WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical medical education

  1. The Impact of the Clinical Medical Librarian on Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Jeanne; Hamburger, Stephen

    1981-01-01

    A University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine team approach is described that combines the knowledge and skills of the physician, nurse, clinical pharmacist, clinical medical librarian, etc., into a cooperative unit to provide health education and health care delivery. The impact of the clinical medical librarian is discussed. (MLW)

  2. Medical simulation-based education improves medicos' clinical skills

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhaoming; Liu, Qiaoyu; Wang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skill is an essential part of clinical medicine and plays quite an important role in bridging medicos and physicians. Due to the realities in China, traditional medical education is facing many challenges. There are few opportunities for students to practice their clinical skills and their dexterities are generally at a low level. Medical simulation-based education is a new teaching modality and helps to improve medicos' clinical skills to a large degree. Medical simulation-based edu...

  3. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-env...

  4. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

  5. Andragogy in clinical medicine: implications for medical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Geetha Mani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In Medical education, the final desired outcome is to prepare the students to meet the challenges in delivering health care to individuals and the community in the most competent and professional manner. Application of Andragogy in medical education especially clinical medicine will enrich the learning experience of students with respect to diagnosing their needs, acquiring knowledge, skills and appropriate attitudes. Various strategies such as problem based learning, clinically associated teaching, critical reflection, role modeling and constructive feedback can be used to enhance the students’ competence and inculcate professionalism among the students.

  6. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene Sundahl; Scherpbier, Albert J J;

    2010-01-01

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate...... in clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education....

  7. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Bente Vigh; Mortensen, Lene S.; Scherpbier, Albert J J;

    2010-01-01

    The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate ...... clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education.......The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate in...

  8. 77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on Physician Careers in Academia and... Collection Title: The Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center on... clinical research training and medical education of the highest quality to each trainee. Frequency...

  9. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpbier Albert JJ; Mortensen Lene S; Malling Bente; Ringsted Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate in clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education. Methods The study was a trans-sectional correlation study. The educational clim...

  10. Ideological and political education for clinical graduates on the basis of medical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-chuan JING

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Along with the reform of medical system, medical education in China is also undergoing great changes. Due to the special characteristics of medical education, it differs from other educational characteristics. It carries with the characteristics of clinical practice on the basis distributed learning, physical and mental development along with ages, enrollment expansion and medical requirement, and standardization training for resident doctors. So, ideological and political education of clinical graduates showed many new characteristics. First, medical ethics education is the basic step, combined with the related disciplines of medical humanity connotation. Second, flexible and diversified form of ideological and political education on the basis of medical work is necessary. Third, establish a system of ideological and political education for clinical graduates, to build up new education concept, and to develop ideological and political education activities for clinical graduates in depth.

  11. Advancing Medication Reconciliation in an Outpatient Internal Medicine Clinic through a Pharmacist-Led Educational Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Westberg, Pharm.D.; Kathrine Beeksma, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To develop and deliver an effective pharmacist-led educational initiative to clinic staff to advance medication reconciliation in the electronic medical record of an outpatient internal medicine clinic.Methods: An educational initiative designed to improve the ability of nursing staff in medication reconciliation was launched in the outpatient internal medicine clinic of a regional healthcare system. The education was provided by the pharmacist to clinic nursing staff, includ...

  12. Educational climate seems unrelated to leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible of postgraduate medical education in clinical departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherpbier Albert JJ

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The educational climate is crucial in postgraduate medical education. Although leaders are in the position to influence the educational climate, the relationship between leadership skills and educational climate is unknown. This study investigates the relationship between the educational climate in clinical departments and the leadership skills of clinical consultants responsible for education. Methods The study was a trans-sectional correlation study. The educational climate was investigated by a survey among all doctors (specialists and trainees in the departments. Leadership skills of the consultants responsible for education were measured by multi-source feedback scores from heads of departments, peer consultants, and trainees. Results Doctors from 42 clinical departments representing 21 specialties participated. The response rate of the educational climate investigation was moderate 52% (420/811, Response rate was high in the multisource-feedback process 84.3% (420/498. The educational climate was scored quite high mean 3.9 (SD 0.3 on a five-point Likert scale. Likewise the leadership skills of the clinical consultants responsible for education were considered good, mean 5.4 (SD 0.6 on a seven-point Likert scale. There was no significant correlation between the scores concerning the educational climate and the scores on leadership skills, r = 0.17 (p = 0.29. Conclusions This study found no relation between the educational climate and the leadership skills of the clinical consultants responsible for postgraduate medical education in clinical departments with the instruments used. Our results indicate that consultants responsible for education are in a weak position to influence the educational climate in the clinical department. Further studies are needed to explore, how heads of departments and other factors related to the clinical organisation could influence the educational climate.

  13. An Evaluation on Medical Students' Satisfaction with Clinical Education and its Effective Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ziaee

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate medical students' satisfaction with clinical education during medical internship and the effects of variables in the organizational domain on satisfaction. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive analytic study in 2000 identified students' satisfaction with clinical education in medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Students' satisfaction was assessed by a modified job satisfaction questionnaire. Clinical education was classified into; outpatient, bedside and theoretical teaching. Results: Overall satisfaction with clinical education was 38.8%; outpatient and bedside teaching 52% each and theoretical education 70.8%. Overall satisfaction had a significant association with approach to common and epidemic diseases, class size, and the course planning. Conclusion: Based on the present study, we conclude that clinical education should be reevaluated in our university with the specific attention to the class size, variety of diseases and course planning considered for each session in clinical education.

  14. An E-Learning Module for Clinical Skills Training In Undergraduate Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gürpınar, Erol; Alimoğlu, M. Kemal; Esin KULAÇ; Nacar, Melis; Budakoğlu, Işıl İrem; Karaoğlu, Nazan; Yılmaz, Nilüfer Demiral; Öncü, Selcen; Taşkıran, Cahit; Çalışkan, Ayhan; GÖNÜLLÜ, İpek; ONAN, Arif; Mamaklı, Sümer

    2012-01-01

    Eighty three medical education programs are offered in our country. Department of Medical Education exists in 33 medical schools. Forty-seven medical schools have Clinical Skills Training Laboratory. Mastery learning is targeted in Clinical Skills Training Laboratory which means that each student achieve required mastery level at completion of training. However students may loose their competence in time if they do not re-study or apply the skill immediately after training. The aim ...

  15. Transforming the Academic Faculty Perspective in Graduate Medical Education to Better Align Educational and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian M; Holmboe, Eric S

    2016-04-01

    The current health care delivery model continues to fall short in achieving the desired patient safety and quality-of-care outcomes for patients. And, until recently, an explicit acknowledgment of the role and influence of the clinical learning environment on professional development had been missing from physician-based competency frameworks. In this Perspective, the authors explore the implications of the insufficient integration of education about patient safety and quality improvement by academic faculty into the clinical learning environment in many graduate medical education (GME) programs, and the important role that academic faculty need to play to better align the educational and clinical contexts to improve both learner and patient outcomes. The authors propose a framework that closely aligns the educational and clinical contexts, such that both educational and clinical outcomes are centered around the patient. This will require a reorganization of academic faculty perspective and educational design of GME training programs that recognizes that (1) the dynamic interplay between the faculty, learner, training program, and clinical microsystem ultimately influences the quality of physician that emerges from the training program and environment, and (2) patient outcomes relate to the quality of education and the success of clinical microsystems. To enable this evolution, there is a need to revisit the core competencies expected of academic faculty, implement innovative faculty development strategies, examine closely faculty's current clinical super vision practices, and establish a training environment that supports bridging from clinician to educator, training program to clinical microsystem, and educational outcomes to clinical outcomes that benefit patients. PMID:26703412

  16. The Clinical Data Repository: A Challenge to Medical Student Education

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of comprehensive clinical data repositories carries implications for the medical informatics curriculum for pre-MD medical students. There is the risk that electronic health records will detract from students’ acquisition of basic skills in inquiry and information management. It is possible, however, to create an application within the data repositories that will provide students with opportunities to practice their skills as they follow the evaluation and management of pat...

  17. Medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people.

  18. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists (Russian Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication addresses the shortfall of well trained and clinically qualified medical physicists working in radiation medicine. The roles, responsibilities and clinical training requirements of medical physicists have not always been well defined or well understood by health care professionals, health authorities and regulatory agencies. To fill this gap, this publication provides recommendations for the academic education and clinical training of clinically qualified medical physicists, including recommendations for their accreditation certification and registration, along with continuous professional development. The goal is to establish criteria that support the harmonization of education and clinical training worldwide

  19. Medical education in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, Christoph; Weyrich, Peter; Jünger, Jana; Schrauth, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Following the changes made to the medical licensing regulations of 2002, medical education in Germany has been subject to radical modification, especially at undergraduate level. The implementation of the Bologna Process is still a matter of intense political debate, whilst positive movement has occurred in developing the professionalisation of teaching staff through a Masters Degree in Medical Education. In the area of postgraduate medical education, major restructuring of programmes is occurring, whilst the debate in continuing medical education is related to the amount of practical clinical education that is required.

  20. Roles and Responsibilities, and Education and Training Requirements for Clinically Qualified Medical Physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA technical cooperation project Strengthening Medical Physics in Radiation Medicine was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors for the period 2009-2013 with the aim of ensuring the safe and effective diagnosis and treatment of patients. The IAEA, together with the World Health Organization and stakeholders from numerous medical physics professional societies worldwide, including the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the Latin American Medical Physics Association, the Asia-Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics, the European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology, the European Commission and the International Radiation Protection Association, as well as regional counterparts from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, met in Vienna in May 2009 to plan and coordinate the new project. A shortage of clinically qualified medical physicists (CQMPs), insufficient education and training (especially properly organized and coordinated clinical training), and lack of professional recognition were identified as the main problems to be addressed under this project. This publication was developed under the project framework in response to these findings. It aims, first, at defining appropriately and unequivocally the roles and responsibilities of a CQMP in specialties of medical physics related to the use of ionizing radiation, such as radiation therapy, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic and interventional radiology. Important, non-ionizing radiation imaging specialties, such as magnetic resonance and ultrasound, are also considered for completeness. On the basis of these tasks, this book provides recommended minimum requirements for the academic education and clinical training of CQMPs, including recommendations for their accreditation, certification and registration, along with continuing professional development

  1. Professional approaches in clinical judgements among senior and junior doctors: implications for medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilhammar Ewa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical experience has traditionally been highly valued in medical education and clinical healthcare. On account of its multi-faceted nature, clinical experience is mostly difficult to articulate, and is mainly expressed in clinical situations as professional approaches. Due to retirement, hospitals in Scandinavia will soon face a substantial decrease in the number of senior specialist doctors, and it has been discussed whether healthcare will suffer an immense loss of experienced-based knowledge when this senior group leaves the organization. Both senior specialists and junior colleagues are often involved in clinical education, but the way in which these two groups vary in professional approaches and contributions to clinical education has not been so well described. Cognitive psychology has contributed to the understanding of how experience may influence professional approaches, but such studies have not included the effect of differences in position and responsibilities that junior and senior doctors hold in clinical healthcare. In the light of the discussion above, it is essential to describe the professional approaches of senior doctors in relation to those of their junior colleagues. This study therefore aims to describe and compare the professional approaches of junior and senior doctors when making clinical judgements. Methods Critical incident technique was used in interviews with nine senior doctors and nine junior doctors in internal medicine. The interviews were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Result Senior and junior doctors expressed a variety of professional approaches in clinical judgement as follows: use of theoretical knowledge, use of prior experience of cases and courses of events, use of ethical and moral values, meeting and communicating with the patient, focusing on available information, relying on their own ability, getting support and guidance from others and being directed by the

  2. Impact of Duty Hour Regulations on Medical Students’ Education: Views of Key Clinical Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rachel B.; Miller, Redonda G.; Ashar, Bimal H.; Bass, Eric B.; Rice, Tasha; Cofrancesco, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Teaching faculty have valuable perspectives on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to elicit faculty views on the impact of residency duty hour regulations on medical students’ educational experience on inpatient medicine rotations. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS We conducted a National Survey of Key Clinical Faculty (KCF) at 40 internal medicine residency programs affiliated with U.S. medical schools using a random sample stratified by National Institutes of Health funding and program size. MEASUREMENTS This study measures KCF opinions on the effect of duty hour regulations on students’ education. RESULTS Of 154 KCF targeted, 111 responded (72%). Fifty-two percent of KCF reported worsening in the overall quality of students’ education compared to just 2.7% reporting improvement (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis adjusted for gender, academic rank, specialty, and years of teaching experience, faculty who spent ≥15 hours per week teaching were more likely to report worsening in medical students’ level of responsibility on inpatient teams [odds ratio (OR) 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3–7.6], ability to follow patients throughout hospitalization (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.3–7.9), ability to develop working relationships with residents (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.0–5.2), and the overall quality of students’ education (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4–8.1) compared to faculty who spent less time teaching. CONCLUSION Key clincal faculty report concerns about the impact of duty hour regulations on aspects of medical students’ education in internal medicine. Medical schools and residency programs should identify ways to ensure optimal educational experiences for students within duty hour requirements. PMID:18612749

  3. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...... professors. This study showed that student teachers performed as good as or even better than associate professors when teaching simple clinical skills. The second study of this thesis examined how complex clinical skills--such as patient management skills--develop with increasing levels of competence....... The Reporter-Interpreter-Manager-Educator framework was used to reflect this change and construct validity was explored for RIME-based evaluations of single-patient encounters. In the third study the effects of training in pairs--also known as dyad practice--examined. This study showed that the students...

  4. The research and practice based on the full-time visitation model in clinical medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the higher medical colleges and universities teaching hospital carry certain clinical teaching tasks, but the traditional teaching pattern of "two stage", including the early stage of the theory of teaching, the late arrangement of clinical practice, had some drawbacks such as practice time is too concentrated and the chasm between students' theory and practice. It is suggested that students contact clinical diagnosis and treatment earlier, visit more patients and increase the ratio of visitation and course. But as more and more students flood into university, clinical visitation has turned into a difficulty to improve students’ ability. To resolve this problem, we have made some efficient practice and exploration in Rizhao City People's Hospital from September 2005 to July 2014. The students were divided into full-time visitation model group and “two stage” pattern group randomly. The single factors are of great difference between the two groups. The full-time visitation model in clinical medical education builds a new mode of practice of clinical practice teaching in the medical stuents' concept of doctor-patient communication, humanistic care to patients, basic theoretical knowledge, clinical practice skills and graduate admission rate increased significantly. Continuous improvement of OSCE exam is needed to make evaluation more scientific, objective and fair.

  5. Clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education using a student-centered approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolsgaard, Martin Grønnebæk

    2013-01-01

    professors. This study showed that student teachers performed as good as or even better than associate professors when teaching simple clinical skills. The second study of this thesis examined how complex clinical skills--such as patient management skills--develop with increasing levels of competence. The...... practicing in pairs significantly out-performed those training alone using RIME-based assessments and that dyad training significantly improved students' confidence in managing future patient encounters. The final study examined students' use of self-directed clinical encounter cards (CECs) based on the RIME......This thesis focuses on how to engage students in self-directed learning and in peer-learning activities to improve clinical skills training in undergraduate medical education. The first study examined the clinical skills teaching provided by student teachers compared to that provided by associate...

  6. [Clinical pharmacy practice education in master's course of Meijo University in affiliation with medical school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuba, Kazuhisa

    2009-08-01

    In 2003, Meijo University has developed a new program to train students in master's degree in the field of clinical practice. This new curriculum has three big pillars of educational goal: Problem-Based Learning (PBL), communication skill and clinical pharmacy practice training. Before exposing students to clinical training, they must learn first how to solve various patients' problems through PBL and enhance their communication skill. To provide a clinical environment, education and training, the Faculty of Pharmacy cooperated with the School of Medicine of Fujita Health University. Master's students together with other members of the healthcare team observe patient's disease state and most especially monitor pharmacotherapy. At first, students will be trained for a month at the pharmacy division and experience one week-nursing job. Next, they will be trained at the clinical divisions such as General Internal Medicine, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology, Respiratory Medicine, Hematology, Chemotherapy, Gastroenterological Surgery, Psychiatry, and Emergency Unit. Students rotate three-month training on four clinical divisions during one year. The head physicians of the medical department hold concurrent post as professors and share responsibility with the pharmacy faculty in training the students. To have its venue where students, faculty and physicians conduct their discussion on clinical cases, a pharmacy satellite seminar class room was set up at Fujita Health University hospital. Through this, pharmacy students and faculty had more opportunities to exchange knowledge on medicine and pharmacy. Master's students are expected to acquire professionalism, ethical knowledge and pharmaceutical care skills through the clinical pharmacy practice program. PMID:19652496

  7. Feedback is good or bad? Medical residents’ points of view on feedback in clinical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA BAZRAFKAN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feedback is very important in education and can help quality in the training process and orient the trainees in clinical contexts. This study aimed to assess the residents’ points of view about feedback in clinical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: The sample of this study included 170 medical residents attending medical workshops in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The residents filled a valid and reliable questionnaire containing 21 items on their perceptions of the feedback they got throughout the workshops. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 14. Results: The study revealed that residents, generally, have a positive perception of feedback in their training. The highest score belonged to the items such as “feedback was applicable to future work”, “feedback corrected my behavior”, “feedback worked as a motivation for education” and “feedback was specific in one subject”. Residents who had a negative feedback experience also increased their efforts to learn. The Surgery residents acquired the highest scores while radiology residents got the lowest. The difference between these groups was statistically significant (P = 0.000. Conclusion: The highest mean score belonged to internal medicine residents. This shows that residents believe that obstetrics & gynecology ward is a ward in which the formative assessment is much more powerful in comparison to the other three major wards. The surgery ward received the lowest score for formative assessment and this shows that the feedback in surgery ward is very low.

  8. The primary care clinic as a setting for continuing medical education: program description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cuevas, R; Reyes, H; Guiscafré, H; Juárez-Díaz, N; Oviedo, M; Flores, S; Muñoz, O

    2000-11-14

    The Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) is Mexico's Largest state-financed health care system, providing care to 50 million people. This system comprises 1450 family medicine clinics staffed by 14,000 family physicians, as well as 240 secondary care hospitals and 10 tertiary care medical centres. We developed a program of continuing medical education (CME) for IMSS family physicians. The program had 4 stages, which were completed over a 7-month period: development of clinical guidelines, training of clinical instructors, an educational intervention (consisting of interactive workshops, individual tutorials and peer group sessions), and evaluation of both physicians' performance and patients' health status. The pilot study was conducted in an IMSS family medicine clinic providing care to 45,000 people; 20 family physicians and 4 clinical instructors participated. The 2 main reasons for visits to IMSS family medicine clinics are acute respiratory infections and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, patients being treated at the clinic for either of these illnesses were included in the study. The sources of data were interviews with physicians and patients, clinical records and written prescriptions. A 1-group pretest-posttest design was used to compare physicians' performance in treating the 2 illnesses of interest. We found that the daily activities of the clinic could be reorganized to accommodate the CME program and that usual provision of health care services was maintained. Physicians accepted and participated actively in the program, and their performance improved over the course of the study. We conclude that this CME strategy is feasible, is acceptable to family physicians and may improve the quality of health care provided at IMSS primary care facilities. The effectiveness and sustainability of the strategy should be measured through an evaluative study.

  9. "Unwell while Aboriginal": iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Shaun C Ewen,1 David Hollinsworth2 1Melbourne Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Indigenous Studies, Faculty of Arts, Business and Law, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, Australia Introduction: Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods: A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion: Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion: Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services

  10. “Unwell while Aboriginal”: iatrogenesis in Australian medical education and clinical case management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Shaun C; Hollinsworth, David

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Attention to Aboriginal health has become mandatory in Australian medical education. In parallel, clinical management has increasingly used Aboriginality as an identifier in both decision making and reporting of morbidity and mortality. This focus is applauded in light of the gross inequalities in health outcomes between indigenous people and other Australians. Methods A purposive survey of relevant Australian and international literature was conducted to map the current state of play and identify concerns with efforts to teach cultural competence with Aboriginal people in medical schools and to provide “culturally appropriate” clinical care. The authors critically analyzed this literature in light of their experiences in teaching Aboriginal studies over six decades in many universities to generate examples of iatrogenic effects and possible responses. Results and discussion Understanding how to most effectively embed Aboriginal content and perspectives in curriculum and how to best teach and assess these remains contested. This review canvasses these debates, arguing that well-intentioned efforts in medical education and clinical management can have iatrogenic impacts. Given the long history of racialization of Aboriginal people in Australian medicine and the relatively low levels of routine contact with Aboriginal people among students and clinicians, the review urges caution in compounding these iatrogenic effects and proposes strategies to combat or reduce them. Conclusion Long overdue efforts to recognize gaps and inadequacies in medical education about Aboriginal people and their health and to provide equitable health services and improved health outcomes are needed and welcome. Such efforts need to be critically examined and rigorously evaluated to avoid the reproduction of pathologizing stereotypes and reductionist explanations for persistent poor outcomes for Aboriginal people. PMID:27313485

  11. Mini clinical evaluation exercise in undergraduate dermatovenereology education: an experience of University of Pamukkale, Medical Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeniz Ergin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX is being widely used in medical education and is a reliable and valid method for the assessment of residents’ competency in medical interviewing, physical examination, humanistic qualities/professionalism, clinical judgment, counseling skills, organization, and efficiency. In order to enhance formative evaluation methods in our faculty, we planned to apply the method to students on dermatovenereology training. Materials and Methods: The Mini-CEX was performed by residents to 42 medical students. At first, 5 residents were evaluated by a faculty member with Mini-CEX and were informed about their application-oriented evaluator roles. The students were informed prior to conducting the assessment. Standard Mini-CEX form was used for the assessment. The participants were rated in 7 competencies and each was rated using a 9-point Likert scale. At the end of each encounter, students and evaluators rated their satisfaction with Mini-CEX using a 9-point Likert scale. Student’s t-test and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Student feedback was evaluated with “grounded theory”. Results: A total of 50 assessments, 44 in outpatient and 6 in inpatient clinic, were performed. Satisfaction with the Mini-CEX was rated by the evaluators and the students as 7,16 and 7,98, respectively. There was no significant difference between the evaluators in terms of student satisfaction. Average time spent on observing the encounter and in giving feedback was 16.5 and 6.5 minutes, respectively. There was no significant difference between assessors in terms of time spent observing and giving feedback. Average scores of assessed clinical competencies were between 4,28 and 8,14. The highest scores were reported on humanistic qualities/ professionalism whereas the lowest were reported on clinical judgment skills. Discussion: According to our data, we believe that Mini-CEX may be used as an

  12. Prescription Writing in Small Groups as a Clinical Pharmacology Educational Intervention: Perceptions of Preclerkship Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Tayem, Yasin I Y; Al Khaja, K A J; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-08-01

    Medical students do not perform well in writing prescriptions, and the 3 variables-learner, teacher, and instructional method-are held responsible to various degrees. The objective of this clinical pharmacology educational intervention was to improve medical students' perceptions, motivation, and participation in prescription-writing sessions. The study participants were second-year medical students of the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences of the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Two prescription-writing sessions were conducted using clinical case scenarios based on problems the students had studied as part of the problem-based learning curriculum. At the end of the respiratory system subunit, the training was conducted in small groups, each facilitated by a tutor. At the end of the cardiovascular system subunit, the training was conducted in a traditional large-group classroom setting. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire at the end of each session and a focus group discussion. A majority of the students (95.3% ± 2.4%) perceived the small-group method better for teaching and learning of all aspects of prescription writing: analyzing the clinical case scenario, applying clinical pharmacology knowledge for therapeutic reasoning, using a formulary for searching relevant prescribing information, and in writing a complete prescription. Students also endorsed the small-group method for better interaction among themselves and with the tutor and for the ease of asking questions and clarifying doubts. In view of the principles of adult learning, where motivation and interaction are important, teaching and learning prescription writing in small groups deserve a serious consideration in medical curricula. PMID:26677798

  13. The integration of pathology into the clinical years of undergraduate medical education: a survey and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Margret S; Cambor, Carolyn L

    2012-04-01

    Pathology as a basic science discipline traditionally is a component of the preclinical medical school curriculum. While there have been regional and nationwide surveys reporting on the curricular organization and instructional formats of preclinical pathology instruction, the extent of required pathology integration into the clinical medical school curriculum, particularly as it relates to practical issues of patient management, has not been studied. A survey soliciting information about required pathology programs in the clinical years was distributed to the members of the Undergraduate Medical Educators Section of the Association of Pathology Chairs (APC). A literature search of such programs was also performed. Thirty-seven respondents representing 30 medical schools (21% of the 140 Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools in the APC) described a total of 16 required pathology programs in the clinical years. An additional 10 programs were identified in the literature. Advantages of required pathology activities in the clinical years include educating medical students in effective utilization of anatomic and clinical pathology for patient care and exposing them to the practice of pathology. Reported challenges have been competition for curricular time in the clinical years, attitudinal resistance by clerkship directors, failure to recognize pathology as a clinical discipline, and insufficient number of faculty in pathology departments. By survey sample and literature review, there has been relatively little progress in the integration of required pathology exposure into the clinical years. Development of practice-related pathology competencies may facilitate introduction of such curricular programs in the future.

  14. Novel Longitudinal and Propensity Score Matched Analysis of Hands-On Cooking and Nutrition Education versus Traditional Clinical Education among 627 Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique J. Monlezun; Benjamin Leong; Esther Joo; Andrew G. Birkhead; Leah Sarris; Harlan, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physicians are inadequately equipped to respond to the global obesity and nutrition-associated chronic disease epidemics. We investigated superiority of simulation-based medical education with deliberate practice (SBME-DP) hands-on cooking and nutrition elective in a medical school-based teaching kitchen versus traditional clinical education for medical students. Materials and Methods. A 59-question panel survey was distributed to an entire medical school twice annually from Septe...

  15. Medical education in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

  16. Preparation courses for medical clerkships and the final clinical internship in medical education – The Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spura, Anke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Goals: Supporting medical students entering their internships – the clinical clerkship and the internship “final clinical year” (Praktisches Jahr, PJ – the seminars “Ready for Clerkship” and “Ready for PJ” were held for the first time in 2014 and continued successfully in 2015. These seminars are part of the “Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence” (Magdeburger Curriculum zur Versorgungskompetenz, MCV. The concept comprises three main issues: “Understanding interdisciplinary clinical procedures”, “Interprofessional collaboration”, and “Individual cases and their reference to the system.” The aim of the seminar series is to prepare students as medical trainees for their role in the practice-oriented clinical clerkship and PJ, respectively.Methods: Quality assurance evaluations and didactic research are integral parts of the seminars. In preparation for the “Ready for PJ” seminar a needs assessment was conducted. The seminars were rated by the participants using an anonymized questionnaire consisting of a 5-choice Likert scale (ranging from 1=fully agree to 5=fully disagree and spaces for comments that was generated by the evaluation software Evasys.Results: The results are presented for the preparatory seminars “Ready for Clerkship” and “Fit für PJ” held in 2014 and 2015. Overall, the students regarded the facultative courses as very good preparation for the clerkship as well as for the PJ. The three-dimensional main curricular concept of the MCV was recognized in the evaluation as a valuable educational approach. Interprofessional collaboration, taught by instructors focussing in teamwork between disciplines, was scored positively and highly valued.Conclusions: The “Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence” (MCV integrates clerkship and PJ in a framing educational concept and allows students a better appreciation of their role in patient care and the tasks that they will

  17. Preparation courses for medical clerkships and the final clinical internship in medical education – The Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spura, Anke; Werwick, Katrin; Feißel, Annemarie; Gottschalk, Marc; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Robra, Bernt-Peter; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger C.; Stieger, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Background/Goals: Supporting medical students entering their internships – the clinical clerkship and the internship “final clinical year” (Praktisches Jahr, PJ) – the seminars “Ready for Clerkship” and “Ready for PJ” were held for the first time in 2014 and continued successfully in 2015. These seminars are part of the “Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence” (Magdeburger Curriculum zur Versorgungskompetenz, MCV). The concept comprises three main issues: “Understanding interdisciplinary clinical procedures”, “Interprofessional collaboration”, and “Individual cases and their reference to the system.” The aim of the seminar series is to prepare students as medical trainees for their role in the practice-oriented clinical clerkship and PJ, respectively. Methods: Quality assurance evaluations and didactic research are integral parts of the seminars. In preparation for the “Ready for PJ” seminar a needs assessment was conducted. The seminars were rated by the participants using an anonymized questionnaire consisting of a 5-choice Likert scale (ranging from 1=fully agree to 5=fully disagree) and spaces for comments that was generated by the evaluation software Evasys. Results: The results are presented for the preparatory seminars “Ready for Clerkship” and “Fit für PJ” held in 2014 and 2015. Overall, the students regarded the facultative courses as very good preparation for the clerkship as well as for the PJ. The three-dimensional main curricular concept of the MCV was recognized in the evaluation as a valuable educational approach. Interprofessional collaboration, taught by instructors focussing in teamwork between disciplines, was scored positively and highly valued. Conclusions: The “Magdeburg Curriculum for Healthcare Competence” (MCV) integrates clerkship and PJ in a framing educational concept and allows students a better appreciation of their role in patient care and the tasks that they will face. The MCV

  18. Educational technology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.

  19. A Web-Based Compendium of Clinical Questions and Medical Evidence To Educate Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Steven H.; Owens, Thomas A.; Schardt, Connie M.; Wardell, Sarah I.; Peterson, Josh; Garrison, Scott; Keitz, Sheri A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes an electronic database of clinical questions (CQs) and medical evidence, the Critical Appraisal Resource (CAR). Evaluation of ten months of use found that medical residents did engage the medical literature on behalf of their patients, which influenced approximately half of their patient-care decisions. (EV)

  20. Virtual Reality, Telemedicine, Web and Data Processing Innovations in Medical and Psychiatric Education and Clinical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Donald M.; Alverson, Dale C.; Alpert, Jonathan E.; Tong, Lowell; Sagduyu, Kemal; Boland, Robert J.; Mostaghimi, Arash; Leamon, Martin L.; Fidler, Don; Yellowlees, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article highlights technology innovations in psychiatric and medical education, including applications from other fields. Method: The authors review the literature and poll educators and informatics faculty for novel programs relevant to psychiatric education. Results: The introduction of new technologies requires skill at…

  1. National Clinical Skills Competition: an effective simulation-based method to improve undergraduate medical education in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanchao Jiang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The National Clinical Skills Competition has been held in China for 5 consecutive years since 2010 to promote undergraduate education reform and improve the teaching quality. The effects of the simulation-based competition will be analyzed in this study. Methods: Participation in the competitions and the compilation of the questions used in the competition finals are summarized, and the influence and guidance quality are further analyzed. Through the nationwide distribution of questionnaires in medical colleges, the effects of the simulation-based competition on promoting undergraduate medical education reform were evaluated. Results: The results show that approximately 450 students from more than 110 colleges (accounting for 81% of colleges providing undergraduate clinical medical education in China participated in the competition each year. The knowledge, skills, and attitudes were comprehensively evaluated by simulation-based assessment. Eight hundred and eighty copies of the questionnaires were distributed to 110 participating medical schools in 2015. In total, 752 valid responses were received across 95 schools. The majority of the interviewees agreed or strongly agreed that competition promoted the adoption of advanced educational principles (76.8%, updated the curriculum model and instructional methods (79.8%, strengthened faculty development (84.0%, improved educational resources (82.1%, and benefited all students (53.4%. Conclusions: The National Clinical Skills Competition is widely accepted in China. It has effectively promoted the reform and development of undergraduate medical education in China.

  2. Educating doctors in the clinical workplace: Unraveling the process of teaching and learning in the medical resident as teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busari J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, higher medical education has witnessed major changes in the structure and content of postgraduate medical training. Seven professional competencies have been described that address the medical doctors′ ability to effectively communicate and transfer medical information, interact effectively and professionally, and demonstrate a good grasp of clinical knowledge and skills. Proficiency in didactic skills, however, is an important competency that has not received prominent attention. In the clinical setting, attending-physicians and medical residents are responsible for teaching. Consequently, several medical institutions have proposed the need for teacher training programs to improve the teaching skills of attending doctors and medical residents. The supporters of these programs believe that through teaching, medical doctors improve their individual professional and clinical problem-solving abilities. Hence, it is logical to assume that didactic skills′ training would contribute to the professional development of doctors. In this paper, we re-examine the underlying theory of the didactic proficiency, how it relates to the clinical setting, and why it may be beneficial for the professional training of medical residents.

  3. Educating doctors in the clinical workplace: unraveling the process of teaching and learning in the medical resident as teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, J O; Arnold, Aer

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, higher medical education has witnessed major changes in the structure and content of postgraduate medical training. Seven professional competencies have been described that address the medical doctors' ability to effectively communicate and transfer medical information, interact effectively and professionally, and demonstrate a good grasp of clinical knowledge and skills. Proficiency in didactic skills, however, is an important competency that has not received prominent attention. In the clinical setting, attending-physicians and medical residents are responsible for teaching. Consequently, several medical institutions have proposed the need for teacher training programs to improve the teaching skills of attending doctors and medical residents. The supporters of these programs believe that through teaching, medical doctors improve their individual professional and clinical problem-solving abilities. Hence, it is logical to assume that didactic skills' training would contribute to the professional development of doctors. In this paper, we re-examine the underlying theory of the didactic proficiency, how it relates to the clinical setting, and why it may be beneficial for the professional training of medical residents.

