WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical neurosciences torquay

  1. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  2. Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007456.htm Neurosciences To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurosciences refers to the branch of medicine that focuses ...

  3. The Clinical Neuroscience Course: Viewing Mental Health from Neurobiological Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lambert, Kelly G

    2005-01-01

    Although the field of neuroscience is booming, a challenge for researchers in mental health disciplines is the integration of basic research findings into applied clinical approaches leading to effective therapies. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health called for translational research grants to encourage collaboration between neuroscientists and mental health professionals. In order for this “clinical neuroscience” to emerge and thrive, an important first step is the provision of ...

  4. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  5. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 1: ferrying paradigms across perilous waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael F; Lee, Junghee; Ochsner, Kevin N

    2013-11-01

    Social cognitive impairment is prominent in schizophrenia, and it is closely related to functional outcome. Partly for these reasons, it has rapidly become a target for both training and psychopharmacological interventions. However, there is a paucity of reliable and valid social cognitive endpoints that can be used to evaluate treatment response in clinical trials. Also, clinical studies in schizophrenia have benefited rather little from the surge of activity and knowledge in nonclinical social neuroscience. The National Institute of Mental Health-sponsored study, "Social Cognition and Functioning in Schizophrenia" (SCAF), attempted to address this translational challenge by selecting paradigms from social neuroscience that could be adapted for use in schizophrenia. The project also evaluated the psychometric properties and external validity of the tasks to determine their suitability for multisite clinical trials. This first article in the theme section presents the goals, conceptual background, and rationale for the SCAF project.

  6. A clinical neuroscience investigation into flashbacks and involuntary autobiographical memories

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Ian Alexander; Holmes, Emily A.; Mackay, Clare E.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of trauma are a hallmark symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The term ‘flashback’ is used in this thesis to refer to vivid, sensory perceptual (predominantly visual images), emotional memories from a traumatic event that intrude involuntarily into consciousness. Furthermore, intrusive image based memories occur in a number of other psychological disorders, for example, bipolar disorder and depression. Clinically, the presence and ...

  7. Diffusion Tensor Imaging and Tractography in Clinical Neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Zarei

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly evolving MR technology has allowed better understanding of structure and function of the human brain. Diffusion weighted MRI was developed two decades ago and it is now well established in diagnosis of acute ischaemia in patients with stroke. Diffusion tensor MRI uses the same principles but takes a step further allowing us to measure magnitude of the diffusion along different directions. This lead to the development of diffusion tensor tractography, a technique by which major neural pathways in the living brain can be visualized. There is a growing interest in exploring possible use of these techniques in clinical neurology and psychiatry. This article aims to review the principles of this technique and recent discoveries which may help us to better understand neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Measuring entropy in functional neuroscience: pathophysiological and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung CC

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Chih Chung,1 Jiunn-Horng Kang,2,3 Chaur-Jong Hu,1 1Department of Neurology, Shuang Ho Hospital, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taipei Medical University Hospital, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: A biological system obtains information, reacts to stimuli, and modifies its behavior to adapt to the environment via complex control systems. A healthy system is expected to adequately adapt to a variety of changes. Physiological signals obtained from a healthy individual should contain rich information and complex behaviors. Entropy-derived measures have been used to access the complexity of the physiological signals. Aging or diseased status usually shows reduced entropy values and loss of complexity within the dynamics of physiological output. In this article, we aim to review the available evidence related to the pathophysiological nature of complexity and the clinical applications of entropy-derived measures in varied neurological disorders. Keywords: complexity, entropy, nerve system, electroencephalography, pathophysiology

  9. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target's internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences.

  10. Emotional power of music in patients with memory disorders: clinical implications of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Dellacherie, Delphine; Platel, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    By adapting methods of cognitive psychology to neuropsychology, we examined memory and familiarity abilities in music in relation to emotion. First we present data illustrating how the emotional content of stimuli influences memory for music. Second, we discuss recent findings obtained in patients with two different brain disorders (medically intractable epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease) that show relatively spared memory performance for music, despite severe verbal memory disorders. Studies on musical memory and its relation to emotion open up paths for new strategies in cognitive rehabilitation and reinstate the importance of examining interactions between cognitive and clinical neurosciences. PMID:19673788

  11. Emotional power of music in patients with memory disorders: clinical implications of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Séverine; Dellacherie, Delphine; Platel, Hervé

    2009-07-01

    By adapting methods of cognitive psychology to neuropsychology, we examined memory and familiarity abilities in music in relation to emotion. First we present data illustrating how the emotional content of stimuli influences memory for music. Second, we discuss recent findings obtained in patients with two different brain disorders (medically intractable epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease) that show relatively spared memory performance for music, despite severe verbal memory disorders. Studies on musical memory and its relation to emotion open up paths for new strategies in cognitive rehabilitation and reinstate the importance of examining interactions between cognitive and clinical neurosciences.

  12. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, Part 2: trolling the depths of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Penn, David L; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    The psychometric properties of 4 paradigms adapted from the social neuroscience literature were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in clinical trials of schizophrenia. This 2-site study (University of California, Los Angeles and University of North Carolina) included 173 clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients and 88 healthy controls. The social cognition battery was administered twice to the schizophrenia group (baseline, 4-week retest) and once to the control group. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Each paradigm was evaluated on (1) patient vs healthy control group differences, (2) test-retest reliability, (3) utility as a repeated measure, and (4) tolerability. Of the 4 paradigms, empathic accuracy demonstrated the strongest characteristics, including large between-group differences, adequate test-retest reliability (.72), negligible practice effects, and good tolerability ratings. The other paradigms showed weaker psychometric characteristics in their current forms. These findings highlight challenges in adapting social neuroscience paradigms for use in clinical trials.

  13. The state of the art in organizational cognitive neuroscience: the therapeutic gap and possible implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Carl; Lee, Nick

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, researchers in the social sciences have increasingly adopted neuroscientific techniques, with the consequent rise of research inspired by neuroscience in disciplines such as economics, marketing, decision sciences, and leadership. In 2007, we introduced the term organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN), in an attempt to clearly demarcate research carried out in these many areas, and provide an overarching paradigm for research utilizing cognitive neuroscientific methods, theories, and concepts, within the organizational and business research fields. Here we will revisit and further refine the OCN paradigm, and define an approach where we feel the marriage of organizational theory and neuroscience will return even greater dividends in the future and that is within the field of clinical practice. PMID:24367310

  14. The state of the art in organisational cognitive neuroscience: The therapeutic gap and possible implications for clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl eSenior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, researchers in the social sciences have increasingly adopted neuroscientific techniques, with the consequent rise of research inspired by neuroscience in disciplines such as economics, marketing, decision sciences, and leadership. In 2007, we introduced the term organizational cognitive neuroscience (OCN, in an attempt to clearly demarcate research carried out in these many areas, and provide an overarching paradigm for research utilising cognitive neuroscientific methods, theories, and concepts, within the organizational and business research fields. Here we will revisit and further refine the OCN paradigm, and define an approach where we feel the marriage of organisational theory and neuroscience will return even greater dividends in the future and that is within the field of clinical practice.

  15. Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain: The first step in pain neuroscience education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Amarins J; van Wilgen, C Paul; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients. PMID:27351769

  16. Clinical biopsychosocial physiotherapy assessment of patients with chronic pain: The first step in pain neuroscience education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijma, Amarins J; van Wilgen, C Paul; Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo

    2016-07-01

    Pain neuroscience education (PNE) is increasingly used as part of a physical therapy treatment in patients with chronic pain. A thorough clinical biopsychosocial assessment is recommended prior to PNE to allow proper explanation of the neurophysiology of pain and the biopsychosocial interactions in an interactive and patient-centered manner. However, without clear guidelines, clinicians are left wondering how a biopsychosocial assessment should be administered. Therefore, we provided a practical guide, based on scientific research and clinical experience, for the biopsychosocial assessment of patients with chronic pain in physiotherapy practice. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of the Pain - Somatic factors - Cognitive factors - Emotional factors - Behavioral factors - Social factors - Motivation - model (PSCEBSM-model) during the intake, as well as a pain analysis sheet. This model attempts to clearly establish what the dominant pain mechanism is (predominant nociceptive, neuropathic, or non-neuropathic central sensitization pain), as well as to assess the provoking and perpetuating biopsychosocial factors in patients with chronic pain. Using this approach allows the clinician to specifically classify patients and tailor the plan of care, including PNE, to individual patients.

  17. A Response from the Field: Perspectives on Translating Neuroscience to Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Kaak, H. Otto; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Clark, James J.; Hubbard, Kay; Whitt-Woosley, Adrienne; Mau, Aimee; Combs, Angela; Risk, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The scientific meeting "From Neuroscience to Social Practice: Translational Research on Violence Against Children" sparked a dialogue between clinicians, researchers, and policy makers about the applicability and relevance of neuroscientific discoveries regarding the impact of violence towards children on contemporary behavioral health care…

  18. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: the case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1) neurocognitive tests would benefit substantia...

  19. Clinical neurocardiology defining the value of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Anand, Inder; Armour, J Andrew; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Esler, Murray; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Fishbein, Michael C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J; Harper, Ronald M; Joyner, Michael J; Khalsa, Sahib S; Kumar, Rajesh; Lane, Richard; Mahajan, Aman; Po, Sunny; Schwartz, Peter J; Somers, Virend K; Valderrabano, Miguel; Vaseghi, Marmar; Zipes, Douglas P

    2016-07-15

    The autonomic nervous system regulates all aspects of normal cardiac function, and is recognized to play a critical role in the pathophysiology of many cardiovascular diseases. As such, the value of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics is increasingly evident. This White Paper reviews the current state of understanding of human cardiac neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, pathophysiology in specific disease conditions, autonomic testing, risk stratification, and neuromodulatory strategies to mitigate the progression of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27114333

  20. Interactionist Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badre, David; Frank, Michael J; Moore, Christopher I

    2015-12-01

    We argue that bidirectional interaction between animal and human studies is essential for understanding the human brain. The revolution in meso-scale study of circuits in non-human species provides a historical opportunity. However, to fully realize its potential requires integration with human neuroscience. We describe three strategies for successful interactionist neuroscience.

  1. Link between cognitive neuroscience and education: The case of clinical assessment of developmental dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orly eRubinsten

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cognitive neuroscience research has identified several biological and cognitive features of number processing deficits that may now make it possible to diagnose mental or educational impairments in arithmetic, even earlier and more precisely than is possible using traditional assessment tools. We provide two sets of recommendations for improving cognitive assessment tools, using the important case of mathematics as an example. (1 neurocognitive tests would benefit substantially from incorporating assessments (based on findings from cognitive neuroscience that entail systematic manipulation of fundamental aspects of number processing. Tests that focus on evaluating networks of core neurocognitive deficits have considerable potential to lead to more precise diagnosis and to provide the basis for designing specific intervention programs tailored to the deficits exhibited by the individual child. (2 implicit knowledge, derived from inspection of variables that are irrelevant to the task at hand, can also provide a useful assessment tool. Implicit knowledge is powerful and plays an important role in human development, especially in cases of psychiatric or neurological deficiencies (such as math learning disabilities

  2. Bridging neuroscience and clinical psychology: cognitive behavioral and psychophysiological models in the evaluation and treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lavoie, Marc E.; Leclerc, Julie; O’Connor, Kieron P.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience and clinical psychology have long been considered to be separate disciplines. However, the phenomenon of brain plasticity in the context of a psychological intervention highlights the mechanisms of brain compensation and requires linking both clinical cognition and cognitive psychophysiology. A quantifiable normalization of brain activity seems to be correlated with an improvement of the tic symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy in patients with Gilles de la Toure...

  3. Population neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  4. NEUROSCIENCE: Tips for Neuroscience Neophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, L

    2000-10-27

    It takes half a year to process the more than 12,000 abstract submissions for the Society for Neuroscience meeting. So researchers have to write abstracts precise enough to land them in the appropriate session and attract people to their presentation, yet open-ended enough to cover fresh data come conference time. PMID:17780507

  5. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in n...

  6. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas. PMID:23859089

  7. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas.

  8. Neuroscience in recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research. PMID:21505517

  9. Neuroscience in recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Susan G; Grillner, Sten; Insel, Tom; Nutt, David; Tsumoto, Tadaharu

    2011-05-01

    As the global financial downturn continues, its impact on neuroscientists - both on an individual level and at the level of their research institute - becomes increasingly apparent. How is the economic crisis affecting neuroscience funding, career prospects, international collaborations and scientists' morale in different parts of the world? Nature Reviews Neuroscience gauged the opinions of a number of leading neuroscientists: the President of the Society for Neuroscience, the President Elect of the British Neuroscience Association, the former President of the Japan Neuroscience Society, the President of the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and the Director of the US National Institute of Mental Health. Their responses provide interesting and important insights into the regional impact of the global financial downturn, with some causes for optimism for the future of neuroscience research.

  10. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  11. Educational Neuroscience: Neuroethical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalancette, Helene; Campbell, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Research design and methods in educational neuroscience involve using neuroscientific tools such as brain image technologies to investigate cognitive functions and inform educational practices. The ethical challenges raised by research in social neuroscience have become the focus of neuroethics, a sub-discipline of bioethics. More specifically…

  12. Benjamin Franklin and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), who is better known in other fields, especially colonial politics and international diplomacy, was an early, major contributor to the neurosciences from the New World. Among his accomplishments are: experiments on medical electricity as a possible cure for the palsies and hysteria; the first descriptions of how electricity affecting the brain can cause a specific type of amnesia; supporting the idea that cranial shocks might provide a cure for melancholia; showing that the cures performed by the Mesmerists to remove obstructions, including nerve blockages, rest on gullibility and suggestion, and recognizing the dangers, including those to the nerves, posed by exposure to lead. Franklin?s neuroscience was firmly based on experiments, careful observations, and hard data ? and finding clinical relevance for new discoveries was always on his mind.

  13. Trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness: a call for clinical, treatment, and neuroscience research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Lanius

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of this commentary is to describe trauma-related dissociation and altered states of consciousness in the context of a four-dimensional model that has recently been proposed (Frewen & Lanius, 2015. This model categorizes symptoms of trauma-related psychopathology into (1 those that occur within normal waking consciousness and (2 those that are dissociative and are associated with trauma-related altered states of consciousness (TRASC along four dimensions: (1 time; (2 thought; (3 body; and (4 emotion. Clinical applications and future research directions relevant to each dimension are discussed. Conceptualizing TRASC across the dimensions of time, thought, body, and emotion has transdiagnostic implications for trauma-related disorders described in both the Diagnostic Statistical Manual and the International Classifications of Diseases. The four-dimensional model provides a framework, guided by existing models of dissociation, for future research examining the phenomenological, neurobiological, and physiological underpinnings of trauma-related dissociation.

  14. Philosophy, Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John

    2015-01-01

    This short note takes two quotations from Snooks' recent editorial on neuroeducation and teases out some further details on the philosophy of neuroscience and neurophilosophy along with consideration of the implications of both for philosophy of education.

  15. Mind the gap: neuroscience literacy and the next generation of psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joyce Y; Insel, Thomas R

    2014-04-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health seeks to address the gap between modern neuroscience and psychiatric training. The authors describe a two-pronged approach: first, to identify and support trainees in clinical neuroscience and second, to promote neuroscience literacy in psychiatric residency programs.

  16. Neuroscience is Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presskorn-Thygesen, Thomas

    The title is telling: I will argue first that ‘traditional’ cognitive neuroscience is conceptually flawed and secondly – as an open question – inquire whether theories of brain plasticity are scientifically more sound and more apt to enter into collaboration with the social sciences. The ascripti......The title is telling: I will argue first that ‘traditional’ cognitive neuroscience is conceptually flawed and secondly – as an open question – inquire whether theories of brain plasticity are scientifically more sound and more apt to enter into collaboration with the social sciences....... The ascriptions of ‘agency’ or ‘intentionality’ to the brain has long been regarded with suspicion from social scientists and philosophers. In the talk, I argue that this suspicion is perfectly legitimate and that the standard response from the defenders of cognitive neuroscience is illegitimate – namely...

  17. Robotics and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floreano, Dario; Ijspeert, Auke Jan; Schaal, Stefan

    2014-09-22

    In the attempt to build adaptive and intelligent machines, roboticists have looked at neuroscience for more than half a century as a source of inspiration for perception and control. More recently, neuroscientists have resorted to robots for testing hypotheses and validating models of biological nervous systems. Here, we give an overview of the work at the intersection of robotics and neuroscience and highlight the most promising approaches and areas where interactions between the two fields have generated significant new insights. We articulate the work in three sections, invertebrate, vertebrate and primate neuroscience. We argue that robots generate valuable insight into the function of nervous systems, which is intimately linked to behaviour and embodiment, and that brain-inspired algorithms and devices give robots life-like capabilities.

  18. Computational neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of Computational Neuroscience(CNS) is to use and develop mathematical models and approaches to elucidate brain functions.CNS is a young and highly multidisciplinary field.It heavily interacts with experimental neuroscience and such other research areas as artificial intelligence,robotics,computer vision,information science and machine learning.This paper reviews the history of CNS in China,its current status and the prospects for its future development.Examples of CNS research in China are also presented.

  19. From Cognitive to Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Sefa; Ayvaz, Ülkü

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several theoretical discussions as to the relationship between neuroscience and education have been held. Researchers have started to have cooperation over neuroscience and the interdisciplinary researches in which education is included. It was found that there were interactions between cognitive neuroscience and educational…

  20. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years. These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods ‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease, frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom

  1. Linking Neuroscience and Psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habicht, Manuela H.

    This review discusses the relationship between neuroscience and psychoanalysis and introduces a new scientific method called neuro-psychoanalysis, a combination of the two phenomena. A significant difference between the two is that psychoanalysis has not evolved scientifically since it has not developed objective methods for testing ideas that it…

  2. Neuroscience, Magic, and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echterling, Lennis G.; Presbury, Jack; Cowan, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings in neuroscience have identified principles, such as attention management and change blindness, which stage magicians exploit to create illusions. Neuroscientists have also revealed how mirror neurons and oxytocin enhance the impact of magic. In other words, magicians are just as much practitioners of sleight of mind as they are of…

  3. Alzheimer's disease drug development: translational neuroscience strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J; Gary, Ronald K; Kinney, Jefferson W; Lombardo, Joseph M; Walsh, Ryan R; Zhong, Kate

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an urgent public health challenge that is rapidly approaching epidemic proportions. New therapies that defer or prevent the onset, delay the decline, or improve the symptoms are urgently needed. All phase 3 drug development programs for disease-modifying agents have failed thus far. New approaches to drug development are needed. Translational neuroscience focuses on the linkages between basic neuroscience and the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic products that will improve the lives of patients or prevent the occurrence of brain disorders. Translational neuroscience includes new preclinical models that may better predict human efficacy and safety, improved clinical trial designs and outcomes that will accelerate drug development, and the use of biomarkers to more rapidly provide information regarding the effects of drugs on the underlying disease biology. Early translational research is complemented by later stage translational approaches regarding how best to use evidence to impact clinical practice and to assess the influence of new treatments on the public health. Funding of translational research is evolving with an increased emphasis on academic and NIH involvement in drug development. Translational neuroscience provides a framework for advancing development of new therapies for AD patients.

  4. Neuroscience education in addition to trigger point dry needling for the management of patients with mechanical chronic low back pain: A preliminary clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Téllez-García, Mario; de-la-Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Salom-Moreno, Jaime; Palacios-Ceña, Maria; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the short-term effects of trigger point dry needling (TrP-DN) alone or combined with neuroscience education on pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical low back pain (LBP). Twelve patients with LBP were randomly assigned to receive either TrP-DN (TrP-DN) or TrP-DN plus neuroscience education (TrP-DN + EDU). Pain intensity (Numerical Pain Rating Scale, 0-10), disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-RMQ-, Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Index-ODI), kinesiophobia (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-TSK), and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, transverse process of L3 vertebra, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior muscle were collected at baseline and 1-week after the intervention. Patients treated with TrP-DN + EDU experienced a significantly greater reduction of kinesiophobia (P = 0.008) and greater increases in PPT over the transverse process of L3 (P = 0.049) than those patients treated only with TrP-DN. Both groups experienced similar decreases in pain, ODI and RMQ, and similar increases in PPT over the C5/C6 joint, second metacarpal, and tibialis anterior after the intervention (all, P > 0.05). The results suggest that TrP-DN was effective for improving pain, disability, kinesiophobia and widespread pressure sensitivity in patients with mechanical LBP at short-term. The inclusion of a neuroscience educational program resulted in a greater improvement in kinesiophobia. PMID:26118519

  5. Seven challenges for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    2013-01-01

    Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuroscience has to become "big science" - we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with "rungs" linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such "data ladders" will help us to meet the third challenge - the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  6. Seven challenges for neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markram, Henry

    Summary Although twenty-first century neuroscience is a major scientific enterprise, advances in basic research have not yet translated into benefits for society. In this paper, I outline seven fundamental challenges that need to be overcome. First, neuro-science has to become “big science” – we need big teams with the resources and competences to tackle the big problems. Second, we need to create interlinked sets of data providing a complete picture of single areas of the brain at their different levels of organization with “rungs” linking the descriptions for humans and other species. Such “data ladders” will help us to meet the third challenge – the development of efficient predictive tools, enabling us to drastically increase the information we can extract from expensive experiments. The fourth challenge goes one step further: we have to develop novel hardware and software sufficiently powerful to simulate the brain. In the future, supercomputer-based brain simulation will enable us to make in silico manipulations and recordings, which are currently completely impossible in the lab. The fifth and sixth challenges are translational. On the one hand we need to develop new ways of classifying and simulating brain disease, leading to better diagnosis and more effective drug discovery. On the other, we have to exploit our knowledge to build new brain-inspired technologies, with potentially huge benefits for industry and for society. This leads to the seventh challenge. Neuroscience can indeed deliver huge benefits but we have to be aware of widespread social concern about our work. We need to recognize the fears that exist, lay them to rest, and actively build public support for neuroscience research. We have to set goals for ourselves that the public can recognize and share. And then we have to deliver on our promises. Only in this way, will we receive the support and funding we need. PMID:24139651

  7. Computational neuroscience a first course

    CERN Document Server

    Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2013-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience - A First Course provides an essential introduction to computational neuroscience and  equips readers with a fundamental understanding of modeling the nervous system at the membrane, cellular, and network level. The book, which grew out of a lecture series held regularly for more than ten years to graduate students in neuroscience with backgrounds in biology, psychology and medicine, takes its readers on a journey through three fundamental domains of computational neuroscience: membrane biophysics, systems theory and artificial neural networks. The required mathematical concepts are kept as intuitive and simple as possible throughout the book, making it fully accessible to readers who are less familiar with mathematics. Overall, Computational Neuroscience - A First Course represents an essential reference guide for all neuroscientists who use computational methods in their daily work, as well as for any theoretical scientist approaching the field of computational neuroscience.

  8. Center for Neuroscience & Regenerative Medicine

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine (CNRM) was established as a collaborative intramural federal program involving the U.S. Department of Defense...

  9. The relations between neuroscience and human behavioral science.

    OpenAIRE

    Strumwasser, F

    1994-01-01

    Neuroscience seeks to understand how the human brain, perhaps the most complex electrochemical machine in the universe, works, in terms of molecules, membranes, cells and cell assemblies, development, plasticity, learning, memory, cognition, and behavior. The human behavioral sciences, in particular psychiatry and clinical psychology, deal with disorders of human behavior and mentation. The gap between neuroscience and the human behavioral sciences is still large. However, some major advances...

  10. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Emily B.; Hyde, Luke W.; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M.; Keating, Daniel P.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Martz, Meghan E.; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J.; Noll, Douglas C.; Patrick, Megan E.; Pfeffer, Fabian T.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based ...

  11. Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) and NeuroImaging: the state-of-the-art, new insights and prospects in basic and clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekadar, Surjo R; Herring, Jim Don; McGonigle, David

    2016-10-15

    Transcranial electric stimulation (tES) of the brain has attracted an increased interest in recent years. Yet, despite remarkable research efforts to date, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of tES' effects are still incompletely understood. This Special Issue aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the state-of-the-art in studies combining tES and neuroimaging, while introducing most recent insights and outlining future prospects related to this new and rapidly growing field. The findings reported here combine methodological advancements with insights into the underlying mechanisms of tES itself. At the same time, they also point to the many caveats and specific challenges associated with such studies, which can arise from both technical and biological sources. Besides promising to advance basic neuroscience, combined tES and neuroimaging studies may also substantially change previous conceptions about the methods of action of electric or magnetic stimulation on the brain.

  12. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex vocabularies: building comprehensive ontologies for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bug, William J; Ascoli, Giorgio A; Grethe, Jeffrey S; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R; Larson, Stephen D; Rubin, Daniel; Shepherd, Gordon M; Turner, Jessica A; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-09-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information became obvious. This requirement led to the NIF standardized (NIFSTD) ontology, a comprehensive collection of common neuroscience domain terminologies woven into an ontologically consistent, unified representation of the biomedical domains typically used to describe neuroscience data (e.g., anatomy, cell types, techniques), as well as digital resources (tools, databases) being created throughout the neuroscience community. NIFSTD builds upon a structure established by the BIRNLex, a lexicon of concepts covering clinical neuroimaging research developed by the Biomedical Informatics Research Network (BIRN) project. Each distinct domain module is represented using the Web Ontology Language (OWL). As much as has been practical, NIFSTD reuses existing community ontologies that cover the required biomedical domains, building the more specific concepts required to annotate NIF resources. By following this principle, an extensive vocabulary was assembled in a relatively short period of time for NIF information annotation, organization, and retrieval, in a form that promotes easy extension and modification. We report here on the structure of the NIFSTD, and its predecessor BIRNLex, the principles followed in its construction and provide examples of its use within NIF. PMID:18975148

  13. Neuroscience discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Over the past two decades, NASA's efforts in the neurosciences have developed into a program of research directed at understanding the acute changes that occur in the neurovestibular and sensorimotor systems during short-duration space missions. However, the proposed extended-duration flights of up to 28 days on the Shuttle orbiter and 6 months on Space Station Freedom, a lunar outpost, and Mars missions of perhaps 1-3 years in space, make it imperative that NASA's Life Sciences Division begin to concentrate research in the neurosciences on the chronic effects of exposure to microgravity on the nervous system. Major areas of research will be directed at understanding (1) central processing, (2) motor systems, (3) cognitive/spatial orientation, and (4) sensory receptors. The purpose of the Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of neurosciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of nervous system function. It contains a general plan that will be used by NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  14. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  15. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience Meets Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert; Ansari, Daniel; Grabner, Roland H.; Hannula, Minna M.; Schneider, Michael; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2010-01-01

    While there has been much theoretical debate concerning the relationship between neuroscience and education, researchers have started to collaborate across both disciplines, giving rise to the interdisciplinary research field of neuroscience and education. The present contribution tries to reflect on the challenges of this new field of empirical…

  17. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  18. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Naqvi, Nasir H.; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience app...

  19. Wavelets in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Hramov, Alexander E; Makarov, Valeri A; Pavlov, Alexey N; Sitnikova, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and applied aspects of wavelet analysis in neurophysics, describing in detail different practical applications of the wavelet theory in the areas of neurodynamics and neurophysiology and providing a review of fundamental work that has been carried out in these fields over the last decade. Chapters 1 and 2 introduce and review the relevant foundations of neurophysics and wavelet theory, respectively, pointing on one hand to the various current challenges in neuroscience and introducing on the other the mathematical techniques of the wavelet transform in its two variants (discrete and continuous) as a powerful and versatile tool for investigating the relevant neuronal dynamics. Chapter 3 then analyzes results from examining individual neuron dynamics and intracellular processes. The principles for recognizing neuronal spikes from extracellular recordings and the advantages of using wavelets to address these issues are described and combined with approaches based on wavelet neural ...

  20. Technical advances power neuroscience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barinaga, M.

    1991-01-01

    New techniques are helping researchers study the development of nerve cells in cell cultures and in vivo. These new methods are offering insights into the brain that were not available even a couple of years ago. Among the new advances discussed are imaging technology for evaluating the thinking human brain. One area in which researchers have made recent progress is the quest for ways to create immortal cell lines from specific types of nerve cells. Other projects using genetically engineered retroviruses and tumor-inducing genes, as well as gene regulation are discussed. Recent advances in neuroscience techniques apply not only to neurons, but also to whole brains as well. One example is a high-resulution electroencephalogram (EEG). Although the EEG cannot pin down the actual sites of activity as precisely as static brain imaging methods, it complements them with real-time recording that can keep up with the very rapid pace of brain activity.

  1. Dynamical principles in neuroscience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?

  2. Optogenetics enlightens neuroscience drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Optogenetics - the use of light and genetics to manipulate and monitor the activities of defined cell populations - has already had a transformative impact on basic neuroscience research. Now, the conceptual and methodological advances associated with optogenetic approaches are providing fresh momentum to neuroscience drug discovery, particularly in areas that are stalled on the concept of 'fixing the brain chemistry'. Optogenetics is beginning to translate and transit into drug discovery in several key domains, including target discovery, high-throughput screening and novel therapeutic approaches to disease states. Here, we discuss the exciting potential of optogenetic technologies to transform neuroscience drug discovery.

  3. What Can Neuroscience Bring to Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Educational neuroscience promises to incorporate emerging insights from neuroscience into education, and is an exiting renovation of cognitive science in education. But unlike cognitive neuroscience--which aims to explain how the mind is embodied--educational neuroscience necessarily incorporates values that reflect the kind of citizen and the…

  4. Opera and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Lorenzo; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Porro, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Opera is the most complete form of theatrical representation, characterized by musical accompaniment, both instrumental and vocal. It has played an important role in sociocultural spheres, affecting the various social strata and reflecting customs and ideas in different centuries. Composers have created pieces that have also shown the development of medicine. Since the birth of opera in seventeenth century in Italy, neuroscience has played an important role in influencing the representation of madness and neurological aspects. From the Folly of the Renaissance, a path toward a representation of madness was developed, initially linked to the myths of classical antiquity. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, madness was represented as comical or funny, of a loving nature and influenced by the spread of the Commedia dell'Arte (Comedy of Art). In the nineteenth century, with the rise of the first scientific theories of the mind, insanity took more precise connotations and was separated from other psychiatric and neurological diseases. The operas of the twentieth century depicted psychiatric and neurological diseases, taking into account newer medical and scientific discoveries. PMID:25684301

  5. Neuroscience of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-11-16

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  6. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. De la Torre

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  7. Neuroscience of Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod D. Deshmukh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one’s being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness. In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one’s harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality.

  8. Neuroscience of meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Vinod D

    2006-01-01

    Dhyana-Yoga is a Sanskrit word for the ancient discipline of meditation, as a means to Samadhi or enlightenment. Samadhi is a self-absorptive, adaptive state with realization of one's being in harmony with reality. It is unitive, undifferentiated, reality-consciousness, an essential being, which can only be experienced by spontaneous intuition and self-understanding. Modern neuroscience can help us to better understand Dhyana-Yoga. This article discusses topics including brain-mind-reality, consciousness, attention, emotional intelligence, sense of self, meditative mind, and meditative brain. A new hypothesis is proposed for a better understanding of the meditative mind. Meditation is an art of being serene and alert in the present moment, instead of constantly struggling to change or to become. It is an art of efficient management of attentional energy with total engagement (poornata, presence, mindfulness) or disengagement (shunyata, silence, emptiness). In both states, there is an experience of spontaneous unity with no sense of situational interactive self or personal time. It is a simultaneous, participatory consciousness rather than a dualistic, sequential attentiveness. There is a natural sense of well being with self-understanding, spontaneous joy, serenity, freedom, and self-fulfillment. It is where the ultimate pursuit of happiness and the search for meaning of life resolve. One realizes the truth of one's harmonious being in nature and nature in oneself. It is being alive at its fullest, when each conscious moment becomes a dynamic process of discovery and continuous learning of the ever-new unfolding reality. PMID:17370019

  9. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond.

  10. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines.

  11. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  12. Can Neuroscience Construct a Literate Gendered Culture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, David

    2011-01-01

    The construction of boys as a gendered culture is not usually associated with neuroscience. Exceptions are publications and presentations by consultants on boys' education who adopt a "brain-based" perspective. From a neuroscience perspective, my analysis indicates the selective use of primary neuroscience research to construct and perpetuate…

  13. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  14. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eBickle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this paper is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past sixty years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of higher cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics (and DREADDs. The two key metascientific concepts I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of Tool Development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions.

  15. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  16. The Future of Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kurt W.; Goswami, Usha; Geake, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of the emerging field of educational neuroscience and the broader movement called Mind, Brain, and Education is to join biology with cognitive science, development, and education so that education can be grounded more solidly in research on learning and teaching. To avoid misdirection, the growing worldwide movement needs to avoid…

  17. Does Neuroscience Matter for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    2011-01-01

    In this review essay, Francis Schrag focuses on two recent anthologies dealing completely or in part with the role of neuroscience in learning and education: The "Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning", edited by Jossey-Bass Publishers, and "New Philosophies of Learning", edited by Ruth Cigman and Andrew Davis. Schrag argues that…

  18. A Neuroscience Perspective on Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Dendy; Norrgran, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    We briefly discuss memory types and three modern principles of neuroscience: 1) Protein growth at the synapse, 2) the three-brain theory, and 3) the interplay of the hippocampus, the neocortex, and the prefrontal cortex. To illustrate the potential of this perspective, four applications of these principles are provided.

  19. Brain Matters: Neuroscience and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a relationship between neuroscience and creativity for the sake of religious education. Citing creativity as a process that involves both originality and value, the writing articulates Howard Gardner's interplay between the talent of the person, the internal demands of a discipline, and the quality judgment of the field.…

  20. Teaching Ethics Informed by Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Molly Malany

    2016-01-01

    New findings about the brain are explicating how we make moral and ethical decisions. The neuroscience of morality is relevant to ethical decision making in social work because of a shared biopsychosocial perspective and the field's explanatory power to understand possible origins of universally accepted morals and personal attitudes at play in…

  1. What is a representative brain? Neuroscience meets population science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Hyde, Luke W; Mitchell, Colter; Faul, Jessica; Gonzalez, Richard; Heitzeg, Mary M; Keating, Daniel P; Langa, Kenneth M; Martz, Meghan E; Maslowsky, Julie; Morrison, Frederick J; Noll, Douglas C; Patrick, Megan E; Pfeffer, Fabian T; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A; Thomason, Moriah E; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Monk, Christopher S; Schulenberg, John

    2013-10-29

    The last decades of neuroscience research have produced immense progress in the methods available to understand brain structure and function. Social, cognitive, clinical, affective, economic, communication, and developmental neurosciences have begun to map the relationships between neuro-psychological processes and behavioral outcomes, yielding a new understanding of human behavior and promising interventions. However, a limitation of this fast moving research is that most findings are based on small samples of convenience. Furthermore, our understanding of individual differences may be distorted by unrepresentative samples, undermining findings regarding brain-behavior mechanisms. These limitations are issues that social demographers, epidemiologists, and other population scientists have tackled, with solutions that can be applied to neuroscience. By contrast, nearly all social science disciplines, including social demography, sociology, political science, economics, communication science, and psychology, make assumptions about processes that involve the brain, but have incorporated neural measures to differing, and often limited, degrees; many still treat the brain as a black box. In this article, we describe and promote a perspective--population neuroscience--that leverages interdisciplinary expertise to (i) emphasize the importance of sampling to more clearly define the relevant populations and sampling strategies needed when using neuroscience methods to address such questions; and (ii) deepen understanding of mechanisms within population science by providing insight regarding underlying neural mechanisms. Doing so will increase our confidence in the generalizability of the findings. We provide examples to illustrate the population neuroscience approach for specific types of research questions and discuss the potential for theoretical and applied advances from this approach across areas.

  2. The neuroscience of leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, David

    2010-01-01

    This doctorate summarizes 13 years of thinking, experimentation and research into the issue of improving human performance. Specifically, the issue of how to drive change in human performance, through conversation. This focused on non-clinical populations, and generally with very high functioning people. My work initially focused on the act of ‘coaching’. At its simplest, coaching is the ability of one person to enable another to improve their performance. Through intensive observation,...

  3. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential. PMID:20817916

  4. Nanotechnology for in vitro neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel R.; Nadeau, Jay L.

    2009-11-01

    Neurons in vitro are different from any other cell types in their sensitivity and complexity. Growing, differentiating, transfecting, and recording from single neurons and neuronal networks all present particular challenges. Some of the difficulties arise from the small scale of cellular structures, and have already seen substantial advances due to nanotechnology, particularly highly fluorescent semiconductor nanoparticles. Other issues have less obvious solutions, but the complex and often surprising way that novel nanomaterials react with cells have suggested some revolutionary approaches. We review some of the ways nanomaterials and nanostructures can contribute to in vitro neuroscience, with a particular focus on emphasizing techniques that are widely accessible to many laboratories and on providing references to protocols and methods. The issues of nanotoxicology of greatest interest to cultured neurons are discussed. Finally, we present some future trends and challenges in nano-neuroscience.

