with stage IIc, 2 patients with stage IIIb, 5 patients with IIIc), who showed complete response with cytoreductive surgery and 6 cycles of post-operative adjuvant cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Median age of patients was 45 years, and serous cystadenocarcinoma was most common histologic type. None showed active lesion in pelvis and abdomen with FDG-PET scan (SUV; > 3.5 kg/ml), and I patient showed active lesion in lung field. On second look operations, 5 patients (50%) showed positive result on multiple blind biopsy. The patient with active lesion on FDG-PET scan in lung field confirmed to have metastatic lesions by chest CT scan. In conclusion, FDG-PET scan is not useful for detection of small ovarian cancer lesions in pelvis and abdomen, and cannot substitute for second look operation to determine pathologic complete response.

  1. Application of WLS strips for position determination in Strip PET tomograph based on plastic scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Smyrski, J; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Czerwiński, E; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kowalski, P; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Molenda, M; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Pawlik, M; Raczyński, L; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Strzelecki, A; Wiślicki, W; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2013-01-01

    A method of determination of a gamma quantum absorption point in a plastic scintillator block using a matrix of wavelength-shifting (WLS) strips is proposed. Application of this method for improvement of position resolution in newly proposed PET detectors based on plastic scintillators is presented. The method enables to reduce parallax errors in reconstruction of images which occurs in the presently used Positron Emission Tomography scanners.

  2. Crystallographic study of PET radiotracers in clinical evaluation for early diagnosis of Alzheimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Altomare

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H25NO3·2CH3OH, which crystallized as a methanol disolvate, has applications as a PET radiotracer in the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. The dihedral angle between the biphenyl rings is 8.2 (2° and the heterocyclic ring adopts a half-chair conformation with the N atom adopting a pyramidal geometry (bond-angle sum = 327.6°. The C atoms of both methoxy groups lie close to the plane of their attached ring [deviations = 0.107 (6 and 0.031 (6 Å]. In the crystal, the components are linked by O—H...O and O—H...N hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. C—H...O interactions are also observed.

  3. Nontraditional applications in clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Holly L; Register, Thomas C; Tripathi, Niraj K; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Everds, Nancy; Zelmanovic, David; Poitout, Florence; Bounous, Denise I; Wescott, Debra; Ramaiah, Shashi K

    2014-10-01

    Most published reviews of preclinical toxicological clinical pathology focus on the fundamental aspects of hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis in routine toxicology animal species, for example, rats, mice, dogs, and nonhuman primates. The objective of this continuing education course was to present and discuss contemporary examples of nonroutine applications of clinical pathology endpoints used in the drug development setting. Area experts discussed bone turnover markers of laboratory animal species, clinical pathology of pregnant and growing laboratory animals, clinical pathology of nonroutine laboratory animal species, and unique applications of the Siemens Advia(®) hematology analyzer. This article is a summary based on a presentation given at the 31st Annual Symposium of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, during the Continuing Education Course titled "Nontraditional Applications of Clinical Pathology in Drug Discovery and Preclinical Toxicology."

  4. PET/MRI: Technical challenges and recent advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Im, Ki Chun [Molecular Imaging Research and Education Laboratory, Dept. of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide complementary functional and anatomical information about a specific organ or body system at the molecular level, has become a powerful imaging modality to understand the molecular biology details, disease mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Although the first experiment on the PET/MRI was performed in the early 1990s, its clinical application was accomplished in recent years because there were various technical challenges in integrating PET and MRI in a single system with minimum mutual interference between PET and MRI. This paper presents the technical challenges and recent advances in combining PET and MRI along with several approaches for improving PET image quality of the PET/MRI hybrid imaging system.

  5. Research Progress of PET Traces for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Cai-hua1,2;HU Kong-zhen1;TANG Gang-hua1

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is unknown cause progressive degenerative diseases of central nervous system. It is a serious threat to the health of the elderly people. The diagnosis is mainly based on pathological examination after death. With the wide application of positron emission tomography (PET imaging in clinic, in vivo noninvasive imaging diagnosis of AD at the early stage become possible. PET imaging mainly depends on the positron-labeled imaging agents. The PET imaging agents can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD include several kinds: PET traces for glucose metabolic, PET traces combined with amyloid proteinplaques,tau protein, neurotransmitter and receptor, activation of microglia and PET traces for cell apoptosis.The research progress of various PET tracers were reviewed that can be used in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis on AD in recent years.

  6. A compact high resolution flat panel PET detector based on the new 4-side buttable MPPC for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangqiang@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Wen, Jie; Ravindranath, Bosky; O' Sullivan, Andrew W. [Washington University in St Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Catherall, David [Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63103 (United States); Li, Ke; Wei, Shouyi; Komarov, Sergey [Washington University in St Louis, MO 63110 (United States); Tai, Yuan-Chuan, E-mail: taiy@mir.wustl.edu [Washington University in St Louis, MO 63110 (United States)

    2015-09-11

    Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC's active area, it is 4-side buttable. The custom designed MPPC array (based on Hamamatsu S12641-PA-50(x)) used in the prototype is composed of 4×4 TSV-MPPC cells with a 4.46 mm pitch in both directions. The detector module has 16×16 lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal array, with each crystal measuring 0.92×0.92×3 mm{sup 3} with 1.0 mm pitch. The outer diameter of the detector block is 16.8×16.8 mm{sup 2}. Thirty-two such blocks will be arranged in a 4×8 array with 1 mm gaps to form a panel detector with detection area around 7 cm×14 cm in the full-size detector. The flood histogram acquired with {sup 68}Ge source showed excellent crystal separation capability with all 256 crystals clearly resolved. The detector module's mean, standard deviation, minimum (best) and maximum (worst) energy resolution were 10.19%, ±0.68%, 8.36% and 13.45% FWHM, respectively. The measured coincidence time resolution between the block detector and a fast reference detector (around 200 ps single photon timing resolution) was 0.95 ns. When tested with Siemens Cardinal electronics the performance of the detector blocks remain consistent. These results demonstrate that the TSV-MPPC is a promising photon sensor for use in a flat panel PET insert composed of many high resolution compact detector modules.

  7. A compact high resolution flat panel PET detector based on the new 4-side buttable MPPC for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wen, Jie; Ravindranath, Bosky; O`Sullivan, Andrew W.; Catherall, David; Li, Ke; Wei, Shouyi; Komarov, Sergey; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC's active area, it is 4-side buttable. The custom designed MPPC array (based on Hamamatsu S12641-PA-50(x)) used in the prototype is composed of 4×4 TSV-MPPC cells with a 4.46 mm pitch in both directions. The detector module has 16×16 lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal array, with each crystal measuring 0.92×0.92×3 mm3 with 1.0 mm pitch. The outer diameter of the detector block is 16.8×16.8 mm2. Thirty-two such blocks will be arranged in a 4×8 array with 1 mm gaps to form a panel detector with detection area around 7 cm×14 cm in the full-size detector. The flood histogram acquired with 68Ge source showed excellent crystal separation capability with all 256 crystals clearly resolved. The detector module's mean, standard deviation, minimum (best) and maximum (worst) energy resolution were 10.19%, ±0.68%, 8.36% and 13.45% FWHM, respectively. The measured coincidence time resolution between the block detector and a fast reference detector (around 200 ps single photon timing resolution) was 0.95 ns. When tested with Siemens Cardinal electronics the performance of the detector blocks remain consistent. These results demonstrate that the TSV-MPPC is a promising photon sensor for use in a flat panel PET insert composed of many high resolution compact detector modules.

  8. A compact high resolution flat panel PET detector based on the new 4-side buttable MPPC for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Wen, Jie; Ravindranath, Bosky; O’Sullivan, Andrew W.; Catherall, David; Li, Ke; Wei, Shouyi; Komarov, Sergey; Tai, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Compact high-resolution panel detectors using virtual pinhole (VP) PET geometry can be inserted into existing clinical or pre-clinical PET systems to improve regional spatial resolution and sensitivity. Here we describe a compact panel PET detector built using the new Though Silicon Via (TSV) multi-pixel photon counters (MPPC) detector. This insert provides high spatial resolution and good timing performance for multiple bio-medical applications. Because the TSV MPPC design eliminates wire bonding and has a package dimension which is very close to the MPPC’s active area, it is 4-side buttable. The custom designed MPPC array (based on Hamamatsu S12641-PA-50(x)) used in the prototype is composed of 4 × 4 TSV-MPPC cells with a 4.46 mm pitch in both directions. The detector module has 16 × 16 lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystal array, with each crystal measuring 0.92 × 0.92 × 3 mm3 with 1.0 mm pitch. The outer diameter of the detector block is 16.8 × 16.8 mm2. Thirty-two such blocks will be arranged in a 4 × 8 array with 1 mm gaps to form a panel detector with detection area around 7 cm × 14 cm in the full-size detector. The flood histogram acquired with Ge-68 source showed excellent crystal separation capability with all 256 crystals clearly resolved. The detector module’s mean, standard deviation, minimum (best) and maximum (worst) energy resolution were 10.19%, +/−0.68%, 8.36% and 13.45% FWHM, respectively. The measured coincidence time resolution between the block detector and a fast reference detector (around 200 ps single photon timing resolution) was 0.95 ns. When tested with Siemens Cardinal electronics the performance of the detector blocks remain consistent. These results demonstrate that the TSV-MPPC is a promising photon sensor for use in a flat panel PET insert composed of many high resolution compact detector modules. PMID:26085702

  9. Clinical efficacy of FDG-PET scan as preoperative diagnostic tool in cervical cancer stage Ib and IIa: comparison between the results of FDG-PET scan and operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Hoon

    1999-12-01

    This study was done to evaluate the clinical feasibility of FDG-PET scan for routine preoperative diagnostic methods in cervical carcinoma. PET-scans were performed from March, 1999 to November, 1999. There were 6 stage Ib and 7 IIa patients and all patients were performed radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissections and were evaluated by FDG-PET scan before operation. The mean age of the patients were 50.3 years old. Six cases had lymph node metastases by pelvis MRI, and three cases by FDG-PET scan. We could not find any lymph node metastases at surgery in 3 patients (50.0%) among 6 patients who were diagnosed by nodal metastases by pelvis MRI. And we found 1 patients with nodal metastases who had negative findings by pelvis MRI. By FDG-PET scan, we could find metastases in all positive patients. But we also found 2 additional metastatic cases in the patients with negative findings. In this study, the comparison was very difficult due to the individual differences in the comparison would be made by site-specific not person. The sensitivity of MRI and FDG-PET scan were 50.0% and 30.0%. The specificity were 94.1 % and 95.6%. The positive predictive value were 55.6 % and 50.0 %. In conclusion, we could find any superiority of FDG-PET scan in the diagnosis of lymph node metastases the pelvis MRI. So there are limitations to use the FDG-PET scan in the routine preoperative diagnostic tools in cervical cancer. But if we have more experiences to use the FDG-PET scan such as precise cut-off value of SUV and combination of other imaging technique, the FDG-PET scan are still promising diagnostic tools in cervical cancer.

  10. Using PET with {sup 18}F-AV-45 (florbetapir) to quantify brain amyloid load in a clinical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, V.; Tauber, C.; Hommet, C.; Mondon, K.; Cottier, J.P.; Beaufils, E.; Ribeiro, M.J.; Vercouillie, J. [UMR INSERM U930-CNRS ERL 3106, Tours (France); Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, Tours (France); Payoux, P.; Tafani, M. [INSERM U825, Toulouse (France); Universite Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); CHRU de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Barre, L. [Groupe de Developpements Methodologiques en Tomographie par Emission de Positons, CEA/DSV/I2BM/CI-NAPS UMR6232, Caen (France); Universite de Caen Basse Normandie, Caen (France); Desgranges, B.; La Joie, R.; Chetelat, G.; La Sayette, V. de; Eustache, F. [INSERM U1077, Caen (France); Universite de Caen Basse Normandie - UMR-S1077, Caen (France); Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, UMR-S1077, Caen (France); Voisin, T.; Vellas, B. [Universite Paul Sabatier de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); INSERM U1027, Toulouse (France); CHRU de Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Gissot, V. [CIC-IT /CIC INSERM 202, Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, Tours (France); Vierron, E. [UMR INSERM U930-CNRS ERL 3106, Tours (France); Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Tours (France); Guilloteau, D. [UMR INSERM U930-CNRS ERL 3106, Tours (France); Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Tours (France); CIC-IT /CIC INSERM 202, Tours (France); CHRU de Tours, Tours (France)

    2012-04-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain amyloid load has been suggested as a core biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of using PET imaging with {sup 18}F-AV-45 (florbetapir) in a routine clinical environment to differentiate between patients with mild to moderate AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from normal healthy controls (HC). In this study, 46 subjects (20 men and 26 women, mean age of 69.0 {+-} 7.6 years), including 13 with AD, 12 with MCI and 21 HC subjects, were enrolled from three academic memory clinics. PET images were acquired over a 10-min period 50 min after injection of florbetapir (mean {+-} SD of radioactivity injected, 259 {+-} 57 MBq). PET images were assessed visually by two individuals blinded to any clinical information and quantitatively via the standard uptake value ratio (SUVr) in the specific regions of interest, which were defined in relation to the cerebellum as the reference region. The mean values of SUVr were higher in AD patients (median 1.20, Q1-Q3 1.16-1.30) than in HC subjects (median 1.05, Q1-Q3 1.04-1.08; p = 0.0001) in the overall cortex and all cortical regions (precuneus, anterior and posterior cingulate, and frontal median, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex). The MCI subjects also showed a higher uptake of florbetapir in the posterior cingulate cortex (median 1.06, Q1-Q3 0.97-1.28) compared with HC subjects (median 0.95, Q1-Q3 0.82-1.02; p = 0.03). Qualitative visual assessment of the PET scans showed a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI 0.55-0.98) and a specificity of 38.1% (95% CI 0.18-0.62) for discriminating AD patients from HC subjects; however, the quantitative assessment of the global cortex SUVr showed a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 90.5% with a cut-off value of 1.122 (area under the curve 0.894). These preliminary results suggest that PET with florbetapir is a safe and suitable biomarker for AD that can be used routinely in a

  11. The application of PET/CT in immunoglobulin G4-related disease%免疫球蛋白G4相关性疾病的PET/CT应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧玮; 赵军

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease is a kind of new systemic entity characterized by mass-forming lesions in various organs that consist of lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates and fibrosclerosis with numerous IgG4-positive plasma cells.PET/CT has been widely used in clinical as a whole body examination that earned plenty of successful experience,especially in multiple locations and organs cancer such as lymphoma.PET/CT also has a potential application in IgG4-relatcd diseases as its feature of systemic.%免疫球蛋白G4(IgG4)相关性疾病是一种以器官肿胀、IgG4水平升高和IgG4阳性淋巴浆细胞的组织浸润为特征的纤维炎症性疾病,该疾病可累及多器官.PET/CT作为一种全身检查现已广泛应用于临床,特别是在以淋巴瘤为代表的累及多部位、多器官疾病的应用中已经取得了成功的经验.又因IgG4相关性疾病具有系统性疾病的特点,PET/CT在该疾病中可能具有广阔的应用前景.

  12. Integrated Whole Body MR/PET: Where Are We?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Hye Jin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Sung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    Whole body integrated magnetic resonance imaging (MR)/positron emission tomography (PET) imaging systems have recently become available for clinical use and are currently being used to explore whether the combined anatomic and functional capabilities of MR imaging and the metabolic information of PET provide new insight into disease phenotypes and biology, and provide a better assessment of oncologic diseases at a lower radiation dose than a CT. This review provides an overview of the technical background of combined MR/PET systems, a discussion of the potential advantages and technical challenges of hybrid MR/PET instrumentation, as well as collection of possible solutions. Various early clinical applications of integrated MR/PET are also addressed. Finally, the workflow issues of integrated MR/PET, including maximizing diagnostic information while minimizing acquisition time are discussed.

  13. Learning Nuclear Chemistry through Practice: A High School Student Project Using PET in a Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…

  14. The usefulness of dynamic O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine PET in the clinical evaluation of brain tumors in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunkl, Veronika; Cleff, Corvin; Stoffels, Gabriele;

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Experience regarding O-(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine ((18)F-FET) PET in children and adolescents with brain tumors is limited. METHODS: Sixty-nine (18)F-FET PET scans of 48 children and adolescents (median age, 13 y; range, 1-18 y) were analyzed retrospectively. Twenty-six scans...... after injection, and time-activity curves of (18)F-FET uptake were assigned to 3 different patterns: constant increase; peak at greater than 20-40 min after injection, followed by a plateau; and early peak (≤ 20 min), followed by a constant descent. The diagnostic accuracy of (18)F-FET PET was assessed...... predictive value, 90%; P = 0.02). During chemotherapy, a decrease of TBRs was associated with a stable clinical course, and in 2 patients PET detected residual tumor after presumably complete tumor resection. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that (18)F-FET PET can add valuable information for clinical...

  15. DICOM for quantitative imaging biomarker development: a standards based approach to sharing clinical data and structured PET/CT analysis results in head and neck cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Fedorov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Imaging biomarkers hold tremendous promise for precision medicine clinical applications. Development of such biomarkers relies heavily on image post-processing tools for automated image quantitation. Their deployment in the context of clinical research necessitates interoperability with the clinical systems. Comparison with the established outcomes and evaluation tasks motivate integration of the clinical and imaging data, and the use of standardized approaches to support annotation and sharing of the analysis results and semantics. We developed the methodology and tools to support these tasks in Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET/CT quantitative imaging (QI biomarker development applied to head and neck cancer (HNC treatment response assessment, using the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM® international standard and free open-source software. Methods. Quantitative analysis of PET/CT imaging data collected on patients undergoing treatment for HNC was conducted. Processing steps included Standardized Uptake Value (SUV normalization of the images, segmentation of the tumor using manual and semi-automatic approaches, automatic segmentation of the reference regions, and extraction of the volumetric segmentation-based measurements. Suitable components of the DICOM standard were identified to model the various types of data produced by the analysis. A developer toolkit of conversion routines and an Application Programming Interface (API were contributed and applied to create a standards-based representation of the data. Results. DICOM Real World Value Mapping, Segmentation and Structured Reporting objects were utilized for standards-compliant representation of the PET/CT QI analysis results and relevant clinical data. A number of correction proposals to the standard were developed. The open-source DICOM toolkit (DCMTK was improved to simplify the task of DICOM encoding by introducing new API

  16. DICOM for quantitative imaging biomarker development: a standards based approach to sharing clinical data and structured PET/CT analysis results in head and neck cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Andriy; Clunie, David; Ulrich, Ethan; Bauer, Christian; Wahle, Andreas; Brown, Bartley; Onken, Michael; Riesmeier, Jörg; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron; Buatti, John; Beichel, Reinhard R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Imaging biomarkers hold tremendous promise for precision medicine clinical applications. Development of such biomarkers relies heavily on image post-processing tools for automated image quantitation. Their deployment in the context of clinical research necessitates interoperability with the clinical systems. Comparison with the established outcomes and evaluation tasks motivate integration of the clinical and imaging data, and the use of standardized approaches to support annotation and sharing of the analysis results and semantics. We developed the methodology and tools to support these tasks in Positron Emission Tomography and Computed Tomography (PET/CT) quantitative imaging (QI) biomarker development applied to head and neck cancer (HNC) treatment response assessment, using the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM(®)) international standard and free open-source software. Methods. Quantitative analysis of PET/CT imaging data collected on patients undergoing treatment for HNC was conducted. Processing steps included Standardized Uptake Value (SUV) normalization of the images, segmentation of the tumor using manual and semi-automatic approaches, automatic segmentation of the reference regions, and extraction of the volumetric segmentation-based measurements. Suitable components of the DICOM standard were identified to model the various types of data produced by the analysis. A developer toolkit of conversion routines and an Application Programming Interface (API) were contributed and applied to create a standards-based representation of the data. Results. DICOM Real World Value Mapping, Segmentation and Structured Reporting objects were utilized for standards-compliant representation of the PET/CT QI analysis results and relevant clinical data. A number of correction proposals to the standard were developed. The open-source DICOM toolkit (DCMTK) was improved to simplify the task of DICOM encoding by introducing new API abstractions

  17. Application of palladium-mediated (18F-fluorination to PET radiotracer development: overcoming hurdles to translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Kamlet

    Full Text Available New chemistry methods for the synthesis of radiolabeled small molecules have the potential to impact clinical positron emission tomography (PET imaging, if they can be successfully translated. However, progression of modern reactions from the stage of synthetic chemistry development to the preparation of radiotracer doses ready for use in human PET imaging is challenging and rare. Here we describe the process of and the successful translation of a modern palladium-mediated fluorination reaction to non-human primate (NHP baboon PET imaging-an important milestone on the path to human PET imaging. The method, which transforms [(18F]fluoride into an electrophilic fluorination reagent, provides access to aryl-(18F bonds that would be challenging to synthesize via conventional radiochemistry methods.

  18. Rheumatoid Factors: Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ingegnoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid factors are antibodies directed against the Fc region of immunoglobulin G. First detected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis 70 years ago, they can also be found in patients with other autoimmune and nonautoimmune conditions, as well as in healthy subjects. Rheumatoid factors form part of the workup for the differential diagnosis of arthropathies. In clinical practice, it is recommended to measure anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factors together because anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies alone are only moderately sensitive, and the combination of the two markers improves diagnostic accuracy, especially in the case of early rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, different rheumatoid factor isotypes alone or in combination can be helpful when managing rheumatoid arthritis patients, from the time of diagnosis until deciding on the choice of therapeutic strategy.

  19. Nuclear medicine. Basic knowledge and clinical applications. 7. rev. and enl. ed.; Nuklearmedizin. Basiswissen und klinische Anwendung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicha, Harald [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln (Germany). Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum II; Schober, Otmar [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2013-11-01

    The book on basic knowledge and clinical applications of nuclear medicine covers the following issues: The first general part: principles of nuclear medicine; physical fundamentals; radiopharmaceutical chemistry; measuring techniques: gamma detectors, gamma spectrometry, gamma camera, SPECT, PET, PET/CT, PET/NMR, image processing and communication; nuclear medical examinations: metabolic and pharmacological kinetics, scintigraphic methods, criteria for the use; quality assurance; dosimetry and radiation protection, radiation risks and patients exposure, benefit-risk considerations. The second part covers endocrine organs, carcinomas, skeleton and bone joints, inflammations, lymph system, cardiovascular system, lungs, central nervous system, kidneys and urinary system, gastrointestinal tract, other scintigraphic examinations.

  20. 86Y based PET radiopharmaceuticals: radiochemistry and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Tapan K; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2011-09-01

    Development of targeted radionuclide therapy with (90)Y labeled antibodies and peptides has gained momentum in the past decade due to the successes of (90)Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan and (90)Y-DOTA-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide in treatment of cancer. (90)Y is a pure β(-)-emitter and cannot be imaged for patient-specific dosimetry which is essential for pre-therapeutic treatment planning and accurate absorbed dose estimation in individual patients to mitigate radiation related risks. This review article describes the utility of (86)Y, a positron emitter (33%) with a 14.7-h half-life that can be imaged by positron emission tomography and used as an isotopically matched surrogate radionuclide for (90)Y radiation doses estimations. This review discusses various aspects involved in the development of (86)Y labeled radiopharmaceuticals with the specific emphasis on the radiochemistry and biological applications with antibodies and peptides.

  1. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early prediction of pathological response in aggressive subtypes of breast cancer: review of the literature and recommendations for use in clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groheux, David [Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris Cedex 10 (France); INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Mankoff, David [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia (United States); Espie, Marc [INSERM/CNRS UMR944/7212, University Paris-Diderot, PRES Paris Cite, Paris (France); Saint-Louis Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Breast Diseases Centre, Paris (France); Hindie, Elif [University of Bordeaux, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haut-Leveque Hospital, Bordeaux (France)

    2016-05-15

    Early assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) might be helpful in avoiding the toxicity of ineffective chemotherapy and allowing refinement of treatment. We conducted a review of the literature regarding the applicability of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to the prediction of an early pathological response in different subgroups of breast cancer. Clinical research in this field has intensified in the last few years. Early studies by various groups have shown the potential of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the early assessment of response to NAC. However, interim PET/CT in breast cancer has not yet gained wide acceptance compared to its use in other settings such as lymphomas. This is in part due to a lack of consensus that early evaluation of response can be used to direct change in therapy in the neoadjuvant breast cancer setting, and only limited data showing that response-adaptive therapy leads to improved outcomes. However, one major element that has hampered the use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in directing neoadjuvant therapy is its evaluation in populations with mixed subtypes of breast cancer. However, major improvements have occurred in recent years. Pilot studies have highlighted the need for considering breast cancer subtype and the type of treatment, and have offered criteria for the use of PET/CT for the early prediction of response in specific settings. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has considerable potential for the early prediction of pathological complete response to NAC in aggressive subtypes such as triple-negative or HER2-positive breast cancers. The results of a multicentre trial that used early metabolic response on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as a means to select poor responders to adapt neoadjuvant treatment have recently been published. Other trials are ongoing or being planned. (orig.)

  2. Application of PET molecular imaging in gliomas%胶质瘤PET分子影像的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳艳(综述); 管一晖(审校)

    2016-01-01

    is not possible to use only one PET tracer to make all clinical decisions because each tracer has both advantages and disadvantages. This study focuses on the different kinds of PET tracers and summarizes their recent applications in patients with gliomas. Combinational uses of PET tracers are expected to contribute to differential diagnosis, prognosis, targeted treatment, and monitoring therapy.

  3. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  4. Physical and clinical performance of the mCT time-of-flight PET/CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakoby, B. W.; Bercier, Y.; Conti, M.; Casey, M. E.; Bendriem, B.; Townsend, D. W.

    2011-04-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) measurement capability promises to improve PET image quality. We characterized the physical and clinical PET performance of the first Biograph mCT TOF PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc.) in comparison with its predecessor, the Biograph TruePoint TrueV. In particular, we defined the improvements with TOF. The physical performance was evaluated according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2007 standard with additional measurements to specifically address the TOF capability. Patient data were analyzed to obtain the clinical performance of the scanner. As expected for the same size crystal detectors, a similar spatial resolution was measured on the mCT as on the TruePoint TrueV. The mCT demonstrated modestly higher sensitivity (increase by 19.7 ± 2.8%) and peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) (increase by 15.5 ± 5.7%) with similar scatter fractions. The energy, time and spatial resolutions for a varying single count rate of up to 55 Mcps resulted in 11.5 ± 0.2% (FWHM), 527.5 ± 4.9 ps (FWHM) and 4.1 ± 0.0 mm (FWHM), respectively. With the addition of TOF, the mCT also produced substantially higher image contrast recovery and signal-to-noise ratios in a clinically-relevant phantom geometry. The benefits of TOF were clearly demonstrated in representative patient images.

  5. Pediatric DXA: clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkovitz, Larry A. [Columbus Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Columbus, OH (United States); Sparke, Paul [Capital University, Department of Chemistry, Columbus, OH (United States); Henwood, Maria J. [Columbus Children' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Normal bone mineral accrual requires adequate dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients; hepatic and renal activation of vitamin D; normal hormone levels (thyroid, parathyroid, reproductive and growth hormones); and neuromuscular functioning with sufficient stress upon the skeleton to induce bone deposition. The presence of genetic or acquired diseases and the therapies that are used to treat them can also impact bone health. Since the introduction of clinical DXA in pediatrics in the early 1990s, there has been considerable investigation into the causes of low bone mineral density (BMD) in children. Pediatricians have also become aware of the role adequate bone mass accrual in childhood has in preventing osteoporotic fractures in late adulthood. Additionally, the availability of medications to improve BMD has increased with the development of bisphosphonates. These factors have led to the increased utilization of DXA in pediatrics. This review summarizes much of the previous research regarding BMD in children and is meant to assist radiologists and clinicians with DXA utilization and interpretation. (orig.)

  6. PET and SPECT imaging in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field.

  7. Clinical value of FDG-PET/CT in suspected paraneoplastic syndromes: a retrospective analysis of 137 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern Kristensen, Stine; Hess, Soeren; Petersen, Henrik; Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2015-12-15

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are relatively infrequent manifestations appearing before or after a cancer declares itself. Autoimmune mechanisms may be involved, but their cause and pathogenesis are often unknown. Due to disparity of symptoms, PNS remain a major diagnostic challenge. We examined the value of FDG-PET/CT for ruling in or out malignancy in a heterogeneous group of patients with suspected PNS. We retrospectively extracted data from all patients referred 2009-2013 with suspected PNS. Data included age, sex, follow-up period, scan report, further diagnostic procedures, and final clinical diagnosis. Conclusions of the scan reports were compared to the final follow-up outcome as determined during an average follow-up of 31 months (range 6-51.5) in patients who were not diagnosed with cancer in immediate continuation of a positive PET/CT scan. A total of 137 patients were included. Main causes for referral were neurological (n = 67), rheumatological (n = 25), dermatological (n = 18), nephrological (n = 6), haematological (n = 2), abnormal biochemistry (n = 11), and others (n = 8). The cancer prevalence was 8.8 %. The FDG-PET/CT results were as follows: nine true positives, 22 false positives, 103 true negatives, and three false negatives. Corresponding diagnostic values were: sensitivity 75 %, specificity 82 %, accuracy 82 %, and positive and negative predictive values of 29 % and 97 %, respectively. FDG-PET/CT has in patients with suspected PNS an impressively high negative predictive value and may be of value in ruling out PNS, the more so, the more the number of false positives can be minimized or used in differential diagnosis. We believe that FDG-PET/CT may become an important adjunct to the work-up and triage of patients with suspected PNS. (orig.)

  8. Technology Analysis and Research Review of Integrated PET/MRI%一体式PET/MRI技术分析与研究回顾

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚仕涛; 汤黎明; 刘铁兵; 钟添萍

    2011-01-01

    Compared with other multi-modality imaging methods like PET/CT. the integrated PET/MRI has many obvious advantages, such as simultaneous acquisition. no radiation hazards. higher soft tissue contrast. various functional imaging. Integrated PET/MRI technology encountered many challenges. such as magnetic cnmpatibility issues, mutual intederence problems, and limited magnetie resonance aperture. Integrated PET/MRI uses technologies. such as fiher-hased type. APD sensor type, etc. The APD sensor seems more valuable for designing a clinical whole-bady Integrated PET/MRI. Currently integrated animal PET / MRI has been used more often, but the clinical type of integrated PET / MRI is still in the early stages of development. however, reveals preliminary clinical application of PET / MRI imaging of clinical significance.%一体式PET/MRI较其他多模态成像,如PETCT等具有明显的优点:同步采集、无射线危害、高软组织对比度,可实现各种功能成像等.一体式PET/MRI技术具有许多难点,如磁兼容性问题、PET和MRI的互相干扰问题,磁共振孔径有限等.一体式PET/MRI采用的技术包括基于光纤式、基于APD传感器式等,其中,APD传感器对设计全身临床型一体式PET/MRI更有前途.目前,一体式动物PET/MRI已应用较多.但临床型一体式PET/MRI尚处于初期发展阶段,不过初步的临床应用揭示PET/MRI对临床医学成像具有重要意义.

  9. Clinical Application of Nape Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA Xiao-yin; CUI Yi-jun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Nape Acupuncture refers to an acupuncture method at nuchal region. It was initiated and applied in clinic by Dr. HUA Yan-ling from Shanghai Research Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian and it can be used for treating diseases of nervous, circulatory and motor systems. Especially, it is more effective for brain-origin diseases. The author ever studied this acupuncture method from Dr. Hua and found it was effective according to clinical application. Now several typical cases are reported as follows.

  10. Current status and future role of brain PET/MRI in clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, P.; Barthel, H.; Sabri, O. [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Drzezga, A. [University Hospital Cologne, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Koeln (Germany)

    2015-01-09

    Hybrid PET/MRI systematically offers a complementary combination of two modalities that has often proven itself superior to the single modality approach in the diagnostic work-up of many neurological and psychiatric diseases. Emerging PET tracers, technical advances in multiparametric MRI and obvious workflow advantages may lead to a significant improvement in the diagnosis of dementia disorders, neurooncological diseases, epilepsy and neurovascular diseases using PET/MRI. Moreover, simultaneous PET/MRI is well suited to complex studies of brain function in which fast fluctuations of brain signals (e.g. related to task processing or in response to pharmacological interventions) need to be monitored on multiple levels. Initial simultaneous studies have already demonstrated that these complementary measures of brain function can provide new insights into the functional and structural organization of the brain. (orig.)

  11. Present and future of clinical cardiovascular PET imaging in Europe - a position statement by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology (ECNC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Guludec, D. [Bichat Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); European Council of Nuclear Cardiology, Vienna (Austria); Lautamaeki, R.; Bengel, F.M. [Johns Hopkins University, Cardiovascular Nuclear Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Knuuti, J. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Bax, J.J. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2008-09-15

    This position statement was prepared by the European Council of Nuclear Cardiology and summarises the current and future potential of PET as a clinical cardiovascular diagnostic imaging tool. The first section describes how methodological developments have positively influenced the transition of PET from a research tool towards a clinical diagnostic test. In the second section, evidence in support of its superior diagnostic accuracy, its value to guide decision making and to predict outcome and its cost effectiveness is summarised. The third section finally outlines new PET-based approaches and concepts, which will likely influence clinical cardiovascular medicine in the future. The notion that integration of cardiac PET into healthcare systems and disease management algorithms will advance quality of care is increasingly supported by the literature highlighted in this statement. (orig.)

  12. Clinical value of {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT) for detecting pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luster, Markus; Zeich, Katrin; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Solbach, Christoph; Reske, Sven N. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Karges, Wolfram [RWTH Aachen, Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Aachen (Germany); Pauls, Sandra [University of Ulm, Department of Radiology, Ulm (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A. [University of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Dralle, Henning [University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Halle (Germany); Neumaier, Bernd [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Section for Radiochemistry, Cologne (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    In detecting pheochromocytoma (PHEO), positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabelled amine precursor {sup 18}F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-DOPA) offers excellent specificity, while computed tomography (CT) provides high sensitivity and ability to localize lesions; therefore, the combination of these modalities could be advantageous in this setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether combined {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately detects and localizes PHEO lesions than does each modality alone. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET, CT and {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT images of 25 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic scanning of suspected sporadic or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome-associated PHEO were reviewed retrospectively in randomized sequence. Two blinded observers scored the images regarding the likelihood of PHEO being present and localizable. Results were correlated with subsequent clinical history and, when available, histology. Of the 19 lesions detected by all three modalities, PET identified each as positive for PHEO, but was unable to definitively localize 15 of 19 (79%). CT could definitively localize all 19 lesions, but could not definitively diagnose or exclude PHEO in 18 of 19 (95%) lesions. Furthermore, CT falsely identified as negative for PHEO one lesion which was judged to be positive for this tumor by both PET and PET/CT. Only in PET/CT scans were all 19 lesions accurately characterized and localized. On a per-patient basis, the sensitivity of {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT for PHEO was 100% and the specificity 88%, with a 100% positive predictive value and an 88% negative predictive value. {sup 18}F-DOPA PET/CT more accurately diagnoses and localizes adrenal and extra-adrenal masses suspicious for PHEO than do {sup 18}F-DOPA PET or CT alone. (orig.)

  13. Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT on colorectal cancer staging and treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus K; Hess, Søren; Alavi, Abass;

    2014-01-01

    and patients divided as follows: (A) Patients with a change in therapy following FDG-PET/CT and (B) Patients without a change following FDG-PET/CT. Sixty-two patients had colon and five had rectal cancer. Of these, 20 (30%; CI 20.2-41.7) belonged to group A, whereas 47 (70%; CI 58.3-79.8) fell in group B...

  14. fMRI. Basics and clinical applications. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Stephan [Medizinisch Radiologisces Institut (MRI), Zuerich (Switzerland); Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie

    2013-11-01

    State of the art overview of fMRI. Covers technical issues, methods of statistical analysis, and the full range of clinical applications. Revised and expanded edition including discussion of novel aspects of analysis and further important applications. Includes comparisons with other brain mapping techniques and discussion of potential combined uses. Since functional MRI (fMRI) and the basic method of BOLD imaging were introduced in 1993 by Seiji Ogawa, fMRI has evolved into an invaluable clinical tool for routine brain imaging, and there have been substantial improvements in both the imaging technique itself and the associated statistical analysis. This book provides a state of the art overview of fMRI and its use in clinical practice. Experts in the field share their knowledge and explain how to overcome diverse potential technical barriers and problems. Starting from the very basics on the origin of the BOLD signal, the book covers technical issues, anatomical landmarks, the full range of clinical applications, methods of statistical analysis, and special issues in various clinical fields. Comparisons are made with other brain mapping techniques, such as DTI, PET, TMS, EEG, and MEG, and their combined use with fMRI is also discussed. Since the first edition, original chapters have been updated and new chapters added, covering both novel aspects of analysis and further important clinical applications.

  15. Validation of an optimized SPM procedure for FDG-PET in dementia diagnosis in a clinical setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Perani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic accuracy in FDG-PET imaging highly depends on the operating procedures. In this clinical study on dementia, we compared the diagnostic accuracy at a single-subject level of a Clinical Scenarios, b Standard FDG Images and c Statistical Parametrical (SPM Maps generated via a new optimized SPM procedure. We evaluated the added value of FDG-PET, either Standard FDG Images or SPM Maps, to Clinical Scenarios. In 88 patients with neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's Disease—AD, Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration—FTLD, Dementia with Lewy bodies—DLB and Mild Cognitive Impairment—MCI, 9 neuroimaging experts made a forced diagnostic decision on the basis of the evaluation of the three types of information. There was also the possibility of a decision of normality on the FDG-PET images. The clinical diagnosis confirmed at a long-term follow-up was used as the gold standard. SPM Maps showed higher sensitivity and specificity (96% and 84%, and better diagnostic positive (6.8 and negative (0.05 likelihood ratios compared to Clinical Scenarios and Standard FDG Images. SPM Maps increased diagnostic accuracy for differential diagnosis (AD vs. FTD; beta 1.414, p = 0.019. The AUC of the ROC curve was 0.67 for SPM Maps, 0.57 for Clinical Scenarios and 0.50 for Standard FDG Images. In the MCI group, SPM Maps showed the highest predictive prognostic value (mean LOC = 2.46, by identifying either normal brain metabolism (exclusionary role or hypometabolic patterns typical of different neurodegenerative conditions.

  16. Clinical use of quantitative cardiac perfusion PET: rationale, modalities and possible indications. Position paper of the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciagrà, Roberto; Passeri, Alessandro; Bucerius, Jan; Verberne, Hein J; Slart, Riemer H J A; Lindner, Oliver; Gimelli, Alessia; Hyafil, Fabien; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Hacker, Marcus

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, PET was regarded as a luxurious way of performing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, with excellent image quality and diagnostic capabilities that hardly justified the additional cost and procedural effort. Quantitative perfusion PET was considered a major improvement over standard qualitative imaging, because it allows the measurement of parameters not otherwise available, but for many years its use was confined to academic and research settings. In recent years, however, several factors have contributed to the renewal of interest in quantitative perfusion PET, which has become a much more readily accessible technique due to progress in hardware and the availability of dedicated and user-friendly platforms and programs. In spite of this evolution and of the growing evidence that quantitative perfusion PET can play a role in the clinical setting, there are not yet clear indications for its clinical use. Therefore, the Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, starting from the experience of its members, decided to examine the current literature on quantitative perfusion PET to (1) evaluate the rationale for its clinical use, (2) identify the main methodological requirements, (3) identify the remaining technical difficulties, (4) define the most reliable interpretation criteria, and finally (5) tentatively delineate currently acceptable and possibly appropriate clinical indications. The present position paper must be considered as a starting point aiming to promote a wider use of quantitative perfusion PET and to encourage the conception and execution of the studies needed to definitely establish its role in clinical practice.

  17. Application of the in-beam PET therapy monitoring on precision irradiations with helium ions; Anwendung des in-beam PET Therapiemonitorings auf Praezisionsbestrahlungen mit Helium-Ionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, F.

    2008-02-19

    The main goal of the present dissertation was to extend the in-beam PET method to new ion types. It was shown that the in-beam PET method can also be applied for {sup 3}He irradiations. For this experiments on a {sup 3}He beam were performed. The activity yield is at equal applied dose about three times larger than at {sup 12}C irradiations. The reachable range resolution is smaller than 1 mm. At the irradiation of an inhomogeneous phantom it was shown that a contrast between different materials is resolvable. From the experimentally determined reaction rates cross sections for the reactions leading to positron emitters were performed. The data taken in the {sup 3}He experiments were compared those obtained in carbon-ion experiments as well as literature data for proton irradiations. A comparison with the calculations of the simulation program SHIELD-HIT was performed. A collection of cross-section models and the established requirements for a simulation program applicable for in-beam PET are preparing for further work.