  4. Mobile Learning in a Rural Medical School: Feasibility and Educational Benefits in Campus and Clinical Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Nestel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Students in a new medical school were provided with laptops. This study explored the feasibility and educational benefits of mobile learning for two cohorts of students learning in two settings—university campus (first-year students and rural clinical placements (second-year students. Evaluation involved questionnaires, focus groups (faculty and students, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were computed. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Response rates for questionnaires exceeded 84%. Compared with second-year students, significantly more first-year students (60% took their laptops to campus daily (P=0.14 and used their laptops for more hours each day (P=0.031. All students used laptops most frequently to access the internet (85% and 97% and applications (Microsoft Word (80% and 61% and Microsoft PowerPoint (80% and 63%. Focus groups with students revealed appreciation for the laptops but frustration with the initial software image. Focus groups with faculty identified enthusiasm for mobile learning but acknowledged its limitations. Physical infrastructure and information technology support influenced mobile learning. Document analysis revealed significant costs and issues with maintenance. If adequately resourced, mobile learning through university-issued laptops would be feasible and have educational benefits, including equitable access to learning resources, when and where they are needed. However, barriers remain for full implementation.

  5. Slow medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians. PMID:25426738

  6. Title: A Study of Role of Clinical Pharmacist in Medication Review and Patient Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Jainam V

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Identifying, preventing, and resolving the Drug Related Problems (DRPs is an important issue in healthcare process. Factors leading to DRPs are social pressure to prescribers, inadequate patients’ knowledge regarding therapy, structure of health system and pharmaceutical marketing. Method: Fifty adult patients including both genders were recruited for this study. DRPs were assessed using PCNE classification Version 5.01 and patient knowledge was assessed before and after providing education. DRP occurrence was correlated with age, gender, number of drugs prescribed and co-morbid conditions. The patient’s knowledge regarding disease, therapy and life-style were assessed. For this, the medication related points were more focused such as name, strength, dose, schedule, possible ADRs, etc. Results: The maximum positive correlation was found between DRPs and number of drugs (0.42. Drug interaction is a major factor leading to DRPs in case of polypharmacy. Out of all the classes included in PCNE classification, drug choice was a major problem. The highest number of DRPs was found in the age group of 51 to 60 years i.e. 25 DRPs. Among both the genders, relatively more DRPs were found in females. After education, there was a considerable increase in patients’ knowledge by 156.73%. Conclusion: Thus it is concluded from study that if clinical pharmacist proclaims a role in the assessment of DRPs it seems better to focus on the identification, evaluation and prevention of patient- and prescriber- related problems. Clinical pharmacist can also increase patient’s knowledge and awareness by providing counselling leading to reduction in DRPs to a greater extent.

  7. The role of peer-assisted learning in building evaluative judgement: opportunities in clinical medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Joanna Hong-Meng; Canny, Benedict J; Haines, Terry P; Molloy, Elizabeth K

    2016-08-01

    This study explored the contribution of peer-assisted learning (PAL) in the development of evaluative judgement capacity; the ability to understand work quality and apply those standards to appraising performance. The study employed a mixed methods approach, collecting self-reported survey data, observations of, and reflective interviews with, the medical students observed. Participants were in their first year of clinical placements. Data were thematically analysed. Students indicated that PAL contributed to both the comprehension of notions of quality, and the practice of making comparisons between a given performance and the standards. Emergent themes included peer story-telling, direct observation of performance, and peer-based feedback, all of which helped students to define 'work quality'. By participating in PAL, students were required to make comparisons, therefore using the standards of practice and gaining a deeper understanding of them. The data revealed tensions in that peers were seen as less threatening than supervisors with the advantage of increasing learners' appetites for thoughtful 'intellectual risk taking'. Despite this reported advantage of peer engagement, learners still expressed a preference for feedback from senior teachers as more trusted sources of clinical knowledge. While this study suggests that PAL already contributes to the development of evaluative judgement, further steps could be taken to formalise PAL in clinical placements to improve learners' capacity to make accurate judgements on the performance of self and others. Further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the best methods of using PAL to develop evaluative judgement. This may include both students and educators as instigators of PAL in the workplace. PMID:26662035

  8. Achieving Educational Goals in Neurology Ward from the Viewpoint of Clinical Clerkship at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Razazian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in

  9. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect. PMID:26725844

  10. What is the impact of a national postgraduate medical specialist education reform on the daily clinical training 3.5 years after implementation? A questionnaire survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene; Malling, Bente; Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke;

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have recently reformed their postgraduate medical education (PGME). New pedagogic initiatives and blueprints have been introduced to improve quality and effectiveness of the education. Yet it is unknown whether these changes improved the daily clinical training. The purpose...

  11. The research and practice based on the full-time visitation model in clinical medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Zhang(Department of Physics and Center for Quantum Spacetime (CQUeST), Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul, 121-742 Korea); Jing Leng; Shu-juan Xu; Zuofeng Zhang; Gangping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Most of the higher medical colleges and universities teaching hospital carry certain clinical teaching tasks, but the traditional teaching pattern of "two stage", including the early stage of the theory of teaching, the late arrangement of clinical practice, had some drawbacks such as practice time is too concentrated and the chasm between students' theory and practice. It is suggested that students contact clinical diagnosis and treatment earlier, visit more patients and increase the ratio o...

  12. Financing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersdorf, R G

    1991-02-01

    The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts. PMID:1993102

  13. [Research in medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte Vibeke

    2008-01-01

    Research in medical education is a relatively new discipline. Over the past 30 years, the discipline has experienced a tremendous growth, which is reflected in an increase in the number of publications in both medical education journals and medical science journals. However, recent reviews...... of articles on medical education studies indicate a need for improvement of the quality of medical education research in order to contribute to the advancement of educational practice as well as educational research. In particular, there is a need to embed studies in a conceptual theoretical framework...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging in Malawi: contributions to clinical care, medical education and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potchen, M J; Kampondeni, S; Birbeck, G L; Hammond, C A; Gonani, A; Phiri, K S; Seydel, K B; Taylors, T E

    2011-06-01

    Advanced medical imaging technologies are generally unavailable in low income, tropical settings despite the reality that neurologic disorders are disproportionately common in such environments. Through a series of donations as well as extramural research funding support, an MRI facility opened in Blantyre, Malawi in July 2008. Resulting opportunities for studying common tropical disorders, such as malaria and schistosomiasis, in vivo are promising. The subsequent improvements in local patient care were expected and exceptional and include major revisions in basic care protocols that may eventually impact care protocols at facilities in the region that do not have recourse to MRI. In addition, advanced neuroimaging technology has energized the medical education system, possibly slowing the brain drain. Advanced technologies, though potentially associated with significant fiscal opportunity costs, may bring unexpected and extensive benefits to the healthcare and medical education systems involved.

  15. Classroom to Clinic: Merging Education and Research to Efficiently Prototype Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Hanumara, Nevan C.; Begg, Nikolai D.; Walsh, Conor; Custer, David; Gupta, Rajiv; Osborn, Lynn R.; Slocum, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in patient care requires both clinical and technical skills, and this paper presents the methods and outcomes of a nine-year, clinical-academic collaboration to develop and evaluate new medical device technologies, while teaching mechanical engineering. Together, over the course of a single semester, seniors, graduate students, and clinicians conceive, design, build, and test proof-of-concept prototypes. Projects initiated in the course have generated intellectual property and peer...

  16. The Revolution in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Christina M; Cox, Susan M; Dalrymple, John L

    2016-02-01

    Medical education has been gradually evolving for hundreds of years, but educators are now seeking to identify ways to prepare students for the future of health care delivery. Medical education reform today focuses on creating entirely new models and is moving away from the traditional, post-Flexnerian organization of the medical school curriculum. Content is now being integrated thematically and presented along interdisciplinary lines with an interdigitation of basic and clinical sciences across all four years. Current trends indicate education should contain elements that produce a physician who is able to improve the quality of health care by taking a humanistic approach to medicine, thinks critically, and participates effectively in multidisciplinary and team approaches to patient care. Ultimately, medical education innovation should recognize the development of a physician is a lifetime process and will approach the formation of physicians from a new paradigm to better serve the educator and prepare the learner for the medical practice of tomorrow. PMID:26859376

  17. Narrative descriptions should replace grades and numerical ratings for clinical performance in medical education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Lynn Hanson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In medical education, evaluation of clinical performance is based almost universally on rating scales for defined aspects of performance and scores on examinations and checklists. Unfortunately, scores and grades do not capture progress and competence among learners in the complex tasks and roles required to practice medicine. While the literature suggests serious problems with the validity and reliability of ratings of clinical performance based on numerical scores, the critical issue is not that judgments about what is observed vary from rater to rater but that these judgments are lost when translated into numbers on a scale. As the Next Accreditation System of the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education (ACGME takes effect, medical educators have an opportunity to create new processes of evaluation to document and facilitate progress of medical learners in the required areas of competence.Proposal and initial experience: Narrative descriptions of learner performance in the clinical environment, gathered using a framework for observation that builds a shared understanding of competence among the faculty, promise to provide meaningful qualitative data closely linked to the work of physicians. With descriptions grouped in categories and matched to milestones, core faculty can place each learner along the milestones’ continua of progress. This provides the foundation for meaningful feedback to facilitate the progress of each learner as well as documentation of progress toward competence.Implications: This narrative evaluation system addresses educational needs as well as the goals of the Next Accreditation System for explicitly documented progress. Educators at other levels of education and in other professions experience similar needs for authentic assessment and, with meaningful frameworks that describe roles and tasks, may also find useful a system built on descriptions of learner performance in actual work settings

  18. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area : comparison between lecture and practice

    OpenAIRE

    TANI, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students’ attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sens...

  19. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Eileen [School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia)

    2014-06-15

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge.

  20. How do Medical Radiation Science educators keep up with the [clinical] Joneses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical radiation science (MRS) disciplines include medical imaging, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. These allied health fields are technology driven and evolving rapidly with regard to imaging and treatment techniques within the clinical environment. This research aims to identify the activities academics are currently participating in to maintain clinical currency and offer strategies to support academics to connect with an ever-changing clinical environment. A cross-sectional designed survey was sampled across the nine Australian universities where MRS programmes are offered. The survey targeted academic teaching staff that were working in MRS programmes at the time of distribution (n ≈ 90). Enablers and barriers to maintaining clinical currency as well as support to participate in continuing professional development were rated by the respondents. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative data, and free-text comment responses were collated and themed. There were 38 responses to the survey (42%) and all three disciplines were represented. Responses highlighted activities valued by academics as contributing to their knowledge of current practice and as resources to inform their teaching. Positive elements included participating in clinical work and research, attending clinical sites and training days and attending scientific meetings. Common barriers identified by academics in this area were time constraints, workload allocation and employer/financial support. This research has identified that Australian MRS academics participate in a broad range of activities to inform their teaching and maintain knowledge of contemporary clinical practice. A connection with the clinical world is valued highly by academics, however, access and support to maintain that link is often a difficulty and as a result for MRS teaching staff keeping up with the clinical [MRS] Joneses is often a challenge

  1. Musculoskeletal education: an assessment of the clinical confidence of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truntzer, Jeremy; Lynch, Alison; Kruse, David; Prislin, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions account for nearly 15-30 % of encounters in a primary care practice. Yet, studies demonstrate that medical students and residents lack the knowledge and confidence to care for many MSK conditions. This study addresses the design of focused MSK educational practices towards improving students' knowledge, interest, and confidence for conducting MSK examinations. Students attending a voluntary educational symposium on sports medicine were recruited to participate. The symposium was directed toward teaching elements of the MSK exam. Participants completed validated pre- and post-workshop surveys that assessed confidence in performing MSK examinations as well as satisfaction and perceived importance of MSK education. Additionally, mean survey responses from a convenience group of students who did not participate in the symposium were compared against the intervention group. Thirteen students participated in the educational symposium. Hundred and nine students completed the general survey. In the non-intervention group, students demonstrated knowledge and confidence improvements through the second year of medical school but did not show similar improvement in subsequent years. No difference in MSK confidence scores between fourth-year students going into high versus low MSK focused specialities was observed. In the intervention group students demonstrated improvements in confidence with respect to the knee, shoulder and ankle exams (p confidence with respect to caring for MSK conditions. However, a focused didactic and skill development intervention does produce significant improvements. Follow-up is needed to determine whether these improvements are sustained.

  2. Classroom to Clinic: Merging Education and Research to Efficiently Prototype Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumara, Nevan C; Begg, Nikolai D; Walsh, Conor; Custer, David; Gupta, Rajiv; Osborn, Lynn R; Slocum, Alexander H

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in patient care requires both clinical and technical skills, and this paper presents the methods and outcomes of a nine-year, clinical-academic collaboration to develop and evaluate new medical device technologies, while teaching mechanical engineering. Together, over the course of a single semester, seniors, graduate students, and clinicians conceive, design, build, and test proof-of-concept prototypes. Projects initiated in the course have generated intellectual property and peer-reviewed publications, stimulated further research, furthered student and clinician careers, and resulted in technology licenses and start-up ventures. PMID:27170859

  3. Beyond information retrieval and electronic health record use: competencies in clinical informatics for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersh, William R; Gorman, Paul N; Biagioli, Frances E; Mohan, Vishnu; Gold, Jeffrey A; Mejicano, George C

    2014-01-01

    Physicians in the 21st century will increasingly interact in diverse ways with information systems, requiring competence in many aspects of clinical informatics. In recent years, many medical school curricula have added content in information retrieval (search) and basic use of the electronic health record. However, this omits the growing number of other ways that physicians are interacting with information that includes activities such as clinical decision support, quality measurement and improvement, personal health records, telemedicine, and personalized medicine. We describe a process whereby six faculty members representing different perspectives came together to define competencies in clinical informatics for a curriculum transformation process occurring at Oregon Health & Science University. From the broad competencies, we also developed specific learning objectives and milestones, an implementation schedule, and mapping to general competency domains. We present our work to encourage debate and refinement as well as facilitate evaluation in this area.

  4. Medical education and society.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    As health care changes under the pressures of restraint and constraint our vision of the future of medical education should be based on the medical school's responsibility to the community. The medical school is "an academy in the community": as an academy, it fosters the highest standards in education and research; as an institution in the community, it seeks to improve public health and alleviate suffering. The author argues that to better achieve these goals medical schools need to become ...

  5. Epidemiological, Clinical and Paraclinical Study of Hydatid Cysts in Three Educational Medical Centers in 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Shoaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus, is an important public health problem in many areas of the world  and  Iran is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis In the present study, we evaluated epidemiological, complications and clinical characteristics of hydatidosis at three University Medical Centers in Tehran over a 10-year period.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed in patients with hydatid cysts. Information about age, gender, number of cysts, organ involvement, morbidity and mortality and relapse were collected from medical records of hydatid patients. Paraclinic information such as CT Scan, MRI, ultrasound, complete blood count, pathological diagnosis and complication of disease were collected.Results: Overall, 81 patients, 35 (43.2% male and 46 (56.8% female, who were diagnosed as having hydatid cyst by clinical and radiological findings, with pathologic documentation were studied in three university medical center registries over a 10-year period (2003- 2012 in Tehran. Fourteen patients (17% of cases had complications resulting from this disease. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 86 years, and the peak prevalence of the disease was between 20 and 40 (34% of cases.Conclusion: Iran  is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis. Prevalence rate of hydatidosis in Iran was reported to be 0.61-2 in 100000 populations. The highest  rate of infection and complications were in patients of 20-40 years age. Clinical examination revealed that abdominal pain was the most common complaint and was present in 51.7% of the cases. Other most common complain were cough, abdominal mass, dyspnea, icterus, chest pain, dyspepsia, back pain and seizure; and it was result of occupying effect of cysts in organs. This is similar with previous studies in Iran

  6. Undergraduate medical education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenot, Jean-François

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years, clinical science (3 years and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany.

  7. Rationing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of rationing in medical education. Medical education is expensive and there is a limit to that which governments, funders or individuals can spend on it. Rationing involves the allocation of resources that are limited. This paper discussed the pros and cons of the application of rationing to medical education and the different forms of rationing that could be applied. Even though some stakeholders in medical education might be taken aback at the prospect of rationing, the truth is that rationing has always occurred in one form or another in medical education and in healthcare more broadly. Different types of rationing exist in healthcare professional education. For example rationing may be implicit or explicit or may be based on macro-allocation or micro-allocation decisions. Funding can be distributed equally among learners, or according to the needs of individual learners, or to ensure that overall usefulness is maximised. One final option is to allow the market to operate freely and to decide in that way. These principles of rationing can apply to individual learners or to institutions or departments or learning modes. Rationing is occurring in medical education, even though it might be implicit. It is worth giving consideration to methods of rationing and to make thinking about rationing more explicit. PMID:27358649

  8. Measuring the impact of clinically relevant interprofessional education on undergraduate medical and nursing student competencies: A longitudinal mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashers, Valentina; Erickson, Jeanne M; Blackhall, Leslie; Owen, John A; Thomas, Shannon M; Conaway, Mark R

    2016-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) to improve collaborative competencies is essential for delivering high-quality care. Yet creating clinically relevant IPE and linking it to improvements in behaviours remains challenging, and few objective measurement instruments are available. We developed a process for creating IPE and objective observational tools through collaborative care best practice models (CCBPMs). These models describe the professional and interprofessional behaviours needed for specific patient populations, illnesses, and care settings. Four IPE workshops based on CCBPMs were implemented for all medical and nursing students during their clinical/clerkships years. Students in Cohort 1 completed two IPE workshops: rapid response and end-of-life. For Cohort 2, students completed four IPE workshops, adding chronic paediatric illness and transitions for the cognitively impaired. Valid and reliable collaborative behaviors observational assessment tools (CBOATs) derived from CCBPMs for the rapid response and end-of-life workshops were developed. CBOATs were used in the longitudinal assessment of student learning for both cohorts during two Interprofessional Teamwork Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (ITOSCEs) conducted before and after the students completed the IPE workshops. Over a 2-year period, 457 students completed the IPE simulations and ITOSCEs. Both medical and nursing students demonstrated significant improvement in CBOAT scores. Comparisons between the cohorts showed that participation in four versus two IPE experiences did not significantly improve most CBOAT scores. We conclude that undergraduate IPE simulation experiences based on CCBPMs result in measurable improvements in learner behaviours necessary for effective collaborative and team-based practice in specific care areas. PMID:27269441

  9. Ultrafest: A Novel Approach to Ultrasound in Medical Education Leads to Improvement in Written and Clinical Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langdorf, Mark I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of hands-on training at a bedside ultrasound (US symposium (“Ultrafest” to improve both clinical knowledge and image acquisition skills of medical students. Primary outcome measure was improvement in multiple choice questions on pulmonary or Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST US knowledge. Secondary outcome was improvement in image acquisition for either pulmonary or FAST. Methods: Prospective cohort study of 48 volunteers at “Ultrafest,” a free symposium where students received five contact training hours. Students were evaluated before and after training for proficiency in either pulmonary US or FAST. Proficiency was assessed by clinical knowledge through written multiple-choice exam, and clinical skills through accuracy of image acquisition. We used paired sample t-tests with students as their own controls. Results: Pulmonary knowledge scores increased by a mean of 10.1 points (95% CI [8.9-11.3], p<0.00005, from 8.4 to a posttest average of 18.5/21 possible points. The FAST knowledge scores increased by a mean of 7.5 points (95% CI [6.3-8.7] p<0.00005, from 8.1 to a posttest average of 15.6/ 21. We analyzed clinical skills data on 32 students. The mean score was 1.7 pretest and 4.7 posttest of 12 possible points. Mean improvement was 3.0 points (p<0.00005 overall, 3.3 (p=0.0001 for FAST, and 2.6 (p=0.003 for the pulmonary US exam. Conclusion: This study suggests that a symposium on US can improve clinical knowledge, but is limited in achieving image acquisition for pulmonary and FAST US assessments. US training external to official medical school curriculum may augment students’ education. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:143–148.

  10. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Satolli Roberto; Manfrini Roberto; Clivio Luca; Deligant Christian; Duca Piergiorgio; Compagnoni Anna; Sala Valeria; Cinquini Michela; Moschetti Ivan; Moja Lorenzo; Addis Antonio; Grimshaw Jeremy M; Dri Pietro; Liberati Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases phys...

  11. Medical education in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Victor K E

    2008-01-01

    Malaysia has a long history of medical education, with Singapore becoming the first medical school to serve the region after its foundation in 1905. The first school to be established in Kuala Lumpur after independence from the British was the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Malaya in 1963. Whilst today there are 21 public and private medical schools, all offering a 5 year undergraduate programme, some private schools have diversified by developing international collaboration and conduct twinning or credit-transfer programmes. All medical schools require accreditation by the National Accreditation Board and the Malaysian Medical Council. Although the criteria for accreditation is comprehensive and covers a broad range of areas of assessment, it is debatable whether it always matches the needs of the country. The dramatic increase in medical schools in the last two decades has posed challenges in terms of maintenance of quality, physical infrastructure and suitably qualified faculty.

  12. 临床医学硕士研究生人文素质教育探讨%Discussion on humanistic education among clinical medical postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王寒梅; 田家玮

    2012-01-01

    The combination of medical humanistic spirit and medical scientific spirit is the sign of the maturity of medicine.The modern medical mode of ' biology-psychology-society-environment' sets new requirements for medical humanistic education.Clinic medical postgraduates,the front -line medical workers,play a very important role in medical work,but they show huge deficiency in interpersonal communication,humanistic knowledge and humanistic possession nowadays.The paper tried to draw some lessons from the successful education mode of George Washington university and discussed practicable methods to improve humanistic education among medical postgraduates aiming at cultivating qualified medical workers who have both noble medical ethics and perfect medical technology and ability.%目前,临床医学研究生在人际沟通、人文知识和人文修养等方面都存在严重的缺失.通过借鉴美国乔治华盛顿大学的医学人才培养模式,探讨加强临床医学硕士研究生人文素质教育的方法,旨在培养医德高尚、技术优良的医务工作者.

  13. Changing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J; Gale, R

    1989-05-01

    This paper is based on one which was prepared to support the World Conference of the World Federation for Medical Education in August 1988. It is designed to provide a broad perspective on the essential elements of an educational change process. The paper covers the stages in designing a change strategy and highlights the difficulties that any change agent is likely to encounter. A review of the history of change in education and organizations is followed by discussion of the need for change and the ability to change. Reasons for resistance to change are presented and discussed. Implementation and reinforcement of change are considered before a final section on evaluation. PMID:2725362

  14. Medical education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S M; Seifman, E

    1976-01-01

    This article concerns the changes in Chinese medical education which have taken place since the Cultural Revolution, specifically the relationship between political ideology and actual practice. It synthesizes the documentation which appeared in a series of articles devoted to a public discussion on the direction and emphasis in medical and health work published in Renmin Ribao (People's Daily), Peking, from December 8, 1968 to November 4, 1975. The major themes of the public discussion are: (a) medical and health work serving the masses; (b) insistence on the "correct" revolutionary line; (c) combining theory with practice; (d) unity of traditional Chinese and Western medicine; (e) putting prevention first; and (f) emphasis on medical personnel retaining the characteristics of the working people. This is followed by a transcript prepared by the authors from a tape recording made during a visit to Zhongshan Medical College of Guangzhou (Canton) on November 5, 1974 describing the relationship between political ideology and actual practice in the field of contemporary Chinese medical education. PMID:970363

  15. Medical Music Therapy: A Model Program for Clinical Practice, Education, Training and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph evolved from the unique, innovative partnership between the Florida State University Music Therapy Program and Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare. Its purpose is to serve as a model for music therapy educators, students, clinicians, and the hospital administrators who might employ them. This book should prove a valuable resource for…

  16. State of Clinical Education at Tehran University of Medical Sciences from the Viewpoint of Students of Nursing & Midwifery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Baraz Pardenjani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Clinical education is considered as the heart of medicine and health care due to the importance of training expert manpower. To achieve this goal, education quality should be promoted, this requiring its continuous evaluation. In this regard, application of appropriate educational strategies by competent clinical trainers or instructors leads to an improvement in the clinical education outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the learning method of clinical skills and its barriers from the viewpoint of students of midwifery. Materials & Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 140 employed BS midwives in Yazd Province who had a 6-month working experience using a questionnaire including demographic information and items on the common clinical skills grading, skills learning methods, and barriers to clinical learning. Having collected the questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS. Results : The findings of the study revealed that the rate of clinical skills was at a good level for most of the subjects (56.5%, at an intermediate level for 30.7 %, and at a low level for 12.8% of the subjects. The correlation coefficients were statistically significant between subjects' level of clinical skills and age, department, and clinical experience. In studying the learning methods of clinical skills, 46.6% of learning was attributed to trainers, while 69.3% of the learning barriers were attributed to lack of sufficient cases during education, and 68.6% were attributed to insufficient practical training. Conclusion : Although the graduates had an acceptable level of clinical skills, the need for improving clinical education and administering continuous education programs for controlling and warranting care quality was markedly obvious. As the subjects reported, learning was attributed to trainers, while learning barriers were attributed to lack of sufficient cases during training, and insufficient practical

  17. The effect of implementing undergraduate competency-based medical education on students' knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice : a comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Snoek, Jos W.; van Hell, Elisabeth A.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the gains and losses associated with the implementation of undergraduate competency-based medical education. Therefore, we compared knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice of students from a competency-based active learnin

  18. Impact of medical informatics on medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S M

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, medical informatics has become a well-recognized branch of medicine. It is a multidisciplinary science that combines information technology and various specialties of medicine. The impact of medical informatics on medical education is advancing along with the rapid developments in computer science. Departments of medical informatics or similar divisions have appeared in schools of medicine in Taiwan in the past 5 years. At National Taiwan University College of Medicine, we offer curricula in basic computer concepts, network concepts, operating systems, word processing, database and data processing, computer media resources, multimedia computer statistics, intelligent health information systems, medical diagnostic support systems, and electronic medical record systems. Distance learning has also been favorably accepted on this campus. Recently, we proposed the concept of a virtual medical campus, which will break the physical barriers of time and space. We expect this revolution to influence every aspect of medicine, especially medical education. PMID:10705693

  19. Learning objects in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Issenberg, S Barry

    2006-11-01

    A learning object (LO) is a grouping of instructional materials structured to meet a specified educational objective. Digital LOs, which can be stored electronically, allow a new approach to instructional activity, making medical education more efficient, and potentially more cost-effective. They are reusable and can incorporate text, graphics, animations, audio, and video to support and enhance learning. A learning object can stand alone or be aggregated with additional objects to create larger forms of educational content meeting multiple educational objectives. Digital learning objects located in online repositories can be accessed by many computers and are easily handled by an array of learning management systems for delivery to learners at any time. Integrating digital learning objects with traditional educational methods in a blended learning approach assists medical educators in meeting the challenges of competing priorities. Multimedia LOs enable learners to tailor their experience to their preferred learning style. Through the use of learning objects, learners' reactions, their acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes, and their behavioral changes become readily measurable. Learning objects provide multiple research opportunities, such as their use in adaptive learning, their added value in preclinical versus clinical education, and their impact as part of a blended learning strategy. PMID:17594550

  20. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.

  1. Trends in research about postgraduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo-Cárdenas, Leonor Angélica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was framed in the research: Characterization of professional competency-based model in medical education developed in twelve clinical and nine surgical specializations at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Antioquia. Its aim was to inquire about the state of the art in medical postgraduate education. The guiding question was: Where is present-day research headed in medical postgraduate education. For this descriptive, nonexperimental work, 12 bibliographic databases were reviewed and 28 research articles related to graduate medical formation were selected. The findings were compared, analyzed and interpreted. The tendency in research on graduate medical education points to the need of having multi-inter-trans-disciplinary and humanistic proposals based on constructivism; to consider evaluation as a process emphasizing on learning and the participation of students, and to build systems of pedagogical formation of tutors and interactive and flexible curricula. The lack of studies that promote competencies-based training in postgraduate medical education is notorious.

  2. Reform of medical education in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2010-01-01

    There are 41 medical schools in South Korea with over 3500 students graduating from the medical schools annually with the appropriate qualifications to practice medicine. Korean medical educators have made significant efforts to enhance the effectiveness of medical education by preparing students for the rapidly changing global environment of medicine and healthcare. This article outlines the reform efforts made by Korean medical schools to meet such demands, which includes the adoption of student-centered and competency-based education, e-learning, and authentic assessment of clinical performance. It also discusses the recent reform of the medical education system, driven by the Government's policy to prepare Korean higher education for an increasingly knowledge-based society. PMID:20163225

  3. Community-based clinical education increases motivation of medical students to medicine of remote area: comparison between lecture and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Kenji; Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Kondo, Saki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Kawaminami, Shingo; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Ito, Jun; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Obata, Fumiaki; Shin, Teruki; Bando, Hiroyasu; Kohno, Mitsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we administered a questionnaire to medical students to evaluate the effect of community-based clinical education on their attitudes to community medicine and medicine in remote area. Questionnaires were given 4 times to all the students from first-year to sixth-year. Of 95 students, 65 students (68.4%) who completed all questionnaires, were used in this study. The intensity of students' attitudes was estimated by using visual analogue scale. The intensity of interest, a sense of fulfillment and passion in medicine of remote area was significantly increased after the community-based practice. On the other hand, the level of understanding in medicine in remote area was increased by the lecture not by the practice. The intensity of desire both to become a generalist and a specialist was significantly increased when the grade went up. Most of sixth-year students desired to have abilities of a generalist and a specialist simultaneously. This study shows that the community-based practice is more meaningful in increasing motivation in medicine in remote area than the lecture, and suggests that it is important to prepare more courses to experience community medicine to increase the number of physicians who desire to work in remote area. PMID:24705761

  4. Cultivating Medical Education Research Mentorship as a Pathway Towards High Quality Medical Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.

  5. How Do Social Networks and Faculty Development Courses Affect Clinical Supervisors' Adoption of a Medical Education Innovation? An Exploratory Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jippes, Erik; Steinert, Yvonne; Pols, Jan; Achterkamp, Marjolein C.; van Engelen, Jo M. L.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the impact of social networks and a two-day faculty development course on clinical supervisors' adoption of an educational innovation. Method During 2007-2010, 571 residents and 613 clinical supervisors in four specialties in the Netherlands were invited to complete a Web-based qu

  6. Description of an educational programme developed to support registered nurses during clinical supervision of student nurses in medical and surgical wards in a training health facility: Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Neshuku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an educational programme interventions developed to support registered nurses during the clinical supervision of student nurses in the medical and surgical wards of a training hospital in the Oshana region, Namibia. The programme developed contained the purpose and goals of the programme, programme objectives, programme structure, processes and approaches. The programme catered for the following themes: Managerial challenges, educational challenges and non-conducive environment as was experienced by registered nurses and student nurses in order to support them during clinical supervision. It includes the activities to address managerial challenges as identified to be affecting the clinical supervision of student nurses; this is to address educational challenges identified during clinical supervision of student nurses. Furthermore, the programme contains activities focused on providing registered nurses with knowledge and skills on clinical supervision, in order to increase their understanding and competence about the clinical supervision of student nurses. Another activity included interventions for enhancing positive interpersonal relationships and good communication skills to improve effective interactions between registered nurses and student nurses. This study made it possible for the development of an educational programme that enable the registered nurses to receive the much needed information pertaining to the clinical supervision of student nurses, and served as a guide and support tool when carrying out clinical supervision of student nurses. In conclusion the study was justified as an original contribution to the existing body of knowledge in general health nursing science.

  7. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end. PMID:26675191

  8. Transforming Medical Education: Is Competency-Based Medical Education the Right Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Michael E

    2016-05-01

    There is growing recognition within the medical education community that medical education in this country needs to be changed to better prepare doctors for the challenges they will face in providing their patients high-quality medical care. A competency-based medical education (CBME) approach was endorsed by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties approximately 15 years ago, and a self-designated group-the International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators-is now calling on members of the medical education community to join them in their effort to establish CBME as the approach to be used in transforming medical education, not only in the United States but also around the world.In response to an article in this issue by a group of ICBME Collaborators, the author argues that more evidence about the effectiveness of CBME is needed before a global shift to this approach is undertaken. It is time for major organizations and foundations that are committed to improving medical education to step forward and take the lead in partnering with the medical education community to conduct a critical evaluation of CBME. In addition, maintenance of certification, relicensure, and continuing medical education programs should be evaluated for their effectiveness in ensuring that physicians are clinically competent not only at the beginning of their career but also until the end.

  9. Computer Systems in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Orthner, Helmuth F

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers in medical education spans wide and diverse areas. Many areas may be considered traditional applications of data processing techniques to manage administrative and fiscal data. Such areas are typical for student admissions, course registration, continuing medical education program management, etc. Other applications deal more directly with medical education, such as educational testing (examination processing, competency testing, skills evaluation, etc.), course e...