  5. Directed information measures in neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Vicente, Raul; Lizier, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of information transfer has found rapid adoption in neuroscience, where a highly dynamic transfer of information continuously runs on top of the brain's slowly-changing anatomical connectivity. Measuring such transfer is crucial to understanding how flexible information routing and processing give rise to higher cognitive function. Directed Information Measures in Neuroscience reviews recent developments of concepts and tools for measuring information transfer, their application to neurophysiological recordings and analysis of interactions. Written by the most active researchers in the field the book discusses the state of the art, future prospects and challenges on the way to an efficient assessment of neuronal information transfer. Highlights include the theoretical quantification and practical estimation of information transfer, description of transfer locally in space and time, multivariate directed measures, information decomposition among a set of stimulus/responses variables, and the relation ...

  6. New techniques in systems neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the recent explosion of experimental tools in neuroscience that now make it possible to manipulate, record, and understand neuronal activity within the intact brain, and which are helping us to learn how the many neurons that comprise a network act together to control behavior. Leaders in the field discuss the latest developments in optogenetics, functional imaging, circuit mapping, and the application of these tools to complex biological problems. New Techniques in Systems Neuroscience Explores cutting-edge methodological developments and their biological motivations Covers state-of-the-art advances in optogenetics, imaging, circuit mapping, and the molecular characterization of individual neurons Describes key examples of how these methods have been applied in different model organisms Is appropriate for experts and those just entering the field alike.

  7. How cognitive theory guides neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Michael J.; Badre, David

    2014-01-01

    The field of cognitive science studies latent, unobservable cognitive processes that generate observable behaviors. Similarly, cognitive neuroscience attempts to link latent cognitive processes with the neural mechanisms that generate them. Although neural processes are partially observable (with imaging and electrophysiology), it would be a mistake to ‘skip’ the cognitive level and pursue a purely neuroscientific enterprise to studying behavior. In fact, virtually all of the major advances i...

  8. Theory and Simulation in Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Wulfram Gerstner; Henning Sprekeler; Gustavo Deco

    2012-01-01

    Modeling work in neuroscience can be classified using two different criteria. The first one is the complexity of the model, ranging from simplified conceptual models that are amenable to mathematical analysis to detailed models that require simulations in order to understand their properties. The second criterion is that of direction of workflow, which can be from microscopic to macroscopic scales (bottom-up) or from behavioral target functions to properties of components (top-down). We revie...

  9. Neuroscience, Education and Metal Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Arboccó de los Heros

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents a series of investigations, reflections, and quotes about neuroscience, education, and psychology. Each area is specialized in some matters but at some point they share territory and mutually benefit one another, and help us to increasingly understand the complex world of learning, the brain, and human behavior. We hope them to be of interest and a promoter of new thoughts.

  10. NSDF: Neuroscience Simulation Data Format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Subhasis; Chintaluri, Chaitanya; Bhalla, Upinder S; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2016-04-01

    Data interchange is emerging as an essential aspect of modern neuroscience. In the areas of computational neuroscience and systems biology there are multiple model definition formats, which have contributed strongly to the development of an ecosystem of simulation and analysis tools. Here we report the development of the Neuroscience Simulation Data Format (NSDF) which extends this ecosystem to the data generated in simulations. NSDF is designed to store simulator output across scales: from multiscale chemical and electrical signaling models, to detailed single-neuron and network models, to abstract neural nets. It is self-documenting, efficient, modular, and scalable, both in terms of novel data types and in terms of data volume. NSDF is simulator-independent, and can be used by a range of standalone analysis and visualization tools. It may also be used to store variety of experimental data. NSDF is based on the widely used HDF5 (Hierarchical Data Format 5) specification and is open, platform-independent, and portable. PMID:26585711

  11. Neuroscience Training for the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Huda; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Cardozo, David Lopes; Koroshetz, Walter; Posey Norris, Sheena M; Sherer, Todd; Sherman, S Murray; Thiels, Edda

    2016-06-01

    The field of neuroscience is enjoying a rapid expansion in scope, coupled with a remarkable broadening of conceptual approaches, scientific tools, and clinical applications. This growth poses new challenges for academic training programs as they prepare young neuroscientists for a more complex, competitive, and diverse career landscape. Multiple stakeholders, including academia, federal funding agencies, industry, scientific societies, private foundations, and other public and private sector contributors, need to be actively engaged in supporting this broad training effort. A renewed commitment to a more forward-looking, flexible yet integrative training vision offers opportunities for a bright future for young neuroscientists as they assume the role of vanguard of the enterprise that enriches our understanding of the brain. PMID:27253446

  12. Positive clinical neuroscience: explorations in positive neurology

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, N; Cole, J.; Manly, T.; Viskontas, I.; Ninteman, A.; Hasher, L.; PASCUAL-LEONE A

    2013-01-01

    Disorders of the brain and its sensory organs have traditionally been associated with deficits in movement, perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is increasingly evident, however, that positive phenomena may also occur in such conditions, with implications for the individual, science, medicine, and for society. This article provides a selective review of such positive phenomena--enhanced function after brain lesions, better-than-normal performance in people with sensory loss, creat...

  13. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D

    2016-03-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework integrates neuroscience and prevention research and postulates underlying brain regulatory mechanisms that explain the impact of mindfulness on psychological outcomes via self-regulation mechanisms linked to underlying brain systems. We conclude by discussing potential clinical and practice implications of this model and directions for future research. PMID:27012254

  14. Editorial: «Interventional Neuroradiology: a Neuroscience sub-specialty?».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodesch, Georges; Picard, Luc; Berenstein, Alex; Biondi, Alessandra; Bracard, Serge; Choi, In Sup; Feng, Ling; Hyogo, Toshio; Lefeuvre, David; Leonardi, Marco; Mayer, Thomas; Miyashi, Shigeru; Muto, Mario; Piske, Ronie; Pongpech, Sirintara; Reul, Jurgen; Söderman, Michael; Sul, Dae Chuh; Tampieri, Donatella; Taylor, Allan; Terbrugge, Karel; Valavanis, Anton; van den Berg, René

    2013-12-01

    Interventional Neuroradiology (INR) is not bound by the classical limits of a speciality, and is not restricted by standard formats of teaching and education. Open and naturally linked towards neurosciences, INR has become a unique source of novel ideas for research, development and progress allowing new and improved approaches to challenging pathologies resulting in better anatomo-clinical results. Opening INR to Neurosciences is the best way to keep it alive and growing. Anchored in Neuroradiology, at the crossroad of neurosciences, INR will further participate to progress and innovation as it has often been in the past.

  15. Neuroscience in the residency curriculum: the psychoanalytic psychotherapy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Michels, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Educators of future psychiatrists tend to teach an array of approaches to the mind and brain, including among them the neurobiologic perspective and the psychoanalytic perspective. These may be considered at opposite ends of many spectra, including the fact that psychoanalysis takes a large-scale and treatment-oriented perspective and has helped countless patients over the years, while neuroscience has tended to be reductionistic, focused on understanding, and has helped very few people. A tension, therefore, exists for the educator in teaching neuroscience: is it wise to spend valuable time and energy teaching this interesting but, thus far, impractical field to future practitioners? Here, we argue that neuroscience is re-orienting itself towards more psychoanalytically relevant questions and is likely, in future years, to give new insights into the nature of basic drives and social relations. We additionally argue for balance on the part of providers in both acknowledging biologic underpinnings for clinical phenomena and yet continuing to take a stance oriented towards appropriate change. Given the burgeoning new focus within neuroscience on topics directly relating to the human internal experience and the novel challenges in both understanding those advances and appropriately using them, we encourage educators to continue to give future psychiatrists the educational foundation they need to follow neuroscientific discoveries into the future.

  16. How neuroscience can inform consumer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, Peter H; Plassmann, Hilke

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a rapidly growing approach within consumer research has developed under the label of "consumer neuroscience." Its goal is to use insights and methods from neuroscience to enhance the understanding of consumer behavior. In this paper we aim to provide an overview of questions of interest to consumer researchers, to present initial research findings, and to outline potential implications for consumer research. In order to do so, we first discuss the term "consumer neuroscience" and give a brief description of recently discussed issues in consumer research. We then provide a review and short description of initial empirical evidence from past studies in consumer neuroscience. Next, we present an example of how consumer research or, more specifically, customer loyalty research, may benefit from the consumer neuroscience approach. The paper concludes with a discussion of potential implications and suggestions for future research in the nascent field of consumer neuroscience. PMID:19144585

  17. Written pain neuroscience education in fibromyalgia: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W; van Wilgen, C Paul; van der Schans, Cees P; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W; Nijs, Jo

    2014-11-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A double-blind, multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial with 6-month follow-up was conducted. Patients with FM (n = 114) that consented to participate were randomly allocated to receive either written pain neuroscience education or written relaxation training. Written pain neuroscience education comprised of a booklet with pain neuroscience education plus a telephone call to clarify any difficulties; the relaxation group received a booklet with relaxation education and a telephone call. The revised illness perception questionnaire, Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and fibromyalgia impact questionnaire were used as outcome measures. Both patients and assessors were blinded. Repeated-measures analyses with last observation carried forward principle were performed. Cohen's d effect sizes (ES) were calculated for all within-group changes and between-group differences. The results reveal that written pain neuroscience education does not change the impact of FM on daily life, catastrophizing, or perceived symptoms of patients with FM. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education improved beliefs in a chronic timeline of FM (P = 0.03; ES = 0.50), but it does not impact upon other domains of illness perceptions. Compared with written relaxation training, written pain neuroscience education slightly improved illness perceptions of patients with FM, but it did not impart clinically meaningful effects on pain, catastrophizing, or the impact of FM on daily life. Face-to-face sessions of pain neuroscience education are required to change inappropriate cognitions and perceived health in patients with FM.

  18. The new Malta neuroscience network programme

    OpenAIRE

    Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Interview with the Coordinator of the Malta Neuroscience Network Programme, Prof. Giuseppe Di Giovanni regarding the Malta Neuroscience Net- work. "With the creation of the Malta Neuroscience Network, we will be keeping up with the most important developments with regard to brain research world- wide: multi-disciplinary collaboration. Understanding the way the brain works, and above all brain diseases is extremely complicated, and requires the involvement of researchers coming...

  19. Cognitive neuroscience: the troubled marriage of cognitive science and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard P; Shallice, Tim

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the development of cognitive neuroscience in terms of the tension between the greater sophistication in cognitive concepts and methods of the cognitive sciences and the increasing power of more standard biological approaches to understanding brain structure and function. There have been major technological developments in brain imaging and advances in simulation, but there have also been shifts in emphasis, with topics such as thinking, consciousness, and social cognition becoming fashionable within the brain sciences. The discipline has great promise in terms of applications to mental health and education, provided it does not abandon the cognitive perspective and succumb to reductionism. PMID:25163868

  20. Neuroscience and Brain Science Special Issue begins in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics.

  1. Visual neuroscience research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historically,vision research in China was one of a few distinct research programs within the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS).With improved funding opportunities and research environment in neuroscience,vision research at several research institutes within the academy has made significant progress not only in the quantity of publications,but also in the quality of the work.Based on our own expertise,this review is mainly focused on the findings that have advanced the understanding of visual processing in the central visual pathway,visual perceptual learning,visual development and eye diseases.

  2. A competency-based longitudinal core curriculum in medical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Lisa R; Horak, Holli A; Milligan, Tracey A; Kraakevik, Jeff A; Ali, Imran I

    2014-07-29

    Current medical educational theory encourages the development of competency-based curricula. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's 6 core competencies for resident education (medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, interpersonal and communication skills, practice-based learning, and systems-based practice) have been embraced by medical schools as the building blocks necessary for becoming a competent licensed physician. Many medical schools are therefore changing their educational approach to an integrated model in which students demonstrate incremental acquisition and mastery of all competencies as they progress through medical school. Challenges to medical schools include integration of preclinical and clinical studies as well as development of learning objectives and assessment measures for each competency. The Undergraduate Education Subcommittee (UES) of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) assembled a group of neuroscience educators to outline a longitudinal competency-based curriculum in medical neuroscience encompassing both preclinical and clinical coursework. In development of this curriculum, the committee reviewed United States Medical Licensing Examination content outlines, Liaison Committee on Medical Education requirements, prior AAN-mandated core curricula for basic neuroscience and clinical neurology, and survey responses from educators in US medical schools. The newly recommended curriculum provides an outline of learning objectives for each of the 6 competencies, listing each learning objective in active terms. Documentation of experiences is emphasized, and assessment measures are suggested to demonstrate adequate achievement in each competency. These guidelines, widely vetted and approved by the UES membership, aspire to be both useful as a stand-alone curriculum and also provide a framework for neuroscience educators who wish to develop a more detailed focus in certain areas of study.

  3. Progressive Education Standards: A Neuroscience Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Patty

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a coherent and unique set of 12 standards, adopting a neuroscience framework for biologically based on school reform. This model of educational principles and practices aligns with the long-standing principles and practices of the Progressive Education Movement in the United States and the emerging principles of neuroscience.…

  4. Three Requirements for Justifying an Educational Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the past quarter century, efforts to bridge between research in the neurosciences and research, theory, and practice in education have grown from a mere hope to noteworthy scholarly sophistication. Many dedicated educational researchers have developed the secondary expertise in the necessary neurosciences and related fields to…

  5. Neuroscience and Special Education. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Eve

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a brief overview of how links are being developed between the rapidly expanding field of neuroscience and the practice of special education. The first part of the document introduces definitions and terminology, provides an overview of how findings from neuroscience are being applied to the field of…

  6. Educational Neuroscience: Its Position, Aims and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, Anna; Krabbendam, Lydia; de Ruyter, Doret

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in the discussion on educational neuroscience is the transfer of thought and findings between neuroscience and education. In addition to factual confusions in this transfer in the form of neuromyths, logical confusions, or neuro-misconceptions, can be identified. We consider these transfer difficulties in light of the way…

  7. Teachers' Beliefs about Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambo, Debby; Zambo, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Information from neuroscience is readily available to educators, yet instructors of educational psychology and related fields have not investigated teachers' beliefs regarding this information. The purpose of this survey study was to uncover the beliefs 62 teachers held about neuroscience and education. Results indicate there were three types of…

  8. Social neuroscience in psychiatry: unravelling the neural mechanisms of social dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, A K J; Shergill, S S; Krabbendam, L

    2015-04-01

    Social neuroscience is a flourishing, interdisciplinary field that investigates the underlying biological processes of social cognition and behaviour. The recent application of social neuroscience to psychiatric research advances our understanding of various psychiatric illnesses that are characterized by impairments in social cognition and social functioning. In addition, the upcoming line of social neuroscience research provides new techniques to design and evaluate treatment interventions that are aimed at improving patients' social lives. This review provides a contemporary overview of social neuroscience in psychiatry. We draw together the major findings about the neural mechanisms of social cognitive processes directed at understanding others and social interactions in psychiatric illnesses and discuss their implications for future research and clinical practice.

  9. The Neuropsychoanalytic Approach: Using Neuroscience as the Basic Science of Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian; Flores Mosri, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience was the basic science behind Freud's psychoanalytic theory and technique. He worked as a neurologist for 20 years before being aware that a new approach to understand complex diseases, namely the hysterias, was needed. Solms coined the term neuropsychoanalysis to affirm that neuroscience still belongs in psychoanalysis. The neuropsychoanalytic field has continued Freud's original ideas as stated in 1895. Developments in psychoanalysis that have been created or revised by the neuropsychoanalysis movement include pain/relatedness/opioids, drive, structural model, dreams, cathexis, and dynamic unconscious. Neuroscience has contributed to the development of new psychoanalytic theory, such as Bazan's (2011) description of anxiety driven by unconscious intentions or “phantoms.” Results of adopting the “dual aspect monism” approach of idiographic psychoanalytic clinical observation combined with nomothetic investigation of related human phenomena include clarification and revision of theory, restoration of the scientific base of psychoanalysis, and improvement of clinical treatments. By imbricating psychoanalytic thinking with neuroscience, psychoanalysts are also positioned to make contributions to neuroscience research. Freud's original Project for a Scientific Psychology/Psychology for Neurologists can be carried forward in a way that moves psychoanalysis into the twenty-first century as a core contemporary science (Kandel, 1999). Neuroscience as the basic science of psychoanalysis both improves the field, and enhances its scientific and cultural status. PMID:27790160

  10. Intracortical Brain-Machine Interfaces Advance Sensorimotor Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Karen E; Chestek, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) decode brain activity to control external devices. Over the past two decades, the BMI community has grown tremendously and reached some impressive milestones, including the first human clinical trials using chronically implanted intracortical electrodes. It has also contributed experimental paradigms and important findings to basic neuroscience. In this review, we discuss neuroscience achievements stemming from BMI research, specifically that based upon upper limb prosthetic control with intracortical microelectrodes. We will focus on three main areas: first, we discuss progress in neural coding of reaches in motor cortex, describing recent results linking high dimensional representations of cortical activity to muscle activation. Next, we describe recent findings on learning and plasticity in motor cortex on various time scales. Finally, we discuss how bidirectional BMIs have led to better understanding of somatosensation in and related to motor cortex. PMID:27445663

  11. Genome engineering with TALE and CRISPR systems in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han B Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR associated (Cas systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  12. Genome Engineering with TALE and CRISPR Systems in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han B; Sundberg, Brynn N; Sigafoos, Ashley N; Clark, Karl J

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancement in genome engineering technology is changing the landscape of biological research and providing neuroscientists with an opportunity to develop new methodologies to ask critical research questions. This advancement is highlighted by the increased use of programmable DNA-binding agents (PDBAs) such as transcription activator-like effector (TALE) and RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas) systems. These PDBAs fused or co-expressed with various effector domains allow precise modification of genomic sequences and gene expression levels. These technologies mirror and extend beyond classic gene targeting methods contributing to the development of novel tools for basic and clinical neuroscience. In this Review, we discuss the recent development in genome engineering and potential applications of this technology in the field of neuroscience.

  13. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S

    2004-08-02

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  14. Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: Methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenthur, Cody J

    2016-08-17

    As the first drug to see widespread use for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methylphenidate was the forerunner and catalyst to the modern era of rapidly increasing diagnosis, treatment, and medication development for this condition. During its often controversial history, it has variously elucidated the importance of dopamine signaling in memory and attention, provoked concerns about pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement, driven innovation in controlled-release technologies and enantiospecific therapeutics, and stimulated debate about the impact of pharmaceutical sales techniques on the practice of medicine. In this Review, we will illustrate the history and importance of methylphenidate to ADHD treatment and neuroscience in general, as well as provide key information about its synthesis, structure-activity relationship, pharmacological activity, metabolism, manufacturing, FDA-approved indications, and adverse effects. PMID:27409720

  15. The neurosciences research program at MIT and the beginning of the modern field of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, George

    2010-01-15

    The interdisciplinary field, "neuroscience," began at MIT in 1962 with the founding of the Neurosciences Research Program (NRP) by Francis O. Schmitt and a group of US and international scientists - physical, biological, medical, and behavioral - interested in understanding the brain basis of behavior and mind. They organized and held specialist meetings of basic topics in neuroscience, and the journal and book publications over the next 20 years, based on these meetings, helped establish the new field.

  16. [Newly developed nomenclature (Neuroscience-based Nomenclature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2016-06-01

    The current nomenclature is based on clinical indications; for example, drugs used for mania and psychosis are classified as "mood stabilizers" and "antipsychotic drugs", respectively. This discrepancy between their names and indications often confuses patients and their caregivers and sometimes leads to a misunderstanding of the effects of prescribed medications. In addition, up-to-date scientific knowledge on these drugs has not been reflected in the current nomenclature. To overcome these limitations of the current nomenclature, following an initiative of the European Congress of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP), a taskforce for psychotropic nomenclature was established with representatives from 5 international organizations, including the Asian College of Neuropsychopharmacology (AsCNP). The mission of this taskforce is to provide a pharmacologically-driven (rather than indication-based) nomenclature, which is now referred to as Neuroscience-based Nomenclature (NbN). The NbN project has just started. Since it always takes time to change the culture, we understand the transition will likely involve some expected and unexpected responses from the field. However, we believe that such responses and feedback will surely improve the quality of the NbN, which in turn will be beneficial for clinicians, researchers, and patients as well as their caregivers. PMID:27506083

  17. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development. PMID:25285708

  18. Implementation of an Integrated Neuroscience Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Rory P; Franker, Lauren; Sterchi, Suzanne; Sani, Sepehr

    2016-02-01

    Many challenges exist in today's health care delivery system, and much focus and research are invested into ways to improve care with cost-effective measures. Specialty-specific dedicated care units are one solution for inpatient hospital care because they improve outcomes and decrease mortality. The neuroscience population encompasses a wide variety of diagnoses of spinal to cranial issues with a wide spectrum of needs varying from one patient to the next. Neuroscience care must be patient-specific during the course of frequent acuity changes, and one way to achieve this is through a neuroscience-focused unit. Few resources are available on how to implement this type of unit. Advanced practice nurses are committed to providing high-quality, safe, and cost-effective care and are instrumental in the success of instituting a unit dedicated to the care of neuroscience patients. PMID:26909452

  19. A new research trend in social neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Pelowski, Matthew John

    2014-01-01

    The ability to flexibly modulate our behaviors in social contexts and to successfully interact with other persons is a fundamental, but pivotal, requirement for human survival. Although previous social neuroscience research with single individuals has contributed greatly to our understanding...

  20. A neuroscience agenda for counseling psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Oscar F; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M

    2014-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of neuroscience have dramatically changed our understanding of brain-behavior relationships. In this article, we illustrate how neuroscience can provide a conceptual and methodological framework to understand our clients within a transdiagnostic developmental perspective. We provide directions for integrating neuroscience into future process and outcome research. We present examples on how neuroscience can be integrated into researching the effects of contextual counseling interventions. We posit that interpersonal and environmental factors, such as neurotoxic factors (e.g., emotional neglect, stress), positive neurodevelopmental factors (e.g., nurturing and caring, environmental enrichment), and therapeutic interventions influence psychological processes (executive control, behavioral flexibility, reinforcement learning and approach motivation, emotional expression and regulation, self-representation and theory of mind). These psychological processes influence brain networks (attention, motivational, emotional regulation, social cognition), which influence cognitive, social, emotional, identity, and vocational development.

  1. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    OpenAIRE

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cogni...

  2. The neuroscience of musical improvisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have recently begun to examine the neural basis of musical improvisation, one of the most complex forms of creative behavior. The emerging field of improvisation neuroscience has implications not only for the study of artistic expertise, but also for understanding the neural underpinnings of domain-general processes such as motor control and language production. This review synthesizes functional magnetic resonance imagining (fMRI) studies of musical improvisation, including vocal and instrumental improvisation, with samples of jazz pianists, classical musicians, freestyle rap artists, and non-musicians. A network of prefrontal brain regions commonly linked to improvisatory behavior is highlighted, including the pre-supplementary motor area, medial prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal premotor cortex. Activation of premotor and lateral prefrontal regions suggests that a seemingly unconstrained behavior may actually benefit from motor planning and cognitive control. Yet activation of cortical midline regions points to a role of spontaneous cognition characteristic of the default network. Together, such results may reflect cooperation between large-scale brain networks associated with cognitive control and spontaneous thought. The improvisation literature is integrated with Pressing's theoretical model, and discussed within the broader context of research on the brain basis of creative cognition. PMID:25601088

  3. The cognitive neuroscience of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2004-12-01

    This article outlines a framework of creativity based on functional neuroanatomy. Recent advances in the field of cognitive neuroscience have identified distinct brain circuits that are involved in specific higher brain functions. To date, these findings have not been applied to research on creativity. It is proposed that there are four basic types of creative insights, each mediated by a distinctive neural circuit. By definition, creative insights occur in consciousness. Given the view that the working memory buffer of the prefrontal cortex holds the content of consciousness, each of the four distinctive neural loops terminates there. When creativity is the result of deliberate control, as opposed to spontaneous generation, the prefrontal cortex also instigates the creative process. Both processing modes, deliberate and spontaneous, can guide neural computation in structures that contribute emotional content and in structures that provide cognitive analysis, yielding the four basic types of creativity. Supportive evidence from psychological, cognitive, and neuroscientific studies is presented and integrated in this article. The new theoretical framework systematizes the interaction between knowledge and creative thinking, and how the nature of this relationship changes as a function of domain and age. Implications for the arts and sciences are briefly discussed.

  4. Critical neuroscience-or critical science? A perspective on the perceived normative significance of neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Critical Neuroscience initiative raised the question whether the perceived normative significance of neuroscience is justified by the discipline's actual possibilities. In this paper I show how brain research was assigned the ultimate political, social, and moral authority by some lea

  5. Integrating recent advances in neuroscience into undergraduate neuroscience and physiology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Corey L

    2002-12-01

    Neuroscience has enjoyed tremendous growth over the past 20 years, including a substantial increase in the number of neuroscience departments, programs, and courses at the undergraduate level. To meet the need of new neuroscience courses, there has also been growth in the number of introductory neuroscience textbooks designed for undergraduates. However, textbooks typically trail current knowledge by five to ten years, especially in neuroscience where our understanding is increasing rapidly. Consequently, it is often important to supplement neuroscience and physiology textbooks with information about recent findings in neuroscience. To design supplementary educational material, it is essential first to identify the educational objectives of the program and the characteristics of the learners, which can differ dramatically between undergraduate and graduate or professional students. Four principles that may serve the selection and design of supplementary material for undergraduate neuroscience and physiology courses are that (1) material must be interesting to the undergraduates, (2) material should reinforce previously learned concepts, (3) students must be adequately prepared, and (4) the teacher and student must have sufficient appropriate resources. PMID:12443998

  6. A survey of the neuroscience resource landscape: perspectives from the neuroscience information framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachat, Jonathan; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Astakhov, Vadim; Imam, Fahim; Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    The number of available neuroscience resources (databases, tools, materials, and networks) available via the Web continues to expand, particularly in light of newly implemented data sharing policies required by funding agencies and journals. However, the nature of dense, multifaceted neuroscience data and the design of classic search engine systems make efficient, reliable, and relevant discovery of such resources a significant challenge. This challenge is especially pertinent for online databases, whose dynamic content is largely opaque to contemporary search engines. The Neuroscience Information Framework was initiated to address this problem of finding and utilizing neuroscience-relevant resources. Since its first production release in 2008, NIF has been surveying the resource landscape for the neurosciences, identifying relevant resources and working to make them easily discoverable by the neuroscience community. In this chapter, we provide a survey of the resource landscape for neuroscience: what types of resources are available, how many there are, what they contain, and most importantly, ways in which these resources can be utilized by the research community to advance neuroscience research.

  7. Perfil e análise da produção científica dos pesquisadores brasileiros em Neurociência Clínica Profile and analysis of scientific production of Brazilian researchers in Clinical Neurosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Diversos estudos analisaram a produção científica de pesquisadores do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq em diversas áreas do conhecimento. No entanto, dados específicos sobre os principais pesquisadores brasileiros em Neurociências são escassos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a produção científica de pesquisadores no campo das Neurociências que recebem bolsa de produtividade do CNPq. MÉTODOS: Os currículos lattes dos 58 investigadores com bolsa de produtividade nos anos de 2006 a 2008 foram incluídos na análise. As variáveis de interesse foram: gênero, afiliação, formação de recursos humanos e produção científica. As categorias e os níveis das bolsas de produtividade foram classificados de acordo com o banco de dados do CNPq. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância de bolsas do nível 1 (55,2%. Os investigadores publicaram 6.526 artigos (mediana de 90. Destes, 61 foram cadastrados no banco de dados do ISI. Não houve diferença significativa entre as categorias quanto ao número de artigos (P = 0,12. A mediana do índice-h foi de 10,5 e a mediana do índice-m foi 0,77. Não houve diferença significativa do índice-m entre as categorias (P = 0,28. CONCLUSÃO: Estratégias para melhorar qualitativamente a produção científica possivelmente podem ser reforçadas com o conhecimento do perfil dos pesquisadores no campo da Neurociência Clínica.BACKGROUND: Several studies have examined the scientific production of National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq researchers in various areas of knowledge. However, specific data about the main Brazilian researchers in Neurosciences are scarce. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the scientific production of researchers in the field of Neurosciences who receives productivity grant from the CNPq. METHODS: The Lattes Curriculum of 58 researchers with active grants in the years from 2006 to 2008 were included in the analysis. The variables of interest

  8. Where Neuroscience and Art Embrace; The Neuroaesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Torabi Nami

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience has recently contributed a lot to the understanding of aesthetic experience features. Science, art and creativity are not really distinctively different entities. The parallelism seen between the properties of art and organizational principals of the brain has been highlighted through neuroaesthetic studies. Aesthetic as a subjective experience has comprehensively been studies through neuro-scientific, psychological, sociologic and cultural standpoints. This is a controversial topic in cognitive neuroscience, meanwhile seemingly varied results of the conducted researches in this field may be conceptualized in a framework linking aesthetics to neuroscience of affective visual processing, reward circuitries and the nature of decision making. Approaching the question of art-brain parallelism, is along side with elucidating the relation between perception and aesthetic experience,and the features of aesthetic judgment and reward. Moreover, other factors such as cultural underpinnings undoubtedly come into play. In this review we used expert opinions and literary notions to present a report on how neuroscience has so far elaborated on different features of the aesthetic phenomenon hoping to probe areas of neuroaeshetic research which can potentially assess our cultural interface with the aesthetics and cognitive neuroscience.

  9. Mapping the semantic structure of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Elizabeth; Appelbaum, L Gregory; Jack, Jordynn; Moody, James; Huettel, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive neuroscience, as a discipline, links the biological systems studied by neuroscience to the processing constructs studied by psychology. By mapping these relations throughout the literature of cognitive neuroscience, we visualize the semantic structure of the discipline and point to directions for future research that will advance its integrative goal. For this purpose, network text analyses were applied to an exhaustive corpus of abstracts collected from five major journals over a 30-month period, including every study that used fMRI to investigate psychological processes. From this, we generate network maps that illustrate the relationships among psychological and anatomical terms, along with centrality statistics that guide inferences about network structure. Three terms--prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex--dominate the network structure with their high frequency in the literature and the density of their connections with other neuroanatomical terms. From network statistics, we identify terms that are understudied compared with their importance in the network (e.g., insula and thalamus), are underspecified in the language of the discipline (e.g., terms associated with executive function), or are imperfectly integrated with other concepts (e.g., subdisciplines like decision neuroscience that are disconnected from the main network). Taking these results as the basis for prescriptive recommendations, we conclude that semantic analyses provide useful guidance for cognitive neuroscience as a discipline, both by illustrating systematic biases in the conduct and presentation of research and by identifying directions that may be most productive for future research.

  10. Neuroaesthetics: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Aesthetic Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Marcus T; Zaidel, Dahlia W; Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin; Leder, Helmut; Chatterjee, Anjan; Nadal, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics has gained in popularity in recent years but also attracted criticism from the perspectives both of the humanities and the sciences. In an effort to consolidate research in the field, we characterize neuroaesthetics as the cognitive neuroscience of aesthetic experience, drawing on long traditions of research in empirical aesthetics on the one hand and cognitive neuroscience on the other. We clarify the aims and scope of the field, identifying relations among neuroscientific investigations of aesthetics, beauty, and art. The approach we advocate takes as its object of study a wide spectrum of aesthetic experiences, resulting from interactions of individuals, sensory stimuli, and context. Drawing on its parent fields, a cognitive neuroscience of aesthetics would investigate the complex cognitive processes and functional networks of brain regions involved in those experiences without placing a value on them. Thus, the cognitive neuroscientific approach may develop in a way that is mutually complementary to approaches in the humanities. PMID:26993278

  11. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  12. Exploring sensory neuroscience through experience and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyttenbach, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions - color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discussion of neuroscience? This article illustrates several illusions, attempts to connect them to neuroscience, and shows how students can explore and experiment with them. Even when (as is often the case) there is no agreed-upon mechanistic explanation for an illusion, students can form hypotheses and test them by manipulating stimuli and measuring their effects. In effect, students can experiment with illusions using themselves as subjects. PMID:23493966

  13. Neuroscience and the fallacies of functionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, William M

    2010-01-01

    Smail's "On Deep History and the Brain" is rightly critical of the functionalist fallacies that have plagued evolutionary theory, sociobiology, and evolutionary psychology. However, his attempt to improve on these efforts relies on functional explanations that themselves oversimplify the lessons of neuroscience. In addition, like explanations in evolutionary psychology, they are highly speculative and cannot be confirmed or disproved by evidence. Neuroscience research is too diverse to yield a single picture of brain functioning. Some recent developments in neuroscience research, however, do suggest that cognitive processing provides a kind of “operating system” that can support a great diversity of cultural material. These developments include evidence of “top-down” processing in motor control, in visual processing, in speech recognition, and in “emotion regulation.” The constraints that such a system may place on cultural learning and transmission are worth investigating. At the same time, historians are well advised to remain wary of the pitfalls of functionalism.

  14. The 'whole-animal approach' as a heuristic principle in neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serani-Merlo, Alejandro; Paz, Rodrigo; Castillo, Andrés

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscience embraces a heterogeneous group of disciplines. A conceptual framework that allows a better articulation of these different theoretical and experimental perspectives is needed. A 'whole-animal approach is proposed as a theoretical and hermeneutic tool. To illustrate the potential of this point of view, an overview of the research that has been performed in the extinction of fear-conditioned responses from Pavlov to the present is discussed. This is an example of how a whole-animal-based approach may help to organize and integrate basic and clinical neuroscience research. Our proposal is in agreement with recent statements calling for more integrative approaches in biological and neuropsychiatric research. PMID:16579518

  15. Development of a preoperative neuroscience educational program for patients with lumbar radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Butler, David S; Diener, Ina; Puentedura, Emilio J

    2013-05-01

    Postoperative rehabilitation for lumbar radiculopathy has shown little effect on reducing pain and disability. Current preoperative education programs with a focus on a biomedical approach feature procedural and anatomical information, and these too have shown little effect on postoperative outcomes. This report describes the development of an evidence-based educational program and booklet for patients undergoing lumbar surgery for radiculopathy using a recently conducted systematic review of neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. The previous systematic review produced evidence for neuroscience education as well as best-evidence synthesis of the content and delivery methods for neuroscience education for musculoskeletal pain. These evidence statements were extracted and developed into patient-centered messages and a booklet, which was then evaluated by peer and patient review. The neuroscience educational booklet and preoperative program convey key messages from the previous systematic review aimed at reducing fear and anxiety before surgery and assist in developing realistic expectations regarding pain after surgery. Key topics include the decision to undergo surgery, pain processing, peripheral nerve sensitization, effect of anxiety and stress on pain, surgery and the nervous system, and decreasing nerve sensitization. Feedback from the evaluations of the booklet and preoperative program was favorable from all review groups, suggesting that this proposed evidence-based neuroscience educational program may be ready for clinical application.

  16. Model-based cognitive neuroscience: a conceptual introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.U. Forstmann; E.-J. Wagenmakers

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter shows how the separate fields of mathematical psychology and cognitive neuroscience can interact to their mutual benefit. Historically, the field of mathematical psychology is mostly concerned with formal theories of behavior, whereas cognitive neuroscience is mostly concerned

  17. The NIFSTD and BIRNLex Vocabularies: Building Comprehensive Ontologies for Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Bug, William J.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Amarnath; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Laird, Angela R.; Stephen D Larson; Rubin, Daniel; Gordon M Shepherd; Turner, Jessica A.; Martone, Maryann E

    2008-01-01

    A critical component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project is a consistent, flexible terminology for describing and retrieving neuroscience-relevant resources. Although the original NIF specification called for a loosely structured controlled vocabulary for describing neuroscience resources, as the NIF system evolved, the requirement for a formally structured ontology for neuroscience with sufficient granularity to describe and access a diverse collection of information beca...

  18. Tools of the trade: theory and method in mindfulness neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Posner, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Mindfulness neuroscience is an emerging research field that investigates the underlying mechanisms of different mindfulness practices, different stages and different states of practice as well as different effects of practice over the lifespan. Mindfulness neuroscience research integrates theory and methods from eastern contemplative traditions, western psychology and neuroscience, and from neuroimaging techniques, physiological measures and behavioral tests. We here review several key theore...

  19. Scientific and Pragmatic Challenges for Bridging Education and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sashank; McCandliss, Bruce D.; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    Educational neuroscience is an emerging effort to integrate neuroscience methods, particularly functional neuroimaging, with behavioral methods to address issues of learning and instruction. This article consolidates common concerns about connecting education and neuroscience. One set of concerns is scientific: in-principle differences in methods,…

  20. Invertebrate neuroscience and CephsInAction at the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience Meeting Cagliari 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Fiorito, Graziano; Ponte, Giovanna

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate neuroscience, and in particular cephalopod research, is well represented in the Mediterranean region. Therefore, the recent meeting of the Mediterranean Society for Neuroscience in Santa Margherita di Pula, Sardinia (12-15 June 2015) provided an excellent opportunity for invertebrate contributions. Furthermore, the Chair of an EU COST Action for cephalopod research (FA1301; www.cephsinaction.org ), Giovanna Ponte, together with Graziano Fiorito from the Stazione Zoologica, Naples, aligned a meeting of research groups working in the field of cephalopod neurophysiology from across Europe to coincide with the neuroscience meeting. This provided an exciting forum for exchange of ideas. Here we provide brief highlights of both events and an explanation of the activities of the COST Action for the broader invertebrate neuroscience community.