  18. Monte Carlo modeling of a clinical PET scanner by using the GATE dedicated computer code; Modelagem Monte Carlo de um PET Scanner clinico utilizando o codigo dedicado GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Igor Fagner; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade, E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper demonstrates more possible detailed the GATE simulated architecture involved in the 4D modeling of a General Electric PET scanner, the Advance. So, it were used data present in the literature on the configuration of GE modelled PET. The obtained results which were the 3D components of PET creation, and the simulation of 4D phenomena as the source decay and the gantry whirl, exhibit the potential of tool in emission tomograph modelling

  19. The application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in radiotherapy of pancreatic cancer%18 F-氟脱氧葡萄糖PET/CT在胰腺癌放疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾臻; 张火俊

    2016-01-01

    18F- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT has important application value in ra-diotherapy of pancreatic cancer. Compared with the traditional imaging examination, PET/CT can improve the accuracy of diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer before radiotherapy. During radio-therapy, PET/CT can improve the accuracy of target volume delineation and reduce the adverse effects of irradiation in normal adjacent tissues. Regions of tumor metabolic activity following radio-therapy can be predicted from the baseline PET/CT and treatment planning could be changed. Meanwhile, PET/CT could evaluate the efficacy and prognosis of radiotherapy. With the develop-ment of systematic research, 18F-FDG PET/CT will play an increasingly important role in radiothera-py of pancreatic cancer.%18 F-氟脱氧葡萄糖PET/CT在胰腺癌的放疗中具有重要的应用价值。 PET/CT较常规影像学检查能提高胰腺癌放疗前的诊断及分期准确性。在放疗过程中,以PET/CT检查为基础的靶区勾画能够准确地覆盖肿瘤组织及保护周围正常组织,同时可以按照其所提示的肿瘤代谢活性调整放疗计划。 PET/CT还能够进行放疗的疗效评估及预后评判。相信随着研究的进展,18 F-氟脱氧葡萄糖PET/CT将在胰腺癌放疗中发挥越来越重要的作用。

  20. Clinical Application of Surrounding Puncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yao-jie; HAN Chou-ping

    2003-01-01

    Surrounding puncture can stop pathogenic qi from spreading, consolidate the connection between local meridians and enrich local qi and blood, which can eventually supplement anti-pathogenic qi and remove pathogenic qi, and consequently remedy diseases. The author of this article summrized and analyzed the clinical application of surrounding puncture for the purpose of studying this technique and improving the therapeutic effect.

  1. Microfluidics for Synthesis of Peptide-Based PET Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET is a powerful noninvasive tool for acquisition of the physiological parameters in human and animals with the help of PET tracers. Among all the PET tracers, radiolabeled peptides have been widely explored for cancer-related receptor imaging due to their high affinity and specificity to receptors. But radiochemistry procedures for production of peptide-based PET tracers are usually complex, which makes large-scale clinical studies relatively challenging. New radiolabeling technologies which could simplify synthesis and purification procedures, are extremely needed. Over the last decade, microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology have boomed as powerful tools in the field of organic chemistry, which potentially provide significant help to the PET chemistry. In this minireview, microfluidic radiolabeling technology is described and its application for synthesis of peptide-based PET tracers is summarized and discussed.

  2. Differential regional cerebral glucose metabolism in clinical syndromes of frontotemporal lobar degeneration: a study with FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. M.; Cho, S. S.; Na, D. L.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Choe, Y. S.; Kim, B. T.; Kim, S. E. [College of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Frontotemporal lobar degeneration( FTLD) is the third most common dementia, following Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body disease. Four prototypic neurobehavioral syndromes can be produced by FTLD: frontotemporal dementia (FTD), frontotemporal dementia with motor neuron disease (MND), semantic dementia (SD), and progressive aphasia (PA). We investigated patterns of metabolic impairment in patient with FTLD presented with four different clinical syndromes. We analysed glucose metabolic patterns on FDG PET images obtained from 34 patients with a clinical diagnosis of FTLD (19 FTD, 6 MND, 6 SD, and 3 PA, according to a consensus criteria for clinical syndromes associated with FTLD) and 7 age-matched healthy controls using SPM99. Patients with FTD had metabolic deficit in the left frontal cortex and bilateral anterior temporal cortex. Hypometabolism in the bilateral premotor are was shown in patients with MND. Patients with SD had metabolic deficit in the left posterior temporal cortex including Wernicke's area, while hypometabolism in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus including Broca's area and left angular gyrus was seen in patients with PA. These metabolic patterns were well correlated with clinical features of FTLD syndromes. These data provide a biochemical basis of clinical classification of FTLD. FDG PET may help evaluate and classify patients with FTLD.

  3. {sup 13}N-ammonia myocardial perfusion imaging with a PET/CT scanner: impact on clinical decision making and cost-effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, Patrick T.; Husmann, Lars; Knabenhans, Martina; Gaemperli, Oliver; Valenta, Ines; Hoefflinghaus, Tobias [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Scheffel, Hans; Stolzmann, Paul; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Zurich, Center for Integrative Human Physiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of {sup 13}N-ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) on clinical decision making and its cost-effectiveness. One hundred consecutive patients (28 women, 72 men; mean age 60.9 {+-} 12.0 years; range 24-85 years) underwent {sup 13}N-ammonia PET scanning (and computed tomography, used only for attenuation correction) to assess myocardial perfusion in patients with known (n = 79) or suspected (n = 8) coronary artery disease (CAD), or for suspected small-vessel disease (SVD; n = 13). Before PET, the referring physician was asked to determine patient treatment if PET would not be available. Four weeks later, PET patient management was reassessed for each patient individually. Before PET management strategies would have been: diagnostic angiography (62 of 100 patients), diagnostic angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; 6 of 100), coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG; 3 of 100), transplantation (1 of 100), or conservative medical treatment (28 of 100). After PET scanning, treatment strategies were altered in 78 patients leading to: diagnostic angiography (0 of 100), PCI (20 of 100), CABG (3 of 100), transplantation (1 of 100), or conservative medical treatment (76 of 100). Patient management followed the recommendations of PET findings in 97% of the cases. Cost-effectiveness analysis revealed lower costs of EUR206/patient as a result of PET scanning. In a population with a high prevalence of known CAD, PET is cost-effective and has an important impact on patient management. (orig.)

  4. Cardiovascular hybrid imaging using PET/MRI; Kardiovaskulaere Hybridbildgebung mit PET/MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nensa, Felix; Schlosser, Thomas [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-12-15

    The following overview provides a summary of the state of the art and research as well as potential clinical applications of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging. PET/MRI systems have been clinically available for a few years, and their use in cardiac imaging has been successfully demonstrated. At this period in time, some of the technical difficulties that arose at the beginning have been solved; in particular with respect to MRI-based attenuation correction, caution should be exercised with PET quantification. In addition, many promising technical options are still in the developmental stage, such as MRI-based motion correction of PET data resulting from simultaneous MR acquisition, and are not yet available for cardiovascular imaging. On the other hand, PET/MRI has been used to demonstrate significant pathologies such as acute and chronic myocardial infarction, myocarditis or cardiac sarcoidosis; future applications in clinical routine or within studies appear to be possible. In coming years additional studies will have to be performed to prove diagnostic gain at a reasonable cost-benefit ratio before valid conclusions are possible regarding the clinical utility and future of cardiovascular PET/MR imaging.

  5. Application of fusion of coincidence PET/CT image and dual source CT image in diagnosis of tumors%经济型PET/CT与双源CT异机融合在肿瘤诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪娟; 鲍红梅; 刘帆; 李运奇; 高琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of fusion of coincidence PET/CT image and dual source CT image in comparison of fused imaging quality. Methods Integration of coincidence PET/CT PET images with dual source CT images was performed in 29 cases with suspected tumor or tumor recurrence or metastasis, and the image quality was compared with that of PET/CT in fused images. Results Forty-six primary or metastic tumors were detected by both methods. The image quality in fused imaging of stand-alone coincidence PET/CT with dual source CT was better than that of coincidence PET/CT in fused images (X2 = 14. 743, P<0. 001). Conclusion The integration of stand-alone coincidence PET/CT and dual source CT is convenient and practical,having complementary advantages, which may improve image quality and help clinical diagnosis and treatment of tumors.%目的 通过对比分析经济型PET/CT与双源CT异机融合的图像质量,探讨异机融合的临床应用价值.方法 对29例可疑肿瘤或肿瘤复发转移患者行经济型PET/CT的PET与双源CT图像融合,并与同机融合图像质量进行对比分析.结果 两种方法均检出原发灶和转移灶共46个,异机融合图像质量优于同机融合(x2=14.743,P<0.001).结论 双源CT与经济型PET/CT异机融合,方便实用,优势互补,可提高图像质量,对临床诊断和治疗肿瘤有重要价值.

  6. Clinical value of FDG-PET/CT in suspected paraneoplastic syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Bjørn; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    examined the value of FDG-PET/CT for ruling in or out malignancy in a heterogeneous group of patients with suspected PNS. METHODS: We retrospectively extracted data from all patients referred 2009-2013 with suspected PNS. Data included age, sex, follow-up period, scan report, further diagnostic procedures...... true positives, 22 false positives, 103 true negatives, and three false negatives. Corresponding diagnostic values were: sensitivity 75 %, specificity 82 %, accuracy 82 %, and positive and negative predictive values of 29 % and 97 %, respectively. CONCLUSION: FDG-PET/CT has in patients with suspected...... PNS an impressively high negative predictive value and may be of value in ruling out PNS, the more so, the more the number of false positives can be minimized or used in differential diagnosis. We believe that FDG-PET/CT may become an important adjunct to the work-up and triage of patients...

  7. Clinical experience with a commercially available negative oral contrast medium in PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausegger, K.; Reinprecht, P. [Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut, LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Kau, T. [Roentgendiagnostisches Zentral Inst., Klagenfurt (Austria); Igerc, I.; Lind, P. [Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie, LKH Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: to evaluate a commercially available negative oral contrast material for PET/CT. Material and methods: in a prospective series of 49 patients, Mukofalk {sup registered}, which is a vegetarian-based substance, was used as a negative oral contrast medium in whole body PET/CT studies. Mukofalk was administered during a time period of 1.5 hours before the examination. Quality of small bowl distension and eventual pathological tracer uptake in the intestine were evaluated. Results: distension of the small bowel was excellent or good in 41 (85%) and poor in 8 (15%) patients. Mild tracer uptake in the small bowel was observed in 5 patients (10.2%) and moderate uptake in another 2 patients (4%). In none of these patients did the F-18 FDG uptake interfere with image interpretation. Conclusion: Mukofalk {sup registered} can be used as a negative oral contrast medium in PET/CT studies. (orig.)

  8. Early clinical experience and impact of 18F-FDG PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutte, Henrik; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the influence and impact of [F]- fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in Denmark. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire was sent to the referring physicians of 743 consecutive cases between January 2000 and December 2001. The questionnaire was designed...... to determine whether and how the results of the FDG PET imaging changed patient management. RESULTS: The response rate was 71% (524 responded). The distribution of all responding physicians included 26 different specialities. The majority were from haematology (23%), oncology (20%), plastic surgery (17......%) and neurology (10%). The primary diagnoses at referral was in the field of oncology (94%), with lymphoma (24%), melanomas (20%), unknown primary neoplasms (13%), nervous system neoplasms (9%), lung cancer (6%) and cancer of the digestive system (4%). FDG PET imaging resulted in a change in the patients...

  9. Clinically different stages of Alzheimer's disease associated by amyloid deposition with [11C]-PIB PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita, Shizuo; Yamasaki, Hidetomo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether [11C]-PIB PET detects underlying amyloid deposition at clinically different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and preclinical dementia. The Japanese cohort of 214 subjects underwent cognitive testing and 60-min dynamic [11C]-PIB PET. [11C]-PIB data were acquired from 35-60 min after injection. Regions of interest were defined on co-registered MRI. Distribution volume ratios (DVR) of PIB retention were determined using Logan graphical analysis. All 56 patients with AD showed a robust increase in PIB retention in cortical areas (typical PIB AD-pattern). A mean DVR value in 11 patients with moderate AD (CDR: 2.1 ± 0.4) showed significantly higher PIB retention (2.38 ± 0.42, p differ from very mild AD. The prevalence of AD among the 53 amyloid positive patients aged 75 years or older increased greatly to 74% whereas that of amyloid positive HC decreased by only 9% and amyloid positive MCI by 17%. Prodromal AD and AD dementia is identified, based on cognitive function and amyloid deposition by PIB PET imaging. Further, the cortical amyloid deposition could be detected at preclinical stage of AD.

  10. Preoperative imaging of charcot neuroarthropathy. Does the additional application of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET make sense?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoepfner, S. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Standort Giessen (Germany); Krolak, C. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Kessler, S. [Chirurgische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Tiling, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    With about 4 million diabetics in Germany and presumed inclination over the following years the treatment of diabetic complications like diabetic foot will become an even more important point. The management of Charcot's foot has undergone fundamental change in the last few years. Formerly, treatment was almost exclusively limited to non surgical measures; since the late 1990's, however, current practice has shifted to early, stage-appropriate surgical therapy. The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate the value of positron emission tomography (PET) in the pre-operative work-up of Charcot's foot. PET were compared to magnetic resonance tomography (MRI). Patients, methods: MRI and PET imaging were used as part of the preoperative work-up in 18 patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. The diagnosis of Charcot's foot requiring surgical treatment were made on the basis of clinical and radiologic criteria. Results: of 46 Charcot's lesions confirmed at surgery, 44 and 35 were detected by means of PET and MRI, respectively. PET can be used in the work-up of patients with metal implants where the MRI does not show adequate findings. PET shows the areas of detritus formation exhibit only moderately increased glucose metabolism and at visual interpretation do not usually impress as typical for acute osteomyelitis. Average SUV values stood at 1.2 (range: 0.5-2.9). Conclusions: the differentiation between Charcot's lesions and floride osteomyelitis provides the surgeon with important additional information, which is often unavailable from MRI. Because of this important additional data, PET could be considered preferable to morphologic imaging (CT, projection radiography) in the preoperative work-up of Charcot's foot. (orig.)

  11. PET/MR brain imaging: evaluation of clinical UTE-based attenuation correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasheim, Lars Birger [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs University Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Karlberg, Anna [St. Olavs University Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Goa, Paal Erik [St. Olavs University Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); NTNU, Department of Physics, Trondheim (Norway); Haaberg, Asta [NTNU, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); St. Olavs University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Soerhaug, Sveinung [St. Olavs University Hospital, Department of Thoracic Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Fagerli, Unn-Merete [St. Olavs University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Trondheim (Norway); NTNU, Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Trondheim (Norway); Eikenes, Live [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-08-15

    One of the greatest challenges in PET/MR imaging is that of accurate MR-based attenuation correction (AC) of the acquired PET data, which must be solved if the PET/MR modality is to reach its full potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of Siemens' most recent version (VB20P) of MR-based AC of head PET data, by comparing it to CT-based AC. Methods:{sup 18}F-FDG PET data from seven lymphoma and twelve lung cancer patients examined with a Biograph mMR PET/MR system were reconstructed with both CT-based and MR-based AC, avoiding sources of error arising when comparing PET data from different systems. The resulting images were compared quantitatively by measuring changes in mean SUV in ten different brain regions in both hemispheres, as well as the brainstem. In addition, the attenuation maps (μ maps) were compared regarding volume and localization of cranial bone. The UTE μ maps clearly overestimate the amount of bone in the neck, while slightly underestimating the amount of bone in the cranium, and the localization of bone in the cranial region also differ from the CT μ maps. In air/tissue interfaces in the sinuses and ears, the MRAC method struggles to correctly classify the different tissues. The misclassification of tissue is most likely caused by a combination of artefacts and the insufficiency of the UTE method to accurately separate bone. Quantitatively, this results in a combination of overestimation (0.5-3.6 %) and underestimation (2.7-5.2 %) of PET activity throughout the brain, depending on the proximity to the inaccurate regions. Our results indicate that the performance of the UTE method as implemented in VB20P is close to the theoretical maximum of such an MRAC method in the brain, while it does not perform satisfactorily in the neck or face/nasal area. Further improvement of the UTE MRAC or other available methods for more accurate segmentation of bone should be incorporated. (orig.)

  12. Application of separable parameter space techniques to multi-tracer PET compartment modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jeff L.; Morey, A. Michael; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-tracer positron emission tomography (PET) can image two or more tracers in a single scan, characterizing multiple aspects of biological functions to provide new insights into many diseases. The technique uses dynamic imaging, resulting in time-activity curves that contain contributions from each tracer present. The process of separating and recovering separate images and/or imaging measures for each tracer requires the application of kinetic constraints, which are most commonly applied by fitting parallel compartment models for all tracers. Such multi-tracer compartment modeling presents challenging nonlinear fits in multiple dimensions. This work extends separable parameter space kinetic modeling techniques, previously developed for fitting single-tracer compartment models, to fitting multi-tracer compartment models. The multi-tracer compartment model solution equations were reformulated to maximally separate the linear and nonlinear aspects of the fitting problem, and separable least-squares techniques were applied to effectively reduce the dimensionality of the nonlinear fit. The benefits of the approach are then explored through a number of illustrative examples, including characterization of separable parameter space multi-tracer objective functions and demonstration of exhaustive search fits which guarantee the true global minimum to within arbitrary search precision. Iterative gradient-descent algorithms using Levenberg-Marquardt were also tested, demonstrating improved fitting speed and robustness as compared to corresponding fits using conventional model formulations. The proposed technique overcomes many of the challenges in fitting simultaneous multi-tracer PET compartment models.

  13. Respiratory motion correction for PET oncology applications using affine transformation of list mode data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamare, F [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Cresson, T [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Savean, J [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Rest, C Cheze Le [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France); Reader, A J [Department of Instrumentation and Analytical Science, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Visvikis, D [INSERM U650, Laboratoire du Traitement de l' information medicale (LaTIM), Universite de Bretagne occidentale, Brest (France)

    2007-01-07

    Respiratory motion is a source of artefacts and reduced image quality in PET. Proposed methodology for correction of respiratory effects involves the use of gated frames, which are however of low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore a method accounting for respiratory motion effects without affecting the statistical quality of the reconstructed images is necessary. We have implemented an affine transformation of list mode data for the correction of respiratory motion over the thorax. The study was performed using datasets of the NCAT phantom at different points throughout the respiratory cycle. List mode data based PET simulated frames were produced by combining the NCAT datasets with a Monte Carlo simulation. Transformation parameters accounting for respiratory motion were estimated according to an affine registration and were subsequently applied on the original list mode data. The corrected and uncorrected list mode datasets were subsequently reconstructed using the one-pass list mode EM (OPL-EM) algorithm. Comparison of corrected and uncorrected respiratory motion average frames suggests that an affine transformation in the list mode data prior to reconstruction can produce significant improvements in accounting for respiratory motion artefacts in the lungs and heart. However, the application of a common set of transformation parameters across the imaging field of view does not significantly correct the respiratory effects on organs such as the stomach, liver or spleen.

  14. Clinical applications of power vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph M

    2009-06-01

    The study of infant vision is closely coupled to the study of the refraction, change in refraction over time, and the effect of spectacle correction on visual development. Frequently, reports are limited to descriptions of spherical equivalent or cylinder power without regard to axis, as data are frequently collected in the clinical format of sphere, cylinder, and axis (S, C, A). Conversion from clinical notation to a power vector representation of refraction allows unambiguous description of how refractions change over time and differ between repeated measurements. This article presents a series of examples of Microsoft Excel spreadsheet formulas that make the conversion from clinical notation to power vector format, and provides examples of useful applications of these methods.

  15. Application of single- and dual-energy CT brain tissue segmentation to PET monitoring of proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Bianca; Landry, Guillaume; Schwarz, Florian; Tessonnier, Thomas; Kamp, Florian; Dedes, George; Thieke, Christian; Würl, Matthias; Kurz, Christopher; Ganswindt, Ute; Verhaegen, Frank; Debus, Jürgen; Belka, Claus; Sommer, Wieland; Reiser, Maximilian; Bauer, Julia; Parodi, Katia

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of single and dual energy computed tomography (SECT, DECT) to estimate tissue composition and density for usage in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of irradiation induced β + activity distributions. This was done to assess the impact on positron emission tomography (PET) range verification in proton therapy. A DECT-based brain tissue segmentation method was developed for white matter (WM), grey matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The elemental composition of reference tissues was assigned to closest CT numbers in DECT space (DECTdist). The method was also applied to SECT data (SECTdist). In a validation experiment, the proton irradiation induced PET activity of three brain equivalent solutions (BES) was compared to simulations based on different tissue segmentations. Five patients scanned with a dual source DECT scanner were analyzed to compare the different segmentation methods. A single magnetic resonance (MR) scan was used for comparison with an established segmentation toolkit. Additionally, one patient with SECT and post-treatment PET scans was investigated. For BES, DECTdist and SECTdist reduced differences to the reference simulation by up to 62% when compared to the conventional stoichiometric segmentation (SECTSchneider). In comparison to MR brain segmentation, Dice similarity coefficients for WM, GM and CSF were 0.61, 0.67 and 0.66 for DECTdist and 0.54, 0.41 and 0.66 for SECTdist. MC simulations of PET treatment verification in patients showed important differences between DECTdist/SECTdist and SECTSchneider for patients with large CSF areas within the treatment field but not in WM and GM. Differences could be misinterpreted as PET derived range shifts of up to 4 mm. DECTdist and SECTdist yielded comparable activity distributions, and comparison of SECTdist to a measured patient PET scan showed improved agreement when compared to SECTSchneider. The agreement between predicted and measured PET

  16. Comparison of prone versus supine 18F-FDG-PET of locally advanced breast cancer: Phantom and preliminary clinical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Jason M.; Rani, Sudheer D.; Li, Xia; Whisenant, Jennifer G.; Abramson, Richard G. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Arlinghaus, Lori R. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Lee, Tzu-Cheng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Partridge, Savannah C. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kang, Hakmook [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 and Department of Biostatistics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Linden, Hannah M. [Department of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Kinahan, Paul E. [Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Yankeelov, Thomas E., E-mail: thomas.yankeelov@vanderbilt.edu [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Physics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have demonstrated how imaging of the breast with patients lying prone using a supportive positioning device markedly facilitates longitudinal and/or multimodal image registration. In this contribution, the authors’ primary objective was to determine if there are differences in the standardized uptake value (SUV) derived from [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in breast tumors imaged in the standard supine position and in the prone position using a specialized positioning device. Methods: A custom positioning device was constructed to allow for breast scanning in the prone position. Rigid and nonrigid phantom studies evaluated differences in prone and supine PET. Clinical studies comprised 18F-FDG-PET of 34 patients with locally advanced breast cancer imaged in the prone position (with the custom support) followed by imaging in the supine position (without the support). Mean and maximum values (SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max}, respectively) were obtained from tumor regions-of-interest for both positions. Prone and supine SUV were linearly corrected to account for the differences in 18F-FDG uptake time. Correlation, Bland–Altman, and nonparametric analyses were performed on uptake time-corrected and uncorrected data. Results: SUV from the rigid PET breast phantom imaged in the prone position with the support device was 1.9% lower than without the support device. In the nonrigid PET breast phantom, prone SUV with the support device was 5.0% lower than supine SUV without the support device. In patients, the median (range) difference in uptake time between prone and supine scans was 16.4 min (13.4–30.9 min), which was significantly—but not completely—reduced by the linear correction method. SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} from prone versus supine scans were highly correlated, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.91 and 0.90, respectively. Prone SUV{sub peak} and SUV{sub max} were

  17. Quantitative evaluation of correlation of dose and FDG-PET uptake value with clinical chest wall complications in patients with lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algan, O; Confer, M; Algan, S; Matthiesen, C; Herman, T; Ahmad, S; Ali, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate quantitatively the dosimetric factors that increase the risk of clinical complications of rib fractures or chest wall pain after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to the lung. The correlations of clinical complications with standard-uptake values (SUV) and FDG-PET activity distributions from post-treatment PET-imaging were studied. Mean and maximum doses from treatment plans, FDG-PET activity values on post-SBRT PET scans and the presence of clinical complications were determined in fifteen patients undergoing 16 SBRT treatments for lung cancer. SBRT treatments were delivered in 3 to 5 fractions using 5 to 7 fields to prescription doses in the range from 39.0 to 60.0 Gy. The dose and FDG-PET activity values were extracted from regions of interest in the chest wall that matched anatomically. Quantitative evaluation of the correlation between dose deposition and FDG-PET activity was performed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient using pixel-by-pixel analysis of dose and FDG-PET activity maps in selected regions of interest associated with clinical complications. Overall, three of fifteen patients developed rib fractures with chest wall pain, and two patients developed pain symptoms without fracture. The mean dose to the rib cage in patients with fractures was 37.53 Gy compared to 33.35 Gy in patients without fractures. Increased chest wall activity as determined by FDG-uptake was noted in patients who developed rib fractures. Enhanced activity from PET-images correlated strongly with high doses deposited to the chest wall which could be predicted by a linear relationship. The local enhanced activity was associated with the development of clinical complications such as chest wall inflammation and rib fracture. This study demonstrates that rib fractures and chest wall pain can occur after SBRT treatments to the lung and is associated with increased activity on subsequent PET scans. The FDG-PET activity

  18. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of a...

  19. Clinical significance of incidental focal bowel uptake on (18)F-FDG PET/CT as related to colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltau, Sofus Rønne; Hess, Søren; Nguyen, Tram

    2016-01-01

    with this finding in the clinic. Due to the non-specific appearance of such lesions and a certain rate of false positive findings, patients may by subjected to unnecessary invasive procedures or, conversely, cancers may be overlooked if the risk of malignancy is downplayed. The purpose of this study was to examine...... based cut-off values could not reliably discriminate benign from premalignant or malignant disease. CONCLUSION: It is the opinion of the authors that (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan may identify incidentally sites of colorectal carcinoma but cannot discriminate them from polyps/adenomas. Nevertheless, incidental...

  20. Daily quality controls and cross-calibrations in PET-CT imaging, in routine and for clinical studies; Controles qualites journaliers et cross-calibrations en imagerie PET-CT, en routine et pour les etudes cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegouic, C.; Slosman, D. [Clinique generale Beaulieu, Geneve (Switzerland); Camus, F. [Institut universitaire de radiophysique appliquee, CHUV Geneve (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: The modality PET/CT with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. become increasingly indicated in oncology. In the same time, the standardized uptake value (S.U.V.) that indicates metabolic activity in a specific interest area represents currently the most used semiquantitative parameter. the variability of these S.U.V. measures can be linked to questions of PET/CT devices stability and/or dosemeters that determine the injected dose. Our objective was to investigate this variability in the intra or inter devices cases and to propose a methodology of quality control and cross-calibration. Conclusions: Our results consolidate the hypothesis the PET/CT installations require daily quality control as other modalities. They suggest a procedure of cross-calibration should be taken into account before the multi centric use of S.U.V. measures in the clinical studies. (N.C.)

  1. Administered activities of {sup 18}F-FDG PET clinics in pediatrics patients in Brazil- preliminary study; Atividades administradas de {sup 18}F-FDG aos pacientes pediatricos nas clinicas PET no Brasil - estudo preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio Miri, E-mail: cmo@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Silva, Teogenes A. da, E-mail: silvata@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Sa, Lidia V. de, E-mail: lidia@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    A survey was conducted among the Brazilian clinical PET, with the purpose of investigating the activities administered to pediatric oncology patients and assess whether significant differences between the protocols adopted. In addition, this survey can cooperate to the suggestion diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in nuclear medicine. Although the methodology for delivering doses by most clinics be based on patient's weight, the results showed variations of up to 191, 6% between the activities administered in clinics, even for similar devices. The average value of the distribution of activities reported was 4.46 {+-} 1,6 MBq /kg. These data demonstrate the need for harmonization and optimization of {sup 18}F-FDG/PET procedures, as well as training for professionals involved in the clinical routine.

  2. {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi. Clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Maastricht Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Bonn (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2012-07-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi is a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracer that was introduced into clinical routine for myocardial perfusion imaging more than two decades ago. Although today the main application of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT remains the imaging of myocardial perfusion, it is also an accepted and well-proven imaging technique for a variety of oncologic and non-oncologic applications, including brain, breast, and thyroid cancer and thyroid and parathyroid adenoma. Its efficacy in a range of indications ensures that {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT will remain widely used despite the rapid diffusion of 18F-FDG PET. {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi - Clinical Applications provides a detailed and informative overview of almost all the oncologic and non-oncologic applications of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT, including several relatively rare indications. Different disease-related protocols for {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT are presented, and for each disease a comprehensive summary of the relevant pathology and epidemiology is provided. Throughout, there is a strong emphasis on the practical aspects of use of this popular tracer, including instructions for the preparation of several commercially available tracer kits. Clinical practitioners will find this book to be an invaluable guide to the application and benefits of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi SPECT in both the inpatient and the outpatient setting. (orig.)

  3. Presentation of the DosePet application (APP) for use in Nuclear Medicine: calculation of the amount of medicament for PET / CT patients; Apresentacao do aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PETCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade Ceilandia. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the premises after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  4. Performance evaluation of a compact PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system for small animal imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Qingyang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Shi [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Ma, Tianyu, E-mail: maty@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu, Jing; Liu, Hui; Xu, Tianpeng; Xia, Yan; Fan, Peng; Lyu, Zhenlei; Liu, Yaqiang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Particle & Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-06-21

    PET, SPECT and CT imaging techniques are widely used in preclinical small animal imaging applications. In this paper, we present a compact small animal PET/SPECT/CT tri-modality system. A dual-functional, shared detector design is implemented which enables PET and SPECT imaging with a same LYSO ring detector. A multi-pinhole collimator is mounted on the system and inserted into the detector ring in SPECT imaging mode. A cone-beam CT consisting of a micro focus X-ray tube and a CMOS detector is implemented. The detailed design and the performance evaluations are reported in this paper. In PET imaging mode, the measured NEMA based spatial resolution is 2.12 mm (FWHM), and the sensitivity at the central field of view (CFOV) is 3.2%. The FOV size is 50 mm (∅)×100 mm (L). The SPECT has a spatial resolution of 1.32 mm (FWHM) and an average sensitivity of 0.031% at the center axial, and a 30 mm (∅)×90 mm (L) FOV. The CT spatial resolution is 8.32 lp/mm @10%MTF, and the contrast discrimination function value is 2.06% with 1.5 mm size cubic box object. In conclusion, a compact, tri-modality PET/SPECT/CT system was successfully built with low cost and high performance.

  5. Clinical applications of immunoglobulin: update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Human immunoglobulin is the most used blood product in the clinical practice. Immunoglobulin applications have increased quickly since the elucidation of its immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties which turned this blood product into a precious tool in the treatment of numerous diseases that present with humoral immune deficiency or that cause immune system dysfunction. Currently, the approved indications for Ig are: primary immunodeficiencies, secondary immunodeficiencies (multiple myeloma or chronic lymphoid leukemia, Kawasaki syndrome, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, Guillain Barré syndrome, graft-versus-host disease following bone marrow transplantation and repeat infections in HIV children. On the other hand, there are numerous "off-label" indications of immunoglobulin, which represent 20-60% of all clinical applications of this drug. It is important to study all these indications and, above all, the scientific evidence for its use, in order to provide patients with a new therapeutic option without burdening the health system. This review results from a wide selection of papers identified in the Pubmed and Lilacs scientific electronic databases. A group of descriptors were used from human immunoglobulin to the names of each disease that immunoglobulin is clinically applied. Our main objective is to list the numerous indications of immunoglobulin, both authorized and "off-label" and to analyze these indications in the light of the most recent scientific evidence.

  6. A novel metric for quantification of homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors in PET for enhanced clinical outcome prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmim, Arman; Schmidtlein, C. Ross; Jackson, Andrew; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Marcus, Charles; Ashrafinia, Saeed; Soltani, Madjid; Subramaniam, Rathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Oncologic PET images provide valuable information that can enable enhanced prognosis of disease. Nonetheless, such information is simplified significantly in routine clinical assessment to meet workflow constraints. Examples of typical FDG PET metrics include: (i) SUVmax, (2) total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and (3) metabolic tumor volume (MTV). We have derived and implemented a novel metric for tumor quantification, inspired in essence by a model of generalized equivalent uniform dose as used in radiation therapy. The proposed metric, denoted generalized effective total uptake (gETU), is attractive as it encompasses the abovementioned commonly invoked metrics, and generalizes them, for both homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors, using a single parameter a. We evaluated this new metric for improved overall survival (OS) prediction on two different baseline FDG PET/CT datasets: (a) 113 patients with squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx, and (b) 72 patients with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed, where the subjects were subdivided into two groups using the median threshold, from which the hazard ratios (HR) were computed in Cox proportional hazards regression. For the oropharyngeal cancer dataset, MTV, TLG, SUVmax, SUVmean and SUVpeak produced HR values of 1.86, 3.02, 1.34, 1.36 and 1.62, while the proposed gETU metric for a  = 0.25 (greater emphasis on volume information) enabled significantly enhanced OS prediction with HR  =  3.94. For the pancreatic cancer dataset, MTV, TLG, SUVmax, SUVmean and SUVpeak resulted in HR values of 1.05, 1.25, 1.42, 1.45 and 1.52, while gETU at a  = 3.2 (greater emphasis on SUV information) arrived at an improved HR value of 1.61. Overall, the proposed methodology allows placement of differing degrees of emphasis on tumor volume versus uptake for different types of tumors to enable enhanced clinical outcome prediction.

  7. Fast analytical approach of application specific dose efficient spectrum selection for diagnostic CT imaging and PET attenuation correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xue; Jin, Yannan; FitzGerald, Paul F.; Wu, Mingye; Alessio, Adam M.; Kinahan, Paul E.; De Man, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Computed tomography (CT) has been used for a variety of applications, two of which include diagnostic imaging and attenuation correction for PET or SPECT imaging. Ideally, the x-ray tube spectrum should be optimized for the specific application to minimize the patient radiation dose while still providing the necessary information. In this study, we proposed a projection-based analytic approach for the analysis of contrast, noise, and bias. Dose normalized contrast to noise ratio (CNRD), inverse noise normalized by dose (IND) and bias are used as evaluation metrics to determine the optimal x-ray spectrum. Our simulation investigated the dose efficiency of the x-ray spectrum ranging from 40 kVp to 200 kVp. Water cylinders with diameters of 15 cm, 24 cm, and 35 cm were used in the simulation to cover a variety of patient sizes. The effects of electronic noise and pre-patient copper filtration were also evaluated. A customized 24 cm CTDI-like phantom with 13 mm diameter inserts filled with iodine (10 mg ml-1), tantalum (10 mg ml-1), water, and PMMA was measured with both standard (1.5 mGy) and ultra-low (0.2 mGy) dose to verify the simulation results at tube voltages of 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp. For contrast-enhanced diagnostic imaging, the simulation results indicated that for high dose without filtration, the optimal kVp for water contrast is approximately 100 kVp for a 15 cm water cylinder. However, the 60 kVp spectrum produces the highest CNRD for bone and iodine. The optimal kVp for tantalum has two selections: approximately 50 and 100 kVp. The kVp that maximizes CNRD increases when the object size increases. The trend in the CTDI phantom measurements agrees with the simulation results, which also agrees with previous studies. Copper filtration improved the dose efficiency for water and tantalum, but reduced the iodine and bone dose efficiency in a clinically-relevant range (70-140 kVp). Our study also shows that for CT-based attenuation

  8. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Segtnan, Eivind Antonsen; Grupe, Peter; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually increasing trend of FDG uptake over time has been shown in malignant cells, and a decreasing or constant trend has been shown in inflammatory/infectious processes. Tumor heterogeneity can be assessed by using early and delayed imaging because differences between primary versus metastatic sites become more detectable compared with single time points. This article discusses the applications of DTPI and delayed-time-point imaging.

  9. Clinical applications of wearable technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    An important factor contributing to the process involved in choosing a rehabilitation intervention is the assessment of its impact on the real life of patients. Therapists and physicians have to infer the effectiveness of rehabilitation approaches from observations performed in the clinical setting and from patients' feedback. Recent advances in wearable technology have provided means to supplement the information gathered using tools based on patient's direct observation as well as interviews and questionnaires. A new generation of wearable sensors and systems has recently become available thus providing clinical personnel with a "window of observation" in the home and community settings. These tools allow one to capture patients' activity level and exercise compliance, facilitate titration of medications in chronic patients, and provide means to assess the ability of patients to perform specific motor activities. In this paper, we review recent advances in the field of wearable technology and provide examples of application of this technology in rehabilitation.

  10. Prognostic value of metabolic parameters and clinical impact of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT in biochemical recurrent prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombie, M.; Bailly, C.; Rusu, D.; Rousseau, N. [Institut de Cancerologie de l' Ouest Rene Gauducheau, Nuclear Medicine, 44805 Nantes-St Herblain Cedex (France); Campion, L. [ICO Cancer Center, Statistics, Saint-Herblain (France); Nantes University, Nantes-Angers Cancer Research Center, INSERM U892-CNRS UMR 6299, Nantes (France); Rousseau, T. [Urologic Clinic Nantes-Atlantis, Saint Herblain (France); Mathieu, C. [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); Ferrer, L. [ICO Cancer Center, Physics, Saint-Herblain (France); Kraeber-Bodere, F. [Institut de Cancerologie de l' Ouest Rene Gauducheau, Nuclear Medicine, 44805 Nantes-St Herblain Cedex (France); University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Nantes (France); Nantes University, Nantes-Angers Cancer Research Center, INSERM U892-CNRS UMR 6299, Nantes (France); Rousseau, C. [Institut de Cancerologie de l' Ouest Rene Gauducheau, Nuclear Medicine, 44805 Nantes-St Herblain Cedex (France); Nantes University, Nantes-Angers Cancer Research Center, INSERM U892-CNRS UMR 6299, Nantes (France)

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the therapeutic impact of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine (FCH) PET/CT in biochemical recurrent prostate cancer (PC) and to investigate the value of quantitative FCH PET/CT parameters in predicting progression-free survival (PFS). This retrospective study included 172 consecutive patients with PC who underwent FCH PET/CT for biochemical recurrence. Mean rising PSA was 10.7 ± 35.0 ng/ml. Patients with positive FCH PET were classified into three groups: those with uptake only in the prostatic bed, those with locoregional disease, and those with distant metastases. Referring physicians were asked to indicate the hypothetical therapeutic strategy with and without the FCH PET/CT results. Clinical variables and PET parameters including SUVmax, SUVpeak, SUVmean, total lesion choline kinase activity (TLCKA) and standardized added metabolic activity (SAM) were recorded and a multivariate analysis was performed to determine the factors independently predicting PFS. In 137 of the 172 patients, the FCH PET/CT scan was positive, and of these, 29.9 % (41/137) had prostatic recurrence, 42.3 % (58/137) had pelvic lymph node recurrence with or without prostatic recurrence, and 27.7 % (38/137) had distant metastases. The FCH PET/CT result led to a change in treatment plan in 43.6 % (75/172) of the 172 patients. Treatment was changed in 49.6 % (68/137) of those with a positive FCH PET/CT scan and in 20 % (7/35) of those with a negative FCH PET/CT scan. After a median follow-up of 29.3 months (95 % CI 18.9 - 45.9 months), according to multivariate analysis age <70 years, SAM ≥23 and SUVmean ≥3 were parameters independently predicting PFS. A nomogram constructed using the three parameters showed 49 months of PFS in patients with the best scores (0 or 1) and only 11 months in patients with a poor score (score 3). This study indicates that a positive FCH PET result in PC patients with biochemical recurrence predicts a shorter PFS and confirms the major impact of the FCH PET

  11. The Dilemma of Target Delineation with PET/CT in Radiotherapy Planning for Malignant Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Currently there are many unanswered questions concerning contouring a target with PET/CT in radiotherapy planning. Who should contour the PET volume-the radiation oncologist or the nuclear medicine physician? Which factors will contribute to the dual-observer variability between them? What should be taken as the optimal SUV threshold to demarcate a malignant tumor from the normal tissue? When the PET volume does not coincide with the local area CT findings, which portion should be contoured as the target? If a reginal lymph nodedraining area or a remote region is shown to be PET positive but CT negative, or PET negative but CT positive, how is the target identified and selected? Further studies concerning the relationship between PET/CT and the cancerous tissue are needed. The long-term clinical results showing an increased therapeutic ratio will finally verify the applicability of guidelines to contour the target with PET/CT in radiotherapy planning.

  12. Clinical application of bio ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anu, Sharma; Gayatri, Sharma

    2016-05-01

    Ceramics are the inorganic crystalline material. These are used in various field such as biomedical, electrical, electronics, aerospace, automotive and optical etc. Bio ceramics are the one of the most active areas of research. Bio ceramics are the ceramics which are biocompatible. The unique properties of bio ceramics make them an attractive option for medical applications and offer some potential advantages over other materials. During the past three decades, a number of major advances have been made in the field of bio ceramics. This review focuses on the use of these materials in variety of clinical scenarios.

  13. Computer applications in clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Oana Zamoşteanu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.

  14. Computer applications in clinical psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Zamoşteanu, Alina Oana

    2012-01-01

    The computer-assisted analysis is not currently a novelty, but a necessity in all areas of psychology. A number of studies that examine the limits of the computer assisted and analyzed interpretations, also its advantages. A series of studies aim to assess how the computer assisting programs are able to establish a diagnosis referring to the presence of certain mental disorders. We will present the results of one computer application in clinical psychology regarding the assessment of Theory of Mind capacity by animation.

  15. A Putative Case of Methotrexate-Related Lymphoma: Clinical Course and PET/CT Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Rachel C. Jankowitz; James Ganon; Todd Blodgett; Christine Garcia; Samuel Jacobs

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune conditions develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) at a higher frequency than normal both in association with and independent of Methotrexate (MTX). We describe a case of MTX-associated lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis on long-standing MTX. The case is notable for the initial tumor burden, the dramatic disappearance of the PET-CT findings on discontinuation of MTX, and the subsequent early regrowth of disease. Our case report is illustrative of an MTX-related...