  10. What Medical Oncologist Residents Think about the Italian Speciality Schools: A Survey of the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) on Educational, Clinical and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Anna; De Angelis, Carmine; Lambertini, Matteo; Cremolini, Chiara; Imbimbo, Martina; Berardi, Rossana; Di Maio, Massimo; Cascinu, Stefano; La Verde, Nicla

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Relevant heterogeneity exists among Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, also within the same country. In order to provide a comprehensive overview of the landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) undertook an online survey, inviting all the residents to describe their daily activities and to express their overall satisfaction about their programs. Methods A team composed of five residents and three consultants in medical oncology prepared a 38 items questionnaire that was published online in a reserved section, accessible through a link sent by e-mail. Residents were invited to anonymously fill in the questionnaire that included the following sub-sections: quality of teaching, clinical and research activity, overall satisfaction. Results Three-hundred and eleven (57%) out of 547 invited residents filled in the questionnaire. Two-hundred and twenty-three (72%) participants declared that attending lessons was frequently difficult and 153 (49%) declared they did not gain substantial improvement in their knowledge from them. Fifty-five percent stated that they did not receive lessons on palliative care. Their overall judgment about didactic activity was low in 63% of the interviewed. The satisfaction for clinical activity was in 86% of cases good: 84% recognized that, during the training period, they acquired a progressive independence on patients' management. About research activity, the majority (79%) of participants in the survey was actively engaged in managing patients included in clinical trials but the satisfaction level for the involvement in research activities was quite low (54%). Overall, 246 residents (79%) gave a positive global judgment of their Medical Oncology Schools. Conclusions The landscape of Italian Postgraduate Schools in Medical Oncology is quite heterogeneous across the country. Some improvements in the organization of teaching and in the

  11. [Information technology in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramić, A

    1999-01-01

    The role of information technology in educational models of under-graduate and post-graduate medical education is growing in 1980's influenced by PC's break-in in medical practice and creating relevant data basis, and, particularly, in 1990's by integration of information technology on international level, development of international network, Internet, Telemedicin, etc. The development of new educational information technology is evident, proving that information in transfer of medical knowledge, medical informatics and communication systems represent the base of medical practice, medical education and research in medical sciences. In relation to the traditional approaches in concept, contents and techniques of medical education, new models of education in training of health professionals, using new information technology, offer a number of benefits, such as: decentralization and access to relevant data sources, collecting and updating of data, multidisciplinary approach in solving problems and effective decision-making, and affirmation of team work within medical and non-medical disciplines. Without regard to the dynamics of change and progressive reform orientation within health sector, the development of modern medical education is inevitable for all systems a in which information technology and available data basis, as a base of effective and scientifically based medical education of health care providers, give guarantees for efficient health care and improvement of health of population. PMID:10870617

  12. Blended Learning in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…

  13. Community-Oriented Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…

  14. Modelling empathy in medical and nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Corbett, Andrea

    2012-03-30

    Medical and nursing student numbers are expected to increase significantly in NZ over the next few years. The ethical, and professional and clinical skills' training of trainee health practitioners is a central and crucial component in medical and nursing education and is underpinned by a strong commitment to improve patient health and well being. In this discussion we reflect on the virtue of empathy and the importance of role modelling in the education of nurses and doctors. We endorse the claim that as medical educators, how and what we teach matters.

  15. Perspective: the case for subspecialty clinical learning in early medical education-moving from case-based to patient-based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Alon; Kheck, Nancy; Shemer, Joshua

    2008-05-01

    The subspecialty departments are greatly underutilized for teaching during the first two years of medical school. While second-year students are spending most of their time behind closed doors in the laboratory, lectures, and small groups, the clinical environment is teeming with actual patients whose cases are often directly analogous to the material being learned. Moreover, even in today's environment of increased emphasis on quality of medical care and medical education reform, many U.S. medical students still lack essential exposure to common technologies, tests, and procedures performed within several subspecialties. To remedy this situation, the authors propose that educators develop a system of subspecialty clinical learning for first- and/or second-year students correlated to the classroom study of the pathophysiology of the various organ systems. For example, the second-year cardiology course could be augmented with self-directed, patient-centered learning assignments in the cardiac unit, the pathology lab, the echo lab, and other areas. The authors explain the several advantages of comprehensive subspecialty clinical learning (e.g., it will help prepare physicians to practice distributed care, aid development of competencies within the behavioral and social sciences, foster students' professional development, and encourage creative approaches to issues of health care quality). The authors acknowledge the multiple difficulties of implementing such an approach, and present evidence supporting their argument that with the appropriate vision and leadership, such a living curriculum is important and achievable. PMID:18448896

  16. Ultrafest: A Novel Approach to Ultrasound in Medical Education Leads to Improvement in Written and Clinical Examinations

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Kiah; Beier, Lancelot; Langdorf, Mark I.; Anderson, Craig L.; Fox, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of hands-on training at a bedside ultrasound (US) symposium (“Ultrafest”) to improve both clinical knowledge and image acquisition skills of medical students. Primary outcome measure was improvement in multiple choice questions on pulmonary or Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) US knowledge. Secondary outcome was improvement in image acquisition for either pulmonary or FAST.  Methods...

  17. Competency-based medical education in postgraduate medical education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iobst, William F.; Sherbino, Jonathan; Ten Cate, Olle; Richardson, Denyse L.; Dath, Deepak; Swing, Susan R.; Harris, Peter; Mungroo, Rani; Holmboe, Eric S.; Frank, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction of Tomorrow's Doctors in 1993, medical education began the transition from a time-and process-based system to a competency-based training framework. Implementing competency-based training in postgraduate medical education poses many challenges but ultimately requires a demonstr

  18. Electives in Graduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…

  19. Course Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Jennifer R.; Shea, Judy A.

    2007-01-01

    Course evaluation is integral to medical education. We discuss (1) distinctive features of medical education that impact on course evaluation, (2) a framework for course evaluations, (3) details that shape the evaluation process, (4) key measurement issues important to data gathering and interpretation, and (5) opportunities for expanding the…

  20. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia.

  1. Electronic medical records in clinical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warboys, Ina; Mok, Wai Yin; Frith, Karen H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to provide students with experiences to develop their technology competency and examine student perceptions about an academic electronic medical record (EMR) as a learning tool. Nurse educators need to integrate EMRs into their curricula to give students practice in the use of electronic documentation and retrieval of clinical information. The findings of this study indicated that students' use of EMRs at least 5 times resulted in the development of positive perceptions about their EMR experience. PMID:25073041

  2. 临床药师在脑病科开展用药教育的体会%Experience of clinical pharmacist operating medical education in encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅; 王成义

    2015-01-01

    本文探讨临床药师在临床科室开展患者用药教育的方法,提高药师服务患者的能力。临床药师应下临床开展患者用药教育,在工作中不断进行总结归纳。在开展用药教育过程中,临床药师要加强自身能力建设,主动、热情地投入工作。%In this paper,the author explored the methods of clinical pharmacists carry out patients medication education in clinical departments,in order to improve the service ability of pharmacists.Clinical pharmacists should develop drug education in the clinical,and continuously summary in the work. In the process of carrying out education,the clinical pharmacists should strengthen their own ability,and put into work with initiative and enthusiasm.

  3. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation – study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satolli Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two and a classical design (group one and two versus group three. The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314

  4. The role of medical museums in contemporary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M A-H; Willems, Luuk N A; Wells, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great advances in information technology and web-based learning that are currently at play in every level of medical training. Some medical schools have abandoned their museums while others have gradually given away their museums' contents to devote former museum space to new classrooms, lecture halls, and laboratories. These trends have accelerated as medical school enrollment has increased and as increasing interest in biological and biomedical research activities have caused medical schools to convert museum space into research facilities. A few medical schools, however, have considered the contents of their museums as irreplaceable resources for modern medicine and medical education and the space these occupy as great environments for independent and self-directed learning. Consequently, some medical schools have updated their medical museums and equipped them with new technologies. The Anatomical Museum of Leiden University Medical Center in The Netherlands and the Medical Museum of Kawasaki Medical School in Kurashiki, Okayama, Japan, are two examples of such upgraded museums. Student surveys at Leiden University have indicated that all students (100%) found audio-guided museum tours to be useful for learning and majorities of them found guided tours to be clinically relevant (87%). However, 69% of students felt that museum visits should be optional rather than compulsory within the medical training curriculum.

  5. The UCSF Academy of Medical Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Molly; Irby, David M; Debas, Haile T

    2003-07-01

    The Academy of Medical Educators at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), was established in 2000 to (1) foster excellence in teaching, (2) support teachers of medicine, and (3) promote curricular innovation. A membership organization, it recognizes five categories of educational activity: direct teaching, curriculum development and assessment of learner performance, advising and mentoring, educational administration and leadership, and educational research. Excellent medical student teaching and outstanding accomplishment in one or more areas of educational activity qualify a teacher for membership. Candidates prepare a portfolio that is reviewed internally and by national experts in medical education. Currently 37 faculty members, 3% of the entire school of medicine faculty, belong to the academy. The academy's innovations funding program disburses one-year grants to support curricular development and comparisons of pedagogical approaches; through this mechanism, the academy has funded 20 projects at a total cost of $442,300. Three fourths of expended funds support faculty release time. Faculty development efforts include promotion of the use of an educator's portfolio and the establishment of a mentoring program for junior faculty members built around observation of teaching. The Academy of Medical Educators vigorously supports expanded scholarship in education; the academy-sponsored Education Day is an opportunity for educators to present their work locally. Recipients of innovations-funding program grants are expected to present their work in an appropriate national forum and are assisted in doing this through quarterly scholarship clinics. The Academy of Medical Educators has been well received at UCSF and is enhancing the status of medical education and teachers. PMID:12857682

  6. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality. PMID:24464832

  7. Augmented reality in medical education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carolien; Barsom, Esther; Schijven, Marlies; Christoph, Noor

    2014-09-01

    Learning in the medical domain is to a large extent workplace learning and involves mastery of complex skills that require performance up to professional standards in the work environment. Since training in this real-life context is not always possible for reasons of safety, costs, or didactics, alternative ways are needed to achieve clinical excellence. Educational technology and more specifically augmented reality (AR) has the potential to offer a highly realistic situated learning experience supportive of complex medical learning and transfer. AR is a technology that adds virtual content to the physical real world, thereby augmenting the perception of reality. Three examples of dedicated AR learning environments for the medical domain are described. Five types of research questions are identified that may guide empirical research into the effects of these learning environments. Up to now, empirical research mainly appears to focus on the development, usability and initial implementation of AR for learning. Limited review results reflect the motivational value of AR, its potential for training psychomotor skills and the capacity to visualize the invisible, possibly leading to enhanced conceptual understanding of complex causality.

  8. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janichek Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and

  9. 医学生辅助诊断能力的培养%Medical ethics education in clinic practice: Training medicos to envisage the effects of high- tech instruments in diagnoses of diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦怀新; 蔡绍曦

    2005-01-01

    It belongs to the ethics that depending to much on high - tech instruments in diagnoses of diseases and overlooking medical examination and clinical history. In clinic educations, we should train medicos to envisage the effects of high - tech instruments in diagnoses of diseases, and strengthen their feeling of responsibihty and training of clinic basic shills.

  10. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives. PMID:23343741

  11. [The globalization of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Fred C J

    2013-01-01

    With reference to a recently published research article on the applicability and effectiveness of problem-based learning (PBL) in non-Western medical schools, this commentary explores the assumption that a set of shared values is the common denominator of the globalisation of medical education. The use and effectiveness of PBL are not isolated from the cultural and social structural context in which it is applied; critical differences in values and in views on education underlie what educators and students perceive to be effective locally. The globalisation of medical education is more than the import of instructional designs, and includes Western models of social organisation that require deep reflection and adaptation for success; hence, instead of spreading models for medical education across the globe, more effort should be put into the support of 'home-grown' equivalents and alternatives.

  12. Use of a data warehouse at an academic medical center for clinical pathology quality improvement, education, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Krasowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathology data contained within the electronic health record (EHR, and laboratory information system (LIS of hospitals represents a potentially powerful resource to improve clinical care. However, existing reporting tools within commercial EHR and LIS software may not be able to efficiently and rapidly mine data for quality improvement and research applications. Materials and Methods: We present experience using a data warehouse produced collaboratively between an academic medical center and a private company. The data warehouse contains data from the EHR, LIS, admission/discharge/transfer system, and billing records and can be accessed using a self-service data access tool known as Starmaker. The Starmaker software allows users to use complex Boolean logic, include and exclude rules, unit conversion and reference scaling, and value aggregation using a straightforward visual interface. More complex queries can be achieved by users with experience with Structured Query Language. Queries can use biomedical ontologies such as Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes and Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine. Result: We present examples of successful searches using Starmaker, falling mostly in the realm of microbiology and clinical chemistry/toxicology. The searches were ones that were either very difficult or basically infeasible using reporting tools within the EHR and LIS used in the medical center. One of the main strengths of Starmaker searches is rapid results, with typical searches covering 5 years taking only 1-2 min. A "Run Count" feature quickly outputs the number of cases meeting criteria, allowing for refinement of searches before downloading patient-identifiable data. The Starmaker tool is available to pathology residents and fellows, with some using this tool for quality improvement and scholarly projects. Conclusion: A data warehouse has significant potential for improving utilization of clinical pathology testing

  13. Social accountability of medical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems...... both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its...

  14. Benefits of simulation training in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Abas T; Juma FZ

    2016-01-01

    Tamkin Abas, Fatema Zehra JumaManchester Medical School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKWe read about the satisfaction of simulation experiences of paramedic students1 with great interest. As medical students, with early clinical experience comparative to paramedic training in the UK, we agree that simulation-based learning is well received in health care education. As part of the curriculum at the University of Manchester, we are exposed to a variety of simulation-based environments...

  15. Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adj...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Indirect Medical Education and Disproportionate Share Adjustments to Medicare Inpatient Payment Rates The indirect medical education (IME) and disproportionate...

  16. A Viewpoint on Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the unique characteristics of medical universities compared to other higher education centers in Iran is existence of medical education development centers. These centers have made an attempt to enhance the quality of medical education by regular and constant activity in various domains of educational planning and policymaking, and empowerment of the faculty members, students and personnel. Numerous studies published in Persian and English journals are one of the achievements of these centers. Also, several Persian and English scientific journals are being published by these centers among which the role of the few English languages journals of these centers is remarkably significant. Since these journals attract more audience, especially from abroad, it is necessary to pay special heed to the quality of their published articles. Avoiding the publication of such articles as “analysis of awareness and attitude” and turning to innovative intervention studies in medical education (1 have been highlighted by the authorities of medical education. During the past 30 years, the planners and medical sciences teachers have made to keep up with global developments in medicine. However, medical education in Iran has encountered numerous challenges, some of which have been referred to in the literature such as incompatibility of education with the real needs of the society, necessity of revising the syllabi and scientific resources, and weakness of clinical education (2, 3. One of the challenges highlighted in the recent years is the decreasing trend in medical students’ motivation and their academic failure. Various studies have investigated the factors affecting the students’ academic failure (4, 5, but few studies have analyzed the practical and scientific solutions to decrease and prevent it. Accepting undergraduate students in Iranian universities is state-based and the fact that universities have no role in the selection and acceptance

  17. The Study of Literature in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kathryn Montgomery; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that study of literature in the medical curriculum develops physician skills in observation and interpretation, clinical imagination, and self-expression and self-knowledge; enriches moral education; fosters tolerance for uncertainty; and promotes empathy for patients. Appropriate courses for inclusion of and classroom…

  18. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  19. Effectiveness of continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulos, Spyridon S; Dorman, Todd; Ratanawongsa, Neda; Wilson, Lisa M; Ashar, Bimal H; Magaziner, Jeffrey L; Miller, Redonda G; Thomas, Patricia A; Prokopowicz, Gregory P; Qayyum, Rehan; Bass, Eric B

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Despite the broad range of continuing medical education (CME) offerings aimed at educating practicing physicians through the provision of up-to-date clinical information, physicians commonly overuse, under-use, and misuse therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. It has been suggested that the ineffective nature of CME either accounts for the discrepancy between evidence and practice or at a minimum contributes to this gap. Understanding what CME tools and techniques are most effective in disseminating and retaining medical knowledge is critical to improving CME and thus diminishing the gap between evidence and practice. The purpose of this review was to comprehensively and systematically synthesize evidence regarding the effectiveness of CME and differing instructional designs in terms of knowledge, attitudes, skills, practice behavior, and clinical practice outcomes. REVIEW METHODS We formulated specific questions with input from external experts and representatives of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) which nominated this topic. We systematically searched the literature using specific eligibility criteria, hand searching of selected journals, and electronic databases including: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), PsycINFO, and the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC). Two independent reviewers conducted title scans, abstract reviews, and then full article reviews to identify eligible articles. Each eligible article underwent double review for data abstraction and assessment of study quality. RESULTS Of the 68,000 citations identified by literature searching, 136 articles and 9 systematic reviews ultimately met our eligibility criteria. The overall quality of the literature was low and consequently firm conclusions were

  20. Needs and necessities of medical ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Larijani

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, new medical technologies and their probable misuses have emerged public concerns about medical ethics. Medical ethics is a practical discipline that provides a structured approach for identifying, analyzing, and resolving ethical issues in clinical medicine. "nIn this study we reviewed some new methods of teaching medical ethics in other countries by searching in internet and literature. "nTwo key features related to the teaching of medical ethics are active involvement of students in the learning process instead of merely lecturing about the ethical principles and assessing how students apply their knowledge of ethical principles in simulated and actual situations. In many countries such as Iran, medical schools attempted to address medical ethics issues in formal ethics classes. "nIt is clear that the traditional method is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of practitioners and societies and new methods particularly those emphasize on active learning, individual participation, group interactions, and a process - based approach, should be developed and implemented. In addition, a concerted effort to improve education in medical ethics will benefit the medical profession and services to patients. Therefore, we recommend policy makers of medical ethics education to change the traditional methods to the modern methods; which are used now in the world.

  1. Information Technologies (ITs) in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan

    2011-09-01

    Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, "learning at bedside," aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education - their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education.

  2. Efficacy of an integrated continuing medical education (CME) and quality improvement (QI) program on radiation oncologist (RO) clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There has been little radiation oncologist (RO)-specific research in continuing medical education (CME) or quality improvement (QI) program efficacy. Our aim was to evaluate a CME/QI program for changes in RO behavior, performance, and adherence to department protocols/studies over the first 12 months of the program. Methods and Materials: The CME/QI program combined chart audit with feedback (C-AWF), simulation review AWF (SR-AWF), reminder checklists, and targeted CME tutorials. Between April 2003 and March 2004, management of 75 patients was evaluated by chart audit with feedback (C-AWF) and 178 patients via simulation review audit (SR-AWF) using a validated instrument. Scores were presented, and case management was discussed with individualized educational feedback. RO behavior and performance was compared over the first year of the program. Results: Comparing the first and second 6 months, there was a significant improvement in mean behavior (12.7-13.6 of 14, p = 0.0005) and RO performance (7.6-7.9 of 8, p = 0.018) scores. Protocol/study adherence significantly improved from 90.3% to 96.6% (p = 0.005). A total of 50 actions were generated, including the identification of learning needs to direct CME tutorials, the systematic change of suboptimal RO practice, and the alteration of deficient management of 3% of patients audited during the program. Conclusion: An integrated CME/QI program combining C-AWF, SR-AWF, QI reminders, and targeted CME tutorials effectively improved targeted RO behavior and performance over a 12-month period. There was a corresponding increase in departmental protocol and study adherence

  3. [Midwifery clinical practicum education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chien-Huei; Gau, Meei-Ling

    2013-06-01

    Midwifery is a practical facet of the health sciences that emphasizes professional competence-oriented teaching and learning. Cognitive and practical processes integrate and build midwifery student professional knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Clinical education is a teaching method and strategy used to prepare midwifery students for professional practice. Midwifery clinical teaching plans are designed using literature review, expert opinions, and student comments and determine total required hours and caseloads. Midwifery clinical teaching activities and methods promote self-reflection, childbirth education fundamentals, learning by role model observation, and learning role function through overseas observership programs. This paper discusses midwifery education dilemmas and coping methods in Taiwan.

  4. The impact of trained patient educators on musculoskeletal clinical skills attainment in pre-clerkship medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiseman Jeffrey

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high burden of musculoskeletal (MSK diseases, few generalists are comfortable teaching MSK physical examination (PE skills. Patient Partners® in Arthritis (PP®IA is a standardized patient educator program that could potentially supplement current MSK PE teaching. This study aims to determine if differences exist in MSK PE skills between non-MSK specialist physician and PP®IA taught students. Methods Pre-clerkship medical students attended 2-hour small group MSK PE teaching by either non-MSK specialist physician tutors or by PP®IA. All students underwent an MSK OSCE and completed retrospective pre-post questionnaires regarding comfort with MSK PE and interest in MSK. Results 83 students completed the OSCE (42 PP®IA, 41 physician taught and 82 completed the questionnaire (42 PP®IA, 40 physician taught. There were no significant differences between groups in OSCE scores. For all questionnaire items, post-session ratings were significantly higher than pre-session ratings for both groups. In exploratory analysis PP®IA students showed significantly greater improvement in 12 of 22 questions including three of five patient-centred learning questions. Conclusions PP®IA MSK PE teaching is as good as non-MSK specialist physician tutor teaching when measured by a five station OSCE and provide an excellent complementary resource to address current deficits in MSK PE teaching.

  5. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH; SEYED MOHSEN DEHGHANI; AHMAD REZA SOBHANI; MAHMOOD HAGHIGHAT

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning) as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical s...

  6. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reena Aggarwal,1,2 Tim Swanwick2 1Women's Health, Whittington Health, London, UK; 2Health Education England, North Central and East London, London, UK Abstract: Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an "operating core" of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing "leaders", to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a "heroic" individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are "leader-ful" and not just "well led" and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline. Keywords: National Health Service, junior doctors, quality improvement, management, health care

  7. QUALITY ENHANCEMENT IN MEDICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Nejati Ajibisheh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient time, education has been evaluated in terms of its practical value among the Chinese; however, despite its long history, performance evaluation is the most complex and controversial of human resource management techniques (Roberts, 2003, and a little understood function of organizational life.Performance appraisal in both the private and the public sectors have become an integral part of work life. Of course, there is a growing interest to use performance management techniques in educational institutes in order to increase the competitiveness and quality of university education in a globalized environment .Accordingly, medical education requires special performance management and excellence models to improve the quality of course materials and provided services.The aim of this article is to develop a model of academic excellence based on a combination of SERVQUAL technique, Balanced Scorecard model, and EFQM Excellence Model. The SERVQUAL technique can be used to identify the gap between medical students\\' expectations and perceived experience as indicators of service quality, to measure quality of services offered by medical universities.In this article, with the use of Balanced Scorecard and EFQM, a comprehensive model will be introduced to enhance the quality of medical education. The model will recommend a process within different academic quality dimensions. In addition, the paper will introduce approaches to use available resources effectively to improve educational development.

  8. Interactive Video in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekhar, Arcot J.; Price, Ronald N.

    1989-01-01

    A variety of attributes have to be taught to a medical student. Various formats of these skills are currently in vogue, namely lectures, small group sessions, preceptorships, etc. The objective of this project is to evaluate the utility of interactive video in medical education. Lessons using interactive video were developed to teach history taking skills, procedural skills, problem solving skills and to acquire knowledge base. Evaluation strategies are being developed to assess which format,...

  9. Human values in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J R

    1976-11-01

    Attitudes and values in medicine vary with the nature of the individual, his education and training, and the circumstances of his professional life. Comparisons are drawn between medical education in Britain 40 years ago and today. Though education has changed, British students are still mainly motivated by a desire to care for sick people. The impact of personal medicine on a country that has long accepted the need for some kind of national health service is described. It is postulated that as government and public become increasingly involved in health care, it is of paramount importance that medical education should provide a clear understanding of what a profession is and inculcate a determination to maintain true professional status. New responsibilities of the profession, to the public at large and to society, are suggested. The ability of medical education to exert a good influence on concern for human values in medicine depends in the final analysis on the ability to show excellence to medical students.

  10. [Piercing: health education or medicalization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningaud, J P; Moutel, G; Hervé, C

    2000-06-10

    In Europe, the piercing mode has naturally been associated with specific complications raising an important public health problem. The debate on the role physicians should play requires a careful analysis of the ethical issues involved. Specifically, should the piercing be done in a medical setting? This question is raised because, when performed under ideal conditions, the act of piercing requires a certain degree of medical competency: history taking, asepsia, technical procedure (hemostasis), anesthesia.... However, mandatory medicalization would not, in our opinion, appear to be desirable since we are dealing with a social rite which lies outside the domain of specific medical care. Nevertheless, although we do not advocate systematic medicalization, we do believe that medicine should play a role, in terms of public health, in this emerging practice. We discuss the modalities of a health education dialogue which could be established with professional practicing piercing.

  11. Mobile technologies in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken; Ellaway, Rachel H; Topps, David; Archibald, Douglas; Hogue, Rebecca J

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies (including handheld and wearable devices) have the potential to enhance learning activities from basic medical undergraduate education through residency and beyond. In order to use these technologies successfully, medical educators need to be aware of the underpinning socio-theoretical concepts that influence their usage, the pre-clinical and clinical educational environment in which the educational activities occur, and the practical possibilities and limitations of their usage. This Guide builds upon the previous AMEE Guide to e-Learning in medical education by providing medical teachers with conceptual frameworks and practical examples of using mobile technologies in medical education. The goal is to help medical teachers to use these concepts and technologies at all levels of medical education to improve the education of medical and healthcare personnel, and ultimately contribute to improved patient healthcare. This Guide begins by reviewing some of the technological changes that have occurred in recent years, and then examines the theoretical basis (both social and educational) for understanding mobile technology usage. From there, the Guide progresses through a hierarchy of institutional, teacher and learner needs, identifying issues, problems and solutions for the effective use of mobile technology in medical education. This Guide ends with a brief look to the future. PMID:27010681

  12. Medical Education and Global Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobac, Peter; Morse, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts to expand medical training in resource-constrained settings are laudable, but change that transforms health systems will require new educational approaches. Today's physician-leaders need to leverage clinical and global health knowledge with a nuanced understanding of the social forces that impact health, the ability to marshal political will, and the capacity to manage dynamic programs and institutions. In establishing the University of Global Health Equity, we have identified three reform principles. First, equipping medical schools with the tools and technology to deliver is imperative. Second, the mismatch between the skills taught in most medical schools and those needed to improve fragile health systems must be addressed. Finally, medical schools that strive to eliminate health inequities should "walk the walk," adopting progressive practices to institutionalize equity. PMID:27437820

  13. Certification and licensing of clinical medical physicists in AFOMP countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In many countries the education and training of medical physicists has changed over the last few decades 'om being rather ad hoc to becoming structured with residency programs becoming quite common. These are often followed by formal certification by independent bodies, and medical physics professional organizations MPPOs) affirming the quality of certified physicists and recognizing their competence and ability to practice independently. Policies on the training and education of medical physicists have been developed by the International organization for Medical Physics (IOMP) and by the Asia Oceania Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics AFOMP). Currently nine countries in Asia-Oceania operate systems for the certification of clinical medical physicists and four others are planning or implementing such systems. The existing systems, which are described in his paper, generally conform to the policies. Licensing of medical physicists, which is primarily the responsibility of government bodies, is almost unknown in that region. (author)

  14. How lead consultants approach educational change in postgraduate medical education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, J.P.; Westerman, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Lee, N.; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dorr, P.J.; Scheele, F.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Consultants in charge of postgraduate medical education (PGME) in hospital departments ('lead consultants') are responsible for the implementation of educational change. Although difficulties in innovating in medical education are described in the literature, little is known about how lead

  15. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  16. Plagiarism in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ariel Forrester

    2007-06-01

    The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.

  17. The Exploration of the Preventive Medical Students' Participation in Clinical Epidemiology During the Stage of Clinical Education%预防医学专业学生参与临床流行病学教学实践探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰松; 肖林; 张拓红; 黄森

    2013-01-01

    通过组织某大学预防医学专业本科生参与眼科"学龄期儿童近视眼的防治筛查"的流行病学调研课题,探索预防医学专业学生临床教育阶段的教育方式.实践表明,预防医学专业学生在临床教育阶段,参与和开展临床流行病学的实践活动,可以使学生们尽快树立"预防为主"的专业理念,体会临床学习的意义,提高学生的自主学习能力和实践操作能力,进而为从临床医学到预防医学的衔接奠定基础,是一项值得推广的人才培养模式.%This study explored the way to educate five-year Preventive medical students by organizing an epidemi-ological research named "The screening and control of myopia in school children" during the stage of clinical practice. This activity showed that for the Preventive medical students during the stage of clinical education, participating and developing clinical epidemiology, can help the student establish the professional concept of "prevention first", understand the significance of the clinical study, improve students' self-learning ability and operational capacity, and then lay the foundation of the connection between clinical medicine and preventive medicine. It is a training model which is worthy of spreading.

  18. Evaluation of Continuing Medical Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li Wang, Virginia; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A continuing medical education program is discussed that addresses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and that links primary care physicians to a source of needed clinical knowledge at a relatively low cost. The educational methods, evaluation design, diagnosis of educational needs, selection of program content and behavioral outcomes are…

  19. Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, Barbara A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The Clinical Oncology Assistantship Program at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences is described, along with student reactions to the program. The summer elective program involves cancer lectures (one week) and clinical exposure (nine weeks) in medical, surgical, and pediatric oncology services, as well as self-directed learning…

  20. Innovations in higher medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the innovations in the higher medical education. Particular attention in this sphere is paid to the detailed analysis of the subject as a mechanism of cognition and psycho-emotional aspect. It should be noticed that the development of the university education demands the integration of functional systems to study the general medicine and the art of healing. In conclusion it has been found out that the new methodological approach is necessary to bring the teacher closer to the subject particularly to integrate the relation of the opposites.

  1. Radiation Oncology Physics and Medical Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Dan

    2011-10-01

    Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).

  2. Gender issues in medical and public health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y L

    2000-01-01

    There is no doubt that gender bias has been inherent in medical and public health education, research, and clinical practice. This paper discusses the central question for medical and public health educators viz. whether women's health concerns and needs could be best addressed by the conventional biomedical approach to medical and public health education, research, and practice. Gender inequalities in health and gender bias in medical and public health education are revealed. It is found that in most public health and prevention issues related to women's health, the core issue is male-female power relations, and not merely the lack of public health services, medical technology, or information. There is, thus, an urgent need to gender-sensitize public health and medical education. The paper proposes a gender analysis of health to distinguish between biological causes and social explanations for the health differentials between men and women. It also assessed some of the gender approaches to public health and medical education currently adopted in the Asia-Pacific region. It poses the pressing question of how medical and public health educators integrate the gender perspective into medical and public health education. The paper exhorts all medical and public health practitioners to explore new directions and identify innovative strategies to formulate a gender-sensitive curriculum towards the best practices in medicine and public health that will meet the health needs of women and men in the 21st century. PMID:11338745

  3. Promissory Concept of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Voronenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing medical education (CME is a dynamic system, where distance learning is an important component. In this article, we posit the Promissory Concept of distance learning. The central principle upon which this methodology is based is that the doctor can be located in any place where the information needed for his or her practice is easily available to the patient and where the doctor is able to monitor the development of his or her knowledge and practical skills, and is able to build his or her educational record of accomplishment. The Promissory Concept combines the availability of existing online opportunities with professional self-development which can be put to the test by an external supervisor (a professor or curator, who in turn will be able to identify existing advantages in knowledge, as well as those requiring further improvement, thus helping the learner's professional development. This approach was introduced to general practitioners and nephrologists practising in Ukraine in 2013. From 2014, the Promissory Concept has been associated with the Renal Eastern Europe Nephrology Academy's (REENA annual CME course, which has been accredited by ERA-EDTA (European Renal Association–European Dialysis and Transplant Association for the past 8 years. REENA is controlled by the state organisation of postgraduate education – Shupyk National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education. The Promissory Concept is supported by printed educational material in the scientific medical Ukrainian journal Kidneys, which is registered in scientific databases (as a Google scholar, etc.. An important characteristic of the Promissory Concept is the active involvement of doctors, who give constructive feedback on the programme. This feedback contributes to the content of the CME learning activity, as well as enhancing compliance in participation. As a result, it helps create motivated adherence and improved professional development.