  1. Scandinavian neuroscience during the Nazi era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Hansen, Klaus; Zeidman, Lawrence A

    2013-01-01

    Although Scandinavian neuroscience has a proud history, its status during the Nazi era has been overlooked. In fact, prominent neuroscientists in German-occupied Denmark and Norway, as well as in neutral Sweden, were directly affected. Mogens Fog, Poul Thygesen (Denmark) and Haakon Sæthre (Norway...

  2. Special issue on Computational Neuroscience - PREFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Lansky, Petr

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue of Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering contains ten selected papers presented at the Neural Coding 2012 workshop. Neuroscience is traditionally very close to mathematics which stems from the famous theoretical work of McCulloch--Pitts and Hodgkin--Huxley in the middle...

  3. Cognitive Neuroscience and Education: Unravelling the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel; Morrison, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically examines the application of research into cognitive neuroscience to educational contexts. It first considers recent warnings from within the neuroscientific community itself about the limitations of current neuroscientific knowledge and the urgent need to dispel popular "neuromyths" which have become accepted in many…

  4. Educational Neuroscience: What Can We Learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Derek

    2014-01-01

    There has been a marked increase in interest, research, and publications exploring ways in which educational practices might be influenced by neuroscience. The idea that a greater understanding of how the brain works can improve teaching and learning is very seductive, but what can teachers and other professionals working in education learn from…

  5. Infusing Neuroscience into Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Janet M.; Roehrig, Gillian; Varma, Sashank

    2013-01-01

    Bruer advocated connecting neuroscience and education indirectly through the intermediate discipline of psychology. We argue for a parallel route: The neurobiology of learning, and in particular the core concept of "plasticity," have the potential to directly transform teacher preparation and professional development, and ultimately to…

  6. K-12 Neuroscience Education Outreach Program: Interactive Activities for Educating Students about Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Deal, Alex L.; Erickson, Kristen J.; Bilsky, Edward J.; Hillman, Susan J.; Burman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The University of New England’s Center for Excellence in the Neurosciences has developed a successful and growing K-12 outreach program that incorporates undergraduate and graduate/professional students. The program has several goals, including raising awareness about fundamental issues in neuroscience, supplementing science education in area schools and enhancing undergraduate and graduate/professional students’ academic knowledge and skill set. The outreach curriculum is centered on core ne...

  7. Managing Stigma Effectively: What Social Psychology and Social Neuroscience Can Teach Us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James L; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2016-04-01

    Psychiatric education is confronted with three barriers to managing stigma associated with mental health treatment. First, there are limited evidence-based practices for stigma reduction, and interventions to deal with stigma against mental health care providers are especially lacking. Second, there is a scarcity of training models for mental health professionals on how to reduce stigma in clinical services. Third, there is a lack of conceptual models for neuroscience approaches to stigma reduction, which are a requirement for high-tier competency in the ACGME Milestones for Psychiatry. The George Washington University (GWU) psychiatry residency program has developed an eight-week course on managing stigma that is based on social psychology and social neuroscience research. The course draws upon social neuroscience research demonstrating that stigma is a normal function of normal brains resulting from evolutionary processes in human group behavior. Based on these processes, stigma can be categorized according to different threats that include peril stigma, disruption stigma, empathy fatigue, moral stigma, and courtesy stigma. Grounded in social neuroscience mechanisms, residents are taught to develop interventions to manage stigma. Case examples illustrate application to common clinical challenges: (1) helping patients anticipate and manage stigma encountered in the family, community, or workplace; (2) ameliorating internalized stigma among patients; (3) conducting effective treatment from a stigmatized position due to prejudice from medical colleagues or patients' family members; and (4) facilitating patient treatment plans when stigma precludes engagement with mental health professionals. This curriculum addresses the need for educating trainees to manage stigma in clinical settings. Future studies are needed to evaluate changes in clinical practices and patient outcomes as a result of social neuroscience-based training on managing stigma.

  8. Applications of neuroscience in criminal law: legal and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, John B

    2015-01-01

    The use of neuroscience in criminal law applications is an increasingly discussed topic among legal and psychological scholars. Over the past 5 years, several prominent federal criminal cases have referenced neuroscience studies and made admissibility determinations regarding neuroscience evidence. Despite this growth, the field is exceptionally young, and no one knows for sure how significant of a contribution neuroscience will make to criminal law. This article focuses on three major subfields: (1) neuroscience-based credibility assessment, which seeks to detect lies or knowledge associated with a crime; (2) application of neuroscience to aid in assessments of brain capacity for culpability, especially among adolescents; and (3) neuroscience-based prediction of future recidivism. The article briefly reviews these fields as applied to criminal law and makes recommendations for future research, calling for the increased use of individual-level data and increased realism in laboratory studies.

  9. Forgetting the madeleine: Proust and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    Marcel Proust's famous madeleine experience, in which a man recalls his past through intense concentration after he tastes a cake dipped in tea, has been dubbed the "Proust Phenomenon" by researchers in the neurosciences. The passage in Proust's novel, however, has been systematically misread in the scientific literature due to the complexity and the ambiguity built into the text. A review of work by neuroscientists, popular science writers, and literature scholars suggests that the most productive interdisciplinary research occurs not where two disciplines converge (the madeleine as olfactory memory cue), but rather where they diverge (phenomenal description over quantitative analysis). This chapter argues that researchers in neuroscience and neuroaesthetics should forget the madeleine in Proust to investigate not only the other cognitive insights offered by Proust's vast novel, In Search of Lost Time, but also the ways in which Proust's novel seeks to bridge the distance between autobiographical experience and critical analysis. PMID:24290259

  10. Application of Terahertz Technology for Neuroscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Zou; Jiang Li; Tu-Nan Chen; Kun Meng; Ze-Ren Li; Hua Feng; Jian-Heng Zhao; Li-Guo Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract⎯Brain is the most complex organ of human beings. The complete understanding of human brains’ functions is an ongoing challenge for neuroscience. Although there are many techniques used for brain research, neuroscientists, physicists, and engineers are still exploring other access of research for applications. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging may create such a space for brain research. THz spectroscopic technique, which is a novel medical imaging modality, attracts attention of biomedical applications due to its unique features including non-invasive, non-ionizing, and high sensitivity to biomolecules and tissues. In this article, we introduce our recent investigations on neuroscience using THz techniques, meanwhile, introduce other’s work in this field. Our and others’ investigations indicate that the THz spectroscopy and imaging technique can be useful for diagnosing brain tumors and neurodegenerative diseases. THz spectroscopy and imaging has the potential to become real-time in vivo diagnostic methods.

  11. [Principles and applications of optogenetics in neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugué, Guillaume P; Tricoire, Ludovic

    2015-03-01

    Numerous achievements in biology have resulted from the evolution of biophotonics, a general term describing the use of light in the study of living systems. Over the last fifteen years, biophotonics has progressively blended with molecular genetics to give rise to optogenetics, a set of techniques enabling the functional study of genetically-defined cellular populations, compartments or processes with optical methods. In neuroscience, optogenetics allows real-time monitoring and control of the activity of specific neuronal populations in a wide range of animal models. This technical breakthrough provides a new level of sophistication in experimental approaches in the field of fundamental neuroscience, significantly enhancing our ability to understand the complexity of neuronal circuits.

  12. What can neuroscience teach us about teaching?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, William T.

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed The study of perception, learning, memory and recall are converging to unite education with neuroscience - the scientific study of the nervous system- around the emerging field of neuroeducation. In this regard, there has been a plethora of scientific findings of educational relevance (such as plasticity, imitation, attention and the role of factors such as exercise, sleep and stress). Recent brain research shows that different circuits are called upon in the b...

  13. Neuroscience:viable applications in education?

    OpenAIRE

    Devonshire, Ian M.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular...

  14. Contributions of Philip Teitelbaum to affective neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    As part of a festschrift issue for Philip Teitelbaum, I offer here the thesis that Teitelbaum deserves to be viewed as an important forefather to the contemporary field of affective neuroscience (which studies motivation, emotion and affect in the brain). Teitelbaum’s groundbreaking analyses of motivation deficits induced by lateral hypothalamic damage, of roles of food palatability in revealing residual function, and of recovery of ‘lost’ functions helped shape modern understanding of how mo...

  15. Considering anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    R.J.R. Blair

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to consider anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Five main claims are made: First, reactive aggression is the ultimate behavioral expression of anger and thus we can begin to understand anger by understanding reactive aggression. Second, neural systems implicated in reactive aggression (amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray; the basic threat system) are critically implicated in anger. Factors such as exposure to extreme threat that increase the r...

  16. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Andrew P.; Michael Hines; Eilif Muller

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specif...

  17. Cyber-workstation for computational neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack DiGiovanna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Cyber-Workstation (CW to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g. recursive least-squares regressor by specifying appropriate connection in a block-diagram. Then, adaptive middleware transparently implements these user specifications using the full power of remote grid-computing hardware. In effect, the middleware deploys an on-demand and flexible neuroscience research test-bed to provide the neurophysiology laboratory extensive computational power from an outside source. The CW consolidates distributed software and hardware resources to support time-critical and/or resource-demanding computing during data collection from behaving animals. This power and flexibility is important as experimental and theoretical neuroscience evolves based on insights gained from data-intensive experiments, new technologies and engineering methodologies. This paper describes briefly the computational infrastructure and its most relevant components. Each component is discussed within a systematic process of setting up an in vivo, neuroscience experiment. Furthermore, a co-adaptive brain machine interface is implemented on the CW to illustrate how this integrated computational and experimental platform can be used to study systems neurophysiology and learning in a behavior task. We believe this implementation is also the first remote execution and adaptation of a brain-machine interface.

  18. Trends in Programming Languages for Neuroscience Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, Andrew P.; Hines, Michael L.; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specif...

  19. PSYCHOLOGY FUTURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF NEUROSCIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Arakelov, Gennady; Glebov, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The article presents basic trends and prospects of development of neurosciences which study the problems of brain dysfunctions, thinking, memory, perception, and data processing. It considers the questions raised by the research of brain elasticity of an adult person, the problem of individual consciousness, decoding of mechanisms of thinking, new trends in cross-cultural of studies. The attention is focused on the important interdisciplinary researches in the field of studying stress / distr...

  20. Exploring Sensory Neuroscience Through Experience and Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Wyttenbach, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Many phenomena that we take for granted are illusions — color and motion on a TV or computer monitor, for example, or the impression of space in a stereo music recording. Even the stable image that we perceive when looking directly at the real world is illusory. One of the important lessons from sensory neuroscience is that our perception of the world is constructed rather than received. Sensory illusions effectively capture student interest, but how do you then move on to substantive discuss...

  1. An Online Multimedia Resource in Behavioral Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, David M.; Tang, Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    The advance of web-based technology has stimulated innovation in education. This paper discusses the development and evaluation of an online multimedia resource for undergraduate-level behavioral neuroscience education. This resource surveys four major subject areas: language, attention and perception, thinking, and autism. It employs audio and video streaming, online demonstration experiments, computer simulation, and internet links. This online resource has two distinct advantages over a pa...

  2. Cyber-Workstation for Computational Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    DiGiovanna, Jack; Rattanatamrong, Prapaporn; Ming ZHAO; Mahmoudi, Babak; Hermer, Linda; Figueiredo, Renato; Principe, Jose C.; Fortes, Jose; Sanchez, Justin C.

    2010-01-01

    A Cyber-Workstation (CW) to study in vivo, real-time interactions between computational models and large-scale brain subsystems during behavioral experiments has been designed and implemented. The design philosophy seeks to directly link the in vivo neurophysiology laboratory with scalable computing resources to enable more sophisticated computational neuroscience investigation. The architecture designed here allows scientists to develop new models and integrate them with existing models (e.g...

  3. Cross-talk in economics and neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Sacha BOURGEOIS-GIRONDE; Schoonover, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Neuroeconomics is a recent extension of behavioral economics which aims at uncovering the brain mechanisms and activities that mediate regular and anomalous behaviour. Gul and Pesendorfer (2005) have launched a critique against the neuroeconomic research program, based on what they argue is the incommensurability of the theoretical constructs employed by each respective discipline. To respond to their argument we envision and illustrate several "directions of instruction" between neuroscience...

  4. Aphasia therapy on a neuroscience basis

    OpenAIRE

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Berthier, Marcelo L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Brain research has documented that the cortical mechanisms for language and action are tightly interwoven and, concurrently, new approaches to language therapy in neurological patients are being developed that implement language training in the context of relevant linguistic and non-linguistic actions, therefore taking advantage of the mutual connections of language and action systems in the brain. A further well-known neuroscience principle is that learning at the neuronal level i...

  5. Revolutionary Impact of Nanodrug Delivery on Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has ...

  6. Imaging neuroscience: Principles or maps?

    OpenAIRE

    Friston, Karl J.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews some recent trends in imaging neuroscience. A distinction is made between making maps of functional responses in the brain and discerning the rules or principles that underlie their organization. After considering developments in the characterization of brain imaging data, several examples are presented that highlight the context-sensitive nature of neuronal responses that we measure. These contexts can be endogenous and physiological, reflecting ...

  7. DIALOGIC LEARNING: A SOCIAL COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nouri

    2014-01-01

    This paper represents an exploration of the educational value of dialogue as a teaching strategy in contemporary classrooms in light of recent evidences grounded in knowledge produced by social and cognitive neuroscience research. The relevant literature suggests that dialogue is a unique feature of humans and no other animal is able to dialogue as they do. Humans are biologically wired for dialogue and interaction with one another in socially and culturally shaped contexts. This dynamic inte...

  8. Optogenetics and the future of neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Edward S

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, optogenetics has become widespread in neuroscience for the study of how specific cell types contribute to brain functions and brain disorder states. The full impact of optogenetics will emerge only when other toolsets mature, including neural connectivity and cell phenotyping tools and neural recording and imaging tools. The latter tools are rapidly improving, in part because optogenetics has helped galvanize broad interest in neurotechnology development.

  9. What The Cognitive Neurosciences Mean To Me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pereira Jr

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of research that combines measurement of brain activity (mostly by means of neuroimaging with a simultaneous performance of cognitive tasks by human subjects. These investigations have been successful in the task of connecting the sciences of the brain (Neurosciences and the sciences of the mind (Cognitive Sciences. Advances on this kind of research provide a map of localization of cognitive functions in the human brain. Do these results help us to understand how mind relates to the brain? In my view, the results obtained by the Cognitive Neurosciences lead to new investigations in the domain of Molecular Neurobiology, aimed at discovering biophysical mechanisms that generate the activity measured by neuroimaging instruments. In this context, I argue that the understanding of how ionic/molecular processes support cognition and consciousness cannot be made by means of the standard reductionist explanations. Knowledge of ionic/molecular mechanisms can contribute to our understanding of the human mind as long as we assume an alternative form of explanation, based on psycho-physical similarities, together with an ontological view of mentality and spirituality as embedded in physical nature (and not outside nature, as frequently assumed in western culture.

  10. Revolutionary impact of nanodrug delivery on neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanbabaie, Reza; Jahanshahi, Mohsen

    2012-12-01

    Brain research is the most expanding interdisciplinary research that is using the state of the art techniques to overcome limitations in order to conduct more accurate and effective experiments. Drug delivery to the target site in the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the most difficult steps in neuroscience researches and therapies. Taking advantage of the nanoscale structure of neural cells (both neurons and glia); nanodrug delivery (second generation of biotechnological products) has a potential revolutionary impact into the basic understanding, visualization and therapeutic applications of neuroscience. Current review article firstly provides an overview of preparation and characterization, purification and separation, loading and delivering of nanodrugs. Different types of nanoparticle bioproducts and a number of methods for their fabrication and delivery systems including (carbon) nanotubes are explained. In the second part, neuroscience and nervous system drugs are deeply investigated. Different mechanisms in which nanoparticles enhance the uptake and clearance of molecules form cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are discussed. The focus is on nanodrugs that are being used or have potential to improve neural researches, diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23730260

  11. [Social impact of recent advances in neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mima, Tatsuya

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience opened up new technical possibilities, such as enabling possible human mindreading, neuroenhancement, and application of brain-machine-interface into everyday life, as well as the advent of new powerful psychotropic drugs. In addition to the conventional problems in bioethics, such as obtaining informed consent, neuroscience technology has generated new array of ethical questions. The social impact of advanced brain science or neuroscience and its technological applications is a major topic in bioethics, which is frequently termed as "Neuroethics." Here, we summarize the ethical, legal, and social issues of cutting-edge brain science by analyzing a classic science fiction novel entitled "Flowers for Algernon" authored by Daniel Keyes (1966). Three aspects of social problems faced by brain science are apparent: biomedical risk assessment, issues related to human subjectivity and identity, and socio-cultural value of brain science technology. To understand this last aspect, enhancement-achievement and/or enhancement-treatment dichotomy can prove useful. In addition, we introduced the first national poll results in Japan (n=2,500) on the social impact of brain science. Although half the respondents believed that the advancement of brain science can aid individuals in the future, 56% of respondents suggested the necessity for guidelines or regulation policies mediating brain science. Technological application of brain science in treatment is generally accepted; however, not just for the personal purpose or enhancement of the normal function. In this regard, it is important to hold further discussions including the general public.

  12. Neuroscience Investigations: An Overview of Studies Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F.

    1999-01-01

    The neural processes that mediate human spatial orientation and adaptive changes occurring in response to the sensory rearrangement encountered during orbital flight are primarily studied through second and third order responses. In the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) neuroscience investigations, the following were measured: (1) eye movements during acquisition of either static or moving visual targets, (2) postural and locomotor responses provoked by unexpected movement of the support surface, changes in the interaction of visual, proprioceptive, and vestibular information, changes in the major postural muscles via descending pathways, or changes in locomotor pathways, and (3) verbal reports of perceived self-orientation and self-motion which enhance and complement conclusions drawn from the analysis of oculomotor, postural, and locomotor responses. In spaceflight operations, spatial orientation can be defined as situational awareness, where crew member perception of attitude, position, or motion of the spacecraft or other objects in three-dimensional space, including orientation of one's own body, is congruent with actual physical events. Perception of spatial orientation is determined by integrating information from several sensory modalities. This involves higher levels of processing within the central nervous system that control eye movements, locomotion, and stable posture. Spaceflight operational problems occur when responses to the incorrectly perceived spatial orientation are compensatory in nature. Neuroscience investigations were conducted in conjunction with U. S. Space Shuttle flights to evaluate possible changes in the ability of an astronaut to land the Shuttle or effectively perform an emergency post-landing egress following microgravity adaptation during space flights of variable length. While the results of various sensory motor and spatial orientation tests could have an impact on future space flights, our knowledge of

  13. Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches to Understanding Behavior Change in Alcohol Use Disorder Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, Nasir H; Morgenstern, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have begun to apply cognitive neuroscience concepts and methods to study behavior change mechanisms in alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatments. This review begins with an examination of the current state of treatment mechanisms research using clinical and social psychological approaches. It then summarizes what is currently understood about the pathophysiology of addiction from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Finally, it reviews recent efforts to use cognitive neuroscience approaches to understand the neural mechanisms of behavior change in AUD, including studies that use neural functioning to predict relapse and abstinence; studies examining neural mechanisms that operate in current evidence-based behavioral interventions for AUD; as well as research on novel behavioral interventions that are being derived from our emerging understanding of the neural and cognitive mechanisms of behavior change in AUD. The article highlights how the regulation of subcortical regions involved in alcohol incentive motivation by prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control may be a core mechanism that plays a role in these varied forms of behavior change in AUD. We also lay out a multilevel framework for integrating cognitive neuroscience approaches with more traditional methods for examining AUD treatment mechanisms. PMID:26259087

  14. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis. PMID:26227821

  15. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis.

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience and the "Mind-Body problem"

    OpenAIRE

    Grega Repovš

    2004-01-01

    In recent years we have witnessed an upsurge of interest in the study of the human mind and how it relates to the material body, the brain. Cognitive neuroscience is a multidisciplinary science that tries to explain how the mind arises from the structure and workings of the brain. Can we equate the study of mind-body relationship with cognitive neuroscience? Are there aspects of mind-body relationship that are not covered by cognitive neuroscience? Is cognitive neuroscience able to explain hu...

  17. What does addiction medicine expect from neuroscience? From genes and neurons to treatment responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is rapidly growing as evidenced by the mapping of the human genome, the progress in brain imaging technologies, and the refinement of sophisticated molecular tools that can be combined with innovative preclinical models. With these advances, it seems that our understanding of processes underlying addiction has never been so great. In comparison, the clinical domain has evolved at a much slower pace. Nonetheless, the addiction medical field has seen some gradual improvements in clinical care with the availability of a larger range of pharmacological options. Notably, several therapeutic alternatives are now offered for the treatment of nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders. Some of these developments in treatment regimens have directly emerged from basic neuroscience research and represent a success story for the bench to beside translational approach. However, the clinical and research needs in addiction medicine are huge. There are still no pharmacological interventions available for psychostimulant and cannabis use disorders. Further, major questions remain unanswered: Would a better understanding of the neurocircuitry of addiction lead to therapeutic intervention? Would a better understanding of the neurochemical signature of addiction lead to the validation of a therapeutic target? Will pharmacogenetics hold its promise as a personalized medicine treatment approach? Using recent research developments, we will illustrate the potential of neuroscience to address some of the pressing questions in Addiction Medicine. PMID:26822369

  18. The brain's emotional foundations of human personality and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kenneth L; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Six of the primary-process subcortical brain emotion systems - SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, CARE, GRIEF and PLAY - are presented as foundational for human personality development, and hence as a potentially novel template for personality assessment as in the Affective Neurosciences Personality Scales (ANPS), described here. The ANPS was conceptualized as a potential clinical research tool, which would help experimentalists and clinicians situate subjects and clients in primary-process affective space. These emotion systems are reviewed in the context of a multi-tiered framing of consciousness spanning from primary affect, which encodes biological valences, to higher level tertiary (thought mediated) processing. Supporting neuroscience research is presented along with comparisons to Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Suggestions are made for grounding the internal structure of the FFM on the primal emotional systems recognized in affective neuroscience, which may promote substantive dialog between human and animal research traditions. Personality is viewed in the context of Darwinian "continuity" with the inherited subcortical brain emotion systems being foundational, providing major forces for personality development in both humans and animals, and providing an affective infrastructure for an expanded five factor descriptive model applying to normal and clinical human populations as well as mammals generally. Links with ontogenetic and epigenetic models of personality development are also presented. Potential novel clinical applications of the CARE maternal-nurturance system and the PLAY system are also discussed.

  19. [Philosophy within the context of neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estany, Anna

    2013-03-16

    Based on the interrelation between science and philosophy, this article addresses the impact of neurosciences on the philosophical issues posed by today's society, especially those related with epistemology and the philosophy of science. To do so, the different approaches in the cognitive sciences are taken into account, with special attention paid to those that have to do with social, embodied and situated cognition versus a more individual, rational and abstract cognition. This initial framework is taken as the starting point with which to analyse the ways of representing knowledge and the characteristics of the cognoscente agent.

  20. Information Infrastructure for Cooperative Research in Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Durka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a framework for efficient sharing of knowledge between research groups, which have been working for several years without flaws. The obstacles in cooperation are connected primarily with the lack of platforms for effective exchange of experimental data, models, and algorithms. The solution to these problems is proposed by construction of the platform (EEG.pl with the semantic aware search scheme between portals. The above approach implanted in the international cooperative projects like NEUROMATH may bring the significant progress in designing efficient methods for neuroscience research.

  1. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  2. Relevance Of Human Brain Banking In Neuroscience - A National Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar S K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of animal models for many of the neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders and the fact that animal models cannot substitute for human tissue led to the establishment of Brain Banks that collect, preserve and provide fresh human tissue for researchers. One such Bank has been set up at the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences funded by Dept. of Biotechnology, Dept. of Science and Technology and ICMR. Brains and tissue fluids (serum and CSF are collected at autopsy following informed consent from close relatives. One half of the fresh brain from neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders are frozen at -70′ C while the other half and brains from infective conditions are formalin fixed which can be used for pathomorphological studies. Only fresh frozen tissues that are tested and found negative for HIV and HbsAg are provided for research. The neural tissues as well as tissue fluids that are being supplied by the Brain Bank have supported a number of research projects in diverse fields of neurosciences. Many significant discoveries that have contributed towards understanding pathogenesis of disease, their genetic basis, and evolving prognostic and diagnostic markers for neurologic disease in the CSF have been made possible by the existence of such a facility. The continued functioning of such a facility requires the close co-operation of the clinical neuroscientists, pathologists and the other neuroscientists. Increased awareness and commitment amongst the scientific fraternity is necessary to keep alive the demand and ensure uninterrupted supply of fresh tissue for research. This will help usher in the era of molecular neurobiology with the fond hope that many more of the relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disorders will eventually find a cause and cure.

  3. On the normative implications of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arleen Salles

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades, brain science has been offering new insights into the relationship among diverse psychological processes and the neural correlates of our moral thought and behavior. Despite the distinction between the explanatory/descriptive nature of science and the normative nature of morality, some neuroethicists have claimed that neuroscientific findings have normative implications. In this paper, I identify three interpretations of the claim. The first focuses on neuroscience’s role in explaining the origin of morality and of moral values and how neurobiology is the bases of moral behavior. A second version is about the role that neuroscientific knowledge can play in showing the psychological plausibility of the moral psychology underlying some ethical approaches. Finally, a third version advances that neuroscience could play a role in determining the moral plausibility of some normative approaches. My aim is to delineate each version and highlight the issues raised to suggest that while neuroscience might provide information regarding the nature of moral reasoning, its role in the normative discussion itself is still quite limited.

  4. A case for human systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J L

    2015-06-18

    Can the human brain itself serve as a model for a systems neuroscience approach to understanding the human brain? After all, how the brain is able to create the richness and complexity of human behavior is still largely mysterious. What better choice to study that complexity than to study it in humans? However, measurements of brain activity typically need to be made non-invasively which puts severe constraints on what can be learned about the internal workings of the brain. Our approach has been to use a combination of psychophysics in which we can use human behavioral flexibility to make quantitative measurements of behavior and link those through computational models to measurements of cortical activity through magnetic resonance imaging. In particular, we have tested various computational hypotheses about what neural mechanisms could account for behavioral enhancement with spatial attention (Pestilli et al., 2011). Resting both on quantitative measurements and considerations of what is known through animal models, we concluded that weighting of sensory signals by the magnitude of their response is a neural mechanism for efficient selection of sensory signals and consequent improvements in behavioral performance with attention. While animal models have many technical advantages over studying the brain in humans, we believe that human systems neuroscience should endeavor to validate, replicate and extend basic knowledge learned from animal model systems and thus form a bridge to understanding how the brain creates the complex and rich cognitive capacities of humans.

  5. Reciprocity between second-person neuroscience and cognitive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey, Peter Ford

    2013-08-01

    As there is "dark matter" in the neuroscience of individuals engaged in dynamic interactions, similar dark matter is present in the domain of interaction between humans and cognitive robots. Progress in second-person neuroscience will contribute to the development of robotic cognitive systems, and such developed robotic systems will be used to test the validity of the underlying theories.

  6. Towards an Understanding of Neuroscience for Science Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience have brought new insights to the development of cognitive functions. These data are of considerable interest to educators concerned with how students learn. This review documents some of the recent findings in neuroscience, which is richer in describing cognitive functions than affective aspects of learning. A brief…

  7. No Brain Left Behind: Consequences of Neuroscience Discourse for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Daniel S.; Pollack, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Educational neuroscience represents a concerted interdisciplinary effort to bring the fields of cognitive science, neuroscience and education to bear on classroom practice. This article draws attention to the current and potential implications of importing biological ideas, language and imagery into education. By analysing examples of brain-based…

  8. A Model for Bridging the Gap between Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2010-01-01

    As the brain sciences make advances in our understanding of how the human brain functions, many educators are looking to findings from the neurosciences to inform classroom teaching methodologies. This paper takes the view that the neurosciences are an excellent source of knowledge regarding learning processes, but also provides a warning…

  9. Implications of Affective and Social Neuroscience for Educational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen major advances in cognitive, affective and social neuroscience that have the potential to revolutionize educational theories about learning. The importance of emotion and social learning has long been recognized in education, but due to technological limitations in neuroscience research techniques, treatment of these…

  10. Brain Matters: A Journey with Neuroscience and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dean G.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience continues to enjoy a renaissance of study and a range of responses, both in explorations of religious experience and in educational practice. Neuroscience, as an interdisciplinary field, attained a new ascendancy at the end of the 20th century, known as the decade of the brain. New insights continue to influence education and public…

  11. Explaining the Alluring Influence of Neuroscience Information on Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Rebecca E.; Rodriguez, Fernando; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the influence of neuroscience information or images on ratings of scientific evidence quality but have yielded mixed results. We examined the influence of neuroscience information on evaluations of flawed scientific studies after taking into account individual differences in scientific reasoning skills, thinking…

  12. Can Cognitive Neuroscience Ground a Science of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anthony E.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I review recent findings in cognitive neuroscience in learning, particularly in the learning of mathematics and of reading. I argue that while cognitive neuroscience is in its infancy as a field, theories of learning will need to incorporate and account for this growing body of empirical data.

  13. Neuroscience and the Soul: Competing Explanations for the Human Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jesse Lee; Ritter, Ryan S.; Hepler, Justin

    2013-01-01

    The development of fMRI techniques has generated a boom of neuroscience research across the psychological sciences, and revealed neural correlates for many psychological phenomena seen as central to the human experience (e.g., morality, agency). Meanwhile, the rise of neuroscience has reignited old debates over mind-body dualism and the soul.…

  14. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching "applied creativity" and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied Neuro...... in the ANC program is that the conceptualization of creativity is built on neuroscience, and a crucial aspect of the course is giving the students a thorough understanding of the neuroscience of creativity. Previous studies have reported that the conceptualization of creativity used in such training...... is of major importance for the success of the training, and we believe that the neuroscience of creativity offers a novel conceptualization for creativity training. Here we present pre/post-training tests showing that ANC students gained more fluency in divergent thinking (a traditional measure of trait...

  15. Neuroscience and education: prime time to build the bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Peña, Marcela; Goldin, Andrea P; Ribeiro, Sidarta

    2014-04-01

    As neuroscience gains social traction and entices media attention, the notion that education has much to benefit from brain research becomes increasingly popular. However, it has been argued that the fundamental bridge toward education is cognitive psychology, not neuroscience. We discuss four specific cases in which neuroscience synergizes with other disciplines to serve education, ranging from very general physiological aspects of human learning such as nutrition, exercise and sleep, to brain architectures that shape the way we acquire language and reading, and neuroscience tools that increasingly allow the early detection of cognitive deficits, especially in preverbal infants. Neuroscience methods, tools and theoretical frameworks have broadened our understanding of the mind in a way that is highly relevant to educational practice. Although the bridge's cement is still fresh, we argue why it is prime time to march over it.

  16. Evidence for Intensive Aphasia Therapy: Consideration of Theories From Neuroscience and Cognitive Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Jade K; Rodriguez, Amy D; Copland, David A

    2016-03-01

    Treatment intensity is a critical component to the delivery of speech-language pathology and rehabilitation services. Within aphasia rehabilitation, however, insufficient evidence currently exists to guide clinical decision making with respect to the optimal treatment intensity. This review considers perspectives from 2 key bodies of research, the neuroscience and cognitive psychology literature, with respect to the scheduling of aphasia rehabilitation services. Neuroscience research suggests that intensive training is a key element of rehabilitation and is necessary to achieve functional and neurologic changes after a stroke occurs. In contrast, the cognitive psychology literature suggests that optimal long-term learning is achieved when training is provided in a distributed or nonintensive schedule. These perspectives are evaluated and discussed with respect to the current evidence for treatment intensity in aphasia rehabilitation. In addition, directions for future research are identified, including study design, methods of defining and measuring treatment intensity, and selection of outcome measures in aphasia rehabilitation.

  17. The use of pigs in neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Nanna Marie; Moustgaard, Anette; Jelsing, Jacob;

    2007-01-01

    in particular. Important practical and ethical aspects of the use of pigs as an experimental animal as pertaining to relevant in vivo experimental brain techniques are reviewed. Finally, current knowledge of aspects of behavioral processes including learning and memory are reviewed so as to complete the summary......The use of pigs in neuroscience research has increased in the past decade, which has seen broader recognition of the potential of pigs as an animal for experimental modeling of human brain disorders. The volume of available background data concerning pig brain anatomy and neurochemistry has...... by imaging techniques. Furthermore, the pig is an increasingly popular laboratory animal for transgenic manipulations of neural genes. The present paper focuses on evaluating the potential for modeling symptoms, phenomena or constructs of human brain diseases in pigs, the neuropsychiatric disorders...

  18. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Davison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  19. The ethics of neuroscience and the neuroscience of ethics: a phenomenological-existential approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Christopher J; Lumia, Augustus R

    2012-09-01

    Advances in the neurosciences have many implications for a collective understanding of what it means to be human, in particular, notions of the self, the concept of volition or agency, questions of individual responsibility, and the phenomenology of consciousness. As the ability to peer directly into the brain is scientifically honed, and conscious states can be correlated with patterns of neural processing, an easy--but premature--leap is to postulate a one-way, brain-based determinism. That leap is problematic, however, and emerging findings in neuroscience can even be seen as compatible with some of the basic tenets of existentialism. Given the compelling authority of modern "science," it is especially important to question how the findings of neuroscience are framed, and how the articulation of research results challenge or change individuals' perceptions of themselves. Context plays an essential role in the emergence of human identity and in the sculpting of the human brain; for example, even a lack of stimuli ("nothing") can lead to substantial consequences for brain, behavior, and experience. Conversely, advances in understanding the brain might contribute to more precise definitions of what it means to be human, including definitions of appropriate social and moral behavior. Put another way, the issue is not simply the ethics involved in framing neurotechnology, but also the incorporation of neuroscientific findings into a richer understanding of human ethical (and existential) functioning.

  20. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  1. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. PMID:27107796

  2. Neurosciences - A neurosurgeon′s perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancements in the field of science in the past fifty years have highlighted the need to integrate all fields of human endeavours and have emphasised interdependency of various disciplines. The separation of humanities, therefore, from neurosciences is a preposterous practical joke on all thinking men. With the human genome project on the anvil, biotechnology is making significant headway holding out promise for organ regeneration. Macro evolution is over, but micro-evolution continues in the brain. Neural Darwinism thus, continues to evolve as long as individual remains conscious and has memory. In the milieu of widely varying internal physiological mechanisms and external stimuli, an alternative theory to preprogrammed directionalism is proposed by three mechanisms namely developmental variation and selection, experiential selections and reentrant signalling. Reentrant signalling reorients and correlates the external inputs leading to psychic development preceding the development of consciousness. The cholinergic and aminergic neuro-modelling systems are well suited to serve as value systems. The main achievement of consciousness is to bring together the many categorizations involved in perceptions into a SCENE. Another part of evolution involved capacity of reentrant signalling to be guided by a value system where it is provided with a lot of choices. With 10(13 neurons and 10(16 connections, freedom of choice may manifest into a ′Buddha′ or a ′Hitler′. As part of the evolutionary process, it was interesting how capacity to categorize the need to worship by referring to environment outside evolved into a search within our minds. As the next stage of evolution, neuroscience may, thus, serve as the next gateway to understanding the mind and soul.

  3. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  4. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27657440

  5. The promise of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-10-01

    Bowers (2016) argues that there are practical and principled problems with how educational neuroscience may contribute to education, including lack of direct influences on teaching in the classroom. Some of the arguments made are convincing, including the critique of unsubstantiated claims about the impact of educational neuroscience and the reminder that the primary outcomes of education are behavioral, such as skill in reading or mathematics. Bowers' analysis falls short in 3 major respects. First, educational neuroscience is a basic science that has made unique contributions to basic education research; it is not part of applied classroom instruction. Second, educational neuroscience contributes to ideas about education practices and policies beyond classroom curriculum that are important for helping vulnerable students. Third, educational neuroscience studies using neuroimaging have not only revealed for the first time the brain basis of neurodevelopmental differences that have profound influences on educational outcomes, but have also identified individual brain differences that predict which students learn more or learn less from various curricula. In several cases, the brain measures significantly improved or vastly outperformed conventional behavioral measures in predicting what works for individual children. These findings indicate that educational neuroscience, at a minimum, has provided novel insights into the possibilities of individualized education for students, rather than the current practice of learning through failure that a curriculum did not support a student. In the best approach to improving education, educational neuroscience ought to contribute to basic research addressing the needs of students and teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. A physiological perspective on the neuroscience of eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Nori

    2014-09-01

    I present the thesis that 'being physiological,' i.e., analyzing eating under conditions that do not perturb, or minimally perturb, the organism's endogenous processes, should be a central goal of the neuroscience of eating. I describe my understanding of 'being physiological' based on [i] the central neural-network heuristic of CNS function that traces back to Cajal and Sherrington, [ii] research on one of the simpler problems in the neuroscience of eating, identification of endocrine signals that control eating. In this context I consider natural meals, physiological doses and ranges, and antagonist studies. Several examples involve CCK. Next I describe my view of the cutting edge in the molecular neuroscience of eating as it has evolved from the discovery of leptin signaling through the application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods. Finally I describe some novel approaches that may advance the neuroscience of eating in the foreseeable future. I conclude that [i] the neuroscience of eating may soon be able to discern 'physiological' function in the operation of CNS networks mediating eating, [ii] the neuroscience of eating should capitalize on methods developed in other areas of neuroscience, e.g., improved methods to record and manipulate CNS function in behaving animals, identification of canonical regional circuits, use of population electrophysiology, etc., and [iii] subjective aspects of eating are crucial aspects of eating science, but remain beyond mechanistic understanding.