  16. Clinical role of early dynamic FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Reiko; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kondo, Tsunenori; Tanabe, Kazunari [Tokyo Women' s Medical University, Department of Urology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    We studied the usefulness of early dynamic (ED) and whole-body (WB) FDG-PET/CT for the evaluation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). One hundred patients with 107 tumours underwent kidney ED and WB FDG-PET/CT. We visually and semiquantitatively evaluated the FDG accumulation in RCCs in the ED and WB phases, and compared the accumulation values with regard to histological type (clear cell carcinoma [CCC] vs. non-clear cell carcinoma [N-CCC]), the TNM stage (high stage [3-4] vs. low stage [1-2]), the Fuhrman grade (high grade [3-4] vs. low grade [1-2]) and presence versus absence of venous (V) and lymphatic (Ly) invasion. In the ED phase, visual evaluation revealed no significant differences in FDG accumulation in terms of each item. However, the maximum standardized uptake value and tumour-to-normal tissue ratios were significantly higher in the CCCs compared to the N-CCCs (p < 0.001). In the WB phase, in contrast, significantly higher FDG accumulation (p < 0.001) was found in RCCs with a higher TNM stage, higher Furman grade, and the presence of V and Ly invasion in both the visual and the semiquantitative evaluations. ED and WB FDG-PET/CT is a useful tool for the evaluation of RCCs. (orig.)

  17. Design of a functional cyclic HSV1-TK reporter and its application to PET imaging of apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Wang, Fu; Hida, Naoki; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Tian, Jie; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a sensitive and noninvasive imaging method that is widely used to explore molecular events in living subjects. PET can precisely and quantitatively evaluate cellular apoptosis, which has a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes. In this protocol, we describe the design and use of an engineered cyclic herpes simplex virus 1–thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) PET reporter whose kinase activity is specifically switched on by apoptosis. The expression of cyclic TK (cTK) in healthy cells leads to inactive product, whereas the activation of apoptosis through the caspase-3 pathway cleaves cTK, thus restoring its activity and enabling PET imaging. In addition to detailing the design and construction of the cTK plasmid in this protocol, we include assays for evaluating the function and specificity of the cTK reporter in apoptotic cells, such as assays for measuring the cell uptake of PET tracer in apoptotic cells, correlating doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cell apoptosis to cTK function recovery, and in vivo PET imaging of cancer cell apoptosis, and we also include corresponding data acquisition methods. The time to build the entire cTK reporter is ~2–3 weeks. The selection of a stable cancer cell line takes ~4–6 weeks. The time to implement assays regarding cTK function in apoptotic cells and the in vivo imaging varies depending on the experiment. The cyclization strategy described in this protocol can also be adapted to create other reporter systems for broad biomedical applications. PMID:25927390

  18. GATE - Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission: a simulation toolkit for PET and SPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, S.; Santin, G.; Strul, D.; Staelens, S.; Assié, K.; Autret, D.; Avner, S.; Barbier, R.; Bardiès, M.; Bloomfield, P. M.; Brasse, D.; Breton, V.; Bruyndonckx, P.; Buvat, I.; Chatziioannou, A. F.; Choi, Y.; Chung, Y. H.; Comtat, C.; Donnarieix, D.; Ferrer, L.; Glick, S. J.; Groiselle, C. J.; Guez, D.; Honore, P.-F.; Kerhoas-Cavata, S.; Kirov, A. S.; Kohli, V.; Koole, M.; Krieguer, M.; van der Laan, D. J.; Lamare, F.; Largeron, G.; Lartizien, C.; Lazaro, D.; Maas, M. C.; Maigne, L.; Mayet, F.; Melot, F.; Merheb, C.; Pennacchio, E.; Perez, J.; Pietrzyk, U.; Rannou, F. R.; Rey, M.; Schaart, D. R.; Schmidtlein, C. R.; Simon, L.; Song, T. Y.; Vieira, J.-M.; Visvikis, D.; Van de Walle, R.; Wieërs, E.; Morel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation is an essential tool in emission tomography that can assist in the design of new medical imaging devices, the optimization of acquisition protocols, and the development or assessment of image reconstruction algorithms and correction techniques. GATE, the Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission, encapsulates the Geant4 libraries to achieve a modular, versatile, scripted simulation toolkit adapted to the field of nuclear medicine. In particular, GATE allows the description of time-dependent phenomena such as source or detector movement, and source decay kinetics. This feature makes it possible to simulate time curves under realistic acquisition conditions and to test dynamic reconstruction algorithms. This paper gives a detailed description of the design and development of GATE by the OpenGATE collaboration, whose continuing objective is to improve, document, and validate GATE by simulating commercially available imaging systems for PET and SPECT. Large effort is also invested in the ability and the flexibility to model novel detection systems or systems still under design. A public release of GATE licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License can be downloaded at the address http://www-lphe.ep.ch/GATE/. Two benchmarks developed for PET and SPECT to test the installation of GATE and to serve as a tutorial for the users are presented. Extensive validation of the GATE simulation platform has been started, comparing simulations and measurements on commercially available acquisition systems. References to those results are listed. The future prospects toward the gridification of GATE and its extension to other domains such as dosimetry are also discussed. PMID:15552416

  19. The Application of Clinical Genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurer MH

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Martin H MaurerDepartment of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; Mariaberg Hospital for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Gammertingen, GermanyIn 2012, The Application of Clinical Genetics enters its fifth year of publication. The journal has had a change of Editor-in-Chief: Dr David H Tegay stepped down and I was appointed to serve as the new Editor-in-Chief. As his successor, I thank Dr Tegay for his great work for the journal. I hope I can continue his successful editorial contributions. Moreover, I thank the many reviewers for their sustained support of the journal.The Application of Clinical Genetics is dedicated to open access publishing – as all Dove Press journals are. This means that authors will be charged for the publication process, but the acceptance of a manuscript is based solely on its scientific quality. This is what I will be responsible for as Editor-in-Chief. The team at Dove Press is a constant help with all administrative duties concerning peer reviewal, and I want to express my thanks for their prompt and reliable help. The field of clinical genetics is facing new challenges with the broad availability of large-scale screening methods for gene mutations, such as high-throughput sequencing and biochips. This means that ethical issues regarding the handling of genetic information must be addressed, both for the individual and for society.1–3 For example, sequencing of cell-free, fetal nucleic acids in the maternal blood to locate fetal aneuploidy, especially trisomy 21, may become broadly available soon, with even faster results than conventional methods such as amniocentesis.

  20. 小动物PET及PET-CT及其在分子影像学中的应用%Small animal PET and PET-CT its application in molecular imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天然; 田嘉禾

    2008-01-01

    The review article introduce molecular imaging equipment small animal PET and PET-CT's philosophy and technique feature.small animal PET and PET-CT apply many new techniques and images resolution has obviously raising.as same time,small animal PET and small animal CT may come true image fusion.small animal PET and PET-CT permit us to engage molecular level imaging in vivo without invading.so small animal PET and PET-CT are good tool in medical molecular imaging.%阐述小动物PET及PET-CT技术特点及在分子影像学中的应用.小动物PET及PET-CT采用多项新技术,分辨率明显提高,结合小动物CT实现了图像融合.小动物PET及PET-CT实现了在活体上非侵人性分子水平显像,是研究分子影像的尖端设备.

  1. The Clinical Value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT in Lymphoma%18F-FDG PET/CT显像应用于恶性淋巴瘤的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀宇; 徐文贵; 戴东; 马文超

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT imaging for the diagnosis,staging and treatment evaluation of lymphoma. Methods Before definite therapy,59 patients underwent PET/CT imaging and were diagnosed for lymphoma.The results of PET/CT imaging were compared before and after treatment in 17 patients. Results 54 patients with lymphoma were determined by pathology(44 NHL patients and 10 HL patients).Without any treatment,the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET/CT in identifying lymphoma was 100%, 91.5%, 91.5% respectively,and it led to change 20.4% in clinical staging and 9.3% in management. 18F-FDG PET/CT and BMB produced equivalent results in patients.After 2~4 courses of treatment, 6 of the 17 cases show the tumors were mildly suppressed,the other 11 cases had the residual sites or new sites. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging plays an important role in diagnosis,staging and treatment evaluation.It is useful for differentiating active tumors from fibrosis and necrosis after treatment.%目的 探讨18F-FDG PET/CT显像对恶性淋巴瘤的临床分期和疗效评价方面的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析59例PET/CT显像结果诊断为恶性淋巴瘤的初诊患者,并对17例治疗前后的PET/CT显像结果进行对照分析.结果 病理证实54例为恶性淋巴瘤(非霍奇金淋巴瘤44例,霍奇金淋巴瘤10例),PET/CT显像的敏感性、特异性、准确性分别为100%、91.5%、91.5%.其中11例(20.4%)的临床分期得到上调,并改变了5例(9.3%)的治疗方案. 18F-FDG PET/CT显像与骨髓穿刺结果基本一致.对照研究中17例中的6例示病灶处于抑制状态,11例示肿瘤残存或新发阳性病灶.结论 18F-FDG PET/CT显像在恶性淋巴瘤的临床分期及疗效评价方面具有重要的临床意义,有助于残余病灶性质的鉴别.

  2. Positron emission tomography (PET) methodology for small animals and its application in radiopharmaceutical preclinical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, Susan P.; Jones, Terry

    1998-11-01

    The use and usefulness of positron emission tomography (PET) to quantify the specific and selective in vivo binding of radioligands in small laboratory animals is briefly reviewed up to the end of 1996. Emphasis is placed on practical experience with a dedicated, small diameter, tomograph (built in collaboration with CTI, Knoxville, TN), implementing conventional PET methodology.

  3. Calibration test of PET scanners in a multi-centre clinical trial on breast cancer therapy monitoring using 18F-FLT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Bouchet

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: A multi-centre trial using PET requires the analysis of images acquired on different systems We designed a multi-centre trial to estimate the value of 18F-FLT-PET to predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A calibration check of each PET-CT and of its peripheral devices was performed to evaluate the reliability of the results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 11 centres were investigated. Dose calibrators were assessed by repeated measurements of a 68Ge certified source. The differences between the clocks associated with the dose calibrators and inherent to the PET systems were registered. The calibration of PET-CT was assessed with an homogeneous cylindrical phantom by comparing the activities per unit of volume calculated from the dose calibrator measurements with that measured on 15 Regions of Interest (ROIs drawn on 15 consecutive slices of reconstructed filtered back-projection (FBP images. Both repeatability of activity concentration based upon the 15 ROIs (ANOVA-test and its accuracy were evaluated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for dose calibrator measurements (median of difference -0.04%; min = -4.65%; max = +5.63%. Mismatches between the clocks were less than 2 min in all sites and thus did not require any correction, regarding the half life of 18F. For all the PET systems, ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the activity concentrations estimated from the 15 ROIs (median of difference -0.69%; min = -9.97%; max = +9.60%. CONCLUSION: No major difference between the 11 centres with respect to calibration and cross-calibration was observed. The reliability of our 18F-FLT multi-centre clinical trial was therefore confirmed from the physical point of view. This type of procedure may be useful for any clinical trial involving different PET systems.

  4. The influence of different contrast medium concentrations and injection protocols on quantitative and clinical assessment of FDG–PET/CT in lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Pharma AG, Berlin, Müllerstrasse 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Palmowski, Moritz [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pauwelsstraße 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of two different contrast medium concentrations for use in computed X-ray tomography (CT) employing two different injection protocols on positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction in combined 2-{sup 18}F-desoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. Methods: 120 patients with a suspicion of lung cancer were enrolled prospectively. PET images were reconstructed with the non-enhanced and venous phase contrast CT obtained after injection of iopromide 300 mg/ml or 370 mg/ml using either a fixed-dose or a body surface area adapted injection protocol. Maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) and contrast enhancement (HU) were determined in the subclavian vein, ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, portal vein, liver and kidney and in the suspicious lung lesion. PET data were evaluated visually for the presence of malignancy and image quality. Results: At none of the sites a significant difference in the extent of the contrast enhancement between the four different protocols was found. However, the variability of the contrast enhancement at several anatomical sites was significantly greater in the fixed dose groups than in the BSA groups for both contrast medium concentrations. At none of the sites a significant difference was found in the extent of the SUVmax and SUVmean increase as a result of the use of the venous phase contrast enhanced CT for attenuation. Visual clinical evaluation of lesions showed no differences between contrast and non-contrast PET/CT (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Contrast enhanced CT for attenuation correction in combined PET/CT in lung cancer affects neither the clinical assessment nor image quality of the PET-images. A body surface adapted contrast medium protocol reduces the interpatient variability in contrast enhancement.

  5. Measuring serotonin synthesis: from conventional methods to PET tracers and their (pre)clinical implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, Anniek K.D.; Waarde, Aren van; Willemsen, Antoon T.M. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Bosker, Fokko J. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Luiten, Paul G.M. [University of Groningen, Center for Behavior and Neurosciences, Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Haren (Netherlands); Boer, Johan A. den [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University Center of Psychiatry, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The serotonergic system of the brain is complex, with an extensive innervation pattern covering all brain regions and endowed with at least 15 different receptors (each with their particular distribution patterns), specific reuptake mechanisms and synthetic processes. Many aspects of the functioning of the serotonergic system are still unclear, partially because of the difficulty of measuring physiological processes in the living brain. In this review we give an overview of the conventional methods of measuring serotonin synthesis and methods using positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, more specifically with respect to serotonergic function in affective disorders. Conventional methods are invasive and do not directly measure synthesis rates. Although they may give insight into turnover rates, a more direct measurement may be preferred. PET is a noninvasive technique which can trace metabolic processes, like serotonin synthesis. Tracers developed for this purpose are {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyltryptophan ([{sup 11}C]AMT) and 5-hydroxy-L-[{beta}-{sup 11}C]tryptophan ([{sup 11}C]5-HTP). Both tracers have advantages and disadvantages. [{sup 11}C]AMT can enter the kynurenine pathway under inflammatory conditions (and thus provide a false signal), but this tracer has been used in many studies leading to novel insights regarding antidepressant action. [{sup 11}C]5-HTP is difficult to produce, but trapping of this compound may better represent serotonin synthesis. AMT and 5-HTP kinetics are differently affected by tryptophan depletion and changes of mood. This may indicate that both tracers are associated with different enzymatic processes. In conclusion, PET with radiolabelled substrates for the serotonergic pathway is the only direct way to detect changes of serotonin synthesis in the living brain. (orig.)

  6. Clinical Significance of Routine Blood in Pet%血常规在宠物临床上的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 杜友卫

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the elinieal significance of blood routine examination in pets. Routine blood eheeks including quantitative measurement results (like total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, erythroeyte count and index and platelet count and index) and qualitative test result (like blood smear morphologie examination) are adopted so as to provide a reference for pet clinical diagnosis, observation on the therapeutic effect and prognosis of the disease.%以研究血常规检查在宠物临床中的意义为目的。采用血常规检查,包括定量检测结果(白细胞总数计数、白细胞分类计数、红细胞计数及指数、血小板计数及指数)、定性检测结果(血涂片形态学检查),从而使血常规检查能为宠物临床诊断、疗效的观察及疾病的预后等提供参考。

  7. A Putative Case of Methotrexate-Related Lymphoma: Clinical Course and PET/CT Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Jankowitz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autoimmune conditions develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs at a higher frequency than normal both in association with and independent of Methotrexate (MTX. We describe a case of MTX-associated lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis on long-standing MTX. The case is notable for the initial tumor burden, the dramatic disappearance of the PET-CT findings on discontinuation of MTX, and the subsequent early regrowth of disease. Our case report is illustrative of an MTX-related NHL in an autoimmune patient. Conclusion. Withdrawal of MTX in a patient with lymphoma is reasonable before initiating chemotherapy, but observation for early regrowth of disease is necessary.

  8. A Putative Case of Methotrexate-Related Lymphoma: Clinical Course and PET/CT Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowitz, Rachel C; Ganon, James; Blodgett, Todd; Garcia, Christine; Jacobs, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune conditions develop lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) at a higher frequency than normal both in association with and independent of Methotrexate (MTX). We describe a case of MTX-associated lymphoma in a patient with psoriasis on long-standing MTX. The case is notable for the initial tumor burden, the dramatic disappearance of the PET-CT findings on discontinuation of MTX, and the subsequent early regrowth of disease. Our case report is illustrative of an MTX-related NHL in an autoimmune patient. Conclusion. Withdrawal of MTX in a patient with lymphoma is reasonable before initiating chemotherapy, but observation for early regrowth of disease is necessary.

  9. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of Fluoromethylcholine-(18F PET/CT in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Nöel Talbot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose-(18F or FDG. It seems that FCH could become "the FDG of prostate cancer", with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments, and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis. Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed.Esta breve revisão é dedicada ao estado atual da avaliação de um novo radiofármaco PET, a fluormetilcolina-(18F ou FCH, que é captada pelo tecido do câncer de próstata, ao contrário da fluordesoxiglicose-(18F ou FDG. Parece que a FCH poderia se tornar "a FDG do câncer de próstata", com o mesmo tipo de funções (detecção de metástases distantes e de recorrências ocultas, antes de tratamentos invasivos, e os mesmos inconvenientes (falso resultado negativo no caso de pequenas lesões, em especial das metástase de nodos linfáticos, e de falsos resultados positivos em caso de infecção/inflamação, em particular prostatite. Evidência atual é resumida e discutida para cada uma das definições potenciais da imagem FCH PET/CT em câncer de próstata. As perspectivas para a concessão de uma autorização de comercialização para uma preparação de FCH são analisadas brevemente.

  10. Imaging characterization of a new gamma ray detector based on CRY019 scintillation crystal for PET and SPECT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, C.; Pani, R.; Trigila, C.; Cinti, M. N.; Fabbri, A.; Frantellizzi, V.; De Vincentis, G.; Pellegrini, R.; Pani, R.

    2017-02-01

    In the last 40 years, in the field of Molecular Medicine imaging there has been a huge growth in the employment and in the improvement of detectors for PET and SPECT applications in order to reach accurate diagnosis of the diseases. The most important feature required to these detectors is an high quality of images that is usually obtained benefitting from the development of a wide number of new scintillation crystals with high imaging performances. In this contest, features like high detection efficiency, short decay time, great spectral match with photodetectors, absence of afterglow and low costs are surely attractive. However, there are other factors playing an important role in the realization of high quality images such as energy and spatial resolutions, position linearity and contrast resolution. With the aim to realize an high performace gamma ray detector for PET and SPECT applications, this work is focused on the evaluation of the imaging characteristics of a recently developed scintillation crystal, CRY019.

  11. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Mahendiran, R. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Su, Pi-G [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.Mallikarjuna@epamail.epa.gov [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO{sub 2}) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol–gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO{sub 2}/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti{sup 3+} on the surface of plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti{sup 4+} → Ti{sup 3+}). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of plasma treatment on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/PET films. - Highlights: • Investigated the surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films modified by O{sub 2} plasma • Studied the effect of operating parameters on surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films • Mechanism of the plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2}/PET was clearly investigated.

  12. Investigation of optimization-based reconstruction with an image-total-variation constraint in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Ye, Jinghan; Chen, Buxin; Perkins, Amy E.; Rose, Sean; Sidky, Emil Y.; Kao, Chien-Min; Xia, Dan; Tung, Chi-Hua; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-08-01

    Interest remains in reconstruction-algorithm research and development for possible improvement of image quality in current PET imaging and for enabling innovative PET systems to enhance existing, and facilitate new, preclinical and clinical applications. Optimization-based image reconstruction has been demonstrated in recent years of potential utility for CT imaging applications. In this work, we investigate tailoring the optimization-based techniques to image reconstruction for PET systems with standard and non-standard scan configurations. Specifically, given an image-total-variation (TV) constraint, we investigated how the selection of different data divergences and associated parameters impacts the optimization-based reconstruction of PET images. The reconstruction robustness was explored also with respect to different data conditions and activity up-takes of practical relevance. A study was conducted particularly for image reconstruction from data collected by use of a PET configuration with sparsely populated detectors. Overall, the study demonstrates the robustness of the TV-constrained, optimization-based reconstruction for considerably different data conditions in PET imaging, as well as its potential to enable PET configurations with reduced numbers of detectors. Insights gained in the study may be exploited for developing algorithms for PET-image reconstruction and for enabling PET-configuration design of practical usefulness in preclinical and clinical applications.

  13. Basics and principles of radiopharmaceuticals for PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsak, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: markus.mitterhauser@meduniwien.ac.at

    2010-03-15

    The presented review provides general background on PET radiopharmaceuticals for oncological applications. Special emphasis is put on radiopharmacological, radiochemical and regulatory aspects. This review is not meant to give details on all different PET tracers in depth but to provide insights into the general principles coming along with their preparation and use. The PET tracer plays a pivotal role because it provides the basis both for image quality and clinical interpretation. It is composed of the radionuclide (signaller) and the molecular vehicle which determines the (bio-)chemical properties (e.g. binding characteristics, metabolism, elimination rate)

  14. MR-PET of the body: Early experience and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Catalano, Onofrio A; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Salvatore, Marco; Semelka, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    MR-PET is a novel imaging modality that combines anatomic and metabolic data acquisition, allowing for simultaneous depiction of morphological and functional abnormalities with an excellent soft tissue contrast and good spatial resolution; as well as accurate temporal and spatial image fusion; while substantially reducing radiation dose when compared with PET-CT. In this review, we will discuss MR-PET basic principles and technical challenges and limitations, explore some practical considerations, and cover the main clinical applications, while shedding some light on some of the future trends regarding this new imaging technique.

  15. FDG PET/CT in children and adolescents with lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, Regine; Kurch, Lars [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Montravers, Francoise [Hospital Tenon, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); Mauz-Koerholz, Christine [University Hospital Halle, Department of Paediatrics, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of FDG PET/CT applications in children and adolescents with lymphoma. Today, FDG PET is used for tailoring treatment intensity in children with Hodgkin lymphoma within the framework of international treatment optimisation protocols. In contrast, the role of this method in children with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is not well defined. This paper overviews clinical appearance and metabolic behaviour of the most frequent lymphoma subtypes in childhood. The main focus of the review is to summarise knowledge about the role of FDG PET/CT for initial staging and early response assessment. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of Local Control after Laser-Induced Thermotherapy of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: Contribution of FDG-PET in Patients with Clinical Suspicion of Progressive Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denecke, T.; Steffen, I.; Hildebrandt, B.; Ruehl, R.; Streitparth, F.; Lehmk uhl, L.; Langrehr, J.; Ricke, J.; Amthauer, H.; Lopez Haenninen, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Bereiche Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Medizinische Klinik mit Schwerpunkt Haematologie Onkologie, and Klinik fuer Allgemein-, Viszeral-, und T ransplantationschirurgie, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charite - Universitaetsmedizi n Berlin, (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Background: Management of patients after locally ablative treatment of liver metastases requires exact information about local control and systemic disease status. To fulfill these requirements, whole-body imaging using positron emission tomography with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is a promising alternative to morphologic imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Purpose: To evaluate FDG-PET for the assessment of local control and systemic disease in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) of colorectal liver metastases. Material and Methods: In 21 patients with suspicion of progressive disease after LITT, whole-body FDG-PET was performed. The presence of viable tumor within treated lesions, new liver metastases, and extrahepatic disease was evaluated visually and semi quantitatively (maximal standard uptake value [SUVmax], tumor-to-normal ratio [T/N]). The standard of reference was histopathology (n = 25 lesions) and/or clinical follow-up (>12 months) including contrast-enhanced MRI of the liver. Results: Among 54 metastases treated with LITT, 29 had residual tumor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of SUVmax (area under the curve (AUC) 0.990) and T/N (AUC 0.968) showed a significant discrimination level of negative or positive lesion status with an equal accuracy of 94% (51/54). The overall accuracy of visual FDG-PET was 96% (52/54), with one false-negative lesion among six examined within 3 days after LITT, and one false-positive lesion examined 54 days after LITT. In the detection of new intra- and extrahepatic lesions, FDG-PET resulted in correct alteration of treatment strategy in 43% of patients (P = 0.007). Conclusion: FDG-PET is a promising tool for the assessment of local control and whole-body restaging in patients with clinical suspicion of tumor progression after locally ablative treatment of colorectal liver metastases with

  17. Clinical application of multimodality imaging in radiotherapy treatment planning for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Yang; Zhe, Hong

    2013-12-11

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of rectal cancer. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are mainstay techniques of radiotherapy for rectal cancer. However, the success of these techniques is heavily reliant on accurate target delineation and treatment planning. Computed tomography simulation is a cornerstone of rectal cancer radiotherapy, but there are limitations, such as poor soft-tissue contrast between pelvic structures and partial volume effects. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) can overcome these limitations and provide additional information for rectal cancer treatment planning. PET can also reduce the interobserver variation in the definition of rectal tumor volume. However, there is a long way to go before these image modalities are routinely used in the clinical setting. This review summarizes the most promising studies on clinical applications of multimodality imaging in target delineation and treatment planning for rectal cancer radiotherapy.

  18. NEMA and clinical evaluation of a novel brain PET-CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogg, Kira S.; Toole, Terrence; Ouyang, Jinsong; Zhu, Xuping; Normandin, Marc; Johnson, Keith; Alpert, Nathaniel M.; Fakhri, Georges El

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the performance of a novel mobile human brain/small animal PET-CT system, developed by Photo Diagnostic Systems Inc. The scanner has a 35.7-cm diameter bore and a 22-cm axial extent. The detector ring has 7 modules each with 3×4 cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate crystal blocks, each consisting of 22×22 outer layer and 21×21 inner layer crystals, each layer 1 cm thick. Light is collected by 12×12 SiPMs. The integrated CT can be used for attenuation correction and anatomical localization. The scanner was designed as a low-cost device that nevertheless produces high-quality PET images with the unique capability of battery-powered propulsion, enabling use in many settings. Methods Spatial resolution, sensitivity and noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) were measured based on the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 procedures. Reconstruction was done with tight energy and timing cuts: 400-650 keV and 7ns, and loose cuts: 350-700 keV and 10ns. Additional image quality measurements were made from phantoms, human, and animal studies. Performance was compared to a reference scanner (ECAT Exact HR+) with comparable imaging properties. Results The full-width half-max transverse resolution at 1 cm (10 cm) radius is 3.2 mm (5.2 mm radial, 3.1 mm tangential) and the axial resolution is 3.5 mm (4.0 mm). For tight (loose) cuts, a sensitivity of 7.5 (11.7) kcps/MBq at the center increases to 8.8 (13.9) kcps/MBq at a 10 cm radial offset. The maximum NECR of 19.5 (22.7) kcps was achieved for an activity concentration of 2.9 kBq/ml. Contrast recovery for 4:1 hot cylinder to warm background was 76% for the 25 mm diameter cylinder, but decreased with decreasing cylinder size. The quantitation agrees within 2% of the known activity distribution and concentration. Brain phantom and human scans have shown agreement in SUV values and image quality with the HR+. Conclusion We have characterized the performance of the NeuroPET

  19. Application of dual time phases imaging of 18F-FDG PET/CT to diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis focus%18F-FDG双时相显影在肺结节病灶中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周克; 吴平; 陈治明; 陈钰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨18F-FDG双时相显影在肺结节性病灶诊断与鉴别诊断的临床应用价值.方法 回顾性分析43例18F-FDG双时相显影且经病理证实的肺结节性病例.其中男性31例,女性12例,年龄38~84岁.使用18F-FDG行全身或肺部PET/CT及双时相病灶扫描,依据PET图像、CT图像、PET/CT融合图像进行综合性分析.结果 43例肺结节性病灶的病例中,双时相显影诊断肺癌26例,病理证实23例;诊断可疑肺癌8例,病理证实5例;诊断良性病变9例,病理证实8例.结论 对于肺结节性病灶,应用18F-FDG双时相显影可提高诊断的准确性.%Objective To investigate the clinical application values of dual time phases imaging of 18 F - FDG PET/CT to diagnosis of the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis focus. Methods A retrospective analysis was made in 43 patients( 31 men, 12 women and aged from 38 to 84 years )with detected by dual time phases imaging of 18F - FDG PET/CT and confirmed by pathological examination. They received the whole body or lung PET/CT and dual time phase focal scanning, and a comprehensive analysis was made according to the PET,CT images and PET/CT fusion images. Results Among the 43 subjects,26 ones were diagnosed as lung cancer by the dual time phase imaging and 24 ones were verified by pathological examination; 8 ones were diagnosed as suspicious lung cancer by the dual time phase imaging and 5 ones were verified by pathological examination;9 ones were diagnosed as benign lesion and 8 ones were verified by pathological examination. Conclusion The application of dual time phase imaging of 18F - FDG PET/CT can improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis focus.

  20. SPECT-CT and PET-CT progress in the research of computer analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingang Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of multimodal imaging equipment is milestone in the development of imaging, after the PET-CT, American GE company launched a Discovery 670 NM/CT, CT and SPECT, the organic integration of the formation of SPECT-CT new molecular medical imaging equipment, with SPECT, CT and PET-CT is getting more and more widely attention and application, many of SPECT-CT and PET-CT image analysis computer method arises at the historic moment, getting increasing attention of the clinical and imaging science. The paper carried on the detailed description of the SPECT-CT and PET-CT computer analysis method.

  1. The history of cerebral PET scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnow, Leah H.; Vaillancourt, David E.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the discoveries underpinning the introduction of cerebral PET scanning and highlight its modern applications. Background: Important discoveries in neurophysiology, brain metabolism, and radiotracer development in the post–World War II period provided the necessary infrastructure for the first cerebral PET scan. Methods: A complete review of the literature was undertaken to search for primary and secondary sources on the history of PET imaging. Searches were performed in PubMed, Google Scholar, and select individual journal Web sites. Written autobiographies were obtained through the Society for Neuroscience Web site at www.sfn.org. A reference book on the history of radiology, Naked to the Bone, was reviewed to corroborate facts and to locate references. The references listed in all the articles and books obtained were reviewed. Results: The neurophysiologic sciences required to build cerebral PET imaging date back to 1878. The last 60 years have produced an evolution of technological advancements in brain metabolism and radiotracer development. These advancements facilitated the development of modern cerebral PET imaging. Several key scientists were involved in critical discoveries and among them were Angelo Mosso, Charles Roy, Charles Sherrington, John Fulton, Seymour Kety, Louis Sokoloff, David E. Kuhl, Gordon L. Brownell, Michael Ter-Pogossian, Michael Phelps, and Edward Hoffman. Conclusions: Neurophysiology, metabolism, and radiotracer development in the postwar era synergized the development of the technology necessary for cerebral PET scanning. Continued use of PET in clinical trials and current developments in PET-CT/MRI hybrids has led to advancement in diagnosis, management, and treatment of neurologic disorders. PMID:23460618

  2. Multiobjective waste management optimization strategy coupling life cycle assessment and genetic algorithms: application to PET bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Komly, Claude-Emma; Azzaro-Pantel, Catherine; Hubert, Antoine; Pibouleau, Luc; Archambault, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A mathematical model based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) results is developed to assess the environmental efficiency of the end-of-life management of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. For this purpose, multiobjective optimization and decision support tools are used to define optimal targets for efficient waste management. The global environmental impacts associated with the treatment of PET bottles from their cradle to their ultimate graves (incineration, land...

  3. PET/MR Imaging in Cancers of the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspulati, Raj Mohan; Gupta, Amit

    2016-10-01

    PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) is an established hybrid imaging technique for staging and follow-up of gastrointestinal (GI) tract malignancies, especially for colorectal carcinoma. Dedicated hybrid PET/MR imaging scanners are currently available for clinical use. Although they will not replace regular use of PET/CT, they may have utility in selected cases of GI tract malignancies. The superior soft tissue contrast resolution and depiction of anatomy and the functional information obtained from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provided by MR imaging in PET/MR imaging are advantages over CT of PET/CT for T staging and follow-up of rectal carcinoma and for better characterization of liver lesions. Functional information from DWI and use of liver-specific MR imaging contrast agents are an added advantage in follow-up of liver metastases after systemic and locoregional treatment. New radiotracers will improve the utility of PET/MR imaging in staging and follow-up of tumors, which may not be [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose avid, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumors. PET/MR imaging also has application in selected cases of cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancer, and pancreatic carcinoma for initial staging and follow-up assessment.

  4. Clinical impact of 18F-FDG-PET/CT in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Ozcan, Cengiz; Diederichsen, Axel C P;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement, the progno...... lesions of clinical importance in one of seven IE patients and may be a substantial imaging technique for tracing peripheral infectious embolism due to IE. Thus, (18)F-FDG-PET/CT may help to guide adequate therapy and thereby improve the prognosis of patients with IE.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical importance of (18)F-FDG-PET/CT used in the extra cardiac work-up of patients with infective endocarditis (IE). BACKGROUND: IE is a serious condition with a significant mortality. Besides the degree of valvular involvement......, the prognosis relies crucially on the presence of systemic infectious embolism. METHODS: Seventy-two patients (71% males and mean age 63 ± 17 years) with IE were evaluated with (18)F-FDG-PET/CT in addition to standard work-up including patient history, physical examination, conventional imaging modalities...

  5. Alkyd-amino resins based on waste PET for coating applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlakoğlu, A; Güçlü, G

    2009-01-01

    Waste polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes were depolymerized by using propylene glycol (PG) in the presence of zinc acetate as catalyst. Glycolysis reaction products of waste PET obtained by using PET/glycol molar ratio 1/2. Two short oil alkyd resins of high acid values (30-40mgKOH/g) were prepared from phthalic anhydride (PA), glycerin (G), coconut oil fatty acids (COFA) and glycolyzed products of waste PET (PET-based alkyd resins) or glycols (PG) (reference alkyd resins). These alkyd resins were blended with 30%, 40%, and 50% of a commercial urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde and urea-formaldehyde/melamine-formaldehyde mixture (1/1 weight ratio) and heated at 140 degrees C. The physical and chemical properties such as drying time, hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion strength, water resistance, alkaline resistance, acid resistance, gelation time, and thermal oxidative degradation resistance (with thermogravimetric analysis, TGA) of these alkyd-amino resins were investigated. The properties of the waste PET-based resins were found to be compatible with the properties of the reference resins.

  6. Voxelwise lp-ntPET for detecting localized, transient dopamine release of unknown timing: sensitivity analysis and application to cigarette smoking in the PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Cosgrove, Kelly P; Morris, Evan D

    2014-09-01

    The "linear parametric neurotransmitter PET" (lp-ntPET) model estimates time variation in endogenous neurotransmitter levels from dynamic PET data. The pattern of dopamine (DA) change over time may be an important element of the brain's response to addictive substances such as cigarettes or alcohol. We have extended the lp-ntPET model from the original region of interest (ROI) - based implementation to be able to apply the model at the voxel level. The resulting endpoint is a dynamic image, or movie, of transient neurotransmitter changes. Simulations were performed to select threshold values to reduce the false positive rate when applied to real (11)C-raclopride PET data. We tested the new voxelwise method on simulated data, and finally, we applied it to (11)C-raclopride PET data of subjects smoking cigarettes in the PET scanner. In simulation, the temporal precision of neurotransmitter response was shown to be similar to that of ROI-based lp-ntPET (standard deviation ∼ 3 min). False positive rates for the voxelwise method were well controlled by combining a statistical threshold (the F-test) with a new spatial (cluster-size) thresholding operation. Sensitivity of detection for the new algorithm was greater than 80% for the case of short-lived DA changes that occur in subregions of the striatum as might be the case with cigarette smoking. Finally, in (11)C-raclopride PET data, DA movies reveal for the first time that different temporal patterns of the DA response to smoking may exist in different subregions of the striatum. These spatiotemporal patterns of neurotransmitter change created by voxelwise lp-ntPET may serve as novel biomarkers for addiction and/or treatment efficacy.

  7. Progress in application of PET-CT in diagnosis and therapy of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer%PET-CT在结直肠癌肝转移诊治中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马佶赟; 石洪成

    2010-01-01

    PET-CT using 18F-FDG is a non -invasive imaging modality which has been recognized as the most important imaging modality in diagnosing, staging, restaging, therapy monitoring and follow-up of cancer patients, especially in metastatic colorectal cancer. PET-CT combines functional and anatomical imaging to improve sensitivity and specificity of whole-body imaging and provides incremental diagnostic value over PET or CT alone. Nowadays, applications of PET-CT imaging in liver metastasis from colorectal cancer mainly included detection and differentiation of malignant and benign liver lesions, determination of appropriate therapeutic strategies and evaluation of treatments.%用葡萄糖类似物18F-FDG作为显像剂的PET-CT是一种无创性显像方法,它在肿瘤尤其是转移性结直肠癌的诊断、分期、再分期、疗效监测和随访中有非常重要的作用.PET-CT融合显像将功能显像和解剖显像结合在一起,提高了全身肿瘤显像的敏感性和特异性,明显优于单独PET或CT.目前,PET-CT在结直肠癌肝转移中的应用主要是检测和甄别肝脏转移性病灶、制定治疗方案和进行疗效评价.

  8. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO₂/PET film for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyaraj, K Navaneetha; Deshmukh, R R; Mahendiran, R; Su, Pi-G; Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat; Perni, Stefano; Prokopovich, Polina; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO2) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol-gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO2/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO2/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO2/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO2/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO2/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO2/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti(3+) on the surface of plasma treated TiO2/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti(4+)→Ti(3+)). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO2/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO2/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices.

  9. Transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius between infected dogs and cats and contact pets, humans and the environment in households and veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijkeren, E; Kamphuis, M; van der Mije, I C; Laarhoven, L M; Duim, B; Wagenaar, J A; Houwers, D J

    2011-06-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in people, pets and the environment in households with a pet with a clinical MRSP-infection within the past year. Personnel and the environment at veterinary clinics were also screened. Nasal swabs (humans), nasal and perineal swabs (pets) and environmental wipes were examined using selective culturing. Twenty households were enrolled; 10/20 index cases still had clinical signs of infection at the start of the study and all were MRSP-positive. Of the remaining 10 index cases five were MRSP-positive in nasal and/or perineal samples. Five of 14 (36%) contact dogs and four of 13 (31%) contact cats were found MRSP-positive. In the households with an index case with clinical signs of infection 6/7 (86%) contact animals were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 2/45 (4%) human nasal samples. Domestic contamination was widespread as positive samples were found in 70% of the households and 44% of all environmental samples were MRSP-positive. In all but one of these MRSP-positive households the index case was still MRSP positive. Among the personnel in veterinary clinics 4/141 (3%) were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 31/200 environmental samples in 7/13 clinics at the first sampling and in 3/6 clinics the environment remained MRSP-positive after cleaning and disinfection indicating that current cleaning procedures often were unable to eliminate MRSP. These results show that transmission of MRSP between infected or colonized dogs and cats and healthy people does occur but is relatively uncommon, while transmission to contact pets occurs frequently, especially when the index case still has clinical signs of MRSP-infection.

  10. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  11. Reassessing the clinical efficacy of two MR quantitative DSC PWI CBF algorithms following cross-calibration with PET images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jean J.; Frayne, Richard; Smith, Michael R.

    2005-03-01

    Clinical cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps generated through dynamic- susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging are currently cross-calibrated with PET studies. The cross-calibration is achieved by rescaling the MR CBF values so that normal white matter CBF corresponds to 22 ml/100 g/min. Examples are provided in this paper to show how this rescaling procedure changes both the clinical interpretation of CBF maps and the manner by which the performance of a given deconvolution algorithm should be assessed. (i) Singular-value decomposition-based (SVD) algorithms produce absolute CBF estimates that are inherently under-estimated for all tissue mean transit times (MTT) but, after rescaling, will generate CBF maps that are over-estimated for MTT >4.8 s. (ii) In principle, frequency-domain modelling techniques are expected to be inherently less sensitive to contrast recirculation biases than the time-domain SVD algorithms. However, it is shown that both CBF algorithms become greatly less sensitive to distortions from recirculation after clinical cross-calibration through rescaling has been performed. It is concluded that, when rescaling procedures are employed, it is relatively more important to develop deconvolution algorithms that produce CBF estimates with accuracies that vary little with MTT than to produce algorithms that provide inherently more accurate CBF estimates, but whose relative accuracy varies significantly with MTT. A portion of this work was presented at the 2004 Annual Scientific Meeting of the ISMRM, 15-21 May, Kyoto, Japan.

  12. Comparison of performance among three systems of Clinical PET by computerized simulation; Comparacao de desempenho entre tres sistemas de PET clinico por simulacao computacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franze, Daniel L.; Bertolo, Antonio C.N.; Gama, Andressa F.; Moraes, Eder R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GIMN/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Imagens em Medicina Nuclear

    2016-07-01

    Whereas sensitivity and spatial resolution of PET images formed in coincidence systems may exhibit improvements with reduction of the distance between the detectors. Furthermore, since the human cross section not be a circle three different detection geometries of a PET system have been simulated; a circular and two ellipticals. The performance comparison was performed by the sensitivity, resolution and the Noise Equivalent Count Rate curve. The results show that elliptical systems may experience 25% lower cost detectors, increased sensitivity to 63%. The resolution improvements introduced in X direction, large loss in the Y direction, although the use of iterative reconstruction can reduce the loss in resolution. The reduction of peak NEC curve indicates the image with better quality is achieved with lower activity of the source. (author)

  13. Novel Developments in Instrumentation for PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Joel

    2013-04-01

    Advances in medical imaging, in particular positron emission tomography (PET), have been based on technical developments in physics and instrumentation that have common foundations with detection systems used in other fields of physics. New detector materials are used in PET systems that maximize efficiency, timing characteristics and robustness, and which lead to improved image quality and quantitative accuracy for clinical imaging. Time of flight (TOF) techniques are now routinely used in commercial PET scanners that combine physiological imaging with anatomical imaging provided by x-ray computed tomography. Using new solid-state photo-sensors instead of traditional photo-multiplier tubes makes it possible to combine PET with magnetic resonance imaging which is a significant technical challenge, but one that is creating new opportunities for both research and clinical applications. An overview of recent advances in instrumentation, such as TOF and PET/MR will be presented, along with examples of imaging studies to demonstrate the impact on patient care and basic research of diseases.