  4. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  5. Implementation and evaluation of an educational programme to support registered nurses during clinical supervision of student nurses in medical and surgical wards in a training health facility, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Neshuku

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of the implementation and evaluation of the educational programme was to support registered nurses in the Oshana region, Namibia educationally, in order to enable them to provide effective clinical supervision of student nurses The researcher selected to conduct a workshop because during a workshop it is possible to have two-way communication that encouraged the exchange of ideas and facts with the aim of sharing valued information among one another. The duration of the workshop was two days. The workshop was attended by registered nurses (registered nurses from a training institution and training health facilities from the Oshana Region. Participants were selected using a criterion sampling method (registered nurses who were supervising second and third year nursing students during clinical practice; those registered nurses were from medical and surgical wards at training heath facilities in the Oshana Region and had been working there for a year or more. There were no limitations on the number / sample size; the researcher allowed all participants who turned up to attend the workshop resulted in seventeen participants attended the workshop. The programme was implemented in three phases which in turn was divided into sessions. The orientation phase provided an introduction to the workshop where aspects related to the purpose, goals, and objectives of the workshop and logistical arrangements of the implementation of the programme were discussed. The working phase consisted of three sessions which is corresponding to the programme objectives. The implementation of each session was based on the specific objective activities of that session and it was expected to produce an outcome that would help the registered nurses during the execution of their clinical supervisory duties of nursing students During the termination phase two qualitative evaluations were done firstly, the evaluation of the

  6. Hungarian medical physics MSc education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical physics specialisation aims at providing high level interdisciplinary theoretical and practical knowledge and readily applicable skills, which can put into action in both the clinical and the R and D field. The first competence based gradual medical physics course in the B.Sc./M.Sc. system in Hungary was launched two years ago at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of Budapest University of Technology and Economics managed by the Institute of Nuclear Techniques. The MSc programme was compiled on the base of EFOMP, IPEM, AAPM and IAEA recommendations. The course curriculum comprises fundamental physical subjects (atomic and molecular physics, nuclear physics and particle physics) as well as fundamental medical knowledge (anatomy, physiology and radiobiology) required for subjects of diagnostic and therapy. Students of this MSc branch may chose further subjects from a 'compulsory optional' set of subjects, which contains medical imaging, X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, magnetic resonance imaging, radiation protection, Monte Carlo calculation and its clinical applications, ultrasound diagnostics and nuclear medicine. (authors)

  7. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  8. Medical Readers' Theater: Relevance to Geriatrics Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…

  9. Initiatives for Medical Education Research at the International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Chandra Jutti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical Education research is a relativelynew field but one that is progressing rapidly worldwide.This article is an attempt to take stock of the currentstatus of Medical Education research in InternationalMedical University and to explore the various factorsthat have influenced its direction. It also shares some ofthe initiatives that have been instituted or intended tobe instituted at our university.

  10. Medication therapy management clinic: perception of healthcare professionals in a University medical center setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the overall perception and utilization of the pharmacist managed medication therapy management (MTM clinic services, by healthcare professionals in a large, urban, university medical care setting.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, anonymous survey sent to 195 healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, and pharmacists at The University of Illinois Outpatient Care Center to determine their perception and utilization of the MTM clinic. The survey consisted of 12 questions and was delivered through a secure online application. Results: Sixty-two healthcare professionals (32% completed the survey. 82% were familiar with the MTM clinic, and 63% had referred patients to the clinic. Medication adherence and disease state management was the most common reason for referral. Lack of knowledge on the appropriate referral procedure was the prominent reason for not referring patients to the MTM clinic. Of the providers that were aware of MTM services, 44% rated care as ‘excellent’, 44% as ‘good’, 5% as ‘fair’, and 0% stated ‘poor’. Strengths of MTM clinic identified by healthcare providers included in-depth education to patients, close follow-up, and detailed medication reconciliation provided by MTM clinic pharmacists. Of those familiar with MTM clinic, recommendations included; increase marketing efforts to raise awareness of the MTM clinic service, create collaborative practice agreements between MTM pharmacists and physicians, and ensure that progress notes are more concise.Conclusion: In a large, urban, academic institution MTM clinic is perceived as a valuable resource to optimize patient care by providing patients with in-depth education as it relates to their prescribed medications and disease states. These identified benefits of MTM clinic lead to frequent patient referrals specifically for aid with medication adherence and disease state management.

  11. From Medical Records to Clinical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Aickin, Mikel; Elder, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Medical records contain an abundance of information, very little of which is extracted and put to clinical use. Increasing the flow of information from medical records to clinical practice requires methods of analysis that are appropriate for large nonintervention studies. The purpose of this article is to explain in nontechnical language what these methods are, how they differ from conventional statistical analyses, and why the latter are generally inappropriate. This is important because of...

  12. MEDUCATE trial : effectiveness of an intensive EDUCATional intervention for IT-mediated MEDication management in the outpatient clinic - study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stiphout, F; Zwart-van Rijkom, J E F; Aarts, J E C M; Koffijberg, H; Klarenbeek-deJonge, E; Krulder, M; Roes, K C B; Egberts, A C G; ter Braak, E W M T

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Using information technology for medication management is an opportunity to help physicians to improve the quality of their documentation and communication and ultimately to improve patient care and patient safety. Physician education is necessary to take full advantage of information te

  13. MEDUCATE trial: effectiveness of an intensive EDUCATional intervention for IT-mediated MEDication management in the outpatient clinic – study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiphout, van F.; Zwart-van Rijkom, J.E.F.; Aarts, J.E.C.M.; Koffijberg, H.; Klarenbeek-de Jonge, E.; Krulder, M.; Roes, K.C.B.; Egberts, A.C.G.; Braak, ter E.W.M.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Using information technology for medication management is an opportunity to help physicians to improve the quality of their documentation and communication and ultimately to improve patient care and patient safety. Physician education is necessary to take full advantage of information tec

  14. MEDUCATE trial: Effectiveness of an intensive EDUCATional intervention for IT-mediated MEDication management in the outpatient clinic - study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. van Stiphout; J.E.F. Zwart-van Rijkom (Jeannette); J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); H. Koffijberg (Hendrik); E. Klarenbeek-deJonge; M. Krulder; K.C. Roes (Kit); A.C.G. Egberts (Antoine); E.W.M.T. ter Braak

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Using information technology for medication management is an opportunity to help physicians to improve the quality of their documentation and communication and ultimately to improve patient care and patient safety. Physician education is necessary to take full advantage of in

  15. Anatomy education in a changing medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R L

    1999-08-01

    How we educate students in the first two years of medical school is changing at many institutions. Effective medical education should be viewed as a continuum, integration of the basic sciences and clinical medicine should occur throughout the curriculum, and self-directed, life-long learning should be emphasized. Curricular revision may be appropriate if these fundamental concepts are absent. The principles of three curricular models are discussed: traditional, problem-based, and systems-oriented. The ideal curriculum may draw from each of these: A truly integrated curriculum. However, the curricular model chosen must meet the needs of the institution and its students. As anatomists we should not shy away from this process of change. With progressive educational approaches, we can be leaders in this climate of curricular reform. Anatomy courses are laboratory based and the laboratory is an outstanding small group, faculty/student interactive opportunity. However, we must show flexibility and innovation in our educational approaches whatever the curricular design being proposed. PMID:10496094

  16. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  17. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  18. Pre-clinical medical student experience in a pediatric pulmonary clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Saba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the educational value of introducing pre-clinical medical students to pediatric patients and their families in a subspecialty clinic setting. Methods: First- and second-year medical students at the University of Michigan seeking clinical experience outside of the classroom attended an outpatient pediatric pulmonary clinic. Evaluation of the experience consisted of pre- and post-clinic student surveys and post-clinic parent surveys with statements employing a four-point Likert scale as well as open-ended questions. Results: Twenty-eight first-year students, 6 second-year students, and 33 parents participated in the study. Post-clinic statement scores significantly increased for statements addressing empathic attitudes, confidence communicating with children and families, comfort in the clinical environment, and social awareness. Scores did not change for statements addressing motivation, a sense of team membership, or confidence with career goals. Students achieved their goals of gaining experience interacting with patients, learning about pulmonary diseases, and observing clinic workflow. Parents felt that they contributed to student education and were not inconvenienced. Conclusions: Students identified several educational benefits of exposure to a single pediatric pulmonary clinic. Patients and families were not inconvenienced by the participation of a student. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate the value of this model of pre-clinical medical student exposure to subspecialty pediatrics.

  19. IOM releases report on graduate medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On July 29 the Institute of Medicine (IOM released a report on graduate medical education (GME (1. This is the residency training that doctors complete after finishing medical school. This training is funded by about $15 billion annually from the Federal government with most of the monies coming from the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS. The report calls for an end to providing the money directly to the teaching hospitals and to dramatically alter the way the funds are paid. Instead payments would be made to community clinics phased in over about 10 years. To administer the program, the report recommends the formation of two committees: 1. A GME Policy Council in the Office of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Health; and 2. A GME Center within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to manage the operational aspects of GME CMS funding. The later committee ...

  20. Decline of clinical research in academic medical centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Kimford J

    2015-09-29

    Marked changes in US medical school funding began in the 1960s with progressively increasing revenues from clinical services. The growth of clinical revenues slowed in the mid-1990s, creating a funding crisis for US academic health care centers, who responded by having their faculty increase their clinical duties at the expense of research activities. Surveys document the resultant stresses on the academic clinician researcher. The NIH provides greater funding for basic and translational research than for clinical research, and the new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is inadequately funded to address the scope of needed clinical research. An increasing portion of clinical research is funded by industry, which leaves many important clinical issues unaddressed. There is an inadequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a lack of external support for clinical research. The impact on the academic environment in university medical centers is especially severe on young faculty, who have a shrinking potential to achieve successful academic careers. National health care research funding policies should encourage the right balance of life-science investigations. Medical universities need to improve and highlight education on clinical research for students, residents, fellows, and young faculty. Medical universities also need to provide appropriate incentives for clinical research. Without training to ensure an adequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a method to adequately fund clinical research, discoveries from basic and translational research cannot be clinically tested and affect patient care. Thus, many clinical problems will continue to be evaluated and treated with inadequate or even absent evidence-based knowledge.

  1. Medical Physics Education at the University of Novi Sad - Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanković, Slobodanka; Vesković, Miroslav; Klisurić, Olivera; Spasić, Vesna

    2007-04-01

    Overview of new educational program and training in Medical Physics at the University of Novi Sad is presented, where the medical physics education from undergraduate to doctoral study is established in the last decade. Necessity for basic and additional education and hospital training for medical physicists becomes the evident subject in clinical practice in which physicists and physicians are in close collaboration to ensure high quality of patient care. Learning objectives: to incorporate the latest scientific and professional findings in the field of medical physics, medical diagnostics, therapy and instruments; to accomodate students' pursuits of individual fields by offering elective courses from different areas of current medical practice; to reflect the multidisciplinary spirit of the studies, since teaching is performed by experts from diverse fields.

  2. Medical education research in GCC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim; Aqil, Mansoor; Usmani, Adnan Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical education is an essential domain to produce physicians with high standards of medical knowledge, skills and professionalism in medical practice. This study aimed to investigate the research progress and prospects of GCC countries in medical education during the period 1996–2013. Methods In this study, the research papers published in various global scientific journals during the period 1996–2013 were accessed. We recorded the total number of research documents having an aff...

  3. Clinical health informatics education for a 21st Century World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Siaw Teng; Gray, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an educational overview of: * health informatics competencies in medical, nursing and allied clinical health professions * health informatics learning cultures and just-in-time health informatics training in clinical work settings * major considerations in selecting or developing health informatics education and training programs for local implementation * using elearning effectively to meet the objectives of health informatics education. PMID:20407180

  4. Mobile Medical Education (MoMEd - how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students - a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Bethany S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile technology is increasingly being used by clinicians to access up-to-date information for patient care. These offer learning opportunities in the clinical setting for medical students but the underlying pedagogic theories are not clear. A conceptual framework is needed to understand these further. Our initial questions were how the medical students used the technology, how it enabled them to learn and what theoretical underpinning supported the learning. Methods 387 medical students were provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies. Outcomes were assessed by a mixed-methods triangulation approach using qualitative and quantitative analysis of surveys, focus groups and usage tracking data. Results Learning occurred in context with timely access to key facts and through consolidation of knowledge via repetition. The PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement. Contextual factors impacted on use both positively and negatively. Barriers included concerns of interrupting the clinical interaction and of negative responses from teachers and patients. Students preferred a future involving smartphone platforms. Conclusions This is the first study to describe the learning ecology and pedagogic basis behind the use of mobile learning technologies in a large cohort of undergraduate medical students in the clinical environment. We have developed a model for mobile learning in the clinical setting that shows how different theories contribute to its use taking into account positive and negative contextual factors. The lessons from this study are transferable internationally, to other health care professions and to the development of similar initiatives with newer technology such as smartphones or tablet computers.

  5. Provider Education about Glaucoma and Glaucoma Medications during Videotaped Medical Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Sleath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine how patient, physician, and situational factors are associated with the extent to which providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications, and which patient and provider characteristics are associated with whether providers educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications. Methods. Patients with glaucoma who were newly prescribed or on glaucoma medications were recruited and a cross-sectional study was conducted at six ophthalmology clinics. Patients’ visits were videotape recorded and patients were interviewed after visits. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Results. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients participated. Providers were significantly more likely to educate patients about glaucoma and glaucoma medications if they were newly prescribed glaucoma medications. Providers were significantly less likely to educate African American patients about glaucoma. Providers were significantly less likely to educate patients of lower health literacy about glaucoma medications. Conclusion. Eye care providers did not always educate patients about glaucoma or glaucoma medications. Practice Implications. Providers should consider educating more patients about what glaucoma is and how it is treated so that glaucoma patients can better understand their disease. Even if a patient has already been educated once, it is important to reinforce what has been taught before.

  6. Vertically integrated medical education and the readiness for practice of graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen-Meijer, Marjo; ten Cate, Olle; van der Schaaf, Marieke; Burgers, Chantalle; Borleffs, Jan; Harendza, Sigrid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medical curricula become more and more vertically integrated (VI) to prepare graduates better for clinical practice. VI curricula show early clinical education, integration of biomedical sciences and focus on increasing clinical responsibility levels for trainees. Results of earlier ques

  7. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  8. [Medical education challenged by the learning society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Hernández, Luis Felipe; Infante-Castañeda, Claudia B

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the limitations of dominant paradigms in education and identifies the necessity of research-situated learning in real environments and how medical education must be involved with knowledge management in real, complex, adaptive systems, and concludes with the need for constructing novel educative paradigms with regard to new educational paradigms.

  9. 早期接触临床教育对培养合格妇幼医学人才的意义%Early Exposure to Clinical Education Training Qualified Women's and Children's Medical Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常影; 姜新; 王艳春

    2015-01-01

    妇幼医生直接承担着广大妇女及幼儿的预防保健、治疗及计划生育等工作。由于其重要性和特殊性,使妇幼医生的教育问题备受关注。该研究通过介绍早期接触临床教育的内涵及妇幼医生教育的现状,提出在妇幼医生教育中进行早期临床接触教育的必要性、可行性,并对妇幼医生医学教育中实行早期接触临床教育的策略进行了探讨。%Women's and children's doctor directly responsible for the majority of women and young children's preventive care, treatment, and family planning work. Because of its importance and particularity, much attention has been paid to women's and children's doctor's education problem. In this paper, through the introduction of the connotation of early expo-sure to clinical education and women's and children's doctor education present situation, proposed in the women's and chil-dren's doctor education early clinical education necessity, feasibility, and the women's and children's early exposure to clinical doctors in medical education practice the strategy of education are discussed in this paper.

  10. STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF ASPECTS AFFECTING MEDICAL EDUCATION QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Peeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The student is the main subject in the education process. The goal of the study is to examine the relative weight of the components of learning process in the students’ evaluation assessment for quality of higher medical education. Direct individual inquiry with rank answers for 541 medical students was completed. Logistic regression analysis was done to create predictive models and derive relationships between quality of education factors and its dependents: assessment of quality and students' progress. Tolerance and respectfulness (OR = 13.1, high general culture (OR = 18.4, clearand accessiblecontemporaryteaching (OR = 9.2, engagement of the audience (OR = 3.4, are the teacher characteristics in the model. Application ofnew technologiesinlearning (OR = 4.2,discussion (OR = 5.9, patients observations and live contact (OR = 5.6 are educational methods determine the qualityof education. Accordinginterns quality of education isdetermined mainly by clinical facilities, quality lectures,solving clinical cases, and practical work. 

  11. Last resort or roll of the die? Exploring the role of metaphors in cancer clinical trials education among medically underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L

    2014-01-01

    Improving communication about cancer clinical trials may help increase patients' understanding of medical research and their interest in participating. It is unfortunate that there is little empirical research to provide guidance on how to adapt clinical trial messages to maximize cultural sensitivity. This study examines (a) how medically underserved women conceptualize clinical trials by examining the language they use to describe them and (b) how this audience interprets metaphorical language used to explain randomization in the context of Phase III cancer clinical trials. The author conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 41 rural, low-income older women who either had been diagnosed with cancer or were caregivers for a person with cancer. The most commonly used lay metaphors for clinical trials had strong negative connotations and included treatment by trial and error, patients are guinea pigs, and treatment of last resort. Participants also expressed strong, unfavorable responses to conventional metaphors that equate randomization with the roll of a die or use other gambling language. Low-literacy definition approaches were unexpectedly problematic, suggesting the potential effectiveness of culturally grounded metaphors for communicating about clinical trials. Ethical implications of these findings for cancer communication are discussed.

  12. Undergraduate Rural Medical Education Program Development: Focus Group Consultation with the NRHA Rural Medical Educators Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura H.; Wheat, John R.; Leeper, James D.; Florence, Joseph A.; Boulger, James G.; Hunsaker, Matt L.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Over a decade ago, leaders in rural medical education established the Rural Medical Educators (RME) Group, an interest group within the National Rural Health Association, to support faculty in rural medical education programs. This group has convened an annual RME conclave since 2006. In 2008, this conclave convened 15 national leaders in…

  13. Blunting Occam's razor: aligning medical education with studies of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan

    2010-08-01

    Clinical effectiveness and efficiency in medicine for patient benefit should be grounded in the quality of medical education. In turn, the quality of medical education should be informed by contemporary learning theory that offers high explanatory, exploratory and predictive power. Multiple team-based health care interventions and associated policy are now routinely explored and explained through complexity theory. Yet medical education--how medical students learn to become doctors and how doctors learn to become clinical specialists or primary care generalists--continues to refuse contemporary, work-based social learning theories that have deep resonance with models of complexity. This can be explained ideologically, where medicine is grounded in a tradition of heroic individualism and knowledge is treated as private capital. In contrast, social learning theories resonating with complexity theory emphasize adaptation through collaboration, where knowledge is commonly owned. The new era of clinical teamwork demands, however, that we challenge the tradition of autonomy, bringing social learning theories in from the cold, to reveal their affinities with complexity science and demonstrate their powers of illumination. Social learning theories informed by complexity science can act as a democratizing force in medical education, helping practitioners to work more effectively in non-linear, complex, dynamic systems through inter-professionalism, shared tolerance of ambiguity and distributed cognition. Taking complexity science seriously and applying its insights demands a shift in cultural mindset in medical education. Inevitably, patterns of resistance will arise to frustrate such potential innovation.

  14. [Promotion of the systematization of consistent education for medical technologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kiyoko; Sato, Kenji

    2006-03-01

    Although only about 35 years have passed since the birth of medical technology, marked advances have been made in the clinical laboratory science field. However, the educational system for technologists attached importance only to the learning of techniques for a long period because special training schools primarily provided medical technologist education. With the passing of time, the need for advanced knowledge has increased, and a plan to change the education system for medical technologists to 4-year colleges was evaluated. In 1989, the Course of Laboratory Sciences as a 4-year system for medical technologist education was established in the Department of Medicine, Tokyo Medical & Dental University. The Doctoral Course of Graduate School (first term) was established in 1993 and the Doctoral Course of Graduate School(second term) in 1995. In 2001, these courses formed a graduate university as the Division of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, the Graduate School of Allied Health Sciences. Thus, a consistent educational system for medical technologists was established. By March 2005, about 500 students had graduated from this division. Based on this experience, we produced a 4-stage developmental program and provide an advanced educational system for the promotion of the systematization of consistent medical technologist education.

  15. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great…

  16. Stimulating medical education research in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Debbie; Scherpbier, Albert; Van Der Vleuten, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, the Dutch have been active innovators and researchers in the medical education domain. With regards to the quantity of publications in the medical education literature, the Netherlands rank second among countries in Europe and fourth worldwide over the past years, relate

  17. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  18. [Clinical cases and historical-medical didactics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Giuseppina Bock

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of remarkable documents dating back to the thirties and coming from the Policlinico Surgical Clinic of Milan, offers the possibility to be read in a historical clue too and to compare the constant discordances with the clinical contemporary practice. The aim is to point out the relationship between yesterday knowledges and critical today interpretations. The analysis can be suggested because certainly instructive and formative, also within the historical-medical didactics students of the courses of degree in Medicine and Nursing since the first match with the Medical Faculty.

  19. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  20. Medical education and health care in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, J M

    1980-10-01

    Health care and medical education in Uganda, once the best in Black Africa, have been adversely affected by the economic, political, and social upheavals in this developing country during the past decade. Crop failures, inadequate public health measures, shortage of medical equipment and essential drugs, and lack of sufficient medical school faculty have resulted in a major crisis. Substantial aid from the medical profession in developed countries will be necessary to help restore medical practice and education to the level present before the regime of Idi Amin.

  1. Osteopathic Medical Education and Social Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips-Madson, Robyn; Dharamsi, Shafik

    2016-04-01

    The public's trust in physicians continues to decline. As a way to begin regaining this trust, stakeholders, including physicians, medical educators, patient advocacy groups, and community-based organizations, have called for medical education to meet societal health needs, particularly the needs of those members who are most vulnerable, by incorporating social accountability into the medical school curriculum. The unique attributes of the osteopath-ic medical profession provide an enabling and conducive environment for broader social accountability in the health care system. Osteopathic medical schools must actively safeguard the profession's unequivocal commitment to producing healers that are fiduciaries for their patients, communities, and populations at large. PMID:27018954

  2. Medical Education and Curriculum Reform: Putting Reform Proposals in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kam Yin Chan, MD, MB.BS, MHA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elaborate criteria by which the principles of curriculum reform can be judged. To this end, the paper presents an overview of standard critiques of medical education and examines the ways medical curriculum reforms have responded to these critiques. The paper then sets out our assessment of these curriculum reforms along three parameters: pedagogy, educational context, and knowledge status. Following on from this evaluation of recent curriculum reforms, the paper puts forward four criteria with which to gauge the adequacy medical curriculum reform. These criteria enable us to question the extent to which new curricula incorporate methods and approaches for ensuring that its substance: overcomes the traditional opposition between clinical and resource dimensions of care; emphasizes that the clinical work needs to be systematized in so far as that it feasible; promotes multi-disciplinary team work, and balances clinical autonomy with accountability to non-clinical stakeholders.

  3. Competency-based medical education: the wave of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccia, Nicolette; Nakajima, Amy; Kent, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) is a new educational paradigm that will enable the medical education community to meet societal, patient, and learner needs of the 21st century. CBME offers a renewed commitment to both clinical and educational outcomes, a new focus on assessment and developmental milestones, a mechanism to promote a true continuum of medical education, and a method to promote learner-centred curricula in the context of accountability. Accountability is central to CBME, ensuring that graduating practitioners are well-rounded and competent to provide safe and effective patient care. The structure of CBME in obstetrics and gynaecology must be rooted in, and reflect, Canadian practice. Its development and implementation require an understanding of the principles that are the foundation of CBME, along with the involvement of the entire community of obstetricians and gynaecologists and other maternity care providers. We provide here an overview of the basic principles of teaching and learning and the theories underpinning CBME.

  4. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  5. How to improve medical education website design

    OpenAIRE

    Levine David; Hill-Briggs Felicia; Sisson Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Internet provides a means of disseminating medical education curricula, allowing institutions to share educational resources. Much of what is published online is poorly planned, does not meet learners' needs, or is out of date. Discussion Applying principles of curriculum development, adult learning theory and educational website design may result in improved online educational resources. Key steps in developing and implementing an education website include: 1) Follow ...

  6. Continuous improvement in medical education management of medical colleges and universities with problem-oriented of clinical medicine professional certiifcation%以临床医学专业认证问题导向持续改进医学院校教育管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾诚

    2016-01-01

    医学教育的专业认证既是一种保证和提高医学教育质量的模式,更是一种科学、有效的医学教育管理制度。医学院校应深刻认识和理解专业认证的本质属性及其教育管理内涵,以认证发现的问题为导向,持续改进医学教育管理,保证临床医学教育质量。%The professional accreditation of medical education is not only a model to ensure and improve the quality of medical education, but also a scientiifc and effective management system of medical education. Medical colleges and universities should have a strong recognition and understanding of the nature of professional certiifcation and its content of educational management, with the problem-oriented which was found in certiifcation, to facilitate continuous improvement in medical education management and ensure the quality of clinical medicine education.

  7. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  8. Medical record review for clinical pertinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K S

    1991-08-01

    This clinical pertinence review process described was in effect for seven months, after which the author terminated affiliation with the hospital. Despite resistance by many physicians, this monthly review process focused the medical staff's attention on good documentation practices. To the author's knowledge, the plan is still in use.

  9. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself. PMID:26630601

  10. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  11. Clinical career ladders: Hamot Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J D; Chrymko, M M; Kelly, W N

    1989-11-01

    The clinical career ladder program for pharmacists at Hamot Medical Center (HMC), a 500-bed not-for-profit community teaching hospital, is described. Between 1980 and 1989 a career ladder at HMC evolved from an idea to an established program with parallel administrative, business, and clinical tracks. The development of the career ladder mirrored the growth of clinical programs and the diversification of pharmaceutical services. A formal plan for a clinical ladder was developed when the first satellite pharmacy opened in 1984. An entry-level pharmacist at HMC starts with a six-month period during which he or she learns the drug distribution system and prepares for several certification tests. The employee is then promoted to staff pharmacist. Staff pharmacists are promoted to clinical pharmacist II (CP II) upon meeting requirements for competence in a broad range of clinical skills and knowledge. Candidates for the position of clinical pharmacist specialist (CP I) must have either a minimum of three years of experience as a CP II or a Pharm.D. degree and have established an area of clinical expertise. A CP I can progress to assistant and associate director positions as vacancies occur. The clinical ladder has enhanced job satisfaction and encouraged the development of clinical practitioners who provide improved care. Problems have included time constraints, competition for positions, and management of incentives. A parallel career ladder program with a clinical track has enhanced the growth of pharmacy practice at HMC and improved the quality of pharmaceutical care.

  12. The study of literature in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K M; Charon, R; Coulehan, J L

    1995-09-01

    The study of literature encourages the development of otherwise hard-to-teach clinical competencies. It provides access to the values and experiences of physicians, patients, and families; it calls for the exercise of skill in observation and interpretation, develops clinical imagination, and, especially through writing, preserves fluency in ordinary language and promotes clarity of observation, expression, and self-knowledge. Faculty in one-third of U.S. medical schools teach literature in courses that, although concentrated in the preclinical years, range from the first day of school, through residency programs. Once focused on the work of physician-authors and realist fiction about illness that encouraged moral reflection about the practice of medicine, literary study in medicine now encompasses a wide range of literature and narrative types, including the patient history and the clinical case. Literary study is intended not only to enrich students' moral education but also to increase their narrative competence, to foster a tolerance for the uncertainties of clinical practice, and to provide a grounding for empathic attention to patients. Literature may be included in medical humanities courses, and it may provide rich cases for ethics courses or introductions to the patient-physician relationship; it also may be the focus of small, elective, or selective courses, frequently on particular social issues or on the experience of illness. Reading, discussion, writing, and role-play rather than lectures are the methods employed; faculty include those with PhDs in literature and MDs who have strong interests in the contributions of literature to practice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7669155

  13. [Medical Humanities--the Historical Significance and Mission in Medical Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Akihiro

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we consider the significance and mission of medical humanities in medical education from the following six viewpoints: (1) misunderstanding of the medical humanities; (2) its historical development; (3) the criteria for the ideal physician; (4) the contents of current Medical Humanities education; (5) the basic philosophy; and (6) its relation to medical professionalism. Medical humanities consists of the three academic components of bioethics, clinical ethics and medical anthropology, and it is a philosophy and an art which penetrate to the fundamental essence of medicine. The purpose of medical humanities is to develop one's own humanity and spirituality through medical practice and contemplation by empathizing with patients' illness narratives through spiritual self-awakening and by understanding the mutual healing powers of human relations by way of the realization of primordial life. The basic philosophy is "the coincidence of contraries". The ultimate mission of medical humanities is to cultivate physicians to educate themselves and have a life-long philosophy of devotion to understanding, through experience, the coincidence of contraries. PMID:26667195

  14. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  15. [The importance of Internet in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandza, H; Masić, I; Knezević, Z

    1999-01-01

    Internet is more and more involved in medical education in many countries including Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not only medical student but also physicians are using Internet to find out the latest information in specific field of medicine. Some sites are specially designed to be used for medical education. Information about some programs or courses of medical education can be found here. Improvements of network resources and multimedia technologies have made it possible to satisfy needs for medical Education. Multimedia approach offer possibility to show text, picture, sound or movie considering specific need. All of that is available on Internet. Many search engine are available in the world and student can use all of them when they have access to Internet. The more precise search can be done on specific sites that include information about medical conditions and medical education. The most important is MEDLINE. MEDLINE is bibliographic database of National Library Of Medicine in USA. This database can be explored from several sites. All relevant information about article can be find here including abstract and service to obtain full text of specific article. Database can be searched using specific keywords that can be find in text or in MESH thesaurus. Data about authors, their addresses and title of article can be found, too. The possibility of using Internet in medical education are considered in this article. Some of Internet sites are described, too.

  16. The cost of postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education: re-examining the status fifty years back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-03-01

    The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.

  17. In defence of utility: the medical humanities and medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blease, Charlotte

    2016-06-01

    The idea that a study of the humanities helps to humanise doctors has become a leitmotif within the field. It is argued that the humanities (especially, literature) help to foster insights beyond those provided by biomedical training. Healthy young medics, it is claimed, can thereby gain significant insights into patienthood, and obtain important skills that may be valuable for their professional life. But the instrumentality of the humanities is not the only justification proffered for its inclusion in medical curricula. In this paper I critically examine the two overarching justifications recurrently cited in the mainstream literature-namely, (1) the instrumental worth and (2) the intrinsic value of the medical humanities in educating doctors. Examining these theses (and focusing on the views of a leading medical humanities scholar) I show that the bifurcation into instrumental versus non-instrumental justifications is not supported by the argumentation. Instead, I find that the particulars of the supposedly intrinsic justifications amount to an unambiguously instrumental defence of the humanities. Contextualizing the present investigation to probe further, I describe a long history of debate about the role of the humanities in British education and find that it rests on unsupported dichotomies (utility vs non-utility, theoretical vs applied, educated vs trained). I conclude that the medical humanities' manifesto would be more intellectually honest and coherent, and provide a more robust defence of its value in medical education, if it chose to embrace a wholly instrumental rationale for its role. PMID:26842744

  18. Sophistry, the Sophists and modern medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsuibhne, S P

    2010-01-01

    The term 'sophist' has become a term of intellectual abuse in both general discourse and that of educational theory. However the actual thought of the fifth century BC Athenian-based philosophers who were the original Sophists was very different from the caricature. In this essay, I draw parallels between trends in modern medical educational practice and the thought of the Sophists. Specific areas discussed are the professionalisation of medical education, the teaching of higher-order characterological attributes such as personal development skills, and evidence-based medical education. Using the specific example of the Sophist Protagoras, it is argued that the Sophists were precursors of philosophical approaches and practices of enquiry underlying modern medical education.

  19. Development and implementation of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical education at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzstein, Richard M; Huang, Grace C; Coughlin, Christine M

    2008-06-01

    Despite their vital contributions to the training of future physicians, many academic teaching hospitals have grown operationally and financially distinct from affiliated medical schools because of divergent missions, contributing to the erosion of clinical training. Some institutions have responded by building hybrid organizations; others by creating large health care networks with variable relationships with the affiliated medical school. In this case, the authors wished to establish the future educational mission of their medical center as a core element of the institution by creating data-driven recommendations for reorganization, programs, and financing. They conducted a self-study of all constituents, the results of which confirmed the importance of education at their institution but also revealed the insufficiency of incentives for teaching. They underwent an external review by a committee of prominent educators, and they involved administrators at the hospital and the medical school. Together, these inputs composed an informed assessment of medical education at their teaching hospital, from which they developed and actualized an institution-wide strategic plan for education. Over the course of three years, they centralized the administrative structure for education, implemented programs that cross departments and reinforce the UME-GME continuum, and created transparency in the financing of medical education. The plan was purposefully aligned with the clinical and research strategic plans by supporting patient safety in programs and the professional development of faculty. The application of a rigorous strategic planning process to medical education at an academic teaching hospital can focus the mission, invigorate faculty, and lead to innovative programs.

  20. Medical Students’ Attitudes about Team-Based Learning in a Pre-Clinical Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Parmelee, Dean X.; DeStephen, Dan; Borges, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Team-Based Learning is relatively new in medical education. Team-Based Learning was integrated into one medical school's pre-clinical curriculum in 2002. Purpose: This study compared how medical students’ attitudes about the Team-Based Learning process changed between the first and second year of medical school. Method: 180 students responded to 19 statements regarding their attitudes about Team-Based Learning during their first and second year of medical school. Data were analyze...

  1. Case Study: Learner Physiotherapists' Perceptions of Clinical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Duncan; Naylor, Sandra

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study conducted in the United Kingdom to discover what processes learner physiotherapists experience in clinical education and whether their experience is comparable to that of other students in medical professions. The need for feedback is addressed, and the role of the clinical educator is discussed. A form for student assessment is…

  2. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree......The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...