  7. Superfluous neuroscience information makes explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Duque, Diego; Evans, Jessica; Christian, Colton; Hodges, Sara D

    2015-05-01

    Does the presence of irrelevant neuroscience information make explanations of psychological phenomena more appealing? Do fMRI pictures further increase that allure? To help answer these questions, 385 college students in four experiments read brief descriptions of psychological phenomena, each one accompanied by an explanation of varying quality (good vs. circular) and followed by superfluous information of various types. Ancillary measures assessed participants' analytical thinking, beliefs on dualism and free will, and admiration for different sciences. In Experiment 1, superfluous neuroscience information increased the judged quality of the argument for both good and bad explanations, whereas accompanying fMRI pictures had no impact above and beyond the neuroscience text, suggesting a bias that is conceptual rather than pictorial. Superfluous neuroscience information was more alluring than social science information (Experiment 2) and more alluring than information from prestigious "hard sciences" (Experiments 3 and 4). Analytical thinking did not protect against the neuroscience bias, nor did a belief in dualism or free will. We conclude that the "allure of neuroscience" bias is conceptual, specific to neuroscience, and not easily accounted for by the prestige of the discipline. It may stem from the lay belief that the brain is the best explanans for mental phenomena.

  8. Struggle for life, struggle for love and recognition: the neglected self in social cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Sergio; Rudrauf, David

    2012-03-01

    In the following article we present a view that social cognition and social neuroscience, as shaped by the current research paradigms, are not sufficient to improve our understanding of psychopathological phenomena. We hold that the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity are integral to social perception and actions. In addition, we emphasize that the self and self-awareness are, by their very nature and function, involved over the entire lifespan with the way the individual is perceived in the social environment. Likewise, the modes of operation and identification of the self and self-awareness receive strong developmental contributions from social interactions with parental figures, siblings, peers, and significant others. These contributions are framed by a competitive and cooperative struggle for love and recognition. We suggest that in humans social cognitive neuroscience should be informed by a thoughtful appreciation of the equal significance of the struggle for "life" and that for love and recognition. In order to be better positioned to improve the research agenda and practice of clinical psychiatry, we propose that cognitive and social neurosciences explicitly incorporate in their models phenomena relative to the self, self-awareness, and inter-subjectivity.

  9. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases. PMID:26344503

  10. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  11. Epochal problems of philosophy of education, today. Technology, posthuman, neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Cambi

    2014-01-01

    The article presents three crucial aspects of philosophical research in pedagogy: the role of technology, the post-human, the relation with neurosciences. These aspects should be rethought critically, always.

  12. Advances in microfluidics-based experimental methods for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Woo; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kang, Myeong Woo; Jeon, Noo Li

    2013-02-21

    The application of microfluidics to neuroscience applications has always appealed to neuroscientists because of the capability to control the cellular microenvironment in both a spatial and temporal manner. Recently, there has been rapid development of biological micro-electro-mechanical systems (BioMEMS) for both fundamental and applied neuroscience research. In this review, we will discuss the applications of BioMEMS to various topics in the field of neuroscience. The purpose of this review is to summarise recent advances in the components and design of the BioMEMS devices, in vitro disease models, electrophysiology and neural stem cell research. We envision that microfluidics will play a key role in future neuroscience research, both fundamental and applied research.

  13. Neuroscience research on aging and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen L; Díaz, Fernando

    2014-10-01

    The advances in neuroscience have led to an increase in scientific understanding of the aging process, and counseling psychologists can benefit from familiarity with the research on the neuroscience of aging. In this article, we have focused on the cognitive neuroscience of aging, and we describe the progression of healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease, given its high prevalence rate among older adults (Alzheimer's Association, 2013). Common techniques used to study the cognitive neuroscience of aging are explained in regards to measuring age-related changes in the brain and the role of biomarkers in identifying cognitive decline related to Alzheimer's disease. Using this information and in collaboration with cognitive neuroscientists, it is our hope that counseling psychologists may further pursue research areas on aging as well as design appropriate interventions for older individuals who may be experiencing cognitive impairment.

  14. Interactive social neuroscience to study autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Max J; Naples, Adam J; McPartland, James C

    2015-03-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate difficulty with social interactions and relationships, but the neural mechanisms underlying these difficulties remain largely unknown. While social difficulties in ASD are most apparent in the context of interactions with other people, most neuroscience research investigating ASD have provided limited insight into the complex dynamics of these interactions. The development of novel, innovative "interactive social neuroscience" methods to study the brain in contexts with two interacting humans is a necessary advance for ASD research. Studies applying an interactive neuroscience approach to study two brains engaging with one another have revealed significant differences in neural processes during interaction compared to observation in brain regions that are implicated in the neuropathology of ASD. Interactive social neuroscience methods are crucial in clarifying the mechanisms underlying the social and communication deficits that characterize ASD.

  15. Bientot un doctorat commun Geneve-Lausanne en neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Interview with Maurice Bourquin and Jean Dominique Vassali, principle and vice principle of Geneva university over plans to combine the neuroscience departments at Geneva with Lausanne University (1 p).

  16. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    OpenAIRE

    Balder eOnarheim; Morten eFriis-Olivarius

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching 'applied creativity' and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitiv...

  17. Applying the neuroscience of creativity to creativity training

    OpenAIRE

    Onarheim, Balder; Friis-Olivarius, Morten

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates how neuroscience in general, and neuroscience of creativity in particular, can be used in teaching “applied creativity” and the usefulness of this approach to creativity training. The article is based on empirical data and our experiences from the Applied NeuroCreativity (ANC) program, taught at business schools in Denmark and Canada. In line with previous studies of successful creativity training programs the ANC participants are first introduced to cognitive concep...

  18. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the fi eld of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology...

  19. Gaining translational momentum: more zebrafish models for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Stewart, Adam Michael

    2014-12-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism in translational neuroscience and biological psychiatry research. Here we discuss conceptual, practical and other related aspects of using zebrafish in this field ("from tank to bedside"), and critically evaluate both advantages and limitations of zebrafish models of human brain disorders. We emphasize the need to more actively develop zebrafish models for neuroscience research focusing on complex traits. PMID:24593944

  20. Brain-based health visiting: How neuroscience is shaping practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Steve; Adams, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Health visitors have always been faced with change and challenge to their role, partly as a result of health visiting being underpinned by a set of 'soft' skills that are difficult to articulate. This article suggests that the relationship-building skills of health visitors can now be underpinned by evidence from developments in neuroscience. In this paper, the aspects of neuroscience behind many of the core interventions health visitors have always used are discussed and their relationship t...

  1. Fever Management Practices of Neuroscience Nurses: National and Regional Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Hilaire J.; Kirkness, Catherine J.; Mitchell, Pamela H.; Webb, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vuln...

  2. The Future of Data Analysis in the Neurosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Bzdok, Danilo; Yeo, B. T. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience is undergoing faster changes than ever before. Over 100 years our field qualitatively described and invasively manipulated single or few organisms to gain anatomical, physiological, and pharmacological insights. In the last 10 years neuroscience spawned quantitative big-sample datasets on microanatomy, synaptic connections, optogenetic brain-behavior assays, and high-level cognition. While growing data availability and information granularity have been amply discussed, we direct ...

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Neuroscience: Towards Closer Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroim...

  4. What we can learn from second animal neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Nephew, Benjamin C.

    2013-01-01

    There are several facets of second person neuroscience that can benefit from comparisons with animal behavioral neuroscience studies. This commentary will address the challenges involved in obtaining quantitative data from second person techniques, the role of stress in inducing robust responses, the use of interactive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the value of applying interactive methods to studies of aggression and depression.

  5. Contributions of Neuroscience to Our Understanding of Cognitive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Adele; Amso, Dima

    2008-01-01

    One major contribution of neuroscience to understanding cognitive development has been in demonstrating that biology is not destiny—that is, demonstrating the remarkable role of experience in shaping the mind, brain, and body. Only rarely has neuroscience provided wholly new insights into cognitive development, but often it has provided evidence of mechanisms by which observations of developmental psychologists could be explained. Behavioral findings have often remained controversial until an...

  6. Adolescent social cognitive and affective neuroscience: past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we review three areas of research within adolescent social cognitive and affective neuroscience: (i) emotion reactivity and regulation, (ii) mentalizing and (iii) peer relations, including social rejection or acceptance as well as peer influence. The review provides a context for current contributions to the special issue of Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience on Adolescence, and highlights three important themes that emerge from the special issue, which are relevant ...

  7. Experimental Methods in Psychology and Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Nielsen, Julie Hassing

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have always been important in psychology and are as commonly used today as ever due to the dominating position of cognitive research in international psychology. This trend has been further strengthened by recent developments in cognitive neuroscience, where experimental...... studies are central. Recently, experimental studies within the field of affective neuroscience have also received attention. Notwithstanding, experimental methods remain controversial also in psychology, and one should carefully weigh their advantages against their drawbacks....

  8. [Origins and first steps of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Suárez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    I recall the background, the environment, the people and the events that led to the birth of the Spanish Society for Neuroscience (SENC) and remember how and why the multidisciplinary Neurobiology teachers at the Medical School of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid decided to organize the First Meeting of Spanish Neurobiologists in 1979. Our principal aim was to promote Neuroscience research in Spain. For this was necessary: to know each other, support each other and organize and set up a modern and solid framework for training young researchers in Neuroscience. After reporting the results and circumstances of the first two Meetings, in 1980 and 1981, I discuss the impact of the Sixth European Neuroscience Congress held in Torremolinos in 1982 on Neuroscience in our country. The 1983 Meeting of the Spanish Neurobiologists decided to create the Spanish Society for Neuroscience. The effort of the heterogeneous Management Commission, the preparation of the Bylaws, the selection of the first members and the birth of the Society in 1985 are outlined. I continue in describing the components and work of the three first Boards of Directors and events of the corresponding Congresses until the consolidation of SENC in national and international scientific fields. My talk runs through the development of our Society, its growth in membership and quality and our hopes for the future. PMID:18777849

  9. What event-related potentials (ERPs) bring to social neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Agustin; Melloni, Margherita; Huepe, David; Helgiu, Elena; Rivera-Rei, Alvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Baker, Phil; Moya, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a recent interdisciplinary field that studies the neural basis of the social mind. Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide precise information about the time dynamics of the brain. In this study, we assess the role of ERPs in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in the emerging area of social neuroscience. First, we briefly introduce the technique of ERPs. Subsequently, we describe several ERP components (P1, N1, N170, vertex positive potential, early posterior negativity, N2, P2, P3, N400, N400-like, late positive complex, late positive potential, P600, error-related negativity, feedback error-related negativity, contingent negative variation, readiness potential, lateralized readiness potential, motor potential, re-afferent potential) that assess perceptual, cognitive, and motor processing. Then, we introduce ERP studies in social neuroscience on contextual effects on speech, emotional processing, empathy, and decision making. We provide an outline of ERPs' relevance and applications in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. We also introduce important methodological issues that extend classical ERP research, such as intracranial recordings (iERP) and source location in dense arrays and simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings. Further, this review discusses possible caveats of the ERP question assessment on neuroanatomical areas, biophysical origin, and methodological problems, and their relevance to explanatory pluralism and multilevel, contextual, and situated approaches to social neuroscience.

  10. Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Counterfactual Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eVan Hoeck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame. Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease.

  11. Computational neuroscience for advancing artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando P. Ponce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available resumen del libro de Alonso, E. y Mondragón, E. (2011. Hershey, NY: Medical Information Science Reference. La neurociencia como disciplinapersigue el entendimiento del cerebro y su relación con el funcionamiento de la mente a través del análisis de la comprensión de la interacción de diversos procesos físicos, químicos y biológicos (Bassett & Gazzaniga, 2011. Por otra parte, numerosas disciplinasprogresivamente han realizado significativas contribuciones en esta empresa tales como la matemática, la psicología o la filosofía, entre otras. Producto de este esfuerzo, es que junto con la neurociencia tradicional han aparecido disciplinas complementarias como la neurociencia cognitiva, la neuropsicología o la neurocienciacomputacional (Bengio, 2007; Dayan & Abbott, 2005. En el contexto de la neurociencia computacional como disciplina complementaria a laneurociencia tradicional. Alonso y Mondragón (2011 editan el libroComputacional Neuroscience for Advancing Artificial Intelligence: Models, Methods and Applications.

  12. Cognitive neuroscience of human counterfactual reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoeck, Nicole; Watson, Patrick D; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Counterfactual reasoning is a hallmark of human thought, enabling the capacity to shift from perceiving the immediate environment to an alternative, imagined perspective. Mental representations of counterfactual possibilities (e.g., imagined past events or future outcomes not yet at hand) provide the basis for learning from past experience, enable planning and prediction, support creativity and insight, and give rise to emotions and social attributions (e.g., regret and blame). Yet remarkably little is known about the psychological and neural foundations of counterfactual reasoning. In this review, we survey recent findings from psychology and neuroscience indicating that counterfactual thought depends on an integrative network of systems for affective processing, mental simulation, and cognitive control. We review evidence to elucidate how these mechanisms are systematically altered through psychiatric illness and neurological disease. We propose that counterfactual thinking depends on the coordination of multiple information processing systems that together enable adaptive behavior and goal-directed decision making and make recommendations for the study of counterfactual inference in health, aging, and disease. PMID:26257633

  13. The neurosciences in Averroes principles of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    One of the fundamental advances of the transition of the Middle Ages to the Renaissance was the rediscovery of the Greek philosophers. Among the greatest representatives of this epoch we find the Cordovan doctor and philosopher Averroes (Ibn Rushd) who, with his commentaries on the works of Aristotle, brought a new philosophical vision to Western Europe. His contribution to medicine has been overshadowed to some extent by this great work of philosophy. Our intention is to evaluate, in the context of the neurosciences, the vision of health and sickness that he left us in his book "The Book of the Principles of Medicine. The organisation of the Kulliyat is based on Aristotelian concepts. Averroes regarded the nervous system not as single entity but rather as a complex of various elements. The anatomy of the nervous system is studied in two parts: the encephalus and the periphery. Both the encephalic nervous system and the sensory organs are regarded as heterogeneous organs. Averroes structures the anatomical order without taking into account the local movements of the living body. The mission of the senses is to maintain contact between external reality and the structure of the organism. This requires an external process, a point of union and an internal process. The ultimate goal is the preservation of health in a balanced disposition and the cure of disease in the organism in disequilibrium.

  14. Considering anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R J R

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to consider anger from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Five main claims are made: First, reactive aggression is the ultimate behavioral expression of anger and thus we can begin to understand anger by understanding reactive aggression. Second, neural systems implicated in reactive aggression (amygdala, hypothalamus and periaqueductal gray; the basic threat system) are critically implicated in anger. Factors such as exposure to extreme threat that increase the responsiveness of these systems, should be (and are in the context of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), associated with increased anger. Third, regions of frontal cortex implicated in regulating the basic threat system, when dysfunctional (e.g., in the context of lesions) should be associated with increased anger. Fourth, frustration occurs when an individual continues to do an action in the expectation of a reward but does not actually receive that reward, and is associated with anger. Individuals who show impairment in the ability to alter behavioral responding when actions no longer receive their expected rewards should be (and are in the context of psychopathy) associated with increased anger. Fifth, someone not doing what another person wants them to do (particularly if this thwarts the person's goal) is frustrating and consequently anger inducing. The response to such a frustrating social event relies on the neural architecture implicated in changing behavioral responses in non-social frustrating situations. PMID:22267973

  15. Evolution and the neurosciences down-under.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmillan, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    At the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth century three Australians made notable contributions to founding the neurosciences: Alfred Walter Campbell (1868-1937) conducted the first extensive histological studies of the human brain; Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1937) studied the monotreme brain and established the basis for understanding the mammalian brain; and Stanley David Porteus (1883-1972) extended his studies of intellectual disability to encompass the relation between brain size and intelligence. The work of each was decisively influenced by important members of the Edinburgh medical school or by Edinburgh medical graduates: William Turner (1832-1916) and William Rutherford (1839-1899) Professors of Anatomy and Physiology respectively at Edinburgh; James Thomas Wilson (1861-1945) Professor of Anatomy at the University of Sydney; and Richard James Arthur Berry (1867-1962) Professor of Anatomy at the University of Melbourne. An important aspect of the influence on the Australians was a materialist view of brain function but the work of all was most important for a theory even more central held by the Scots who had influenced them: Darwin's theory of evolution. The importance of the work of Campbell and especially that of Smith for Darwinism is contrasted with Darwin's own indifference to the peculiarities of the Australian fauna he observed when he visited Australia during HMS Beagle's voyage of discovery in 1836.

  16. Developing the Next Generation of Civic-Minded Neuroscience Scholars: Incorporating Service Learning and Advocacy Throughout a Neuroscience Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroscience Program of Moravian College aspires to produce well-informed, morally responsible and civically engaged individuals who will become the next generation of community leaders. Through the integration of service learning and advocacy into a Neuroscience curriculum, undergraduates are consistently involved in meaningful community service with instruction and reflection that enriches their learning experience, teaches civic responsibility and strengthens their college and local co...

  17. Neurosurgery in the realm of 10(-9), part 1: stardust and nanotechnology in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, James B; Liu, Charles Y; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2008-01-01

    Nanotechnology as a science has evolved from notions and speculation to emerge as a prominent combination of science and engineering that stands to impact innumerable aspects of technology. Medicine in general and neurosurgery in particular will benefit greatly in terms of improved diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities. The recent explosion in nanotechnology products, including diverse applications such as beauty products and medical contrast agents, has been accompanied by an ever increasing volume of literature. Recent articles from our institution provided an historical and scientific background of nanotechnology, with a purposeful focus on nanomedicine. Future applications of nanotechnology to neuroscience and neurosurgery were briefly addressed. The present article is the first of two that will further this discussion by providing specific details of current nanotechnology applications and research related to neuroscience and clinical neurosurgery. This article also provides relevant perspective in scale, history, economics, and toxicology. Topics of specific importance to developments or advances of technologies used by neuroscientists and neurosurgeons are presented. In addition, advances in the field of microelectromechanical systems technology are discussed. Although larger than nanoscale, microelectromechanical systems technologies will play an important role in the future of medicine and neurosurgery. The second article will discuss current nanotechnologies that are being, or will be in the near future, incorporated into the armamentarium of the neurosurgeon. The goal of these articles is to keep the neuroscience community abreast of current developments in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and, in particular, nanoneurosurgery, and to present possibilities for future applications of nanotechnology. As applications of nanotechnology permeate all forms of scientific and medical research, clinical applications will continue to emerge. Physicians of the

  18. Affective psychotherapy in post-traumatic reactions guided by affective neuroscience: memory reconsolidation and play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Högberg G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Göran Högberg1,2, Davide Nardo3, Tore Hällström4,5, Marco Pagani6,71Department of Women's and Children's Health, Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Unit, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2BUP Huddinge Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Neuroimaging Laboratory, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Section for Psychiatry/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 5Department of Neuroscience, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Unit for Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; 6Department of Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 7Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, CNR, Rome, ItalyAbstract: This paper reviews the affective neuroscience dealing with the effects of traumatic events. We give an overview of the normal fear reactions, the pathological fear reaction, and the character of emotional episodic memories. We find that both emotions and emotional memories are a tripartite unit of sensory information, autonomic reaction, and motor impulse (the PRM complex. We propose that emotions and movements are part and parcel of the same complex. This is our main finding from the review of affective neuroscience, and from here we focus on psychotherapy with post-trauma reactions. The finding of the process of memory reconsolidation opens up a new treatment approach: affective psychotherapy focused on reconsolidation. The meaning of reconsolidation is that an emotional memory, when retrieved and being active, will rest in a labile form, amenable to change, for a brief period of time, until it reconsolidates in the memory. This leads us to the conclusion that emotions, affects, must be evoked during the treatment session and that positive emotion must come first, because safety must be part of the new memories. In the proposed protocol of affective

  19. A proposed solution to integrating cognitive-affective neuroscience and neuropsychiatry in psychiatry residency training: The time is now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Stern, Adam P; Padmanabhan, Jaya L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Perez, David L

    2015-10-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the importance of a strong neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education in the training of psychiatry residents, achieving this competency has proven challenging. In this perspective article, we selectively discuss the current state of these educational efforts and outline how using brain-symptom relationships from a systems-level neural circuit approach in clinical formulations may help residents value, understand, and apply cognitive-affective neuroscience based principles towards the care of psychiatric patients. To demonstrate the utility of this model, we present a case of major depressive disorder and discuss suspected abnormal neural circuits and therapeutic implications. A clinical neural systems-level, symptom-based approach to conceptualize mental illness can complement and expand residents' existing psychiatric knowledge. PMID:26054985

  20. Adaptive stimulus optimization for sensory systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMattina, Christopher; Zhang, Kechen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review several lines of recent work aimed at developing practical methods for adaptive on-line stimulus generation for sensory neurophysiology. We consider various experimental paradigms where on-line stimulus optimization is utilized, including the classical optimal stimulus paradigm where the goal of experiments is to identify a stimulus which maximizes neural responses, the iso-response paradigm which finds sets of stimuli giving rise to constant responses, and the system identification paradigm where the experimental goal is to estimate and possibly compare sensory processing models. We discuss various theoretical and practical aspects of adaptive firing rate optimization, including optimization with stimulus space constraints, firing rate adaptation, and possible network constraints on the optimal stimulus. We consider the problem of system identification, and show how accurate estimation of non-linear models can be highly dependent on the stimulus set used to probe the network. We suggest that optimizing stimuli for accurate model estimation may make it possible to successfully identify non-linear models which are otherwise intractable, and summarize several recent studies of this type. Finally, we present a two-stage stimulus design procedure which combines the dual goals of model estimation and model comparison and may be especially useful for system identification experiments where the appropriate model is unknown beforehand. We propose that fast, on-line stimulus optimization enabled by increasing computer power can make it practical to move sensory neuroscience away from a descriptive paradigm and toward a new paradigm of real-time model estimation and comparison.

  1. The role of prediction in social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Clayton Brown

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that the brain is constantly making predictions about future events. Theories of prediction in perception, action and learning suggest that the brain serves to reduce the discrepancies between expectation and actual experience, i.e. by reducing the prediction error. Forward models of action and perception propose the generation of a predictive internal representation of the expected sensory outcome, which is matched to the actual sensory feedback. Shared neural representations have been found when experiencing one’s own and observing others’ actions, rewards, errors and emotions such as fear and pain. These general principles of the ‘predictive brain’ are well established and have already begun to be applied to social aspects of cognition. The application and relevance of these predictive principles to social cognition are discussed. Evidence is presented to argue that simple non-social cognitive processes can be extended to explain complex cognitive processes required for social interaction, with common neural activity seen for both social and non-social cognitions. A number of studies are included which demonstrate that bottom-up sensory input and top-down expectancies can be modulated by social information. The concept of competing social forward models and a partially distinct category of social prediction errors are introduced. The evolutionary implications of a ‘social predictive brain’ are also mentioned, along with the implications on psychopathology. The review presents a number of testable hypotheses and novel comparisons that aim to stimulate further discussion and integration between currently disparate fields of research, with regard to computational models, behavioural and neurophysiological data. This promotes a relatively new platform for inquiry in social neuroscience with implications in social learning, theory of mind, empathy, the evolution of the social brain and potential strategies for

  2. Cognitive Neuroscience-Based Approaches to Measuring and Improving Treatment Effects on Cognition in Schizophrenia: The CNTRICS Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss ways to further improve the search for potentially procognitive agents that could be used to enhance cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia. In particular, we focus on the potential advantages to this process of using a contemporary, cognitive neuroscience-based approach to measuring cognitive function in clinical trials of procognitive agents in schizophrenia. These tools include computer-administered tasks that measure specific cognitive sys...

  3. JNER: a forum to discuss how neuroscience and biomedical engineering are reshaping physical medicine & rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonato Paolo

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in neuroscience and biomedical engineering deeply affect the clinical practice of physical medicine & rehabilitation. New research findings and engineering tools are continuously made available that have the potential of dramatically enhancing the ability of clinicians to design effective rehabilitation interventions. This quickly evolving research field is difficult to track because related literature appears in a wide range of scientific journals. There is a need for a scientific journal that offers to its readership a forum at the intersection of neuroscience, biomedical engineering, and physical medicine & rehabilitation. The Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (JNER is intended to fill this gap and foster cross-fertilizations among these disciplines. By making readily available to clinicians selected studies with potential impact on physical medicine & rehabilitation, JNER is anticipated to foster the development of novel and more effective rehabilitation strategies. Conversely, by presenting clinical problems to a readership of neuroscientists and engineers, JNER is expected to generate innovative work in neuroscience and biomedical engineering with future applications to physical medicine & rehabilitation. JNER will leverage on Open Access as a means to guarantee that its content is readily available to scientists, clinicians, and the general public thus promoting scientific and technological advances that are relevant to rehabilitation. JNER is an Open Access initiative. Open Access assures dissemination to the widest possible audience and is seen by many as essential for publicly funded research. BioMed Central offers an outstanding platform to make JNER possible and allow neuroscientists, biomedical engineers, and clinicians to see their work published in a timely manner and thus make an immediate impact in the field of rehabilitation. JNER will focus on innovative work with higher likelihood of a dramatic

  4. Nutritional Cognitive Neuroscience: Innovations for Healthy Brain Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional cognitive neuroscience is an emerging interdisciplinary field of research that seeks to understand nutrition’s impact on cognition and brain health across the life span. Research in this burgeoning field demonstrates that many aspects of nutrition – from entire diets to specific nutrients – affect brain structure and function, and therefore have profound implications for understanding the nature of healthy brain aging. The aim of this Focused Review is to examine recent advances in nutritional cognitive neuroscience, with an emphasis on methods that enable discovery of nutrient biomarkers that predict healthy brain aging. We propose an integrative framework that calls for the synthesis of research in nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, incorporating: (i methods for the precise characterization of nutritional health based on the analysis of nutrient biomarker patterns, along with (ii modern indices of brain health derived from high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. By integrating cutting-edge techniques from nutritional epidemiology and cognitive neuroscience, nutritional cognitive neuroscience will continue to advance our understanding of the beneficial effects of nutrition on the aging brain and establish effective nutritional interventions to promote healthy brain aging.

  5. Extending the Mind: A Review of Ethnographies of Neuroscience Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eMahfoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews ethnographies of neuroscience laboratories in the United States and Europe, organizing them into three main sections: 1 descriptions of the capabilities and limitations of technologies used in neuroimaging laboratories to map ‘activity’ or ‘function’ onto structural models of the brain, 2 discussions of the ‘distributed’ or ‘extended’ mind in neuroscience practice, and 3 the implications of neuroscience research and the power of brain images outside the laboratory. I will try to show the importance of ethnographic work in such settings, and place this body of ethnographic work within its historical framework - such ethnographies largely emerged within the Decade of the Brain, as announced by former President of the United States George H. W. Bush in 1990. The main argument is that neuroscience research and the context within which it is taking place has changed since the 1990’s - specifically with the launch of ‘big science’ projects such as the Human Brain Project in the European Union and the BRAIN initiative in the United States. There is an opportunity for more research into the institutional and politico-economic context within which neuroscience research is taking place, and for continued engagement between the social and biological sciences.

  6. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies-body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric). PMID:24834042

  7. Out of my real body. Cognitive Neuroscience meets Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eRiva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models - the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory – identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: Why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an eating disorder? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders?In this paper we suggest that a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies – body schema (phantom limb, spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect, active body (alien hand syndrome, personal body (autoscopic phenomena, objectified body (xenomelia and body image (body dysmorphia. Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric or perceptual (egocentric contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view eating disorders may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data

  8. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies-body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric).

  9. A brief review on current progress in neuroscience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANG Min; WU BeiBei; LIU Ying

    2011-01-01

    Neuroscience has been undergoing a rapid development in China since the beginning of the 21 st century.Chinese scientists are working on neuroscience and getting more and more important results.As described by Poo Mu-ming [1],the increasing funding support,the flood of returning overseas researchers and numerous international conferences held in China give birth to the springtime of neuroscience in China.The development of nervous system and neural cells The nervous system is a complex network of axonal projections and synaptic connections [2].At the early stage of neural development,besides generation of neurons and glial cells,synapse formation is the foundation of neuronal circuits and the basis of functions of nervous system including learning and memory.

  10. BrainFrame: a knowledge visualization system for the neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Steven J.; Shaw, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience has benefited from an explosion of new experimental techniques; many have only become feasible in the wake of improvements in computing speed and data storage. At the same time, these new computation-intensive techniques have led to a growing gulf between the data and the knowledge extracted from those data. That is, in the neurosciences there is a paucity of effective knowledge management techniques and an accelerating accumulation of experimental data. The purpose of the project described in the present paper is to create a visualization of the knowledge base of the neurosciences. At run-time, this 'BrainFrame' project accesses several web-based ontologies and generates a semantically zoomable representation of any one of many levels of the human nervous system.

  11. The Cognitive Atlas: Towards a knowledge foundation for cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A Poldrack

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience aims to map mental processes onto brain function, which begs the question of what ``mental processes'' exist and how they relate to the tasks that are used to manipulate and measure them. This topic has been addressed informally in prior work, but we propose that cumulative progress in cognitive neuroscience requires a more systematic approach to representing the mental entities that are being mapped to brain function and the tasks used to manipulate and measure mental processes. We describe a new open collaborative project that aims to provide a knowledge base for cognitive neuroscience, called the Cognitive Atlas (accessible online at http://www.cognitiveatlas.org, and outline how this project has the potential to drive novel discoveries about both mind and brain.

  12. Music therapy with disorders of consciousness and neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Kelly, Julian; Magee, Wendy L.

    2013-01-01

    , there is little evidence to support music therapy in rehabilitation programmes. In contrast, advances in neuroscience have improved our understanding of both brain damage and brain/music interactions. There is increasing support for the role of musical activity in promoting neuroplasticity and functional...... improvements for people with neuro-disabilities, although music therapy specific studies are lacking. Collaborations between the fields of neuroscience and music therapy may yield fruitful progress for both disciplines as well as for patient populations. By outlining the key findings and the remaining...... questions offered by the neuroscience literature, this paper sets out the future challenges to address for clinicians and researchers in developing evidence-based approaches to their work....

  13. Cognitive neuroscience robotics B analytic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume B describes to what extent cognitive science and neuroscience have revealed the underlying mechanism of human cognition, and investigates how development of neural engineering and advances in other disciplines could lead to deep understanding of human cognition.

  14. Anomalous Experiences, Trauma, and Symbolization Processes at the Frontiers between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Loose, Tianna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during, or after traumatic situations. PMID:26732646

  15. Anomalous Experiences, Trauma, and Symbolization Processes at the Frontiers between Psychoanalysis and Cognitive Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeyron, Thomas; Loose, Tianna

    2015-01-01

    Anomalous or exceptional experiences are uncommon experiences which are usually interpreted as being paranormal by those who report them. These experiences have long remained difficult to explain, but current progress in cognitive neuroscience and psychoanalysis sheds light on the contexts in which they emerge, as well as on their underlying processes. Following a brief description of the different types of anomalous experiences, we underline how they can be better understood at the frontiers between psychoanalysis and cognitive neurosciences. In this regard, three main lines of research are discussed and illustrated, alongside clinical cases which come from a clinical service specializing in anomalous experiences. First, we study the links between anomalous experiences and hallucinatory processes, by showing that anomalous experiences frequently occur as a specific reaction to negative life events, in which case they mainly take the form of non-pathological hallucinations. Next, we propose to analyze these experiences from the perspective of their traumatic aspects and the altered states of consciousness they often imply. Finally, these experiences are considered to be the consequence of a hypersensitivity that can be linked to an increase in psychic permeability. In conclusion, these different processes lead us to consider anomalous experiences as primary forms of symbolization and transformation of the subjective experience, especially during, or after traumatic situations. PMID:26732646

  16. Brainhack: a collaborative workshop for the open neuroscience community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Craddock, R; S Margulies, Daniel; Bellec, Pierre; Nolan Nichols, B; Alcauter, Sarael; A Barrios, Fernando; Burnod, Yves; J Cannistraci, Christopher; Cohen-Adad, Julien; De Leener, Benjamin; Dery, Sebastien; Downar, Jonathan; Dunlop, Katharine; R Franco, Alexandre; Seligman Froehlich, Caroline; J Gerber, Andrew; S Ghosh, Satrajit; J Grabowski, Thomas; Hill, Sean; Sólon Heinsfeld, Anibal; Matthew Hutchison, R; Kundu, Prantik; R Laird, Angela; Liew, Sook-Lei; J Lurie, Daniel; G McLaren, Donald; Meneguzzi, Felipe; Mennes, Maarten; Mesmoudi, Salma; O'Connor, David; H Pasaye, Erick; Peltier, Scott; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Prasad, Gautam; Fraga Pereira, Ramon; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Rokem, Ariel; S Saad, Ziad; Shi, Yonggang; C Strother, Stephen; Toro, Roberto; Q Uddin, Lucina; D Van Horn, John; W Van Meter, John; C Welsh, Robert; Xu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brainhack events offer a novel workshop format with participant-generated content that caters to the rapidly growing open neuroscience community. Including components from hackathons and unconferences, as well as parallel educational sessions, Brainhack fosters novel collaborations around the interests of its attendees. Here we provide an overview of its structure, past events, and example projects. Additionally, we outline current innovations such as regional events and post-conference publications. Through introducing Brainhack to the wider neuroscience community, we hope to provide a unique conference format that promotes the features of collaborative, open science. PMID:27042293

  17. From computer to brain foundations of computational neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    Lytton, William W

    2002-01-01

    Biology undergraduates, medical students and life-science graduate students often have limited mathematical skills. Similarly, physics, math and engineering students have little patience for the detailed facts that make up much of biological knowledge. Teaching computational neuroscience as an integrated discipline requires that both groups be brought forward onto common ground. This book does this by making ancillary material available in an appendix and providing basic explanations without becoming bogged down in unnecessary details. The book will be suitable for undergraduates and beginning graduate students taking a computational neuroscience course and also to anyone with an interest in the uses of the computer in modeling the nervous system.

  18. Brainhack: a collaborative workshop for the open neuroscience community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron Craddock, R; S Margulies, Daniel; Bellec, Pierre; Nolan Nichols, B; Alcauter, Sarael; A Barrios, Fernando; Burnod, Yves; J Cannistraci, Christopher; Cohen-Adad, Julien; De Leener, Benjamin; Dery, Sebastien; Downar, Jonathan; Dunlop, Katharine; R Franco, Alexandre; Seligman Froehlich, Caroline; J Gerber, Andrew; S Ghosh, Satrajit; J Grabowski, Thomas; Hill, Sean; Sólon Heinsfeld, Anibal; Matthew Hutchison, R; Kundu, Prantik; R Laird, Angela; Liew, Sook-Lei; J Lurie, Daniel; G McLaren, Donald; Meneguzzi, Felipe; Mennes, Maarten; Mesmoudi, Salma; O'Connor, David; H Pasaye, Erick; Peltier, Scott; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Prasad, Gautam; Fraga Pereira, Ramon; Quirion, Pierre-Olivier; Rokem, Ariel; S Saad, Ziad; Shi, Yonggang; C Strother, Stephen; Toro, Roberto; Q Uddin, Lucina; D Van Horn, John; W Van Meter, John; C Welsh, Robert; Xu, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Brainhack events offer a novel workshop format with participant-generated content that caters to the rapidly growing open neuroscience community. Including components from hackathons and unconferences, as well as parallel educational sessions, Brainhack fosters novel collaborations around the interests of its attendees. Here we provide an overview of its structure, past events, and example projects. Additionally, we outline current innovations such as regional events and post-conference publications. Through introducing Brainhack to the wider neuroscience community, we hope to provide a unique conference format that promotes the features of collaborative, open science.

  19. Behavioural Economics, Neuroscience, and the Unfair Commercial Practises Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests how and to what extent insights from behavioural economics and neuroscience may be used for the interpretation of the 2005 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive. These disciplines provide useful insight in how the average consumer’s decisions are influenced by commercial...... that courts are to make is normative, and that behavioural economics and neuroscience is of a more descriptive nature. Thus these disciplines may not help draw the fine line between the legitimate influence of commercial activities and the illegal distortion of the average consumer’s behaviour. However...