  14. Simultaneous PET/MR imaging in a human brain PET/MR system in 50 patients-Current state of image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwenzer, N.F., E-mail: nina.schwenzer@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Stegger, L., E-mail: stegger@gmx.net [Department of Nuclear Medicine and European Institute for Molecular Imaging, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Bisdas, S., E-mail: sbisdas@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schraml, C., E-mail: christina.schraml@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kolb, A., E-mail: armin.kolb@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Laboratory for Preclinical Imaging and Imaging Technology of the Werner Siemens-Foundation, Department of Preclinical Imaging and Radiopharmacy, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Boss, A., E-mail: Andreas.Boss@usz.ch [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mueller, M., E-mail: mark.mueller@med.uni-tuebingen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2012-11-15

    of PET results between PET/MR and PET/CT. These results justify the application of this technique in further clinical studies and may contribute to the transfer into whole-body PET/MR systems.

  15. PET和PET/CT在恶性淋巴瘤中的临床应用价值%Clinical value of PET and PET/CT in diagnosis and treatment ofmalignant lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海辉; 乔智红; 邱书珺; 王家强

    2009-01-01

    PET and PET/CT are the methods of displaying the functional and metabolic changes in tissues. With its high sensitivity and specificity, it can be used as a noninvasive systemic functional examination. There are significant values in its diagnosing, staging, treatment directing and prognosis assessing in the malignant lymphoma.%PET和PET/CT是一种以显示功能和代谢状态为特征的显像技术,具有高敏感性、高特异性及功能显像的优势,可用作全身代谢功能异常的无创性检查,在恶性淋巴瘤的诊断和分期、指导治疗和预后判断等方面具有重要应用价值.

  16. Quantitative imaging with PET. Performance and applications of sup 7 sup 6 Br, sup 5 sup 2 F sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m In and sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 La

    CERN Document Server

    Lubberink, M

    2001-01-01

    count rates are considerably lower for sup 7 sup 6 Br than for sup 1 sup 8 F at clinically relevant radioactivity concentrations. A method to correct sup 5 sup 2 Fe patient data for the contribution of the decay daughter sup 5 sup 2 sup m Mn is discussed. The use of sup 1 sup 1 sup 0 sup m In is evaluated in a patient study and compared to SPECT imaging with sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In. A dosimetric and PET evaluation of the of use sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 Ce/ sup 1 sup 3 sup 4 La for radionuclide therapy and dosimetry is presented. Dosimetry of sup 7 sup 6 Br-labelled antibodies is evaluated in an animal study. Finally, the possibility to use PET for dosimetry during radionuclide therapy is studied and a dose image calculation program, based on PET measurements, is presented The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has so far been limited to a few nuclides with short half-lives such as sup 1 sup 8 F and sup 1 sup 1 C. Certain applications require nuclides with longer half-lives, such as sup 7 sup 6 Br and sup 5 sup 2...

  17. Assessment of recycled PET properties for application on oil wells as sand control agents; Avaliacao de propriedades de PET reciclado para aplicacao em pocos de petroleo como agente de contencao de areia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Alexandre Zacarias Ignacio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delpech, Marcia Cerqueira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: mcd@uerj.br

    2008-07-01

    The Sand Control is fundamental for oil production in unconsolidated sandstone formations. It consists of the installation of a filter made of stainless steel screens and grained materials (sand control agents) which are, normally, high density inorganic substances (sand, ceramic, bauxite). Shallow formations, near to the sea bed, are more sensitive and need different kinds of sand control agents with low density. The objective of this work was the evaluation of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, as sand control agent for oil wells. Pack permeability and thermal stability tests results, after up to six months of exposure to sea water and crude oil, have indicated that the recycled PET kept the necessary characteristics for the proposed application. Also, it was observed that the PET grain pack did not presented significant property modifications in the exposure conditions, when compared to the non-exposed samples. (author)

  18. Giardia & Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body of water Young pets, like puppies and kittens, have a higher risk of illness than adult ... If your pet has persistent diarrhea, seek veterinary care. Diarrhea has different causes and could result in ...

  19. 3D intrathoracic region definition and its application to PET-CT analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheirsilp, Ronnarit; Bascom, Rebecca; Allen, Thomas W.; Higgins, William E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently developed integrated PET-CT scanners give co-registered multimodal data sets that offer complementary three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the chest. PET (positron emission tomography) imaging gives highly specific functional information of suspect cancer sites, while CT (X-ray computed tomography) gives associated anatomical detail. Because the 3D CT and PET scans generally span the body from the eyes to the knees, accurate definition of the intrathoracic region is vital for focusing attention to the central-chest region. In this way, diagnostically important regions of interest (ROIs), such as central-chest lymph nodes and cancer nodules, can be more efficiently isolated. We propose a method for automatic segmentation of the intrathoracic region from a given co-registered 3D PET-CT study. Using the 3D CT scan as input, the method begins by finding an initial intrathoracic region boundary for a given 2D CT section. Next, active contour analysis, driven by a cost function depending on local image gradient, gradient-direction, and contour shape features, iteratively estimates the contours spanning the intrathoracic region on neighboring 2D CT sections. This process continues until the complete region is defined. We next present an interactive system that employs the segmentation method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis. A validation study over a series of PET-CT studies reveals that the segmentation method gives a Dice index accuracy of less than 98%. In addition, further results demonstrate the utility of the method for focused 3D PET-CT chest image analysis, ROI definition, and visualization.

  20. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Leiner, Tim [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh [Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-18

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  1. Feasibility of a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm for tumor segmentation in retrospectively gated PET images: phantom and clinical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, Montserrat; Fechter, Tobias; Nemer, Ursula; Nanko, Norbert; Mix, Michael; Nestle, Ursula; Schaefer, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    PET/CT plays an important role in radiotherapy planning for lung tumors. Several segmentation algorithms have been proposed for PET tumor segmentation. However, most of them do not take into account respiratory motion and are not well validated. The aim of this work was to evaluate a semi-automated contrast-oriented algorithm (COA) for PET tumor segmentation adapted to retrospectively gated (4D) images. The evaluation involved a wide set of 4D-PET/CT acquisitions of dynamic experimental phantoms and lung cancer patients. In addition, segmentation accuracy of 4D-COA was compared with four other state-of-the-art algorithms. In phantom evaluation, the physical properties of the objects defined the gold standard. In clinical evaluation, the ground truth was estimated by the STAPLE (Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation) consensus of three manual PET contours by experts. Algorithm evaluation with phantoms resulted in: (i) no statistically significant diameter differences for different targets and movements (Δ φ =0.3+/- 1.6 mm); (ii) reproducibility for heterogeneous and irregular targets independent of user initial interaction and (iii) good segmentation agreement for irregular targets compared to manual CT delineation in terms of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC  =  0.66+/- 0.04 ), Positive Predictive Value (PPV  =  0.81+/- 0.06 ) and Sensitivity (Sen.  =  0.49+/- 0.05 ). In clinical evaluation, the segmented volume was in reasonable agreement with the consensus volume (difference in volume (%Vol)  =  40+/- 30 , DSC  =  0.71+/- 0.07 and PPV  =  0.90+/- 0.13 ). High accuracy in target tracking position (Δ ME) was obtained for experimental and clinical data (Δ ME{{}\\text{exp}}=0+/- 3 mm; Δ ME{{}\\text{clin}}=0.3+/- 1.4 mm). In the comparison with other lung segmentation methods, 4D-COA has shown the highest volume accuracy in both experimental and clinical data. In conclusion, the accuracy in volume

  2. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pets can add fun, companionship and a feeling of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which animal is best for ... is each family member looking for in a pet? Who will take care of it? Does anyone ...

  3. Benchmarking PET for geoscientific applications: 3D quantitative diffusion coefficient determination in clay rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Gerasch, R.; Schikora, J.; Kulenkampff, J.

    2017-04-01

    The 3D diagonal anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient of Na+, Deff=(Dxx, Dyy, Dzz), was quantified in a clay material in one single experiment/simulation. That is possible due to the combination of the non-invasive observation of Na+ diffusion in Opalinus clay by means of GeoPET method (PET: positron emission tomography) followed by quantitative 3D+t data evaluation by means of the finite element numerical modelling (FEM). The extracted anisotropic effective diffusion coefficient parallel (||) and normal (⊥) to the bedding of the clay rock, Deff=(D||, D⊥, D||) are comparable to those obtained on earlier experimental studies in the same clay material but with different methods. We consider this study as benchmark for the long-standing development of our GeoPET method, that explicitly includes a resolute and physics based attenuation and Compton scatter correction algorithm (Kulenkampff, J., M. Gründig, A. Zakhnini and J. Lippmann-Pipke (2016). "Geoscientific process monitoring with positron emission tomography (GeoPET)." Solid Earth 7: 1217-1231). We suggest GeoPET based fluid flow transport visualization combined with computer based process simulation henceforth as a qualified way for the quantification of three-dimensional, effective transport parameters in geosciences.

  4. FDG PET in non-pharmacological therapy in Alzheimer's disease; cerebral metabolic increase correlates with clinical improvement after cognitive therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Park, Seong Min; Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Kim, Sang Yun; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In management of AD, pharmacological treatment alone using acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) is general consensus, and provides beneficial effect to prolong their progression. Combined non-pharmacological therapy, especially cognitive therapy is recently having attention with expectation of improvement in cognitive ability. This study examined the effect of combined cognitive therapy in AD patients who were maintaining AChEI using FDG PET. Four patients (689 yrs) who diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease based on the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria participated in this study. 12-week cognitive therapy comprised seven fields to enhance orientation, memory, recall, visuo-motor organization, categorization and behavior modification/sequencing. They received 45-minute sessions twice per week with maintaining their previous medication. Clinical improvement was assessed by comprehensive neuropsychological tests. Two FDG PET studies were performed before cognitive therapy and in the middle of the therapy, and compared to evaluate the effect of cognitive therapy to cerebral metabolism. Two of 4 patients whose initial cognitive impairment was milder had clinical improvement after 12 weeks, the rest who were more severely impaired failed to have clinical improvement. Regional cerebral hypometabolism on initial PET was correlated with their functional status. Follow up PET of two responders demonstrated the increases in regional metabolism in the temporal and/or frontal cortex, which was associated their functional improvement. Cerebral metabolism in poor responders were minimally increased or no changed. This preliminary data suggests that cognitive therapy is potentially useful to stabilize or improve cognitive and functional performance in AD patients with relatively mild cognitive dysfunction. And FDG PET could demonstrate possible candidates for cognitive therapy and the effect of the therapy.

  5. PET/CT Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Blodgett, Todd M.; Mehta, Ajeet S.; Mehta, Amar S.; Laymon, Charles M; Carney, Jonathan; Townsend, David W.

    2011-01-01

    There are several artifacts encountered in PET/CT imaging, including attenuation correction (AC) artifacts associated with using CT for attenuation correction. Several artifacts can mimic a 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) avid malignant lesions and therefore recognition of these artifacts is clinically relevant. Our goal was to identify and characterize these artifacts and also discuss some protocol variables that may affect image quality in PET/CT.

  6. PET for Staging of Esophageal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.H.Hoelscher

    2004-01-01

    FDG-PET is of clinical value especially for detection of distant metastases or recurrent esophageal cancer. For the staging of primary tumor or locoregional lymph node metastasis PET is currently not suitable.

  7. Choline PET and PET/CT in Primary Diagnosis and Staging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schwarzenböck, M. Souvatzoglou, B. J. Krause

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available PET and PET/CT using [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates is increasingly being used for imaging of primary and recurrent prostate cancer. While PET and PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates in patients suffering from biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies that demonstrate an increasing importance, its role in the primary staging of prostate cancer is still a matter of debate.Morphological and functional imaging techniques such as CT, MRI and TRUS have demonstrated only limited accuracy for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer. Molecular imaging with PET and PET/CT could potentially increase accuracy to localize primary prostate cancer. A considerable number of studies have examined the value of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]- labelled choline derivates for the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer with mixed results. Primary prostate cancer can only be detected with moderate sensitivity using [11C]- and [18F]choline PET and PET/CT. The detection rate depends on the tumour configuration. Detection is also limited by a considerable number of microcarcinomas that cannot be detected due to partial volume effects. Therefore small and in part rind-like tumours can often not be visualized. Furthermore, the differentiation between benign changes like prostatitis, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN or prostatic hyperplasia is not always possible. Therefore, at the present time, the routine use of PET/CT with [11C]- and [18F]-labelled choline derivates cannot be recommended as a first-line screening procedure for primary prostate cancer in men at risk. A potential application of choline PET and PET/CT may be to increase the detection rate of clinically suspected prostate cancer with multiple negative prostate biopsies, for example in preparation of a focused re-biopsy and may play a role in patient stratification with respect to primary surgery and radiation therapy in the future.

  8. Magnetic Nanoparticles From Fabrication to Clinical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thanh, Nguyen TK

    2012-01-01

    Offering the latest information in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) research, Magnetic Nanoparticles: From Fabrication to Clinical Applications provides a comprehensive review, from synthesis, characterization, and biofunctionalization to clinical applications of MNPs, including the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. This book, written by some of the most qualified experts in the field, not only fills a hole in the literature, but also bridges the gaps between all the different areas in this field. Translational research on tailored magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications spans a variet

  9. CLINICAL APPLICATION OF ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉倩; 李云芳; 王廷华

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review some major effects of acupuncture in the treatment of clinical diseases and sum up some results of experimental researches on the mechanisms of acupuncture. Up to now, clinical practice and experimental researches demonstrate that acupuncture possesses good analgesic effect, integrative regulation effect on the functional activities of the body and defense-immune-potentiation effect.

  10. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, C., E-mail: c.weirich@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany); Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany); Byars, L.; Michel, C. [Siemens Healthcare, Molecular Imaging, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine – 4, Juelich (Germany)

    2013-02-21

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner.

  11. Analysis of incidental focal hypermetabolic uptake in the breast as detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT: clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Eun Young; Cha, Joo Hee; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Hee Jung; Kim, Hyun Ji; Oh, Ha Yeun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Inst. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Coll. of Medicine, Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: jhcha@amc.seoul.kr; Koh, Young Hwan [Center for Liver Cancer, National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Dae Hyuk [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Coll. of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Background: With the widespread use of PET/CT, incidental hypermetabolic foci unrelated to the known malignancy have been described with increasing frequency. Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of incidental focal hypermetabolic uptake in the breast as detected by 18F-FDG PET/CT, and to explore factors differentiating benign and malignant breast uptake. Material and Methods: From January 2005 to June 2010, a total of 51971 whole-body FDG PET/CT examinations were performed in our clinic. After excluding 7254 sets of PET/CT data from patients known to have breast cancer, we retrospectively identified patients showing incidental focal hypermetabolic activity in the breast. Of 44717 PET/CT examinations conducted on 32988 patients, we identified 131 patients with no previous known or suspected benign and malignant breast disease. The etiology, mean SUVmax, and diameter of breast lesions were assessed. We also compared the presentation of the lesions on CT, mammography, and ultrasonography. Results: Of the 131 patients, 60 were histologically diagnosed with breast lesions, including 32 with malignant and 28 with benign lesions. An additional 11 patients were followed-up for more than 2 years and were clinically considered to have benign lesions. The remaining 60 patients who had neither histologic confirmation nor followed-up for more than 2 years were excluded. Therefore, 71 patients were finally included. The mean SUVmax of 39 benign lesions and 32 malignant lesions were 2.02{+-}1.52 and 3.71{+-}3.83, respectively (P 0.0001). At a cut-off value of 2.3, the rate of malignancy and specificity of the mean SUVmax for differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions were 61.3%, 76.3, respectively. The CT data from PET/CT revealed that the mean diameters of benign and malignant lesions were 1.19{+-}0.97 cm and 2.26{+-}1.96 cm, respectively (P = 0.0009). Conclusion: Incidental focal 18F-FDG uptake in the breast as detected by PET/CT was

  12. Unexpected foci of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the breast detected by PET/CT: incidence and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litmanovich, Diana [Department of Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Gourevich, Konstantin [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa (Israel); Israel, Ora [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9602, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, B. and R. Rapaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Gallimidi, Zahava [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, B. and R. Rapaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and clinical significance of unexpected focal {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake localized by PET/CT within the breast. The files of 4,038 consecutive female cancer patients referred for FDG PET/CT over a period of 74 months were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with breast cancer were excluded from the study. The incidence of focal sites of increased FDG uptake localized by PET/CT to the breast was determined. The intensity of uptake was measured using the lean body mass maximum standard uptake value (LBM SUV{sub max}), and the presence and patterns of morphologic changes on CT were assessed. The etiology and clinical significance of findings were confirmed histologically or with imaging and clinical follow-up. Unexpected FDG foci in the breast were identified in 33 of 4,038 patients (0.82%). Follow-up data were available for 30 patients. Malignancy was diagnosed in 17 patients (histology 12, clinical 5) and excluded in 13 patients (histology 9, clinical 4). There was a borderline statistically significant difference in FDG uptake (LBM SUV{sub max}) between malignant (3.13 {+-} 2.25) and benign (1.85 {+-} 1.18) lesions (p = 0.05). Focal lesions were seen on CT in 23 patients (malignant 11, benign 12), and CT was negative in 7 patients (malignant 6, benign 1). Although rare, incidental focal abnormal FDG uptake in the breast may represent malignant lesions in up to 57% of patients. Breast incidentalomas on PET/CT warrant further assessment including tissue sampling to define the etiology of these unexpected FDG-avid foci. (orig.)

  13. {sup 18}F-Fluorocholine PET/CT as a complementary tool in the follow-up of low-grade glioma: diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Rio, Manuel; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Antonio; Llamas-Elvira, Jose M. [Instituto de Investigacion Biosanitaria de Granada, Granada (Spain); University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Granada (Spain); Testart Dardel, Nathalie [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Nuclear Medicine, Granada (Spain); Santiago Chinchilla, Alicia [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Radiology, Granada (Spain); Olivares Granados, Gonzalo [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Neurosurgery, Granada (Spain); Luque Caro, Raquel [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Medical Oncology, Granada (Spain); Zurita Herrera, Mercedes [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Radiotherapy Oncology, Granada (Spain); Chamorro Santos, Clara E. [University Hospital ' ' Virgen de las Nieves' ' , Department of Pathology, Granada (Spain); Lardelli-Claret, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Biosanitaria de Granada, Granada (Spain); Centros de Investigacion Biomedica en Red de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Granada (Spain); University of Granada, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Granada (Spain)

    2015-05-01

    The follow-up of treated low-grade glioma (LGG) requires the evaluation of subtle clinical changes and MRI results. When the result is inconclusive, additional procedures are required to assist decision-making, such as the use of advanced MRI (aMRI) sequences and nuclear medicine scans (SPECT and PET). The aim of this study was to determine whether incorporating {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT in the follow-up protocol for treated LGG improves diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility. This was a prospective case-series study in patients with treated LGG during standard follow-up with indeterminate clinical and/or radiological findings of tumour activity. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, aMRI, {sup 201}Tl-SPECT and {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT. Images were interpreted by visual evaluation complemented with semiquantitative analysis. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 18 patients were included in this study. The final diagnosis was established by histology (five surgical specimens, one biopsy specimen) or by consensus of the Neuro-Oncology Group (11 patients) after a follow-up of >6 months (mean 14.9 ± 2.72 months). The global diagnostic accuracies were 90.9 % for aMRI (38.8 % inconclusive), 69.2 % for {sup 201}Tl-SPECT (11.1 % inconclusive), and 100 % for {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT. {sup 201}Tl-SPECT led correctly to a change in the initial approach in 38.9 % of patients but might have led to error in 27.8 %. The use of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine PET/CT alone rather than {sup 201}Tl-SPECT led correctly to a change in the approach suggested by routine follow-up in 72.2 % of patients and endorsed the approach in the remaining 27.8 %. Our results support the need to complement structural MRI with aMRI and nuclear medicine procedures in selected patients. {sup 18}F-Fluorocholine PET/CT can be useful in the individualized management of patients with treated LGG with uncertain clinical and/or radiological evidence of tumour activity. (orig.)

  14. In vivo neurochemistry with emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Sole, Angelo; Gambini, Anna; Falini, Andrea; Lecchi, Michela; Lucignani, Giovanni

    2002-10-01

    The assessment of neurochemical processes in vivo has received much attention in the past decade as techniques such as positron or single photon emission tomography (PET and SPET), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have become more available. With PET and SPET, basic processes, such as blood flow and oxygen or glucose metabolism, can be regionally assessed, along with more specific functions such as the production, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters and their occupancy of specific receptors. At the same time, MRS can reveal changes in concentration of several hydrogenate compounds in the brain. All these methods have been extensively applied for research in neurology, and some applications have reached the clinical level, namely for the study of degenerative diseases, motor-neuron diseases, movement disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, and epilepsy. This article focuses on the most relevant information that can be obtained with these complementary techniques to help clinicians in the assessment of neurological diseases.

  15. In vivo neurochemistry with emission tomography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy: clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Angelo Del [Azienda Ospedaliera San Paolo e Universita di Milano, 20142 Milan (Italy); Gambini, Anna; Falini, Andrea [IRCCS H San Raffaele e Universita Vita e Salute, 20132 Milan (Italy); Lecchi, Michela [Azienda Ospedaliera L. Sacco e Universita di Milano, 20157 Milan (Italy); Lucignani, Giovanni [Azienda Ospedaliera L. Sacco e Universita di Milano, 20157 Milan (Italy); Universita di Milano, Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche, Cattedra di Medicina Nucleare c/o Ospedale L. Sacco, Via G.B. Grassi, 74, 20157 Milan (Italy)

    2002-10-01

    The assessment of neurochemical processes in vivo has received much attention in the past decade as techniques such as positron or single photon emission tomography (PET and SPET), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have become more available. With PET and SPET, basic processes, such as blood flow and oxygen or glucose metabolism, can be regionally assessed, along with more specific functions such as the production, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters and their occupancy of specific receptors. At the same time, MRS can reveal changes in concentration of several hydrogenate compounds in the brain. All these methods have been extensively applied for research in neurology, and some applications have reached the clinical level, namely for the study of degenerative diseases, motor-neuron diseases, movement disorders, cerebrovascular diseases, and epilepsy. This article focuses on the most relevant information that can be obtained with these complementary techniques to help clinicians in the assessment of neurological diseases. (orig.)

  16. Clinical Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in papillary thyroid cancer with negative radioiodine scan and elevated thyroglobulin level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sun Seong; Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Seok Mo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, along with a negative radioiodine scan, present a clinical problem for the diagnosis of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for PTC patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and (2) the effect of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (ETS) on detecting recurrence in these circumstances. Eighty-four patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb under ETS were included. Correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence, detectability of FDG PET/CT and cut-off value of serum Tg for recurrence in PTC patients with these circumstance were assessed. In addition, detectability of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS and suppression were compared. In Cox regression analysis, only serum Tg level was significantly associated with recurrence (P<0.001, HR  = 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.061–1.208). The cut-off level of Tg was 21.5 ng/mL (AUC, 0.919; P < 0.001) for discriminating the recurrence in the patients with positive PET/CT finding. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were 64 %, 94 %, 86 %, 81 %, and 83 %. In the analysis of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy was 64 %, 94 %, 88 %, 81 % and 83 %. Those under TSH suppression were 67 %, 92 %, 80 %, 85 % and 83 %. F-18 FDG PET/CT, although less sensitive, showed high specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy and therefore can be useful for the patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb. In addition, FDG PET/CT under ETS does not seem to have an additive role in detecting recurrence in these patients.

  17. Impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT on clinical decision making in recurrent prostate cancer: results from a retrospective two-centre trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceci, Francesco [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Herrmann, Ken; Bluemel, Christina; Droll, Sabine; Buck, Andreas K. [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Castellucci, Paolo; Graziani, Tiziano; Fanti, Stefano [University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Brunocilla, Eugenio [University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy); Vollmer, Christian [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Department of Urology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Mazzarotto, Renzo [University of Bologna, Service of Radiotherapy, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this retrospective two-centre study was to investigate the clinical impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT on treatment management decisions in patients with recurrent prostate cancer (rPCa) after radical therapy. Enrolled in this retrospective study were 150 patients (95 from Bologna, 55 from Wuerzburg) with rPCa and biochemical relapse (PSA mean ± SD 4.3 ± 5.5 ng/mL, range 0.2-39.4 ng/mL) after radical therapy. The intended treatment before PET/CT was salvage radiotherapy of the prostatic bed in 95 patients and palliative androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in 55 patients. The effective clinical impact of {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was rated as major (change in therapeutic approach), minor (same treatment, but modified therapeutic strategy) or none. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis included PSA level, PSA kinetics, ongoing ADT, Gleason score, TNM, age and time to relapse. Changes in therapy after {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT were implemented in 70 of the 150 patients (46.7 %). A major clinical impact was observed in 27 patients (18 %) and a minor clinical impact in 43 (28.7 %). {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 109 patients (72.7 %) detecting local relapse (prostate bed and/or iliac lymph nodes and/or pararectal lymph nodes) in 64 patients (42.7 %). Distant relapse (paraaortic and/or retroperitoneal lymph nodes and/or bone lesions) was seen in 31 patients (20.7 %), and both local and distant relapse in 14 (9.3 %). A significant difference was observed in PSA level and PSA kinetics between PET-positive and PET-negative patients (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, PSA level, PSA doubling time and ongoing ADT were significant predictors of a positive scan (p < 0.05). In statistical analysis no significant differences were observed between the Bologna and Wuerzburg patients (p > 0.05). In both centres the same criteria to validate PET-positive findings were used: in 17.3 % of patients by histology and in 82.7 % of patients by correlative

  18. State of the art imaging of multiple myeloma: Comparative review of FDG PET/CT imaging in various clinical settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesguich, Charles, E-mail: charles.mesguich@chu-bordeaux.fr [Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Fardanesh, Reza; Tanenbaum, Lawrence [Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Chari, Ajai; Jagannath, Sundar [Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States); Kostakoglu, Lale, E-mail: lale.kostakoglu@mssm.edu [Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Metabolic changes on FDG PET/CT offer an earlier response evaluation than MRI. • PET/CT is less sensitive than MRI for diffuse bone marrow involvement. • PET/CT is a highly sensitive modality to determine extra-medullary disease. • Red marrow expansion: false positive findings on both FDG PET/CT and MRI. • Compression fractures are best characterized with MRI. - Abstract: 18-Flurodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography with computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have higher sensitivity and specificity than whole-body X-ray (WBXR) survey in evaluating disease extent in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Both modalities are now recommended by the Durie–Salmon Plus classification although the emphasis is more on MRI than PET/CT. The presence of extra-medullary disease (EMD) as evaluated by PET/CT imaging, initial SUV{sub max} and number of focal lesions (FL) are deemed to be strong prognostic parameters at staging. MRI remains the most sensitive technique for the detection of diffuse bone marrow involvement in both the pre and post-therapy setting. Compression fractures are best characterized with MRI signal changes, for determining vertebroplasty candidates. While PET/CT allows for earlier and more specific evaluation of therapeutic efficacy compared to MRI, when signal abnormalities persist years after treatment. PET/CT interpretation, however, can be challenging in the vertebral column and pelvis as well as in cases with post-therapy changes. Hence, a reading approach combining the high sensitivity of MRI and superior specificity of FDG PET/CT would be preferred to increase the diagnostic accuracy. In summary, the established management methods in MM, mainly relying on biological tumor parameters should be complemented with functional imaging data, both at staging and restaging for optimal management of MM.

  19. Use and recommendations of image fusion methods for the integration of PET-image data into radiotherapy planning; Ueberblick ueber verschiedene Bildfusionstechniken und Empfehlungen fuer deren Verwendung bei der Integration von PET-Bilddaten in die Bestrahlungsplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayad, H.; Visvikis, D. [INSERM U650, LaTIM, CHU Morvan, Brest (France); Soehn, M. [LMU Klinikum der Univ. Muenchen, Grosshadern (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    2011-07-15

    The introduction of PET data into the treatment planning process has been the focus of intense development over the past few years. The availability of multi-modality devices such as PET/CT has clearly played a major role in intensifying the interest in this application. However, many issues remain and this article deals in particular with those concerning the accurate spatial fusion of PET and planning CT images. Associated issues include the effects of respiratory motion and the acquisition protocol used, particularly if the PET/CT acquisition does not correspond to a truly treatment planning acquisition, which is most frequently the case in clinical practice today. Respiratory synchronized PET/CT acquisitions can on the one hand minimize respiratory motion effects in PET datasets while on the other hand improve the spatial fusion of PET and CT images acquired in a multi-modality device. Deformable ('elastic') registration algorithms have been shown to allow accurate respiratory motion modeling from '4D' PET or CT images. In addition, spatial matching between PET and planning CT images can be achieved through the use of 3D displacement fields obtained using such image registration algorithms to align the CT image obtained from a multi-modality PET/CT acquisition to the planning CT image. Deformable models are clearly necessary for thoracic, abdominal as well as head and neck regions, while rigid body registration may be used in brain imaging applications. Unfortunately, although well established in clinical research studies deformable image registration algorithms are not widely implemented in multi-modality image analysis or treatment planning software platforms, therefore minimizing their use in routine clinical practice. More clinical validation as well as high throughput software solutions are necessary in order to envisage the use of deformable image registration algorithms in clinical PET/CT imaging and associated applications in

  20. Clinical applications of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in carcinoma of unknown primary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Man; YU Jin-ming; ZHAO Wei; ZHANG Pin-liang; JU Gui-fang; FU Zheng; ZHANG Guo-li; KONG Li; YANG Yan-qin; MA Yi-dong

    2011-01-01

    Background Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) encompasses a heterogeneous group of tumors with varying clinical features. The management of patients of CUP remains a clinical challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical applications of integrated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) information in patients with CUP,including detecting the occult primary tumor and effecting on disease therapy.Methods One hundred and forty-nine patients with histologically-proven metastases of CUP were included. For all patients,the conventional diagnostic work-up was unsuccessful in localizing the primary site. Whole-body PET/CT images were obtained approximately 60 minutes after intravenous injection of 350-425 MBq of 18F-FDG.Results In 24.8% of patients,FDG PET/CT detected primary tumors that were not apparent after conventional workup.In this group of patients,the overall sensitivity,specificity,and accuracy rates of FDG PET/CT in detecting unknown primary tumors were 86.0%,87.7%,and 87.2%,respectively. FDG PET/CT imaging also led to the detection of previously unrecognized metastases in 29.5% of patients. Forty-seven (31.5%,47 of 149) patients underwent a change in therapeutic management.Conclusions FDG PET/CT is a valuable tool in patients with CUP,because it assisted in detecting unknown primary tumors and previously unrecognized distant metastases,and optimized the mangement of these patients.

  1. PET in cerebrovascular disease; PET bei zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik der Univ. Koeln (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Tissue viability is of particular interest in acute cerebral ischemia because it may be preserved if reperfusion can be achieved rapidly, e.g. by acute thrombolysis. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption by PET can assess tissue viability, and they have substantially increased our knowledge of th pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and the associated penumbra. Widerspread clinical application in acute stroke, however, is unlikely because of the large logistic and personnel resources required. In chronic cerebrovascular disease, measurement of regional CBF and glucose metabolism, which is usually coupled, provide detailed insights in disturbance of cortical function, e.g. due to deafferentiation, and contribute to differentiation of dementia types. Chronic misery perfusion, i.e. reduced perfusion that does not match the metabolic demand of the tissue, can be demonstrated by PET. It may be found in some patients with high-grade arterial stenoses. Less severe impairment of brain perfusion can be demonstrated by measurement of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The most frequent clinical situations can be assessed by less demanding procedures, e.g. by SPECT. In conclusion, PET has its role in cerebrovascular disease primarily within scientific studies, where high resolution and absolute quantitation of physiological variables are essential. (orig.). 65 refs. [Deutsch] Beim akuten ischaemischen Insult ist die Vitalitaet des Gewebes von besonderem Interesse, da sie durch rasche Reperfusion, z.B. durch Thrombolyse, erhalten bleiben kann. Messungen der zerebralen Durchblutung und des Sauerstoffumsatzes mittels PET geben darueber wesentliche Aufschluesse, und sie sind wichtig fuer das Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie ischaemischer Infarkte und der Penumbra mit kritischer Perfusion beim Menschen. Ihre breitere Anwendung in der klinischen Patientenversorgung kommt allerdings wegen des hohen Aufwandes derzeit kaum in Betracht. Bei

  2. Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Deborah W., E-mail: knappd@purdue.edu [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Purdue University Center for Cancer Research and Purdue Oncological Sciences Center, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Peer, Wendy A.; Conteh, Abass; Diggs, Alfred R. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Cooper, Bruce R. [Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Nita W. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Bonney, Patty L.; Stewart, Jane C. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Glickman, Lawrence T. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Murphy, Angus S. [Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-07-01

    detected on treated and “untreated” lawns. • The detection of lawn chemicals in the urine of pet dogs was widespread. • Lawn chemicals persisted on the grass for at least 48 h after application. • Chemicals persisted longer on grass under certain environmental conditions. • Dogs may serve as sentinels for human expsoures, and further study is justified.

  3. SPECT myocardial blood flow quantitation toward clinical use: a comparative study with {sup 13}N-Ammonia PET myocardial blood flow quantitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Bailing [University of Missouri-Columbia, Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, Columbia, Missouri (United States); Hu, Lien-Hsin; Yang, Bang-Hung; Ting, Chien-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Chen, Lung-Ching [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Division of Cardiology, Taipei (China); Chen, Yen-Kung [Shin Kong Wu-Ho Su Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Taipei (China); Hung, Guang-Uei [Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Changhua (China); Wu, Tao-Cheng [National Yang-Ming University, Cardiovascular Research Center, Taipei (China)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of myocardial blood flow (MBF) quantitation of {sup 99m}Tc-Sestamibi (MIBI) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with {sup 13}N-Ammonia (NH3) position emission tomography (PET) on the same cohorts. Recent advances of SPECT technologies have been applied to develop MBF quantitation as a promising tool to diagnose coronary artery disease (CAD) for areas where PET MBF quantitation is not available. However, whether the SPECT approach can achieve the same level of accuracy as the PET approach for clinical use still needs further investigations. Twelve healthy volunteers (HVT) and 16 clinical patients with CAD received both MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET flow scans. Dynamic SPECT images acquired with high temporary resolution were fully corrected for physical factors and processed to quantify K1 using the standard compartmental modeling. Human MIBI tracer extraction fraction (EF) was determined by comparing MIBI K1 and NH3 flow on the HVT group and then used to convert flow values from K1 for all subjects. MIBI and NH3 flow values were systematically compared to validate the SPECT approach. The human MIBI EF was determined as [1.0-0.816*exp(-0.267/MBF)]. Global and regional MBF and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) of MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET were highly correlated for all subjects (global R{sup 2}: MBF = 0.92, MFR = 0.78; regional R{sup 2}: MBF ≥ 0.88, MFR ≥ 0.71). No significant differences for rest flow, stress flow, and MFR between these two approaches were observed (All p ≥ 0.088). Bland-Altman plots overall revealed small bias between MIBI SPECT and NH3 PET (global: ΔMBF = -0.03Lml/min/g, ΔMFR = 0.07; regional: ΔMBF = -0.07 - 0.06, ΔMFR = -0.02 - 0.22). Quantitation with SPECT technologies can be accurate to measure myocardial blood flow as PET quantitation while comprehensive imaging factors of SPECT to derive the variability between these two approaches were fully addressed and corrected

  4. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microf

  5. Clinical Application of Point Diji

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾继萍

    2004-01-01

    @@ Diji (SP 8) is a cleft point of the Spleen Channel of Foot-Taiyang. Its indications include abdominal pain, diarrhea, edema, dysmenorrhea and certain other symptoms caused by incoordination between the liver and the spleen. Either taking the point alone or together with some other adjunct points in clinical practice, the author has obtained satisfactory curative effects.

  6. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piliero, M.A., E-mail: piliero@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Cerello, P. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Fiorina, E. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, F. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Pirrone, G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Wheadon, R. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-21

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β{sup +} annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β{sup +} isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  7. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Cerello, P.; Del Guerra, A.; Fiorina, E.; Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Pirrone, G.; Wheadon, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β+ annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β+ isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the 11C and 15O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  8. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Antonio [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; MRI Health Time Group, Jaen (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Univ. (Spain). Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta. Caterina; Hygino da Cruz, L. Celso Jr. (ed.) [CDPI and IRM, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Rossi, Santiago E. [Centro de Diagnostico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  9. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  10. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the pharmacok

  11. Electroplated targets for production of unique PET radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, V.; Sheh, Y.; Finn, R.; Francesconi, L.; Cai, S.; Schlyer, D.; Wieland, B.

    1995-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed the applications of positron emission tomography (PET) evolving from a purely research endeavor to a procedure which has specific clinical applications in the areas of cardiology, neurology and oncology. The growth of PET has been facilitated by developments in both medical instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical chemistry efforts. Included in this latter effort has been the low energy accelerator production and processing of unique PET radionuclides appropriate for the radiolabeling of biomolecules, i.e. monoclonal antibodies and peptides. The development and application of electroplated targets of antimony and copper for the production of iodine-124 and gallium-66 respectively, utilizing the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cyclotron are examples of target design and development applicable to many medical accelerators.

  12. Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Using CT in Combination with a PET Examination to Minimize the Clinical Target Volume of the Mediastinum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusheng Shi; Xiaogang Deng; Longhua Chen

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To decrease radiation injury of the esophagus and lungs by utilizing a CT scan in combination with PET tumor imaging in order to minimize the clinical target area of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, without preventive radiation on the lymphatic drainage area. METHODS Of 76 patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 32 received a PET examination before radiotherapy. Preventive radiation was not conducted in the mediastinum area without lymphatic metastasis, which was confirmed by CT and PET. For the other 44 patients, preventive radiation was performed in the lymphatic drainage area. PET examinations showed that the clinical target volume of the patients was decreased on average to about one third. The radiation therapy for patients of the two groups was the same, I.e. The dose for accelerated fractionated irradiation was 3 Gy/time and 5 time/week. The preventive dose was 42 to 45 Gy/time, 14 to 15 time/week, with 3-week treatment, and the therapeutic dose was 60 to 63 Gy/time, 20 to 21 time/week, with a period of 4 to 5 weeks.RESULTS The rate of missed lymph nodes beyond the irradiation field was 6.3% and 4.5% respectively in the group with and without PET examination (P = 0.831). The incidence of acute radioactive esophagitis was 15.6 % and 45.5% in the two groups respectively (P = 0.006). The incidence of acute radiation pneumonia and long-term pulmonary fibrosis in the two groups was 6.3% and 9.1%, and 68.8% and 75.0%, respectively (P = 0.982 and P = 0.547).CONCLUSION The recurrence rate in the lymph nodes beyond the target area was not increased after minimizing the clinical target volume (CTV), whereas radioactive injury to the lungs and esophageal injury was reduced, and especially with a significant decrease in the rate of acute radioactive esophagitis. The method of CT in combination with PET for minimizing the mediastinal CTV is superior to the conventional preventive radiation of the mediastinum.

  13. Clinical Application of Insect Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洪; 赵洁

    2003-01-01

    @@ Chinese insect drugs are drastic in nature, capable ofclearing channels and collaterals to promote a freeflow of qi and blood, and effective in someintractable and obstinate diseases due to long-termstagnation of phlegm and blood, which are hard to betreated by ordinary Chinese drugs. In clinic, properuse of insect drugs can often help raise thetherapeutic effects. Some commonly used pairs ofinsect drugs are introduced in the following.

  14. Are Pets in the Bedroom a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Lois E; Tovar, M Diane; Miller, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pets in the bedroom can alter the sleep environment in ways that could affect sleep. Data were collected by questionnaire and interview from 150 consecutive patients seen at the Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Arizona. Seventy-four people (49%) reported having pets, with 31 (41% of pet owners) having multiple pets. More than half of pet owners (56%) allowed their pets to sleep in the bedroom. Fifteen pet owners (20%) described their pets as disruptive, whereas 31 (41%) perceived their pets as unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep. Health care professionals working with patients with sleep concerns should inquire about the presence of companion animals in the sleep environment to help them find solutions and optimize their sleep.

  15. Non-oncological positron emission tomography (PET): brain imaging; La tomographie par emission de positons (TEP) hors oncologie: l'exploration du cerveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomena, F. [Centro de Diagnostico por la imagen (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Servicio de medicina nuclear, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows evaluation of the central nervous system function. Imaging of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, and of several neurotransmission systems may be obtained using PET. PET quantification is accurate and has good test-retest reliability. For research purposes, PET has been used to study brain physiology, to explore neurological and psychiatric diseases pathophysiology and for the new drugs research and development. F.D.G. is the only PET radioligand with clinical application. Following criteria of evidence-based medicine, the clinical indications of F.D.G.-PET are: evaluation of treated gliomas, pre surgical study of partial refractory epilepsy and diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease when it is impossible to differentiate clinically from fronto-temporal dementia.