  3. Caring, Competence and Professional Identities in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the multiple discourses that influence medical education with a focus on the discourses of competence and caring. Discourses of competence are largely constituted through, and related to, biomedical and clinical issues whereas discourses of caring generally focus on social concerns. These discourses are not necessarily equal…

  4. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for radiation therapy. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependant on well trained medical physicists that are based in the clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognised by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for research, development and training related to nuclear sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in radiation therapy was started in 2005 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. Since 2005 the IAEA has convened two additional consultant group meetings including additional experts to prepare the present publication. The publication drew heavily, particularly in the initial stages, from the experience and documents of the Clinical Training Programme for Radiation Oncology Medical Physicists as developed by the Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine. Their

  5. Commissioning medical education: principles for best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2016-04-01

    We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly. PMID:27071431

  6. Acute IPPS - Direct Graduate Medical Education (DGME)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 1886(h) of the Act, establish a methodology for determining payments to hospitals for the costs of approved graduate medical education (GME) programs.

  7. [Professional medical education in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, I Iu; Romantsov, M G; Shul'diakov, A A

    2013-09-01

    There is a tendency to increase the role of education process in the life of the individual, caused by necessity of new knowledge, experience and skills, which is the effective measure to adapt human being to the current social and economic conditions. The idea of education as a relatively short period of life is gone. It becomes obvious, that use of forms and types of adult education becomes limited and inefficient. The development of the modern education system involves training with a high level of independence and leadership of the individual student; provision by vocational education institutions a wide range of educational services; adequate to the needs of the labor market; variability of methods and forms of education; active use of the modern educational technology as one of the most convenient ways of training.

  8. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  9. Tele-education as method of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Kulasin, Igor; Masic, Zlatan; Valjevac, Salih

    2009-01-01

    Development of computer networks and introduction and application of new technologies in all aspects of human activity needs to be followed by universities in their transformation on how to approach scientific, research, and education teaching curricula. Development and increased use of distance learning (DL) over the past decade have clearly shown the potential and efficiency of information technology applied in education. Use of information technology in medical education is where medical informatics takes its place as important scientific discipline which ensures benefit from IT in teaching and learning process involved. Definition of telemedicine as "use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance" covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (eHealth), telematics, but also tele-education. Web based medical education today is offered in different forms--from online lectures, online exams, web based continuous education programs, use of electronic libraries, online medical and scientific databases etc. Department of Medical Informatics of Medical Faculty of University of Sarajevo has taken many steps to introduce distance learning in medical curricula--from organising professional--scientific events (congresses, workshop etc), organizing first tele-exam at the faculty and among first at the university, to offering online lectures and online education material at the Department's website (www.unsa-medinfo.org). Distance learning in medical education, as well as telemedicine, significantly influence health care in general and are shaping the future model of medical practice. Basic computer and networks skills must be a part of all future medical curricula. The impact of technical equipment on patient-doctor relationship must be taken into account, and doctors have to be trained and prepared for diagnosing or consulting patients by use of IT. Telemedicine requires special approach in certain medical fields--tele-consultation, tele

  10. Captive on a Carousel: Discourses of "New" in Medical Education 1910-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Cynthia R.; Hodges, Brian D.; Austin, Zubin

    2013-01-01

    Medical educators aim to train physicians with sound scientific knowledge, expert clinical skills and an ability to work effectively with patients, colleagues and health systems. Over the past century, educators have devoted considerable thought and effort to how medical education might be improved. Analysing the language used to describe these…

  11. Modeling Manipulation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Jason I.

    2010-01-01

    As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…

  12. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses–specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconscious...

  13. Continuing Medical Education and the Competent Family Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Gerald; Davis, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Several principles of adult education are explored in terms of how they relate to current practices in developing continuing medical education (CME) programs. The key to effective CME is its link with clinical competence. This entails reviewing how individual learning needs are determined, and how these needs are translated into programs. Ultimately, the success of CME depends on evaluating improvements in areas of physician knowledge, skills, and attitudes which will have a positive impact o...

  14. Scientific Skills as Core Competences in Medical Education: What do medical students think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Laura; Severo, Milton; Pereira, Margarida; Amélia Ferreira, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Background: Scientific excellence is one of the most fundamental underpinnings of medical education and its relevance is unquestionable. To be involved in research activities enhances students' critical thinking and problem-solving capacities, which are mandatory competences for new achievements in patient care and consequently to the improvement of clinical practice. Purposes: This work aimed to study the relevance given by Portuguese medical students to a core of scientific skills, and their judgment about their own ability to execute those skills. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on students attending the first, fourth and sixth years of medical course in the same period. An assessment istrument, exploring the importance given by Portuguese medical students to scientific skills in high school, to clinical practice and to their own ability to execute them, was designed, adapted and applied specifically to this study. Results: Students' perceptions were associated with gender, academic year, previous participation in research activities, positive and negative attitudes toward science, research integration into the curriculum and motivation to undertake research. The viewpoint of medical students about the relevance of scientific skills overall, and the ability to execute them, was independently associated with motivation to be enrolled in research. Conclusions: These findings have meaningful implications in medical education regarding the inclusion of a structural research program in the medical curriculum. Students should be aware that clinical practice would greatly benefit from the enrollment in research activities. By developing a solid scientific literacy future physicians will be able to apply new knowledge in patient care.

  15. Medical Treatment and Educational Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nettie R.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The miracles of modern medical technology are sometimes accompanied by unanticipated costs affecting survivors' quality of life. This article considers the educational implications for three groups of children who could not survive without medical intervention: children treated for cancer, low birth-weight and premature infants, and the medically…

  16. [Medical education at Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego Vicuña, F

    1997-07-01

    Universidad de los Andes School of Medicine started in 1991 with a new medical curriculum aimed at providing a medical education for its students, that is, it attempts to give, together with technical proficiency in medical matters, formation of character and a strong ethical attitude. The curriculum lasts for seven years: five of basic, pre-clinical and clinical theoretical and practical courses, followed by two years of internships in Internal Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Pediatrics, plus a four month period of an elective internship. The courses have an integrated design, in which each matter is presented from multiple perspectives, e.g. in Internal Medicine together with the clinical aspects of disease, the pathophysiology and the pharmacology of the drugs used are presented. Also the Pathology of each disease is given in coordination in the Pathology course. General educational matters such as Anthropology, Psychology, Origin of Living Beings, Theology and Medical Ethics are interspersed in the curriculum. An important feature is the personal counselling system, in which each student may choose an academic counsellor and discuss with him (her) the subjects of his choosing. Clinical practice is given in a system that includes five hospitals and five private clinics that range from general medical practice to Psychiatry or Ophthalmology.

  17. Just imagine: new paradigms for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Neil B; Hull, Alan L; Young, James B; Stoller, James K

    2013-10-01

    For all its traditional successes, the current model of medical education in the United States and Canada is being challenged on issues of quality, throughput, and cost, a process that has exposed numerous shortcomings in its efforts to meet the needs of the nations' health care systems. A radical change in direction is required because the current path will not lead to a solution.The 2010 publication Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency identifies several goals for improving the medical education system, and proposals have been made to reform medical education to meet these goals. Enacting these recommendations practically and efficiently, while training more health care providers at a lower cost, is challenging.To advance solutions, the authors review innovations that are disrupting higher education and describe a vision for using these to create a new model for competency-based, learner-centered medical education that can better meet the needs of the health care system while adhering to the spirit of the above proposals. These innovations include collaboration amongst medical schools to develop massive open online courses for didactic content; faculty working in small groups to leverage this online content in a "flipped-classroom" model; and digital badges for credentialing entrustable professional activities over the continuum of learning. PMID:23969368

  18. Software engineering education in medical informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, F J

    1989-11-01

    Requirements and approaches of Software Engineering education in the field of Medical Informatics are described with respect to the impact of (1) experiences characterizing the "software misery", (2) status and tendencies in software methodology, and (3) educational status and needs in computer science education influenced by the controversy "theoretical versus practical education". Special attention is directed toward the growing importance of analysis, design methods, and techniques in the professional spectrum of Medical Informatics, the relevance of general principles of systems engineering in health care, the potential of non-procedural programming paradigms, and the intersection of Artificial Intelligence and education. Realizations of and experiences with programs in the field of Software Engineering are reported with respect to special requirements in Medical Informatics.

  19. [Changing aspects in continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okisaka, Shigekuni

    2007-02-01

    Self-directed learning based on adult education theory and self-assessment are necessary for continuing medical education. Self-directed learning is the process whereby the individual takes the initiative in diagnosing his learning needs and setting his own individual learning goals, showing clearly the human and physical resources, putting an appropriate plan into practice, and evaluating the learning outcome. Because self-assessment is the evaluation of the process where the individual confirms his actual learning, portfolio assessment is utilized for this purpose. In the continuing medical education program of the Japanese Ophthalmological Society, it is vital that the appropriate credit and recognition program keep up with the changes in adult education theory. Therefore, portfolio assessment is introduced for self-assessment. The Ophthalmic Pathology Slide Seminar is a model of medical education based on self-directed learning.

  20. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  1. An online interactive simulation system for medical imaging education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Aditya; Wu, Dawei; Wu, Chunyan; Zhao, Weizhao

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a recently developed web-based medical imaging simulation system for teaching students or other trainees who plan to work in the medical imaging field. The increased importance of computer and information technology widely applied to different imaging techniques in clinics and medical research necessitates a comprehensive medical imaging education program. A complete tutorial of simulations introducing popular imaging modalities, such as X-ray, MRI, CT, ultrasound and PET, forms an essential component of such an education. Internet technologies provide a vehicle to carry medical imaging education online. There exist a number of internet-based medical imaging hyper-books or online documentations. However, there are few providing interactive computational simulations. We focus on delivering knowledge of the physical principles and engineering implementation of medical imaging techniques through an interactive website environment. The online medical imaging simulation system presented in this report outlines basic principles underlying different imaging techniques and image processing algorithms and offers trainees an interactive virtual laboratory. For education purposes, this system aims to provide general understanding of each imaging modality with comprehensive explanations, ample illustrations and copious references as its thrust, rather than complex physics or detailed math. This report specifically describes the development of the tutorial for commonly used medical imaging modalities. An internet-accessible interface is used to simulate various imaging algorithms with user-adjustable parameters. The tutorial is under the MATLAB Web Server environment. Macromedia Director MX is used to develop interactive animations integrating theory with graphic-oriented simulations. HTML and JavaScript are used to enable a user to explore these modules online in a web browser. Numerous multiple choice questions, links and references for advanced study are

  2. From gender bias to gender awareness in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Petra; Benschop, Yvonne W M; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; Lagro-Janssen, Toine L M

    2009-03-01

    Gender is an essential determinant of health and illness. Gender awareness in doctors contributes to equity and equality in health and aims towards better health for men and women. Nevertheless, gender has largely been ignored in medicine. First, it is stated that medicine was 'gender blind' by not considering gender whenever relevant. Secondly, medicine is said to be 'male biased' because the largest body of knowledge on health and illness is about men and their health. Thirdly, gender role ideology negatively influences treatment and health outcomes. Finally, gender inequality has been overlooked as a determinant of health and illness. The uptake of gender issues in medical education brings about specific challenges for several reasons. For instance, the political-ideological connotations of gender issues create resistance especially in traditionalists in medical schools. Secondly, it is necessary to clarify which gender issues must be integrated in which domains. Also, some are interdisciplinary issues and as such more difficult to integrate. Finally, schools need assistance with implementation. The integration of psychosocial issues along with biomedical ones in clinical cases, the dissemination of literature and education material, staff education, and efforts towards structural embedding of gender in curricula are determining factors for successful implementation. Gender equity is not a spontaneous process. Medical education provides specific opportunities that may contribute to transformation for medical schools educate future doctors for future patients in future settings. Consequently, future benefits legitimize the integration of gender as a qualitative investment in medical education.

  3. Realizing the promise of competency-based medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Eric S

    2015-04-01

    Competency-based medical education (CBME) places a premium on both educational and clinical outcomes. The Milestones component of the Next Accreditation System represents a fundamental change in medical education in the United States and is part of the drive to realize the full promise of CBME. The Milestones framework provides a descriptive blueprint in each specialty to guide curriculum development and assessment practices. From the beginning of the Outcomes project in 1999, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the larger medical education community recognized the importance of improving their approach to assessment. Work-based assessments, which rely heavily on the observations and judgments of clinical faculty, are central to a competency-based approach. The direct observation of learners and the provision of robust feedback have always been recognized as critical components of medical education, but CBME systems further elevate their importance. Without effective and frequent direct observation, coaching, and feedback, the full potential of CBME and the Milestones cannot be achieved. Furthermore, simply using the Milestones as end-of-rotation evaluations to "check the box" to meet requirements undermines the intent of an outcomes-based accreditation system. In this Commentary, the author explores these challenges, addressing the concerns raised by Williams and colleagues in their Commentary. Meeting the assessment challenges of the Milestones will require a renewed commitment from institutions to meet the profession's "special obligations" to patients and learners. All stakeholders in graduate medical education must commit to a professional system of self-regulation to prepare highly competent physicians to fulfill this social contract.

  4. A Linked Dataset of Medical Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…

  5. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate. Most US medical schools (86/121, 71% fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36% provide less than half that much. Nutrition instruction is still largely confined to preclinical courses, with an average of 14.3 hours occurring in this context. Less than half of all schools report teaching any nutrition in clinical practice; practice accounts for an average of only 4.7 hours overall. Seven of the 8 schools reporting at least 40 hours of nutrition instruction provided integrated courses together with clinical practice sessions. Conclusions. Many US medical schools still fail to prepare future physicians for everyday nutrition challenges in clinical practice. It cannot be a realistic expectation for physicians to effectively address obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hospital malnutrition, and many other conditions as long as they are not taught during medical school and residency training how to recognize and treat the nutritional root causes.

  6. 临床医学院教育教学全过程质量管理探讨%Research on total processing quality management of clinical education in clinical school of medical university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克霞

    2011-01-01

    Total Processing Quality Management ( TPQM ) is an effective administration tool to improve clinical education quality. Deep meaning of TPQM is illustrated. By means of 5W1H, key points and relationship map of clinical education process are analyzed. Furthermore, valuable steps to execute TPQM of clinical education are put forward.%全过程质量管理是提升临床医学院教育教学质量的有效管理手段,在此探讨了教育教学全过程质量管理的涵义,运用5W1H方法分析了临床教育教学质量环节与关系网络,并对实施全过程教育教学质量管理提出参考步骤,具有一定的实践价值。

  7. Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

    2010-02-01

    A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity.

  8. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  9. [Influence of clinical guidelines on medical practitioners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Shigeki

    2007-09-01

    Evidenced-based clinical guidelines for diagnosing and treating hepatocellular carcinoma patients were published in 2005, which were edited by the executive members of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan (Chief Editor, Professor Masatosi Makuuchi, MD). This article presents the results of two surveys investigating the validity and usefulness of those guidelines. The author's opinions regarding the evaluation of the guidelines and guideline-based clinical practice are also presented. The surveys revealed that the guidelines are well known and thought to be useful by medical practitioners. The guidelines had changed the therapeutic strategy of 20% of experts in the field. However, 43% of experts and 30% of nonexperts believed that the guidelines restricted their medical discretion. Additionally, the percentage of physicians who felt that medical malpractice suits would increase exceeded those who did not. However, the guidelines do not provide clear recommendations in about 45% of diagnostic and therapeutic points because of a lack of evidence. The recommendations on these points in the guidelines require the commonsense discretion of physicians. The guidelines should be followed based on an understanding of biology and medicine, and not based on dogmatism. PMID:17907456

  10. Feedback in clinical education: untying the Gordian knot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Debra F

    2015-05-01

    Feedback is essential to clinical education, especially in the era of competencies, milestones, and entrustable professional activities. It is, however, an area where medical educators often fall short. Although educational leaders and faculty supervisors provide feedback in a variety of clinical settings, surveys show important gaps in medical student and resident satisfaction with the feedback received, suggesting lost opportunities to identify performance problems as well as to help each learner reach his or her greatest potential.In this issue of Academic Medicine, Telio and colleagues extend the empirically validated concept of a "therapeutic alliance" to propose the "educational alliance" as a framework for enhancing feedback in medical education. They highlight the importance of source credibility, which depends on the teacher-learner relationship and alignment of values, the teacher's understanding of the learner's role and goals, the teacher's direct observation of the learner, and the learner's perception of the teacher's good intentions. The author of this Commentary suggests that the educational alliance framework should prompt medical educators to reconsider feedback and explore opportunities for optimizing it. Most medical schools and graduate medical education programs are not designed in a way that supports the education alliance model, but the Commentary author offers suggestions for cultivating educational alliances, including rethinking supervisor selection criteria. Such interventions should be combined with ongoing faculty development and efforts to improve coaching and mentoring for students, residents, and fellows. Untying the Gordian knot of effective feedback will require innovative approaches, exchange of successful strategies, and continued research. PMID:25406602

  11. He who pays the piper: foundations, the medical profession, and medical education reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E R

    1980-01-01

    The development of modern medical education was shaped by the medical profession's own reform strategies and by material and ideological support from the corporate class. This article examines how the Rockefeller medical philanthropies, the largest single source of funds for medical education reform from 1910 through the 1930s, forced the adoption of a specific reform--full-time clinical faculty--to make medicine serve the needs of capitalist society rather than the interests of the medical profession. Memorandums and letters from archival files demonstrate that foundation leaders believed the full-time plan would separate medical schools from the grip of practitioner-dominated medical societies, bringing all medical faculty under the control of foundations and university boards of trustees. This policy was to be a first step in rationalizing medical care and distributing the technical benefits and social-control functions of medicine to all segments of the population. The author traces the development of the full-time plan, its adoption as foundation policy, and the struggle over its implementation.

  12. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  13. Differences Between Clinical Trials of Medical Devices and Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-jun; LIU Wei

    2014-01-01

    How to design clinical trials for medical devices is a problem plaguing the industry today. As there are many differences in clinical trials of medical devices and drugs. This paper describes the differences of the two points from the perspectivs of defi-nition of medical devices and drugs, scope, phasing, subjects and design of clinical trials in details, aiming to help the related personnel make scientific decisions while conduct-ing clinical trial design for medical devices.

  14. 关于八年制医学教学改革新思路的探索%The exploration about new idea of teaching reform for the eight-year clinical medical education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游佳琳; 郁松

    2011-01-01

    上海交通大学医学院以提升学生综合能力为目标,以"PRICE"理念为核心,通过完善课程体系设置、创新教学方法模式、搭建实验教学平台、建立多维考核机制来探索八年制医学教学改革新思路.%According to the goal of promoting all-round ability and the core idea of PRICE,the Medical School of Shanghai Jiao Tong University improves the curriculum,teaching method,experimental teaching,multidimensional examination to explore the new system of teaching reform for eight-year clinical medical education.

  15. Status of Junior College Education on Clinical Medical Specialty in Chongqing and Its Countermeasures%重庆市专科层次临床医学专业培养现状分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何坪; 邓宇; 罗利刚; 沈星亮; 杨晓梅; 何春玲; 陈凤兰; 吴建华

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析重庆市专科层次临床医学专业的培养现状,提出适应我市城乡社区卫生发展的人才培养新思路.方法 分别对我市12个社区卫生服务机构、42名新进社区全科医师和50名应届专科层次临床医学专业毕业生进行问卷调查,小组访谈上述机构负责人.结果 全科医师是社区医疗战线上的主要力量.近三年新进医师重医轻防,缺乏基本公共卫生相关知识和技能,临床基本诊疗水平和沟通能力也有待提高.54.55%的临床医学专业毕业生不愿意选择社区工作.结论 社区卫生服务机构对全科医师的需求量较大,现有专科层次临床医学专业培养不适应我市社区卫生服务的发展,建立和推行"以社区为基础的教育结合问题为基础的学习"三年制临床医学专业(全科医学方向)的培养模式迫在眉睫.%Objective To analyze the status of junior college education on clinical medical specialty in Chongqing so as to put forward a new idea on training professionals adapting to community health service development in Chongqing. Methods A questionnaire survey was performed in 12 community health services institutions among 42 new general practitioners ( GPs ) a-bout their abilities and 50 fresh graduates from clinical medical specialty of junior college. And the leaders of above - mentioned organizations were interviewed in groups. Results GPs were the main force in community medical services. New GPs, who were in recent 3 year recruited, paid more attention to treatments with less attention to prevention, were short of knowledge and skills related to basic public health; and their abilities of basic diagnosis and treatment as well as communication needed to be improved. About 54. 55% of the graduates from clinical medical specialty were not willing to work in communities. Conclusion Community health service organizations demands a lot of GPs. The current junior college education on clinical medical

  16. A meaningful MESS (Medical Education Scholarship Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538

  17. 新疆医科大学临床医学生对医学伦理教育的认识及态度分析%Study on clinical students’ opinion and attitude about medical ethics education in Xinjiang medical university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何桂香; 冯爱国; 陶坤鹏

    2013-01-01

    目的了解临床学生对医学伦理学教育的态度。方法采用普查研究方法,对新疆医科大学的1145名临床医学生进行问卷调查。结果不同民族、是否独生子女对加强医学伦理学必要性的认识没有差异(P>0.05)。不同性别、不同学龄的同学对加强医学伦理学的必要性认识是不一样的(P0.05). Students of different gender, different grade had different opinions on understanding the necessity of strengthening medical ethics (P<0.05). 97.16%of clinical medical students were willing to select medical ethics. There was a difference on the evaluation results of clinical students about different education stages (P<0.05). Conclusion Gender, school age are the main factors that affect understanding of students for the necessity of medical ethics. To change education methods for medical students of different gender and school age has important signiifcance to strengthen the necessity of ethics.

  18. Students learning from patients: let's get real in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Alan; Bligh, John

    2008-03-01

    Medical students must be prepared for working in inter-professional and multi-disciplinary clinical teams centred on a patient's care pathway. While there has been a good deal of rhetoric surrounding patient-centred medical education, there has been little attempt to conceptualise such a practice beyond the level of describing education of communication skills and empathy within a broad 'professionalism' framework. Paradoxically, while aiming to strengthen patient-student interactions, this approach tends to refocus on the role modelling of the physician, and opportunities for potentially deep collaborative working relationships between students and patients are missed. A radical overhaul of conventional doctor-led medical education may be necessary, that also challenges the orthodoxies of individualistic student-centred approaches, leading to an authentic patient-centred model that shifts the locus of learning from the relationship between doctor as educator and student to the relationship between patient and student, with expert doctor as resource. Drawing on contemporary poststructuralist theory of text and identity construction, and on innovative models of work-based learning, the potential quality of relationship between student and patient is articulated in terms of collaborative knowledge production, involving close reading with the patient as text, through dialogue. Here, a medical 'education' displaces traditional forms of medical 'training' that typically involve individual information reproduction. Students may, paradoxically, improve clinical acumen through consideration of silences, gaps, and contradictions in patients as texts, rather than treating communication as transparent. Such paradoxical effects have been systematically occluded or denied in traditional medical education. PMID:17075690

  19. The educational attributes and responsibilities of effective medical educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less. PMID:21346510

  20. Clinical laboratories: production industry or medical services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2015-06-01

    The current failure to evidence any link between laboratory tests, clinical decision-making and patient outcomes, and the scarcity of financial resources affecting healthcare systems worldwide, have put further pressure on the organization and delivery of laboratory services. Consolidation, merger, and laboratory downsizing have been driven by the need to deliver economies of scale and cut costs per test while boosting productivity. Distorted economics, based on payment models rewarding volume and efficiency rather than quality and clinical effectiveness, have underpinned the entrance of clinical laboratories into the production industry thus forcing them to relinquish their original mission of providing medical services. The sea change in laboratory medicine in recent years, with the introduction of ever newer and ever more complex tests, including 'omics', which impact on clinical decision-making, should encourage clinical laboratories to return to their original mission as long as payments models are changed. Rather than being considered solely in terms of costs, diagnostic testing must be seen in the context of an entire hospital stay or an overall payment for a care pathway: the testing process should be conceived as a part of the patient's entire journey. PMID:25405721

  1. Medical education in Maharashtra: The student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hira R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is hardly any structured study reporting the perspective of medical students, with regard to the medical education system in Maharashtra, which is facing challenges. Aim: A perception study of students was conducted to explore the situation, challenges, and consequent solutions of medical education in Maharashtra. Settings and Design: A descriptive perception study. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was e-mailed to 92 students, and interviews with seven key-informants comprising of faculty, administrators, and policy makers were conducted, to gather qualitative insights. Results: Thirty-seven student replies were received and analyzed. The satisfaction level of student respondents for various factors was as follows: infrastructure 18/37 (48.6%, quality of teaching 14/37 (37.8%, patient population 22/37 (59.5%, and administration 8/37 (21.6%. Ninety-two percent (34/37 of the students stated that the fundamental problem was the inability of the system to attract good, quality teachers. The reasons stated were low salaries, low level of job satisfaction, high level of bureaucracy, and high work load. Conclusions: The medical education system in Maharashtra is viewed as being stagnant. The respondents emphasized an urgent need for educational reforms, which should include better compensation for teachers, sharing of facilities between government and private medical colleges, and improved efficiency of the Medical Council of India. In the long run a public-private mix with sharing of resources may be a plausible solution.

  2. Education and training in medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical physicist education and training reflects its role in medicine. A solid foundation in medical physics is fundamental for the practice of a physicist in any multidisciplinary activity in medicine, in particular when ionising radiation are used either in diagnosis or in therapy as a proper high-level knowledge of practicing is the tool to maintain proper radiation control and desirable outcome of results. In many countries specific organizations and legislative national bodies have constructed curricula for the medical physicist. For example, the EC Directive concerning basic safety standards and medical exposures have given statutory requirements for physicists to be involved in the medical use of ionising radiation. An outline of the medical physicist's duties, curricula and training is presented in a paper as a discussing basis for the introduction of the curricula in a specific national scheme in agreement with the existing legislation constraints. (author)

  3. Assessment of Genetics Knowledge and Skills in Medical Students: Insight for a Clinical Neurogenetics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Pettiford, Jennifer M.; Combs, Susan E.; Heffron, Ari; Healton, Sean; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Macri, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The pace of discovery in biochemistry and genetics and its effect on clinical medicine places new curricular challenges in medical school education. We sought to evaluate students' understanding of neurogenetics and its clinical applications to design a pilot curriculum into the clinical neurology clerkship. We utilized a needs assessment and a…

  4. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  5. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  6. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351

  7. 地方综合性大学临床医学教育体制改革探索实践%Exploration and Practice of Clinical Medical Education Reform in Local Comprehensive University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘幼昆; 袁丁; 崔向军

    2012-01-01

    Exploration and innovation in medical education system is aimed to integrate clinical resources, improve the quality of teaching, especially in the local comprehensive university. Explore the means to maximize the uniqueness of the local colleges and universities, improve the efficient integration of health care resources, and transform the advantages of medical resources to the teaching resources. Then, compensating the local teaching resources which are relatively lack support clinical education reform.%医学教育体制的探索和创新根本出发点是为了整合临床资源,提高教学质量,特别在地方综合性高校任务尤为艰巨.研究探索实施最大限度发挥以地方高校的唯一性,高效整合医疗资源,并实现优势医疗资源向教学资源的转化,有效弥补地方教学资源相对缺乏为特色的临床教育体制改革.

  8. Teleconferencing in Medical Education: A Useful Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba Pankaj

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Education and healthcare are basic needs for humandevelopment. Technological innovation has broadened theaccess to higher quality healthcare and education withoutregard to time, distance or geopolitical boundaries. Distancelearning has gained popularity as a means of learning inrecent years due to widely distributed learners, busyschedules and rising travel costs. Teleconferencing is also avery useful tool as a distance learning method.Teleconferencing is a real-time and live interactiveprogramme in which one set of participants are at one ormore locations and the other set of participants are atanother. The teleconference allows for interaction,including audio and/or video, and possibly other modalities,between at least two sites. Various methods are availablefor setting up a teleconferencing unit. A detailed review ofthe trend in the use of teleconferencing in medicaleducation was conducted using Medline and a literaturesearch.Teleconferencing was found to be a very useful tool incontinuing medical education (CME, postgraduate medicaleducation, undergraduate medical education,telementoring and many other situations. The use ofteleconferencing in medical education has many advantagesincluding savings in terms of travel costs and time. It givesaccess to the best educational resources and experiencewithout any limitations of boundaries of distance and time.It encourages two-way interactions and facilitates learningin adults. Despite having some pitfalls in its implementationit is now being seen as an important tool in facilitatinglearning in medicine and many medical schools andinstitutions are adapting this novel tool.

  9. Evaluating clinical dermatology practice in medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J M; Sanmartín, V; Martí, R M; Morales, J L; Soler, J; Purroy, F; Pujol, R

    2014-06-01

    The acquisition of competences (the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform a job to a professional level) is considered a fundamental part of medical training. Dermatology competences should include, in addition to effective clinical interviewing and detailed descriptions of skin lesions, appropriate management (diagnosis, differentiation, and treatment) of common skin disorders and tumors. Such competences can only be acquired during hospital clerkships. As a way of certifying these competences, we propose evaluating the different components as follows: knowledge, via clinical examinations or critical incident discussions; communication and certain instrumental skills, via structured workplace observation and scoring using a set of indicators; and attitudes, via joint evaluation by staff familiar with the student. PMID:23664251

  10. Are medical educators following General Medical Council guidelines on obesity education: if not why not?

    OpenAIRE

    Chisholm A, Mann K, Peters S, Hart J

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) General Medical Council (GMC) recommends that graduating medical students are competent to discuss obesity and behaviour change with patients, it is difficult to integrate this education into existing curricula, and clinicians report being unprepared to support patients needing obesity management in practice. We therefore aimed to identify factors influencing the integration of obesity management education within medical schools. Methods Twenty-...

  11. Radiation education required for medical staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the present state and problems of radiation education in the training course for health professionals. Firstly, the following are introduced: Revised version of 'Medical education model and core curriculum ? Guidelines for educational contents (FY2010),' and the contents of pre-graduation education of education curriculum at the Department of Radiation Biology and Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health (UOEH). Next, the author describes his educational experience at the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences (Nursing) of UOEH, and stresses the need for radiation education in order to eliminate the anxiety of nurses against radiation. In addition, he also describes the present state and problems with respect to exposure and radiation risk due to the Fukushima nuclear accident. (A.O.)

  12. [FORMATION OF CLINICAL MENTALITY--AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF POST-GRADUATE MEDICAL TRAINING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovskoy, B V; Khovaeva, Ya B; Burdina, E N; Khovaev, S Yu

    2015-01-01

    The notion of clinical mentality is considered from the standpoint of its semantic meaning and significance for efficient medical activity. The main signs and implications of this notion are determined. It is shown, based on pedagogical methods (observations, conversations, solution of clinical problems, testing, etc.), that clinical mentality forms after 10 years of work in a given field. Criteria are proposed for distinguishing between health providers with and without clinical mentality. The free association method demonstrated that 37% of the doctors with a period of clinical work over 10 years have peculiarities of clinical mentality described as "internal medical mentality". Clinicians with the experience of work over 15 years exhibit empathy as a component of clinical mentality. The methods are proposed for the formation of clinical mentality during post-graduate education taking account of the modern differentiation of medical disciplines and the necessity to reconcile standards of medical aid and their application on an individual basis. PMID:26964471

  13. Teaching Conflict: Professionalism and Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, K J

    2015-12-01

    Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma. PMID:26133893

  14. [Flipped classroom in basic medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenmies, Jussi; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Pyörälä, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    Medical education is facing changes in order to improve young doctors' competency to respond better to current needs of the patients and the society. Both curriculum content and teaching methods are revised. In addition to vibrant research in academic medical education, teachers are supported by the improved web-based learning environments and novel technical tools. Flipped classroom, a new paradigm that benefits from technical development, provides many opportunities for medical education. This teaching method always consists of two mutually complementary parts. The first part of the learning action takes place independently off classroom with video lectures or other stimuli for learning. The second part takes place in conjunction with the teacher and other students, and requires student group interactions.

  15. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete.

  16. China's Medical Education and Interventional Neuroradiology Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; He, Hongwei; Wu, Zhongxue

    2015-11-01

    China's medical education system is complex and consists of degree programs lasting from 3 to 8 years, the inconsistency across previous educational backgrounds is a challenge when implementing residency training objectives and contents. Only in several advanced medical universities, education for interventional neuroradiology (INR) is a part of a rotation in the 2-year training for neurosurgery. Advanced INR techniques are confined to big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou, where most of the Chinese INRs have their 6 to 12 months fellowship to major medical centers. With a tremendous economic growth in the region, we expect that INR practice will evolve at an equally rapid pace, and information presented in this chapter may soon become obsolete. PMID:26079783

  17. Distributed medical informatics education using internet2.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Joseph; Tidmarsh, Patricia; Hersh, William; Friedman, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The curricula of most medical informatics training programs are incomplete. We used Internet2-based videoconferencing to expand the educational opportunities of medical informatics students at Oregon Health & Science University and the University of Pittsburgh. Students and faculty in both programs shared extra-curricular research conferences and journal club meetings. A course in Information Retrieval was made available to students in both programs. The conferences, meetings and class were w...

  18. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it. PMID:27039441

  19. [Medical education: between science and Bildungsroman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich

    2016-02-10

    For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.