  20. Can the Differences between Education and Neuroscience Be Overcome by Mind, Brain, and Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Boba M.

    2009-01-01

    The new field of Mind, Brain, and Education (MBE)--sometimes called educational neuroscience--is posited as a mediator between neuroscience and education. Several foundational concerns, however, can be raised about this emerging field. The differences between neuroscience and education are many, including differences in their histories,…

  1. The potential relevance of cognitive neuroscience for the development and use of technology-enhanced learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; Leeuwen, van Theo H.; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscie

  2. Neural networks and neuroscience-inspired computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David Daniel; Dean, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    Brains are, at a fundamental level, biological computing machines. They transform a torrent of complex and ambiguous sensory information into coherent thought and action, allowing an organism to perceive and model its environment, synthesize and make decisions from disparate streams of information, and adapt to a changing environment. Against this backdrop, it is perhaps not surprising that computer science, the science of building artificial computational systems, has long looked to biology for inspiration. However, while the opportunities for cross-pollination between neuroscience and computer science are great, the road to achieving brain-like algorithms has been long and rocky. Here, we review the historical connections between neuroscience and computer science, and we look forward to a new era of potential collaboration, enabled by recent rapid advances in both biologically-inspired computer vision and in experimental neuroscience methods. In particular, we explore where neuroscience-inspired algorithms have succeeded, where they still fail, and we identify areas where deeper connections are likely to be fruitful.

  3. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574302

  4. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Catherine N; Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  5. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and "irrationality." Second, excessive gambling inv

  6. Learning with Interactive Computer Graphics in the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of…

  7. Automatic goals and conscious regulation in social cognitive affective neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Sripada, Chandra; Swain, John D.; Ho, S. Shaun; Swain, James E.

    2014-01-01

    The Selfish Goal model challenges traditional agentic models that place conscious systems at the helm of motivation. We highlight the need for ongoing supervision and intervention of automatic goals by higher-order conscious systems with examples from social cognitive affective neuroscience. We contend that interplay between automatic and supervisory systems is required for adaptive human behavior.

  8. Rethinking interdisciplinarity across the social sciences and neurosciences.

    OpenAIRE

    Callard, Felicity; Fitzgerald, Des

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a provocative account of interdisciplinary research across the neurosciences, social sciences and humanities. Setting itself against standard accounts of interdisciplinary 'integration,' and rooting itself in the authors' own experiences, the book establishes a radical agenda for collaboration across these disciplines. Rethinking Interdisciplinarity does not merely advocate interdisciplinary research, but attends to the hitherto tacit pragmatics, affects, power dynamics, and ...

  9. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. PMID:27161033

  10. The Emerging Neuroscience of Third-Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Frank; Hoffman, Morris

    2016-08-01

    Although it is far too early to say that cognitive neuroscience will have any direct impact on how we sentence criminals, patterns are nevertheless emerging that suggest a neural framework for punishment that could one day have important legal and social consequences. PMID:27369844

  11. Fever management practices of neuroscience nurses: national and regional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Kirkness, Catherine J; Mitchell, Pamela H; Webb, Deborah J

    2007-06-01

    Neuroscience patients with fever may have worse outcomes than those who are afebrile. However, neuroscience nurses who encounter this common problem face a translational gap between patient-outcomes research and bedside practice because there is no current evidence-based standard of care for fever management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. The aim of this study was to determine if there are trends in national practices for fever and hyperthermia management of the neurologically vulnerable patient. A 15-item mailed questionnaire was used to determine national and regional trends in fever and hyperthermia management and decision making by neuroscience nurses. Members of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses were surveyed (N = 1,225) and returned 328 usable surveys. Fewer than 20% of respondents reported having an explicit fever management protocol in place for neurologic patients, and 12.5% reported having a nonspecific patient protocol available for fever management. Several clear and consistent patterns in interventions for fever and hyperthermia management were seen nationally, including acetaminophen administration at a dose of 650 mg every 4 hours, ice packs, water cooling blankets, and tepid bathing. However, regional differences were seen in intervention choices and initial temperature to treat. PMID:17591411

  12. Building Bridges between Neuroscience, Cognition and Education with Predictive Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Steve; Tommerdahl, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    As the field of Mind, Brain, and Education seeks new ways to credibly bridge the gap between neuroscience, the cognitive sciences, and education, various connections are being developed and tested. This article presents a framework and offers examples of one approach, predictive modeling within a virtual educational system that can include…

  13. Point of View: Taking a Cue from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miele, Eleanor A.

    2015-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This article encourages teachers to use emerging scientific evidence to change classroom culture--accept the evidence from neuroscience and find ways to make classrooms less stressful and more successful.

  14. The Implications of Social Neuroscience for Social Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPartland, James C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    Social disability represents a unifying feature in the diverse group of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Social neuroscience is the study of brain mechanisms supporting interpersonal interaction. In this paper, we review brain imaging studies of the social brain and highlight practical applications of these scientific insights.…

  15. Bayesian Just-So Stories in Psychology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jeffrey S.; Davis, Colin J.

    2012-01-01

    According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make 3 main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak.…

  16. Brain-Based Learning and Educational Neuroscience: Boundary Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelenbosch, Rosanne; Kupper, Frank; Krabbendam, Lydia; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Much attention has been given to "bridging the gap" between neuroscience and educational practice. In order to gain better understanding of the nature of this gap and of possibilities to enable the linking process, we have taken a boundary perspective on these two fields and the brain-based learning approach, focusing on…

  17. Wisdom, the Body, and Adult Learning: Insights from Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ann L.

    2011-01-01

    In adult education, there has recently been a recognition of the body's role in adult learning. Attention to neuroscience is somewhat limited, though is emerging. These two perspectives are not integrated. With this article, the author argues that adult education must look to science to achieve a deeper understanding of the evolving…

  18. Genetics and Neuroscience in Dyslexia: Perspectives for Education and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Korne, Gerd; Ludwig, Kerstin U.; el Sharkawy, Jennifer; Nothen, Markus M.; Muller-Myhsok, Bertram; Hoffmann, Per

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of a developmental disorder like dyslexia has received recent input from both neuroscience and genetics. The discovery of 4 candidate genes for dyslexia and the identification of neuronal networks engaged when children read and spell are the basis for introducing this knowledge into education. However, the input…

  19. Translational Research in the Neuroscience of Fear Extinction: Implications for Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Bronwyn M; Milad, Mohammed R

    2014-01-01

    In this review we propose that the fear extinction model can be used as an experimental tool to cut across symptom dimensions of multiple anxiety disorders to enhance our understanding of the psychopathology of these disorders, and potentially facilitate the detection of biomarkers for the same. We evaluate evidence for this proposition from studies examining the neurocircuitry underlying fear extinction in rodents, healthy humans and clinical populations. Furthermore, we assess the potential use of the fear extinction model to predict vulnerability for anxiety and treatment response, and to improve existing, or lead to developing novel, treatments. Finally, we suggest potential directions for future research that will help to further validate extinction as a biomarker for anxiety across diagnostic categories, and that will help to bridge the gap between basic neuroscience and clinical practice. PMID:21865528

  20. Towards a dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: connections that are both possible and necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delion, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The author, a child psychiatrist, calls for a dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience (both from his clinical joint practices with neuropediatricians and on a theoretical level) to found a new approach to the questions of neurodevelopmental and psychopathological disorders. He briefly discusses two examples. The first example is developmental and concerns the links between the archaic grasping reflex and adhesive identification. He shows how the phenomena observed in the two fields can find a logical sequence. The second example concerns a therapeutic technique (wrapping) that is used to soothe self-injurious behaviours in children with autism. Here, again, both approaches are used to better understand the phenomenon in question. Bridges must be built to open new theoretico-clinical and therapeutic collaborations. One could imagine data integration from these two heterogeneous subdomains to form a new complex subdomain, from which productivity is guaranteed.

  1. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen D Larson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primarily seek answers to their questions in an increasingly densely populated collection of articles in the literature, each of which must be digested individually. If it were easier to search a knowledge base that was structured to answer neuroscience questions, such a system would enable questions to be answered in seconds that would otherwise require hours of literature review.In this article, we describe NeuroLex.org, a wiki-based website and knowledge management system. Its goal is to bring neurobiological knowledge into a framework that allows neuroscientists to review the concepts of neuroscience, with an emphasis on multiscale descriptions of the parts of nervous systems, aggregate their understanding with that of other scientists, link them to data sources and descriptions of important concepts in neuroscience, and expose parts that are still controversial or missing. To date, the site is tracking ~25,000 unique neuroanatomical parts and concepts in neurobiology spanning experimental techniques, behavioral paradigms, anatomical nomenclature, genes, proteins and molecules. Here we show how the structuring of information about these anatomical parts in the nervous system can be reused to answer multiple neuroscience questions, such as displaying all known GABAergic neurons aggregated in NeuroLex or displaying all brain regions that are known within NeuroLex to send axons into the cerebellar cortex.

  2. The challenges and benefits of a genuine partnership between Music Therapy and Neuroscience: a dialog between scientist and therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Wendy L; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialog between an experienced professional from each discipline explores the potential for collaboration, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing.

  3. The challenges and benefits of a genuine partnership between Music Therapy and Neuroscience: A dialogue between scientist and therapist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy L Magee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Collaborations between neuroscience and music therapy promise many mutual benefits given the different knowledge bases, experiences and specialist skills possessed by each discipline. Primarily, music therapists deliver music-based interventions on a daily basis with numerous populations; neuroscientists measure clinical changes in ways that provide an evidence base for progressing clinical care. Although recent developments suggest that partnerships between the two can produce positive outcomes for both fields, these collaborations are not considered mainstream. The following dialogue between two experienced professionals from each discipline explores the potentials for collaborations, as well as the misconceptions that may be preventing further synergies from developing.

  4. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Faria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists′ and the Nazi doctors′ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ′collective′ or ′greater good.′ Thus in the 20 th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  5. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine.

  6. Neurorestoratology: one of the most promising new disciplines at the forefront of neuroscience and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang H

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongyun Huang,1 Hari Shanker Sharma2 1Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Rehabilitation Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2Laboratory of Cerebrovascular Research, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala University, SwedenNeurorestoratology is a new and emerging distinct discipline put forward on the basis of nervous restorable (neurorestorable theory, which states that nerve damage to the central nervous system (CNS can be restored. Neurorestorable theory in CNS was proposed by Huang et al based on clinical achievements obtained from cell-based neurorestorative therapy1.  Neurorestoratology, same as neurology, neurosurgery, neurorehabilitation, etc is a distinct discipline in neuroscience and medicine. The Beijing Declaration of International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR determined its definition in 2009.2 The aim of neurorestoratology is to restore or promote recovery of damaged or lost neuronal functions. As depicted in Figure 1,3 it can clearly be seen that there was a blank space – indicated by the question mark in the figure – that needed to be filled with a new discipline, neurorestoratology, so it can be likened to an inexorable biological law and its development to a natural process quite similar to that of the periodic law of chemistry discovered and proposed by Dmitri Mendeleev. In recent years, neurorestoratology has become one of the most interesting core areas of neuroscience and medicine worldwide, representing a novel aspect of translational medicine.

  7. Laughter as a scientific problem: An adventure in sidewalk neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provine, Robert R

    2016-06-01

    Laughter is a stereotyped, innate, human play vocalization that provides an ideal simple system for neurobehavioral analyses of the sort usually associated with such animal models as walking, wing-flapping, and bird song. Laughter research is in its early stages, where the frontiers are near and accessible to simple observational procedures termed "sidewalk neuroscience." The basic, nontechnical approach of describing the act of laughter and when humans do it has revealed a variety of phenomena of social and neurological significance. Findings include the acoustic structure of laughter, the minimal voluntary control of laughter, contagiousness, the "punctuation effect" that describes the placement of laughter in conversation, the dominance of speech over laughter, the role of breath control in the evolution of speech, the evolutionary trajectory of laughter in primates, and the role of laughter in human matching and mating. If one knows where to look and how to see, advances in neuroscience are accessible to anyone and require minimal resources. PMID:26131571

  8. Cognitive neuroscience robotics A synthetic approaches to human understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Asada, Minoru; Osaka, Mariko; Fujikado, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive Neuroscience Robotics is the first introductory book on this new interdisciplinary area. This book consists of two volumes, the first of which, Synthetic Approaches to Human Understanding, advances human understanding from a robotics or engineering point of view. The second, Analytic Approaches to Human Understanding, addresses related subjects in cognitive science and neuroscience. These two volumes are intended to complement each other in order to more comprehensively investigate human cognitive functions, to develop human-friendly information and robot technology (IRT) systems, and to understand what kind of beings we humans are. Volume A describes how human cognitive functions can be replicated in artificial systems such as robots, and investigates how artificial systems could acquire intelligent behaviors through interaction with others and their environment.

  9. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacioppo, John T; Berntson, Gary G; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associations and influences between social and biological levels of organization. Success in the field, therefore, is not measured in terms of the contributions to social psychology per se, but rather in terms of the specification of the biological mechanisms underlying social interactions and behavior-one of the major problems for the neurosciences to address in the 21(st) century.

  10. Neuroart: Picturing the Neuroscience of Intentional Actions in Art & Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Lael Siler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intentional actions cover a broad spectrum of human behaviors involving consciousness, creativity, innovative thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, and other related cognitive processes self-evident in the arts and sciences. The author discusses the brain activity associated with action intentions, connecting this activity with the creative process. Focusing on one seminal artwork created and exhibited over a period of three decades, Thought Assemblies (1979-82, 2014, he describes how this symbolic art interprets the neuropsychological processes of intuition and analytical reasoning. It explores numerous basic questions concerning observed interactions between artistic and scientific inquiries, conceptions, perceptions, and representations connecting mind and nature. Pointing to some key neural mechanisms responsible for forming and implementing intentions, he considers why and how we create, discover, invent, and innovate. He suggests ways metaphorical thinking and symbolic modeling can help integrate the neuroscience of intentional actions with the neuroscience of creativity, art and neuroaesthetics.

  11. Advances in Neuroscience and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Dando

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  12. Advances in neuroscience and the biological and toxin weapons convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential threat to the prohibition of the hostile misuse of the life sciences embodied in the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention from the rapid advances in the field of neuroscience. The paper describes how the implications of advances in science and technology are considered at the Five Year Review Conferences of the Convention and how State Parties have developed their appreciations since the First Review Conference in 1980. The ongoing advances in neurosciences are then assessed and their implications for the Convention examined. It is concluded that State Parties should consider a much more regular and systematic review system for such relevant advances in science and technology when they meet at the Seventh Review Conference in late 2011, and that neuroscientists should be much more informed and engaged in these processes of protecting their work from malign misuse.

  13. Mathematical Frameworks for Oscillatory Network Dynamics in Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Peter; Coombes, Stephen; Nicks, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    The tools of weakly coupled phase oscillator theory have had a profound impact on the neuroscience community, providing insight into a variety of network behaviours ranging from central pattern generation to synchronisation, as well as predicting novel network states such as chimeras. However, there are many instances where this theory is expected to break down, say in the presence of strong coupling, or must be carefully interpreted, as in the presence of stochastic forcing. There are also surprises in the dynamical complexity of the attractors that can robustly appear-for example, heteroclinic network attractors. In this review we present a set of mathematical tools that are suitable for addressing the dynamics of oscillatory neural networks, broadening from a standard phase oscillator perspective to provide a practical framework for further successful applications of mathematics to understanding network dynamics in neuroscience. PMID:26739133

  14. Kalman meets neuron - the intersection of control theory and neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Steven

    2009-03-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models which provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I will show recent examples of the use of nonlinear control theory for the assimilation and control of single neuron dynamics, a novel framework for dynamic clamp, the modulation of oscillatory wave dynamics in brain cortex, a control framework for Parkinsonian dynamics and seizures, and the use of optimized parameter model networks to assimilate complex network data.

  15. Genealogy of racial bias in terms of social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Kuran

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Racial prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination were in the past mostly dealt within the field of social psychology and sociology. In recent decades, some technological innovations enabled new research approaches, allowing illumination and explanation of cognitive mechanisms behind stereotypic behaviour. The author compares the new research work with the previous theoretical notion of prejudice and stereotyping behavior as well as critically evaluates the neuroscience contribution to the socio-psychological interpretation of prejudice. Special attention is paid to the question of whether prejudice, stereotypes and discrimination can together be considered as a complex multidisciplinary scientific phenomenon that manifests differently on different levels of scientific observation (neurology, psychology, sociology through the viewpoint of social neuroscience. The article concludes with the author's view on the future of psychological research on racial prejudice within the evolving cognitive sciences.

  16. Statistical learning analysis in neuroscience: aiming for transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanke

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires ``neuroscience-aware'' technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities.

  17. Introduction to The neurosciences and music IV: learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenmüller, E; Demorest, S M; Fujioka, T; Halpern, A R; Hannon, E E; Loui, P; Majno, M; Oechslin, M S; Osborne, N; Overy, K; Palmer, C; Peretz, I; Pfordresher, P Q; Särkämö, T; Wan, C Y; Zatorre, R J

    2012-04-01

    The conference entitled "The Neurosciences and Music-IV: Learning and Memory'' was held at the University of Edinburgh from June 9-12, 2011, jointly hosted by the Mariani Foundation and the Institute for Music in Human and Social Development, and involving nearly 500 international delegates. Two opening workshops, three large and vibrant poster sessions, and nine invited symposia introduced a diverse range of recent research findings and discussed current research directions. Here, the proceedings are introduced by the workshop and symposia leaders on topics including working with children, rhythm perception, language processing, cultural learning, memory, musical imagery, neural plasticity, stroke rehabilitation, autism, and amusia. The rich diversity of the interdisciplinary research presented suggests that the future of music neuroscience looks both exciting and promising, and that important implications for music rehabilitation and therapy are being discovered.

  18. New frontiers in the neuroscience of the sense of agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole eDavid

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense that I am the author of my own actions, including the ability to distinguish my own from other people’s actions, is a fundamental building block of our sense of self, on the one hand, and successful social interactions, on the other. Using cognitive neuroscience techniques, researchers have attempted to elucidate the functional basis of this intriguing phenomenon, also trying to explain pathological abnormalities of action awareness in certain psychiatric and neurological disturbances. Recent conceptual, technological and methodological advances suggest several interesting and necessary new leads for future research on the neuroscience of agency. Here I will describe new frontiers for the field such as the need for novel and multifactorial paradigms, anatomically plausible network models for the sense of agency, investigations of the temporal dynamics during agentic processing and ecologically valid virtual reality applications.

  19. Statistical learning analysis in neuroscience: aiming for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Michael; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Haxby, James V; Pollmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Encouraged by a rise of reciprocal interest between the machine learning and neuroscience communities, several recent studies have demonstrated the explanatory power of statistical learning techniques for the analysis of neural data. In order to facilitate a wider adoption of these methods, neuroscientific research needs to ensure a maximum of transparency to allow for comprehensive evaluation of the employed procedures. We argue that such transparency requires "neuroscience-aware" technology for the performance of multivariate pattern analyses of neural data that can be documented in a comprehensive, yet comprehensible way. Recently, we introduced PyMVPA, a specialized Python framework for machine learning based data analysis that addresses this demand. Here, we review its features and applicability to various neural data modalities. PMID:20582270

  20. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A; Newsome, William T; Anderson, David J; Bargmann, Cornelia I; Brown, Emery N; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P; Hudson, Kathy L; Ling, Geoffrey S F; MacLeish, Peter R; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A; Sanes, Joshua R; Schnitzer, Mark J; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Tank, David W; Tsien, Roger Y; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C

    2015-05-19

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions.

  1. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad-hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tool...

  2. Neuroscience and management: challenges for behavioural research in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    David Naranjo-Gil; Laura Gomez-Ruiz; Maria Jesus Sanchez-Exposito

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore how the application of neuroscience to management research can facilitate a better understanding of some issues concerning to people behaviour in organizations. In recent years, the ability of researchers to directly observe brain activity has increased tremendously. This paper presented extant neuroscientific findings and showed some examples on how they could be incorporated into management research. We present two studies on honesty and social loaf...

  3. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain

    OpenAIRE

    Constance Holman; Etienne de Villers-Sidani

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: the cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once d...

  4. Social ties and health: A social neuroscience perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2013-01-01

    Research over the last several decades has shown that the health of the body is intimately tied to the strength of our social connections, but why? This article reviews evidence from affective and social neuroscience suggesting that, because of the importance of social ties for mammalian survival, threats to social connection are processed by some of the same neural regions that process basic threats to survival and consequently trigger physiological threat responses that have negative health...

  5. RIDT/Malta Neuroscience Network (MNN) Brain Campaign 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Kenely, Wilfred; Malta Neuroscience Network (MNN); University of Malta Research Trust (RIDT)

    2015-01-01

    The University of Malta Research Trust (RIDT), in collaboration with the Malta Neuroscience Network (MNN), has chosen The Brain as its main campaign for 2016. The campaign will have two parallel strands - one strand promoting brain awareness and the other a fund-raising campaign for research in brain disorders. The main objective of the fi rst strand is for the public to understand the brain and its functions and is intended to bring together scientists and the communi...

  6. The Neuroscience of Teaching Narratives: Facilitating Social and Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Whalen

    2010-01-01

    Humanities and the sciences have long been considered polar opposites that exist in separate realms of academia and require different cognitive skills. However, neuroscience has brought about renewed interest in what we can learn about the human brain by investigating links between disciplines. For example, studies related to English literature have revealed that the benefits of reading narratives (fiction and nonfiction stories) extend far beyond language development and include increased co...

  7. Plastic Neuroscience: Studying What the Brain Cares About

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph eDumit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on Allan Newell’s You can’t play 20 questions with nature and win, this article proposes that neuroscience needs to go beyond binary hypothesis testing and design experiments that follow what neurons care about. Examples from Lettvin et. al. are used to demonstrate that one can experimentally play with neurons and generate surprising results. In this manner, brains are not confused with persons, rather, persons are understood to do things with their brains.

  8. Dissociation in Hysteria and Hypnosis: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Vaughan; Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W; Deeley, Quinton

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Jean-Martin Charcot proposed the radical hypothesis that similar brain processes were responsible for the unexplained neurological symptoms of 'hysteria', now typically diagnosed as 'conversion disorder' or 'dissociative (conversion) disorder', and the temporary effects of hypnosis. While this idea has been largely ignored, recent cognitive neuroscience studies indicate that (i) hypnotisability traits are associated with a tendency to develop dissociative symptoms in the s...

  9. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed li...

  10. Learning with Interactive Computer Graphics in the Undergraduate Neuroscience Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Pani, John R.; Chariker, Julia H.; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2014-01-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of adaptive exploration, in which exploration in a high fidelity graphical environment is integrated with immediate testing and feedback in repeated cycles o...

  11. Cephalopods in neuroscience: Regulations, research and the 3Rs

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorito, G; Gestal, C. (Camino); Villanueva, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopods have been utilised in neurosci- ence research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentia- tion) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and synapse). On 1 January 2013, research using any of the about 700 extant species of ‘‘live cephalopods’’ became regulated within the E...

  12. SOCIAL NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Cacioppo, John T.; Berntson, Gary G.; Decety, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Social species create emergent organizations beyond the individual. These emergent structures evolved hand in hand with neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social neuroscience seeks to specify the neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms underlying social behavior, and in so doing to understand the associ...

  13. Bayesian just-so stories in psychology and neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J.S.; Davis, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make three main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak at best. This weakness relates to the many arbitrary ways that priors, likelihoods, and utility functions can be altered in order to account fo...

  14. Bayesian just-so stories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, J.S.; Davis, Colin J

    2012-01-01

    According to Bayesian theories in psychology and neuroscience, minds and brains are (near) optimal in solving a wide range of tasks. We challenge this view and argue that more traditional, non-Bayesian approaches are more promising. We make three main arguments. First, we show that the empirical evidence for Bayesian theories in psychology is weak at best. This weakness relates to the many arbitrary ways that priors, likelihoods, and utility functions can be altered in order to account fo...

  15. Buddhism and Cognitive (Neuro)Science: An Uneasy Liaison?

    OpenAIRE

    Vörös, Sebastjan

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this article is to shed light on the intricate relationship between Buddhism and science by focusing on what is becoming an increasingly popular area of contact between the two domains, namely the study of consciousness in the field of cognitive (neuro)science. First, three fundamental ways of approaching the relationship between Buddhism and science are outlined: (a) rejection (Buddhism and science are not, and cannot be, compatible); (b) acceptance (Buddhism and science shar...

  16. NeuroLex.org: An online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Stephen D; Maryann eMartone

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still prim...

  17. Pathological choice: The neuroscience of gambling and gambling addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, L.; Averbeck, B.; Payer, D.; Sescousse, G.T.; Winstanley, C.A.; Xue, G.

    2013-01-01

    Gambling is pertinent to neuroscience research for at least two reasons. First, gambling is a naturalistic and pervasive example of risky decision making, and thus gambling games can provide a paradigm for the investigation of human choice behavior and “irrationality.” Second, excessive gambling involvement (i.e., pathological gambling) is currently conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, and research on this condition may provide insights into addictive mechanisms in the absence of exogeno...

  18. Ephus: Multipurpose Data Acquisition Software for Neuroscience Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin A Suter; Timothy O'Connor; Vijay Iyer; Leopoldo Petreanu; Hooks, Bryan M.; Taro Kiritani; Karel Svoboda; Gordon M. G Shepherd

    2010-01-01

    Physiological measurements in neuroscience experiments often involve complex stimulus paradigms and multiple data channels. Ephus (http://www.ephus.org) is an open-source software package designed for general-purpose data acquisition and instrument control. Ephus operates as a collection of modular programs, including an ephys program for standard whole-cell recording with single or multiple electrodes in typical electrophysiological experiments, and a mapper program for synaptic circuit mapp...

  19. Measuring Salivary Cortisol in the Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Kalman, Brian A.; Grahn, Ruth E.

    2004-01-01

    It is often difficult for instructors teaching laboratory courses in behavioral neuroscience to find appropriate experiments that can ethically examine biological parameters in human participants. In most instances, the default experiments that allow students to act as both experimenter and subject tend to be electrophysiological in nature (e.g., EEG, GSR, etc.). We report here the use of an experiment module that utilizes an easily-obtained enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit to measure human saliv...

  20. Toward a model-based cognitive neuroscience of mind wandering

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, Guy; Mittner, Matthias; Boekel, W.; Heathcote, A.; Forstmann, Birte U.

    2015-01-01

    Published version also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2015.09.053 People often ‘‘mind wander” during everyday tasks, temporarily losing track of time, place, or current task goals. In laboratory-based tasks, mind wandering is often associated with performance decrements in behavioral variables and changes in neural recordings. Such empirical associations provide descriptive accounts of mind wandering – howit affects ongoing task performance – but fa...

  1. Behavioral observation of xenopus tadpole swimming for neuroscience labs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wenchang; Wagner, Monica Anne; Porter, Nicola Jean

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience labs benefit from reliable, easily - monitored neural responses mediated by well - studied neural pathways . Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been used as a simple vertebrate model preparation in motor control studies. Most of the neuronal pathways underlying different aspects of tadpole swimming behavior have been revealed. These include the skin mechanosensory touch and pineal eye light - sensing pathways whose activation can initiate swimming , and the cement gland pressure - sens...

  2. Representational Similarity Analysis – Connecting the Branches of Systems Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Bandettini, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g., single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). ...

  3. NeuroLex.org: an online framework for neuroscience knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Stephen D; Martone, Maryann E.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to transmit, organize, and query information digitally has brought with it the challenge of how to best use this power to facilitate scientific inquiry. Today, few information systems are able to provide detailed answers to complex questions about neuroscience that account for multiple spatial scales, and which cross the boundaries of diverse parts of the nervous system such as molecules, cellular parts, cells, circuits, systems and tissues. As a result, investigators still primar...

  4. Consumer Neuroscience and Neuromarketing: What New on Marketing Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Balconi Michela

    2014-01-01

    The novelty of Neuromarketing and Consumer Neuroscience is the extensive use of experimental results from the laboratory and from the field, which have progressively bypassed the division between formalized and empirical arguments. This advance allows the investigation of the behavioural and neural mechanisms of decision without predict a sort of perfect rational consumer, opening the «black-box» to include the processes implicated in the construction and implementation of a decision, such as...

  5. Interpreting BOLD: towards a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Clare; Kurth-Nelson, Zebulun; Mishra, Anusha

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience depends on the use of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to probe brain function. Although commonly used as a surrogate measure of neuronal activity, BOLD signals actually reflect changes in brain blood oxygenation. Understanding the mechanisms linking neuronal activity to vascular perfusion is, therefore, critical in interpreting BOLD. Advances in cellular neuroscience demonstrating differences in this neurovascular relationship in different brain regions, conditions or pathologies are often not accounted for when interpreting BOLD. Meanwhile, within cognitive neuroscience, the increasing use of high magnetic field strengths and the development of model-based tasks and analyses have broadened the capability of BOLD signals to inform us about the underlying neuronal activity, but these methods are less well understood by cellular neuroscientists. In 2016, a Royal Society Theo Murphy Meeting brought scientists from the two communities together to discuss these issues. Here, we consolidate the main conclusions arising from that meeting. We discuss areas of consensus about what BOLD fMRI can tell us about underlying neuronal activity, and how advanced modelling techniques have improved our ability to use and interpret BOLD. We also highlight areas of controversy in understanding BOLD and suggest research directions required to resolve these issues. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574302

  6. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning.

  7. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach.

  8. Psychoanalysis and the brain - why did freud abandon neuroscience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, "Project of a Scientific Psychology," in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological predispositions of psychodynamic processes. However, he was not so much focused on the actual psychological functions themselves which though were the prime focus of the neuroscience at his time and also in current Cognitive Neuroscience. Instead, he probably would have been more interested in the brain's resting state and its constitution of a spatiotemporal structure. I here assume that the resting state activity constitutes a statistically based virtual structure extending and linking the different discrete points in time and space within the brain. That in turn may serve as template, schemata, or grid for all subsequent neural processing during stimulus-induced activity. As such the resting state' spatiotemporal structure may serve as the neural predisposition of what Freud described as "psychological structure." Hence, Freud and also current neuropsychoanalysis may want to focus more on neural predispositions, the necessary non-sufficient conditions, rather than the neural correlates, i.e., sufficient, conditions of psychodynamic processes.

  9. Technical evolutions of the french multipurpose instruments for cognitive neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bois, JM; Legrand, G.; Matsakis, Y.; Venet, M.; McIntyre, J.; Shulenin, A.

    Since the first French flight in space in 1982, the CNES has developed a wide range of instruments, especially in the field of Neurosciences. The design of these instruments has considerably evolved from rather simple equipment up to much more sophisticated tools that are being specially tayloried for these missions. Four major phases can be identified: - a simple adaptation of an echographe leading to the first neurosciences experiments (the ARAGATZ'88 mission), - the ILLUSIONS and VIMINAL instruments used during the ANTARES'92 and ALTAIR'93 missions, - the COGNILAB instrument developed for the CASSIOPEE'96 mission, to be re-used in 1997 and in 1999, - a preliminary design of the 1999 mission payload, including virtual reality concepts, in a modular design to adapt to the European COF. Aside from the evolution of scientific requirements, the experience gained during the flights led to progressive improvements in the different technical parts, including visual system, body restraint systems, accessories, such as a force feedback joystick, computer and software, etc. This paper describes the technical evolutions in the CNES Neurosciences program.

  10. A Series of Computational Neuroscience Labs Increases Comfort with MATLAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David F

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations allow for a low-cost, reliable means to demonstrate complex and often times inaccessible concepts to undergraduates. However, students without prior computer programming training may find working with code-based simulations to be intimidating and distracting. A series of computational neuroscience labs involving the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, an Integrate-and-Fire model, and a Hopfield Memory network were used in an undergraduate neuroscience laboratory component of an introductory level course. Using short focused surveys before and after each lab, student comfort levels were shown to increase drastically from a majority of students being uncomfortable or with neutral feelings about working in the MATLAB environment to a vast majority of students being comfortable working in the environment. Though change was reported within each lab, a series of labs was necessary in order to establish a lasting high level of comfort. Comfort working with code is important as a first step in acquiring computational skills that are required to address many questions within neuroscience.

  11. Building a functional multiple intelligences theory to advance educational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A key goal of educational neuroscience is to conduct constrained experimental research that is theory-driven and yet also clearly related to educators' complex set of questions and concerns. However, the fields of education, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience use different levels of description to characterize human ability. An important advance in research in educational neuroscience would be the identification of a cognitive and neurocognitive framework at a level of description relatively intuitive to educators. I argue that the theory of multiple intelligences (MI; Gardner, 1983), a conception of the mind that motivated a past generation of teachers, may provide such an opportunity. I criticize MI for doing little to clarify for teachers a core misunderstanding, specifically that MI was only an anatomical map of the mind but not a functional theory that detailed how the mind actually processes information. In an attempt to build a "functional MI" theory, I integrate into MI basic principles of cognitive and neural functioning, namely interregional neural facilitation and inhibition. In so doing I hope to forge a path toward constrained experimental research that bears upon teachers' concerns about teaching and learning. PMID:24391613

  12. Representational similarity analysis - connecting the branches of systems neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental challenge for systems neuroscience is to quantitatively relate its three major branches of research: brain-activity measurement, behavioral measurement, and computational modeling. Using measured brain-activity patterns to evaluate computational network models is complicated by the need to define the correspondency between the units of the model and the channels of the brain-activity data, e.g. single-cell recordings or voxels from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Similar correspondency problems complicate relating activity patterns between different modalities of brain-activity measurement, and between subjects and species. In order to bridge these divides, we suggest abstracting from the activity patterns themselves and computing representational dissimilarity matrices, which characterize the information carried by a given representation in a brain or model. We propose a new experimental and data-analytical framework called representational similarity analysis (RSA, in which multi-channel measures of neural activity are quantitatively related to each other and to computational theory and behavior by comparing representational dissimilarity matrices. We demonstrate RSA by relating representations of visual objects as measured with fMRI to computational models spanning a wide range of complexities. We argue that these ideas, which have deep roots in psychology and neuroscience, will allow the integrated quantitative analysis of data from all three branches, thus contributing to a more unified systems neuroscience.

  13. Tracking social motivation systems deficits: the affective neuroscience view of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.

  14. Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder-a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronningstam, Elsa; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R

    2013-06-01

    Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. Attention can play a crucial role in moderating fear and self-regulatory deficits, and the interaction between experience and emotion can be central for decision-making. In this review we will explore fear as a motivating factor in narcissistic personality functioning, and the impact fear may have on decision-making in people with pathological narcissism and NPD. Understanding the processes and neurological underpinnings of fear and decision-making can potentially influence both the diagnosis and treatment of NPD.

  15. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Great nature's second course: Introduction to the special issue on the behavioral neuroscience of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2016-06-01

    Sleep is necessary for normal psychological functioning, and psychological function in turn affects sleep integrity. Recent investigations delineate the relation of sleep to a broad array of processes ranging from learning and memory to emotional reactivity and mood, and use a variety of methodological approaches (imaging, electrophysiological, behavioral) to reveal the complex relations between sleep and the functioning of the awake brain. The articles in this issue advance our fundamental knowledge of the relation of sleep to psychological function. In addition, several of the articles discuss how sleep is affected by or affects human clinical conditions, including insomnia, epilepsy, mild cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, and cancer. Together, the articles of this special issue highlight recent progress in understanding the behavioral neuroscience of sleep and identify promising areas for future research, including the possibility of sleep-based interventions to improve psychological health. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214499

  17. Getting a grip on problem gambling: What can neuroscience tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Goudriaan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In problem gamblers, diminished cognitive control and increased impulsivity is present compared to healthy controls. Moreover, impulsivity has been found to be a vulnerability marker for the development of pathological gambling (PG and problem gambling (PrG and to be a predictor of relapse. In this review, the most recent findings on functioning of the brain circuitry relating to impulsivity and cognitive control in PG and PrG are discussed. Diminished functioning of several prefrontal areas and of the anterior cingulate cortex indicate that cognitive-control related brain circuitry functions are diminished in PG and PrG compared to healthy controls. From the available cue reactivity studies on PG and PrG, increased responsiveness towards gambling stimuli in fronto-striatal reward circuitry and brain areas related to attentional processing is present compared to healthy controls. At this point it is unresolved whether PG is associated with hyper- or hypo-activity in the reward circuitry in response to monetary cues. More research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions for reward responsivity in different stages of gambling and across different types of reward. Conflicting findings from basic neuroscience studies are integrated in the context of recent neurobiological addiction models. Neuroscience studies on the interface between cognitive control and motivational processing are discussed in light of current addiction theories.Clinical implications: we suggest that innovation in PG therapy should focus on improvement of dysfunctional cognitive control and/or motivational functions. The implementation of novel treatment methods like neuromodulation, cognitive training and pharmacological interventions as add-on therapies to standard treatment in PG and PrG, in combination with the study of their effects on brain-behavior mechanisms could prove an important clinical step forward towards personalizing and improving treatment results in PG.