  16. PET in neuroscience. Dopaminergic, CABA/benzodiazepine, and opiate system; PET in den Neurowisssenschaften: dopaminerges, GABA/Benzodiazepin- und Opiatsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartenstein, P. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2004-02-01

    This article gives an overview on radiotracer imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) in measuring various aspects of neurotransmission. The review focusses on the dopaminergic system, the GABA/benzodiazepine system, and the opiate system. Besides dealing with the current clinical applications for brain PET studies with specific radiopharmaceuticals this article outlines an idea on potential future developments for the use of these methods in basic neuroscience. (orig.) [German] Diese Arbeit praesentiert eine Uebersicht zur aktuellen Forschung und klinischen Anwendung von PET-Untersuchungen mit Radiopharmaka, die verschiedene Komponenten der Neurotransmission erfassen. Ausserdem werden Perspektiven und Trend der Methodik gezeigt. Im Mittelpunkt stehen das dopaminerge System, das GABA/Benzodiazepinsystem, und das Opiatsystem. Ausfuehrlich dargestellt werden aktuelle klinische und kliniknahe Moeglichkeiten sowie methodische Aspekte der grundlagenorientierten Forschung, die fuer eine zukunftsorientierte Anwendung von PET-Studien mit Rezeptorliganden u.a. Radiopharmaka zur Bildgebung komplexer biochemischer Prozesse von Bedeutung sind. (orig.)

  17. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of Carbon-11 Labelled alpha-Amino Acids for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popkov, Alexander; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    For PET applications in oncological and neurological diagnostics, amino acids have been studied both clinically and pre-clinically during the last 35 years. Nowadays two applications of labelled amino acids for visualisation of tumours attract the main attention: [C-11] or [F-18]amino acids as subst

  19. PET-based delineation of tumour volumes in lung cancer: comparison with pathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Andrea; Mai, Sebastian; Bohnenberger, Hendrik; Kirsch, Carl-Martin; Grgic, Aleksandar [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Kim, Yoo Jin; Bohle, Rainer M. [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Homburg (Germany); Kremp, Stephanie; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Ruebe, Christian [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology, Homburg (Germany); Schaefers, Hans-Joachim [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Homburg (Germany); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [MeVis Research Center for Medical Diagnostic Systems and Visualization, Bremen (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    should be considered carefully and individually in each patient. Altogether, PET tumour delineation by COA for NSCLC patients is feasible and reliable with the potential for routine clinical application. (orig.)

  20. Echolalia: issues and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, A L

    1979-11-01

    Echolalic behaviors have been reported within the context of various pathologies but have remained poorly defined. Consequently, it is not easy to determine whether and to what extent normal repetition can be separated from pathological echoing. Hence, it is unclear whether the occurrence of echolalic behavior may be useful for differential diagnostic purposes. Also, much room is left for controversies about the clinical management of echolalic behavior. This article reviews the various conditions associated with echolalia and the role of repetitions in normal language behavior. Suggestions are made in terms of the various dimensions along which echolalic behavior should be assessed, as well as of the desirability of particular intervention techniques.

  1. Application of petG-tm P sequence to systematic study of Chinese Cupressus species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Linchun; WANG Li; YAO Li; HAO Bingqing; LUO Qin

    2006-01-01

    Chinese Cupressus L.includes five species.The molecular phylogenetic relationships of the Cupressus species and Chamaecyparis L.were determined by comparing 417-479 bp of chloroplast petG-trnP intergenic spacer sequence.In PAUP* analysis,Platycladus orientalis was used as the functional out group.By using the maximum likelihood method 1077 trees were examined and the result showed that one tree had a best score of -Ln=2 232.47.The phylogenetic tree clearly showed that Chamaecyparis nootkatensis was diverged from other Chamaecyparis species.Based on the results,together with evidences from other aspects,we consider that Cupressus funebris and Chamaecyparis nootkatensis should be placed in the genus Cupressus.The use of cpDNA intergenic spacer petG-trnP in Cupressus was also discussed.

  2. Clinical application of cardiovascular pharmacogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Deepak; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2012-07-03

    Pharmacogenetics primarily uses genetic variation to identify subgroups of patients who may respond differently to a certain medication. Since its first description, the field of pharmacogenetics has expanded to study a broad range of cardiovascular drugs and has become a mainstream research discipline. Three principle classes of pharmacogenetic markers have emerged: 1) pharmacokinetic; 2) pharmacodynamic; and 3) underlying disease mechanism. In the realm of cardiovascular pharmacogenetics, significant advances have identified markers in each class for a variety of therapeutics, some with a potential for improving patient outcomes. While ongoing clinical trials will determine if routine use of pharmacogenetic testing may be beneficial, the data today support pharmacogenetic testing for certain variants on an individualized, case-by-case basis. Our primary goal is to review the association data for the major pharmacogenetic variants associated with commonly used cardiovascular medications: antiplatelet agents, warfarin, statins, beta-blockers, diuretics, and antiarrhythmic drugs. In addition, we highlight which variants and in which contexts pharmacogenetic testing can be implemented by practicing clinicians. The pace of genetic discovery has outstripped the generation of the evidence justifying its clinical adoption. Until the evidentiary gaps are filled, however, clinicians may choose to target therapeutics to individual patients whose genetic background indicates that they stand to benefit the most from pharmacogenetic testing.

  3. Proton radiography for clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamonti, C., E-mail: cinzia.talamonti@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Reggioli, V. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Bruzzi, M. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Bucciolini, M. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Civinini, C. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Marrazzo, L. [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Menichelli, D. [INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze (Italy); Pallotta, S. [Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); INFN, sezione di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Careggi, v.le Morgagni 85, I-50134 Firenze (Italy); Randazzo, N. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Sipala, V. [INFN, sezione di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Catania, via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2010-01-11

    Proton imaging is not yet applied as a clinical routine, although its advantages have been demonstrated. In the context of quality assurance in proton therapy, proton images can be used to verify the correct positioning of the patient and to control the range of protons. Proton computed tomography (pCT) is a 3D imaging method appropriate for planning and verification of proton radiation treatments, because it allows evaluating the distributions of proton stopping power within the tissues and can be directly utilized when the patient is in the actual treatment position. The aim of the PRoton IMAging experiment, supported by INFN, and the PRIN 2006 project, supported by MIUR, is to realize a proton computed radiography (pCR) prototype for reconstruction of proton images from a single projection in order to validate the technique with pre-clinical studies and, eventually, to conceive the configuration of a complete pCT system. A preliminary experiment performed at the 250 MeV proton synchrotron of Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) allowed acquisition of experimental data before the completion of PRIMA project's prototype. In this paper, the results of the LLUMC experiment are reported and the reconstruction of proton images of two phantoms is discussed.

  4. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonk, J.M.A.J.; Shim, S.B.; Leeuwen, van, M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed. Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by a...

  5. Advances in Application of Recycled PET Bottles%PET瓶回收应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈士宏; 杨惠娣; 张玉霞

    2006-01-01

    介绍了国内外废旧PET瓶通过物理或化学回收方法制取再生薄片、粒料、纤维、片材、泡沫塑料、复合材料、涂料等的应用进展;另外,对于闭环循环的PET"瓶-瓶"回收工艺技术进行了专门介绍.

  6. Application of electrostatic separation to the recycling of plastic wastes: separation of PVC, PET, and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Yu, Hyo-Shin; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jai-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Plastics are widely used in everyday life as a useful material, and thus their consumption is growing at a rate of about 5% per year in Korea. However, the constant generation of plastic wastes and their disposal generates environmental problems along with economic loss. In particular, mixed waste plastics are difficult to recycle because of their inferior characteristics. A laboratory-scale triboelectrostatic separator unit has been designed and assembled for this study. On the basis of the control of electrostatic charge, the separation of three kinds of mixed plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), in a range of similar gravities has been performed through a two-stage separation process. Polypropylene (PP) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) were found to be the most effective materials for a tribo-charger in the separation of PVC, PET, and ABS. The charge-to-mass ratio (nC/g) of plastics increased with increasing air velocity in the tribo charger. In the first stage, using the PP cyclone charger, the separation efficiency of particles considerably depended on the air velocity (10 m/s), the relative humidity ( 20 kV), and the splitter position (+2 cm from the center) in the triboelelctrostatic separator unit. At this time, a PVC grade of 99.40% and a recovery of 98.10% have successfully been achieved. In the second stage, using the HIPS cyclone charger, a PET grade of 97.80% and a recovery of 95.12% could be obtained under conditions of 10 m/s, over 25 kV, a central splitter position, and less than 40% relative humidity. In order to obtain 99.9% PVC grade and 99.3% PET grade, their recoveries should be sacrificed by 20.9% and 27%, respectively, with moving the splitter from the center to a (+)6 cm position.

  7. Stenting:84 Cases of Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUANG Yongsong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical application of therapeutic stenting. Methods 84 cases were managed with stents clinically, 136 procedures of intervention in all. The cases were suffering from portal hypertension of cirrhosis, stricture of inferior vana cava, superior vana cava syndrome, post- operative esophageal stricture, narrowig of femoral, common carotid, renal, superior mesentery arteries and biliary tract, etc. Results Therapeutic stenting achieves clinical effects completely different from conventional intemal medicine and surgery. Conclusion Therapeutic stenting is clinically unique, dramatically effective, with minor risks and worthy promoting.

  8. Tau PET patterns mirror clinical and neuroanatomical variability in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossenkoppele, Rik; Schonhaut, Daniel R; Schöll, Michael; Lockhart, Samuel N; Ayakta, Nagehan; Baker, Suzanne L; O'Neil, James P; Janabi, Mustafa; Lazaris, Andreas; Cantwell, Averill; Vogel, Jacob; Santos, Miguel; Miller, Zachary A; Bettcher, Brianne M; Vossel, Keith A; Kramer, Joel H; Gorno-Tempini, Maria L; Miller, Bruce L; Jagust, William J; Rabinovici, Gil D

    2016-05-01

    SEE SARAZIN ET AL DOI101093/BRAIN/AWW041 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: The advent of the positron emission tomography tracer (18)F-AV1451 provides the unique opportunity to visualize the regional distribution of tau pathology in the living human brain. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tau pathology is closely linked to symptomatology and patterns of glucose hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease, in contrast to the more diffuse distribution of amyloid-β pathology. We included 20 patients meeting criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease dementia or mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease, presenting with a variety of clinical phenotypes, and 15 amyloid-β-negative cognitively normal individuals, who underwent (18)F-AV1451 (tau), (11)C-PiB (amyloid-β) and (18)F-FDG (glucose metabolism) positron emission tomography, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and neuropsychological testing. Voxel-wise contrasts against controls (at P Alzheimer's disease', n = 7) specifically targeted the clinically affected posterior brain regions, while (11)C-PiB bound diffusely throughout the neocortex. Patients with an amnestic-predominant presentation (n = 5) showed highest (18)F-AV1451 retention in medial temporal and lateral temporoparietal regions. Patients with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia ('language variant of Alzheimer's disease', n = 5) demonstrated asymmetric left greater than right hemisphere (18)F-AV1451 uptake in three of five patients. Across 30 FreeSurfer-defined regions of interest in 16 Alzheimer's disease patients with all three positron emission tomography scans available, there was a strong negative association between (18)F-AV1451 and (18)F-FDG uptake (Pearson's r = -0.49 ± 0.07, P right temporoparietal cortex). In conclusion, tau imaging-contrary to amyloid-β imaging-shows a strong regional association with clinical and anatomical heterogeneity in Alzheimer's disease. Although preliminary, these results are

  9. The Clinical Role of Dual-Time-Point (18)F-FDG PET/CT in Differential Diagnosis of the Thyroid Incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinae; Park, Taegyu; Park, Soyeon; Pahk, Kisoo; Rhee, Seunghong; Cho, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Eugene; Kim, Sungeun; Choe, Jae Gol

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid incidentalomas are common findings during imaging studies including (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for cancer evaluation. Although the overall incidence of incidental thyroid uptake detected on PET imaging is low, clinical attention should be warranted owing to the high incidence of harboring primary thyroid malignancy. We retrospectively reviewed 2,368 dual-time-point (18)F-FDG PET/CT cases that were undertaken for cancer evaluation from November 2007 to February 2009, to determine the clinical impact of dual-time-point imaging in the differential diagnosis of thyroid incidentalomas. Focal thyroid uptake was identified in 64 PET cases and final diagnosis was clarified with cytology/histology in a total of 27 patients with (18)F-FDG-avid incidental thyroid lesion. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of the initial image (SUV1) and SUVmax of the delayed image (SUV2) were determined, and the retention index (RI) was calculated by dividing the difference between SUV2 and SUV1 by SUV1 (i.e., RI = [SUV2 - SUV1]/SUV1 × 100). These indices were compared between patient groups that were proven to have pathologically benign or malignant thyroid lesions. There was no statistically significant difference in SUV1 between benign and malignant lesions. SUV2 and RI of the malignant lesions were significantly higher than the benign lesions. The areas under the ROC curves showed that SUV2 and RI have the ability to discriminate between benign and malignant thyroid lesions. The predictability of dual-time-point PET parameters for thyroid malignancy was assessed by ROC curve analyses. When SUV2 of 3.9 was used as cut-off threshold, malignancy on the pathology could be predicted with a sensitivity of 87.5 % and specificity of 75 %. A thyroid lesion that shows RI greater than 12.5 % could be expected to be malignant (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 66.3 %). All malignant lesions showed

  10. Clinical applications of hepatocyte transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Pietrosi; Giovanni Battista Vizzini; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Bruno Gridelli

    2009-01-01

    The shortage of organ donors is a problem worldwide, with approximately 15% of adult patients with lifethreatening liver diseases dying while on the waiting list. The use of cell transplantation for liver disease is an attempt to correct metabolic defects, or to support liver function as a bridge to liver transplantation and, as such, has raised a number of expectations. Most of the available studies briefly reported here focus on adult hepatocyte transplantation (HT), and the results are neither reproducible nor comparable, because the means of infusion, amount of injected cells and clinical variability differ among the studies. To better understand the specific role of HT in the management of end-stage liver disease, it is important that controlled studies, designed on the principles of evidence-based medicine, be done in order to guarantee the reproducibility of results.

  11. Lubiprostone: Clinical applications beyond constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shailendra Kapoor

    2009-01-01

    In comparison to polyethylene glycol, lubiprostone offers other advantages and is increasingly being used as an adjunctive agent in diagnostic as well as management strategies not only in gastroenterology,but in other fields. For instance, lubiprostone exerts beneficial effects in cystic fibrosis tissues. It augmernts the chloride secretion in these cells by activating non-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) secretion of chloride by afflicted respiratory epithelia.Lubiprostone also seems to improve visualization of the gastrointestinal tract during procedures such as colonoscopy. This is especially true if the lubiprostone is administered prior to bowel cleansing with agents such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-E).Lubiprostone also enhances and stimulates contraction in colonic as well as gastric muscles and may thus further contribute as a prokinetic agent. Besides these effects, lubiprostone also causes hyperpolarization in other tissues such as uterine muscle cells. This may prove to be of significant clinical benefit in the management of uterine pathologies in the near future.

  12. Lubiprostone: clinical applications beyond constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Shailendra

    2009-03-07

    In comparison to polyethylene glycol, lubiprostone offers other advantages and is increasingly being used as an adjunctive agent in diagnostic as well as management strategies not only in gastroenterology, but in other fields. For instance, lubiprostone exerts beneficial effects in cystic fibrosis tissues. It augments the chloride secretion in these cells by activating non-cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) secretion of chloride by afflicted respiratory epithelia. Lubiprostone also seems to improve visualization of the gastrointestinal tract during procedures such as colonoscopy. This is especially true if the lubiprostone is administered prior to bowel cleansing with agents such as polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-E). Lubiprostone also enhances and stimulates contraction in colonic as well as gastric muscles and may thus further contribute as a prokinetic agent. Besides these effects, lubiprostone also causes hyperpolarization in other tissues such as uterine muscle cells. This may prove to be of significant clinical benefit in the management of uterine pathologies in the near future.

  13. MR-PET of the body: Early experience and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we will discuss MR-PET basic principles and technical challenges and limitations, explore some practical considerations, and cover the main clinical applications, while shedding some light on some of the future trends regarding this new imaging technique.

  14. Quality control for quantitative multicenter whole-body PET/MR studies: A NEMA image quality phantom study with three current PET/MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boellaard, Ronald, E-mail: r.boellaard@vumc.nl [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Research Ltd., Vienna 1060 (Austria); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Physics Committee, Vienna 1060 (Austria); Rausch, Ivo; Beyer, Thomas [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna 1090 (Austria); Delso, Gaspar [GE Healthcare and University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich 8091 (Switzerland); Yaqub, Maqsood [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam 1081 HV (Netherlands); Quick, Harald H. [Institute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen 91052 (Germany); Erwin L. Hahn Institute for MRI, University of Duisburg–Essen, Essen 45141 (Germany); High Field and Hybrid MR-Imaging, University Hospital Essen, Essen 45147 (Germany); Sattler, Bernhard [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig 04103 (Germany); European Association of Nuclear Medicine Physics Committee, Vienna 1060 (Austria)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems derive the PET attenuation correction (AC) from dedicated MR sequences. While MR-AC performs reasonably well in clinical patient imaging, it may fail for phantom-based quality control (QC). The authors assess the applicability of different protocols for PET QC in multicenter PET/MR imaging. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 2 2007 image quality phantom was imaged on three combined PET/MR systems: a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MR, a Siemens Biograph mMR, and a GE SIGNA PET/MR (prototype) system. The phantom was filled according to the EANM FDG-PET/CT guideline 1.0 and scanned for 5 min over 1 bed. Two MR-AC imaging protocols were tested: standard clinical procedures and a dedicated protocol for phantom tests. Depending on the system, the dedicated phantom protocol employs a two-class (water and air) segmentation of the MR data or a CT-based template. Differences in attenuation- and SUV recovery coefficients (RC) are reported. PET/CT-based simulations were performed to simulate the various artifacts seen in the AC maps (μ-map) and their impact on the accuracy of phantom-based QC. Results: Clinical MR-AC protocols caused substantial errors and artifacts in the AC maps, resulting in underestimations of the reconstructed PET activity of up to 27%, depending on the PET/MR system. Using dedicated phantom MR-AC protocols, PET bias was reduced to −8%. Mean and max SUV RC met EARL multicenter PET performance specifications for most contrast objects, but only when using the dedicated phantom protocol. Simulations confirmed the bias in experimental data to be caused by incorrect AC maps resulting from the use of clinical MR-AC protocols. Conclusions: Phantom-based quality control of PET/MR systems in a multicenter, multivendor setting may be performed with sufficient accuracy, but only when dedicated phantom acquisition and processing protocols are used for

  15. MO-FG-303-08: PET-Detectable Bimetallic (Zn@Au) Nanoparticles for Radiotherapy and Molecular Imaging Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J; Cho, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wang, M; Zubarev, E [Rice University, Houston, TX - Texas (United States); Gonzalez-Lepera, C [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX - Texas (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A technical challenge in clinical translation of GNP-mediated radiotherapy is lack of in-vivo imaging tools for monitoring biodistribution of GNPs. While several modalities (x-ray fluorescence, photoacoustic, etc.) are investigated, we propose a potentially more effective technique based on PET imaging. We developed Zn@Au NPs whose Zn core acts as positron emitters when activated by protons, while the Au shell plays the original role for GNP-mediated radiosensitization. Methods: Spherical Zn NPs (∼7nm diameter) were synthesized and then coated with ∼7nm thick Au layer to make Zn@Au NPs (∼20nm diameter). A water slurry containing 29mg of Zn@Au NPs was deposited (<10µm thickness) on a thin cellulose target and subsequently baked to remove the water. The cellulose matrix was placed in an aluminum target holder and irradiated with 14.5MeV protons from a GE PETtrace cyclotron with 4µA for 5min. After irradiation the cellulose matrix with the NPs was placed in a dose calibrator to assay radioactivity. Gamma spectroscopy using a HPGe detector was conducted on a very small fraction (<1mg) of the irradiated NPs. Results: We measured 158µCi of activity 32min after end of bombardment (EOB) using 66Ga setting on the dose calibrator (contribution from the cellulose matrix is negligible) which decreased to 2µCi over a 24hrs period. A gamma spectrum started one hour after EOB on the small fraction and acquired for 700sec showed a strong peak at 511keV (∼40,000 counts) with several other peaks (highest peak <1200 counts) of smaller magnitude. Conclusion: Strong 511keV gamma emission from proton-activated Zn cores can potentially be utilized to image the biodistribution of Zn@Au NPs using a PET scanner. The developed Zn@Au NPs are expected to retain radiosensitizing capability similar to solid GNPs, while observable through PET imaging for human-sized objects. Moreover, bioconjugated PET-detectable GNPs would allow a new option to perform molecular imaging.

  16. Experimental Approach to Evaluate the 11C Perfusion and Diffusion in Small Animal Tissues for HadronPET Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Rovira, Immaculada; Boisgard, Raphaël; Pottier, Géraldine; Kuhnast, Bertrand; Jan, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The development of a reliable dose monitoring system in hadron therapy is essential in order to control the treatment plan delivery. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is the only method used in clinics nowadays for quality assurance. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the biological washout processes. Up to the moment, very few studies measured the washout processes and there is no database of washout data as a function of the tissue and radioisotope. One of the main difficulties is related to the complexity of such measurements, along with the limited time slots available in hadron therapy facilities. Thus, in this work, we proposed an alternative in vivo methodology for the measurement and modeling of the biological washout parameters without any radiative devices. It consists in the implementation of a point-like radioisotope source by direct injection on the tissues of interest and its measurement by means of high-resolution preclinical PET systems. In particular, the washout of 11C carbonate radioisotopes was assessed, considering that 11C is is the most abundant β+ emitter produced by carbon beams. 11C washout measurements were performed in several tissues of interest (brain, muscle and 9L tumor xenograf) in rodents (Wistar rat). Results show that the methodology presented is sensitive to the washout variations depending on the selected tissue. Finally, a first qualitative correlation between 11C tumor washout properties and tumor metabolism (via 18F-FDG tracer uptake) was found.

  17. Experimental Approach to Evaluate the 11C Perfusion and Diffusion in Small Animal Tissues for HadronPET Applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immaculada Martínez-Rovira

    Full Text Available The development of a reliable dose monitoring system in hadron therapy is essential in order to control the treatment plan delivery. Positron Emission Tomography (PET is the only method used in clinics nowadays for quality assurance. However, the accuracy of this method is limited by the loss of signal due to the biological washout processes. Up to the moment, very few studies measured the washout processes and there is no database of washout data as a function of the tissue and radioisotope. One of the main difficulties is related to the complexity of such measurements, along with the limited time slots available in hadron therapy facilities. Thus, in this work, we proposed an alternative in vivo methodology for the measurement and modeling of the biological washout parameters without any radiative devices. It consists in the implementation of a point-like radioisotope source by direct injection on the tissues of interest and its measurement by means of high-resolution preclinical PET systems. In particular, the washout of 11C carbonate radioisotopes was assessed, considering that 11C is is the most abundant β+ emitter produced by carbon beams. 11C washout measurements were performed in several tissues of interest (brain, muscle and 9L tumor xenograf in rodents (Wistar rat. Results show that the methodology presented is sensitive to the washout variations depending on the selected tissue. Finally, a first qualitative correlation between 11C tumor washout properties and tumor metabolism (via 18F-FDG tracer uptake was found.

  18. Application of PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the larynx%喉癌18F-FDG PET/CT显像的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 刘松涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cancer of the larynx is the most common malignant tumor in the head and neck region. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinic value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging in the diagnosis of cancer of the larynx compare with I8 F-FDG PET imaging alone and to assess if median standardized uptake values ( SUVmean ) can differentiate physiological uptake from malignant tumor. Methods Study was conducted in 23 patients with clinical suspicion of cancer of the larynx. There were 19 men, four women, aged 30 to 70 years. 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed 40 min after injection of tracer 18F-FDG, 7. 4 MBq/kg after 6 hours fasting period in supine position, covering head and neck or the whole body. Assess sensitivity and specificity of 18 F-FDG PET/CT imaging in diagnosis of lesions compared with 18F-FDG PET imaging alone. There were two groups in our study: ① 19 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and ②15 cases with physiological focal uptake in the region of larynx. SUVmean of uptake in the region of larynx was measured. Cutoff for the SUVmean was established by the analysis of ROC curve of SUVmean and positive likelihood rati- 0. Results The study analysis showed that 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging had a sensitivity of 89. 4% , specificity of 91. 8% as compared with 85. 1% , 72. 1% for 18 F-FDG PET imaging alone. SUVmean mean of 19 cases with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx was 7. 3 + 2. 9,SUVmean of 15 cases with physiological focal uptake in the region of larynx was 4. 9 + 1. 1, these two groups were differ ( P<0. 05). In the absence of an established cutoff for the SUVmean, the value of 6. 1 was seemed to represent the best discriminate cutoff, 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging had a sensitivity of 63. 2% , specificity of 86. 7%. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging improved the specificity of 18F-FDG PET imaging alone. It was good for discrimination between physiological uptake and malignant tumor, when cutoff for the SUVmean was 6. 1.%目的

  19. Relationships between flortaucipir PET tau binding and amyloid burden, clinical diagnosis, age and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devous Sr, Michael D.; Navitsky, Michael; Lu, Ming; Salloway, Stephen; Schaerf, Frederick W.; Jennings, Danna; Arora, Anupa K.; McGeehan, Anne; Lim, Nathaniel C.; Xiong, Hui; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Siderowf, Andrew; Mintun, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The advent of tau-targeted positron emission tomography tracers such as flortaucipir (18F-AV-1451, also known as 18F-T807) have made it possible to investigate the sequence of development of tau and amyloid-β in relationship to age, and to the development of cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. In this study, flortaucipir tau and florbetapir amyloid positron emission tomography were obtained for 217 subjects including 16 young and 58 older cognitively normal subjects, 95 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination 24–30) and 48 subjects with clinically-defined possible or probable Alzheimer’s disease (Mini-Mental State Examination >10). Images were evaluated visually and quantitatively by regional and voxel-based cortical to cerebellar standard uptake value ratios. For amyloid positron emission tomography positive (Aβ+) subjects, flortaucipir neocortical standard uptake value ratio was significantly higher with more advanced clinical stage (Alzheimer’s disease > mild cognitive impairment > older cognitively normal) and was significantly elevated for Aβ+ mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease subjects relative to the respective Aβ− subjects. In contrast, florbetapir Aβ− older cognitively normal subjects showed an increase in flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios in mesial temporal lobe regions (amygdala, hippocampus/choroid plexus region of interest) compared to younger cognitively normal subjects, but no increased standard uptake value ratios in neocortical regions. Analysis of covariance with planned contrasts showed no differences in regional or composite posterior neocortical flortaucipir standard uptake value ratio as a function of diagnostic group among Aβ− older cognitively normal or clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment subjects. The pattern of flortaucipir distribution among Aβ+ subjects was reminiscent of the cross-sectional distribution

  20. Use of PET in neuroendocrine tumors. In vivo applications and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, B; Bergström, M; Orlefors, H; Sundin, A; Oberg, K; Långström, B

    2000-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) performed with various radiolabelled compounds facilitates the study of tumor biochemistry. If the tumor uptake of an administered tracer is greater than that of surrounding normal tissue, it is also possible to localize the tumor. In initial studies, 18F-labeled deoxyglucose (FDG) was attempted to visualize the tumors, since this tracer had been successfully used in oncology, reflecting increased glucose metabolism in cancerous tissue. However, this tracer was not to any significant degree taken up by the neuroendocrine tumors. Instead, the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) labeled with 11C was used and showed an increased uptake and irreversible trapping of this tracer in carcinoid tumors. The uptake was selective and the resolution so high that we could detect more liver and lymph node metastases with PET than with CT or octreotide scintigraphy. One problem was, however, the high renal excretion of the tracer producing streaky artifacts in the area of interest. Using the decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa, given as peroral premedication, the renal excretion decreased 6-fold and at the same time the tumor uptake increased 3-fold, hence improving the visualization of the tumors. When patients were followed during treatment with PET using 5-HTP as a tracer, a > 95% correlation between changes in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (U-5-HIAA) and changes in the transport rate constant for 5-HTP was observed. Thus, PET can be used to monitor treatment effects. Elevation of U-5-HIAA is considered to be uncommon in endocrine pancreatic tumors (EPTs). Initially, 11C-labeled L-DOPA was attempted as another amine important in the APUD system. With L-DOPA about half of the EPTs, mainly functioning tumors, could be detected. Recently, 5-HTP was explored as a universal tracer also for EPT and foregut carcinoids, extending the PET-examination to both thorax and abdomen (whole-body PET-examination). With this method we were able

  1. Prognostic Value of Volume-Based {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT Parameters in Patients with Clinically Node-Negative Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Hwan Joo; Hyun, Seung Hyup; Moon, Seung Hwan; Kim, Byung Tae [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Chung Hwan; Son, Young Ik [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate the prognostic value of volume-based metabolic parameters measured with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) as compared with other prognostic factors. In this study, we included a total of 57 patients who had been diagnosed with cN0 tongue cancer by radiologic, ({sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and physical examinations. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average SUV (SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) for primary tumors were measured with ({sup 18}F-FDG PET. The prognostic significances of these parameters and other clinical variables were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In the univariate analysis, pathological node (pN) stage, American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, SUVmax, SUVavg, MTV, and TLG were significant predictors for survival. On a multivariate analysis, pN stage (hazard ratio = 10.555, p = 0.049), AJCC stage (hazard ratio = 13.220, p = 0.045), and MTV (hazard ratio = 2.698, p 0.033) were significant prognostic factors in cN0 OTSCC patients. The patients with MTV {>=} 7.78 cm{sup 3} showed a worse prognosis than those with MTV < 7.78 cm{sup 3} (p = 0.037). The MTV of primary tumor as a volumetric parameter of ({sup 18}F-FDG PET, in addition to pN stage and AJCC stage, is an independent prognostic factor for survival in cN0 OTSCC.

  2. [Clinical applications compared in implantology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itro, A; D'Amato, S

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of their own experience and of orientation reported by literature, the authors display how important it is for professional men who practise implantology or who approach it, to have the possibility of knowing several implantologic systems. Indeed, what we want to demonstrate is, that in different situations of edentulous, in relation to the quantity and the quality of the available bones, to the gnotologic situation and to the aesthetic functional result they aim to, corresponds the choice of one or several implantologic systems. In that sense the basic research occupies a role of vital importance, because only through the knowledge of chemical, chemical-physical and biomechanical characteristics it is possible to recognize some essential chemical entities for an implantologic approach. Thus the several diagnostic instrumental means available enable the surgeon to make an exact clinical diagnosis. The TAC, in this case, assumes a determinant role, because, in addition to supplying exact dimensional and qualitative informations, also occupies an important medico-legal aspect. The resolution of some forms of edentulous programmed like that, will subsequently be illustrated. Finally, a control hypothesis is proposed for the rearrangement, of peri-implant bone. On this account, the SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography), through a semi-quantitative research, could provide some specific indications about the osteotropic implantation activity.

  3. Study of PET scanner designs using clinical metrics to optimize the scanner axial FOV and crystal thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surti, S.; Werner, M. E.; Karp, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the trade-off between crystal thickness and scanner axial field-of-view FOV (AFOV) for clinical PET imaging. Clinical scanner design has evolved towards 20-25 mm thick crystals and 16-22 cm long scanner AFOV, as well as time-of-flight (TOF) imaging. While Monte Carlo studies demonstrate that longer AFOV and thicker crystals will lead to higher scanner sensitivity, cost has prohibited the building of commercial scanners with >22 cm AFOV. In this study, we performed a series of system simulations to optimize the use of a given amount of crystal material by evaluating the impact on system sensitivity and noise equivalent counts (NEC), as well as image quality in terms of lesion detectability. We evaluated two crystal types (LSO and LaBr3) and fixed the total crystal volume used for each type (8.2 L of LSO and 17.1 L of LaBr3) while varying the crystal thickness and scanner AFOV. In addition, all imaging times were normalized so that the total scan time needed to scan a 100 cm long object with multiple bed positions was kept constant. Our results show that the highest NEC cm-1 in a 35 cm diameter ×70 cm long line source cylinder is achieved for an LSO scanner with 10 mm long crystals and AFOV of 36 cm, while for LaBr3 scanners, the highest NEC cm-1 is obtained with 20 mm long crystals and an AFOV of 38 cm. Lesion phantom simulations show that the best lesion detection performance is achieved in scanners with long AFOV (≥36 cm) and using thin crystals (≤10 mm of LSO and ≤20 mm of LaBr3). This is due to a combination of improved NEC, as well as improved lesion contrast estimation due to better spatial resolution in thinner crystals. Alternatively, for lesion detection performance similar to that achieved in standard clinical scanner designs, the long AFOV scanners can be used to reduce the total scan time without increasing the amount of crystal used in the scanner. In addition, for LaBr3 based scanners, the reduced lesion

  4. A PCR-DGGE method for detection and identification of Campylobacter, Helicobacter, Arcobacter and related Epsilobacteria and its application to saliva samples from humans and domestic pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Randi Føns; Harrington, C. S.; Kortegaard, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    distinguished. This approach detected Epsilobacteria in all saliva samples collected from humans, cats and dogs, and identified Campylobacter concisus and/or Campylobacter gracilis in the human samples. The pet animal samples were taken from individuals with oral/dental diseases; PCR-DGGE identified up to four...... identification of Epsilobacteria in the oral cavity of humans and small animals. Significance and Impact of the Study: The PCR-DGGE method should allow determination of the true prevalence and diversity of Epsilobacteria in clinical and other samples. Contact with the oral cavity of domestic pets may represent...

  5. Senior Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to the normal aging process. Some behavior changes in older pets may be due to cognitive dysfunction, which is similar to senility in people. Common behavior changes in older pets that may be signs of cognitive dysfunction: easily disturbed by loud sounds unusually aggressive ...

  6. Constructing clinical applications: the GALEN approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, L L; Lovis, C; Nowlan, W A; Solomon, W D; Rush, T W; Baud, R H; Juge, C; Scherrer, J R

    1995-01-01

    A common problem for developers of clinical applications is coping with the diversity of medical language. Medical language as it is used all over the world varies widely, while the referents for these words stay essentially the same. Software developers must reconcile this diversity with the practical necessity of producing applications that are usable in a variety of hospitals, while ensuring that information can be shared between applications. Existing approaches center around coding and classification schemes, but these approaches must be supplemented by a range of sophisticated terminological services in order for the language barriers to be overcome. To address this, the GALEN project is developing an application called the Terminology Server to provide such a range of terminological services (e.g., conceptual and multilingual services). The software is built upon a re-usable core model of medical terminology. This paper reports on the development of a clinical application called the SCUI (Structured Clinical User Interface) which draws on these GALEN technologies and illustrates an innovative approach to the construction of future clinical applications. The SCUI was specifically developed and tested in the context of infectious diseases to satisfy the demands made by the medical intensive care unit on the Geneva Hospital's microbiology laboratory.

  7. Ability of FDG-PET to detect all cancers in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, and impact on clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwen, Mariette C.A. van; Drenth, Joost P.H.; Friederich, Pieter; Nagengast, Fokko M. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Krieken, J. Han J.M. van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Goor, Harry van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-03-15

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterised by colonic and duodenal adenomatous polyps that carry a risk of malignant transformation. Malignant degeneration of duodenal adenomas is difficult to detect. We speculated that 2-({sup 18}F)-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) might be able to detect early duodenal cancer in FAP. Accordingly, we investigated the role of FDG-PET in the management of FAP patients. FDG-PET was performed in 24 FAP patients. Eight had advanced duodenal adenomas (Spigelman IV), including two patients with duodenal cancer. Scans were defined as positive on the basis of focal FDG accumulation. Pathological FDG accumulation was absent in 19 of 24 patients. All six patients with Spigelman IV duodenal adenomas (without cancer) were negative; two of these underwent a duodenectomy and pathological examination did not reveal duodenal cancer. In five patients, FDG-PET revealed significant uptake, in the duodenum (2), lower abdomen (1), lung (1) and multiple sites in the abdomen (1). These hot spots correlated with duodenal cancer (2), abdominal metastasis (1) and sclerosing haemangioma of the lung (1). We failed to make a histopathological diagnosis in the single patient with multiple intra-abdominal sites of FDG uptake. None of the patients from the FDG-PET-negative group developed cancer during follow-up (mean 2.8 years). (orig.)

  8. Initial clinical results of simultaneous {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI in comparison to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with head and neck cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubiessa, K.; Gawlitza, M.; Kuehn, A.; Fuchs, J.; Kahn, T.; Stumpp, P. [University Hospital of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Purz, S.; Steinhoff, K.G.; Sabri, O.; Kluge, R. [University Hospital of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Boehm, A. [University Hospital of Leipzig, ENT Department, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic capability of simultaneous {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/MRI compared to {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT as well as their single components in head and neck cancer patients. In a prospective study 17 patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for staging or follow-up and an additional {sup 18}F-FDG PET/MRI scan with whole-body imaging and dedicated examination of the neck. MRI, CT and PET images as well as PET/MRI and PET/CT examinations were evaluated independently and in a blinded fashion by two reader groups. Results were compared with the reference standard (final diagnosis determined in consensus using all available data including histology and follow-up). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. A total of 23 malignant tumours were found with the reference standard. PET/CT showed a sensitivity of 82.7 %, a specificity of 87.3 %, a PPV of 73.2 % and a NPV of 92.4 %. Corresponding values for PET/MRI were 80.5, 88.2, 75.6 and 92.5 %. No statistically significant difference in diagnostic capability could be found between PET/CT and PET/MRI. Evaluation of the PET part from PET/CT revealed highest sensitivity of 95.7 %, and MRI showed best specificity of 96.4 %. There was a high inter-rater agreement in all modalities (Cohen's kappa 0.61-0.82). PET/MRI of patients with head and neck cancer yielded good diagnostic capability, similar to PET/CT. Further studies on larger cohorts to prove these first results seem justified. (orig.)

  9. Semiautomatic methods for segmentation of the proliferative tumour volume on sequential FLT PET/CT images in head and neck carcinomas and their relation to clinical outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arens, Anne I.J.; Grootjans, Willem; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Visser, Eric P. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Troost, Esther G.C. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Centre, MAASTRO clinic, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Hoeben, Bianca A.W.; Bussink, Johan; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M. [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Lee, John A.; Gregoire, Vincent [St-Luc University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Hatt, Mathieu; Visvikis, Dimitris [Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), INSERM UMR1101, Brest (France)

    2014-05-15

    Radiotherapy of head and neck cancer induces changes in tumour cell proliferation during treatment, which can be depicted by the PET tracer {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT). In this study, three advanced semiautomatic PET segmentation methods for delineation of the proliferative tumour volume (PV) before and during (chemo)radiotherapy were compared and related to clinical outcome. The study group comprised 46 patients with 48 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, treated with accelerated (chemo)radiotherapy, who underwent FLT PET/CT prior to treatment and in the 2nd and 4th week of therapy. Primary gross tumour volumes were visually delineated on CT images (GTV{sub CT}). PVs were visually determined on all PET scans (PV{sub VIS}). The following semiautomatic segmentation methods were applied to sequential PET scans: background-subtracted relative-threshold level (PV{sub RTL}), a gradient-based method using the watershed transform algorithm and hierarchical clustering analysis (PV{sub W} and {sub C}), and a fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian algorithm (PV{sub FLAB}). Pretreatment PV{sub VIS} correlated best with PV{sub FLAB} and GTV{sub CT}. Correlations with PV{sub RTL} and PV{sub W} and {sub C} were weaker although statistically significant. During treatment, the PV{sub VIS}, PV{sub W} and {sub C} and PV{sub FLAB} significant decreased over time with the steepest decline over time for PV{sub FLAB}. Among these advanced segmentation methods, PV{sub FLAB} was the most robust in segmenting volumes in the third scan (67 % of tumours as compared to 40 % for PV{sub W} and {sub C} and 27 % for PV{sub RTL}). A decrease in PV{sub FLAB} above the median between the pretreatment scan and the scan obtained in the 4th week was associated with better disease-free survival (4 years 90 % versus 53 %). In patients with head and neck cancer, FLAB proved to be the best performing method for segmentation of the PV on repeat FLT PET/CT scans during (chemo)radiotherapy. This may

  10. Application of inulin-type fructans in animal feed and pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, J M A J; Shim, S B; van Leeuwen, P; Verstegen, M W A

    2005-04-01

    The inulin-type fructans are non-digestible oligosaccharides that are fermented in the gastrointestinal tract of farm animals and pets. This review focuses on the various effects of inulin-type fructans in pigs, poultry, calves and companion animals. Effects of the inulin-type fructans on gut microflora, digestion and availability of nutrients, gut morphology, fermentation characteristics and animal performance are discussed. Inulin-type fructans can support animal performance and health by affecting nutrient digestion, gut microflora and gut morphology, although results vary depending on composition of the basal diet, inclusion level, type of fructan, adaptation period and experimental hygienic conditions.