  20. Instruction in medical ethics during clinical training for medical students. Report on experience in radio-oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives a review of the current state of education in medical ethics in Germany. The issue is considered from the viewpoint of radio-oncology. Both the pertinent literature and our own experience in teaching medical ethics are presented. In October 2003, medical ethics was integrated into the curriculum of medicine. The aim was to train competence in the field of personal attitudes and to intensify skills of moral reasoning. Our own experiences are positive, which is in accordance with the reports of other working groups. Most of the students were interested in education in medical ethics and looked upon ethical training as being an important part of their studies. Medical students are interested in ethical education during the clinical period of their studies, which has been taken into account since the actual change of the curriculum. Radio-oncologists as specialists in other clinical fields can offer important contributions when they discuss clinical cases from the viewpoint of medical ethics. The long-term effect of such an education will become the subject of future research. (orig.)

  1. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  2. The programs and context of medical education in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Angel M

    2006-12-01

    There are 29 medical schools in Argentina (this number has increased rapidly in the last decade) offering a 6-year curriculum that usually consists of 3 years of basic science, 2 years of clinical sciences, and one internship year. Annually, 5,000 physicians graduate from these programs. Admission requirements vary depending on each university's policy. Some do not have entry requirements; others require a course, usually on the basics of mathematics, biology, chemistry or physics, and some introduction to social and humanistic studies. Each year, there are approximately 12,000 first-year medical students attending the 29 schools, which suffer a high dropout rate during the first years because of vocational problems or inability to adapt to university life. Some schools have massive classes (over 2,000 students), which makes it difficult for the schools to perfect their teaching. The number of full-time faculty members is low, and some of them have appointments at more than one medical school. Residency programs offer an insufficient number of places, and fewer than 50% of the graduates can obtain a residency position because of strict admission requirements. Coordination between the Ministry of Health, representing the health care system, and the Ministry of Education, representing the medical education system, needs to be improved. Despite the problems of medical education in Argentina, the movement to improve the education of health care workers is growing. The author offers two recommendations to help accomplish this goal. PMID:17122474

  3. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, M I

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

  4. Medical ultrasound education for bioengineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-04-01

    The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.

  5. [A pragmatic vision of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumplido-Hernández, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Some aspects of the educative system at the Mexican Institute of Social Security are described. It is based on the perception of a problematic situation that constitutes a challenge. An educational process to enhance the quality of medical education is proposed, with the adoption of a participative model of self-constructive learning. This proposal is based on theoretical references in a both philosophical and sociological knowledge perspective of an individual related to institutional behavior, to end with a psychological view from which some learning theories are explored. An educational model is built with the inclusion of institutional elements, like the new evaluation system for residents; centers for educational investigation and a teacher training process. Three axes of the educational process are proposed: tutorial teaching, development of complex abilities of thought and critical reading. The evaluation system includes guides for measuring the operational process established and the professional responsibilities of the different participants.

  6. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  7. Beyond the Margins: Reflective Writing and Development of Reflective Capacity in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Wald, Hedy S.; Reis, Shmuel P.

    2010-01-01

    Reflective capacity has been described as an essential characteristic of professionally competent clinical practice, core to ACGME competencies. Reflection has been recently linked to promoting effective use of feedback in medical education and associated with improved diagnostic accuracy, suggesting promising outcomes. There has been a proliferation of reflective writing pedagogy within medical education to foster development of reflective capacity, extend empathy with deepened understanding...

  8. The Effect of Applying Online PBL Case System to Multiple Disciplines of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuh-Ming; Kuo, Sheng-Huang; Lou, Shi-Jer; Shih, Ru-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Teaching cases in medical education are often exhibited through various professional angles, but for patient-centered teaching cases, the division of labor among different specialties is even more important. However, general medical education platforms cannot provide such mechanisms for physicians. Thus, this study adopted a clinical medical…

  9. Time to return medical schools to their primary purpose: education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, S

    1996-04-01

    The author maintains that the quality of medical education has been dropping for the last few decades as medical schools become less and less focused on their primary purpose of training physicians. Until the years immediately following World War II, the administration of the medical school was carried out by a small staff headed by a dean whose role was to provide leadership in educational matters. Academic departments managed the educational program, and the faculty were expected to be teachers and to participate in educational planning, preparation of teaching materials, advising of students, assessment of students' performances, admission, and all other tasks associated with having a teaching position. Today, the administration of a typical school includes any number of assistants to the dean and a wide variety of other staff dealing not only with educational functions but with grant management, public relations, fund-raising, personnel policy, budgeting, and an enormous and complex parallel structure designed to manage clinical practice and to respond to market pressures. The role of faculty has also changed greatly; faculty are expected to be researchers and clinicians first, and teaching is usually shortchanged. The author explains why he believes these changes have come about; for example, the strong federal support of research after World War II, which encouraged a growing dependence of medical schools on research grants and consequently raised in importance those faculty who could obtain such grants. He concludes with common-sense proposals for reform (such as having the education of medical students in the hands of a small number of faculty whose prime responsibility is teaching), but admits that there are fundamental barriers to such reforms, especially vested interests and resistance to change. In the end, change will come only when those in power recognize that medical schools must be returned to their primary role of training physicians. PMID:8645396

  10. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

  11. Medical student attitudes toward video games and related new media technologies in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kron Frederick W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in K-12 and college students show that their learning preferences have been strongly shaped by new media technologies like video games, virtual reality environments, the Internet, and social networks. However, there is no known research on medical students' game experiences or attitudes towards new media technologies in medical education. This investigation seeks to elucidate medical student experiences and attitudes, to see whether they warrant the development of new media teaching methods in medicine. Methods Medical students from two American universities participated. An anonymous, 30-item, cross-sectional survey addressed demographics, game play experience and attitudes on using new media technologies in medical education. Statistical analysis identified: 1 demographic characteristics; 2 differences between the two universities; 3 how video game play differs across gender, age, degree program and familiarity with computers; and 4 characteristics of students who play most frequently. Results 217 medical students participated. About half were female (53%. Respondents liked the idea of using technology to enhance healthcare education (98%, felt that education should make better use of new media technologies (96%, and believed that video games can have educational value (80%. A majority (77% would use a multiplayer online healthcare simulation on their own time, provided that it helped them to accomplish an important goal. Men and women agreed that they were most inclined to use multiplayer simulations if they were fun (97%, and if they helped to develop skill in patient interactions (90%. However, there was significant gender dissonance over types of favorite games, the educational value of video games, and the desire to participate in games that realistically replicated the experience of clinical practice. Conclusions Overall, medical student respondents, including many who do not play video games, held highly

  12. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  13. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Hakan

    2002-01-01

    Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings), and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made. PMID:12074763

  14. Continuing medical education in Turkey: Recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaman Hakan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Turkish Association of Medicine founded a Continuing Medical Education Accreditation Committee in 1993 to evaluate and accredit scientific meetings and publications. The aims of this project were to raise the standards of meetings and to introduce compulsory revalidation and re-certification for physicians in Turkey. Discussion Since the year 1994, 2348 applications to the Continuing Medical Education board have been made (mostly for scientific meetings, and 95% of these applications have been accepted. Physicians received 139.014 credits during this time. This number is increasing every year. Meeting organisers' demand for such a kind of evaluation is increasing, because participants increasingly request it. Summary Efforts for revalidation and re-certification of physicians have not been completely successful yet. In the near future the Co-ordination Council of Medical Speciality Societies is going to oblige member associations to establish speciality boards. This will be the first step to the conventional use of Continuing Medical Education credits in occupational evaluation. Time-limited re-certification of physicians is the principal goal of Turkish Medical Association. Efforts to implement this change in legislation are being made.

  15. Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?

    OpenAIRE

    Faresjö, Tomas; Wilhelmsson, Margaretha; Pelling, Staffan; Dahlgren, Lars-Ove; Hammar, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Original publication: Tomas Faresjö, Margaretha Wilhelmsson, Staffan Pelling, Lars-Ove Dahlgren and Mats Hammar, Does interprofessional education jeopardize medical skills?, 2008, Journal of Interprofessional Care, (21), 5, 573-576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13561820701412335. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business

  16. Regulation of the Postgraduate Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berende, E.; Dehn, M.; Katona, K.; Mosca, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse three aspects of the postgraduate medical education programmes – financing, quality assurance, and workforce planning – and investigate whether these activities should be regulated by the government or left to market forces. To answer this question we rely on the framework o

  17. Emotional Intelligence Medical Education: Measuring the Unmeasurable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Natalie J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Hudson, J. Nicky; Bleakley, Alan

    2005-01-01

    The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained increasing popularity over the last 10 years and now has a relatively large academic and popular associated literature. EI is beginning to be discussed within the medical education literature, where, however, it is treated uncritically. This reflections paper aims to stimulate thought about…

  18. Online Continuing Medical Education in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwadie, Adnan D.

    2013-01-01

    As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…

  19. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  20. Teaching About Climate Change in Medical Education: An Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Janie; Blashki, Grant

    2016-04-26

    Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors' experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education. Significance for public healthThere is a strong case for teaching about climate change in medical education. Anthropogenic climate change is accepted by scientists, governments and health authorities internationally. Given the dire implications for human health, climate change is of fundamental relevance to future doctors. Integrating climate change into medical education offers an opportunity for future doctors to develop skills and insights essential for clinical practice and a public health role in a climate-changing world. This echoes a broader call for improved public health literacy among medical graduates. This paper provides medical schools with a rationale and an outline for teaching on climate change.

  1. Teaching About Climate Change in Medical Education: An Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Janie; Blashki, Grant

    2016-04-26

    Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors' experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education. Significance for public healthThere is a strong case for teaching about climate change in medical education. Anthropogenic climate change is accepted by scientists, governments and health authorities internationally. Given the dire implications for human health, climate change is of fundamental relevance to future doctors. Integrating climate change into medical education offers an opportunity for future doctors to develop skills and insights essential for clinical practice and a public health role in a climate-changing world. This echoes a broader call for improved public health literacy among medical graduates. This paper provides medical schools with a rationale and an outline for teaching on climate change. PMID:27190980

  2. Medical specialty boards can help measure graduate medical education outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lars E; Carek, Peter; Holmboe, Eric S; Puffer, James C; Warm, Eric J; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-06-01

    U.S. graduate medical education (GME) training institutions are under increasing scrutiny to measure program outcomes as a demonstration of accountability for the sizeable funding they receive from the federal government. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) is a potential agent of measuring GME accountability but has no interaction with physicians after residency training is completed. American Board of Medical Specialty (ABMS) member boards interact with physicians throughout their careers through maintenance of certification (MOC) and are a potential source of valuable data on physician competency and quality of care, both of which could be used to measure GME accountability.The authors propose that ABMS boards and the ACGME deepen their existing relationship to better assess residency training outcomes. ABMS boards have a wealth of data on physicians collected as a by-product of MOC and business operations. Further, many ABMS boards collect practice demographics and scope-of-practice information through MOC enrollment surveys or recertification examination questionnaires. These data are potentially valuable in helping residencies know what their graduates are doing in practice. Part 4 of MOC generally involves assessment of the quality of care delivered in practice, and ABMS boards could share these deidentified data with the ACGME and residency programs to provide direct feedback on the practice outcomes of graduates.ABMS member boards and the ACGME should broaden their long-standing relationship to further develop shared roles and data-sharing mechanisms to better inform residencies and the public about GME training outcomes. PMID:24871232

  3. Using Video Ethnography in Clinical Nurse Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2016-01-01

    Training to become a nurse involves education in the clinical practice in hospital wards. It is a multifaceted and complex arena in which the student nurses not only have to learn about medical encounters but also how to interact with colleagues as well as patients and their families. By using...... video ethnography and interaction analysis the authors show how the participants involved understand and act within the everyday encounters and situations in the hospital. The micro ethnographic analysis in this article shows how interaction between participants involved in the complex setting takes...

  4. Gender and sex: issues in medical education [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] There is ample scientific evidence to support the importance of gender issues in health and illness. If we fail to take such sex and gender differences sufficiently into account, this will affect the quality of health care provided to men and women, and this is precisely what good medical education means to prevent. In this paper examples are given that show how knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to sex and gender can be implemented in both optional and compulsory courses. Next, factors that can facilitate or impede the implementation of gender specific medical education are described. Finally, the author discusses what needs to be done to educate future physicians that are equipped with appropriate expertise to deal with aspects of gender in medicine.

  5. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects.

  6. Accelerating medical education: a survey of deans and program directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Cangiarella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A handful of medical schools in the U.S. are awarding medical degrees after three years. While the number of three-year pathway programs is slowly increasing there is little data on the opinions of medical education leaders on the need for shortening training. Purpose: To survey deans and program directors (PDs to understand the current status of 3-year medical degree programs and to elicit perceptions of the need for shortening medical school and the benefits and liabilities of 3-year pathway programs (3YPP. Methods: Online surveys were emailed to the academic deans of all U.S. medical schools and to a convenience sample of residency and fellowship PDs. Frequency distributions are reported for key survey items and content analysis was used to describe open-ended responses. Results: Of the respondents, 7% have a 3YPP, 4% were developing one, and 35% were considering development. In 2014, 47% of educational deans and 32% of PDs agreed that there may be a need to shorten medical school. From a list of benefits, both deans and PDs agreed that the greatest benefit to a 3YPP was debt reduction (68%. PDs and deans felt reduced readiness for independence, reduced exposure to complementary curricula regarding safety and quality improvement, premature commitment to a specialty, and burnout were all potential liabilities. From a list of concerns, PDs were concerned about depth of clinical exposure, direct patient care experience, ability to assume increased responsibility, level of maturity, and certainty regarding career choice. Conclusions: Over one-third of medical schools are considering the development of a 3YPP. While there may be benefits for a select group of students, concerns regarding maturity, depth of clinical exposure, and competency must be addressed for these programs to be well received.

  7. Accelerating medical education: a survey of deans and program directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiarella, Joan; Gillespie, Colleen; Shea, Judy A.; Morrison, Gail; Abramson, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Background A handful of medical schools in the U.S. are awarding medical degrees after three years. While the number of three-year pathway programs is slowly increasing there is little data on the opinions of medical education leaders on the need for shortening training. Purpose To survey deans and program directors (PDs) to understand the current status of 3-year medical degree programs and to elicit perceptions of the need for shortening medical school and the benefits and liabilities of 3-year pathway programs (3YPP). Methods Online surveys were emailed to the academic deans of all U.S. medical schools and to a convenience sample of residency and fellowship PDs. Frequency distributions are reported for key survey items and content analysis was used to describe open-ended responses. Results Of the respondents, 7% have a 3YPP, 4% were developing one, and 35% were considering development. In 2014, 47% of educational deans and 32% of PDs agreed that there may be a need to shorten medical school. From a list of benefits, both deans and PDs agreed that the greatest benefit to a 3YPP was debt reduction (68%). PDs and deans felt reduced readiness for independence, reduced exposure to complementary curricula regarding safety and quality improvement, premature commitment to a specialty, and burnout were all potential liabilities. From a list of concerns, PDs were concerned about depth of clinical exposure, direct patient care experience, ability to assume increased responsibility, level of maturity, and certainty regarding career choice. Conclusions Over one-third of medical schools are considering the development of a 3YPP. While there may be benefits for a select group of students, concerns regarding maturity, depth of clinical exposure, and competency must be addressed for these programs to be well received. PMID:27301381

  8. Modernizing and transforming medical education at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisasi, Esther; Kulanga, Ahaz; Muiruri, Charles; Killewo, Lucy; Fadhili, Ndimangwa; Mimano, Lucy; Kapanda, Gibson; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory; Nyindo, Mramba; Mteta, Kien; Kessi, Egbert; Ntabaye, Moshi; Bartlett, John

    2014-08-01

    The Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University (KCMU) College and the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) are addressing the crisis in Tanzanian health care manpower by modernizing the college's medical education with new tools and techniques. With a $10 million MEPI grant and the participation of its partner, Duke University, KCMU is harnessing the power of information technology (IT) to upgrade tools for students and faculty. Initiatives in eLearning have included bringing fiber-optic connectivity to the campus, offering campus-wide wireless access, opening student and faculty computer laboratories, and providing computer tablets to all incoming medical students. Beyond IT, the college is also offering wet laboratory instruction for hands-on diagnostic skills, team-based learning, and clinical skills workshops. In addition, modern teaching tools and techniques address the challenges posed by increasing numbers of students. To provide incentives for instructors, a performance-based compensation plan and teaching awards have been established. Also for faculty, IT tools and training have been made available, and a medical education course management system is now being widely employed. Student and faculty responses have been favorable, and the rapid uptake of these interventions by students, faculty, and the college's administration suggests that the KCMU College MEPI approach has addressed unmet needs. This enabling environment has transformed the culture of learning and teaching at KCMU College, where a path to sustainability is now being pursued. PMID:25072581

  9. THE ROLES OF CLINICAL PHARMACY IN REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaraf Khulood Majid

    2012-01-01

    Potential activation of clinical pharmacist role is of great importance in reducing the medication errors which are a well- known problem in hospital. The medication errors could be prescribing errors, dispensing errors, and administering errors. In this study medication errors randomly were collected by clinical pharmacist and inpatient pharmacist from different wards at a Hospital in Dubai, UAE, from July to October 2011. The results showed that the highest percentage of medication errors w...

  10. Potential advantage of student-run clinics for diversifying a medical school class

    OpenAIRE

    Chris N. Gu; McElroy, Jane A; Corcoran, Blake C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a student-run clinic on the diversification of a medical student class. We distributed a two-page, 20-item, paper survey to students of the University of Missouri School of Medicine (MU SOM) class of 2015 in July of 2011. The survey gathered information on general demographics, opinions on the importance of medical education opportunities, and opinions on the importance of medical school characteristics in applying to and attending MU...

  11. How does the medical graduates' self-assessment of their clinical competency differ from experts' assessment?

    OpenAIRE

    Abadel Fatima Taleb; Hattab Abdulla Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The assessment of the performance of medical school graduates during their first postgraduate years provides an early indicator of the quality of the undergraduate curriculum and educational process. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical competency of medical graduates, as perceived by the graduates themselves and by the experts. Methods This is a hospital based cross-sectional study. It covered 105 medical graduates and 63 experts selected by convenient s...

  12. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball L

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Lauren Ball,1 Jennifer Crowley,2 Celia Laur,3 Minha Rajput-Ray,3 Stephen Gillam,4 Sumantra Ray3 1Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Allied Health Sciences, Centre for Health Practice Innovation, Griffith University, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 2Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, Cambridge, UK; 4Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1 the approach to medical nutrition education, 2 evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3 areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the

  13. Department of medical education; A personal history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAHMAN JOORABCHI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief overview of the history of formal introduction of the art and science of education into the sphere of medical education in Shiraz. Before this introduction medical education was, and in the majority of other institutions world-wide still is, a simple transfer of knowledge from teacher to student. The students accepted their passive role because this was how they had been taught all their life. The teachers perpetuated this process because this was how they were taught themselves. After all, what was good enough for them was good enough for the students. All one needed to be a good teacher was to be an expert in ones field. What the Department of Medical Education attempted to do locally and the Regional Teacher Training Center internationally, was to promulgate problem-based, learner directed teaching using the principles of adult learning and using evaluation methods that were valid and reliable. This article describes the process used for this transformation and some of the results obtained.

  14. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-11-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses-specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconsciously. Distributive justice 'concerns the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society'. Inevitably there is a large degree of subjectivity in the judgment as to whether an allocation is seen as socially just or ethical. There are different principles by which we can view distributive justice and which therefore affect the prism of subjectivity through which we see certain problems. For example, we might say that distributive justice at a certain institution or in a certain medical education system operates according to the principle that resources must be divided equally amongst learners. Another system may say that resources should be distributed according to the needs of learners or even of patients. No ethical system or model is inherently right or wrong, they depend on the context in which the educator is working. PMID:24203859

  15. [Competency-based assessment in medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champin, Denisse

    2014-01-01

    At present, competency-based curriculum is considered to be the most appropriate model in medical education. Much has been written about this model; however, a crucial aspect of the model is the assessment of competency development which is a different point compared to the traditional model of cognitive assessment. Assessment in the context of the competencybased curriculum model must be aligned with the profile of the competencies that the institution offers. This publication reports the evaluation experience in a Medical School of Peru that applies a competency-based curriculum.

  16. Leveraging e-learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D

    2014-07-01

    e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain

  17. The Pitfalls of Collegial Coaching: An Analysis of Collegial Coaching in Medical Education and Its Influence on Stimulating Reflection and Performance of Novice Clinical Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truijen, Karin J. P.; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Competent clinical teachers are essential for clinical teaching. According to the literature, coaching can contribute to improved levels of reflection and better performance of clinical teachers. By engaging in a dialogue about coachee's teaching behaviour, coaches can stimulate reflection of novice teachers. This study aims to gain…

  18. [Podcasts, wikis and blogs: the web 2.0 tools for medical and health education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2007-10-01

    In the recent years, we have witnessed a new revolution in the field of communication through Internet. Web 2.0, whose contents are provided by the collaboration, discussion, and sharing between more users, is replacing the traditional web (the web 1.0). The use of podcasts, wikis, and blogs is rapidly increasing, and today they are proposed as educational tools for health professionals, physicians, and medical students. Medical podcasts have been developed by online medical journals (such as the New England Journal of Medicine, the Lancet, the British Medical Journal, and the JAMA), and by medical societies, medical schools and health institutions to communicate to and educate the physicians, the students, the patients, and the health consumers. Following the example of Wikipedia, medical wikis and blogs are being developed to support the medical education, the collaboration among researchers, and the clinical practice. However, these tools present some limitations related to their openness and ease of use which virtually allows anybody to alter and edit existing contents or to create new ones. This could make the contents unreliable and inaccurate, and could introduce risks for a correct medical education and for the health of those patients deciding to follow the medical advice included. Studies are needed to evaluate limits, benefits, and efficacy of these tools when used in the contexts of medical education and clinical practice. Other studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and the accuracy of the medical contents posted online through the web 2.0 services.

  19. Medical Students’ Attitudes about Team-Based Learning in a Pre-Clinical Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Parmelee, Dean X.; DeStephen, Dan; Borges, Nicole J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Team-Based Learning is relatively new in medical education. Team-Based Learning was integrated into one medical school’s pre-clinical curriculum in 2002. Purpose: This study com­pared how medical students’ attitudes about the Team-Based Learning process changed between the first and second year of medical school. Method: 180 students responded to 19 statements regarding their attitudes about Team-Based Learning during their first and second year of medical school. Data were analy...

  20. Resources for Medical Education: Finding the Right Prescription

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Holly J

    2010-01-01

    What are the resources necessary to provide the highest quality education for medical students? This is the essential question which must be answered before a medical school can make a rational decision about the number of students to have in each class. In deciphering an objective way to determine the class size of a medical school, this paper explores the principles of medical education, accrediting organizations institutional expectations in providing a medical education program, and the a...

  1. [International accreditation of medical school towards quality assurance of medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nara, Nobuo

    2013-01-01

    An internationalization of practical medicine evoked international migrations of medical professionals. Since basic medical education is different among countries, the internationalization required international quality assurance of medical education. Global trend moves toward establishment of international accreditation system based on international standards. The World Federation for Medical Education proposed Global Standards for Quality Improvement as the international standards. Medical schools in Japan have started to establish program evaluation system. The standards which incorporated international standards have been published. The system for accreditation is being considered. An accreditation body, Japan Accreditation Council for Medical Education, is under construction. The accreditation is expected to enhance quality of education in Japan. PMID:24291905

  2. A Review on Usage and Effectiveness of e-Learning in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Son, Ji Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Kim, Sun

    2010-06-01

    E-learning is recently considered as a critical strategy to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of education. Although the use of e-learning has been growing rapidly in medical education, there are not sufficient data applying e-learning and evidence of the effectiveness. The purpose of the study is to review the recent literatures on applying e-learning in medical education settings and to identify usage types and educational effectiveness appeared in the research. The results demonstrated the types applying e-learning in medical education were categorized into the blended learning, online education, and virtual learning environment. The educational effectiveness of e-learning were the improvements of knowledge, clinical skill, attitude, and satisfaction. The study suggested the recommendations based on the results in order to apply e-learning effectively to medical education. PMID:25813808

  3. Medical student opinions on character development in medical education: a national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, George B; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently United States (US) medical schools have implemented curricular reforms to address issues of character in medical education. Very few studies have examined students’ opinions about the importance of character development in medical school. This cross-sectional study assessed US medical students’ opinions regarding character-focused education and their experiences receiving character feedback from educators. We mailed a questionnaire to 960 third year medical students from 2...

  4. Nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI; REZA NOROUZADEH

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of optimal clinical nursing education in professional skills development is undeniable. In clinical education, nursing students are often faced with problems. Recognizing nursing students’ perception on clinical education is the first step to remove the barriers of this challenge. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education. 150 nursing students were select...

  5. Values education: a new direction for medical education.

    OpenAIRE

    Grundstein-Amado, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper suggests that medical education should redirect resources to values education, specifically developing new strategies to improve the process of clarification of values. The author suggests using the values journal method which is based on a systematic record of students' personal value systems reflected in their stories and life experience; and on their responses to case presentation. Generating a personal values journal helps students define who they are, what their social and pro...

  6. Experience in clinical teaching of ophthalmology to students of 7-year medical education program%眼科七年制医学生临床带教体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛轶睿; 黄振平

    2011-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the students of 7-year medical education program in ophthalmology, we developed an " Integration-of-Five" mode of teaching, covering clinical training, ward training, comprehensive training, expanding training, and scientific research training, aiming to cultivate their abilities of analyzing and solving problems on their own, improve their basic clinical skills, and lay a solid foundation for their future clinical work.%针对七年制眼科研究生的特点,采用门诊训练、病房训练、综合性训练、拓展性训练、临床科研训练五位一体的临床带教模式,锤炼研究生独立分析问题、解决问题的能力,提高临床基本技能,为其以后临床工作打下坚实的基础.

  7. Sleep medicine education and knowledge among medical students in selected Saudi Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Almohaya, Abdulellah; Qrmli, Abdulaziz; Almagal, Naeif; Alamri, Khaled; Bahammam, Salman; Al-Enizi, Mashhour; Alanazi, Atif; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M.; Ahmed S BaHammam

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited information is available regarding sleep medicine education worldwide. Nevertheless, medical education has been blamed for the under-recognition of sleep disorders among physicians. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of Saudi undergraduate medical students about sleep and sleep disorders and the prevalence of education on sleep medicine in medical schools as well as to identify the obstacles to providing such education. Methods We surveyed medical schools that ...

  8. Judicious Use of Simulation Technology in Continuing Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…

  9. The Education Review Board: A Mechanism for Managing Potential Conflicts of Interest in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borus, Jonathan F; Alexander, Erik K; Bierer, Barbara E; Bringhurst, F Richard; Clark, Christopher; Klanica, Kaley E; Stewart, Erin C; Friedman, Lawrence S

    2015-12-01

    Concerns about the influence of industry support on medical education, research, and patient care have increased in both medical and political circles. Some academic medical centers, questioning whether industry support of medical education could be appropriate and not a conflict of interest, banned such support. In 2009, a Partners HealthCare System commission concluded that interactions with industry remained important to Partners' charitable academic mission and made recommendations to transparently manage such relationships. An Education Review Board (ERB) was created to oversee and manage all industry support of Partners educational activities.Using a case review method, the ERB developed guidelines to implement the commission's recommendations. A multi-funder rule was established that prohibits industry support from only one company for any Partners educational activity. Within that framework, the ERB established guidelines on industry support of educational conferences, clinical fellowships, and trainees' expenses for attending external educational programs; gifts of textbooks and other educational materials; promotional opportunities associated with Partners educational activities; Partners educational activities under contract with an industry entity; and industry-run programs using Partners resources.Although many changes have resulted from the implementation of the ERB guidelines, the number of industry grants for Partners educational activities has remained relatively stable, and funding for these activities declined only moderately during the first three full calendar years (2011-2013) of ERB oversight. The ERB continually educates both the Partners community and industry about the rationale for its guidelines and its openness to their refinement in response to changes in the external environment. PMID:26083402

  10. The unintended consequences of portfolios in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Alisa; Andolsek, Kathryn; Padmore, Jamie S

    2009-11-01

    Portfolios have emerged in graduate medical education despite lack of consensus on their definition, purpose, or usefulness. Portfolios can be used as a tool for residents to record their accomplishments, reflect on their experiences, and gain formative feedback. This exercise may help prepare physicians for lifelong learning as well as enhance patient care. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has endorsed and may soon require the use of portfolios as an assessment tool to evaluate resident competence. However, using portfolios for summative evaluation purposes such as making high-stakes decisions on resident promotion or matriculation may deter resident candidness. In addition, the use of portfolios in clinical settings raises issues unique to the health care setting such as patient privacy, disclosure of clinical information, and professional liability exposure of physicians. It is not clear that peer-review statutes that sometimes protect educational materials used in teaching and evaluation of residents would also bar disclosure and/or evidentiary use of portfolio contents. Is the teaching institution, resident, or graduate vulnerable to requests and subpoenas for the portfolio contents? If so, then a resident's documentation of insecurities, suboptimal performance, or bad outcomes would be ripe for discovery in a medical malpractice lawsuit. If embraced too quickly and without sufficient reflection on the nuances of implementation, this well-intentioned initiative may present unintended legal consequences. PMID:19858808

  11. University medical education in Kenya: The challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndetei, David M; Mathai, Muthoni; Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Mutiso, Victoria; Mbwayo, Anne W

    2010-01-01

    There are two medical schools training doctors in Kenya: the Moi University established in 1984 and the University of Nairobi established in 1967. The University of Nairobi has so far produced the majority of Kenyan doctors. Both are public universities with the Government being the main financier. The increased demand for university education and the inability to meet these demands has led to the introduction of a system of training self-sponsored medical students alongside Government-subsidised students. One other public university has started a medical school. The pressure to increase the number of schools and students in the absence of increased resources poses a particular challenge to the country. PMID:20854156

  12. Gender and sex: issues in medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2010-01-01

    [english] There is ample scientific evidence to support the importance of gender issues in health and illness. If we fail to take such sex and gender differences sufficiently into account, this will affect the quality of health care provided to men and women, and this is precisely what good medical education means to prevent. In this paper examples are given that show how knowledge, attitudes and skills relating to sex and gender can be implemented in both optional and compulsory courses. Nex...

  13. Technology: changing the focus of medical education?

    OpenAIRE

    Vivekanantham S; Ravindran RP

    2014-01-01

    Sayinthen Vivekanantham, Rahul Prashanth Ravindran Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWith technology advancing at such a fast rate, our ability to look up and use information quickly and efficiently has improved significantly. With electronic devices capable of accessing information becoming more prevalent within the hospital setting, how this could influence medical education should be brought into question.As we are now able to look up information quickly within the cl...

  14. Continuing medical education for general practitioners--a Northern Ireland plan.

    OpenAIRE

    McKnight, A; Mills, K

    1992-01-01

    Following the introduction of the 1990 contract for general practitioners and the new postgraduate education allowance, the Northern Ireland Continuing Medical Education Group, comprising the clinical tutors from four Belfast hospitals and members of the University department of general practice, was established to provide high quality co-ordinated continuing medical education for general practitioners. A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Northern Ireland to find out thei...

  15. Evaluation of a novel nutrition education intervention for medical students from across England

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Sumantra; Udumyan, Ruzan; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Thompson, Ben; Lodge, Keri-Michele; Douglas, Pauline; Sharma, Poonam; Broughton, Rachel; Smart, Sandra; Wilson, Rick; Gillam, Stephen; van der Es, Mike J; Fisher, Ilana; Gandy, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Problems such as hospital malnutrition (∼40% prevalence in the UK) may be managed better by improving the nutrition education of ‘tomorrow's doctors’. The Need for Nutrition Education Programme aimed to measure the effectiveness and acceptability of an educational intervention on nutrition for medical students in the clinical phase of their training. Design An educational needs analysis was followed by a consultative process to gain consensus on a suitable educational intervention....

  16. [PDCA Applied in Special Rectification of Medical Instrument Clinical Trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qu, Xintao; Yu, Xiuchun

    2015-09-01

    PDCA cycle was applied in special rectification activities for medical instrument clinical trial, with quality criteria of implementation made. Completed medical instrument clinical trial from January 2011 to December 2012 was believed as control group, from January 2013 to December 2014 as PDCA group, the scores of clinical trial and the score rate of items were compared and analyzed. Results show quality scores of clinical trial in PDCA group are higher than that in control group (51 vs. 81, P rectification activities with PDCA applied in our department are feasible and effective. It significantly improves implement quality of medical instrument clinical trial.