  18. Experimental Methods in Neuroscience: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Course for Teaching Ethical Issues, Laboratory Techniques, Experimental Design, and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Adam C.; Harrington, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed and recently taught a 200 level undergraduate course entitled, ‘Experimental Methods in Neuroscience’. This is a required course in an increasingly popular Neuroscience major at Smith College. Students are introduced initially to issues of animal ethics and experimentation, and are familiarized with our Animal Care Facility. Using an open field and rotarod apparatus, and the elevated plus and Barnes mazes, they conduct behavioral testing of two strains of mice, C57/BL/6J and...

  19. Developing the Next Generation of Civic-Minded Neuroscience Scholars: Incorporating Service Learning and Advocacy Throughout a Neuroscience Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cecilia M

    2015-01-01

    The Neuroscience Program of Moravian College aspires to produce well-informed, morally responsible and civically engaged individuals who will become the next generation of community leaders. Through the integration of service learning and advocacy into a Neuroscience curriculum, undergraduates are consistently involved in meaningful community service with instruction and reflection that enriches their learning experience, teaches civic responsibility and strengthens their college and local communities. As a result of our brain awareness outreach programming, formation of a local Society for Neuroscience chapter and advocacy for scientific funding initiatives, we have created a model of student engagement that has connected the academic to the practical in life altering ways for our undergraduates. Our service experiences have become an educational awakening as critical reflective thought creates new meaning and leads to growth and the ability to take informed actions. As expressed in our students' portfolio writings, our service learning endeavors have lead to personal growth, contributed to humane conditions and engaged these citizens in purposeful association with one another. PMID:26557792

  20. Nu Rho Psi, The National Honor Society in Neuroscience: A decade of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesp, Zoe C; Cousens, Graham A; Becker, Lora; Zee, Michele C; Mickley, G Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Nu Rho Psi, the National Honor Society in Neuroscience, celebrates its 10th anniversary by reflecting back upon a decade's worth of growth, successes, and accomplishments of its membership. Fundamentally, Nu Rho Psi seeks to engage the nation's best and brightest science students early in their educational pursuits and steer them towards future careers in neuroscience, thereby driving higher quality neuroscience education and research at all levels. This article details the history of Nu Rho Psi since its founding by the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) and reviews the current programs, benefits, and future initiatives of the Society. We make the case that Nu Rho Psi has enhanced the opportunities for undergraduate students of neuroscience and created a new culture among this vital cohort of budding scientists, reminiscent of the substantial network of faculty educators and departments of neuroscience established by FUN. PMID:27385933

  1. A review of the current nomenclature for psychotropic agents and an introduction to the Neuroscience-based Nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Joseph; Stahl, Stephen; Moller, Hans-Jurgen; Blier, Pierre; Kupfer, David; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Spedding, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M; Nutt, David

    2015-12-01

    Neuroscience based Nomenclature (NbN) is a new system of classifying psychotropic drugs by their pharmacological profile. The NbN was developed to replace the current indication-based nomenclature and to provide an up-to-date and more useful framework to better inform pharmacological decisions. NbN provides updated relevant and specific scientific, regulatory and clinical information, aiming to support rational and lucid prescribing. This pharmacologically driven nomenclature, which highlights pharmacological domains and modes of action, may also increase drug adherence as it clarifies the rationale for selecting a specific psychotropic agent.

  2. Terminology for Neuroscience Data Discovery: Multi-tree Syntax and Investigator-Derived Semantics

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Daniel; Goldberg, David H.; Grafstein, Bernice; Robert, Adrian; Gardner, Esther P.

    2008-01-01

    The Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), developed for the NIH Blueprint for Neuroscience Research and available at http://nif.nih.gov and http://neurogateway.org, is built upon a set of coordinated terminology components enabling data and web-resource description and selection. Core NIF terminologies use a straightforward syntax designed for ease of use and for navigation by familiar web interfaces, and readily exportable to aid development of relational-model databases for neuroscience...

  3. When Neuroscience ‘Touches’ Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C.; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting ‘neuro-architecture’ as a way to conne...

  4. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  5. The brain seduction: the public perception of neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Ramani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of magazine covers dedicated to brain studies and the success of magazines and scientific journals entirely dedicated to brain and mind indicate a strong interest on these themes. This interest is clearly surpassing the boundaries of scientific and medical researches and applications and underlines an engagement of the general public, too. This phenomenon appears to be enhanced by the increasing number of basic researches focusing on non-health-related fMRI studies, investigating aspects of personality as emotions, will, personal values and beliefs, self-identity and behaviour. The broad coverage by the media raises some central questions related to the complexity of researches, the intrinsic limits of these technologies, the results’ interpretative boundaries, factors which are crucial to properly understand the studies’ value. In case of an incomplete communication, if those fundamental interpretative elements are not well understood, we could register a misinterpretation in the public perception of the studies that opens new compelling questions. As already observed in the past debates on science and technologies applications, in this case, too, we assist to a communicative problem that set against scientific community on one side and media, on the other. Focusing our attention, in particular, on the debate on fMRI, taken as a good model, in the present letter we will investigate the most interesting aspects of the current discussion on neuroscience and neuroscience public perception. This analysis was performed as one of the bid - brains in dialogue - activities (www.neuromedia.eu. bid is a three year project supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Program and coordinated by Sissa, the International School for Advanced Studies of Trieste, aimed at fostering dialogue between science and society on the new challenges coming from neuroscience.

  6. John Hughlings Jackson and the conceptual foundations of the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, S H

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral localization, including hierarchical organization of the nervous system, was the critical conceptual advance that made possible the development of modern neuroscience in the nineteenth century. Some of our most basic ideas about neural organization were contributed by Hughlings Jackson. In the early twentieth century, Charles Sherrington combined localization with the neurone theory to create the paradigm of neurophysiological integration. Because Sherrington was educated in the Jacksonian tradition of British neurology, Sherringtonian integration contains ideas that are derived from Jackson and from Herbert Spencer.

  7. NEUROMARKETING ET NEUROSCIENCES AU SERVICE DES PUBLICITAIRES : QUESTIONNEMENTS ETHIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Le neuromarketing et les neurosciences au service des publicitaires soulèvent immanquablement des questions éthiques relatives aux finalités de cette nouvelle discipline mais également aux moyens utilisés. L'objectif de ce papier est donc de discuter certaines de ces questions. La première partie s'intéressera aux principaux débats éthiques entre les personnes adeptes du neuromarketing (les "pro-neuromarketing") et les "anti-neuromarketing". La deuxième partie expliquera qu'au stade actuel de...

  8. Applications of CRISPR-Cas systems in neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Matthias; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Genome-editing tools, and in particular those based on CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein) systems, are accelerating the pace of biological research and enabling targeted genetic interrogation in almost any organism and cell type. These tools have opened the door to the development of new model systems for studying the complexity of the nervous system, including animal models and stem cell-derived in vitro models. Precise and efficient gene editing using CRISPR-Cas systems has the potential to advance both basic and translational neuroscience research.

  9. In vivo Coherent Raman Imaging for Neuroscience Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Daniel

    2010-08-01

    The use of coherent Raman imaging is described for applications in neuroscience. Myelin imaging of the spinal cord can be performed with Raman imaging through the use of the vibration in carbon-hydrogen bonds, dominant in lipids. First, we demonstrate in vivo histomorphometry in live animal for characterization of myelin-related nervous system pathologies. This is used to characterize spinal cord health during multiple sclerosis. Second, Raman spectroscopy of tissue is discussed. We discuss the challenges that live animal imaging brings, together with important aspects of coherent Raman imaging in tissue.

  10. How neuroscience and behavioral genetics improve psychiatric assessment: Report on a violent murder case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rigoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advances in the understanding of neural and genetic foundations of violence, the investigation of the biological bases of a mental disorder is rarely included in psychiatric evaluation of mental insanity. Here we report on a case in which cognitive neuroscience and behavioral genetics methods were applied to a psychiatric forensic evaluation conducted on a young woman, J.F., tried for a violent and impulsive murder. The defendant had a history of multidrug and alcohol abuse and non-forensic clinical evaluation concluded for a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder. We analyzed the defendant’s brain structure in order to underlie possible brain structural abnormalities associated with pathological impulsivity. Voxel-Based Morphometry indexed a reduced gray matter volume in the left prefrontal cortex, in a region specifically associated with response inhibition. Furthermore, J.F.’s DNA was genotyped in order to identify genetic polymorphisms associated with various forms of violence and impulsive behaviour. Five polymorphisms that are known to be associated with impulsivity, violence, and other severe psychiatric illnesses were identified in J.F.’s DNA. Taken together, these data provided evidence for the biological correlates of a mental disorder characterized by high impulsivity and aggressive tendencies. Our claim is that the use of neuroscience and behavioral genetics do not change the rationale underlying the determination of criminal liability, which must be based on a causal link between the mental disorder and the crime. Rather, their use is crucial in providing objective data on the biological bases of a defendant’s mental disorder.

  11. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. PMID:26772405

  12. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  13. Neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: From responsibility to dangerousness. Ethical and legal implications of using neuroscience for dangerousness assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkotsi, Georgia Martha; Gasser, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal trials as part of psychiatric testimony. Up to now, "neurolaw" literature remained focused on the use of neuroscience for assessments of criminal responsibility. However, in the field of forensic psychiatry, responsibility assessments are progressively being weakened, whereas dangerousness and risk assessment gain increasing importance. In this paper, we argue that the introduction of neuroscientific data by forensic experts in criminal trials will be mostly be used in the future as a means to evaluate or as an indication of an offender's dangerousness, rather than their responsibility. Judges confronted with the pressure to ensure public security may tend to interpret neuroscientific knowledge and data as an objective and reliable way of evaluating one's risk of reoffending. First, we aim to show how the current socio-legal context has reshaped the task of the forensic psychiatrist, with dangerousness assessments prevailing. In the second part, we examine from a critical point of view the promise of neuroscience to serve a better criminal justice system by offering new tools for risk assessment. Then we aim to explain why neuroscientific evidence is likely to be used as evidence of dangerousness of the defendants. On a theoretical level, the current tendency in criminal policies to focus on prognostics of dangerousness seems to be "justified" by a utilitarian approach to punishment, supposedly revealed by new neuroscientific discoveries that challenge the notions of free will and responsibility. Although often promoted as progressive and humane, we believe that this approach could lead to an instrumentalization of neuroscience in the interest of public safety and give rise to interventions which could entail ethical caveats and run counter to the interests of the offenders. The last part of this paper deals with some of these issues-the danger of stigmatization for brain damaged offenders because of

  14. Semisupervised Clustering by Iterative Partition and Regression with Neuroscience Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqi Qian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regression clustering is a mixture of unsupervised and supervised statistical learning and data mining method which is found in a wide range of applications including artificial intelligence and neuroscience. It performs unsupervised learning when it clusters the data according to their respective unobserved regression hyperplanes. The method also performs supervised learning when it fits regression hyperplanes to the corresponding data clusters. Applying regression clustering in practice requires means of determining the underlying number of clusters in the data, finding the cluster label of each data point, and estimating the regression coefficients of the model. In this paper, we review the estimation and selection issues in regression clustering with regard to the least squares and robust statistical methods. We also provide a model selection based technique to determine the number of regression clusters underlying the data. We further develop a computing procedure for regression clustering estimation and selection. Finally, simulation studies are presented for assessing the procedure, together with analyzing a real data set on RGB cell marking in neuroscience to illustrate and interpret the method.

  15. Approaches for targeted proteomics and its potential applications in neuroscience

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Sethi; Dipti Chourasia; Ishwar S Parhar

    2015-09-01

    An extensive guide on practicable and significant quantitative proteomic approaches in neuroscience research is important not only because of the existing overwhelming limitations but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. Early methodologies to understand the functioning of biological systems are now improving with high-throughput technologies, which allow analysis of various samples concurrently, or of thousand of analytes in a particular sample. Quantitative proteomic approaches include both gel-based and non-gel-based methods that can be further divided into different labelling approaches. This review will emphasize the role of existing technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their applications in neuroscience. This review will also discuss advanced approaches for targeted proteomics using isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) coupled with laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. This technology can further be extended to single cell proteomics in other areas of biological sciences and can be combined with other ‘omics’ approaches to reveal the mechanism of a cellular alterations. This approach may lead to further investigation in basic biology, disease analysis and surveillance, as well as drug discovery. Although numerous challenges still exist, we are confident that this approach will increase the understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in neuroendocrinology, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering protein biomarker signatures for brain dysfunction.

  16. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Neuroscience: Towards Closer Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review article is to provide an integrative perspective by combining basic assumptions of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT with neuroscience research results. In recent years, interdisciplinary research in the field of neuroscience has expanded our knowledge about neurobiological correlates of mental processes and changes occurring in the brain due to therapeutic interventions. The studies are largely based on non-invasive brain imaging techniques, such as functional neuroimaging technologies of positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The neuroscientific investigations of basic CBT hypotheses have shown that (i functional and non-functional behavior and experiences may be learned through lifelong learning, due to brain neuroplasticity that continues across the entire lifespan; (ii cognitive activity contributes to dysfunctional behavior and emotional experience through focusing, selective perception, memory and recall, and characteristic cognitive distortion; on a neurobiological level, there is a relationship between top-down and bottom-up regulation of unpleasant emotional states; and (iii cognitive activity may be changed, as shown by therapeutic success achieved by metacognitive and mindfulness techniques, which also have their neurobiological correlates in the changes occurring in the cortical and subcortical structures and endocrine and immune systems. The empirical research also shows that neurobiological changes occur after CBT in patients with arachnophobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, major depressive disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.disorder and chronic fatigue syndrome.

  17. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo; Cevada, Thais; Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Renato; Teixeira Guimarães, Thiago; da Cruz Rubini, Ercole; Lattari, Eduardo; Blois, Charlene; Camaz Deslandes, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuroscience of exercise is a growing research area that is dedicated to furthering our understanding of the effects that exercise has on mental health and athletic performance. The present study examined three specific topics: (1) the relationship between exercise and mental disorders (e.g. major depressive disorder, dementia and Parkinson's disease), (2) the effects of exercise on the mood and mental health of athletes, and (3) the possible neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise. Positive responses to regular physical exercise, such as enhanced functional capacity, increased autonomy and improved self-esteem, are frequently described in the recent literature, and these responses are all good reasons for recommending regular exercise. In addition, physical exercise may improve both mood and adherence to an exercise program in healthy individuals and might modulate both the performance and mental health of athletes. Exercise is associated with the increased synthesis and release of both neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and these increases may be associated with neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This review is a call-to-action that urges researchers to consider the importance of understanding the neuroscience of physical exercise and its contributions to sports science.

  18. Indestructible plastic: The neuroscience of the new aging brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance eHolman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain’s capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: the cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once dubbed as inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static.

  19. An online, interactive approach to teaching neuroscience to adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leslie; Moreno, Janette; Willcockson, Irmgard; Smith, Donna; Mayes, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Most of today's students are skilled in instant messaging, Web browsing, online games, and blogs. These have become part of the social landscape and have changed how we learn and where we learn. The question becomes how to harness the attractiveness and ubiquity of electronic venues toward the goal of teaching neuroscience. At the Rice University Center for Technology in Teaching and Learning, a central focus is the creation of innovative materials that appeal to middle school students. A recent project was undertaken through a Science Education Drug Abuse Partnership Award (R25 DA15063) from the National Institute on Drug Abuse to inform adolescents about the neurobiology of substance abuse and the current research dealing with a class of drugs known as club drugs. Problem-based learning, multimedia pedagogy, and the National Science Content Standards were integrated to produce The Reconstructors, an episodic series available via the World Wide Web at http://reconstructors.rice.edu. A field test of students from five schools assessed the retention of content after "playing" The Reconstructors series titled Nothing to Rave About. Gain scores indicated that middle school students' knowledge about club drugs and the basic neuroscience concepts that explain their effects improved significantly.

  20. Toward an Integration of Deep Learning and Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marblestone, Adam H; Wayne, Greg; Kording, Konrad P

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience has focused on the detailed implementation of computation, studying neural codes, dynamics and circuits. In machine learning, however, artificial neural networks tend to eschew precisely designed codes, dynamics or circuits in favor of brute force optimization of a cost function, often using simple and relatively uniform initial architectures. Two recent developments have emerged within machine learning that create an opportunity to connect these seemingly divergent perspectives. First, structured architectures are used, including dedicated systems for attention, recursion and various forms of short- and long-term memory storage. Second, cost functions and training procedures have become more complex and are varied across layers and over time. Here we think about the brain in terms of these ideas. We hypothesize that (1) the brain optimizes cost functions, (2) the cost functions are diverse and differ across brain locations and over development, and (3) optimization operates within a pre-structured architecture matched to the computational problems posed by behavior. In support of these hypotheses, we argue that a range of implementations of credit assignment through multiple layers of neurons are compatible with our current knowledge of neural circuitry, and that the brain's specialized systems can be interpreted as enabling efficient optimization for specific problem classes. Such a heterogeneously optimized system, enabled by a series of interacting cost functions, serves to make learning data-efficient and precisely targeted to the needs of the organism. We suggest directions by which neuroscience could seek to refine and test these hypotheses. PMID:27683554

  1. Indestructible plastic: the neuroscience of the new aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Constance; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, research on experience-dependent plasticity has provided valuable insight on adaptation to environmental input across the lifespan, and advances in understanding the minute cellular changes underlying the brain's capacity for self-reorganization have opened exciting new possibilities for treating illness and injury. Ongoing work in this line of inquiry has also come to deeply influence another field: cognitive neuroscience of the normal aging. This complex process, once considered inevitable or beyond the reach of treatment, has been transformed into an arena of intense investigation and strategic intervention. However, important questions remain about this characterization of the aging brain, and the assumptions it makes about the social, cultural, and biological space occupied by cognition in the older individual and body. The following paper will provide a critical examination of the move from basic experiments on the neurophysiology of experience-dependent plasticity to the growing market for (and public conception of) cognitive aging as a medicalized space for intervention by neuroscience-backed technologies. Entangled with changing concepts of normality, pathology, and self-preservation, we will argue that this new understanding, led by personalized cognitive training strategies, is approaching a point where interdisciplinary research is crucial to provide a holistic and nuanced understanding of the aging process. This new outlook will allow us to move forward in a space where our knowledge, like our new conception of the brain, is never static. PMID:24782746

  2. Toward an Integration of Deep Learning and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marblestone, Adam H.; Wayne, Greg; Kording, Konrad P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroscience has focused on the detailed implementation of computation, studying neural codes, dynamics and circuits. In machine learning, however, artificial neural networks tend to eschew precisely designed codes, dynamics or circuits in favor of brute force optimization of a cost function, often using simple and relatively uniform initial architectures. Two recent developments have emerged within machine learning that create an opportunity to connect these seemingly divergent perspectives. First, structured architectures are used, including dedicated systems for attention, recursion and various forms of short- and long-term memory storage. Second, cost functions and training procedures have become more complex and are varied across layers and over time. Here we think about the brain in terms of these ideas. We hypothesize that (1) the brain optimizes cost functions, (2) the cost functions are diverse and differ across brain locations and over development, and (3) optimization operates within a pre-structured architecture matched to the computational problems posed by behavior. In support of these hypotheses, we argue that a range of implementations of credit assignment through multiple layers of neurons are compatible with our current knowledge of neural circuitry, and that the brain's specialized systems can be interpreted as enabling efficient optimization for specific problem classes. Such a heterogeneously optimized system, enabled by a series of interacting cost functions, serves to make learning data-efficient and precisely targeted to the needs of the organism. We suggest directions by which neuroscience could seek to refine and test these hypotheses.

  3. The use of case studies in teaching undergraduate neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meil, William M

    2007-01-01

    Case studies have been the cornerstone of many discoveries in neurology and continue to be an indispensable source of knowledge. Attaching a name, face, and story to the study of neurological disorders makes them more "real" and memorable. This article describes the value of the case study methodology and its advantages as a pedagogical approach. It also illustrates how the seminal case of H.M. can be used to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the case study methodology. Three exercises are described for incorporating case studies into neuroscience courses. The first exercise requires students to conduct a literature review regarding their assigned case and then design an experiment to address a lingering question regarding that neurological disorder. Survey results of 90 students provide quantitative and qualitative support for this approach. The vast majority of students indicated this exercise was a valuable learning experience; sparked interest in the topic and in biopsychology; increased their knowledge and stimulated critical thinking. The second exercise discusses how students might conduct their own case studies. The third exercise emphasizes the use of case studies as a platform to examine competing hypotheses regarding neurological conditions and their treatment. A table listing case studies appropriate for undergraduate neuroscience courses is included. Cases are categorized by the type of neurological disorder and notes regarding the nature of and content of each case are provided. PMID:23493154

  4. Using the Humanities to Teach Neuroscience to Non-majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Hewlet G; Richeimer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We developed and offered a sequence of neuroscience courses geared toward changing the way non-science students interact with the sciences. Although we accepted students from all majors and at all class levels, our target population was first and second year students who were majoring in the fine arts or the humanities, or who had not yet declared a major. Our goal was to engage these students in science in general and neuroscience in particular by teaching science in a way that was accessible and relevant to their intellectual experiences. Our methodology was to teach scientific principles through the humanities by using course material that is at the intersection of the sciences and the humanities and by changing the classroom experience for both faculty and students. Examples of our course materials included the works of Oliver Sacks, V.S. Ramachandran, Martha Nussbaum, Virginia Woolf and Karl Popper, among others. To change the classroom experience we used a model of team-teaching, which required the simultaneous presence of two faculty members in the classroom for all classes. We changed the structure of the classroom experience from the traditional authority model to a model in which inquiry, debate, and intellectual responsibility were central. We wanted the students to have an appreciation of science not only as an endeavor guided by evidence and experimentation, but also a public discourse driven by creativity and controversy. The courses attracted a significant number of humanities and fine arts students, many of whom had already completed their basic science requirement.

  5. Neuroscience of exercise: from neurobiology mechanisms to mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo; Cevada, Thais; Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Renato; Teixeira Guimarães, Thiago; da Cruz Rubini, Ercole; Lattari, Eduardo; Blois, Charlene; Camaz Deslandes, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The neuroscience of exercise is a growing research area that is dedicated to furthering our understanding of the effects that exercise has on mental health and athletic performance. The present study examined three specific topics: (1) the relationship between exercise and mental disorders (e.g. major depressive disorder, dementia and Parkinson's disease), (2) the effects of exercise on the mood and mental health of athletes, and (3) the possible neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the effects of exercise. Positive responses to regular physical exercise, such as enhanced functional capacity, increased autonomy and improved self-esteem, are frequently described in the recent literature, and these responses are all good reasons for recommending regular exercise. In addition, physical exercise may improve both mood and adherence to an exercise program in healthy individuals and might modulate both the performance and mental health of athletes. Exercise is associated with the increased synthesis and release of both neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, and these increases may be associated with neurogenesis, angiogenesis and neuroplasticity. This review is a call-to-action that urges researchers to consider the importance of understanding the neuroscience of physical exercise and its contributions to sports science. PMID:23774826

  6. Optogenetics in neuroscience: what we gain from studies in mammals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanhui Chen; Ziling Zeng; Zhian Hu

    2012-01-01

    Optogenetics is a newly-introduced technology in the life sciences and is gaining increasing attention.It rcfers to the combination of optical technologies and genetic methods to control the activity of specific cell groups in living tissue,during which high-resolution spatial and temporal manipulation of cells is achicved.Optogcnetics has been applied to numerous regions,including cerebral cortex,hippocampus,ventral tegmental area,nucleus accumbens,striatum,spinal cord,and retina,and has revealed new directions of research in neuroscience and the treatment of related diseases.Since optogenetic tools are controllable at high spatial and temporal resolution,we discuss its applications in these regions in detail and the recent understanding of higher brain functions,such as reward-seeking,learning and memory,and sleep.Further,the possibilities of improved utility of this newly-emerging technology are discussed.We intend to provide a paradigm of the latest advances in neuroscience using optogenetics.

  7. Dispatches from the International Behavioral Neuroscience Society meeting 2014. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigman, Jonathan L; Young, Jared W; Pletnikov, Mikhail; Kent, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    The International Behavioral Neuroscience Society (IBNS) was founded in 1992 to fill the need for a focused meeting of the international research community to discuss issues important for the development and progress of this scientific discipline. In the 20 plus years since its founding, IBNS has become a hub for the dissemination of new research, development of important research collaborations, support and networking for young investigators, and for outreach and education to the community. This work is covered in part by offering special sessions during the meeting for late-breaking scientific discoveries from a range of disciplines as well as background and seniority level of the presenters. This special issue is a culmination of the late-breaking research presented at the IBNS 2014 meeting. The manuscripts of this Special Issue cover a variety of themes, including, stress, depression, the intersection of monoamine systems and behavior, substance use disorders, attentional processes, and awareness and acceptance of brain training. This wide range of topics and interest as well as range in seniority of presenters demonstrate the driving interest of IBNS in advancing knowledge in behavioral neuroscience as well as supporting scientists at every level.

  8. Supercomputers ready for use as discovery machines for neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eHelias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain theimprovements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploitfor the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threadedcomponents for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling.K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 10^8 neurons and 10^12 synapsesin the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchicalorganization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. Wediscuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum-□lling scaling plots for K andthe JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has becomecomparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes evenfor the largest systems enable a quasi-interactive working style and render simulations on this scalea practical tool for computational neuroscience.

  9. Supercomputers ready for use as discovery machines for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helias, Moritz; Kunkel, Susanne; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Eppler, Jochen Martin; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain the improvements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploit for the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threaded components for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling. K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 10(8) neurons and 10(12) synapses in the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchical organization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. We discuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum filling scaling plots for K and the JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has become comparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes even for the largest systems enable a quasi interactive working style and render simulations on this scale a practical tool for computational neuroscience.

  10. Supercomputers ready for use as discovery machines for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helias, Moritz; Kunkel, Susanne; Masumoto, Gen; Igarashi, Jun; Eppler, Jochen Martin; Ishii, Shin; Fukai, Tomoki; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    NEST is a widely used tool to simulate biological spiking neural networks. Here we explain the improvements, guided by a mathematical model of memory consumption, that enable us to exploit for the first time the computational power of the K supercomputer for neuroscience. Multi-threaded components for wiring and simulation combine 8 cores per MPI process to achieve excellent scaling. K is capable of simulating networks corresponding to a brain area with 10(8) neurons and 10(12) synapses in the worst case scenario of random connectivity; for larger networks of the brain its hierarchical organization can be exploited to constrain the number of communicating computer nodes. We discuss the limits of the software technology, comparing maximum filling scaling plots for K and the JUGENE BG/P system. The usability of these machines for network simulations has become comparable to running simulations on a single PC. Turn-around times in the range of minutes even for the largest systems enable a quasi interactive working style and render simulations on this scale a practical tool for computational neuroscience. PMID:23129998

  11. Changing Our Minds: The Struggle To Generate a Humanistic Neuroscience Language through Metaphors from Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Delores D.

    While the physiological explanations from neuroscience help explain the mechanisms of learning, they fall short of explaining the sociocultural and phenomenological factors that determine a stressful versus a challenging interpretation of experience. For this reason, neuroscience seems less than useful to classroom teachers. A major obstacle in…

  12. Written Pain Neuroscience Education in Fibromyalgia : A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Miriam W.; van Wilgen, C. Paul; van der Schans, Cees P.; Lambrecht, Luc; Groothoff, Johan W.; Nijs, Jo

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports the use of face-to-face pain neuroscience education for the treatment of chronic pain patients. This study aimed at examining whether written education about pain neuroscience improves illness perceptions, catastrophizing, and health status in patients with fibromyalgia. A

  13. What Do Lawyers Do With Science? - A View from Consumer Protection on Psychology and Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Sibony, Anne-Lise

    2014-01-01

    In this conference adressed to students and researchers in Neurosciences, I will present a legal perspective on some uses of neurosciences for marketing purposes. Legal, technical and ethical questions will be articulated. I will further present some thoughts on legal use of scientific insights on human behaviour.

  14. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow…

  15. Explain the Brain: Websites to Help Scientists Teach Neuroscience to the General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudler, Eric H.; Bergsman, Kristen Clapper

    2014-01-01

    The field of neuroscience has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. Educators look to neuroscience to become better teachers; lawyers and judges explore the literature to gain insight into court cases; and marketers consider the use of brain scans to glean information about consumer preferences. With this increased interest in…

  16. Brain-(Not) Based Education: Dangers of Misunderstanding and Misapplication of Neuroscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alferink, Larry A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri

    2010-01-01

    Oversimplification or inappropriate interpretation of complex neuroscience research is widespread among curricula claiming that brain-based approaches are effective for improved learning and retention. We examine recent curricula claiming to be based on neuroscience research, discuss the implications of such misinterpretation for special…

  17. Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

  18. The Neuroscience of Mathematical Cognition and Learning. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 136

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Chung Yen; Thompson, Jacqueline; Krause, Beatrix; Kadosh, Roi Cohen

    2016-01-01

    The synergistic potential of cognitive neuroscience and education for efficient learning has attracted considerable interest from the general public, teachers, parents, academics and policymakers alike. This review is aimed at providing 1) an accessible and general overview of the research progress made in cognitive neuroscience research in…

  19. The Potential Relevance of Cognitive Neuroscience for the Development and Use of Technology-Enhanced Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul; Ott, Michela; van Leeuwen, Theo; De Smedt, Bert

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of cognitive neuroscience in educational thinking and practice, and here we review findings from neuroscience that demonstrate its potential relevance to technology-enhanced learning (TEL). First, we identify some of the issues in integrating neuroscientific concepts into TEL research. We caution…

  20. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge into Social Work Education: A Case-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Marcia; Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Combs-Orme, Terri

    2011-01-01

    New knowledge from the rapidly growing field of neuroscience has important implications for our understanding of human behavior in the social environment, yet little of this knowledge has made its way into social work education. This article presents a model for integrating neuroscience into instruction on human development, the bio psychosocial…

  1. Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections. A Video Course for Grades K-12 Teachers and School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenberg Learner, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Exciting developments in the field of neuroscience are leading to a new understanding of how the brain works that is beginning to transform teaching in the classroom. "Neuroscience & the Classroom: Making Connections" brings together researchers and educators in a dialog about how insights into brain function can be harnessed by teachers for use…

  2. Boundary as Bridge: An Analysis of the Educational Neuroscience Literature from a Boundary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Catherine; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of educational neuroscience, concerns exist that the impact of neuroscience research on education has been less effective than hoped. In seeking a way forward, it may be useful to consider the problems of integrating two complex fields in the context of disciplinary boundaries. Here, a boundary perspective is used as a…

  3. The Brain Goes to School: Strengthening the Education-Neuroscience Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Investigations on the brain processes using a technology such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have led to the creation of a new field of research that bridges the gap between cognitive psychology and neuroscience: "cognitive neuroscience." Within this new field, studies examining the processes of learning and developing are…

  4. Neuroscience and Education: How Best to Filter out the Neurononsense from Our Classrooms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Noel

    2008-01-01

    This article considers the extent to which neuroscience is being applied to education, both on a classroom level and also on the level of curricular reform in Northern Ireland. The article reviews recent research in the area of neuroscience and education and examines a number of popular "neuromyths." It urges the educational world to take a more…

  5. Le débat démocratique en neurosciences : possible et nécessaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laliberté, Maude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The neurosciences, a dynamic field of biomedical research, are a paradigmatic example to illustrate the responsibilities of researchers and their interactions with society. This comment highlights the importance of public debate in neurosciences.

  6. Le débat démocratique en neurosciences : possible et nécessaire

    OpenAIRE

    Laliberté, Maude

    2012-01-01

    The neurosciences, a dynamic field of biomedical research, are a paradigmatic example to illustrate the responsibilities of researchers and their interactions with society. This comment highlights the importance of public debate in neurosciences.

  7. Functional imaging in the Neuroscience. The role of PET, MR and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Functional imaging is commonly used to describe imaging techniques that provide data about aspects of tissue metabolism, such as glucose / protein metabolism, metabolite concentrations, neuro receptor density and blood flow / perfusion / diffusion when compared with the depiction of anatomy obtained with Computed Tomography (CT) and clinical Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. In the neuroscience this is a rapidly evolving area and unlike in the past where imaging of the nervous system was carried out by neuroradiologists participants in this dynamic field now come from diverse backgrounds and include basic scientists, clinicians, psychologists, physicists and chemists. PET and SPECT combine the principles of the tracer kinetic method and tomographic (as in CT) image reconstruction. A mathematical model can be derived to describe the biochemical process (in picomolar concentrations) under study and the raw counts of radioactivity that are detected by the scanner can be converted into units of physiological function in-vivo e.g. cerebral metabolic rate for glucose and receptor density. These techniques, using a variety of ligands, have been employed for evaluation of cerebral blood flow / volume, oxygen utilization / metabolism, glucose metabolism, amino acid transport / metabolism, protein synthesis, the dopaminergic, opiate, benzodiazepine, cholinergic and serotonergic systems and for brain mapping in humans. Meanwhile, the term 'functional MR imaging' encompasses MR spectroscopy, echoplanar imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and techniques that rely on the change in blood oxygenation levels to provide an indirect image of neuronal activity (referred to as fMRI). Unlike PET and SPECT, however, these data are obtained without using ionising radiation. In MRS, signals are obtained from nuclei (in mM concentrations) that are constituents of molecules other than water that provide the signal in clinical MR imaging; fibre tract directions have been depicted with

  8. Illuminating the Undergraduate Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory: A Guide for the in vivo Application of Optogenetics in Mammalian Model Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Bradley M.; Jarrin, Sarah E.; Mathur, Brian N.; Bailey, Aileen M.

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics is a technology that is growing rapidly in neuroscience, establishing itself as a fundamental investigative tool. As this tool is increasingly utilized across the neuroscience community and is one of the primary research techniques being presented at neuroscience conferences and in journals, we believe that it is important that this technology is introduced into the undergraduate neuroscience research laboratory. While there has been a significant body of work concentrated to dep...

  9. Reading beyond the glance: eye tracking in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Livia; Selejan, Ovidiu; Scott, Allan; Mureşanu, Dafin F; Balea, Maria; Rafila, Alexandru

    2015-05-01

    From an interdisciplinary approach, the neurosciences (NSs) represent the junction of many fields (biology, chemistry, medicine, computer science, and psychology) and aim to explore the structural and functional aspects of the nervous system. Among modern neurophysiological methods that "measure" different processes of the human brain to salience stimuli, a special place belongs to eye tracking (ET). By detecting eye position, gaze direction, sequence of eye movement and visual adaptation during cognitive activities, ET is an effective tool for experimental psychology and neurological research. It provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the gaze, which is very useful in understanding choice behavior and perceptual decision making. In the high tech era, ET has several applications related to the interaction between humans and computers. Herein, ET is used to evaluate the spatial orienting of attention, the performance in visual tasks, the reactions to information on websites, the customer response to advertising, and the emotional and cognitive impact of various spurs to the brain. PMID:25604577

  10. Essentializing the Binary Self: Individualism and Collectivism in Cultural Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eMartinez Mateo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the emerging field of Cultural Neurosciences (CN one branch of research focuses on the neural underpinnings of "individualistic/Western" versus "collectivistic/Eastern" self-views. These studies uncritically adopt essentialist assumptions from classic cross-cultural research, mainly following the tradition of Markus & Kitayama (1991, into the domain of functional neuroimaging. In this comment we analyze recent publications and conference proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (2012 and problematize the essentialist and simplistic understanding of "culture" in these studies. Further, we argue against the binary structure of the drawn "cultural" comparisons and their underlying Eurocentrism. Finally we scrutinize whether valuations within the constructed binarities bear the risk of constructing and reproducing a postcolonial, orientalist argumentation pattern.

  11. Essentializing the binary self: individualism and collectivism in cultural neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Mateo, M; Cabanis, M; Stenmanns, J; Krach, S

    2013-01-01

    Within the emerging field of cultural neuroscience (CN) one branch of research focuses on the neural underpinnings of "individualistic/Western" vs. "collectivistic/Eastern" self-views. These studies uncritically adopt essentialist assumptions from classic cross-cultural research, mainly following the tradition of Markus and Kitayama (1991), into the domain of functional neuroimaging. In this perspective article we analyze recent publications and conference proceedings of the 18th Annual Meeting of the Organization for Human Brain Mapping (2012) and problematize the essentialist and simplistic understanding of "culture" in these studies. Further, we argue against the binary structure of the drawn "cultural" comparisons and their underlying Eurocentrism. Finally we scrutinize whether valuations within the constructed binarities bear the risk of constructing and reproducing a postcolonial, orientalist argumentation pattern.