  11. [Methods and clinical applications of positron emission tomography in endocrinology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Landsheere, C; Lamotte, D

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows to detect in coincidence photons issued from annihilation between positrons and electrons nearby situated. Tomographic detection (plane by plane) and tomographic reconstruction will lead to the quantitation of radioactive distribution per voxel, in the organ of interest. Recent tomographs can acquire simultaneously several transaxial slices, with a high sensitivity and a spatial resolution of 3-5 mm. Commonly used positron emitters have a short half-life: 2, 10, 20 and 110 min for 150, 13N, 11C and 18F, respectively. The use of these isotopes requires on line production of radionuclides and synthesis of selected molecules. In endocrinology, PET allows among others to study noninvasively the receptor density of hormone-dependent neoplasms such as breast, uterus, prostate tumors and prolactinomas. These last tumors represent a particular entity because of several combined characteristics: high turnover rate of amino acids, high density of dopaminergic receptors and response to bromocriptine (analogue of dopamine inhibiting the secretion of prolactin) in relation to the level of receptors. Because PET permits to evaluate the density of dopaminergic receptors and the metabolism of amino acids, theoretical response of the prolactinoma to bromocriptine can be predicted, the achieved therapeutic efficacy can be estimated and the long-term follow up of tumor growth can be assessed. This example illustrates the clinical value of PET in endocrinology.

  12. Evolving role of FDG PET imaging in assessing joint disorders: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carey, Kathleen; Saboury, Babak; Basu, Sandip; Brothers, Alex; Ogdie, Alexis; Werner, Tom; Torigian, Drew A. [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Alavi, Abass [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Assessing joint disorders has been a relatively recent and evolving application of {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. FDG is taken up by inflammatory cells, particularly when they are active as part of an ongoing inflammatory process. Hence FDG PET has been employed to assess a wide array of arthritic disorders. FDG PET imaging has been investigated in various joint diseases for diagnostic purposes, treatment monitoring, and as a prognostic indicator as in other disorders. In some of the diseases the ancillary findings in FDG PET have provided important clues about the underlying pathophysiology and pathogenesis processes. While substantial promise has been demonstrated in a number of studies, it is clear that the potential utility of PET in this clinical realm far outweighs that which has been established to date. (orig.)

  13. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  14. The clinical application of laser in otorhinolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Guo Zhen; Meng, Zhao-He; Zhang, Zhi Hua

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The paper presented the current application of laser in Otolaryngology in our hospital. Methods: We have applied the carbon dioxide, the YAG, the He-Ne and the Ho:YAG lasers to coagulate or vaporize treated Otolaryngology disease. Results: After treatment, we have a satisfying result. Conclusion: The paper presented the current application of laser respectively in otology, rhinology and pharynolaryngology and some representative of the treated diseases. It also demonstrated that long-term effectiveness of some diseases, such as allergic rhinitis and laryngeal stenosis treated by laser was not satisfying and further studies were expected, laser excision of tonsile was only used in the cases which traditional tonsillectomy was not available. Therefore, to improve clinical laser application greatly, further more research works and cooprations between investors of laser instrument and surgeons of oto-laryngology were necessary. Theory and Clinics of laser application should be improved also.

  15. FDG PET scans as evaluation of clinical response to dendritic cell vaccination in patients with malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Noerregaard, Lotte; Hendel, Helle W; Johannesen, Helle H;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measurements of tumour metabolism by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been successfully applied to monitor tumour response after chemo- and chemo-radiotherapy and may not have the same limitations as other morphological imaging techniques. In this st......BACKGROUND: Measurements of tumour metabolism by [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) have been successfully applied to monitor tumour response after chemo- and chemo-radiotherapy and may not have the same limitations as other morphological imaging techniques...... in CT scans might be due to oedema or immune-infiltrates and not progression of the disease. Thus, further investigation into the contribution of PET scans to the evaluation of cancer immunotherapy is needed....

  16. A comparative study of via drilling and scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic applications using excimer and Nd:YAG laser sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandamparambil, R.; Fledderus, H.; Brand, J. van den; Saalmink, M.; Kusters, R.; Podprocky, T.; Steenberge, G. van; Baets, J. de; Dietzel, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study on via drilling and channel scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic application is discussed in this paper. For the experiments, both KIF excimer laser (248 nm) and frequency tripled Nd:YAG (355 nm) laser are used. Different measurement techniques like optical microscopy,

  17. PET Motion Compensation for Radiation Therapy Using a CT-Based Mid-Position Motion Model: Methodology and Clinical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruis, Matthijs F.; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Houweling, Antonetta C.; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Belderbos, José S.A.; Herk, Marcel van, E-mail: m.v.herk@nki.nl

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: Four-dimensional positron emission tomography (4D PET) imaging of the thorax produces sharper images with reduced motion artifacts. Current radiation therapy planning systems, however, do not facilitate 4D plan optimization. When images are acquired in a 2-minute time slot, the signal-to-noise ratio of each 4D frame is low, compromising image quality. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate the construction of mid-position 3D PET scans, with motion compensated using a 4D computed tomography (CT)-derived motion model. Methods and Materials: All voxels of 4D PET were registered to the time-averaged position by using a motion model derived from the 4D CT frames. After the registration the scans were summed, resulting in a motion-compensated 3D mid-position PET scan. The method was tested with a phantom dataset as well as data from 27 lung cancer patients. Results: PET motion compensation using a CT-based motion model improved image quality of both phantoms and patients in terms of increased maximum SUV (SUV{sub max}) values and decreased apparent volumes. In homogenous phantom data, a strong relationship was found between the amplitude-to-diameter ratio and the effects of the method. In heterogeneous patient data, the effect correlated better with the motion amplitude. In case of large amplitudes, motion compensation may increase SUV{sub max} up to 25% and reduce the diameter of the 50% SUV{sub max} volume by 10%. Conclusions: 4D CT-based motion-compensated mid-position PET scans provide improved quantitative data in terms of uptake values and volumes at the time-averaged position, thereby facilitating more accurate radiation therapy treatment planning of pulmonary lesions.

  18. 18F-FLT PET/CT在肿瘤诊断中的应用%Application of 18F-fluorothymidine PET/CT in diagnosis of tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婧慧; 冯惠茹

    2009-01-01

    在PET及PET/CT的应用中,人们逐渐发现仅使用18F-氟脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG)作为示踪剂是远远不够的.细胞增殖显像剂18F-氟脱氧胸苷(18F-FLT)是一种新型的示踪剂,本文就18F-FLT在肿瘤诊断、分期及疗效评价方面进行综述.%18F fluorodeoxyglucose, as a kind of tracer, has its limitations in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). 18F-fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) is a kind of new tracer. The value of 18F-FLT in diagnosis of tumor, tumor staging and assessment of therapeutic effects was reviewed in this article.

  19. Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT in the planning of radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Hansen, Mads;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has excellent survival rates but carries a high risk of late treatment-related adverse effects. Modern, individualised therapeutic strategies require an accurate determination of the extent of the disease. This study investigated the potential impact......, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy. IFRT planning was performed using only the CT data from the FDG-PET/CT scan. Later, the IFRT planning was performed anew using the FDG-PET/CT data as basis for contouring. RESULTS: In 20 out of 30 patients, the radiotherapy (RT) course was unaffected by the addition...

  20. Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-Citrate for PET Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayuob Aghanejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In nuclear medicine studies, gallium-68 (68Ga citrate has been recently known as a suitable infection agent in positron emission tomography (PET. In this study, by applying an in-house produced 68Ge/68Ga generator, a simple technique for the synthesis and quality control of 68Ga-citrate was introduced; followed by preliminary animal studies. Methods: 68GaCl3 eluted from the generator was studied in terms of quality control factors including radiochemical purity (assessed by HPLC and RTLC, chemical purity (assessed by ICP-EOS, radionuclide purity (evaluated by HPGe, and breakthrough. 68Ga-citrate was prepared from eluted 68GaCl3 and sodium citrate under various reaction conditions. Stability of the complex was evaluated in human serum for 2 h at 370C, followed by biodistribution studies in rats for 120 min. Results: 68Ga-citrate was prepared with acceptable radiochemical purity (>97 ITLC and >98% HPLC, specific activity (4-6 GBq/mM, chemical purity (Sn, FeConclusion: This study demonstrated the possible in-house preparation and quality control of 68Ga-citrate, using a commercially available 68Ge/68Ga generator for PET imaging throughout the country.

  1. 18F-FDG PET/CT在Castleman病中的临床应用价值%Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the management of Castleman's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付占立; 张旭初; 范岩; 张建华; 王荣福

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in clinical classification,monitoring of chemotherapeutic response and surveillance of histopathological transformation of Castleman's disease (CD).Methods Fourteen pathologically diagnosed CD patients (7 males,7 females; mean age:(45.64±14.30) years) were retrospectively reviewed.18F-FDG PET/CT was performed before chemotherapy in all patients and 4 of 14 patients were reexamined after the treatment.The study parameters included histopathological results,sites,number and highest SUVmax of the lesions.Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for data analysis.Results Of all the 12 patients without histopathological transformation,one or more enlarged and metabolically active lymph nodes were found in each patient (SUVmax =3.94± 1.44,range:1.9-6.8),including 2 unicentric CD (UCD) and 10 multicentric CD (MCD).There was no statistically significant difference of SUVmam between UCD and MCD (4.55±3.18 vs 3.82±1.14; Z=0.22,P>0.05).There was also no significant difference of SUVmax among different pathological types (hyaline-vascular CD (4/12):3.56±0.96,plasma cell CD (6/12):4.73±1.41,mixed CD (2/12):2.30±0.57; x2 =4.74,P>0.05).For the 4 patients with follow-up PET/CT after chemotherapy,the lesion activity was normalized in 3 patients and clearly reduced in 1 patient.The SUVmax of 2 patients with histopathological transformation (10.85±2.05) was significantly higher than that without transformation (3.94± 1.44; Z=-2.19,P<0.05).Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT may play an important role in clinical classification,monitoring of chemotherapeutic response and surveillance of histopathological transformation of CD.%目的 评价18F-FDG PET/CT在Castleman病(CD)的临床分型、疗效评价及转化监测中的应用价值.方法 回顾性分析14例CD患者[年龄(45.64±14.30)岁,男、女各7例]的18F-FDGPET/CT影像表现(病灶数量、分布、SUVmax),比较不同临床分型、病理类型、病理转

  2. Application and research progress of PET positron tracers associated with Alzheimer disease%阿尔茨海默病PET正电子药物应用与研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小艺; 李淼; 王黎; 李宏利; 赵周社; 郭佑民

    2014-01-01

    阿尔茨海默病(AD)严重危害人们的身心健康。伴随PET分子成像的发展,出现了一系列针对AD的正电子药物,其中匹兹堡化合物B(PIB)及其衍生物类PET正电子药物研究最为成熟,部分已获准应用于临床,在AD诊断与治疗方面显示出重要价值。随着人们对AD发生机制研究的不断深入,近年又相继出现了包括蛋白类、受体类以及肽类在内的更多种类AD相关PET正电子药物。该文就此类正电子药物的应用与研究进展做一综述。%Alzheimer disease(AD) harms human being′s health seriously. With the development progress of PET molecular imaging, a series of PET positron tracers associated with AD appeard. Among them, pittsburgh compound-B(PIB) and PIB derivatives are studied more deeply and part of them have been used in clinic which are showing great value in diagnosis and therapy of AD. Recently, with the deep-er research of AD mechanism , more kinds of PET tracers related to AD are developed, including protein , receptor and peptide radiotracers. This article reviews the current application and research progress of those PET positron tracers which associated with AD.

  3. SAPHO综合征18F-FDG PET/CT显像和临床分析%18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and clinical features of SAPHO syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝新忠; 武志芳; 武萍; 鄢敏; 刘建中; 李思进

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging and the clinical features of patients with synovitis,acne,pustulosis,hyperostosis,and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome and improved the diagnosis and awareness level about the disease.Methods This study retrospectively analyzed the PET/CT images and clinical features of five patients (including 3 females and 2 males; age range:59-74 years old; average age:67.2 years old) with SAPHO syndrome,as well as reviewed relevant literature.The PET/CT examinations were performed from March 2011 to August 2013.SAPHO syndrome was diagnosed through biopsy,imaging,follow-up results,and according to the Kahe Standard.Results (1) Clinic:Five patients sought treatment in the hospital for bone joint pain or skin lesions.Two of the five patients had no skin lesions,three patients exhibited elevated serum CRP and ESR levels,and one patient was positive for HLA-B27.Rheumatoid factor,extractable nuclear antigen peptide antibody spectrum and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies were negative in 5 patients.The average diagnosis period was 3.78 years.(2)PET/CT imaging:Five patients showed anterior chest wall and spine involvement.Anterior chest wall involvement included 11 bone joints,such as the sternoclavicular joint,sternocostal joint,and sternal-body joint.One patient showed hypertrophy and osteomyelitis of the clavicle.Only one patient showed an involvement of a single vertebra,whereas the others showed an involvement of multiple sites of the spine,including 35 vertebra and 58 vertebral disc connections.The CT revealed the worm-eaten and hole-shaped bone destruction on the articular surface of the anterior chest wall and intervertebral disc junction.They were surrounded by relatively extensive osteosclerosis,even involving the entire vertebral body.The partially involved joints also showed joint space narrowing and even joint bone fusion.In addition,swelling,thickening,and calcification of periarticular soft tissues were observed.The PET

  4. Clinical application of hepatic CT perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhong; Wen-Jing Wang; Jian-Rong Xu

    2009-01-01

    Complicated changes occur in hemodynamics of hepatic artery and vein, and portal vein under various kinds of pathologic status because of distinct double hepatic blood supply. This article reviews the clinical application of hepatic computed tomography perfusion in some liver diseases.

  5. PET/SPECT imaging: From carotid vulnerability to brain viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerwaldt, Robbert [Department of Surgery, Isala Clinics, Zwolle (Netherlands); Slart, Riemer H.J.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, Gooitzen M. van [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Luijckx, Gert-Jan [Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Tio, Rene A. [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J. [Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com

    2010-04-15

    Background: Current key issues in ischemic stroke are related to carotid plaque vulnerability, brain viability, and timing of intervention. The treatment of ischemic stroke has evolved into urgent active interventions, as 'time is brain'. Functional imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET)/single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could improve selection of patients with a vulnerable plaque and evaluation of brain viability in ischemic stroke. Objective: To describe the current applications of PET and SPECT as a diagnostic tool in relation to ischemic stroke. Methods: A literature search using PubMed identified articles. Manual cross-referencing was also performed. Results: Several papers, all observational studies, identified PET/SPECT to be used as a tool to monitor systemic atheroma modifying treatment and to select high-risk patients for surgery regardless of the degree of luminal stenosis in carotid lesions. Furthermore, PET/SPECT is able to quantify the penumbra region during ischemic stroke and in this way may identify those patients who may benefit from timely intervention. Discussion: Functional imaging modalities such as PET/SPECT may become important tools for risk-assessment and evaluation of treatment strategies in carotid plaque vulnerability and brain viability. Prospective clinical studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PET/SPECT.

  6. (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET/Computed Tomography for Primary Brain Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind; Hess, Søren; Grupe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Structural imaging with computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging is the mainstay in primary diagnosis of primary brain tumors, but these modalities depend on morphologic appearance and an intact blood-brain barrier, and important aspects of tumor biology are not addressed. Such issues may...... be alleviated by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and FDG-PET/CT imaging, which may provide clinically important information with regard to primary differentiation between tumor types, initial staging and risk stratification, therapy planning, response evaluation, and recurrence detection. This article...... describes some of the potential contemporary applications of FDG and PET in primary brain tumors....

  7. Monitoring of anti-cancer treatment with (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Munk; Kjaer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging of solid tumors with positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is an evolving field with continuous development of new PET tracers and discovery of new applications for already implemented PET tracers. During treatment of cancer patients, a general challenge is to measure...... treatment effect early in a treatment course and by that to stratify patients into responders and non-responders. With 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine((18)F-FLT) two of the cancer hallmarks, altered energy metabolism and increased cell proliferation, can...... be visualized and quantified non-invasively by PET. With (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FLT PET changes in energy metabolism and cell proliferation can thereby be determined after initiation of cancer treatment in both clinical and pre-clinical studies in order to predict, at an early time-point, treatment response...

  8. Striatal FDOPA uptake and cognition in advanced non-demented Parkinson's disease : A clinical and FDOPA-PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; Portman, Axel T.; Kiers, Henk A. L.; Maguire, Ralph P.; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Koning, Marthe; Pruim, Jan; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine the nature of the relationship between cognition and striatal dopaminergic functioning in 28 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) using fluorodopa Positron emission tomography (FDOPA-PET) and neuropsychological test scores. Mental flexibility was related to

  9. Clinical importance of re-interpretation of PET/CT scanning in patients referred to a tertiary care medical centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Johan; Loft, Annika; Barbosa de Lima, Vinicius Araújo;

    2015-01-01

    had an external F-18-FDG PET/CT scan were included. Only information that had been available at the time of the initial reading at the external hospital was available at re-interpretation. Teams with one radiologist and one nuclear medicine physician working side by side performed the re...

  10. Dual-time-point Imaging and Delayed-time-point Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/Computed Tomography Imaging in Various Clinical Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Sina; Salavati, Ali; Antonsen Segtnan, Eivind;

    2016-01-01

    The techniques of dual-time-point imaging (DTPI) and delayed-time-point imaging, which are mostly being used for distinction between inflammatory and malignant diseases, has increased the specificity of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. A gradually...

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of culprit lesions by PET imaging: shifting the clinical paradigm away from resultant anatomy toward causative physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caobelli, Federico; Bengel, Frank M

    2014-12-01

    Although coronary angiography is the gold standard for assessing coronary artery disease (CAD), there is at best a weak correlation between degree of stenosis and the risk of developing cardiac events. Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication, accounting for about 70% of fatal acute myocardial infarctions or sudden coronary deaths. Recently, the feasibility of (18)F-fluoride PET/CT in the evaluation of atherosclerotic lesions was assessed. Radionuclide techniques allow non-invasive biologic assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. This may help to further shift the clinical paradigm in coronary disease away from anatomy toward causative physiology and biology.

  12. Proof of concept of an imaging system demonstrator for PET applications with SiPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Santoni, Cristiano; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    A PET imaging system demonstrator based on LYSO crystal arrays coupled to SiPM matrices is under construction at the University and INFN of Pisa. Two SiPM matrices, composed of 8×8 SiPM pixels, and 1,5 mm pitch, have been coupled one to one to a LYSO crystals array and read out by a custom electronics system. front-end ASICs were used to read 8 channels of each matrix. Data from each front-end were multiplexed and sent to a DAQ board for the digital conversion; a motherboard collects the data and communicates with a host computer through a USB port for the storage and off-line data processing. In this paper we show the first preliminary tomographic image of a point-like radioactive source acquired with part of the two detection heads in time coincidence.

  13. Proof of concept of an imaging system demonstrator for PET applications with SiPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Giuseppina Bisogni, Maria [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni; Santoni, Cristiano [INFN Sezione di Perugia, Perugia 06100 (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari 70100 (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2013-08-21

    A PET imaging system demonstrator based on LYSO crystal arrays coupled to SiPM matrices is under construction at the University and INFN of Pisa. Two SiPM matrices, composed of 8×8 SiPM pixels, and 1,5 mm pitch, have been coupled one to one to a LYSO crystals array and read out by a custom electronics system. front-end ASICs were used to read 8 channels of each matrix. Data from each front-end were multiplexed and sent to a DAQ board for the digital conversion; a motherboard collects the data and communicates with a host computer through a USB port for the storage and off-line data processing. In this paper we show the first preliminary tomographic image of a point-like radioactive source acquired with part of the two detection heads in time coincidence.

  14. Active barrier films of PET for solar cell application: Processing and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    A preliminary investigation was carried out on the possibility to improve the protective action offered by the standard multilayer structures used to encapsulate photovoltaic devices. With this aim, a commercial active barrier PET-based material, able to absorb oxygen when activated by liquid water, was used to produce flexible and transparent active barrier films, by means of a lab-scale film production plant. The obtained film, tested in terms of thermal, optical and oxygen absorption properties, shows a slow oxygen absorption kinetics, an acceptable transparency and an easy roll-to-roll processability, so proving itself as a good candidate for the development of protective coating for solar cells against the atmospheric degradation agents like the rain.

  15. Clinical applications of the functional connectome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, F Xavier; Di Martino, Adriana; Craddock, R Cameron; Mehta, Ashesh D; Milham, Michael P

    2013-10-15

    Central to the development of clinical applications of functional connectomics for neurology and psychiatry is the discovery and validation of biomarkers. Resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) is emerging as a mainstream approach for imaging-based biomarker identification, detecting variations in the functional connectome that can be attributed to clinical variables (e.g., diagnostic status). Despite growing enthusiasm, many challenges remain. Here, we assess evidence of the readiness of R-fMRI based functional connectomics to lead to clinically meaningful biomarker identification through the lens of the criteria used to evaluate clinical tests (i.e., validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and applicability). We focus on current R-fMRI-based prediction efforts, and survey R-fMRI used for neurosurgical planning. We identify gaps and needs for R-fMRI-based biomarker identification, highlighting the potential of emerging conceptual, analytical and cultural innovations (e.g., the Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC), open science initiatives, and Big Data) to address them. Additionally, we note the need to expand future efforts beyond identification of biomarkers for disease status alone to include clinical variables related to risk, expected treatment response and prognosis.

  16. Evaluation of a SiPM array detector coupled to a LFS-3 pixellated scintillator for PET/MR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, Stratos; Fysikopoulos, Eleftherios [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Georgiou, Maria [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Department of Medical School, University of Thessaly, Larissa (Greece); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece)

    2015-05-18

    SiPM arrays are insensitive to magnetic fields and thus good candidates for hybrid PET/MR imaging systems. Moreover, due to their small size and flexibility can be used in dedicated small field of view small animal imaging detectors and especially in head PET/MR studies in mice. Co-doped LFS-3 scintillator crystals have higher light yield and slightly faster response than that of LSO:Ce mainly due to the co-doped activation of emission centers with varying materials such as Ce, Gd, Sc, Y, La, Tb, or Ca distributed at the molecular scale through the lutetium silicate crystal host. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of the SensL ArraySL-4 (4x4 element array of 3x3 mm{sup 2} silicon photomultipliers) optical detector coupled to a 6x6 LFS-3 scintillator array, with 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} crystal size elements, for possible applications in small field of view PET/MR imaging detectors. We have designed a symmetric resistive charge division circuit to read out the signal outputs of 4x4 pixel SiPM array reducing the 16 pixel outputs of the photodetector to 4 position signals. The 4 position signals were digitized using free running Analog to Digital Converters. The ADCs sampling rate was 50 MHz. An FPGA (Spartan 6 LX150T) was used for triggering and digital signal processing of the pulses. Experimental evaluation was carried out with {sup 22}Na radioactive source and the parameters studied where energy resolution and peak to valley ratio. The first preliminary results of the evaluation shows a clear visualization of the discrete 2x2x5 mm{sup 3} LFS-3 scintillator elements. The mean peak to valley ratio of the horizontal profiles on the raw image was measured equal to 11 while the energy resolution was calculated equal to 30% at the central pixels.

  17. Searching for primaries in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NET of unknown primary and clinically suspected NET: Evaluation of Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT and In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiter Nils Friedemann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of In-111 DTPA octreotide SPECT/CT and Ga-68 DOTATOC PET/CT for detection of primary tumors in patients with either neuroendocrine tumor of unknown primary (NETUP or clinically suspected primary NET (SNET.

  18. VII. Boettstein Colloquium: PET-Radiopharmaceuticals at PSI: achievement and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubiger, P.A.; Beer, H.F.; Blaeuenstein, P.; Leenders, K.E.

    1993-12-31

    The three sessions of the 1993 Boettstein colloquium dealt with the following topics: - PET-radiopharmaceuticals, - PET-scanning: significance of tracer uptake, - clinical options using PET. 22 papers were presented. figs., refs.

  19. A compact, high-density gamma-detection module for Time-of-Flight measurements in PET applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, I.; Dohle, R.; Fischer, P.; Piemonte, C.; Ritzert, M.

    2016-07-01

    We present a very compact γ-detection module primarily designed for PET applications. On a total area of about 30 × 30mm2, 144 SiPM photodetectors coupled to scintillator crystals are read out individually with fast timing ASICs. The core of the module is a LTCC ceramic substrate with internal water channels for efficient and stable liquid cooling. The top side of the LTCC is covered by 12×12 SiPMs in a regular pitch of 2.5 mm. The SiPMs are designed in the RGB-HD technology from FBK with a single cell size of 25 × 25 μm2, very low dark-count rate and stable performance over a wide temperature range from 0 to 20 °C. The readout of the SiPMs is done with 4 specialized PETA5 ASICs flip-chip mounted to the bottom side of the substrate. Each chip has 36 readout channels (available in single or differential ended configuration) with self-triggered hit detection, a very low noise discriminator, signal amplitude integration and digitization, a TDC with 50 ps binwidth, neighbor logic and fast veto mechanisms. The full height of the assembly, including the connector to the main readout board, is less than 1 cm. In a 1:1 coupling configuration with 10 mm high LYSO scintillator arrays for detection of 511 keV gammas, the module has already reached 205 ps CRT time resolution (FWHM in coincidence between channels on two different modules), sufficient for ToF operation in PET. The module design, details on chip operation and latest results with LYSO arrays are described.

  20. Technological choices for mobile clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrler, Frederic; Issom, David; Lovis, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The rise of cheaper and more powerful mobile devices make them a new and attractive platform for clinical applications. The interaction paradigm and portability of the device facilitates bedside human-machine interactions. The better accessibility to information and decision-support anywhere in the hospital improves the efficiency and the safety of care processes. In this study, we attempt to find out what are the most appropriate Operating System (OS) and Software Development Kit (SDK) to support the development of clinical applications on mobile devices. The Android platform is a Linux-based, open source platform that has many advantages. Two main SDKs are available on this platform: the native Android and the Adobe Flex SDK. Both of them have interesting features, but the latter has been preferred due its portability at comparable performance and ease of development.

  1. 89Zr-PET radiochemistry in the development and application of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and other biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugts, Danielle J; Visser, Gerard W M; van Dongen, Guus A M S

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with (89)Zr can be used to follow the behaviour of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other biologicals in vivo. The favourable radiophysical characteristics of (89)Zr allow multiple days PET scanning after injection. For the coupling of (89)Zr to proteins six desferrioxamine (DFO)-based bifunctional chelators have been described, five of which forming stable complexes in vivo. Of the methods that give stable complexes three are based on random lysine modification of mAbs and two on site-specific engineering. Up to now only two methods, random lysine modification with N-suc-DFO or DFO-Bz-NCS, have been used in clinical studies. In this review firstly aspects of the physicochemical properties and production of (89)Zr are emphasized as well as important items that have to be taken into account for current good manufacturing practice (cGMP) compliant production of (89)Zr-labeled proteins. Next, the different DFO-based conjugation strategies will be discussed with respect to synthesis, and their (pre)clinical evaluation particularly in the field of oncology.

  2. Development of clinical application of radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun [and others

    2000-04-01

    The aim is to develop the clinical radiation therapy techniques, which increase local control and cure rate of cancer. The contents were 1. technique of stereotactic radiotherapy 2. technique of intraoperative radiation therapy(IORT) 3. technique of fractionated radiotherapy 4. technique of 3D conformal therapy 5. chemoradiotherapy in lung cancer, rectal cancer and biliopancreatic cancer 6. network based information communication system of radiation oncology 7. animal studies for the best application of chemoradiotherapy and for elucidating mechanism of slide effect in radiotherapy. The results were 1. completion of quality assurance protocol, frame and mounting system 2. completion of applicator of IORT 3. clinical protocol of fractionated radiotherapy 4. clinical protocol of 3D conformal therapy for brain, head and neck, breast and lung cancer 5. completion of multimodality treatment protocol for lung, rectal and biliopancreatic cancer 6. completion of database system for patient information and simulation image 7. standardization of estimation for radiation induced pneumonitis in animal model. Future plans are (1) developed fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy system will be commercialized (2) developed applicator of brachytherapy for IORT will be commercialized (3) 3D conformal therapy will increase local control rate for brain tumor and decrease complications such as zerostomia after treatment for nasopharygeal cancer (4) training manpower and skills for randomized clinical trial (5) suggest possibility of clinical usefulness of oral 5-fluorouracil (6) to provide basic technique for electric chart (7) promote developing database system for image information (8) also in view of double edge sword effect of NO, it is possible to modify the NO production from irradiation to increase the tolerance to radiation.

  3. Current evaluation of the clinical utility of fluoromethyl choline-(18F) PET/CT in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, Jean-Noel [Hopital Tenon AP-HP, Paris (France); Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); E-mail: jean-noel.talbot@tnn.ap-hop-paris.fr; Chevalme, Yanna-Marina [Agence Francaise de Securite Sanitaire des Produits de Sante (AFSSAPS), St Denis (France)

    2008-12-15

    This short review is dedicated to the current status of the assessment of a new PET radiopharmaceutical, fluoromethylcholine-(18F) or FCH, which is taken-up by prostate cancer tissue, in contrary to fluorodeoxyglucose- (18F) or FDG. It seems that FCH could become 'the FDG of prostate cancer', with the same type of achievements (detection of distant metastases and of occult recurrences, restaging prior to invasive treatments), and the same drawbacks (false negative results in case of small lesions, in particular lymph nodes metastases, and false positive results in case of infection/inflammation, in particular prostatitis). Current evidence is summarised and discussed for each of the potential settings of FCH PET/CT imaging in prostate cancer. The perspectives for granting a marketing authorisation to a FCH preparation are briefly analysed. (author)

  4. Separation of {sup 90}Nb from zirconium target for application in immuno-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, V.; Roesch, F. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry; Filosofov, D.V.; Bochko, O.K.; Lebedev, N.A.; Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems; Hauser, H.; Eisenhut, M. [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry; Aksenov, N.V.; Bozhikov, G.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation). Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions; Ponsard, B. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCKCEN), Mol (Belgium). Radioisotopes and NTD Silicon Production

    2014-07-01

    Fast progressing immuno-PET asks to explore new radionuclides. One of the promising candidates is {sup 90}Nb. It has a half-life of 14.6 h that allows visualizing and quantifying biological processes with medium and slow kinetics, such as tumor accumulation of antibodies and antibodies fragments or drug delivery systems and nanoparticles. {sup 90}Nb exhibits a positron branching of 53% and an average kinetic energy of emitted positrons of E{sub mean} = 0.35 MeV. Currently, radionuclide production routes and NbV labeling techniques are explored to turn this radionuclide into a useful imaging probe. However, efficient separation of {sup 90}Nb from irradiated targets remains in challenge. Ion exchange based separation of {sup 90}Nb from zirconium targets was investigated in systems AG 1 x 8 - HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and UTEVA-HCl. {sup 95}Nb (t{sub 1/2} = 35.0 d), {sup 95}Zr (t{sub 1/2} = 64.0 d) and {sup 92m}Nb (t{sub 1/2} = 10.15 d) were chosen for studies on distribution coefficients. Separation after AG 1 x 8 anion exchange yields 99% of {sup 90/95}Nb. Subsequent use of a solid-phase extraction step on UTEVA resin further decontaminates {sup 90/95}Nb from traces of zirconium with yields 95% of {sup 90/95}Nb. A semi-automated separation takes one hour to obtain an overall recovery of {sup 90/95}Nb of 90%. The amount of Zr was reduced by factor of 10{sup 8}. The selected separation provides rapid preparation (< 1 h) of high purity {sup 90}Nb appropriate for the synthesis of {sup 90}Nb-radiopharmaceuticals, relevant for purposes of immuno-PET. Applying the radioniobium obtained, {sup 90/95}Nb-labeling of a monoclonal antibody (rituximab) modified with desferrioxamine achieved labeling yields of > 90% after 1 h incubation at room temperature. (orig.)

  5. On transcending the impasse of respiratory motion correction applications in routine clinical imaging - a consideration of a fully automated data driven motion control framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Adam L; Schleyer, Paul J; Büther, Florian; Walter, Martin A; Schäfers, Klaus P; Koo, Phillip J

    2014-12-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for the detection, characterization, and follow-up of tumors located in the thorax. However, patient respiratory motion presents a unique limitation that hinders the application of high-resolution PET technology for this type of imaging. Efforts to transcend this limitation have been underway for more than a decade, yet PET remains for practical considerations a modality vulnerable to motion-induced image degradation. Respiratory motion control is not employed in routine clinical operations. In this article, we take an opportunity to highlight some of the recent advancements in data-driven motion control strategies and how they may form an underpinning for what we are presenting as a fully automated data-driven motion control framework. This framework represents an alternative direction for future endeavors in motion control and can conceptually connect individual focused studies with a strategy for addressing big picture challenges and goals.

  6. Fourier-wavelet restoration in PET/CT brain studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knesaurek, Karin, E-mail: karin.knesaurek@mssm.edu [Division of Nuclear Medicine, The Mount Sinai Medical Center, One Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2012-10-11

    Our goal is to improve brain PET imaging through the application of a novel, hybrid Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration technique. The major limitation of PET studies is a relatively poor resolution in comparison with MRI and CT imaging and there is a need for improved PET imaging. A GE DLS PET/CT 16 slice system was used to acquire the studies. In order to create restoration filters the point source study was performed. The 6-fillable spheres and 3D Hoffman brain phantom studies were acquired and used to test and optimize the restoration approach. The patient data used in the study were acquired in a 3D PET mode, using the standard clinical protocol. Here, we have implemented Fourier-wavelet regularized restoration. In the Fourier domain, the inverse of modulation transfer function was multiplied by a Butterworth low-pass filter, order n=6 and cut-off frequency f=0.35 cycles/pixel. In addition, wavelet (Daubechies, order 2) noise suppression was applied by 'hard threshold'. Hot spheres and 3D Hoffman brain studies showed that the restoration process not only improves resolution and contrast but also improves quantification in 3D PET/CT imaging. The average contrast increase was 19% and the quantification improved in the range 8-20% depending on sphere size. In the restored images, there was no significant increase in noise when compared with the original images. The clinical studies followed brain phantom findings, i.e., the restored images had better contrast and resolution properties, when compared with the original images. The results of the study demonstrate that the quality and quantification of 3D brain {sup 18}F FDG PET images can be significantly improved by Fourier-wavelet (WFT) restoration filtering.

  7. Clinical applications of SPECT-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Biersack, Hans-Juergen (eds.) [University Hospital Bonn (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2014-06-01

    Covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis of benign and malignant diseases. Includes chapters on the use of SPECT/CT for dosimetry and for therapy planning. Completely up to date. Many helpful illustrations. SPECT/CT cameras have considerably improved diagnostic accuracy in recent years. Such cameras allow direct correlation of anatomic and functional information, resulting in better localization and definition of scintigraphic findings. In addition to this anatomic referencing, CT coregistration provides superior quantification of radiotracer uptake based on the attenuation correction capabilities of CT. Useful applications of SPECT/CT have been identified not only in oncology but also in other specialties such as orthopedics and cardiology. This book covers the full spectrum of clinical applications of SPECT/CT in diagnosis and therapy planning of benign and malignant diseases. Opening chapters discuss the technology and physics of SPECT/CT and its use for dosimetry. The role of SPECT/CT in the imaging of a range of pathologic conditions is then addressed in detail. Applications covered include, among others, imaging of the thyroid, bone, and lungs, imaging of neuroendocrine tumors, cardiac scintigraphy, and sentinel node scintigraphy. Individual chapters are also devoted to therapy planning in selective internal radiation therapy of liver tumors and bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT. Readers will find this book to be an essential and up-to-date source of information on this invaluable hybrid imaging technique.

  8. Application of a network analysis in H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    The goal of this study was to examine effective connectivity among brain areas involved in a memory function using a statistical method, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). Eight brain areas were chosen in left hemisphere including visual, frontal, and parahippocampal areas activated (analyzed with SPM99) during an associative memory task based on a H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET study. A connectivity model consisting of these brain regions, its anatomical pathways, and the functional influences of these paths was hypothesized and task effect (picture memory task vs. perceptual control task) was compared with a statistical package program for SEM (AMOS 4.0). The strongest functional linkage from fusiform to parahippocampus was found in both tasks. Linkages both from cuneus and inferior prefrontal areas to middle frontal were significantly strong in the perceptual task (p<.005), whereas linkages from cuneus to fusiform as well as from parahippocampus to middle frontal were significantly strong in the memory task (p<.005). Our results confirmed that SEM can be a useful analysis method on hypothesized neural pathways among brain areas identified in functional images.

  9. 18F-FDG PET/CT在滤泡性淋巴瘤分期及疗效评价中的临床价值%Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in clinical staging and therapeutic evaluation of follicular lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁重阳; 李天女; 孙晋; 杨文平; 黄庆娟; 丁其勇; 徐绪党

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨18F-FDG PET/CT在滤泡性淋巴瘤(FL)的分期、疗效评价、复发监测及预后判断方面的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析2005年12月至2013年1月行PET/CT检查的经病理确诊为FL的28例患者[男12例,女16例,平均年龄57(36~82)岁]资料.对患者均进行Ann Arbor临床分期,统计行PET/CT检查后临床分期改变情况.比较不同临床分期组间、病理高级别(3a+3b级)组和低级别(1+2级)组间SUVmax差异.28例中有17例行化疗后PET/CT检查和电话随访(10~88个月)监测疗效,比较疗效佳(CR+PR)和不佳(SD+PD)者生存差异.统计分析采用Mann-Whitney u秩和检验、Wilcoxon符号秩检验和Kaplan-Meier生存分析.结果 (1)28例治疗前行18F-FDG PET/CT的患者中,10.7% (3/28)分期上调,3.6% (1/28)分期下调.Ⅰ+Ⅱ期组SUVmax为10.1±3.2,Ⅲ+Ⅳ期组SUVmax为11.5±4.9,差异无统计学意义(Z=-0.619,P>0.05).病理低级别组(15例)和高级别组(13例)SUVmax分别为6.9±3.6和12.4±5.6(Z=-3.706,P<0.01).(2)17例治疗前后均行18F-FDG PET/CT检查的患者中,疗效佳组(11例)治疗前SUVmax10.8±5.1,治疗后SUVmax 3.4±2.3(Z=-2.312,P<0.05);疗效不佳组(6例)治疗前SUVmax 11.2±6.9,治疗后SUVmax 7.8±3.3,差异无统计学意义(Z=-1.153,P>0.05).疗效佳与疗效不佳组的中位无进展生存期(PFS)分别为48和26个月(x2=4.207,P<0.05).结论 18F-FDG PET/CT有助于明确FL分期、评价疗效、监测复发及提示预后.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET/CT in staging,therapeutic response evaluation,relapse early detection and prognostic prediction of follicular lymphoma (FL).Methods Twenty-eight patients (12 males,16 females; average age 57 (36-82) years) with pathologically confirmed FL from December 2005 to January 2013 were enrolled.All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT before treatment.The SUVmax of different staging groups,different pathological grade groups (high:3a+3b; low:1+2) was compared

  10. Artificial Neural Network-Based System for PET Volume Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhd Saeed Sharif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour detection, classification, and quantification in positron emission tomography (PET imaging at early stage of disease are important issues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment, and radiotherapy planning. Many techniques have been proposed for segmenting medical imaging data; however, some of the approaches have poor performance, large inaccuracy, and require substantial computation time for analysing large medical volumes. Artificial intelligence (AI approaches can provide improved accuracy and save decent amount of time. Artificial neural networks (ANNs, as one of the best AI techniques, have the capability to classify and quantify precisely lesions and model the clinical evaluation for a specific problem. This paper presents a novel application of ANNs in the wavelet domain for PET volume segmentation. ANN performance evaluation using different training algorithms in both spatial and wavelet domains with a different number of neurons in the hidden layer is also presented. The best number of neurons in the hidden layer is determined according to the experimental results, which is also stated Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm as the best training approach for the proposed application. The proposed intelligent system results are compared with those obtained using conventional techniques including thresholding and clustering based approaches. Experimental and Monte Carlo simulated PET phantom data sets and clinical PET volumes of nonsmall cell lung cancer patients were utilised to validate the proposed algorithm which has demonstrated promising results.

  11. 回收聚酯瓶制备PET/PE合金及其应用%Preparation and Application of PET/PE Alloy by Recycled Polyester Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱道峰

    2013-01-01

    应用自制的接枝共聚相容剂将回收PET分别与韩国SK公司生产的瓶盖专用LLDPE和回收LLDPE共混改性制备成PET/PE合金,对2种合金的微观结构和力学性能进行了研究,SEM表明:2种合金性能相差不大,相容剂效果良好.其中用回收LLDPE制作的合金,其材料的拉伸强度为37.76 MPa,断裂伸长率达到470.0%,缺口冲击强度为18.3 kJ/m2,可以满足注塑、挤出等加工工艺要求,同时该合金可加工成塑料管材、塑料托盘和编织袋.另外,制备PET/PE合金不需要干燥处理,加工合金也不需要干燥.%Recycled polyester were blended with LLDPE for cap from SK in Korea and recycled LLDPE respectively through special graft copolymer compatibilizer to obtain PET/PE alloy.The microstructure and mechanical property of the two alloy were researched.Results of SEM showed the property of these two alloy were nearly the same and both had good compatibility.In particularly,the alloy made from recycled LLDPE had good property i.e.tensile strength of 37.76 MPa,enlongation at brake of 470.0 %,and notch impact strength of 18.3 kJ/m2,which could meet the requirements of injecting and extruding.The alloy could be used to produce pipe,pallet and woven bag.In addition,the production and process of alloy need not be drying.