  17. Medical specialty considerations by medical students early in their clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissman Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specialty selection by medical students determines the future composition of the physician workforce. Selection of career specialties begins in earnest during the clinical rotations with exposure to the clinical and intellectual environments of various specialties. Career specialty selection is followed by choosing a residency program. This is the period where insight into the decision process might help healthcare leaders ascertain whether, when, and how to intervene and attempt to influence students' decisions. The criteria students consider important in selecting a specialty and a residency program during the early phases of their clinical rotations were examined. Methods Questionnaires distributed to fifth-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools. Results 229 of 275 (83% questionnaires were returned. 80% of the students had considered specialties; 62% considered one specialty, 25% two, the remainder 3-5 specialties. Students took a long-range view; 55% considered working conditions after residency more important than those during residency, another 42% considered both equally important. More than two-thirds wanted an interesting and challenging bedside specialty affording control over lifestyle and providing a reasonable relationship between salary and lifestyle. Men were more interested in well-remunerated procedure-oriented specialties that allowed for private practice. Most students rated as important selecting a challenging and interesting residency program characterized by good relationships between staff members, with positive treatment by the institution, and that provided much teaching. More women wanted short residencies with few on-calls and limited hours. More men rated as important residencies affording much responsibility for making clinical decisions and providing research opportunities. More than 50% of the students considered it important that their residency be in a leading department, and in

  18. Mastery learning: it is time for medical education to join the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical medical education in the 21st century is grounded in a 19th-century model that relies on longitudinal exposure to patients as the curriculum focus. The assumption is that medical students and postgraduate residents will learn from experience, that vicarious or direct involvement in patient care is the best teacher. The weight of evidence shows, however, that results from such traditional clinical education are uneven at best. Educational inertia endorsed until recently by medical school accreditation policies has maintained the clinical medical education status quo for decades.Mastery learning is a new paradigm for medical education. Basic principles of mastery learning are that educational excellence is expected and can be achieved by all learners and that little or no variation in measured outcomes will result. This Commentary describes the origins of mastery learning and presents its essential features. The Commentary then introduces the eight reports that comprise the mastery learning cluster for this issue of Academic Medicine. The reports are intended to help medical educators recognize advantages of the mastery model and begin to implement mastery learning at their own institutions. The Commentary concludes with brief statements about future directions for mastery learning program development and research in medical education.

  19. Computer science education for medical informaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L

    2004-03-18

    The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.

  20. Teaching about climate change in medical education: an opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Maxwell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors’ experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education.

  1. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school. PMID:27227696

  2. Detached concern?: Emotional socialization in twenty-first century medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underman, Kelly; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2016-07-01

    Early works in medical sociology have been pivotal in the development of scholarly knowledge about emotions, emotional socialization, and empathy within medical training, medical education, and medical contexts. Yet despite major shifts in both medical education and in medicine writ-large, medical sociologists' focus on emotions has largely disappeared. In this paper, we argue that due to recent radical transformations in the medical arena, emotional socialization within medical education should be of renewed interest for sociologists. Developments in medical education such as increased diversity among enrollees, the rise of patient health movements, and curricular transformation have made this context a particularly interesting case for sociologists working on a variety of questions related to structural, organizational, and cultural change. We offer three areas of debate within studies in medical education that sociologists may be interested in studying: 1) gendered and racialized differences in the performance of clinical skills related to emotion, 2) differences in self-reported empathy among subspecialties, and 3) loss of empathy during the third year or clinical year of medical school.

  3. Managed care and medical education: hard cases and hard choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E

    1997-05-01

    As managed care becomes more and more dominant in U.S. health care, it is coming into conflict with medical education. There are historical reasons for this: medical education traditionally excluded physicians who chose to work in health plans, and for profit managed care has tended to avoid subsidizing medical education. In order to improve the climate, three changes are necessary: medical education must understand the tense history of discord between the two; distinctions must be made between responsible and irresponsible managed care plans; and medical educators should not assume they own the moral high ground. Arrogance, a gross oversupply of physicians and especially specialists, scandals and fraud, an often callous attitude toward the poor, and other sins can be laid at medical education's door. The worse threat for both sides is that the public and payers could simply abandon both, leading to underfunding for health professions education, a society that does not trust its health care system, and the loss of superb teaching organizations. To prevent this, managed care and medical education should work together to solve several difficult problems: how to shrink the medical education infrastructure; how to report honestly the uses to which medical education funds are put; and how to identify and end irresponsible behavior on the part of health plans and medical education entities alike. If the two sides can exercise leadership in these areas, they will be able to protect and enhance the singular place of honor that medical education holds in this society. PMID:9159575

  4. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  5. Medical academia clinical experiences of Ward Round Teaching curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Haghani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students spend most of their time in hospital wards and it is necessary to study clinical educational opportunities. This study was aimed to explore faculty members′ experience on Ward Round Teaching content. Methods and Materials: This qualitative study was conducted by purposive sampling with the maximum variation of major clinical departments faculty members in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (n = 9. Data gathering was based on deep and semi-structured interviews. Data gathering continued till data saturation.Data was analyzed through the Collaizzi method and validated. Strategies to ensure trustworthiness of data (credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability were employed (Guba and Lincoln. Results: Basic codes extracted from the analyzed data were categorized into two main themes and related subthemes, including (1 tangible teachings (analytic intelligence, technical intelligence, legal duties and (2 implied teachings (professionalism, professional discipline, professional difficulties. Conclusion: Ward round teaching is a valuable opportunity for learners to learn not only patient care aspects but also ethical values. By appropriate planning, opportunities can be used to teach capabilities that are expected of general practitioners.

  6. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, Jan; Schmidt-Huber, Marion; Netzel, Janine; Krohn, Alexandra C.; Angstwurm, Matthias; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians’ everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills i...

  7. Training of Leadership Skills in Medical Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kiesewetter, J; Schmidt-Huber, M; Netzel, J; Krohn, AC; Angstwurm, M; Fischer,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective team performance is essential in the delivery of high-quality health-care. Leadership skills therefore are an important part of physicians' everyday clinical life. To date, the development of leadership skills are underrepresented in medical curricula. Appropriate training methods for equipping doctors with these leadership skills are highly desirable. Objective: The review aims to summarize the findings in the current literature regarding training in leadership skills...

  8. Systems That Teach: Medical Education and the Future Healthcare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.; Higgens, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Physician education has followed relatively rigid guidelines since the Flexner report of 1910. Medical education has been largely didactic with time-based progression and certifying exams, and with variable degrees of autonomy and supervision in graduate (post MD/DO degree) medical education programs. Innovative educational approaches now…

  9. Educational needs of faculty members of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S Mazloomy Mahmoodabad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying educational needs is an essential step in planning faculty development programs. It plays an important role in promoting the quality of education. The aim of this study was to determine and prioritize the educational needs of clinical and non clinical faculty members of Faculty of Medicne of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Methods: A questionnaire was developed for this cross-sectional study using the indices identified by reviewing the literature. The questionnaire was sent to all faculty members of Medical Faculty (n=260. The items were scored from 1 to 20 according to the importance of the educational needs. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Different areas of educational needs of the clinical faculty members were respectively prioritized as: familiarity with National Medical Universities Ranking Schemeresearch, personal development, administrative and executive activities, education, specialized activities outside the university and health services and health promotion. In the non clinical faculty members: research, familiarity with National Medical Universities Ranking Schemeeducation, personal development, specialized activities outside the university, administrative and executive activities. The first priority of education in the clinical faculty members was design, implementation and analysis of oral exams. In research domain priorities were data analysis skills and the first priority of education in the non clinical faculty members was how to foster critical thinking and reasoning in research and critical appraisal skills. Conclusion: Faculty members need all of the seven studiedmajor areas. It is recommended further research to determine the weight of these seven areas using a standard method.

  10. Patients' understanding of medical terminology used in the breast clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R L; Hartridge-Lambert, S K; Din, N; St John, E R; Hitchins, C; Johnson, T

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated patients' understanding of common terms used by breast surgeons in order to identify words which may need to be defined and explained during a clinic consultation. 95 patients completed the survey. 87% defined 'Surgeon' correctly whereas 'Radiographer' and 'Radiologist' were correctly defined by only 19% and 28% respectively. 26% correctly defined 'Pathologist' and 43% 'Oncologist'. Two-thirds of patients correctly defined 'Benign' (66%) and 'Malignant' (65%). 'Mammogram' and 'Ultrasound' were correctly defined by 39% and 8% respectively. 21% of patients correctly defined 'Multi-Disciplinary Team Meeting'. 1 in 5 patients correctly defined 'Chemotherapy' (20%) and 'Radiotherapy' (19%). This study has identified that many of the medical terms used in a consultation are not understood by patients. Education must be incorporated as a routine part of the consultation to enhance the patient experience and ensure they can actively participate in making informed decisions about their care. PMID:23523178

  11. Curriculum gaps in teaching clinical skills to Iranian undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzazadeh, Azim; Bavarian, Behrouz; Labaf, Ali; Afshari, Ali; Nikoo, Mohammad; Meshkani, Zahra Sadat; Khashayar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The inefficacy of clinical skill education during the clerkship has been reported in several studies. The present study was conducted to evaluate the competency of medical students in performing several clinical skills through an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), aiming to evaluate the quality of the existing curriculum in the clerkship phase. Material and methods The cross sectional study was conducted at the end of the clerkship period, before the students had e...

  12. Clinical method, ‘’good clinical practices’’, and medical professionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Moreno Rodríguez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine, in its widest conception, is the science and art to know, prevent, relieve, and cure illnesses. It is pointed out that the clinical method is the scientific or experimental method of science applied to the attention of an individual patient, but in this case the experimental stage is replaced by the confrontation with diagnostic technology. Therapy is also currently included into the clinical method by many authors. It is emphasized that this method should be the first and most valuable of all “good clinical practices”. Some principles for an adequate application of the clinical method are: a good doctor-patient relationship, the individualization of each patient, the great value of clinics (especially the interview and the physical examination and the role of technology in the process of diagnosis. It is should be highlighted that medical clinics and its method are more important today than in the past. It is therefore necessary that teachers educate their students, both in theory and practice, in an exquisite use of the clinical method.

  13. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools. PMID:23969367

  14. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools.

  15. The moral education of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, R

    1998-01-01

    The author begins his essay by discussing George Eliot's novel Middlemarch, in which a doctor, early in his career, wanders from his idealistic commitment to serving the poor. Although he establishes a prominent practice, he considers himself a failure because "he had not done what he once meant to do." The essay explores how many of us (physicians included) forsake certain ideals or principles--not in one grand gesture, but in moment-to-moment decisions, in day-to-day rationalizations and self-deceptions, until we find ourselves caught in lives whose implications we have long ago stopped examining, never mind judging. Medical education barrages students with information, fosters sometimes ruthless competition, and perpetuates rote memorization and an obsession with test scores--all of which stifle moral reflection. Apart from radically rethinking medical education (doing away with the MCAT, for example, as Lewis Thomas proposed), how can we teach students to consider what it means to be a good doctor? Calling upon the work of Eliot, Walker Percy, and others, the author discusses how the study of literature can broaden and deepen the inner lives of medical students and encourage moral reflectiveness.

  16. Envisioning a Future Governance and Funding System for Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey P; Stimpson, Jim P; Caverzagie, Kelly J

    2015-09-01

    Funding for graduate medical education (GME) and undergraduate medical education (UME) in the United States is being debated and challenged at the national and state levels as policy makers and educators question whether the multibillion dollar investment in medical education is succeeding in meeting the nation's health care needs. To address these concerns, the authors propose a novel all-payer system for GME and UME funding that equitably distributes medical education costs among all stakeholders, including those who benefit most from medical education. Through a "Medical Education Workforce (MEW) trust fund," indirect and direct GME dollars would be replaced with a funds-flow mechanism using fees paid for services by all payers (Medicaid, Medicare, private insurers, others) while providing direct compensation to physicians and institutions that actively engage medical learners in providing clinical care. The accountability of those receiving MEW funds would be improved by linking their funding levels to their ability to meet predetermined institutional, program, faculty, and learner benchmarks. Additionally, the MEW fund would cover learners' UME tuition, potentially eliminating their UME debt, in return for their provision of health care services (after completing GME training) in an underserved area or specialty. This proposed model attempts to increase transparency and enhance accountability in medical education by linking funding to the development of a physician workforce that is able to excel in the evolving health delivery system. Achieving this vision requires physician educators, leaders of academic health centers, policy makers, insurers, and patients to muster the courage to embrace transformational change. PMID:26164639

  17. Wireless clinical alerts for physiologic, laboratory and medication data.

    OpenAIRE

    Shabot, M M; LoBue, M.; J. Chen

    2000-01-01

    A fully interfaced clinical information system (CIS) contains physiologic, laboratory, blood gas, medication and other data that can be used as the information base for a comprehensive alerting system. Coupled with an event driven rules engine, a CIS can generate clinical alerts which may both prevent medical errors and assist caregivers in responding to critical events in a timely way. The authors have developed a clinical alerting system which delivers alerts and reminders to clinicians in ...

  18. Advancing Competency-Based Medical Education: A Charter for Clinician-Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Van Melle, Elaine; Ten Cate, Olle; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Chan, Ming-Ka; Frank, Jason R; Snell, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    The International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators have been working since 2009 to promote understanding of competency-based medical education (CBME) and accelerate its uptake worldwide. This article presents a charter, supported by a literature-based rationale, which is meant to provide a shared mental model of CBME that will serve as a path forward in its widespread implementation.At a 2013 summit, the ICBME Collaborators laid the groundwork for this charter. Here, the fundamental principles of CBME and professional responsibilities of medical educators in its implementation process are described. The authors outline three fundamental principles: (1) Medical education must be based on the health needs of the populations served; (2) the primary focus of education and training should be the desired outcomes for learners rather than the structure and process of the educational system; and (3) the formation of a physician should be seamless across the continuum of education, training, and practice.Building on these principles, medical educators must demonstrate commitment to teaching, assessing, and role modeling the range of identified competencies. In the clinical setting, they must provide supervision that balances patient safety with the professional development of learners, being transparent with stakeholders about level of supervision needed. They must use effective and efficient assessment strategies and tools for basing transition decisions on competence rather than time in training, empowering learners to be active participants in their learning and assessment. Finally, advancing CBME requires program evaluation and research, faculty development, and a collaborative approach to realize its full potential.

  19. Advancing Competency-Based Medical Education: A Charter for Clinician-Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraccio, Carol; Englander, Robert; Van Melle, Elaine; Ten Cate, Olle; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Chan, Ming-Ka; Frank, Jason R; Snell, Linda S

    2016-05-01

    The International Competency-Based Medical Education (ICBME) Collaborators have been working since 2009 to promote understanding of competency-based medical education (CBME) and accelerate its uptake worldwide. This article presents a charter, supported by a literature-based rationale, which is meant to provide a shared mental model of CBME that will serve as a path forward in its widespread implementation.At a 2013 summit, the ICBME Collaborators laid the groundwork for this charter. Here, the fundamental principles of CBME and professional responsibilities of medical educators in its implementation process are described. The authors outline three fundamental principles: (1) Medical education must be based on the health needs of the populations served; (2) the primary focus of education and training should be the desired outcomes for learners rather than the structure and process of the educational system; and (3) the formation of a physician should be seamless across the continuum of education, training, and practice.Building on these principles, medical educators must demonstrate commitment to teaching, assessing, and role modeling the range of identified competencies. In the clinical setting, they must provide supervision that balances patient safety with the professional development of learners, being transparent with stakeholders about level of supervision needed. They must use effective and efficient assessment strategies and tools for basing transition decisions on competence rather than time in training, empowering learners to be active participants in their learning and assessment. Finally, advancing CBME requires program evaluation and research, faculty development, and a collaborative approach to realize its full potential. PMID:26675189

  20. Ways of knowing: Howard Stein's border-crossing use of poetry to interrogate clinical medicine, medical education, and health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    This article explores how medical anthropologist Howard Stein's poetry and his unique practice of sharing this poetry with the patients, physicians, and administrators who inspired it create ways of knowing that are at once revelatory and emancipatory. Stein's writing shows readers that poetry can be considered as a form of data and as a method of investigation into the processes of the human soul. Furthermore, it represents a kind of intervention that invites health professional readers toward connection, bridge building, and solidarity with their patients and with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27632547

  1. The h-index in medical education: an analysis of medical education journal editorial boards

    OpenAIRE

    Doja, Asif; Eady, Kaylee; Horsley, Tanya; Bould, M. Dylan; Victor, J. Charles; Sampson, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Disciplines differ in their authorship and citation practices, thus discipline-specific h-index norms are desirable. Thus the goal of this study was to examine the relationship between the h-index and academic rank in the field of medical education, and the differences in the h-index between MD’s and PhD’s in this field. Methods: Due to the absence of a formalized registry of medical educators, we sampled available editorial board membership (considered a proxy for identi...

  2. THE ROLES OF CLINICAL PHARMACY IN REDUCING MEDICATION ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaraf Khulood Majid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential activation of clinical pharmacist role is of great importance in reducing the medication errors which are a well- known problem in hospital. The medication errors could be prescribing errors, dispensing errors, and administering errors. In this study medication errors randomly were collected by clinical pharmacist and inpatient pharmacist from different wards at a Hospital in Dubai, UAE, from July to October 2011. The results showed that the highest percentage of medication errors was prescribing errors, followed by administering errors and then dispensing errors. Among prescribing errors, the results showed the highest percentage was stat errors, followed by pro re nata(PRN, then incomplete or unclear Rx and at the end antibiotic errors. The study shows that the clinical pharmacist play important role in reduction of medication errors evolving from pharmacist and nursing site, on the other hand, prescribing errors were reduced up to 23% with the medication review system.

  3. Medical students’ attitudes towards early clinical exposure in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabaz Mafinejad, Mahboobeh; Peiman, Soheil; Khajavirad, Nasim; Mirabdolhagh Hazaveh, Mojgan; Edalatifard, Maryam; Allameh, Seyed-Farshad; Naderi, Neda; Foroumandi, Morteza; Afshari, Ali; Asghari, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was carried out to investigate the medical students’ attitudes towards early clinical exposure at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2012-2015. A convenience sample of 298 first- and second-year students, enrolled in the undergraduate medical curriculum, participated in an early clinical exposure program. To collect data from medical students, a questionnaire consisting of open-ended questions and structured questions, rated on a five-point Likert scale, was used to investigate students’ attitudes toward early clinical exposure. Results Of the 298 medical students, 216 (72%) completed the questionnaires. The results demonstrated that medical students had a positive attitude toward early clinical exposure. Most students (80.1%) stated that early clinical exposure could familiarize them with the role of basic sciences knowledge in medicine and how to apply this knowledge in clinical settings. Moreover, 84.5% of them believed that early clinical exposure increased their interest in medicine and encouraged them to read more. Furthermore, content analysis of the students’ responses uncovered three main themes of early clinical exposure, were considered helpful to improve learning: “integration of theory and practice”, “interaction with others and professional development” and “desire and motivation for learning medicine”. Conclusions Medical students found their first experience with clinical setting valuable. Providing clinical exposure in the initial years of medical curricula and teaching the application of basic sciences knowledge in clinical practice can enhance students’ understanding of the role they will play in the future as a physician. PMID:27318794

  4. How Students Experience and Navigate Transitions in Undergraduate Medical Education: An Application of Bourdieu's Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Dorene F.; Richards, Boyd F.; Varpio, Lara

    2015-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theoretical model as a lens for analysis, we sought to understand how students experience the undergraduate medical education (UME) milieu, focusing on how they navigate transitions from the preclinical phase, to the major clinical year (MCY), and to the preparation for residency phase. Twenty-two medical students participated in…

  5. 专业学位研究生培养与住院医师规范化培训相结合改革的初步实践%Initial practice: the innovation combines clinical medical graduated education with residential training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 胡瑶; 胡学梅; 何惠君

    2015-01-01

    A new medical education model combine' s clinical medical graduated education with residential training (called four licenses in one) was employed in many medical schools in China.Two groups of students were received new "Four licenses in one" medical education model and traditional medical education model respectively in the past 3 years in our medical school,and it' s the first year the students received new education method graduated successfully.The education backgrounds,clinical skills and employment condition were compared between the two groups of students.Although the education background almost same,the clinical skills and employment condition in the students received new education model were much better than that of the students received traditional medical education model.The new medical education model is a good method and worth to spreading.%将临床医学专业学位研究生培养与住院医师规范化培训相结合的“四证合一”的培养模式已经在许多医学院校试行.本文对华中科技大学2011级全部131名临床医学专业学位硕士研究生的相关数据进行深入分析,对参加和未参加“四证合一”培养的学生状况进行比较分析.入学时两组学生的入学成绩和临床背景均无明显差异,而参加“四证合一”培养的学生毕业时的临床技能考核成绩和就业状况均优于未参加培养的学生,“四证合一”的培养方式具有较大的优越性,值得进一步推广.

  6. 'Soft and fluffy': medical students' attitudes towards psychology in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Wallace, Sarah; Nathan, Yoga; McGrath, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Psychology is viewed by medical students in a negative light. In order to understand this phenomenon, we interviewed 19 medical students about their experiences of psychology in medical education. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Four main themes were generated: attitudes, teaching culture, curriculum factors and future career path; negative attitudes were transmitted by teachers to students and psychology was associated with students opting for a career in general practice. In summary, appreciation of psychology in medical education will only happen if all educators involved in medical education value and respect each other's speciality and expertise.

  7. Gendered specialities during medical education: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alers, M.; Leerdam, L. van; Dielissen, P.; Lagro-Janssen, A.

    2014-01-01

    The careers of male and female physicians indicate gender differences, whereas in medical education a feminization is occurring. Our review aims to specify gender-related speciality preferences during medical education. A literature search on gender differences in medical students' speciality prefer

  8. Stretching the boundaries of medical education A case of medical college embracing humanities and social sciences in medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghias, Kulsoom; Khan, Kausar S; Ali, Rukhsana; Azfar, Shireen; Ahmed, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aga Khan University, a private medical college, had a vision of producing physicians who are not only scientifically competent, but also socially sensitive, the latter by exposure of medical students to a broad-based curriculum. The objective of this study was to identify the genesis of broad-based education and its integration into the undergraduate medical education program as the Humanities and Social Sciences (HASS) course. Methods: A qualitative methodology was used for this study. Sources of data included document review and in-depth key informant interviews. Nvivo software was utilized to extract themes. Results: The study revealed the process of operationalization of the institutional vision to produce competent and culturally sensitive physicians. The delay in the establishment of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which was expected to take a lead role in the delivery of a broad-based education, led to the development of an innovative HASS course in the medical curriculum. The study also identified availability of faculty and resistance from students as challenges faced in the implementation and evolution of HASS. Conclusions: The description of the journey and viability of integration of HASS into the medical curriculum offers a model to medical colleges seeking ways to produce socially sensitive physicians. PMID:27648038

  9. Bedside teaching in medical education: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Max; Ten Cate, Olle

    2014-04-01

    Bedside teaching is seen as one of the most important modalities in teaching a variety of skills important for the medical profession, but its use is declining. A literature review was conducted to reveal its strengths, the causes of its decline and future perspectives, the evidence with regard to learning clinical skills and patient/student/teacher satisfaction. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane library were systematically searched with regard to terms related to bedside teaching. Articles regarding the above-mentioned subjects were included. Bedside teaching has shown to improve certain clinical diagnostic skills in medical students and residents. Patients, students/residents and teachers all seem to favour bedside teaching, for varying reasons. Despite this, the practice of bedside teaching is declining. Reasons to explain this decline include the increased patient turnover in hospitals, the assumed violation of patients' privacy and an increased reliance on technology in the diagnostic process. Solutions vary from increasingly using residents and interns as bedside teachers to actively educating staff members regarding the importance of bedside teaching and providing them with practical essentials. Impediments to bedside teaching need to be overcome if this teaching modality is to remain a valuable educational method for durable clinical skills.

  10. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  11. Whither (Whether) Medical Humanities? The Future of Humanities and Arts in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of "Journal for Learning through the Arts" focuses on the uses of literature and arts in medical education. The introductory article addresses current debate in the field of medical humanities (MH), namely the existential question of what is the purpose of integrating humanities/arts in medical education; and then examines how…

  12. Alcohol Medical Scholars Program--A Mentorship Program for Improving Medical Education regarding Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin J.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hernandez-Avila, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    The Alcohol Medical Scholars Program (AMSP) is designed to improve medical education related to substance use disorders (SUDs) through mentorship of junior, full-time academic faculty from medical schools across the United States. Scholarship focuses on literature review and synthesis, lecture development and delivery, increasing SUD education in…

  13. Funding medical education: should we follow a different model to general higher education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran Walsh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ISSUE. There has been much recent discussion on the funding of medical education. There has also been much discussion about the funding of higher education more generally. EVIDENCE. The topics of discussion have included the rising costs of education; who should pay; the various potential models of funding; and how best to ensure maximum returns from investment. IMPLICATIONS. Medical education has largely followed the emerging models of funding for higher education. However there are important reasons why the funding models for higher education may not suit medical education. These reasons include the fact that medical education is as important to the public as it is to the learner; the range of funding sources available to medical schools; the strict regulation of medical education; and the fact that the privatisation and commercialisation of higher education may not been in keeping with the social goals of medical schools and the agenda of diversification within the medical student population.

  14. Introducing Handheld Computing for Interactive Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Finkelstein

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this project were: (1 development of an interactive multimedia medical education tool (CO-ED utilizing modern features of handheld computing (PDA and major constructs of adult learning theories, and (2 pilot testing of the computer-assisted education in residents and clinicians. Comparison of the knowledge scores using paired t-test demonstrated statistically significant increase in subject knowledge (p<0.01 after using CO-ED. Attitudinal surveys were analyzed by total score (TS calculation represented as a percentage of a maximal possible score. The mean TS was 74.5±7.1%. None of the subjects (N=10 had TS less than 65% and in half of the subjects (N=5 TS was higher than 75%. Analysis of the semi-structured in-depth interviews showed strong support of the study subjects in using PDA as an educational tool, and high acceptance of CO-ED user interface. We concluded that PDA have a significant potential as a tool for clinician education.

  15. A new direction for medical education in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finucane, Paul; Kellett, John

    2007-03-01

    In recent years, new concepts of educational theory and practice have stimulated new approaches to medical education in many countries. For various reasons, medical education in Ireland has been slow to change such that there are now increasing concerns about educational standards. In addition, Ireland currently produces too few doctors and is therefore highly dependent on overseas doctors to maintain its health service. The responsible agencies are finally about to address these problems through a major expansion of medical education coupled with a strong agenda for educational reform. While the reform process will clearly be influenced by the experience of other counties, Ireland now has a great opportunity to take innovation in medical education a step further. For example, there is now an opportunity to develop new strategies to ensure the social accountability of medical education, to increase its community orientation and to foster interprofessional teaching and learning. PMID:17338960

  16. Communicating with graduate medical trainees: the Cleveland Clinic experience

    OpenAIRE

    Greenwald, Laura R.; Stoller, James K

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing communication with graduate medical trainees is critical, as they contribute importantly to the mission of academic medical centres. Yet, communication is challenged by their complex schedules, geographic separation, and time constraints. Few studies have examined this issue to offer valuable solutions. Because traditional approaches are suboptimal, two communication tools were implemented: (1) a web-based intranet site called [graduate medical education] GME|com, and (2) an electr...

  17. Successful strategies for integrating bedside ultrasound into undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, James K

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all physician specialties currently utilize bedside ultrasound, and its applications continue to expand. Bedside ultrasound is becoming a core skill for physicians; as such, it should be taught during undergraduate medical education. When ultrasound is integrated in a longitudinal manner beginning in the preclerkship phase of medical school, it not only enhances teaching the basic science topics of anatomy, physiology, and pathology but also ties those skills and knowledge to the clerkship phase and medical decision-making. Bedside ultrasound is a natural bridge from basic science to clinical science. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine is currently in its fourth year of implementing an integrated ultrasound curriculum in the school of medicine. In our experience, successful integration of a bedside ultrasound curriculum should: align with unique focuses of a medical schools' mission, simplify complex anatomy through multimodal teaching, correlate to teaching of the physical examination, solidify understanding of physiology and pathology, directly link to other concurrent content, narrow differential diagnoses, enhance medical decision-making, improve procedural skills, match to year-group skillsets, develop teaching and leadership abilities, and have elective experiences for advanced topics. PMID:25850144

  18. Development of a palliative education assessment tool for medical student education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekin, S A; Klein, J E; Fleischman, A R; Fins, J J

    2000-10-01

    Studies assessing palliative care education in U.S. medical schools reveal that little attention is paid to this topic. Although core competencies have been defined, few schools have implemented effective means to incorporate formal palliative care education into undergraduate curricula. To promote reform, each school needs to conduct a thorough assessment to identify palliative care content throughout the four-year curriculum. The authors developed an innovative assessment instrument to facilitate curricular mapping of palliative care education. The Palliative Education Assessment Tool (PEAT) comprises seven palliative care domains: palliative medicine, pain, neuropsychologic symptoms, other symptoms, ethics and the law, patient/family/nonclinical caregiver perspectives on end-of-life care, and clinical communication skills. Each domain details specific curricular objectives of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Designed as a flexible self-assessment tool, PEAT helps determine the existence of palliative care education, which usually is found in various formats throughout a medical school's curriculum and thus sometimes "hidden." PEAT enables educators to describe a specific, multidimensional aspect of the curriculum and use the information for strategic planning, educational reform, and evaluation. The curricular reform implications of such an instrument are broader than palliative care assessment. A modified version of PEAT can be used to assess systematically other topics that are taught in various formats in the curriculum and to develop collaborative approaches to fulfilling the educational objectives of those topics. PMID:11031142

  19. Toward Social Accountability of Medical Education in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Entezari

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nFour values of social accountability are, relevance, quality, cost effectiveness and equity, as they pertain to the activities of medi­cal schools, namely education, research and service. Integration of medical education into health service provision is the best strategy for health system responsiveness and social accountability of medical education.

  20. Toward Social Accountability of Medical Education in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    A Entezari; N Momtazmanesh; A. Khojasteh; Einollahi, B.

    2009-01-01

    "nFour values of social accountability are, relevance, quality, cost effectiveness and equity, as they pertain to the activities of medi­cal schools, namely education, research and service. Integration of medical education into health service provision is the best strategy for health system responsiveness and social accountability of medical education.

  1. Education and Moral Respect for the Medical Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I argue that medical education must remain attuned to the interests that physicians have in their own self-development despite ongoing calls for ethics education aimed at ensuring physicians maintain focus on the interests of the patient and society. In particular, I argue that medical education should advance (and abide by) criteria…

  2. Accreditation of Medical Education in China: Accomplishments and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    As an external review mechanism, accreditation has played a positive global role in quality assurance and promotion of educational reform. Accreditation systems for medical education have been developed in more than 100 countries including China. In the past decade, Chinese standards for basic medical education have been issued together with…

  3. Cost in Medical Education: One Hundred and Twenty Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-01-01

    The first full paper that is dedicated to cost in medical education appears in the "BMJ" in 1893. This paper "The cost of a medical education" outlines the likely costs associated with undergraduate education at the end of the nineteenth century, and offers guidance to the student on how to make financial planning. Many lessons…

  4. For the General Internist: A Summary of Key Innovations in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Chheda, Shobhina G; Bates, Carol; Dunn, Kathel; Karani, Reena; Willett, Lisa L

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a review of published medical education articles to identify high-quality research and innovation relevant to educators in general medicine. Our review team consisted of six general internists with expertise in medical education and a professional medical librarian. We manually searched 15 journals in pairs (a total of 3062 citations) for original research articles in medical education published in 2014. Each pair of reviewers independently rated the relevance, importance, and generalizability of articles on medical education in their assigned journals using a 27-point scale (maximum of 9 points for each characteristic). From this list, each team member independently reviewed the 22 articles that received a score of 20 or higher from both initial reviewers, and for each selected article rated the quality and global relevance for the generalist educator. We included the seven top-rated articles for presentation in this review, and categorized the studies into four general themes: continuity clinic scheduling, remediation, interprofessional education, and quality improvement and patient safety. We summarized key findings and identified significant limitations of each study. Further studies assessing patient outcomes are needed to strengthen the literature in medical education. This summary of relevant medical education articles can inform future research, teaching, and practice. PMID:27084757

  5. For the General Internist: A Summary of Key Innovations in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Brita; Chheda, Shobhina G; Bates, Carol; Dunn, Kathel; Karani, Reena; Willett, Lisa L

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a review of published medical education articles to identify high-quality research and innovation relevant to educators in general medicine. Our review team consisted of six general internists with expertise in medical education and a professional medical librarian. We manually searched 15 journals in pairs (a total of 3062 citations) for original research articles in medical education published in 2014. Each pair of reviewers independently rated the relevance, importance, and generalizability of articles on medical education in their assigned journals using a 27-point scale (maximum of 9 points for each characteristic). From this list, each team member independently reviewed the 22 articles that received a score of 20 or higher from both initial reviewers, and for each selected article rated the quality and global relevance for the generalist educator. We included the seven top-rated articles for presentation in this review, and categorized the studies into four general themes: continuity clinic scheduling, remediation, interprofessional education, and quality improvement and patient safety. We summarized key findings and identified significant limitations of each study. Further studies assessing patient outcomes are needed to strengthen the literature in medical education. This summary of relevant medical education articles can inform future research, teaching, and practice.

  6. Mobile Learning in Medical Education: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2015-10-01

    In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device.