  12. Psychobiology and Neuroscience at the Florida State University: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashotte, Michael E; Smith, James C

    2005-10-15

    In the 1950s, young faculty in Psychology and Physiology/Biology at the newly established Florida State University recognized common interests in the study of sensory systems. They spontaneously formed one of this country's earliest interdisciplinary research cohorts in the emerging field of "psychobiology". In the 1960s, this group established a formal graduate program in Psychobiology, acquired resources for building a new laboratory and for supporting pre- and post-doctoral students, and began the expansion of faculty and research focuses that continues to this day. In 1991, FSU's Psychobiology Program was re-branded as a Program in Neuroscience that awards a doctoral degree. It now encompasses faculty and students from four academic departments in the Colleges of Arts and Sciences, Human Sciences, and Medicine. This paper traces some main developments in our 50-year history of these research and training efforts.

  13. A framework for streamlining research workflow in neuroscience and psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eKubilius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful accumulation of knowledge is critically dependent on the ability to verify and replicate every part of scientific conduct. However, such principles are difficult to enact when researchers continue to resort on ad hoc workflows and with poorly maintained code base. In this paper I examine the needs of neuroscience and psychology community, and introduce psychopy_ext, a unifying framework that seamlessly integrates popular experiment building, analysis and manuscript preparation tools by choosing reasonable defaults and implementing relatively rigid patterns of workflow. This structure allows for automation of multiple tasks, such as generated user interfaces, unit testing, control analyses of stimuli, single-command access to descriptive statistics, and publication quality plotting. Taken together, psychopy_ext opens an exciting possibility for faster, more robust code development and collaboration for researchers.

  14. Insights from ERPs into Emotional Disorders: An affective neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Campanella

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Affective neuroscience disposes of complementary imaging tools, some identifying which neural regions are involved in a specific cognitive function, others defining the temporal sequences of these activations with an optimal temporal resolution. The aim of the present manuscript is to show how event-related potentials (ERPs may help us to enhance our understanding of psychopathological conditions. To do so, three experiments from our laboratory will be presented. An emotional oddball design was used, in which participants are confronted with frequent stimuli (neutral faces and deviant stimuli (emotional faces which they have to detect as quickly as possible. These studies address anxiety, the long-term consequences of ecstasy consumption and schizophrenia. Our main purpose is to show that, if previous studies have shown for generalised anxiety disorder, as well as for drug abuse or schizophrenia, P300 alterations, the impaired processes leading to such an identical disturbance are different from one population to the other.

  15. NEUROSCIENCES, SIMULATIONS AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION TECHNOLOGICAL COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Correia de Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article conceptualizes some basic topics on Cognitive Neuroscience, explains mental models, simulations, cognitive competences and abilities, highlighting how the knowledge of these issues can contribute to the improvement of teaching activities and classroom learning in Higher Education Technological learning activities. It´s possible to state that the more teachers understand the basic principles of these knowledge field the more they will be able to manage their teaching activities, communication with their partners as well as with their students. Results from the bibliographical research showed that such subjects are broad and complex therefore this paper outlines some basic principles on this topic hence being a theoretical paper which aims to create a starting point for future researches in teaching and learning activities at Higher Education Technological courses.

  16. Practical application of artificial neural networks in the neurosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinti, Antonio

    1995-04-01

    This article presents a practical application of artificial multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks in neurosciences. The data that are processed are labeled data from the visual analysis of electrical signals of human sleep. The objective of this work is to automatically classify into sleep stages the electrophysiological signals recorded from electrodes placed on a sleeping patient. Two large data bases were designed by experts in order to realize this study. One data base was used to train the network and the other to test its generalization capacity. The classification results obtained with the MLP network were compared to a type K nearest neighbor Knn non-parametric classification method. The MLP network gave a better result in terms of classification than the Knn method. Both classification techniques were implemented on a transputer system. With both networks in their final configuration, the MLP network was 160 times faster than the Knn model in classifying a sleep period.

  17. Temporal decision-making: insights from cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian C Luhmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

  18. [Food behaviour and obesity: insights from decision neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivia; Basso, Frédéric; Huguet, Pascal; Plassmann, Hilke; Oullier, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Neuroimaging allows to estimate brain activity when individuals are doing something. The location and intensity of this estimated activity provides information on the dynamics and processes that guide choice behaviour and associated actions that should be considered a complement to behavioural studies. Decision neuroscience therefore sheds new light on whether the brain evaluates and compares alternatives when decisions are made, or if other processes are at stake. This work helped to demonstrate that the situations faced by individuals (risky, uncertain, delayed in time) do not all have the same (behavioural) complexity, and are not underlined by activity in the cerebral networks. Taking into account brain dynamics of people (suffering from obesity or not) when making food consumption decisions might allow for improved strategies in public health prevention, far from the rational choice theory promoted by neoclassical economics.

  19. The place of human psychophysics in modern neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J C A

    2015-06-18

    Human psychophysics is the quantitative measurement of our own perceptions. In essence, it is simply a more sophisticated version of what humans have done since time immemorial: noticed and reflected upon what we can see, hear, and feel. In the 21st century, when hugely powerful techniques are available that enable us to probe the innermost structure and function of nervous systems, is human psychophysics still relevant? I argue that it is, and that in combination with other techniques, it will continue to be a key part of neuroscience for the foreseeable future. I discuss these points in detail using the example of binocular stereopsis, where human psychophysics in combination with physiology and computational vision, has made a substantial contribution.

  20. Science and Society Bridging the Information Gap in Neuroscience

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    In the final Science and Society Colloquium of 2000, Professor Mark Ellisman of the University of California in San Diego will examine the ways that information technology is bringing about changes in the field of neuroscience. Professor Ellisman is Director of the US National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research, and is involved in several projects that merge advanced computing and networking technologies with advanced forms of microscopy. These include the National Institutes of Health (NIH) sponsored Human Brain Project that aims to fill the gap in our understanding of how low-level operations of individual neurons scale up to higher-level mental activity. In his talk, Professor Ellisman will describe the promise offered by advanced informatics. Parallel processing and distributed computing, for example, are allowing new advances in visualising and understanding 3-D neuronal structures, while progress in the field of remote access to highly specialized and expensive instruments - like high voltage ...

  1. Temporal decision-making: insights from cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Christian C

    2009-01-01

    Decisions frequently have consequences that play out over time and these temporal factors can exert strong influences on behavior. For example, decision-makers exhibit delay discounting, behaving as though immediately consumable goods are more valuable than those available only after some delay. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, we are now beginning to characterize the physiological bases of such behavior in humans and to link work on this topic from neuroscience, psychology, and economics. Here we review recent neurocognitive investigations of temporal decision-making and outline the theoretical picture that is beginning to take shape. Taken as a whole, this body of work illustrates the progress made in understanding temporal choice behavior. However, we also note several questions that remain unresolved and areas where future work is needed.

  2. Lectures in Supercomputational Neurosciences Dynamics in Complex Brain Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Graben, Peter beim; Thiel, Marco; Kurths, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Computational Neuroscience is a burgeoning field of research where only the combined effort of neuroscientists, biologists, psychologists, physicists, mathematicians, computer scientists, engineers and other specialists, e.g. from linguistics and medicine, seem to be able to expand the limits of our knowledge. The present volume is an introduction, largely from the physicists' perspective, to the subject matter with in-depth contributions by system neuroscientists. A conceptual model for complex networks of neurons is introduced that incorporates many important features of the real brain, such as various types of neurons, various brain areas, inhibitory and excitatory coupling and the plasticity of the network. The computational implementation on supercomputers, which is introduced and discussed in detail in this book, will enable the readers to modify and adapt the algortihm for their own research. Worked-out examples of applications are presented for networks of Morris-Lecar neurons to model the cortical co...

  3. Toward an affective neuroscience account of financial risk taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene C. Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To explain human financial risk taking, economic and finance theories typically refer to the mathematical properties of financial options, whereas psychological theories have emphasized the influence of emotion and cognition on choice. From a neuroscience perspective, choice emanates from a dynamic multicomponential process. Recent technological advances in neuroimaging have made it possible for researchers to separately visualize perceptual input, intermediate processing, and motor output. An affective neuroscience account of financial risk taking thus might illuminate affective mediators that bridge the gap between statistical input and choice output. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis (via activation likelihood estimate or ALE of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that focused on neural responses to financial options with varying statistical moments (i.e., mean, variance, skewness. Results suggested that different statistical moments elicit both common and distinct patterns of neural activity. Across studies, high versus low mean had the highest probability of increasing ventral striatal activity, but high versus low variance had the highest probability of increasing anterior insula activity. Further, high versus low skewness had the highest probability of increasing ventral striatal activity. Since ventral striatal activity has been associated with positive aroused affect (e.g. excitement, whereas anterior insular activity has been associated with negative aroused affect (e.g. anxiety or general arousal, these findings are consistent with the notion that statistical input influences choice output by eliciting anticipatory affect. The findings also imply that neural activity can be used to predict financial risk taking – both when it conforms to and violates traditional models of choice.

  4. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  5. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments

  6. Mapping of Indian neuroscience research: A scientometric analysis of research output during 1999-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Adarsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study analyses the research output in India in neurosciences during the period 1999-2008 and the analyses included research growth, rank, global publications′ share, citation impact, share of international collaborative papers and major collaborative partner countries and patterns of research communication in most productive journals. It also analyses the characteristics of most productive institutions, authors and high-cited papers. The publication output and impact of India is also compared with China, Brazil and South Korea. Materials and Method s: Scopus Citation database was used for retrieving the publications′ output of India and other countries in neurosciences during 1999-2008. Results : India′s global publications′ share in neurosciences during the study period was 0.99% (with 4503 papers and it ranked 21 st among the top 26 countries in neurosciences. The average annual publication growth rate was 11.37%, shared 17.34% of international collaborative papers and the average citation per paper was 4.21. India was far behind China, Brazil and South Korea in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences. Conclusion : India is far behind in terms of publication output, citation quality and share of international collaborative papers in neurosciences when compared to other countries with an emerging economy. There is an urgent need to substantially increase the research activities in the field of neurosciences in India.

  7. Brain literate: making neuroscience accessible to a wider audience of undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Danielle; Martin-Harris, Laurel; Mullen, Brian; Odegaard, Brian; Zvinyatskovskiy, Aleksey; Chandler, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate neuroscientific findings is a skill that is rapidly becoming important in non-science professions. As neuroscience research is increasingly being used in law, business, education, and politics, it becomes imperative to educate future leaders in all areas of society about the brain. Undergraduate general education courses are an ideal way to expose students to issues of critical importance, but non-science students may avoid taking a neuroscience course because of the perception that neuroscience is more challenging than other science courses. A recently developed general education cluster course at UCLA aims to make neuroscience more palatable to undergraduates by pairing neuroscientific concepts with philosophy and history, and by building a learning community that supports the development of core academic skills and intellectual growth over the course of a year. This study examined the extent to which the course was successful in delivering neuroscience education to a broader undergraduate community. The results indicate that a majority of students in the course mastered the basics of the discipline regardless of their major. Furthermore, 77% of the non-life science majors (approximately two-thirds of students in the course) indicated that they would not have taken an undergraduate neuroscience course if this one was not offered. The findings also demonstrate that the course helped students develop core academic skills and improved their ability to think critically about current events in neuroscience. Faculty reported that teaching the course was highly rewarding and did not require an inordinate amount of time.

  8. Putting the "Biology" Back into "Neurobiology": The Strength of Diversity in Animal Model Systems for Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce; Summers, Cliff H

    2016-01-01

    Current trends in neuroscience research have moved toward a reliance on rodent animal models to study most aspects of brain function. Such laboratory-reared animals are highly inbred, have been disengaged from their natural environments for generations and appear to be of limited predictive value for successful clinical outcomes. In this Perspective article, we argue that research on a rich diversity of animal model systems is fundamental to new discoveries in evolutionarily conserved core physiological and molecular mechanisms that are the foundation of human brain function. Analysis of neural circuits across phyla will reveal general computational solutions that form the basis for adaptive behavioral responses. Further, we stress that development of ethoexperimental approaches to improve our understanding of behavioral nuance will help to realign our research strategies with therapeutic goals and improve the translational validity of specific animal models. Finally, we suggest that neuroscience has a role in environmental conservation of habitat and fauna that will preserve and protect the ecological settings that drive species-specific behavioral adaptations. A rich biodiversity will enhance our understanding of human brain function and lead in unpredicted directions for development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders. PMID:27597819

  9. Le mouvement des modèles en histoire et philosophie des neurosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Andrieu, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    L’histoire des neurosciences devient peu à peu une discipline à part entière, en France du moins, car dans le monde anglo-saxon la philosophie de l’esprit et l’expansion des sciences de la cognition ont toujours été accompagnés d’une formation et d’une production en histoire des neurosciences, au point que des collections de revues et de livres y sont consacrés. Mais derrière cette tradition critique et épistémologique, se cachent différents types d’écriture de l’histoire des neurosciences. ...

  10. Ambivalence, equivocation and the politics of experimental knowledge: a transdisciplinary neuroscience encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Littlefield, Melissa M; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    This article is about a transdisciplinary project between the social, human and life sciences, and the felt experiences of the researchers involved. 'Transdisciplinary' and 'interdisciplinary' research-modes have been the subject of much attention lately--especially as they cross boundaries between the social/humanistic and natural sciences. However, there has been less attention, from within science and technology studies, to what it is actually like to participate in such a research-space. This article contributes to that literature through an empirical reflection on the progress of one collaborative and transdisciplinary project: a novel experiment in neuroscientific lie detection, entangling science and technology studies, literary studies, sociology, anthropology, clinical psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Its central argument is twofold: (1) that, in addition to ideal-type tropes of transdisciplinary conciliation or integration, such projects may also be organized around some more subterranean logics of ambivalence, reserve and critique; (2) that an account of the mundane ressentiment of collaboration allows for a more careful attention to the awkward forms of 'experimental politics' that may flow through, and indeed propel, collaborative work more broadly. Building on these claims, the article concludes with a suggestion that such subterranean logics may be indissociable from some forms of collaboration, and it proposes an ethic of 'equivocal speech' as a way to live with and through these kinds of transdisciplinary experiences.

  11. Ambivalence, equivocation and the politics of experimental knowledge: a transdisciplinary neuroscience encounter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Des; Littlefield, Melissa M; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James; Dietz, Martin J

    2014-10-01

    This article is about a transdisciplinary project between the social, human and life sciences, and the felt experiences of the researchers involved. 'Transdisciplinary' and 'interdisciplinary' research-modes have been the subject of much attention lately--especially as they cross boundaries between the social/humanistic and natural sciences. However, there has been less attention, from within science and technology studies, to what it is actually like to participate in such a research-space. This article contributes to that literature through an empirical reflection on the progress of one collaborative and transdisciplinary project: a novel experiment in neuroscientific lie detection, entangling science and technology studies, literary studies, sociology, anthropology, clinical psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Its central argument is twofold: (1) that, in addition to ideal-type tropes of transdisciplinary conciliation or integration, such projects may also be organized around some more subterranean logics of ambivalence, reserve and critique; (2) that an account of the mundane ressentiment of collaboration allows for a more careful attention to the awkward forms of 'experimental politics' that may flow through, and indeed propel, collaborative work more broadly. Building on these claims, the article concludes with a suggestion that such subterranean logics may be indissociable from some forms of collaboration, and it proposes an ethic of 'equivocal speech' as a way to live with and through these kinds of transdisciplinary experiences. PMID:25362830

  12. An Attachment Theoretical Framework for Understanding Personality Disorders: Developmental, Neuroscience, and Psychotherapeutic Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Levy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose that John Bowlby's attachment theory provides a theoretically coherent, empirically based, and clinically useful model for understanding personality pathology. This theoretical framework brings parsimony and breadth to the conceptualization of the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of personality disorders (PDs. Attachment theory can explain both the intrapersonal and interpersonal difficulties common in those with PDs and is consistent with findings from studies across multiple domains of knowledge, including evolutionary biology, ethology/comparative psychology, developmental psychology, experimental social-personality psychology, and neuroscience.PDs are characterized by significant interpersonal challenges. Recently, these challenges have been hypothesized to stem from underlying maladaptive attachment schemas. Our goal is to outline and elaborate on attachment theory as a foundation for the etiology and pathology of PDs and to highlight the implications of this theory for treatment. We begin with a brief review of attachment, describing its conceptualization and assessment in both children and adults in order to examine PD development. This theoretical foundation is supported by a body of empirical research, from which we present findings from neurobiological and developmental literatures linking attachment and PDs. We then examine the role of attachment in the psychotherapy process and in treatment outcome. Further, we outline research reporting changes in attachment patterns as a result of treatment. Finally, we summarize the implications of attachment theory for understanding PDs and present possible directions for future research.

  13. Identifying and using 'core competencies' to help design and assess undergraduate neuroscience curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Michael; Hardwick, Jean C; Thornton, Janice E

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis on the use of core competencies to design and inform curricula. Based on our Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience workshop at Pomona we developed a set of neuroscience core competencies. Following the workshop, faculty members were asked to complete an online survey to determine which core competencies are considered most essential and the results are presented. Backward Design principles are then described and we discuss how core competencies, through a backward design process, can be used to design and assess an undergraduate neuroscience curriculum. Oberlin College is used as a case study to describe the use of core competencies to help develop learning objectives, activities, and assessment measures for an undergraduate neuroscience major.

  14. The principles and practices of educational neuroscience: Comment on Bowers (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard-Jones, Paul A; Varma, Sashank; Ansari, Daniel; Butterworth, Brian; De Smedt, Bert; Goswami, Usha; Laurillard, Diana; Thomas, Michael S C

    2016-10-01

    In his recent critique of Educational Neuroscience, Bowers argues that neuroscience has no role to play in informing education, which he equates with classroom teaching. Neuroscience, he suggests, adds nothing to what we can learn from psychology. In this commentary, we argue that Bowers' assertions misrepresent the nature and aims of the work in this new field. We suggest that, by contrast, psychological and neural levels of explanation complement rather than compete with each other. Bowers' analysis also fails to include a role for educational expertise-a guiding principle of our new field. On this basis, we conclude that his critique is potentially misleading. We set out the well-documented goals of research in Educational Neuroscience, and show how, in collaboration with educators, significant progress has already been achieved, with the prospect of even greater progress in the future. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27657441

  15. The dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience: what does philosophy of mind say?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Cheniaux

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To briefly review how the main monist and dualist currents of philosophy of mind approach the mind-body problem and to describe their association with arguments for and against a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.Methods: The literature was reviewed for studies in the fields of psychology, psychoanalysis, neuroscience, and philosophy of mind.Results: Some currents are incompatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neurosciences: interactionism and psychophysical parallelism, because they do not account for current knowledge about the brain; epiphenomenalism, which claims that the mind is a mere byproduct of the brain; and analytical behaviorism, eliminative materialism, reductive materialism and functionalism, because they ignore subjective experiences. In contrast, emergentism claims that mental states are dependent on brain states, but have properties that go beyond the field of neurobiology.Conclusions: Only emergentism is compatible with a closer dialog between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

  16. The modern search for the Holy Grail: Is neuroscience a solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navot eNaor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here suggest that neuroscience may 1 enrich our knowledge; 2 outline the nature of an explanation; and 3 lead to substantial empirical and theoretical discoveries. To that end, we review work on hedonia and eudaimonia in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. These studies demonstrate the importance of neuroscientific tools in the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to define using other methods.

  17. The modern search for the Holy Grail: is neuroscience a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Navot; Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here suggest that neuroscience may (1) enrich our knowledge; (2) outline the nature of an explanation; and (3) lead to substantial empirical and theoretical discoveries. To that end, we review work on hedonia and eudaimonia in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy. These studies demonstrate the importance of neuroscientific tools in the investigation of phenomena that are difficult to define using other methods. PMID:24926246

  18. Point of View: The Importance of Teaching Neuroscience Research at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    This column shares reflections or thoughtful opinions on issues of broad interest to the community. This month's issue discusses the importance of the insights that are gained through neuroscience research.

  19. The Neuroscience of Teaching Narratives: Facilitating Social and Emotional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Whalen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Humanities and the sciences have long been considered polar opposites that exist in separate realms of academia and require different cognitive skills. However, neuroscience has brought about renewed interest in what we can learn about the human brain by investigating links between disciplines. For example, studies related to English literature have revealed that the benefits of reading narratives (fiction and nonfiction stories extend far beyond language development and include increased competence in social and emotional functioning. By combining the results of an original dissertation study and a review of past and current research in education, psychology, linguistics, and neuroscience, this essay explores how reading narratives serves as practice for managing emotions and social interactions in everyday life. In fact, several studies suggest that reading narratives strengthens nearly every part of the brain because the brain is designed—or “wired”—to think and learn in terms of narratives, regardless of subject matter. This essay provides several types of support for the claim that reading narratives facilitates social and emotional development. Research discussed includes studies showing that reading narratives is not a solitary activity but “a surprisingly social process” (Krakovsky, 2006, p. 1 and is linked to increased ability to view people and events from multiple perspectives, increased empathy for others, and increased ability to interpret social cues (Atkins, 2000; Courtright, Mackey, & Packard, 2005; Davis, 1980; Greif & Hogan, 1973; Harrison, 2008; Mar, 2004; Mar, Oatley, Hirsh, dela Paz, & Peterson, 2006; Stanovich & West, 1989. Understanding how the brain processes narratives and relates them to real life functioning has important implications for many disciplines, such as psychology, in its attempt to understand and treat post-traumatic stress disorder. This essay, however, focuses on the implications for education

  20. A repository based on a dynamically extensible data model supporting multidisciplinary research in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corradi Luca

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robust, extensible and distributed databases integrating clinical, imaging and molecular data represent a substantial challenge for modern neuroscience. It is even more difficult to provide extensible software environments able to effectively target the rapidly changing data requirements and structures of research experiments. There is an increasing request from the neuroscience community for software tools addressing technical challenges about: (i supporting researchers in the medical field to carry out data analysis using integrated bioinformatics services and tools; (ii handling multimodal/multiscale data and metadata, enabling the injection of several different data types according to structured schemas; (iii providing high extensibility, in order to address different requirements deriving from a large variety of applications simply through a user runtime configuration. Methods A dynamically extensible data structure supporting collaborative multidisciplinary research projects in neuroscience has been defined and implemented. We have considered extensibility issues from two different points of view. First, the improvement of data flexibility has been taken into account. This has been done through the development of a methodology for the dynamic creation and use of data types and related metadata, based on the definition of “meta” data model. This way, users are not constrainted to a set of predefined data and the model can be easily extensible and applicable to different contexts. Second, users have been enabled to easily customize and extend the experimental procedures in order to track each step of acquisition or analysis. This has been achieved through a process-event data structure, a multipurpose taxonomic schema composed by two generic main objects: events and processes. Then, a repository has been built based on such data model and structure, and deployed on distributed resources thanks to a Grid-based approach

  1. An introductory review of information theory in the context of computational neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Mark D; Ikeda, Shiro; Manton, Jonathan H

    2011-07-01

    This article introduces several fundamental concepts in information theory from the perspective of their origins in engineering. Understanding such concepts is important in neuroscience for two reasons. Simply applying formulae from information theory without understanding the assumptions behind their definitions can lead to erroneous results and conclusions. Furthermore, this century will see a convergence of information theory and neuroscience; information theory will expand its foundations to incorporate more comprehensively biological processes thereby helping reveal how neuronal networks achieve their remarkable information processing abilities.

  2. Federated access to heterogeneous information resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF)

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Amarnath; Bug, William; Marenco, Luis; Qian, Xufei; Condit, Christopher; Rangarajan, Arun; Müller, Hans Michael; Miller, Perry L.; Sanders, Brian; Grethe, Jeffrey S.; Astakhov, Vadim; Shepherd, Gordon; Sternberg, Paul W.; Martone, Maryann E.

    2008-01-01

    The overarching goal of the NIF (Neuroscience Information Framework) project is to be a one-stop-shop for Neuroscience. This paper provides a technical overview of how the system is designed. The technical goal of the first version of the NIF system was to develop an information system that a neuroscientist can use to locate relevant information from a wide variety of information sources by simple keyword queries. Although the user would provide only keywords to retrieve information, the NIF ...

  3. Cultural neuroscience of the self: understanding the social grounding of the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, JiYoung

    2010-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field of research that investigates interrelations among culture, mind and the brain. Drawing on both the growing body of scientific evidence on cultural variation in psychological processes and the recent development of social and cognitive neuroscience, this emerging field of research aspires to understand how culture as an amalgam of values, meanings, conventions, and artifacts that constitute daily social realities might interact with the mind...

  4. Techniques and Technology to Revise Content Delivery and Model Critical Thinking in the Neuroscience Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Illig, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate neuroscience courses typically involve highly interdisciplinary material, and it is often necessary to use class time to review how principles of chemistry, math and biology apply to neuroscience. Lecturing and Socratic discussion can work well to deliver information to students, but these techniques can lead students to feel more like spectators than participants in a class, and do not actively engage students in the critical analysis and application of experimental evidence. I...

  5. Kalman Meets Neuron: The Emerging Intersection of Control Theory with Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Schiff, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1950s, we have developed mature theories of modern control theory and computational neuroscience with almost no interaction between these disciplines. With the advent of computationally efficient nonlinear Kalman filtering techniques, along with improved neuroscience models that provide increasingly accurate reconstruction of dynamics in a variety of important normal and disease states in the brain, the prospects for a synergistic interaction between these fields are now strong. I s...

  6. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    OpenAIRE

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to...

  7. Ethical Issues Associated with the Use of Animal Experimentation in Behavioral Neuroscience Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ohl, Frauke; Meijboom, Franck

    2015-01-01

    This chapter briefly explores whether there are distinct characteristics in the field of Behavioral Neuroscience that demand specific ethical reflection. We argue that although the ethical issues in animal-based Behavioral Neuroscience are not necessarily distinct from those in other research disciplines using animal experimentation, this field of endeavor makes a number of specific, ethically relevant, questions more explicit and, as a result, may expose to discussion a series of ethical iss...

  8. Advances in the Use of Neuroscience Methods in Research on Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    De Smedt, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscience offers a series of tools and methodologies that allow researchers in the field of learning and instruction to complement and extend the knowledge they have accumulated through decades of behavioral research. The appropriateness of these methods depends on the research question at hand. Cognitive neuroscience methods allow researchers to investigate specific cognitive processes in a very detailed way, a goal in some but not all fields of the learning sciences. This value...

  9. Emotion, rationality and decision-making: How to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    OpenAIRE

    Marco eVerweij; Senior, Timothy J.; Juan F. Domínguez D.; Robert eTurner

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that ...

  10. Center for Behavioral Neuroscience: a prototype multi-institutional collaborative research center

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Kelly R; Albers, H. Elliott

    2006-01-01

    The Center for Behavioral Neuroscience was launched in the fall of 1999 with support from the National Science Foundation, the Georgia Research Alliance, and our eight participating institutions (Georgia State University, Emory University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Clark-Atlanta University, Spelman College, Morehouse College, Morris Brown College). The CBN provides the resources to foster innovative research in behavioral neuroscience, with a specific focu...

  11. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    OpenAIRE

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J.; Domínguez D, Juan F.; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades—rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism—contain assumptions that a...

  12. Neurosciences au service de la communication commerciale : manipulation et éthique - Une critique du neuromarketing

    OpenAIRE

    Courbet, Didier; Benoit, Denis

    2013-01-01

    title : Neurosciences in the service of marketing communication: manipulation and ethics- A critique of neuromarketing Abstract : By using knowledge in neurosciences, the neuromarketing claims to be capable of influencing the purchasing behavior of the persons without they are conscious of it, and thus, improve commercial communication strategies. We defend another hypothesis: the neuromarketing would be essentially a "marketing trick". Through a critical analysis of this instrumentalization ...

  13. A translational neuroscience perspective on mindfulness meditation as a prevention strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Leve, Leslie D.

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation research mainly focuses on psychological outcomes such as behavioral, cognitive, and emotional functioning. However, the neuroscience literature on mindfulness meditation has grown in recent years. This paper provides an overview of relevant neuroscience and psychological research on the effects of mindfulness meditation. We propose a translational prevention framework of mindfulness and its effects. Drawing upon the principles of prevention science, this framework inte...

  14. The modern search for the Holy Grail: Is neuroscience a solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Navot eNaor; Aaron eBen-Ze’ev; Hadas eOkon-Singer

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here su...

  15. The modern search for the Holy Grail: is neuroscience a solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Naor, Navot; Ben-Ze'ev, Aaron; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2014-01-01

    Neuroscience has become prevalent in recent years; nevertheless, its value in the examination of psychological and philosophical phenomena is still a matter of debate. The examples reviewed here suggest that neuroscientific tools can be significant in the investigation of such complex phenomena. In this article, we argue that it is important to study concepts that do not have a clear characterization and emphasize the role of neuroscience in this quest for knowledge. The data reviewed here su...

  16. An Introductory Review of Information Theory in the Context of Computational Neuroscience

    CERN Document Server

    McDonnell, Mark D; Manton, Jonathan H

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces several fundamental concepts in information theory from the perspective of their origins in engineering. Understanding such concepts is important in neuroscience for two reasons. Simply applying formulae from information theory without understanding the assumptions behind their definitions can lead to erroneous results and conclusions. Furthermore, this century will see a convergence of information theory and neuroscience; information theory will expand its foundations to incorporate more comprehensively biological processes thereby helping reveal how neuronal networks achieve their remarkable information processing abilities.

  17. Identifying and Using ‘Core Competencies’ to Help Design and Assess Undergraduate Neuroscience Curricula

    OpenAIRE

    Kerchner, Michael; Hardwick, Jean C.; Thornton, Janice E.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing emphasis on the use of core competencies to design and inform curricula. Based on our Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience workshop at Pomona we developed a set of neuroscience core competencies. Following the workshop, faculty members were asked to complete an online survey to determine which core competencies are considered most essential and the results are presented. Backward Design principles are then described and we discuss how core competencies, through a ba...

  18. The NIF DISCO Framework: facilitating automated integration of neuroscience content on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marenco, Luis; Wang, Rixin; Shepherd, Gordon M; Miller, Perry L

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the capabilities of DISCO, an extensible approach that supports integrative Web-based information dissemination. DISCO is a component of the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF), an NIH Neuroscience Blueprint initiative that facilitates integrated access to diverse neuroscience resources via the Internet. DISCO facilitates the automated maintenance of several distinct capabilities using a collection of files 1) that are maintained locally by the developers of participating neuroscience resources and 2) that are "harvested" on a regular basis by a central DISCO server. This approach allows central NIF capabilities to be updated as each resource's content changes over time. DISCO currently supports the following capabilities: 1) resource descriptions, 2) "LinkOut" to a resource's data items from NCBI Entrez resources such as PubMed, 3) Web-based interoperation with a resource, 4) sharing a resource's lexicon and ontology, 5) sharing a resource's database schema, and 6) participation by the resource in neuroscience-related RSS news dissemination. The developers of a resource are free to choose which DISCO capabilities their resource will participate in. Although DISCO is used by NIF to facilitate neuroscience data integration, its capabilities have general applicability to other areas of research.

  19. Building sustainable neuroscience capacity in Africa: the role of non-profit organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S

    2016-02-01

    While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.

  20. What if? The farther shores of neuroethics: commentary on "Neuroscience may supersede ethics and law".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greely, Henry T

    2012-09-01

    Neuroscience is clearly making enormous progress toward understanding how human brains work. The implications of this progress for ethics, law, society, and culture are much less clear. Some have argued that neuroscience will lead to vast changes, superseding much of law and ethics. The likely limits to the explanatory power of neuroscience argue against that position, as do the limits to the social relevance of what neuroscience will be able to explain. At the same time neuroscience is likely to change societies through increasing their abilities to predict future behavior, to infer subjective mental states by observing physical brain states ("read minds"), to provide evidence in some cases relevant to criminal responsibility, to provide new ways to intervene to "treat antisocial brains," and to enhance healthy brains. Neuroscience should make important cultural changes in our special, and specially negative, views of "mental" versus "physical" illness by showing that mental illness is a dysfunction of a physical organ. It will not likely change our beliefs, implicit or explicit, in free will, or spark a new conflict between science and religion akin to the creationism controversy.

  1. Molecular approaches to understanding neural network plasticity and memory: the Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, M; Bergersen, L H; Storm-Mathisen, J

    2009-11-10

    The Kavli Prizes were awarded for the first time in Oslo, Norway on September 9, 2008 to seven of the world's most prominent scientists in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience. The astrophysics prize was awarded jointly to Maarten Schmidt, of the California Institute of Technology, USA, and Donald Lynden-Bell, of Cambridge University, UK; the nanoscience prize was awarded jointly to Louis E. Brus, of Columbia University, USA, and Sumio Iijima, of Meijo University, Japan; and the neuroscience prize was awarded jointly to Pasko Rakic, of the Yale University School of Medicine, USA, Thomas Jessell, of Columbia University, USA, and Sten Grillner, of the Karolinska Institute, Sweden. The Kavli Prize is a joint venture of the Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. The Kavli Prize Inaugural Symposium on Neuroscience was held at the University of Oslo on 8 September, 2008, organized by L.H. Bergersen, E. Moser M.-B. Moser, and J. Storm-Mathisen. At this Symposium, seven leading neuroscientists described their groundbreaking work, which encompasses some of the most important recent advances in the field of neuroscience, from molecule to synapse to network to behavior. The Symposium was a fitting tribute to Fred Kavli's vision of neuroscience as an outstanding area of progress, and to the achievements of the winners of the first Kavli Prize in Neuroscience. The main points of the Symposium presentations are summarized below.

  2. Notes for a dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalzone, Franco

    2005-10-01

    The author postulates that the dialogue between psychoanalysis and neuroscience is based on the assumption that both deal with virtual structures. They are two facets of the same noumenal reality, but with different phenomenal realities, and it is possible to use metapsychology as a lingua franca to develop communication between the two fields. In the second part of the paper, the author reflects on the results of recent neurophysiological research which seem to offer to psychoanalysis possibilities for finding an anatomical physiological correlate of some well-known psychic phenomena and mechanisms, such as imitation, introjection, identification, empathy, identity, mother child communication, learning, social communication and the analyst patient relationship. Particular neurons, called mirror neurons, have been located in the F5 area of baboons' brains. They are also present in man's brain within Broca's area. These neurons activate our motor system during both the performance of actions and the observation of actions performed by others giving rise to an automatic response, a sort of simulation or, rather, imitation, as the process is not intentional, but automatic and unaware, that is, unconscious. PMID:16174615

  3. Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences: a topical debate on dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, M

    1999-12-01

    The author begins by pointing out that, whereas Freud first turned his attention to dreams in 1895, they became an object of neuroscientific interest only in the 1950s, after the discovery of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and the observation that a subject woken in an REM phase could remember and narrate them. He discusses the various brain structures found by the neuroscientists to be implicated in dreaming and the associated hypotheses about their involvement in the processes of remembering dreams, their spatial construction and semantic organisation, and the dreamer's emotional participation in and narration of dreams. Attention is drawn to recent psychophysiological research findings indicating that dreaming occurs in all sleep phases and not only in REM episodes. The cognitivist contribution is also discussed. The author goes on to demonstrate the difference between the neuroscientific and psychoanalytic approaches to dreams. Whereas the neuroscientists are interested in the structures involved in dream production and in dream organisation and narratability, psychoanalysis concentrates on the meaning of dreams and on placing them in the context of the analytic relationship in accordance with the affective history of the dreamer and the transference. The brain structures and functions of interest to the neurosciences, while constituting the physical and biological substrate of these aspects, are stated to be irrelevant to their psychoanalytic understanding. PMID:10669969

  4. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent—based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus–response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  5. Perceptual anomalies in schizophrenia: integrating phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlhaas, Peter J; Mishara, Aaron L

    2007-01-01

    From phenomenological and experimental perspectives, research in schizophrenia has emphasized deficits in "higher" cognitive functions, including attention, executive function, as well as memory. In contrast, general consensus has viewed dysfunctions in basic perceptual processes to be relatively unimportant in the explanation of more complex aspects of the disorder, including changes in self-experience and the development of symptoms such as delusions. We present evidence from phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience that changes in the perceptual field in schizophrenia may represent a core impairment. After introducing the phenomenological approach to perception (Husserl, the Gestalt School), we discuss the views of Paul Matussek, Klaus Conrad, Ludwig Binswanger, and Wolfgang Blankenburg on perception in schizophrenia. These 4 psychiatrists describe changes in perception and automatic processes that are related to the altered experience of self. The altered self-experience, in turn, may be responsible for the emergence of delusions. The phenomenological data are compatible with current research that conceptualizes dysfunctions in perceptual processing as a deficit in the ability to combine stimulus elements into coherent object representations. Relationships of deficits in perceptual organization to cognitive and social dysfunction as well as the possible neurobiological mechanisms are discussed.

  6. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes.