  12. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  13. Widening clinical applications of the SYNTAX Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Vasim; Head, Stuart J; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Serruys, Patrick W

    2014-02-01

    The SYNTAX Score (http://www.syntaxscore.com) has established itself as an anatomical based tool for objectively determining the complexity of coronary artery disease and guiding decision-making between coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Since the landmark SYNTAX (Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery) Trial comparing CABG with PCI in patients with complex coronary artery disease (unprotected left main or de novo three vessel disease), numerous validation studies have confirmed the clinical validity of the SYNTAX Score for identifying higher-risk subjects and aiding decision-making between CABG and PCI in a broad range of patient types. The SYNTAX Score is now advocated in both the European and US revascularisation guidelines for decision-making between CABG and PCI as part of a SYNTAX-pioneered heart team approach. Since establishment of the SYNTAX Score, widening clinical applications of this clinical tool have emerged. The purpose of this review is to systematically examine the widening applications of tools based on the SYNTAX Score: (1) by improving the diagnostic accuracy of the SYNTAX Score by adding a functional assessment of lesions; (2) through amalgamation of the anatomical SYNTAX Score with clinical variables to enhance decision-making between CABG and PCI, culminating in the development and validation of the SYNTAX Score II, in which objective and tailored decisions can be made for the individual patient; (3) through assessment of completeness of revascularisation using the residual and post-CABG SYNTAX Scores for PCI and CABG patients, respectively. Finally, the future direction of the SYNTAX Score is covered through discussion of the ongoing development of a non-invasive, functional SYNTAX Score and review of current and planned clinical trials.

  14. Paul Lecoq assembles a read head made with special crystals for a PET (positron emission tomography) scanner. He is the initiator of the Crystal Clear collaboration, which aims to transfer crystals developed at CERN to applications in medical imaging.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    Paul Lecoq assembles a read head made with special crystals for a PET (positron emission tomography) scanner. He is the initiator of the Crystal Clear collaboration, which aims to transfer crystals developed at CERN to applications in medical imaging.

  15. Clinical applications of plasma based electrosurgical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszko, Jean; Endler, Ashley; Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 18 years, several electrosurgical systems generating a low temperature plasma in an aqueous conductive solution have been commercialized for various clinical applications and have been used in over 10 million patients to date. The most popular utilizations are in arthroscopic surgery, otorhinolaryngology surgery, spine and neurosurgery, urology and wound care. These devices can be configured to bring saline to the tip and to have concomitant aspiration to remove by-products and excess fluid. By tuning the electrode geometry, waveform and fluid dynamic at the tip of the devices, tissue resection and thermal effects can be adjusted individually. This allows one to design products that can operate as precise tissue dissectors for treatment of articular cartilage or debridement of chronic wounds, as well as global tissue debulking devices providing sufficient concomitant hemostasis for applications like tonsillectomies. Effects of these plasma based electrosurgical devices on cellular biology, healing response and nociceptive receptors has also been studied in various models. This talk will include a review of the clinical applications, with product descriptions, results and introductory review of some of the research on the biological effects of these devices.

  16. Using Virtual Pets to Promote Physical Activity in Children: An Application of the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sun Joo Grace; Johnsen, Kyle; Robertson, Tom; Moore, James; Brown, Scott; Marable, Amanda; Basu, Aryabrata

    2015-01-01

    A virtual pet was developed based on the framework of the youth physical activity promotion model and tested as a vehicle for promoting physical activity in children. Children in the treatment group interacted with the virtual pet for three days, setting physical activity goals and teaching tricks to the virtual pet when their goals were met. The virtual pet became more fit and learned more sophisticated tricks as the children achieved activity goals. Children in the control group interacted with a computer system presenting equivalent features but without the virtual pet. Physical activity and goal attainment were evaluated using activity monitors. Results indicated that children in the treatment group engaged in 1.09 more hours of daily physical activity (156% more) than did those in the control group. Physical activity self-efficacy and beliefs served as mediators driving this increase in activity. Children that interacted with the virtual pet also expressed higher intentions than children in the control group to continue physical activity in the future. Theoretical and practical potentials of using a virtual pet to systematically promote physical activity in children are discussed.

  17. Clinical Application of Stents in Digestive Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yongsong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical application of therapeutic stenting of digestive diseases as a new approach from conventional management. Methods 115 cases of disorders in digestive system were managed with stents clinically, 148 procedures of intervention in all. The cases were suffering from portal hypertension of cirrhosis, post - operative esophageal stricture, Stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma, Buddi - Chari syndrome, narrowing of superior mesentery arteries and biliary tract, etc. All had had the strictured or obliterated original natural tube lumen been dilated or recanalized under the guidance of monitoring of the fluoroscope before the stent placement except those receiving TIPS needing the creation of an artificial passage within the liver to place the stent. Results Therapeutic stenting achieves clinical effects completely different from conventional internal medicine and surgery such as portal hypertension by cirrhosis with esophageal varices, megalospleen, ascites improved; jaundis relived then resided and liver function improved and appetite better in postoperative stricture of bile duct; ascites and edema of lower limbs resided in Buddi - Chari syndrom; intestininal distention disappeared, appetite and digestive function improved in stricture in superior mesentery artery; and no dysphagia and easy food intake, appetite improved in patients of stricture of postoperative esophagus and stricture resulted from esophageal carcinoma. Conclusion Therapeutic stenting is clinically unique, dramatically effective, with minor risks and worthy promoting in the management of certain digestive disorders.

  18. WE-G-BRF-06: Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-Guided Dynamic Lung Tumor Tracking for Cancer Radiotherapy: First Patient Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J; Loo, B; Graves, E [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Yamamoto, T [UC Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA (United States); Keall, P [University of Sydney, Camperdown (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: PET-guided dynamic tumor tracking is a novel concept of biologically targeted image guidance for radiotherapy. A dynamic tumor tracking algorithm based on list-mode PET data has been developed and previously tested on dynamic phantom data. In this study, we investigate if dynamic tumor tracking is clinically feasible by applying the method to lung cancer patient PET data. Methods: PET-guided tumor tracking estimates the target position of a segmented volume in PET images reconstructed continuously from accumulated coincidence events correlated with external respiratory motion, simulating real-time applications, i.e., only data up to the current time point is used to estimate the target position. A target volume is segmented with a 50% threshold, consistently, of the maximum intensity in the predetermined volume of interest. Through this algorithm, the PET-estimated trajectories are quantified from four lung cancer patients who have distinct tumor location and size. The accuracy of the PET-estimated trajectories is evaluated by comparing to external respiratory motion because the ground-truth of tumor motion is not known in patients; however, previous phantom studies demonstrated sub-2mm accuracy using clinically derived 3D tumor motion. Results: The overall similarity of motion patterns between the PET-estimated trajectories and the external respiratory traces implies that the PET-guided tracking algorithm can provide an acceptable level of targeting accuracy. However, there are variations in the tracking accuracy between tumors due to the quality of the segmentation which depends on target-to-background ratio, tumor location and size. Conclusion: For the first time, a dynamic tumor tracking algorithm has been applied to lung cancer patient PET data, demonstrating clinical feasibility of real-time tumor tracking for integrated PET-linacs. The target-to-background ratio is a significant factor determining accuracy: screening during treatment planning would

  19. Preliminary Clinical Experience of trans-1-Amino-3-(18F-fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic Acid (anti-(18F-FACBC PET/CT Imaging in Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In this retrospective analysis we assessed the role of [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT in the prostatic cancer staging. Procedure. 30 first [18F]-FACBC-PET/CT images of 26 patients (68.1 ± 5.8 years were analyzed. PET/CT findings were compared with PSA concentrations, with PSA doubling times (PDT, and with correlative imaging. Results. On 16 [18F]-FACBC (53.3% scans, 58 metabolically active lesions were found. 12 (20.7% lesions corresponding to the local relapse were found in prostate/prostate bed and seminal vesicles, 9 (15.5% lesions were located in regional lymph nodes, 10 (17.2% were located in distal lymph nodes, and 26 (44.8% metabolically active lesions were found in the skeleton. In one case, focal uptake was found in the brain, confirmed further on MRI as meningioma. The mean S-PSA level in patients with positive [18F]-FACBC findings was 9.5 ± 16.9 μg/L (0.54–69 μg/L and in patients with negative [18F]-FACBC findings was 1.96 ± 1.87 μg/L (0.11–5.9 μg/L, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, the PSA doubling time (PDT in patients with positive findings was significantly shorter than PDT in patients with negative findings: 3.25 ± 2.09 months (0.3–6 months versus 31.2 ± 22.02 months (8–84 months, P<0.0001. There was a strong positive correlation between PSA value and number of metabolically active lesions (R=0.74 and a negative correlation between PDT and number of metabolically active lesions (R=-0.56. There was a weak negative correlation between PDT and SUVmax⁡ (R=-0.30. Conclusion. According to our preliminary clinical experience, [18F]-FACBC-PET may play a role in in vivo restaging of an active prostate cancer, especially in patients with a short S-PSA doubling time.

  20. The Clinical Value of Dual Time Point F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for the Differentiation of Colonic Focal Uptake Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    F-18 FDG can be accumulated in the liver, bowel, kidney, urinary tract, and muscles physiologically. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of dual time point 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging for the differentiation of the colonic focal uptake lesions. One hundred thirty two patients (M:F=77:55, Age 62.8{+-}11.6 years) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at two time points, prospectively: early image at 50-60 min and delayed image at 4-4.5 hours after the intravenous injection of {sup 18}F-FDG. Focally increased uptake lesions on early images but disappeared or shifted on delayed images defined a physiological uptake. For the differential evaluation of persistent focal uptake lesions on delayed images, colonoscopy and histopathologic examination were performed. SUVmax changes between early and delayed images were also compared. Among the 132 patients, 153 lesions of focal colonic uptake were detected on early images of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. Of these, 72 (47.1%) lesions were able to judge with physiological uptake because the focal increased uptake disappeared from delayed image. Among 81 lesions which was showed persistent increased uptake in delayed image, 61 (75.3%) lesions were confirmed as the malignant tumor and 14 (17.3%) lesions were confirmed as the benign lesions including adenoma and inflammatory disease. Remaining 6 (7.4%) lesions were confirmed as the physiological uptake because there was no particular lesion in the colonoscopy. In the malignant lesions, the calculated dual time point change for SUVmax ({delta}%SUVmax) was 20.8%{+-}18.7%, indicating a significant increase in SUVmax between the two point (p<0.01). In contrast, the change in SUVmax for the non-malignant lesions including benign lesions and physiological uptake was -13.7%{+-}24.2%. For the differentiation of the malignant and non-malignant focal colonic uptake lesions, {delta}%SUVmax was the most effective parameter, and the cut-off value using -5% provided the best sensitivity

  1. Thermal regulation of tightly packed solid-state photodetectors in a 1 mm{sup 3} resolution clinical PET system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freese, D. L.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Innes, D.; Lau, F. W. Y.; Hsu, D. F. C.; Reynolds, P. D.; Levin, Craig S., E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu [Departments of Electrical Engineering, Radiology, Physics, and BioEngineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5128 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Silicon photodetectors are of significant interest for use in positron emission tomography (PET) systems due to their compact size, insensitivity to magnetic fields, and high quantum efficiency. However, one of their main disadvantages is fluctuations in temperature cause strong shifts in gain of the devices. PET system designs with high photodetector density suffer both increased thermal density and constrained options for thermally regulating the devices. This paper proposes a method of thermally regulating densely packed silicon photodetectors in the context of a 1 mm{sup 3} resolution, high-sensitivity PET camera dedicated to breast imaging. Methods: The PET camera under construction consists of 2304 units, each containing two 8 × 8 arrays of 1 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals coupled to two position sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). A subsection of the proposed camera with 512 PSAPDs has been constructed. The proposed thermal regulation design uses water-cooled heat sinks, thermoelectric elements, and thermistors to measure and regulate the temperature of the PSAPDs in a novel manner. Active cooling elements, placed at the edge of the detector stack due to limited access, are controlled based on collective leakage current and temperature measurements in order to keep all the PSAPDs at a consistent temperature. This thermal regulation design is characterized for the temperature profile across the camera and for the time required for cooling changes to propagate across the camera. These properties guide the implementation of a software-based, cascaded proportional-integral-derivative control loop that controls the current through the Peltier elements by monitoring thermistor temperature and leakage current. The stability of leakage current, temperature within the system using this control loop is tested over a period of 14 h. The energy resolution is then measured over a period of 8.66 h. Finally, the consistency of PSAPD gain between independent

  2. Fusion of CT and PET data: method and clinical relevance for planning laser-induced thermotherapy of liver metastases; Fusion von CT- und PET-Daten: Methode und klinische Bedeutung am Beispiel der Planung der laserinduzierten Thermotherapie von Lebermetastasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosten, N.; Kreissig, R.; Puls, R.; Amthauer, H.; Beier, J.; Rohlfing, T.; Stroszczynski, C.; Herbel, A.; Lemke, A.J.; Felix, R. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik

    2000-07-01

    Aim: Cathether-placement in liver metastases is difficult when the lesions are not visible on plain images. We evaluated the use of image fusion using CT and PET data, providing information on anatomy and liver lesions, respectively. Methods: Plain CT of the liver and whole body FDG-PET were performed in 28 patients with colorectal carcinoma in preparation for laser-induced thermotherapy. Fusions of image data and 2D-visualisation were performed and evaluated with regard to quality of the registration, number of detected lesions and influence of the procedure on laser-induced thermotherapy. Image fusion was performed using an algorithm which was developed by our group. Results: 84 focal liver lesions were visible on CT, 107 on PET images. This means that CT guided catheter placement would have to be performed 'blindly' in 23 lesions. In 6 patients previously unknown extra-hepatic tumor deposits were seen on PET images (local recurrence, 2 extrahepatic metastases, 2 second primaries). Conclusion: Hot spots from metastases, which are difficult to locate on PET images alone, may be identified on images generated by fusion of CT and PET data. These images facilitate an interventional approach to liver lesions which are not visible on plain CT. As PET allows for whole body screening, it helps identifying patients who would not profit from laser-induced thermotherapy. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei der CT-gesteuerten Punktion von Leberherden ist der fehlende Laesionsnachweis in der nativen CT oft hinderlich. Es wurde untersucht, ob die Bildfusion PET + CT weiterhilft. Methoden: Native Leber-CT und Ganzkoerper-FDG-PET wurden bei 28 Patienten mit kolorektalen Karzinomen durchgefuehrt, die zur LITT bei Lebermetastasen zugewiesen wurden. Die Datensaetze wurden fusioniert und hinsichtlich Qualitaet der Registrierung, Anzahl nachgewiesener Laesionen und Einfluss der fusionierten Bilder auf die Therapie ausgewertet. Ein selbstentwickelter Algorithmus wurde fuer die Fusion

  3. [New antiepileptic drugs: characteristics and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2014-05-01

    New antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that have been used in many other countries for more than 10 years have only recently became available for use in Japan. Gabapentin, topiramate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam were licensed for use in Japan between 2006 and 2010. Stiripentol for Dravet syndrome and rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were also approved in 2012 and 2013 as orphan drugs. Clinical trials of other new AEDs such as oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, lacosamide, and perampanel are in progress. In this review, the general characteristics of the new AEDs are discussed with regards to their effectiveness, tolerability, drug interaction, safety and mechanisms of action. The effectiveness, of the new AEDs compared with established AEDs is also discussed. Clinical applications of the new AEDs, focusing on gabapentin, topiramate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam are also discussed based on our domestic experience as well as overseas reports.

  4. Clinical applications of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcu, C.B.; Beek, A.M.; Van Rossum, A.C. [Hospital of Saint Raphael, Cardiac Diagnostic Unit, New Haven, CT (United States)], E-mail: bogmarcu@pol.net

    2006-10-15

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved from an effective research tool into a clinically proven, safe and comprehensive imaging modality. It provides anatomic and functional information in acquired and congenital heart disease and is the most precise technique for quantification of ventricular volumes, function and mass. Owing to its excellent interstudy reproducibility, cardiovascular MRI is the optimal method for assessment of changes in ventricular parameters after therapeutic intervention. Delayed contrast enhancement is an accurate and robust method used in the diagnosis of ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies and less common diseases, such as cardiac sarcoidosis and myocarditis. First-pass magnetic contrast myocardial perfusion is becoming an alternative to radionuclide techniques for the detection of coronary atherosclerotic disease. In this review we outline the techniques used in cardiovascular MRI and discuss the most common clinical applications. (author)

  5. How to choose PET-CT or CT in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Practical experience in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, T.; Tao, X.; Liu, H.; Liu, S. [Dept. of Radiology, ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical Univ., SH (China); Zheng, X. [Dept. of Nutrition, ChangHai Hospital, Second Military Medical Univ., SH (China)

    2010-07-01

    How to use CT and PET-CT rationally to raise diagnosis, staging and prognostic assessment of lung cancer to a higher level at the best cost-effect ratio is a subject that Chinese clinicians and radiologists should face conscientiously. We review the rational application of CT and PET-CT in four aspects of lung cancer, including screening and detection, morphologic evaluation, haemodynamic or metabolic feature evaluation, and follow-up, staging and prognostic evaluation. As PET-CT is only available in class III-A hospitals today, CT is the most popular equipment in China. PET-CT is more valuable only in cases where CT presentation of lung cancer is atypical or difficult to determine, or in cases where the diagnosis of lung cancer has been initially confirmed, for which clinical staging and decision concerning on therapeutic regimens are needed. We also recommend the current strategies of CT and PET-CT managing of SPN in China. (orig.)

  6. Can technical characteristics predict clinical performance in PET/CT imaging? A correlation study for thyroid cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergi, Maria; Menychtas, Dimitrios; Georgakopoulos, Alexandros; Pianou, Nikoletta; Metaxas, Marinos; Chatziioannou, Sofia

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether image characteristics could be used to predict the outcome of ROC studies in PET/CT imaging. Patients suspected for recurrent thyroid cancer underwent a standard whole body (WB) examination and an additional high-resolution head-and-neck (HN) F18-FDG PET/CT scan. The value of the latter was determined with an ROC study, the results of which showed that the WB+HN combination was better than WB alone for thyroid cancer detection and diagnosis. Following the ROC experiment, the WB and HN images of confirmed benign or malignant thyroid disease were analyzed and first and second order textural features were determined. Features included minimum, mean, and maximum intensity, as well as contrast in regions of interest encircling the thyroid lesions. Lesion size and standard uptake values (SUV) were also determined. Bivariate analysis was applied to determine relationships between WB and HN features and between observer ROC responses and the various feature values. The two sets showed significant associations in the values of SUV, contrast, and lesion size. They were completely different when the intensities were considered; no relationship was found between the WB minimum, maximum, and mean ROI values and their HN counterparts. SUV and contrast were the strongest predictors of ROC performance on PET/CT examinations of thyroid cancer. The high resolution HN images seem to enhance these relationships but without a single dramatic effect as was projected from the ROC results. A combination of features from both WB and HN datasets may possibly be a more robust predictor of ROC performance.

  7. FDG PET/CT for rectal carcinoma radiotherapy treatment planning: comparison of functional volume delineation algorithms and clinical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withofs, Nadia; Bernard, Claire; Van der Rest, Catherine; Martinive, Philippe; Hatt, Mathieu; Jodogne, Sebastien; Visvikis, Dimitris; Lee, John A; Coucke, Philippe A; Hustinx, Roland

    2014-09-08

    PET/CT imaging could improve delineation of rectal carcinoma gross tumor volume (GTV) and reduce interobserver variability. The objective of this work was to compare various functional volume delineation algorithms. We enrolled 31 consecutive patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The FDG PET/CT and the high dose CT (CTRT) were performed in the radiation treatment position. For each patient, the anatomical GTVRT was delineated based on the CTRT and compared to six different functional/metabolic GTVPET derived from two automatic segmentation approaches (FLAB and a gradient-based method); a relative threshold (45% of the SUVmax) and an absolute threshold (SUV > 2.5), using two different commercially available software (Philips EBW4 and Segami OASIS). The spatial sizes and shapes of all volumes were compared using the conformity index (CI). All the delineated metabolic tumor volumes (MTVs) were significantly different. The MTVs were as follows (mean ± SD): GTVRT (40.6 ± 31.28ml); FLAB (21.36± 16.34 ml); the gradient-based method (18.97± 16.83ml); OASIS 45% (15.89 ± 12.68 ml); Philips 45% (14.52 ± 10.91 ml); OASIS 2.5 (41.6 2 ± 33.26 ml); Philips 2.5 (40 ± 31.27 ml). CI between these various volumes ranged from 0.40 to 0.90. The mean CI between the different MTVs and the GTVCT was algorithms and the software products. The manipulation of PET/CT images and MTVs, such as the DICOM transfer to the Radiation Oncology Department, induced additional volume variations.

  8. The Clinical Application of Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chou Lee

    2011-01-01

    Furthermore, several modifications widen its clinical applications: the fascia lata can be included for sling or tendon reconstruction, the bulkiness could be created by including vastus lateralis muscle or deepithelization of skin flap, the pliability could be increased by suprafascial dissection or primary thinning, the pedicle length could be lengthening by proximally eccentric placement of the perforator, and so forth. Combined with these technical and conceptual advancements, the anterolateral thigh flap has become the workhorse flap for soft-tissue reconstructions from head to toe.

  9. [Xenotransplantation: recent developments and futur clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgroi, A; Morel, P; Bühler, L

    2012-06-20

    The aim of xenotransplantation is to allow the transplantation of animal organs or cells to humans. This approach would immediately eliminate the human organ shortage that is responsible for a significant mortality of patients on the waiting list for transplantation of organs. The immune differences between pig and human induce an immediate rejection of porcine tissues by humans. This rejection has recently been partially controlled by genetic engineering of pigs, the use of new immunosuppressive drugs and encapsulation of isolated cells. However, due to the risk of transmission of animal infectious agents to humans, the WHO recommends that clinical application of xenotransplantation only takes place if adequate regulations are in place.

  10. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations....

  11. Clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT to patients with follicular lymphoma staging Ⅲ-Ⅳ: monitoring response to therapy%18F-FDG PET-CT在Ⅲ~Ⅳ期滤泡性淋巴瘤疗效监测中的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁重阳; 李天女; 杨文平; 孙晋; 黄庆娟; 丁其勇; 杨伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨18F-FDG PET-CT对Ⅲ~Ⅳ期滤泡性淋巴瘤(FL)疗效监测的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析20例FL患者资料,所有患者在化疗前、化疗中及化疗后均行18F-FDG PET-CT检查,采用Kaplan-Meier方法对患者进行生存分析.结果 20例患者化疗中期PET-CT检查示14例完全缓解(CR),继续原方案化疗,化疗后PET-CT检查示患者均仍为CR,随访均未见复发.化疗中期PET-CT检查示2例部分缓解(PR),按原方案继续化疗,化疗后1例CR,1例进展(PD),随访均复发.化疗中期PET-CT检查示4例PD,均换化疗方案,化疗后2例CR,1例PR,1例PD,随访发现1例死亡,2例复发,1例CR.中位随访29个月,化疗中期PET-CT阴性预测值为100%(14/14),化疗中期PET-CT检查阳性组与阴性组无进展生存(PFS)比较,差异无统计学意义(24个月比32个月,P=0.135).化疗后PET-CT阴性预测值为88.2%(15/17),化疗后PET-CT阳性组与阴性组PFS比较,差异有统计学意义(8个月比34个月,P=0.0006).结论 18F-FDG PET-CT能有效地监测Ⅲ~Ⅳ期FL化疗疗效,并有助于临床制定个体化治疗方案.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of 18F-FDG PET-CT in monitoring response to therapy in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) staging Ⅲ-Ⅳ.Methods The clinical data of 20 patients with FL were analyzed retrospectively.All patients underwent PET-CT at three times:baseline,after 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy,and end of treatment.Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze the survival of patients.Results 14 patients achieved CR at the interim PET-CT,all patients achieved CR at post therapy PET-CT:all patients were alive with no evidence of disease in the follow-up.2 patiens achieved PR at the interim PET-CT,and 1 patient achieved CR,and 1 patient was PD,at post therapy PET-CT,all patients were relapsed in the follow-up.4 patients achieved PD,and all patients were changed the chemotherapy plan.At post therapy PET-CT,2 patients achieved CR,1 patient achieved PR,and 1

  12. Pet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kim

    1994-01-01

    This resource guide presents information on a variety of ways that animals can be used as a therapeutic modality with people having disabilities. Aspects addressed include: pet ownership and selection criteria; dogs (including service dogs, hearing/signal dogs, seeing leader dogs, and social/specialty dogs); horseriding for both therapy and fun;…

  13. Microfluidics: A Groundbreaking Technology for PET Tracer Production?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Wängler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of microfluidics to Positron Emission Tomography (PET tracer synthesis has attracted increasing interest within the last decade. The technical advantages of microfluidics, in particular the high surface to volume ratio and resulting fast thermal heating and cooling rates of reagents can lead to reduced reaction times, increased synthesis yields and reduced by-products. In addition automated reaction optimization, reduced consumption of expensive reagents and a path towards a reduced system footprint have been successfully demonstrated. The processing of radioactivity levels required for routine production, use of microfluidic-produced PET tracer doses in preclinical and clinical imaging as well as feasibility studies on autoradiolytic decomposition have all given promising results. However, the number of microfluidic synthesizers utilized for commercial routine production of PET tracers is very limited. This study reviews the state of the art in microfluidic PET tracer synthesis, highlighting critical design aspects, strengths, weaknesses and presenting several characteristics of the diverse PET market space which are thought to have a significant impact on research, development and engineering of microfluidic devices in this field. Furthermore, the topics of batch- and single-dose production, cyclotron to quality control integration as well as centralized versus de-centralized market distribution models are addressed.

  14. {sup 90}Nb: potential radionuclide for application in immuno-PET. Development of appropriate production strategy and first in vivo evaluation of {sup 90}Nb-labeled monoclonal antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radchenko, Valery

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear medicine is a modern and highly effective tool for the detection and treatment of oncological disease. Molecular imaging based on radiotracers includes single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET), which provide non-invasive tumor visualization on nano- and picomolar level, respectively. Currently, many novel tracers for more precise discovery of small tumors and metastases have been introduced and are under investigation. Many of them are protein-based biomolecules which nature herself produces as antigens for the eradication of tumor cells. Antibodies and antibody fragments play an important role in tumor diagnostics and treatment. PET imaging with antibodies and antibody fragments is called immuno-PET. The main issue that needs to be addressed is that appropriate radiotracers with half-lives related to the half-lives of biomolecules are needed. The development of novel radiotracers is a multistep, complicated task. This task includes the evaluation of production, separation and labeling strategy for chosen radionuclide. Finally, the biomolecule-radionuclide complex should be stable in time. An equally important factor is the economic suitability of the production strategy, which will lead to a key decision for future application of the developed radionuclide. In recent work, {sup 90}Nb has been proposed as a potential candidate for application in immuno-PET. Its half-life of 14.6 hours is suitable for application with antibody fragments and some intact antibodies. {sup 90}Nb has a relatively high positron branching of 53% and an optimal energy of β{sup +} emission of 0.35 MeV that can provide high quality of imaging with low dose of used radionuclide. First proof-of-principle studies have shown that {sup 90}Nb: (i) can be produced in sufficient amount and purity by proton bombardment of natural zirconium target (ii) can be isolated from target material with appropriate radiochemical purity (iii) may be used for

  15. Etiological, clinical and epidemiological investigations of dermatophytosis among pets in the region of Stara Zagora for the period 2004-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaylov Gosho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiological structure of dermatophytoses in pets (dogs and cats was analyzed using routine mycological techniques. For this purpose, 268 speciments obtained from both dogs and cats with suspected dermatophytoses were investigated. The specimens included crusts, hairs and injured tissues of skin lesions. The mycological study comprised a native microscopy and inoculation on specific nutrient media followed by isolation and species identification. A retrospective analysis was performed on the basis of history, clinical symptoms and the mycological studies. It was found that the presence of positive samples in dogs and cats was 18.6% and 13.2%, respectively. Most commonly, Microsporum canis was isolated in 92.3% of canine and 100% of feline specimens. It was also found that animals aged under 1 year were more susceptible to the examined mycological infections. No significant gender-dependent differences have been observed.

  16. Multi-contrast attenuation map synthesis for PET/MR scanners: assessment on FDG and Florbetapir PET tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ninon [University College London, Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom); Cardoso, M.J.; Modat, Marc; Ourselin, Sebastien [University College London, Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom); University College London, Dementia Research Centre, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Thielemans, Kris; Dickson, John [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Schott, Jonathan M. [University College London, Dementia Research Centre, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Atkinson, David [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R. [University College London, Centre for Medical Image Computing, London (United Kingdom); Hutton, Brian F. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2015-08-15

    Positron Emission Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MR) scanners are expected to offer a new range of clinical applications. Attenuation correction is an essential requirement for quantification of PET data but MRI images do not directly provide a patient-specific attenuation map. Methods We further validate and extend a Computed Tomography (CT) and attenuation map (μ-map) synthesis method based on pre-acquired MRI-CT image pairs. The validation consists of comparing the CT images synthesised with the proposed method to the original CT images. PET images were acquired using two different tracers ({sup 18}F-FDG and {sup 18}F-florbetapir). They were then reconstructed and corrected for attenuation using the synthetic μ-maps and compared to the reference PET images corrected with the CT-based μ-maps. During the validation, we observed that the CT synthesis was inaccurate in areas such as the neck and the cerebellum, and propose a refinement to mitigate these problems, as well as an extension of the method to multi-contrast MRI data. Results With the improvements proposed, a significant enhancement in CT synthesis, which results in a reduced absolute error and a decrease in the bias when reconstructing PET images, was observed. For both tracers, on average, the absolute difference between the reference PET images and the PET images corrected with the proposed method was less than 2%, with a bias inferior to 1%. Conclusion With the proposed method, attenuation information can be accurately derived from MRI images by synthesising CT using routine anatomical sequences. MRI sequences, or combination of sequences, can be used to synthesise CT images, as long as they provide sufficient anatomical information. (orig.)

  17. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of prolonged febrile states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaruskova, M.; Belohlavek, O. [Na Homolce Hospital, PET Center, Prague 5 (Czech Republic)

    2006-08-15

    The role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients whose main symptom is prolonged fever has not yet been defined. We addressed this topic in a retrospective study. A total of 124 patients (referred between May 2001 and December 2004) with fever of unknown origin or prolonged fever due to a suspected infection of a joint or vascular prosthesis were included in the study. The patients underwent either FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT scanning. Sixty-seven patients had a negative focal FDG-PET finding; in this group the method was regarded as unhelpful in determining a diagnosis, and no further investigation was pursued. We tried to obtain clinical confirmation for all patients with positive PET findings. Fifty-seven (46%) patients had positive FDG-PET findings. In six of them no further clinical information was available. Fifty-one patients with positive PET findings and 118 patients in total were subsequently evaluated. Systemic connective tissue disease was confirmed in 17 patients, lymphoma in three patients, inflammatory bowel disease in two patients, vascular prosthesis infection in seven patients, infection of a hip or knee replacement in seven patients, mycotic aneurysm in two patients, abscess in four patients and AIDS in one patient. In eight (16%) patients the finding was falsely positive. FDG-PET or PET/CT contributed to establishing a final diagnosis in 84% of the 51 patients with positive PET findings and in 36% of all 118 evaluated patients with prolonged fever. (orig.)

  18. Simultaneous PET/MRI: Impact on cancer management-A comprehensive review of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarnath Jena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The metabolic mapping of malignancy in whole body in a single examination by PET/CT has gained widespread acceptance where the CT provides an anatomical correlate for the PET. MRI offers advantage over CT in providing better anatomical information owing to its high soft tissue resolution especially in brain, liver, neck, pelvis and bone marrow. Simultaneous PET/MRI is a new multimodal imaging modality that is expected to improve the diagnostic performance of imaging wherein better anatomical and metabolic information can be acquired at the same time and space during a single examination time. Also, MR attributes like diffusion, perfusion and spectroscopy may further add to its diagnostic potential. In this article, we present our initial experience in illustrated cases done with simultaneous PET/MRI and outline its potential for several clinical applications in oncology.

  19. Clinical Value of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in diagnosis of postoperative relapse and (or) metastasis of colorectal cancer%18F-FDG PET/CT在结直肠癌术后检测中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文莉

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价18F-FDG PET/CT显像在诊断结直肠癌术后复发和(或)转移中的价值,为临床提供可靠的诊疗建议。方法观察分析57例结直肠癌术后可疑复发、转移患者行18F-FDG PET/CT检查的显像结果,并与同期CT或B超等传统影像检查方法的结果进行对比。结果57例患者中PET/CT检查阳性45例,阴性12例。半定量结果(SUVmax)值2.14~19.57,平均8.56±4.22。 CT或B超检查阳性39例,阴性18例,对比PET/CT检查,阳性符合率为37/39(94.8%),阴性符合率为10/18(55.6%)。18F-FDG PET/CT显像的真阳性病例42例,真阴性4例,假阳性3例,假阴性8例,灵敏度91.3%,特异度72.7%,准确度87.7%,阳性预测值93.3%,阴性预测值66.7%。结论18F-FDG PET/CT显像对结直肠癌术后及放化疗后的复发和(或)转移有较高的检出率,能够为临床提供可靠的诊疗建议。%ObjectiveThis work is aimed to evaluate the value of 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging in diagnosis of postoperative relapse and(or)metastasis of colorectal cancer,thus providing reliable recommendations for clinical diagnosis and treatment.MethodsObserve and analyze the 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of fifty-seven patients with suspected postoperative relapse and(or)metastasis of colorectal cancer,and compare with the conventional imaging(CI) CT and B ultrasound et al.ResultsAmong this group of 57 patients'PET/CT examination,45 cases was positive,12 cases was negative.Semi-quantitative results(SUVmax)values 2.14-19.57,and ragely 8.56±4.22.The true positive resulte of 18F-FDG PET/CT was found in 42 cases,the true negative in 8,false-positive in 3 and false-negative in 4 cases.The sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT was 91.3%,specificity 72.7%,the positive predictive value 93.3% and negative predictive value 66.7% in the diagnosis of recurrence and metastasis of colorectal cancer.Conclusion 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging has high sensitivity and degree of accuracy in detecting

  20. Gamma-camera 18F-FDG PET in diagnosis and staging of patients presenting with suspected lung cancer and comparison with dedicated PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, Peter S; Mortensen, Jann; Enevoldsen, Henriette;

    2004-01-01

    It is not clear whether high-quality coincidence gamma-PET (gPET) cameras can provide clinical data comparable with data obtained with dedicated PET (dPET) cameras in the primary diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected lung cancer. This study focuses on 2 main issues: direct comparison...

  1. RETINOIDS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN CLINIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文; 王振义

    2004-01-01

    This review provides an overview of relevant aspects of retinoid physiology and molecular biology, and summarizes the current status of clinical investigations on the use of retinoid for the treatment of malignancies. The mechanism underlying the anticarcinogenic activity of retinoids appears to be associated with the ability of retinoids to modulate the growth and induce differentiation, and apoptosis of normal, premalignant, and malignant cells in vitro and in vivo. Retinoid effects seem to be resulted from changes in gene expression mediated via specific nuclear receptors (termed retinoic acid receptors, RAR-α, -β and -γ).Chromosome translocations play an important role in APL pathogenesis. In the classical translocation, RAR α gene is fused with PML gene to form PML-RAR α chimeric gene,which is expressed in over 95% of the APL patients with t (15; 17) (q22; q21). Therefore, PML-RAR α fusion gene is the molecular marker of APL. ATRA can induce relocalization of the PML and restore the normal structure of POD. Furthermore, it could cause a degradation of PML-RAR α. In addition to the very high clinical response rate for APL patients treated with ATRA, clinical responses have been observed for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome,cutaneous T-cell lymphoma and skin cancers. Applications of retinoids are reviewed in different malignancies:including skin cancer, head and neck carcinoma,neuroblastoma, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer,bladder cancer and ovarian cancer in vivo and in vitro studies. The results indicate that retinoids are potentially useful agents for cancer prevention. RA combined with IFNs or RA combined with G-CSF has synergistic effect in inducing differentiation of cell growth. From current clinical results at least four leads are expected to impact on clinical development of retinoids in future: (1) development of retinoid receptor-selective agents;(2) investigation on cross-talk among members of the steroid superfamily; (3

  2. Coleopteran Antimicrobial Peptides: Prospects for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monde Ntwasa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are activated in response to septic injury and have important roles in vertebrate and invertebrate immune systems. AMPs act directly against pathogens and have both wound healing and antitumor activities. Although coleopterans comprise the largest and most diverse order of eukaryotes and occupy an earlier branch than Drosophila in the holometabolous lineage of insects, their immune system has not been studied extensively. Initial research reports, however, indicate that coleopterans possess unique immune response mechanisms, and studies of these novel mechanisms may help to further elucidate innate immunity. Recently, the complete genome sequence of Tribolium was published, boosting research on coleopteran immunity and leading to the identification of Tribolium AMPs that are shared by Drosophila and mammals, as well as other AMPs that are unique. AMPs have potential applicability in the development of vaccines. Here, we review coleopteran AMPs, their potential impact on clinical medicine, and the molecular basis of immune defense.

  3. Chlorhexidine--pharmacology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, K-S; Kam, P C A

    2008-07-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used skin antisepsis preparation and is an ingredient in toothpaste and mouthwash. It is an especially effective antiseptic when combined with alcohol. Its antimicrobial effects persist because it is binds strongly to proteins in the skin and mucosa, making it an effective antiseptic ingredient for handwashing, skin preparation for surgery and the placement of intravascular access. Catheters impregnated with chlorhexidine and antimicrobial agents can reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections. Contact dermatitis related to chlorhexidine is not common in health care workers. The incidence of contact dermatitis to chlorhexidine in atopic patients is approximately 2.5 to 5.4%. Acute hypersensitivity reactions to chlorhexidine are often not recognised and therefore may be underreported. This review discusses the pharmacology, microbiology, clinical applications and adverse effects of chlorhexidine.

  4. Bonding bare die LEDs on PET foils for lighting applications: Thermal design modeling and bonding experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kusters, R.H.L.; Cauwe, M.; Waal, A. van der; Brand, J. van den

    2012-01-01

    Integration of LEDs on flexible foil substrates is of interest for flexible lighting applications and flexible photonic devices. A matrix of LEDs on a foil combined with a diffuser can be a potential alternative for flexible OLED lighting devices. Preferably, these LEDs are integrated in an unpackag

  5. Distribution Atlas of Proliferating Bone Marrow in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Measured by FLT-PET/CT Imaging, With Potential Applicability in Radiation Therapy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Belinda A., E-mail: Belinda.Campbell@petermac.org [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Callahan, Jason [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Centre for Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Simoens, Nathalie [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Everitt, Sarah [Radiotherapy Services, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hofman, Michael S.; Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Burbury, Kate [Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); MacManus, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Proliferating bone marrow is exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Knowledge of its distribution could improve radiation therapy planning to minimize unnecessary marrow exposure and avoid consequential prolonged myelosuppression. [18F]-Fluoro-3-deoxy-3-L-fluorothymidine (FLT)–positron emission tomography (PET) is a novel imaging modality that provides detailed quantitative images of proliferating tissues, including bone marrow. We used FLT-PET imaging in cancer patients to produce an atlas of marrow distribution with potential clinical utility. Methods and Materials: The FLT-PET and fused CT scans of eligible patients with non-small cell lung cancer (no distant metastases, no prior cytotoxic exposure, no hematologic disorders) were reviewed. The proportions of skeletal FLT activity in 10 predefined bony regions were determined and compared according to age, sex, and recent smoking status. Results: Fifty-one patients were studied: 67% male; median age 68 (range, 31-87) years; 8% never smokers; 70% no smoking in the preceding 3 months. Significant differences in marrow distribution occurred between sex and age groups. No effect was detected from smoking in the preceding 3 months. Using the mean percentages of FLT uptake per body region, we created an atlas of the distribution of functional bone marrow in 4 subgroups defined by sex and age. Conclusions: This atlas has potential utility for estimating the distribution of active marrow in adult cancer patients to guide radiation therapy planning. However, because of interindividual variation it should be used with caution when radiation therapy risks ablating large proportions of active marrow; in such cases, individual FLT-PET scans may be required.

  6. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and MWCNT nanocomposite thin films by spin coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Singh; Vineeta D Deshpande

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present study was basic understanding of the formation of thin film morphology by spin coating using reorganized polyethylene terephthalate (r-PET) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as fillers in PET. A study of the correlation between physical properties of the PET films and its surface morphology was carried out using atomic force microscopy-based power spectral density (PSD) analysis. No significant work of surface analysis, using PSD of thin films of PET has been reported till date. Dilute solution of PET, PET with 3 wt% (r-PET) and PET with 3 wt% (2 wt% r-PET + 1 wt% MWCNT) filler were prepared using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as a solvent and thin films were fabricated on glass substrate by the optimized spin coating technique. Preparation of r-PET and r-PET+ MWCNT fillers was obtained by the precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone as an antisolvent. The samples before spin coating were extruded and for comparison, a film of non-extruded PET was also prepared. Structural studies by Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction show higher degree of crystallinity in r-PET and decrease in chain entanglements. Owing to the crystallizing behaviour of r-PET, it allows better dispersion of MWCNT in the polymer matrix as compared with PET. The samples with fillers of MWCNT show more compact and unique mesh-like globular structure, indicating application for electromagnetic shielding foams and fibres.