  7. Psychoanalysis on the couch: can neuroscience provide the answers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea

    2010-12-01

    Over a century after Freud's attempt to establish psychoanalysis as a natural science, there is renewed interest in the integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific findings within a single theoretical and experimental framework. However, it is important that any intellectual exchange is not motivated only by declining confidence in psychoanalytic theory and practice or awareness of the rising fortunes of the brain sciences. The present paper considers three possible ways in which psychoanalysis and neuroscience might be integrated. These include the investigation of the neurological organisation of psychoanalytically defined phenomena; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their neurobiological evidence; and the use of neuroimaging techniques to assess the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment. The author argues that these exercises are unlikely to provide psychoanalysis with the "unlimited opportunities for overcoming its uncertainties and doubts" that some have anticipated. For instance, the argument that mapping psychoanalytically defined phenomena in the brain may provide biological validity to these phenomena should be considered an expression of logical confusion; the evaluation of psychoanalytic theories based on their biological evidence is critically dependent on speculative interpretation of what the theories predict at neuronal level; and the supposedly objective evaluation of the progress and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment on the basis of neurobiological data relies on the subjective reports of the patient and analyst. In light of this conclusion, there are a number of outstanding questions which remain to be addressed, including whether psychoanalysis should adhere to scientific canons and whether this would necessarily require an experimental methodology.

  8. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology.

  9. Learning with interactive computer graphics in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, John R; Chariker, Julia H; Naaz, Farah; Mattingly, William; Roberts, Joshua; Sephton, Sandra E

    2014-10-01

    Instruction of neuroanatomy depends on graphical representation and extended self-study. As a consequence, computer-based learning environments that incorporate interactive graphics should facilitate instruction in this area. The present study evaluated such a system in the undergraduate neuroscience classroom. The system used the method of adaptive exploration, in which exploration in a high fidelity graphical environment is integrated with immediate testing and feedback in repeated cycles of learning. The results of this study were that students considered the graphical learning environment to be superior to typical classroom materials used for learning neuroanatomy. Students managed the frequency and duration of study, test, and feedback in an efficient and adaptive manner. For example, the number of tests taken before reaching a minimum test performance of 90 % correct closely approximated the values seen in more regimented experimental studies. There was a wide range of student opinion regarding the choice between a simpler and a more graphically compelling program for learning sectional anatomy. Course outcomes were predicted by individual differences in the use of the software that reflected general work habits of the students, such as the amount of time committed to testing. The results of this introduction into the classroom are highly encouraging for development of computer-based instruction in biomedical disciplines. PMID:24449123

  10. Helmholtz and Goethe -- controversies at the birth of modern neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselring, Jürg

    2013-01-01

    Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), a great German scientist and philosopher, made his mark during the exciting twilight period from the Enlightenment and Romanticism to the beginnings of modern neuroscience and offered new perspectives through his work. His early inclination was for physics, which he found more attractive than purely geometric and algebraic studies, but his father was not able to make it possible for him to study physics, and so he studied medicine in order to earn a living. His lecture before the Physical Society in Berlin on July 23, 1847, 'about the conservation of the force' marked an epochal turn, even though his intention had been to deliver 'merely, some critical investigations and arrangement of facts in favor of the physiologists' as well as good arguments for the refusal of the theory of 'vitality'. Even though these new concepts were at first dismissed as fantastic speculation by some of the authorities in physics and philosophy of the day, they were enthusiastically welcomed by younger students of philosophy and the older men soon had to allow themselves to be persuaded that the effectiveness of vitality, though great and beautiful, is actually always dependent on some source of energy. Helmholtz critically assessed Goethe as a physical scientist but he did not dispute his great importance as a poet. PMID:23257785

  11. Attending to and neglecting people: bridging neuroscience, psychology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-05-01

    Human behaviour is context-dependent-based on predictions and influenced by the environment and other people. We live in a dynamic world where both the social stimuli and their context are constantly changing. Similar dynamic, natural stimuli should, in the future, be increasingly used to study social brain functions, with parallel development of appropriate signal-analysis methods. Understanding dynamic neural processes also requires accurate time-sensitive characterization of the behaviour. To go beyond the traditional stimulus-response approaches, brain activity should be recorded simultaneously from two interacting subjects to reveal why human social interaction is critically different from just reacting to each other. This theme issue on Attending to and neglecting people contains original work and review papers on person perception and social interaction. The articles cover research from neuroscience, psychology, robotics, animal interaction research and microsociology. Some of the papers are co-authored by scientists who presented their own, independent views in the recent Attention and Performance XXVI conference but were brave enough to join forces with a colleague having a different background and views. In the future, information needs to converge across disciplines to provide us a more holistic view of human behaviour, its interactive nature, as well as the temporal dynamics of our social world. PMID:27069043

  12. Linking psychoanalysis with neuroscience: the concept of ego.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Semi, Antonio Alberto; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2014-03-01

    Through his whole life Marc Jeannerod was fascinated by Freud's thinking. His interest in Freud is witnessed by several of his writings in which he expresses interest in building a bridge between psychoanalysis and cognitive neuroscience. Following Jeannerod's ideas we discuss here a fundamental point of Freud's construction, the concept of ego, from a neurophysiological point of view. We maintain that, in order both to act coherently and to have a basic, first person, understanding of the behavior of others, it is necessary to posit the existence of a neurophysiological "motor" ego similar to the "rider" of the Freudian metaphor. We review then a series of neurophysiological findings showing that the systems underlying the organization of action and conscious perception are both mediated by a cortical motor network formed by parieto-frontal circuits. In conclusion, we show that the activity of this network has strong similarities to that postulated by Freud for the conscious part of ego. We also propose that the default-mode network might represent that part of ego that is mostly involved in unconscious processes. PMID:24140952

  13. A developmental neuroscience perspective on affect-biased attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Morales

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest regarding the impact of affect-biased attention on psychopathology. However, most of the research to date lacks a developmental approach. In the present review, we examine the role affect-biased attention plays in shaping socioemotional trajectories within a developmental neuroscience framework. We propose that affect-biased attention, particularly if stable and entrenched, acts as a developmental tether that helps sustain early socioemotional and behavioral profiles over time, placing some individuals on maladaptive developmental trajectories. Although most of the evidence is found in the anxiety literature, we suggest that these relations may operate across multiple domains of interest, including positive affect, externalizing behaviors, drug use, and eating behaviors. We also review the general mechanisms and neural correlates of affect-biased attention, as well as the current evidence for the co-development of attention and affect. Based on the reviewed literature, we propose a model that may help us better understand the nuances of affect-biased attention across development. The model may serve as a strong foundation for ongoing attempts to identify neurocognitive mechanisms and intervene with individuals at risk. Finally, we discuss open issues for future research that may help bridge existing gaps in the literature.

  14. Details for Manuscript Number: SSM-D-09-00651 R2 “Contemporary neuroscience in the media”

    OpenAIRE

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine h...

  15. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Helie; Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  16. Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Polner, Elizabeth; Clark, Margaret S

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all) do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1) all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger), and (2) relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: (a) we describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others' emotions, providing help, and receiving help) that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. (b) We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research. PMID:24723868

  17. Neuroscience Club in SKKK3 and SMSTMFP: The Brain Apprentice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Ibrahim, Seri Dewi; Muda, Mazinah

    2015-01-01

    Sekolah Menengah Sains Tengku Muhammad Faris Petra (SMSTMFP) and Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian (3) (SKKK3) were selected by the Department of Neurosciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), in 2011 to be a 'school-based Neuroscience Club' via the 'Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP) - Community' project. This community project was known as "The Brain Apprentice Project". The objectives of this project were to promote science and the neurosciences beyond conventional classroom teachings whilst guiding creativity and innovation as well as to assist in the delivery of neuroscience knowledge through graduate interns as part of the cultivation of neuroscience as a fruitful future career option. All of the planned club activities moulded the students to be knowledgeable individuals with admirable leadership skills, which will help the schools produce more scientists, technocrats and professionals who can fulfil the requirements of our religion, race and nation in the future. Some of the activities carried out over the years include the "My Brain Invention Competition", "Mini Brain Bee Contest", "Recycled Melody" and "Brain Dissection". These activities educated the students well and improved their confidence levels in their communication and soft skills. The participation of the students in international-level competition, such as the "International Brain Bee", was one of the ways future professionals were created for the nation. The implementation of Neuroscience Club as one of the organisations in the school's cocurriculum was an appropriate step in transferring science and neuroscience knowledge and skills from a higher education institution, namely USM, to both of the schools, SMSTMFP and SKKK3. The club members showed great interest in all of the club's activities and their performance on the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or Primary School Achievement Test and Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or Malaysian Certificate of Education examinations improved

  18. Understanding and taking relational context into account is critical for social neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eClark-Polner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientists have increasingly turned to the brain and to neuroscience more generally to further an understanding of social and emotional judgments and behavior. Yet, many neuroscientists (certainly not all do not consider the role of relational context. Moreover, most have not examined the impact of relational context in a manner that takes advantage of conceptual and empirical advances in relationship science. Here we emphasize that: (1 all social behavior takes place, by definition, within the context of a relationship (even if that relationship is a new one with a stranger, and (2 relational context shapes not only social thoughts, feelings and behaviors, but also some seemingly non-social thoughts, feelings and behaviors in profound ways. We define relational context and suggest that accounting for it in the design and interpretation of neuroscience research is essential to the development of a coherent, generalizable neuroscience of social behavior. We make our case in two ways: a We describe some existing neuroscience research in three substantive areas (perceiving and reacting to others’ emotions, providing help and receiving help that already has documented the powerful impact of relational context. b We describe some other neuroscience research from these same areas that has not taken relational context into account. Then, using findings from social and personality psychology, we make a case that different results almost certainly would have been found had the research been conducted in a different relational context. We neither attempt to review all evidence that relational context shapes neuroscience findings nor to put forward a theoretical analysis of all the ways relational context ought to shape neuroscience findings. Our goal is simply to urge greater and more systematic consideration of relational context in neuroscientific research.

  19. Brain literate: making neuroscience accessible to a wider audience of undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Danielle; Martin-Harris, Laurel; Mullen, Brian; Odegaard, Brian; Zvinyatskovskiy, Aleksey; Chandler, Scott H

    2015-01-01

    The ability to critically evaluate neuroscientific findings is a skill that is rapidly becoming important in non-science professions. As neuroscience research is increasingly being used in law, business, education, and politics, it becomes imperative to educate future leaders in all areas of society about the brain. Undergraduate general education courses are an ideal way to expose students to issues of critical importance, but non-science students may avoid taking a neuroscience course because of the perception that neuroscience is more challenging than other science courses. A recently developed general education cluster course at UCLA aims to make neuroscience more palatable to undergraduates by pairing neuroscientific concepts with philosophy and history, and by building a learning community that supports the development of core academic skills and intellectual growth over the course of a year. This study examined the extent to which the course was successful in delivering neuroscience education to a broader undergraduate community. The results indicate that a majority of students in the course mastered the basics of the discipline regardless of their major. Furthermore, 77% of the non-life science majors (approximately two-thirds of students in the course) indicated that they would not have taken an undergraduate neuroscience course if this one was not offered. The findings also demonstrate that the course helped students develop core academic skills and improved their ability to think critically about current events in neuroscience. Faculty reported that teaching the course was highly rewarding and did not require an inordinate amount of time. PMID:25838804

  20. Hallucinations in the psychotic state: Psychoanalysis and the neurosciences compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Franco; Davalli, Cesare; Giustino, Gabriella; Pergami, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution, which takes account of important findings in neuroscientific as well as psychoanalytic research, the authors explore the meaning of the deep-going distortions of psychic functioning occurring in hallucinatory phenomena. Neuroscientific studies have established that hallucinations distort the sense of reality owing to a complex alteration in the balance between top-down and bottom-up brain circuits. The present authors postulate that hallucinatory phenomena represent the outcome of a psychotic's distorted use of the mind over an extended period of time. In the hallucinatory state the psychotic part of the personality uses the mind to generate auto-induced sensations and to achieve a particular sort of regressive pleasure. In these cases, therefore, the mind is not used as an organ of knowledge or as an instrument for fostering relationships with others. The hallucinating psychotic decathects psychic (relational) reality and withdraws into a personal, bodily, and sensory space of his own. The opposing realities are not only external and internal but also psychic and sensory. Visual hallucinations could thus be said to originate from seeing with the 'eyes' of the mind, and auditory hallucinations from hearing with the mind's 'ears'. In these conditions, mental functioning is restricted, cutting out the more mature functions, which are thus no longer able to assign real meaning to the surrounding world and to the subject's psychic experience. The findings of the neurosciences facilitate understanding of how, in the psychotic hallucinatory process, the mind can modify the working of a somatic organ such as the brain.

  1. Bridging the Gap: establishing the necessary infrastructure and knowledge for teaching and research in neuroscience in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Baden, Tom; Prieto-Godino, Lucia L

    2014-06-01

    Advances in neuroscience research over the last few decades have increased our understanding of how individual neurons acquire their specific properties and assemble into complex circuits, and how these circuits are affected in disease. One of the important motives driving neuroscience research is the development of new scientific techniques and interdisciplinary cooperation. Compared to developed countries, many countries on the African continent are confronted with poor facilities, lack of funding or career development programs for neuroscientists, all of which deter young scientists from taking up neuroscience as a career choice. This article highlights some steps that are being taken to promote neuroscience education and research in Africa.

  2. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience. PMID:26441506

  3. How does our brain constitute defense mechanisms? First-person neuroscience and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg; Bermpohl, Felix; Schoeneich, Frank; Boeker, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Current progress in the cognitive and affective neurosciences is constantly influencing the development of psychoanalytic theory and practice. However, despite the emerging dialogue between neuroscience and psychoanalysis, the neuronal processes underlying psychoanalytic constructs such as defense mechanisms remain unclear. One of the main problems in investigating the psychodynamic-neuronal relationship consists in systematically linking the individual contents of first-person subjective experience to third-person observation of neuronal states. We therefore introduced an appropriate methodological strategy, 'first-person neuroscience', which aims at developing methods for systematically linking first- and third-person data. The utility of first-person neuroscience can be demonstrated by the example of the defense mechanism of sensorimotor regression as paradigmatically observed in catatonia. Combined psychodynamic and imaging studies suggest that sensorimotor regression might be associated with dysfunction in the neural network including the orbitofrontal, the medial prefrontal and the premotor cortices. In general sensorimotor regression and other defense mechanisms are psychoanalytic constructs that are hypothesized to be complex emotional-cognitive constellations. In this paper we suggest that specific functional mechanisms which integrate neuronal activity across several brain regions (i.e. neuronal integration) are the physiological substrates of defense mechanisms. We conclude that first-person neuroscience could be an appropriate methodological strategy for opening the door to a better understanding of the neuronal processes of defense mechanisms and their modulation in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. PMID:17426413

  4. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis from a developmental perspective: why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss-Ryngaert, Lisa; Golse, Bernard

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to develop the rational to support why and how we should link neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Many of these points are derived from child development and child psychiatry. Neuroscience investigates developmental questions in a different way than psychoanalysis, while psychoanalysis itself has shifted towards new developmental paradigms. The rapprochement between neuroscience and psychoanalysis allows a new understanding of some concepts, including embodiment of mind, consciousness and attachment. The "double reading" paradigm allows a better understanding of symptomatic configurations. Linking neuroscience and psychoanalysis may improve treatments and result in new experimental neuroscientific paradigms involving changing the research object, changing the state of the research object, and investigating the structural changes in the brain following psychotherapy. The last aim is to create an epistemology of the articulation between the theoretical frameworks through phenomenology, "complementarism" and neuropsychoanalysis. We argue that it is necessary for clinicians to be aware of the advancements in each field. This is not only an epistemological question; we assume that new findings in neuroscience will change the way psychoanalysts think and approach treatment of their patients. We hope the present research will contribute to change the way that neuroscientists think and will provide new options to their set of experimental paradigms.

  5. Neuroscience of Ethics: The State of Art and the Promises for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinara Nahra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p109It is widely known that neuroscience research can lead humankind to understand and combat many illnesses or conditions that cause untold suffering around the world such as dementia, Alzheimer’s, depression or stress and can also lead us to achieve considerable improvements in memory, learning abilities, executive functions, moods and in many others areas related to cognition and emotion. In this article I will be focusing specifically on the research related to the neuroscience of ethics. The neuroscience of ethics is an area of neuroethics that is concerned with the understanding of the brains mechanism that are involved in moral cognition and in our ethical (or anti-ethical decisions, and I propose here to expand this concept a little further, defining neuroscience of ethics as the field concerned to the understanding of the brain mechanisms of all main behaviours related to ethics and morality. In this article I identify a set of neuroscience studies that have been published in the last 10 years and that are relevant for ethics, shedding light on behaviours such as altruism, generosity, selfconfidence, trust , altruistic punishment, violence, lying and prejudice, all of them connected somehow to morality. I then discuss how the understanding of each one of these behaviours can benefit society and how we can use this research to help humankind to improve moral standards and promote general happiness.

  6. Emotion, rationality, and decision-making: how to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Marco; Senior, Timothy J; Domínguez D, Juan F; Turner, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades-rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism-contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences-plural rationality theory-shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  7. Emotion, rationality and decision-making: How to link affective and social neuroscience with social theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eVerweij

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we argue for a stronger engagement between concepts in affective and social neuroscience on the one hand, and theories from the fields of anthropology, economics, political science and sociology on the other. Affective and social neuroscience could provide an additional assessment of social theories. We argue that some of the most influential social theories of the last four decades –rational choice theory, behavioral economics, and post-structuralism– contain assumptions that are inconsistent with key findings in affective and social neuroscience. We also show that another approach from the social sciences –plural rationality theory– shows greater compatibility with these findings. We further claim that, in their turn, social theories can strengthen affective and social neuroscience. The former can provide more precise formulations of the social phenomena that neuroscientific models have targeted, can help neuroscientists who build these models become more aware of their social and cultural biases, and can even improve the models themselves. To illustrate, we show how plural rationality theory can be used to further specify and test the somatic marker hypothesis. Thus, we aim to accelerate the much-needed merger of social theories with affective and social neuroscience.

  8. When Neuroscience 'Touches' Architecture: From Hapticity to a Supramodal Functioning of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, Paolo; Chiesi, Leonardo; Rampinini, Alessandra C; Pietrini, Pietro; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the rapid growth of functional brain imaging methodologies allowed cognitive neuroscience to address open questions in philosophy and social sciences. At the same time, novel insights from cognitive neuroscience research have begun to influence various disciplines, leading to a turn to cognition and emotion in the fields of planning and architectural design. Since 2003, the Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture has been supporting 'neuro-architecture' as a way to connect neuroscience and the study of behavioral responses to the built environment. Among the many topics related to multisensory perceptual integration and embodiment, the concept of hapticity was recently introduced, suggesting a pivotal role of tactile perception and haptic imagery in architectural appraisal. Arguments have thus risen in favor of the existence of shared cognitive foundations between hapticity and the supramodal functional architecture of the human brain. Precisely, supramodality refers to the functional feature of defined brain regions to process and represent specific information content in a more abstract way, independently of the sensory modality conveying such information to the brain. Here, we highlight some commonalities and differences between the concepts of hapticity and supramodality according to the distinctive perspectives of architecture and cognitive neuroscience. This comparison and connection between these two different approaches may lead to novel observations in regard to people-environment relationships, and even provide empirical foundations for a renewed evidence-based design theory. PMID:27375542

  9. Development and use of Ontologies Inside the Neuroscience Information Framework: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Fahim T; Larson, Stephen D; Bandrowski, Anita; Grethe, Jeffery S; Gupta, Amarnath; Martone, Maryann E

    2012-01-01

    An initiative of the NIH Blueprint for neuroscience research, the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) project advances neuroscience by enabling discovery and access to public research data and tools worldwide through an open source, semantically enhanced search portal. One of the critical components for the overall NIF system, the NIF Standardized Ontologies (NIFSTD), provides an extensive collection of standard neuroscience concepts along with their synonyms and relationships. The knowledge models defined in the NIFSTD ontologies enable an effective concept-based search over heterogeneous types of web-accessible information entities in NIF's production system. NIFSTD covers major domains in neuroscience, including diseases, brain anatomy, cell types, sub-cellular anatomy, small molecules, techniques, and resource descriptors. Since the first production release in 2008, NIF has grown significantly in content and functionality, particularly with respect to the ontologies and ontology-based services that drive the NIF system. We present here on the structure, design principles, community engagement, and the current state of NIFSTD ontologies.

  10. How neuroscience is taught to North American dental students: results of the Basic Science Survey Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Douglas J; Clarkson, Mackenzie J; Hutchins, Bob; Lambert, H Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how North American dental students are taught neuroscience during their preclinical dental education. This survey represents one part of a larger research project, the Basic Science Survey Series for Dentistry, which covers all of the biomedical science coursework required of preclinical students in North American dental schools. Members of the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Dental Education Association assembled, distributed, and analyzed the neuroscience survey, which had a 98.5 percent response from course directors of the sixty-seven North American dental schools. The eighteen-item instrument collected demographic data on the course directors, information on the content in each course, and information on how neuroscience content is presented. Findings indicate that 1) most neuroscience instruction is conducted by non-dental school faculty members; 2) large content variability exists between programs; and 3) an increase in didactic instruction, integrated curricula, and use of computer-aided instruction is occurring. It is anticipated that the information derived from the survey will help guide neuroscience curricula in dental schools and aid in identifying appropriate content.

  11. Neurociência e psiquiatria Neuroscience and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico G. Graeff

    2006-01-01

    overcome the epistemological paradox between Psychoanalysis and Neuroscience.

  12. Does the goal justify the methods? Harm and benefit in neuroscience research using animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira de Castro, Ana Catarina; Olsson, I Anna S

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present chapter is to open up for discussion some of the major ethical issues involved in animal-based neuroscience research. We begin by approaching the question of the moral acceptability of the use of animals in research at all, exploring the implications of three different ethical theories: contractarianism, utilitarianism, and animal rights. In the rest of this chapter, we discuss more specific issues of neuroscience research within what we argue is the mainstream framework for research animal ethics, namely one based on harm-benefit analysis. We explore issues of harms and benefits and how to balance them as well as how to reduce harm and increase benefit within neuroscience research.

  13. What does the interactive brain hypothesis mean for social neuroscience? A dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jaegher, Hanne; Di Paolo, Ezequiel; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-05-01

    A recent framework inspired by phenomenological philosophy, dynamical systems theory, embodied cognition and robotics has proposed the interactive brain hypothesis (IBH). Whereas mainstream social neuroscience views social cognition as arising solely from events in the brain, the IBH argues that social cognition requires, in addition, causal relations between the brain and the social environment. We discuss, in turn, the foundational claims for the IBH in its strongest form; classical views of cognition that can be raised against the IBH; a defence of the IBH in the light of these arguments; and a response to this. Our goal is to initiate a dialogue between cognitive neuroscience and enactive views of social cognition. We conclude by suggesting some new directions and emphases that social neuroscience might take.

  14. Closed-Loop Neuroscience and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation: A Tale of Two Loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Christoph; Belardinelli, Paolo; Müller-Dahlhaus, Florian; Ziemann, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Closed-loop neuroscience is receiving increasing attention with recent technological advances that enable complex feedback loops to be implemented with millisecond resolution on commodity hardware. We summarize emerging conceptual and methodological frameworks that are available to experimenters investigating a "brain in the loop" using non-invasive brain stimulation and briefly review the experimental and therapeutic implications. We take the view that closed-loop neuroscience in fact deals with two conceptually quite different loops: a "brain-state dynamics" loop, used to couple with and modulate the trajectory of neuronal activity patterns, and a "task dynamics" loop, that is the bidirectional motor-sensory interaction between brain and (simulated) environment, and which enables goal-directed behavioral tasks to be incorporated. Both loops need to be considered and combined to realize the full experimental and therapeutic potential of closed-loop neuroscience. PMID:27092055

  15. Neuroscience: memory and executive functions on the relationship between portuguese language teaching and political awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lorandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a teaching project based on the theme of politics in which we work on various genres putting together areas like Portuguese and Neuroscience. In Neuroscience we specifically work with memory and executive functions aiming the student success in the processes of teaching and learning. The research methodology is a critical action research. We do so for teachers to rethink their teaching practices. The results presented here embrace the teaching project, the inferences during the implementation of the teaching project, and the memory consolidation test by a group conversation. In doing so, we argue for the importance of Neuroscience as an ally to Education to help us think of strategies that consider the functioning of the brain and, therefore, enhance student success.

  16. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself.

  17. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.

  18. Consumer Neuroscience as a reserach issue, concepts and applications. A paradigmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Salazar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumer neuroscience allows a fullest and objective understanding about desires andactions of consumers, turning itself in a fickle tool to the use of the companies and to improve their Marketing strategies. The use of the Neuroscientific methods to the analysis, description and comprehension of human behavior related to consume open a lot of unknown possibilities to discover. Neuromarketing or The consumer Neuroscience as is known too is the study of mental process been part of the consumer behavior and contexts concerning the marketing as well, apply and follow in the environment of the real life of human been. Its supported by the paradigms and the technological development of Neurosciences whose progress has made possible for the seekers to deep in knowledge abouthow the brain work. Physiological operations of mind are a product of a structural and functional ensemble including the brain, as organ, and mind, emotion and cognition, asfunctions. Mind events just can be understood in the middle of the interaction between the organism and his environment. Neuromarketing paradigm it’s still in his infancy and whatfor it’s full of research possibilities. Inside the consumer neuroscience the ethic building doesn’t collapse, the morality isn’t threaten, inside the normal individual Will it’s alwaysWill. The present paper looking for a place to the consumer neuroscience paradigm over the perspective of research open to the Marketing, from the technological advances and hermeneutical vision offer by Neuroscience; it’s propose some of several possibilities ofresearch and practice been explored actually. To give an example its offer one of methods of research as is the Evoked Potentials.

  19. Media reporting of neuroscience depends on timing, topic and newspaper type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Atteveldt, Nienke M; van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I; Jacobi, Carina; Ruigrok, Nel

    2014-01-01

    The rapid developments in neuroscientific techniques raise high expectations among the general public and therefore warrant close monitoring of the translation to the media and daily-life applications. The need of empirical research into neuroscience communication is emphasized by its susceptibility to evoke misconceptions and polarized beliefs. As the mass media are the main sources of information about (neuro-)science for a majority of the general public, the objective of the current research is to quantify how critically and accurately newspapers report on neuroscience as a function of the timing of publication (within or outside of periods of heightened media attention to neuroscience, termed "news waves"), the topic of the research (e.g. development, health, law) and the newspaper type (quality, popular, free newspapers). The results show that articles published during neuroscience news waves were less neutral and more optimistic, but not different in accuracy. Furthermore, the overall tone and accuracy of articles depended on the topic; for example, articles on development often had an optimistic tone whereas articles on law were often skeptical or balanced, and articles on health care had highest accuracy. Average accuracy was rather low, but articles in quality newspapers were relatively more accurate than in popular and free newspapers. Our results provide specific recommendations for researchers and science communicators, to improve the translation of neuroscience findings through the media: 1) Caution is warranted during periods of heightened attention (news waves), as reporting tends to be more optimistic; 2) Caution is also warranted not to follow topic-related biases in optimism (e.g., development) or skepticism (e.g., law); 3) Researchers should keep in mind that overall accuracy of reporting is low, and especially articles in popular and free newspapers provide a minimal amount of details. This indicates that researchers themselves may need to be

  20. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  1. Detecting and Tracking The Real-time Hot Topics: A Study on Computational Neuroscience

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Fang, Zhichao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, following the idea of our previous paper (Wang, et al., 2013a), we improve the method to detect and track hot topics in a specific field by using the real-time article usage data. With the "usage count" data provided by Web of Science, we take the field of computational neuroscience as an example to make analysis. About 10 thousand articles in the field of Computational Neuroscience are queried in Web of Science, when the records, including the usage count data of each paper, h...

  2. Theatre and Neurosciences: from expanded intention to the spectator’s performative experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sofia

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the study of theatre as intersubjective relationships between human beings, highlighting the dialogue with researches in cognitive neurosciences. It presents a comparison between these two disciplines, guided by the question: if the actor on stage organizes his own body-mind system in a different way, is it possible to study this difference in terms of neuroscience? It discusses the answer to that question from the need to formulate theoretical hypotheses to prepare and forward experimentations: expanded intention, ambiguity of the actor, the co-constitution of scenic space and the spectator’s performative experience.

  3. Autobiographical Memory and Consumer Information Processing - What can Cognitive Neuroscience tell us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

      Recent findings in cognitive neuroscience have contributed to new knowledge in areas concerned with human behavior especially decision making and choice; within consumer research focus has primarily been directed at judgment and choice of brands and products. Research in consumer behavior has...... demonstrated that consumers use prior experiences when forming judgment and making choices and that emotions are important components in this. However the complete nature of autobiographical memories is not unfolded and further research is called for. The purpose of the present paper is to explore...... if neuroscience can enlighten consumer research concerning autobiographical memories and how?...

  4. Neurosciences and adult health behaviors: recent findings and implications for counseling psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2014-10-01

    The current review comprehensively examines recent advances in 2 innovative areas of neuroscience research on healthy adults regarding neuropsychosocial interactions on human cognition and behavior, as well as implications for counseling psychologists conducting research and in practice. Advances in how oxytocin influences prosocial behavior and the mitigation of social stress, and the influence of environmentally mediated gene expressions on the development of attachment disorders are surveyed and discussed in terms of how counseling psychologists might best integrate recent neuroscience research into a framework for therapeutic intervention.

  5. Using Drawings of the Brain Cell to Exhibit Expertise in Neuroscience: Exploring the Boundaries of Experimental Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, David B.; Williams, Darren; Stahl, Daniel; Wingate, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the research perspective of neuroscience by documenting the brain cell (neuron) drawings of undergraduates, trainee scientists, and leading neuroscience researchers in a single research-intensive university. Qualitative analysis, drawing-sorting exercises, and hierarchical cluster analysis are used to answer two related…

  6. Reconciling RDoC and DSM Approaches in Clinical Psychophysiology and Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTeague, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative endeavors to foster a science of psychopathology based around dimensions of brain-behavior relationships as opposed to subjectively based diagnostic categories. A rapidly accumulating array of transdiagnostic commonalities, across multiple objective and subjective measures, underscores the clear potential of this initiative. At the same time, a roadmap for guiding future RDoC research efforts is needed that draws upon the wealth of extant disorder-specific findings. In this issue, Hamm and colleagues provide an example of conceptualizing within-disorder processes in terms of dimensional brain-behavior relationships that advances the understanding of panic disorder with agoraphobia beyond the conventional nosological framework. Their findings and conceptual model are reviewed and discussed in terms of broader transdiagnostic implications. PMID:26877120

  7. Is 21st century neuroscience too focussed on the rat/mouse model of brain function and dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Manger

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies in the basic neurosciences are heavily reliant upon rat and mouse models. The brain is one of the most distinguishing features of the human species, but is enough being done to fully understand the evolution of the human brain and brain diversity in generalµ Without a clear understanding of the evolution of the nervous system we may be investing a great deal of effort into some limited specific animal models that may prove to be erroneous in terms of the overall usefulness in clinically applied research. Here we present an analysis that demonstrates that 75% of our research efforts are directed to the rat, mouse and human brain, or 0.0001% of the nervous systems on the planet. This extreme bias in research trends may provide a limited scope in the discovery of novel aspects of brain structure and function that would be of importance in understanding both the evolution of the human brain and in selecting appropriate animal models for use in clinically related research. We offer examples both from the historical and recent literature indicating the usefulness of comparative neurobiological investigation in elucidating both normal and abnormal structure and function of the brain.

  8. Developing a project-oriented introduction to neuroscience lab at hope college.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Leah A; Barney, Christopher C

    2009-01-01

    The Introduction to Neuroscience course at Hope College includes a three-hour laboratory period each week. Seven of the fifteen weeks of the lab are used for a lab project that is focused on understanding the effects of gonadal hormones on brain and behavior. Students perform ovariectomies and implant sham, estradiol, or testosterone capsules in rats and then carry out five experiments: 1) Sexual Behavior, 2) Spatial Learning using the Morris Water Maze, 3) The Size of the Sexually Dimorphic Nucleus, 4) Phosphorylation of NMDA Receptors, and 5) Long Term Potentiation in Hippocampal Slices. The experiments are designed to provide the students with experiences at different levels of neuroscience, while improving their skills in statistics, using the primary literature, and scientific writing. The students generate interesting and statistically significant data which they summarize in a journal style lab reports. Using a Self Assessment of Learning Gains tool, we learned that students perceive the lab project improves their ability to A) pose questions from more than one disciplinary perspective that can be addressed by collecting and evaluating scientific evidence, B) learn about complex science problems that require insight from more than one discipline, C) extract main points from a scientific article and develop a coherent summary, and D) write reports using scientific data as evidence. Based on our results, we believe an extended lab project in an introductory neuroscience course can be used to engage students in neuroscience topics and help them develop the skills and habits of neuroscientists.

  9. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: A neurophysicalmodel o f mind/brain interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry P.; Schwartz, Jeffrey M.; Beauregard, Mario

    2004-06-01

    Contemporary physical theory brings directly and irreducibly into the overall causal structure certain psychologically described choices made by human beings about how they will act. This key development in basic physical theory is applicable to neuroscience, and it provides neuroscientists and psychologists with an alternative conceptual structure for describing neural processes.

  10. The Scientific Method through the Lens of Neuroscience; From Willis to Broad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. Lanier

    2009-01-01

    In an age of unprecedented scientific achievement, I argue that the neurosciences are poised to transform our perceptions about life on earth, and that collaboration is needed to exploit a vast body of knowledge for humanity's benefit. The scientific method distinguishes science from the humanities and religion. It has evolved into a professional,…

  11. Critical ethnography: An under-used research methodology in neuroscience nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cheryl; Rogers, Cath; Duff, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Critical ethnography is a qualitative research method that endeavours to explore and understand dominant discourses that are seen as being the 'right' way to think, see, talk about or enact a particular 'action' or situation in society and recommend ways to re-dress social power inequities. In health care, vulnerable populations, including many individuals who have experienced neurological illnesses or injuries that leave them susceptible to the influence of others, would be suitable groups for study using critical ethnography methodology. Critical ethnography has also been used to study workplace culture. While ethnography has been effectively used to underpin other phenomena of interest to neuroscience nurses, only one example of the use of critical ethnography exists in the published literature related to neuroscience nursing. In our "Research Corner" in this issue of the Canadian Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (CJNN) our guest editors, Dr. Cheryl Ross and Dr. Cath Rogers will briefly highlight the origins of qualitative research, ethnography, and critical ethnography and describe how they are used and, as the third author, I will discuss the relevance of critical ethnography findings for neuroscience nurses.

  12. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  13. Transforming our approach to translational neuroscience: the role and impact of charitable nonprofits in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cynthia

    2014-11-01

    From mental health to rare diseases, charitable nonprofits and foundations are bringing energy, perspective, and leadership to the process of translational research. In challenging researchers to become more connected-to each other and to patients-charities are helping neuroscience deliver innovation that is relevant to real people in the real world. PMID:25442929

  14. Determination of Emotional Endophenotypes: A Validation of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales and Further Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Pouga, Lydia; Grezes, Julie; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The study of endophenotypes, notably with configured self-reports, represents a promising research pathway to overcome the limits of a syndromal approach of psychiatric diseases. The Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) is a self-report questionnaire, based on neuroethological considerations, that could help to assess emotional…

  15. Ethics in Neuroscience Graduate Training Programs: Views and Models from Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombera, Sofia; Fine, Alan; Grunau, Ruth E.; Illes, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of the ethical, social, and policy implications of research has become increasingly important to scientists and scholars whose work focuses on brain and mind, but limited empirical data exist on the education in ethics available to them. We examined the current landscape of ethics training in neuroscience programs, beginning with the…

  16. Publications of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program, Neuroscience Discipline: 1980-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Katherine J.; Wallace-Robinson, Janice; Powers, Janet V.; Hess, Elizabeth

    1992-01-01

    A 10-year cumulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the neuroscience discipline of the space physiology and countermeasures program of NASA's Life Sciences Division is provided. Primary subjects included in this bibliography are space motion sickness; vestibular performance, posture, and motor coordination; vestibular physiology; central and peripheral nervous system physiology; and general performance and methodologies. General physiology references are also included.

  17. Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Photographer: Digital Telepresence: Dr Murial Ross's Virtual Reality Application for Neuroscience Research Biocomputation. To study human disorders of balance and space motion sickness. Shown here is a 3D reconstruction of a nerve ending in inner ear, nature's wiring of balance organs.

  18. Plasticity as a Framing Concept Enabling Transdisciplinary Understanding and Research in Neuroscience and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Carrasco, Joaquín; Hernández Serrano, María Jose; Martín García, Antonio Victor

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the emerging literature on the need for a synergy between neuroscience and educational sciences, identifying several differences in approach and methods that hinder the connecting processes between these two disciplines. From this review a transdisciplinary framework is presented which is based on the systemic and lifelong…

  19. Language bias in neuroscience--is the Tower of Babel located in Germany?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heres, S; Wagenpfeil, S; Hamann, J; Kissling, W; Leucht, S

    2004-06-01

    In internal medicine German authors tend to publish randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with non-significant findings in German journals, RCTs with significant findings in international journals. In the neurosciences a similar trend was seen but the findings were not statistically significant. The reason for this inconclusive finding might be the low number of RCTs published in German. PMID:15196606

  20. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…