  7. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  8. Application of the Compress Sensing Theory for Improvement of the TOF Resolution in a Novel J-PET Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Raczynski, L; Kowalski, P; Wislicki, W; Bednarski, T; Bialas, P; Czerwinski, E; Gajos, A; Kaplon, L; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemien, W; Kubicz, E; Niedzwiecki, Sz; Palka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Slomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Zielinski, M; Zon, N

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, a Time of Flight information is used to improve the image reconstruction process. In Time of Flight PET (TOF-PET), fast detectors are able to measure the di?erence in the arrival time of the two gamma rays, with the precision enabling to shorten signi?cantly a range along the line-of-response (LOR) where the annihilation occurred. In the new concept, called J-PET scanner, gamma rays are detected in plastic scintillators. In a single strip of J-PET system, time values are obtained by probing signals in the amplitude domain. Owing to Compress Sensing theory, information about the shape and amplitude of the signals is recovered. In this paper we demonstrate that based on the acquired signals parameters, a better signal normalization may be provided in order to improve the TOF resolution. The procedure was tested using large sample of data registered by a dedicated detection setup enabling sampling of signals with 50 ps intervals. Experimental setup provide...

  9. Feasibility of perfusion CT technique integrated into conventional {sup 18}FDG/PET-CT studies in lung cancer patients: clinical staging and functional information in a single study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ippolito, Davide; Capraro, Cristina; Sironi, Sandro [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, H.S. Gerardo Monza, Via Pergolesi 11, Monza, Milan (Italy); Guerra, Luca [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); De Ponti, Elena [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Medical Physics, Monza (Italy); Messa, Cristina [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); San Gerardo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Unit - Molecular Bioimaging Centre, Monza (Italy); Tecnomed Foundation, University of Milano-Bicocca, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, National Research Council, Milan (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    To assess the additional functional vascular information and the relationship between perfusion measurements and glucose metabolism (SUVmax) obtained by including a perfusion CT study in a whole-body contrast-enhanced PET/CT protocol in primary lung cancer lesions. Enrolled in this prospective study were 34 consecutive patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of lung cancer who were referred for contrast-enhanced PET/CT staging. This prospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. Perfusion CT was performed with the following parameters: 80 kV, 200 mAs, 30 scans during intravenous injection of 50 ml contrast agent, flow rate 5 ml/s. Another bolus of contrast medium (3.5 ml/s, 80 ml, 60-s delay) was administered to ensure a full diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT scan for clinical staging. The perfusion CT data were used to calculate a range of tumour vascularity parameters (blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time), and tumour FDG uptake (SUVmax) was used as a metabolic indicator. Quantitative and functional parameters were compared and in relation to location, histology and tumour size. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used for statistical analysis. A cut-off value of 3 cm was used according to the TNM classification to discriminate between T1 and T2 tumours (i.e. T1b vs. T2a). There were significant perfusion differences (lower blood volumes and higher mean transit time) between tumours with diameter >30 mm and tumours with diameter <30 mm (p < 0.05; blood volume 5.6 vs. 7.1 ml/100 g, mean transit time 8.6 vs. 3.9 s, respectively). Also there was a trend for blood flow to be lower in larger lesions (p < 0.053; blood flow 153.1 vs. 98.3 ml/100 g tissue/min). Significant inverse correlations (linear regression) were found between blood volume and SUVmax in tumours with diameter >30 mm in diameter. Perfusion CT combined with PET/CT is feasible technique that may provide

  10. Comparison of the myocardial blood flow response to regadenoson and dipyridamole: a quantitative analysis in patients referred for clinical {sup 82}Rb myocardial perfusion PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudarzi, Behnaz; Fukushima, Kenji; Bravo, Paco; Merrill, Jennifer [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bengel, Frank M. [Johns Hopkins University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Russell H Morgan Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Regadenoson is a novel selective A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor agonist, which is administered as an intravenous bolus at a fixed dose. It is currently not clear if the absolute flow increase in response to this fixed dose is a function of distribution volume in individual patients or if it is generally comparable to the previous standard agents dipyridamole or adenosine, which are dosed based on weight. We used quantitative analysis of clinical {sup 82}Rb PET/CT studies to obtain further insights. A total of 104 subjects with normal clinical rest/stress {sup 82}Rb perfusion PET/CT were included in a retrospective analysis. To rule out confounding factors, none had evidence of prior cardiac disease, ischaemia or infarction, cardiomyopathy, diabetes with insulin use, calcium score >400, renal disease or other significant systemic disease. A group of 52 patients stressed with regadenoson were compared with a group of 52 patients stressed with dipyridamole before regadenoson became available. The groups were matched for clinical characteristics, risk factors and baseline haemodynamics. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) were quantified using a previously validated retention model, after resampling of dynamic studies from list-mode {sup 82}Rb datasets. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure and MBF were comparable between the groups. Regadenoson resulted in a significantly higher heart rate (34 {+-} 14 vs. 23 {+-} 10 beats per minute increase from baseline; p < 0.01) and rate-pressure product. Patients in the regadenoson group reported less severe symptoms and required less aminophylline. Stress MBF and MFR were not different between the groups (2.2 {+-} 0.6 vs. 2.1 {+-} 0.6 ml/min/g, p = 0.39, and 2.9 {+-} 0.8 vs. 2.8 {+-} 0.7, p = 0.31, respectively). In the regadenoson group, there was no correlation between stress flow or MFR and body weight or BMI. Despite its administration at a fixed dose, regadenoson results in an absolute increase in MBF

  11. An in-beam PET system for monitoring ion-beam therapy: test on phantoms using clinical 62 MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarlinghi, N.; Sportelli, G.; Battistoni, G.; Belcari, N.; Cecchetti, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.; Retico, A.; Romano, F.; Sala, P.; Straub, K.; Tramontana, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2014-04-01

    Ion therapy allows the delivery of highly conformal dose taking advantage of the sharp depth-dose distribution at the Bragg-peak. However, patient positioning errors and anatomical uncertainties can cause dose distortions. To exploit the full potential of ion therapy, an accurate monitoring system of the ion range is needed. Among the proposed methods to monitor the ion range, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) has proven to be the most mature technique, allowing to reconstruct the β+ activity generated in the patient by the nuclear interaction of the ions, that can be acquired during or after the treatment. Taking advantages of the spatial correlation between positron emitters created along the ions path and the dose distribution, it is possible to reconstruct the ion range. Due to the high single rates generated during the beam extraction, the acquisition of the β+ activity is typically performed after the irradiation (cyclotron) or in between the synchrotron spills. Indeed the single photon rate can be one or more orders of magnitude higher than normal for cyclotron. Therefore, acquiring the activity during the beam irradiation requires a detector with a very short dead time. In this work, the DoPET detector, capable of sustaining the high event rate generated during the cyclotron irradiation, is presented. The capability of the system to acquire data during and after the irradiation will be demonstrated by showing the reconstructed activity for different PMMA irradiations performed using clinical dose rates and the 62 MeV proton beam at the CATANA-LNS-INFN. The reconstructed activity widths will be compared with the results obtained by simulating the proton beam interaction with the FLUKA Monte Carlo. The presented data are in good agreement with the FLUKA Monte Carlo.

  12. Image reconstruction techniques for high resolution human brain PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comtat, C.; Bataille, F.; Sureau, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot (CEA/DSV/DRM), 91 - Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    High resolution PET imaging is now a well established technique not only for small animal, but also for human brain studies. The ECAT HRRT brain PET scanner(Siemens Molecular Imaging) is characterized by an effective isotropic spatial resolution of 2.5 mm, about a factor of 2 better than for state-of-the-art whole-body clinical PET scanners. Although the absolute sensitivity of the HRRT (6.5 %) for point source in the center of the field-of-view is increased relative to whole-body scanner (typically 4.5 %) thanks to a larger co-polar aperture, the sensitivity in terms of volumetric resolution (75 (m{sup 3} at best for whole-body scanners and 16 (m{sup 3} for t he HRRT) is much lower. This constraint has an impact on the performance of image reconstruction techniques, in particular for dynamic studies. Standard reconstruction methods used with clinical whole-body PET scanners are not optimal for this application. Specific methods had to be developed, based on fully 3D iterative techniques. Different refinements can be added in the reconstruction process to improve image quality: more accurate modeling of the acquisition system, more accurate modeling of the statistical properties of the acquired data, anatomical side information to guide the reconstruction . We will present the performances these added developments for neuronal imaging in humans. (author)

  13. Recent developments in time-of-flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, S.; Mikhaylova, E.; D’Hoe, E.; Mollet, P. [ELIS-IMINDS-Medical IT-IBITECH Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Blok B, Gent, 9000 (Belgium); Karp, J. S. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2016-02-16

    While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping power and limited spatial resolution (caused by limited light output of the scintillators), these systems could not compete with bismuth germanate (BGO)-based PET scanners. Developments on TOF system were limited for about a decade but started again around 2000. The combination of fast photomultipliers, scintillators with high density, modern electronics, and faster computing power for image reconstruction have made it possible to introduce this principle in clinical TOF-PET systems. This paper reviews recent developments in system design, image reconstruction, corrections, and the potential in new applications for TOF-PET. After explaining the basic principles of time-of-flight, the difficulties in detector technology and electronics to obtain a good and stable timing resolution are shortly explained. The available clinical systems and prototypes under development are described in detail. The development of this type of PET scanner also requires modified image reconstruction with accurate modeling and correction methods. The additional dimension introduced by the time difference motivates a shift from sinogram- to listmode-based reconstruction. This reconstruction is however rather slow and therefore rebinning techniques specific for TOF data have been proposed. The main motivation for TOF-PET remains the large potential for image quality improvement and more accurate quantification for a given number of counts. The gain is related to the ratio of object size and spatial extent of the TOF kernel and is therefore particularly relevant for heavy patients, where image quality degrades significantly due to increased attenuation (low counts) and high scatter fractions. The

  14. Recent developments in time-of-flight PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, S; Mikhaylova, E; D'Hoe, E; Mollet, P; Karp, J S

    2016-12-01

    While the first time-of-flight (TOF)-positron emission tomography (PET) systems were already built in the early 1980s, limited clinical studies were acquired on these scanners. PET was still a research tool, and the available TOF-PET systems were experimental. Due to a combination of low stopping power and limited spatial resolution (caused by limited light output of the scintillators), these systems could not compete with bismuth germanate (BGO)-based PET scanners. Developments on TOF system were limited for about a decade but started again around 2000. The combination of fast photomultipliers, scintillators with high density, modern electronics, and faster computing power for image reconstruction have made it possible to introduce this principle in clinical TOF-PET systems. This paper reviews recent developments in system design, image reconstruction, corrections, and the potential in new applications for TOF-PET. After explaining the basic principles of time-of-flight, the difficulties in detector technology and electronics to obtain a good and stable timing resolution are shortly explained. The available clinical systems and prototypes under development are described in detail. The development of this type of PET scanner also requires modified image reconstruction with accurate modeling and correction methods. The additional dimension introduced by the time difference motivates a shift from sinogram- to listmode-based reconstruction. This reconstruction is however rather slow and therefore rebinning techniques specific for TOF data have been proposed. The main motivation for TOF-PET remains the large potential for image quality improvement and more accurate quantification for a given number of counts. The gain is related to the ratio of object size and spatial extent of the TOF kernel and is therefore particularly relevant for heavy patients, where image quality degrades significantly due to increased attenuation (low counts) and high scatter fractions. The

  15. In-beam PET imaging for on-line adaptive proton therapy: an initial phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yiping; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Zhu, Xiaorong R.; Mirkovic, Dragon; Poenisch, Falk; Grosshans, David

    2014-07-01

    We developed and investigated a positron emission tomography (PET) system for use with on-line (both in-beam and intra-fraction) image-guided adaptive proton therapy applications. The PET has dual rotating depth-of-interaction measurable detector panels by using solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM) arrays and LYSO scintillators. It has a 44 mm diameter trans-axial and 30 mm axial field-of-view (FOV). A 38 mm diameter polymethyl methacrylate phantom was placed inside the FOV. Both PET and phantom axes were aligned with a collimated 179.2 MeV beam. Each beam delivered ˜50 spills (0.5 s spill and 1.5 s inter-spill time, 3.8 Gy at Bragg peak). Data from each beam were acquired with detectors at a given angle. Nine datasets for nine beams with detectors at nine different angles over 180° were acquired for full-tomographic imaging. Each dataset included data both during and 5 min after irradiations. The positron activity-range was measured from the PET image reconstructed from all nine datasets and compared to the results from simulated images. A 22Na disc-source was also imaged after each beam to monitor the PET system's performance. PET performed well except for slight shifts of energy photo-peak positions (PET with high sensitivity and uniform resolution. Sub-mm activity-ranges were achieved with minimal 6 s acquisition time and three spill irradiations. These results indicate the feasibility of PET for intra-fraction beam-range verification. Further studies are needed to develop and apply a novel clinical PET system for on-line image-guided adaptive proton therapy.

  16. Time resolving characteristics of HPK and FBK silicon photomultipliers for TOF and PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, G.; Azzarello, P.; Battiston, R. [INFN sez. Perugia, via Pascoli, 10-06120 Perugia (Italy); Di Lorenzo, G. [University of Perugia, via G.Duranti, 93-06125 Perugia (Italy); Ionica, M. [INFN sez. Perugia, via Pascoli, 10-06120 Perugia (Italy); Pignatel, G.U., E-mail: pignatel@diei.unipg.i [University of Perugia, via G.Duranti, 93-06125 Perugia (Italy); INFN sez. Perugia, via Pascoli, 10-06120 Perugia (Italy); Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), Via Sommarive, 18-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [University of Trento and INFN sez. Padova (Gruppo Collegato Trento), Via Sommarive, 14-38100 Povo di Trento (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [University and INFN sez. Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    In time-of-flight measurements, or positron emission tomography experiments where two gamma rays are detected in coincidence, the time resolution of the photodetector is of primary importance. SiPMs are very promising devices for these applications, since their intrinsic response time can be less than 1 ns. However the actual timing resolution of SiPM is affected by the area (capacitance) of the device, by the type of used to pre-amplify the signal, by the dark count rate which is revealed as pure noise, and other second order effects like cross-talk and after pulsing. In this work we report the characteristics of different samples of Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) and Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK) SiPM, with pixel size ranging from 40 to 100 {mu}m. In particular, we have investigated their time response when stimulated with O(50) ps pulsed laser at wavelengths in the range 400-800 nm.

  17. Characterization of a high resolution and high sensitivity pre-clinical PET scanner with 3D event reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Rissi, M; Bolle, E; Dorholt, O; Hines, K E; Rohne, O; Skretting, A; Stapnes, S; Volgyes, D

    2012-01-01

    COMPET is a preclinical PET scanner aiming towards a high sensitivity, a high resolution and MRI compatibility by implementing a novel detector geometry. In this approach, long scintillating LYSO crystals are used to absorb the gamma-rays. To determine the point of interaction (P01) between gamma-ray and crystal, the light exiting the crystals on one of the long sides is collected with wavelength shifters (WLS) perpendicularly arranged to the crystals. This concept has two main advantages: (1) The parallax error is reduced to a minimum and is equal for the whole field of view (FOV). (2) The P01 and its energy deposit is known in all three dimension with a high resolution, allowing for the reconstruction of Compton scattered gamma-rays. Point (1) leads to a uniform point source resolution (PSR) distribution over the whole FOV, and also allows to place the detector close to the object being imaged. Both points (1) and (2) lead to an increased sensitivity and allow for both high resolution and sensitivity at the...

  18. Clinical application of therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valbonesi, M; Bruni, R

    2000-06-01

    Therapeutic erythrocytapheresis (TEA) has been used in different diseases such as polycythemia vera (PV), secondary erythrocytosis or hemochromatosis as a process of the less cumbersome but more expensive phlebotomy. TEA is preferred in emergency conditions such as thrombocytosis or in conditions such as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) or erythropoietic porphyria when plasma exchange (PEX) is often combined with TEA to reduce extracellular levels of uroporphyrin which contribute to plasma hyperviscosity. TEA is often combined with drug therapy that varies from etoposide in PV to EPO and desferoxamine which are used to mobilize and reduce iron stores in hemochromatosis. Benefits from this combination may be more long lasting than expected. Nonetheless for TEA, there is no standard protocol and, clinical experience with this therapy remains highly anecdotal. Therapeutic red cell-exchange (TREX) has been used with much interest over the years, starting with the management of hemolytic disease of the newborn and later used to correct severe anemia in thalassemia patients thereby preventing iron overload. It has also been used for the management of complications of sickle cell disease such as priapism, chest syndrome, stroke, retinal, bone, splenic and hepatic infarction or in preparation for surgery by reducing HbS to less than 30%. Automated apheresis has also favored the use of TREX in conditions such as paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aniline poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Na chlorate intoxications and CO intoxications, hemoglobinopathies, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, reactions due to ABO incompatibility, in preparation for ABO incompatible bone marrow transplantation or for preventing anti-D immunization after the transfusion of D(+) cells to D(-) recipients. Another field of application has been in the emergency management of intraerythrocytic parasite infections such as malaria and babesiosis. Application of TREX may be wide but its real use remains limited

  19. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  20. Staging the axilla in breast cancer patients with {sup 18}F-FDG PET: how small are the metastases that we can detect with new generation clinical PET systems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellevre, Dimitri [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Cedex 5, Caen (France); Blanc Fournier, Cecile [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Pathology Department, Caen (France); Switsers, Odile [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Cedex 5, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Breast Cancer Unit, Caen (France); Dugue, Audrey Emmanuelle; Grellard, Jean-Michel [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Biostatistics and Clinical Research unit, Caen (France); Levy, Christelle [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Breast Cancer Unit, Caen (France); Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Caen (France); Allouache, Djelila [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Breast Cancer Unit, Caen (France); Desmonts, Cedric [University Hospital, Medical Physics Department, Caen (France); Crouet, Hubert; Guilloit, Jean-Marc [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Surgical Oncology, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Nuclear Medicine Department, Cedex 5, Caen (France); Normandie Universite, Caen (France)

    2014-06-15

    Point spread function (PSF) reconstruction improves spatial resolution throughout the entire field of view of a PET system and can detect smaller metastatic deposits than conventional algorithms such as OSEM. We assessed the impact of PSF reconstruction on quantitative values and diagnostic accuracy for axillary staging of breast cancer patients, compared with an OSEM reconstruction, with emphasis on the size of nodal metastases. This was a prospective study in a single referral centre in which 50 patients underwent an {sup 18}F-FDG PET examination before axillary lymph node dissection. PET data were reconstructed with an OSEM algorithm and PSF reconstruction, analysed blindly and validated by a pathologist who measured the largest nodal metastasis per axilla. This size was used to evaluate PET diagnostic performance. On pathology, 34 patients (68 %) had nodal involvement. Overall, the median size of the largest nodal metastasis per axilla was 7 mm (range 0.5 - 40 mm). PSF reconstruction detected more involved nodes than OSEM reconstruction (p = 0.003). The mean PSF to OSEM SUV{sub max} ratio was 1.66 (95 % CI 1.01 - 2.32). The sensitivities of PSF and OSEM reconstructions were, respectively, 96 % and 92 % in patients with a largest nodal metastasis of >7 mm, 60 % and 40 % in patients with a largest nodal metastasis of ≤7 mm, and 92 % and 69 % in patients with a primary tumour ≤30 mm. Biggerstaff graphical comparison showed that globally PSF reconstruction was superior to OSEM reconstruction. The median sizes of the largest nodal metastasis in patients with nodal involvement not detected by either PSF or OSEM reconstruction, detected by PSF but not by OSEM reconstruction and detected by both reconstructions were 3, 6 and 16 mm (p = 0.0064) respectively. In patients with nodal involvement detected by PSF reconstruction but not by OSEM reconstruction, the smallest detectable metastasis was 1.8 mm. As a result of better activity recovery, PET with PSF

  1. PET pharmacokinetic analysis to estimate boron concentration in tumor and brain as a guide to plan BNCT for malignant cerebral glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nariai, Tadashi [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)], E-mail: nariai.nsrg@tmd.ac.jp; Ishiwata, Kiichi [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, Yuichi [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba (Japan); Inaji, Motoki; Momose, Toshiya [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Matsumura, Akira [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Igaraki (Japan); Ishii, Kenji [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 1-1, Nakacho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohno, Kikuo [Department of Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: To plan the optimal BNCT for patients with malignant cerebral glioma, estimation of the ratio of boron concentration in tumor tissue against that in the surrounding normal brain (T/N ratio of boron) is important. We report a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging method to estimate T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration based on pharmacokinetic analysis of amino acid probes. Methods: Twelve patients with cerebral malignant glioma underwent 60 min dynamic PET scanning of brain after bolus injection of {sup 18}F-borono-phenyl-alanine (FBPA) with timed arterial blood sampling. Using kinetic parameter obtained by this scan, T/N ratio of boron concentration elicited by one-hour constant infusion of BPA, as performed in BNCT, was simulated on Runge-Kutta algorithm. {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) PET scan, which is commonly used in worldwide PET center as brain tumor imaging tool, was also performed on the same day to compare the image characteristics of FBPA and that of MET. Result: PET glioma images obtained with FBPA and MET are almost identical in all patients by visual inspection. Estimated T/N ratio of tissue boron concentration after one-hour constant infusion of BPA, T/N ratio of FBPA on static condition, and T/N ratio of MET on static condition showed significant linear correlation between each other. Conclusion: T/N ratio of boron concentration that is obtained by constant infusion of BPA during BNCT can be estimated by FBPA PET scan. This ratio can also be estimated by MET-PET imaging. As MET-PET study is available in many clinical PET center, selection of candidates for BNCT may be possible by MET-PET images. Accurate planning of BNCT may be performed by static images of FBPA PET. Use of PET imaging with amino acid probes may contribute very much to establish an appropriate application of BNCT for patients with malignant glioma.

  2. Clinical applications of L-[1-11C]-tyrosine PET in laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Jurjan Rudolf de

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the larynx have the highest incidence of all newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer. Accurate assessment of primary tumor extent and metastatic lymph node involvement is essential for optimal treatment of SCC. Current diagnostic procedures for de

  3. Clinical Application of Partial Splenic Embolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Song Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial splenic embolization (PSE is one of the intra-arterial therapeutic approaches of diseases. With the development of interventional radiology, the applications of PSE in clinical practice are greatly extended, while various materials are developed for embolization use. Common indications of PSE include hypersplenism with portal hypertension, hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, splenic trauma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, splenic hemangioma, and liver cancer. It is also performed to exclude splenic artery aneurysms from the parent vessel lumen and prevent aneurysm rupture, to treat splenic artery steal syndrome and improve liver perfusion in liver transplant recipients, and to administer targeted treatment to areas of neoplastic disease in the splenic parenchyma. Indicators of the therapeutic effect evaluation of PSE comprise blood routine test, changes in hemodynamics and in splenic volume. Major complications of PSE include the pulmonary complications, severe infection, damages of renal and liver function, and portal vein thrombosis. The limitations of PSE exist mainly in the difficulties in selecting the arteries to embolize and in evaluating the embolized volume.

  4. Feline genetics: clinical applications and genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2010-11-01

    DNA testing for domestic cat diseases and appearance traits is a rapidly growing asset for veterinary medicine. Approximately 33 genes contain 50 mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. A variety of commercial laboratories can now perform cat genetic diagnostics, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. DNA is easily obtained from a cat via a buccal swab with a standard cotton bud or cytological brush, allowing DNA samples to be easily sent to any laboratory in the world. The DNA test results identify carriers of the traits, predict the incidence of traits from breeding programs, and influence medical prognoses and treatments. An overall goal of identifying these genetic mutations is the correction of the defect via gene therapies and designer drug therapies. Thus, genetic testing is an effective preventative medicine and a potential ultimate cure. However, genetic diagnostic tests may still be novel for many veterinary practitioners and their application in the clinical setting needs to have the same scrutiny as any other diagnostic procedure. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, potential sources of error for genetic testing, and the pros and cons of DNA results in veterinary medicine. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's internal genome.

  5. Noncontact blood perfusion mapping in clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovlev, Dmitry; Dwyer, Vincent; Hu, Sijung; Silberschmidt, Vadim

    2016-04-01

    Non-contact imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) to detect pulsatile blood microcirculation in tissue has been selected as a successor to low spatial resolution and slow scanning blood perfusion techniques currently employed by clinicians. The proposed iPPG system employs a novel illumination source constructed of multiple high power LEDs with narrow spectral emission, which are temporally modulated and synchronised with a high performance sCMOS sensor. To ensure spectrum stability and prevent thermal wavelength drift due to junction temperature variations, each LED features a custom-designed thermal management system to effectively dissipate generated heat and auto-adjust current flow. The use of a multi-wavelength approach has resulted in simultaneous microvascular perfusion monitoring at various tissue depths, which is an added benefit for specific clinical applications. A synchronous detection algorithm to extract weak photoplethysmographic pulse-waveforms demonstrated robustness and high efficiency when applied to even small regions of 5 mm2. The experimental results showed evidences that the proposed system could achieve noticeable accuracy in blood perfusion monitoring by creating complex amplitude and phase maps for the tissue under examination.

  6. Clinical application of partial splenic embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yong-Song; Hu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Partial splenic embolization (PSE) is one of the intra-arterial therapeutic approaches of diseases. With the development of interventional radiology, the applications of PSE in clinical practice are greatly extended, while various materials are developed for embolization use. Common indications of PSE include hypersplenism with portal hypertension, hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, splenic trauma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, splenic hemangioma, and liver cancer. It is also performed to exclude splenic artery aneurysms from the parent vessel lumen and prevent aneurysm rupture, to treat splenic artery steal syndrome and improve liver perfusion in liver transplant recipients, and to administer targeted treatment to areas of neoplastic disease in the splenic parenchyma. Indicators of the therapeutic effect evaluation of PSE comprise blood routine test, changes in hemodynamics and in splenic volume. Major complications of PSE include the pulmonary complications, severe infection, damages of renal and liver function, and portal vein thrombosis. The limitations of PSE exist mainly in the difficulties in selecting the arteries to embolize and in evaluating the embolized volume.

  7. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  8. Clinical value of a one-stop-shop low-dose lung screening combined with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yeon Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Cyclotron Research Center, Molecular Imaging and Therapeutic Medicine Research Center, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of additional low-dose high-resolution lung computed tomography (LD-HRCT) combined with 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography with CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) compared with conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT for the detection of metastatic lung nodules from colorectal cancer. From January 2011 to September 2011, 649 patients with colorectal cancer underwent additional LD-HRCT at maximum inspiration combined with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Forty-five patients were finally diagnosed to have lung metastasis based on histopathologic study or clinical follow-up. Twenty-five of the 45 patients had ≤5 metastatic lung nodules and the other 20 patients had  >5 metastatic nodules. One hundred and twenty nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 nodules were evaluated by conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and by additional LD-HRCT respectively. Sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic accuracies, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs) of conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT and additional LD-HRCT were calculated using standard formulae. The McNemar test and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. Of the 120 nodules in the 25 patients with ≤5 metastatic lung nodules, 66 nodules were diagnosed as metastatic. Eleven of the 66 nodules were confirmed histopathologically and the others were diagnosed by clinical follow-up. Conventional lung setting image of 18F-FDG PET/CT detected 40 of the 66 nodules and additional LD-HRCT detected 55 nodules. All 15 nodules missed by conventional lung setting imaging but detected by additional LD-HRCT were <1 cm in size. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the modalities were 60.6 %, 85.2 %, and 71.1 % for conventional lung setting image and 83.3 %, 88.9 %, and 85.8 % for additional LD-HRCT. By ROC analysis, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of conventional

  9. Application of the compress sensing theory for improvement of the TOF resolution in a novel J-PET instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raczyński Lech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in positron emission tomography (PET systems, a time of flight (TOF information is used to improve the image reconstruction process. In TOF-PET, fast detectors are able to measure the difference in the arrival time of the two gamma rays, with the precision enabling to shorten significantly a range along the line-of-response (LOR where the annihilation occurred. In the new concept, called J-PET scanner, gamma rays are detected in plastic scintillators. In a single strip of J-PET system, time values are obtained by probing signals in the amplitude domain. Owing to compressive sensing (CS theory, information about the shape and amplitude of the signals is recovered. In this paper, we demonstrate that based on the acquired signals parameters, a better signal normalization may be provided in order to improve the TOF resolution. The procedure was tested using large sample of data registered by a dedicated detection setup enabling sampling of signals with 50-ps intervals. Experimental setup provided irradiation of a chosen position in the plastic scintillator strip with annihilation gamma quanta.

  10. Evaluation of clinical data in childhood asthma. Application of a computer file system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, D.; Twarog, F.J.; Geha, R.S.

    1983-10-01

    A computer file system was used in our pediatric allergy clinic to assess the value of chest roentgenograms and hemoglobin determinations used in the examination of patients and to correlate exposure to pets and forced hot air with the severity of asthma. Among 889 children with asthma, 20.7% had abnormal chest roentgenographic findings, excluding hyperinflation and peribronchial thickening, and 0.7% had abnormal hemoglobin values. Environmental exposure to pets or forced hot air was not associated with increased severity of asthma, as assessed by five measures of outcome: number of medications administered, requirement for corticosteroids, frequency of clinic visits, frequency of emergency room visits, and frequency of hospitalizations.

  11. Clinical value of pre-and postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients undergoing liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma%18F-FDG PET/CT在肝癌患者接受肝脏器官移植术前、后的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣璐; 李华; 王全师; 张雪林

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical value of fluorine-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in preoperative evaluation of hepatocellar carcinoma (HCC) patients for liver transplantation and in early detection of recurrent foci after the operation. Methods A retrospective study was conducted involving 19 HCC patients undergoing 18F-FDG PET/CT before and after liver transplantation. The pre- and postoperative clinical data and 18F-FDG PET/CT images of these patients were analyzed. Totally 10 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations (in 8patients) were performed for purpose of preoperative evaluation of the transplantation and assessment of the tumor elimination and general metastasis following the adjuvant therapy, and 22 examinations (in 1 1patients) performed postoperatively to identify recurrent foci and metastasis. The average time span between 18F-FDG PET/CT examination and the operations was 8.68 months. Results PET examinations in 2 patients for preoperative evaluations showed no evidence of tumor recurrence or metastasis, so they underwent liver transplantation as scheduled. 18F-FDG PET/CT found distinct metastasis in the target operation area in another 2 patients, and liver transplantation was performed with proper management of the metastatic foci.The other 4 patients were found to have distal metastasis, so that operations were cancelled and the patients received interventional therapy and other treatments instead. Postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT examination discovered no metastatic foci in 2 patients, but detected mycotic brain abscess in 1 patient. Another 19 postoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT examinations (in 8patients) showed recurrence in the grafted liver (in 4 patients), tumor embolism in the left and right hepatic veins and in the inferior vena cava, in addition to metastasis to the lungs, lymph nodes, bone, spleen, parietal pleura, intervertebral foramen of the thoracic vertebra etc. Conclusion 18F-FDG PET

  12. PET - CT联合检测肿瘤标志物对肺癌术后随访的价值%The clinical value of PET - CT combined with detection of serum tumor markers in follow-up of patients with lung cancer postoperatively

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江吕泉; 高坤祥; 郑建; 陈建; 吴昊

    2011-01-01

    % and95.6% respectively. Conclusions PET/CT has a higher sensitivity and accuracy than tumor marker detection in assessment of postoperative recurrence or metastasis of lung cancer, and tumor marker detection may be taken as a supplementary tool to PET/CT examination. Combined use of both examinations has an important clinical impact on the management of these patients.

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance spectroscopy: potential clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, S. [Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine, Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    MR spectroscopy is the only method for non-invasive detection of various aspects of cardiac metabolism in humans. While the {sup 1}H nucleus of water and fat molecules is the signal source for MR imaging, the MR spectroscopic technique allows for the study of a number of other nuclei, such as {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 31}P, {sup 39}K and {sup 87}Rb. Clinical applications presently are confined to the {sup 31}P nucleus. {sup 31}P-MR spectroscopy allows the non-invasive study of cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolites ATP and phosphocreatine. The phosphocreatine/ATP ratio is considered an index of the energetic state of the heart. Possible clinical indications include heart failure, valve disease and coronary artery disease. In heart failure, the phosphocreatine/ATP ratio is reduced and correlates with clinical severity, ejection fraction and prognosis. In mitral and aortic valve disease, a reduced phosphocreatine/ATP ratio may indicate the optimum timing for valve replacement. In coronary artery disease, a regional decrease of phosphocreatine during stress (''biochemical ergometry'') may indicate local ischemia. Furthermore, absolute quantification of high-energy phosphates may allow diagnosis of myocardial viability. Major technical developments, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution will be necessary to establish MR spectroscopy as a routine clinical tool. (orig.) [German] Die MR-Spektroskopie ist die einzige Methode, die es erlaubt, am Patienten verschiedene Aspekte des Myokardstoffwechsels nichtinvasiv zu untersuchen. Waehrend der {sup 1}H-Kern der Wasser- und Fettmolekuele die Signalquelle fuer die MR-Bildgebung darstellt, kann man mit der Spektroskopie eine Vielzahl anderer Kerne wie {sup 13}C, {sup 19}F, {sup 23}Na, {sup 31}P, {sup 39}K und {sup 87}Rb untersuchen. Klinische Anwendungen sind bisher auf die {sup 31}P-MR Spektroskopie beschraenkt. Mit dieser Methode lassen sich die energiereichen Phosphate ATP und

  14. LOR-interleaving image reconstruction for PET imaging with fractional-crystal collimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yusheng; Matej, Samuel; Karp, Joel S.; Metzler, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an important modality in medical and molecular imaging. However, in most PET applications, the resolution is still mainly limited by the physical crystal sizes or the detector’s intrinsic spatial resolution. To achieve images with better spatial resolution in a central region of interest (ROI), we have previously proposed using collimation in PET scanners. The collimator is designed to partially mask detector crystals to detect lines of response (LORs) within fractional crystals. A sequence of collimator-encoded LORs is measured with different collimation configurations. This novel collimated scanner geometry makes the reconstruction problem challenging, as both detector and collimator effects need to be modeled to reconstruct high-resolution images from collimated LORs. In this paper, we present a LOR-interleaving (LORI) algorithm, which incorporates these effects and has the advantage of reusing existing reconstruction software, to reconstruct high-resolution images for PET with fractional-crystal collimation. We also develop a 3D ray-tracing model incorporating both the collimator and crystal penetration for simulations and reconstructions of the collimated PET. By registering the collimator-encoded LORs with the collimator configurations, high-resolution LORs are restored based on the modeled transfer matrices using the non-negative least-squares method and EM algorithm. The resolution-enhanced images are then reconstructed from the high-resolution LORs using the MLEM or OSEM algorithm. For validation, we applied the LORI method to a small-animal PET scanner, A-PET, with a specially designed collimator. We demonstrate through simulated reconstructions with a hot-rod phantom and MOBY phantom that the LORI reconstructions can substantially improve spatial resolution and quantification compared to the uncollimated reconstructions. The LORI algorithm is crucial to improve overall image quality of collimated PET, which

  15. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer......The development of clinical diagnostic procedures comprises early-phase and late-phase studies to elucidate diagnostic accuracy and patient outcome. Economic assessments of new diagnostic procedures compared with established work-ups indicate additional cost for 1 additional unit of effectiveness...

  16. [¹⁸F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk of atheros......[(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk...... of atherosclerosis-related disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. With excellent reproducibility, (18)FDG PET can be a surrogate end point in clinical drug trials, improving trial efficiency. This article summarizes key findings in the literature, discusses limitations of (18)FDG PET imaging...... of atherosclerosis, and reports recommendations to optimize imaging protocols....

  17. SU-E-J-222: Evaluation of Deformable Registration of PET/CT Images for Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y; Turian, J; Templeton, A; Kiel, K; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Kadir, T [Mirada Medical Ltd., Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: PET/CT provides important functional information for radiotherapy targeting of cervical cancer. However, repeated PET/CT procedures for external beam and subsequent brachytherapy expose patients to additional radiation and are not cost effective. Our goal is to investigate the possibility of propagating PET-active volumes for brachytherapy procedures through deformable image registration (DIR) of earlier PET/CT and ultimately to minimize the number of PET/CT image sessions required. Methods: Nine cervical cancer patients each received their brachytherapy preplanning PET/CT at the end of EBRT with a Syed template in place. The planning PET/CT was acquired on the day of brachytherapy treatment with the actual applicator (Syed or Tandem and Ring) and rigidly registered. The PET/CT images were then deformably registered creating a third (deformed) image set for target prediction. Regions of interest with standardized uptake values (SUV) greater than 65% of maximum SUV were contoured as target volumes in all three sets of PET images. The predictive value of the registered images was evaluated by comparing the preplanning and deformed PET volumes with the planning PET volume using Dice's coefficient (DC) and center-of-mass (COM) displacement. Results: The average DCs were 0.12±0.14 and 0.19±0.16 for rigid and deformable predicted target volumes, respectively. The average COM displacements were 1.9±0.9 cm and 1.7±0.7 cm for rigid and deformable registration, respectively. The DCs were improved by deformable registration, however, both were lower than published data for DIR in other modalities and clinical sites. Anatomical changes caused by different brachytherapy applicators could have posed a challenge to the DIR algorithm. The physiological change from interstitial needle placement may also contribute to lower DC. Conclusion: The clinical use of DIR in PET/CT for cervical cancer brachytherapy appears to be limited by applicator choice and requires

  18. The application of PET-CT in tumor diagnosis and treatment strategies%正电子发射断层显像-计算机断层显像在肿瘤诊疗决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永学

    2011-01-01

    A hot research topic in medical imageology is PET-CT. It is widely used in oncology. This article focuses on the role of PET-CT in tumor diagnosis and treatment, especially the applications and advantages of 18F-FDG PET-CT imaging in tumor staging, treatment strategies, curative effect and prognosis evaluations, radiotherapy planning, residual and recurrent monitoring and personalized therapy of tumor patient.%正电子发射断层显像-计算机断层显像(PET-CT)是当今医学影像研究的热点,目前已经被广泛应用于肿瘤学领域.文章着重介绍了PET-CT在恶性肿瘤诊断与治疗决策中的作用,尤其是18F-氟脱氧葡萄糖(18F-FDG)PET-CT显像在肿瘤分期、治疗决策、疗效与预后评估、放疗计划、肿瘤残留与复发监测以及在肿瘤个体化治疗中的应用和优势.

  19. Integrated FDG PET-CT imaging improves staging in malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, S. [Medical Clinic II, Univ. Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Medical Clinic I, Univ. Hospital RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Pauls, S. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Mottaghy, F.M.; Buck, A.K.; Reske, S.N. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Schelzig, H. [Dept. of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Hombach, V. [Medical Clinic II, Univ. Hospital, Ulm (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate, how often TNM staging is changed in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) by the application of integrated PET-CT compared to computed tomography alone and how often these changes are clinically relevant. Patients, methods: We studied 17 patients (68 {+-} 6 years, 8 women) with MPM. Integrated PET-CT scan and histological confirmation were performed in all patients. Results: Final histological diagnosis confirmed 9 epithelial type, 2 sarcomatoid type and 6 biphasic type MPM. Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) was 5.9 {+-} 1.9 in epithelial MPM and 15.1 {+-} 10.2 in sarcomatoid MPM. CT and PET-CT revealed discordances in 8/17 (47%) patients in TNM classification with 4/8 (50%) being clinically relevant. PET-CT led to downstaging in 5 (29%) and upstaging in 3 (18%) patients. Mean survival time tended to be higher in the subgroup of patients with lower mean SUV. Conclusions: PET-CT seems to be a valuable tool in staging of MPM and leads to discordant findings in almost every second patient compared to CT alone. In many cases these differences are clinically relevant and have therapeutic consequences. (orig.)

  20. On Application of Constructivism-Based Model for Oral English Teaching Reform in Professional and Vocational Colleges--Taking Bringing in PETS-2 Oral English as an Example%基于建构主义理论的高职高专英语口语教学改革--以引进PETS-2级口语为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党利

    2013-01-01

    本文在建构主义理论指导下,探究高职高专英语口语教学改革的方法,并引进了全国公共英语等级考试(PETS-2级),作为高职英语口语教改的一种尝试。%This research is on the application of Constructivism-Based Model for oral English teaching reform in professional and vocational colleges with PETS-2 Oral English as an initial attempt.

  1. Functional testicular evaluation using PET/CT with {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierickx, Lawrence Oliver; Zerdoud, Slimane; Filleron, Thomas; Brillouet, Severine [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); Huyghe, Eric; Delauney, Boris; Bujan, Louis; Plante, Pierre [CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France); Nogueira, Daniela; Montagut, Jacques [I.F.R.E.A.R.E.S., Toulouse (France); Courbon, Frederic [Institut Claudius Regaud, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Toulouse (France); CHU Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

    2012-01-15

    PET/CT using {sup 18}F-FDG is a well-established diagnostic examination in oncology, cardiology and neurology. The clinical significance of nontumoral testicular uptake of FDG is unknown. Functional testicular imaging may have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the andrological value of a FDG PET/CT in analysing testicular function, by correlating the PET/CT data with the sperm parameters. Retrospective analysis of FDG PET/CT in 20 consecutive cancer patients without testicular pathology in whom two semen samples had been obtained for analysis before any chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT parameters were the mean standardized up