  7. The ELEPHANT criteria in medical education: can medical education be fun?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Hugh; Varatharaj, Aravinthan

    2010-01-01

    'Hilarity and a good nature [and] a breezy cheerfulness help enormously in the study and in the practice of medicine,' said Sir William Osler, Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, pioneering medical educationalist, and arguably one of the greatest physicians of all time (Osler W. 1905 ). We present evidence that (1) Encouraging Learning, (2) Entertaining People, and (3) Having a Nice Time are dangerously powerful adjuncts to medical education. These are, by acronym, the ELEPHANT criteria. Encouraging is the motivating heart of the matter. Entertainment engages the mind and has been shown to enhance working memory and recall. Enjoyment is associated with deep learning, which comes with a whole host of benefits. However, learning in fear and misery can be an effective tool--but for other reasons--and the pessimistic personality type may respond badly to 'fun learning.' Even so, medical education that fulfills the ELEPHANT criteria can be an effective tool in training young doctors. PMID:20218834

  8. Diagnostic Reasoning across the Medical Education Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scott Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study linguistic and non-linguistic elements of diagnostic reasoning across the continuum of medical education. We performed semi-structured interviews of premedical students, first year medical students, third year medical students, second year internal medicine residents, and experienced faculty (ten each as they diagnosed three common causes of dyspnea. A second observer recorded emotional tone. All interviews were digitally recorded and blinded transcripts were created. Propositional analysis and concept mapping were performed. Grounded theory was used to identify salient categories and transcripts were scored with these categories. Transcripts were then unblinded. Systematic differences in propositional structure, number of concept connections, distribution of grounded theory categories, episodic and semantic memories, and emotional tone were identified. Summary concept maps were created and grounded theory concepts were explored for each learning level. We identified three major findings: (1 The “apprentice effect” in novices (high stress and low narrative competence; (2 logistic concept growth in intermediates; and (3 a cognitive state transition (between analytical and intuitive approaches in experts. These findings warrant further study and comparison.

  9. Directory of Credit-Granting Policies in Medical Laboratory Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology, Bethesda, MD.

    Ways now exist for medical laboratory workers to advance up the educational career ladder, gaining credit for prior training and/or experience. A total of 369 Certified Medical Laboratory Assistant Schools, colleges with Associate Degree Medical Laboratory Technicians programs, schools of Medical Technology, and colleges with baccalaureate Medical…

  10. Medical Students' Impressions and Satisfactions from Medical Professional Skill Education Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongel, Kurtulus; Mergen, Haluk; Kayacan, Hacer; Yildizhan, Alpaslan

    2008-01-01

    (Background) To help us understand the medical students' reflections about professional skill educations we conducted a study on medical students' conceptions of selected medical phenomena, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, CPR. (Methods) The study was conducted in January 2008, using a sample consisting of medical students from one of the…

  11. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  12. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD HADI IMANIEH

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical students introduced from Medical Faculty to the Pediatrics Department with no personal involvement. 120 medical students were assigned to 8 groups of 15 students each. For four months, 4 groups were trained with traditional method and 4 other groups underwent problem-based learning method on selected subject materials. In each method, a pre-course test at the beginning and a post-course test at the end of each course were given to each group. The questionnaire used in this study as the instrument was composed of 39 questions, 37 multiple choice questions and two short answer questions. Three professors of pediatric gastroenterologist took part in the training. Two of these professors were responsible for solving task training method. The third professor used traditional teacher-centered methodology to eliminate any possible bias. Scores obtained from these tests were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The scores of the students undergoing the traditional method were 14.70±3.03 and 21.20±4.07 in the first and second test, respectively. In problembased learning, the scores were 15.82±3.29 in the first and 27.52±4.72 in the second test. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-course exams of the two groups (p=0.001, while no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of pre-course exams of the groups (p=0.550. Conclusion: It may be

  13. Evaluation of problem-based learning in medical students’ education

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMANIEH, MOHAMMAD HADI; DEHGHANI, SEYED MOHSEN; SOBHANI, AHMAD REZA; HAGHIGHAT, MAHMOOD

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In traditional medical education systems much interest is placed on the cramming of basic and clinical facts without considering their applicability in the future professional career. The aim of this study is to evaluate a novice medical training method (problem-based learning) as compared to the contemporary teacher-based medical education or traditional methods. Methods: Selection of the study subjects was done through simple sampling and according to the division of medical students introduced from Medical Faculty to the Pediatrics Department with no personal involvement. 120 medical students were assigned to 8 groups of 15 students each. For four months, 4 groups were trained with traditional method and 4 other groups underwent problem-based learning method on selected subject materials. In each method, a pre-course test at the beginning and a post-course test at the end of each course were given to each group. The questionnaire used in this study as the instrument was composed of 39 questions, 37 multiple choice questions and two short answer questions. Three professors of pediatric gastroenterologist took part in the training. Two of these professors were responsible for solving task training method. The third professor used traditional teacher-centered methodology to eliminate any possible bias. Scores obtained from these tests were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The scores of the students undergoing the traditional method were 14.70±3.03 and 21.20±4.07 in the first and second test, respectively. In problem-based learning, the scores were 15.82±3.29 in the first and 27.52±4.72 in the second test. There was a significant difference between the mean scores of post-course exams of the two groups (p=0.001), while no significant difference was observed between the mean scores of pre-course exams of the groups (p=0.550). Conclusion: It may be concluded that

  14. Effects of structured written feedback by cards on medical students’ performance at mini clinical evaluation exercise (Mini-CEX) in an outpatient clinic

    OpenAIRE

    FARIBA HAGHANI; MOHAMMAD HATEF KHORAMI; MOHAMMAD FAKHARI

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Feedback cards are recommended as a feasible tool for structured written feedback delivery in clinical education while effectiveness of this tool on the medical students’ performance is still questionable. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of structured written feedback by cards as well as verbal feedback versus verbal feedback alone on the clinical performance of medical students at the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) test in...

  15. Teaching Fellows in undergraduate medical education-the ‎student’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Z.‎; Miller A.‎; Fahim N‎; Sam M.‎

    2012-01-01

    Background: Currently there is a lack of data exploring the value added by Clinical Teaching ‎Fellow posts over teaching led by regular working clinicians.‎Aim: To explore the perceptions of medical students regarding the value attached to having ‎fulltime Teaching Fellows to deliver undergraduate medical education. ‎Method: A total of 521 clinical year medical students from the University of Leicester were ‎asked to complete an online questionnaire.‎Result: 375 medical students responded t...

  16. Case report medical eponyms: an applied clinical informatics opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, L N Guptha Munugoor; Greco, P J; Kaelber, D C

    2012-01-01

    Medical eponyms are medical words derived from people's names. Eponyms, especially similar sounding eponyms, may be confusing to people trying to use them because the terms themselves do not contain physiologically descriptive words about the condition they refer to. Through the use of electronic health records (EHRs), embedded applied clinical informatics tools including synonyms and pick lists that include physiologically descriptive terms associated with any eponym appearing in the EHR can significantly enhance the correct use of medical eponyms. Here we describe a case example of two similar sounding medical eponyms--Wegener's disease and Wegner's disease-- which were confused in our EHR. We describe our solution to address this specific example and our suggestions and accomplishments developing more generalized approaches to dealing with medical eponyms in EHRs. Integrating brief physiologically descriptive terms with medical eponyms provides an applied clinical informatics opportunity to improve patient care.

  17. [Health and school: thoughts on the medicalization of education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Sofia Castanheira; Menezes, Isabel; Nunes, João Arriscado

    2016-01-01

    Children and youth reach school with different starting points. It is not known for sure how far these children and youth will go, and what path the school holds for them, particularly at a stage in which teachers are divided in multi-tasking (with some tasks that are merely administrative). Meanwhile, it is increasingly common to explain students' "inappropriate" behavior in biomedical terms. The increasing emergence of disorders and deficits calls for critical reflection on what they actually involve in public health terms. Thisarticle addresses the school's role in the educational achievement and comprehensive development of students flagged for or with clinical indication of medication based on "fuzzy" diagnoses. The concept of medicalization acquires a central position, and the article discusses its implications based on a set of field notes and interviews with parents and teachers in the North of Portugal. PMID:27653203

  18. Effects of Reflection on Clinical Learning of Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolgasem Amini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Reflection is considered as a critical characteristic in professional competitions. Despite propagation of reflection as an important educational issue and existence of several helpful patterns, instructions conducted by teachers to explaining and expanding of it, are very little. Studies related to this topic were mainly performed in the field of nursing. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effects of reflection on medical students. Methods: In 2012, between July and December, one hundred medical students who were training in pediatric department of Tabriz children´ hospital, were included in this interventional (before and after study. At the beginning a questionnaire was filled by participants as “pretest”. Then, in a workshop, principles of reflection and learning domain were taught to them. A notebook entitled “What I have learned” was prepared by them and daily learning was recorded in three aspects of reflection (mirror, microscope and binocular. After three months the same questionnaires were filled as “posttest”. Results obtained from comparing pretest and posttest and information acquired from students notebook were the basis for statistical analyze.         Results: There was statistically significant difference for each question (P < 0.05.  Deepening the learning, reducing errors, organizing and integrating of individual knowledge, increasing confidence and responsibility, improved patient care and accuracy of interventions were some benefits of this method. Conclusion: Reflection is very helpful educational strategy and can help the students in their communication and increasing skill and knowledge. It also helps to organize and integrate their learning by guiding them in clinical situations.

  19. Comparison of Wound Education in Medical Schools in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Nima P; Granick, Mark S.; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K.; Giannoudis, Peter V.; Werdin, Frank; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Millions of patients are treated annually in the United States, United Kingdom, and Germany with either acute or chronic wounds. The purpose of this study is to compare how the medical education systems in the United States, Germany, and United Kingdom have prepared their physician trainees to deal with clinical issues of wounds. Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the United States by obtaining medical school curriculum data from the American Association of Medical Col...

  20. International electives in the final year of German medical school education – a student's perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius; Agrawal, Mridul; Wahlster, Lara

    2014-01-01

    [english] The final year of medical school has a unique role for introducing students to their future responsibilities and challenges. At many medical schools, electives at an accredited institution abroad are a common part of the student’s final year experience. International electives provide an opportunity for a personal and academic experience that will often create new perspectives on clinical medicine and research, medical education and healthcare policy. In this article the authors ref...

  1. Severe anorexia nervosa in males: clinical presentations and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Allison L; Rosen, Elissa; Mehler, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation and medical complications of severe anorexia nervosa among males were examined to further the understanding of this increasingly prevalent condition. Fourteen males were admitted to a medical stabilization unit over the study period. Males with severe anorexia nervosa were found to have a multitude of significant medical and laboratory abnormalities, which are in need of treatment via judicious, nutritional rehabilitation and weight restoration to prevent additional morbidity and to facilitate transfer and admission to traditional eating disorder programs.

  2. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  3. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified.

  4. The State of Nutrition Education at US Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Kelly M.; W. Scott Butsch; Martin Kohlmeier

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the state of nutrition education at US medical schools and compare it with recommended instructional targets. Method. We surveyed all 133 US medical schools with a four-year curriculum about the extent and type of required nutrition education during the 2012/13 academic year. Results. Responses came from 121 institutions (91% response rate). Most US medical schools (86/121, 71%) fail to provide the recommended minimum 25 hours of nutrition education; 43 (36%) provide less t...

  5. Status of nutrition education in Canadian dental and medical schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, M. L.; Hargreaves, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the present status of nutrition education for dentists and physicians in Canada, we conducted a survey of the nutrition education programs in 10 Canadian dental and 16 medical schools in the academic year 1982-83. Seven of the dental schools and seven of the medical schools had a separate course in nutrition. The average duration of these courses was 22 hours for the dental schools and 26 hours for the medical schools. Nutrition education was integrated with another discipline ...

  6. The Prediction of Academic and Clinical Performance in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Harrison G.; Hall, Wallace B.

    1975-01-01

    A study of medical student performance showed the clinical performance factor more or less unpredictable from aptitude and premedical academic achievement indices while the academic performance factor was forecast with acceptable accuracy by equations based on the Medical College Admissions Test and premedical grade point average. (JT)

  7. Role of Medical Education in Preventing and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases in India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Talwar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available India has approximately 335 medical colleges, which produce around 40,000 medical graduates annually. Even though medical professional have a critical role in prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs including injuries, it has been observed that the present medical and nursing curriculum in India does not adequately cover prevention and control of NCDs. The topics for specific approach to prevent NCDs and various strategies can be incorporated into public health and clinical courses in undergraduate medical education, with brief optional courses in residency and continuing medical education for established practitioners. High-level expert group instituted by Planning Commission of India on Universal Health Coverage recommended that medical education requires greater orientation of providers to the social determinants of health as well as to gender and equity issues. Curricula in medical schools should keep pace with the changing dynamics of public health, health policy, and health demographics. Medical education and training should be reoriented by introducing competency-based, health system connected curricula, and continuous education. There is a need to review of medical curriculum, introducing innovative integrated teaching methods, and capacity building of teachers for meeting the challenge of rising burden of NCDs in India.

  8. Perspective: Competency-based medical education: a defense against the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Mark; Mejicano, George; Gruppen, Larry

    2008-12-01

    Medical education is facing a convergence of challenges that the authors characterize as the four horsemen of the medical education apocalypse: teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Rapidly expanding class sizes and new medical schools are coming online as medical student access to teaching patients is becoming increasingly difficult because of the decreasing length and increasing intensity of hospital stays, concerns about patient safety, patients who are stressed for time, teaching physician shortages and needs for increasing productivity from those who remain, and increasing emphasis on translational research. Further, medical education is facing reductions in funding from all sources, just as it is mounting its first major expansion in 40 years. The authors contend that medical education is on the verge of crisis and that little outside assistance is forthcoming. If medical education is to avoid a catastrophic decline, it will need to take steps to reinvent itself and make optimum use of all available resources. Curriculum materials developed nationally, increased reliance on simulation and standardized patient experiences, and adoption of quality-control methods such as competency-based education are suggested as ways to keep medical education vital in an environment that is increasingly preoccupied with fending off the four horsemen. The authors conclude with a call for a national dialogue about how the medical education community can address the problems represented by the four horsemen, and they offer some potential ways to maintain the vitality of medical education in the face of such overwhelming problems. PMID:19202480

  9. Clinical Research In The International Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivalingam Nalliah

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical research refers to any field ofresearch involving human subjects. Clinicians asresearchers are well placed in contributing to research asthey have access to human subjects and are able to applyresearch results for better patient outcome. The need forclinician-scientists as a dedicated breed is henceimplied. Clinical research has low priority in the agendaof academic clinicians for various reasons. Strategies toovercome such a malady include training in researchmethodology and creating a permissive environment forthe conduct of research. The IMU has introducedseveral measures to enhance clinical research and has avibrant postgraduate program. The BMedSc programmehas seen an increase in MBBS students taking thisdegree. Research is part of the curriculum before theSemester 7 examinations. Clinicians have beenincreasingly seen to be involved in research. Theenhancement of clinical research through encouragingformal clinical research training and development of theMBBS-PhD programs could further enhance clinicalresearch at the IMU. Attention to logistic constraints,improvement in collaboration with the CRC-MOH andother agencies and the close working relationship withscientists will propel clinical research to higher levels.

  10. Pathology in the new pathway of medical education at Harvard Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, R B; Wetzel, M S

    1989-10-01

    In 1985 Harvard Medical School initiated an experimental curriculum that incorporated many of the recommendations of the report on the General Professional Education of the Physician (GPEP). Key features are problem-based small group tutorials that emphasize active learning, with increased independent study time and a decreased number of lectures. Tutors serve as guides to their students and are not necessarily experts in the discipline of the cases studied. Learning skills are taught, including information acquisition and criticism and computer literacy. Knowledge is integrated from the beginning by interdisciplinary basic science courses, by earlier introduction of the clinical sciences, and by juxtaposition of the scientific and humanistic aspects of medicine. Preventive medicine, health maintenance, and ambulatory care are given more attention. The students are organized into societies that provide vertical integration and promote cooperation among students and closer contact with faculty. Pathology has proved to be a popular and key bridge in the new curriculum. The success of the early efforts at Harvard and several pioneering medical schools should encourage others to move toward more problem-solving, student-centered, integrative medical education.

  11. Nonstandard Programs: the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center's next frontier in graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroboth, Frank J; Zerega, W Dennis; Patel, Rita M; Barnes, Barbara E; Webster, Marshall W

    2011-02-01

    The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has seen continuous growth in the number and types of graduate training programs not accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the American Board of Medical Specialties, or the American Osteopathic Association. For the purposes of ensuring best educational products and of controlling unrecognized competition with our accredited programs, a sequential process of centralized oversight of these nonstandard programs was undertaken. The first step involved programs whose fellows were hired and tracked like accredited fellows (i.e., not instructors). The basic process began with consensus among leadership, writing of policy with consultation as necessary, establishment of a registry of programs and graduates, and a committee to allow sharing of best practices and dissemination of policy. The second step applied the same process to instructor-level programs. Whereas the previous group of programs was made subject to ACGME regulations, more latitude in duty hours and progressive responsibility were allowed for instructor programs. The final step, in progress, is extending a similar but modified approach to short-duration clinical experiences and observerships. The outcomes of these efforts have been the creation of a centralized organizational structure, policies to guide this structure, an accurate registry of a surprising number of training programs, and a rolling record of all graduates from these programs. Included in the process is a mechanism that ensures that core program directors and department chairs specifically review the impact of new programs on core programs before allowing their creation. PMID:21169779

  12. Clinical guidelines and the fate of medical autonomy in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappolt, S G

    1997-04-01

    Conceptually, clinical guidelines and professional autonomy have a paradoxical relationship. Despite being the quintessence of medical knowledge at the corporate level, guidelines diminish the clinical autonomy of individual practitioners, and therefore threaten medicine's justification for its autonomy. Theorists have argued that professional autonomy will be retained through elite dominance of practitioners, while comparative research suggests that economic autonomy can be traded off to retain clinical autonomy. Under government pressure to regulate the growth of Ontario physicians' fee-for-service public expenditure, the profession's representative organization, the Ontario Medical Association (OMA), promoted voluntary clinical guidelines, hoping to both constrain costs and preserve professional control over the content of medical care. The OMA collaborated with the Ministry of Health in developing guidelines and establishing a provincial centre for health service research. Ontario's practitioners disregarded the OMA's exhortations to implement clinical guidelines, suggesting that in the absence of external constraints, practitioners can subvert elite dominance. However, practitioners' unchecked clinical and economic autonomy, combined with evidence of wide provincial variations in medical care, served to legitimize the government's increasingly unilateral control over the schedule of insured medical services, and, in 1993, their imposition of a global cap on physicians' fee-for-service income pool. When analysed in the context of ongoing Ministry-OMA relations, the failure of the OMA's guidelines strategy to constrain medical service costs has expedited an overall decline in medical autonomy in Ontario. The emergence and course of Ontario's clinical guidelines movement is consistent with the view that medical autonomy is contingent upon broad class forces, and the conceptualization of professional organizations as instruments for mediated occupational control

  13. [A course for continuing medical education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Hernández, S

    1985-01-01

    To promote continuing medical education, the Central Military Hospital of Mexico offers a course in which the student may develop his skills for finding and using sources of information, applying the scientific method to biomedical research, and communicating the results thereof in writing. The methodology is more self-instructional than expository. The course program is divided into three modules geared to the general objectives, and the duration varies between 10 and 14 weeks. The course is attended in the final stage of the professional training, when the student has just completed his specialization, or when he is beginning it, on the premise that this is the best time to make clear to the physician the need to continue studying and learning throughout life. The author of this article explains why the course is important, states its specific objectives and, in an annex, presents the content of the program. PMID:4029062

  14. [The educational change in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Manuel; Hawes, Gustavo; Castillo, Silvana; Romero, Luis; Rojas, Ana María; Espinoza, Mónica; Oyarzo, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    This paper reports the reflections of a group of members of the University of Chile Faculty of Medicine, about the changes in teaching methods that medical schools should incorporate. In a complex scenario, not only new and better knowledge should be transmitted to students but also values, principles, critical reasoning and leadership, among others. In the first part, a proposal to understand this educational development in the context of complex universities, incorporating pedagogical skills and reviewing institutional leadership, is carried out. In the second part, the training of teaching physicians, as part of the changes, is extensively discussed. Physicians hired as academics in the University should have the opportunity to work mainly as teachers and be relieved of research obligations. For them, teaching should become a legitimate area of academic development. PMID:25424678

  15. Der Einsatz von medizinischen Trainingszentren für die Ausbildung zum Arzt in Deutschland, Österreich und der deutschsprachigen Schweiz [Clinical Skills Labs in Medical Education in Germany, Austria and German Speaking Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Anita

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: Following the reform of the medical licensure law in 2002 German medical faculties have started implementing clinical skills labs. This survey aims to present a review about the stage of development in this domain in Germany as well as in Austria and in German-speaking Switzerland. Method: In the period between August and December 2007 all the 43 medical faculties in Germany, Austria and in German-speaking Switzerland were interviewed with a questionnaire covering 7 topics. The further analysis included skills labs where more than one medical specialty was involved (“central” skills labs Results: The response rate was 100 %. By the time of the survey 33 of the existing 43 faculties maintained a skills lab, 24 of them entered the overview. 22 skills labs were managed by physicians. The number of employees varied between 1 and 8, the number of student tutors between 0 and 40. The size of the existing skills labs varied between below 100 m² and 2500 m². Most of the skills labs (19 based their tuition upon instruction manuals, and 19 worked with simulated patients (mostly using both. In 15 skills labs simulated patients were also set in for assessment. 17 skills labs taught with problem based learning, 16 taught with computer based learning. Questions about personal costs, acquisition cost and current costs were answered scarcely and inhomogeneously. Discussion: The foundation of clinical skills labs in Germany was furthered by the medical licensure law reform and by the recent introduction of tuition fees. Marked similarities amongst the skills labs existed in teaching methods and content and in assessment. The increasing number of new skills labs since tuition fees have been introduced suggests that medical faculties use such resources for the improvement of practical competencies in medical education. Conclusion: In order to save resources we suggest an exchange and co-operation between existing medical skills labs

  16. "Making strange": a role for the humanities in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Arno K; Wear, Delese

    2014-07-01

    Stories, film, drama, and art have been used in medical education to enhance empathy, perspective-taking, and openness to "otherness," and to stimulate reflection on self, others, and the world. Yet another, equally important function of the humanities and arts in the education of physicians is that of "making strange"-that is, portraying daily events, habits, practices, and people through literature and the arts in a way that disturbs and disrupts one's assumptions, perspectives, and ways of acting so that one sees the self, others, and the world anew. Tracing the development of this concept from Viktor Shklovsky's "enstrangement" (ostranenie) through Bertolt Brecht's "alienation effect," this essay describes the use of this technique to disrupt the "automaticity of thinking" in order to discover new ways of perceiving and being in the world.Enstrangement may be used in medical education in order to stimulate critical reflection and dialogue on assumptions, biases, and taken-for-granted societal conditions that may hinder the realization of a truly humanistic clinical practice. In addition to its ability to enhance one's critical understanding of medicine, the technique of "making strange" does something else: By disrupting fixed beliefs, this approach may allow a reexamination of patient-physician relationships in terms of human interactions and provide health care professionals an opportunity-an "open space"-to bear witness and engage with other individuals during challenging times. PMID:24751976

  17. Radiation oncology medical physics education and training in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The training education and accreditation program (TEAP) for radiation oncology commenced formally in Queensland in 2008 with an initial intake of nine registrars. In 2011 there are 17 registrars across four ACPSEM accredited Queensland Health departments (Mater Radiation Oncology Centre, Princess Alexandria Hospital, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Townsville Hospital). The Queensland Statewide Cancer Services Plan 2008-2017 outlines significant expansion to oncology services including increases in total number of treatment machines from 14 (2007) to 29-31 (2017) across existing and new clinical departments. A direct implication of this will be the number of qualified ROMPs needed to maintain and develop medical physics services. This presentation will outline ongoing work in the ROMP education and Training portfolio to develop, facilitate and provide training activities for ROMPs undertaking TEAP in the Queensland public system. Initiatives such as Department of Health and Aging scholarships for medical physics students, and the educational challenges associated with competency attainment will also be discussed in greater detail.

  18. 76 FR 63612 - National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation Meeting AGENCY: National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation, Office of Postsecondary Education, U.S. Department of... of the National Committee on Foreign Medical Education and Accreditation (NCFMEA). For each...

  19. Nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical courses of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the important components of health promotion and disease prevention. However, nutrition literacy of medical students is unclear. This study aims to determine nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 114 medical students in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi hospital were randomly selected. Nutritional knowledge questionnaire was completed. Each correct answer had one score and wrong answers had no score. Results: Of 114 students, 69 students (60.5% were female and 45 students (39.5% were male with the mean age of 24.1±1.5 year. The mean score of students in basic nutrition, nutrition in the life cycle and diet therapy was 4.6±2.2, 6.2±3.2 and 6.2±3.8, respectively. There was significant association between the score of nutrition course and nutritional knowledge score in all of the fields. Conclusion: The average of scores was low. Improving the nutrition courses, especially clinical aspects, during clinical education and presence of nutritionist in treatment teams will be helpful.

  20. Incorporating Nurse-Midwifery Students into Graduate Medical Education: Lessons Learned in Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Rebekah; Shaw-Battista, Jenna; Stotland, Naomi Ellen

    2015-01-01

    There is a current emphasis on interprofessional education in health care with the aim to improve teamwork and ultimately the quality and safety of care. As part of a Health Resources and Services Administration Advanced Nursing Education project, an interprofessional faculty and student team planned and implemented the first didactic coursework for nurse-midwifery and medical students at the University of California, San Francisco and responded to formative feedback in order to create a more meaningful educational experience for future combined cohorts. This article describes the process of including advanced nurse-midwifery students into 2 classes previously offered solely to medical students: 1) an elective in which students are matched with a pregnant woman to observe care that she receives before, during, and after giving birth; and 2) a required course on basic clinical care across the human lifespan. The development of these interprofessional courses, obstacles to success, feedback from students, and responses to course evaluations are reviewed. Themes identified in student course evaluations included uncertainty about interprofessional roles, disparity in clinical knowledge among learners, scheduling difficulties, and desire for more interprofessional education opportunities and additional time for facilitated interprofessional discussion. As a result of this feedback, more class time was designated for interprofessional exchange; less experienced rather than advanced midwifery students were included in both classes; and more interdisciplinary panel presentations were provided, along with clearer communication about student and clinician roles. Early project activities indicated nurse-midwifery students can be effectively included in existing medical student courses with revised curriculum and highlighted challenges that should be considered in the planning phase of similar projects in the future. This article is part of a special series of articles that

  1. Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2013-01-01

    Anonymization of Electronic Medical Records to Support Clinical Analysis closely examines the privacy threats that may arise from medical data sharing, and surveys the state-of-the-art methods developed to safeguard data against these threats. To motivate the need for computational methods, the book first explores the main challenges facing the privacy-protection of medical data using the existing policies, practices and regulations. Then, it takes an in-depth look at the popular computational privacy-preserving methods that have been developed for demographic, clinical and genomic data sharing, and closely analyzes the privacy principles behind these methods, as well as the optimization and algorithmic strategies that they employ. Finally, through a series of in-depth case studies that highlight data from the US Census as well as the Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the book outlines a new, innovative class of privacy-preserving methods designed to ensure the integrity of transferred medical data for su...

  2. Ethik in der Medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung [Ethics in medical education research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marienhagen, Jörg

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available [english] Research ethics criteria that are used for reviewing clinical trials are also applicable to research designs used within the field of medical education. Especially the principles of nonmaleficence, informed consent, and freedom to participate are relevant in this area of research. Due to the high impact of university education on tomorrow’s doctors, high-quality ethical and methodological standards are essential in medical education research. A responsible handling of ethical problems in the area of medical education research requires careful handling of issues concerning participants, informed consent, and the methodology used. As it is obligatory in clinical trials, risk-benefit and cost-performance analyses have to be a part of the complete process, from the planning phase onwards, to avoid potential harm to the participants. Every publication of study results should contain information about the methodology used and the reliability of the data. It is important that the contribution of all mentioned co-authors becomes clear. The authors recommend the constitution of an ethics committee within the German Association for Medical Education (Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung, GMA to support researchers and to meet the interests of all groups involved. Additionally, more and more journals dealing with publications in the area of medical education demand an ethical statement as part of their publication requirements. The GMA is called on to establish such a committee to secure ethical standards for medical education research. [german] Es zeigt sich, dass forschungsethische Kriterien wie in medikamentösen Interventionsstudien auch in der Ausbildungsforschung sinnvoll und ohne große Einschnitte ins Studiendesign applizierbar sind. Das Nichtschadensprinzip, die informierte Einwilligung und Freiwilligkeit der Teilnahme stehen hierbei im Vordergrund. Aus dem hohen Stellenwert der Ausbildung für Studierende begründet sich ein

  3. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedures--Bacteriology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    This manual presents laboratory procedures for the differentiation and identification of disease agents from clinical materials. Included are procedures for the collection of specimens, preparation of culture media, pure culture methods, cultivation of the microorganisms in natural and simulated natural environments, and procedures in…

  4. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, G

    2014-08-01

    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service

  5. Why medical education is being (inexorably) re-imagined and re-designed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Clinchot, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The last widespread reimagining and substantive reform in medical student education followed the Flexner Report (published 1910). Given the dramatic changes in educational methods, pedagogy, and technology, and the dramatic changes in society, medical education has inexorably evolved in intentional and unintentional ways. The transition from the post-Flexnerian model (university-based education with the first 2 years organized around classroom didactics, laboratory/anatomy learning followed by 2 years of inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences organized around a distribution of block and elective rotations) to the models of today (highlighting early clinical exposure, integration of foundational and clinical sciences, longitudinal learning experiences, promotion of self-directed learning skills, and competency-based education) is underway. The focus now is to prepare graduates for the continued explosion of medical knowledge, technological development and expanded patient and societal expectations that increasingly characterize this century. The following five important developments in medical education drive these re-imaging and re-design efforts: (1) patient, societal and governmental pressure to deliver on the Triple Aim; (2) conceptualization of medical education as a translational science; (3) medical knowledge and technology will continue to expand and accelerate the pace of new development; (4) new expectations of present and future generations of learners; and (5) better understanding of the neurobiology of learning. The impact of these developments, and our responses as those dedicated to educating the present and future physicians, will determine much of the outcomes in this journey to evidence-based medical education. With all of the information and techniques available to the inquisitive and diligent teacher, there will be ample rewards for teaching well done. PMID:24981662

  6. Why medical education is being (inexorably) re-imagined and re-designed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John D; Clinchot, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The last widespread reimagining and substantive reform in medical student education followed the Flexner Report (published 1910). Given the dramatic changes in educational methods, pedagogy, and technology, and the dramatic changes in society, medical education has inexorably evolved in intentional and unintentional ways. The transition from the post-Flexnerian model (university-based education with the first 2 years organized around classroom didactics, laboratory/anatomy learning followed by 2 years of inpatient and outpatient clinical experiences organized around a distribution of block and elective rotations) to the models of today (highlighting early clinical exposure, integration of foundational and clinical sciences, longitudinal learning experiences, promotion of self-directed learning skills, and competency-based education) is underway. The focus now is to prepare graduates for the continued explosion of medical knowledge, technological development and expanded patient and societal expectations that increasingly characterize this century. The following five important developments in medical education drive these re-imaging and re-design efforts: (1) patient, societal and governmental pressure to deliver on the Triple Aim; (2) conceptualization of medical education as a translational science; (3) medical knowledge and technology will continue to expand and accelerate the pace of new development; (4) new expectations of present and future generations of learners; and (5) better understanding of the neurobiology of learning. The impact of these developments, and our responses as those dedicated to educating the present and future physicians, will determine much of the outcomes in this journey to evidence-based medical education. With all of the information and techniques available to the inquisitive and diligent teacher, there will be ample rewards for teaching well done.

  7. The Government-Medical Education Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.

  8. The Current State of Medical Education in Chinese Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosik, Russell Oliver; Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Xu, Guo-Tong; Zhao, Xudong; Guo, Li; Tang, Wen; Chen, Qi; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Today's doctor is as much a humanist as a scientist. Medical schools have responded to this change by introducing a variety of courses, most notably those concerning the humanities and ethics. Thus far, no one has examined the extent of use of these subjects in Chinese medical schools. The goal of this study is to determine how many and in…

  9. Community-Based Clinical Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailit, Howard

    1999-01-01

    This "theme" issue offers 17 articles all on the subject of dentistry education programs sponsored by the Macy project, a 24-month effort to assess the feasibility of "community-based clinical dental education." Following an introduction, articles are grouped into those concerning problems (financing dental education, public financing of dental…

  10. Clinical capabilities of graduates of an outcomes-based integrated medical program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicluna Helen A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of New South Wales (UNSW Faculty of Medicine replaced its old content-based curriculum with an innovative new 6-year undergraduate entry outcomes-based integrated program in 2004. This paper is an initial evaluation of the perceived and assessed clinical capabilities of recent graduates of the new outcomes-based integrated medical program compared to benchmarks from traditional content-based or process-based programs. Method Self-perceived capability in a range of clinical tasks and assessment of medical education as preparation for hospital practice were evaluated in recent graduates after 3 months working as junior doctors. Responses of the 2009 graduates of the UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated medical education program were compared to those of the 2007 graduates of UNSW’s previous content-based program, to published data from other Australian medical schools, and to hospital-based supervisor evaluations of their clinical competence. Results Three months into internship, graduates from UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated program rated themselves to have good clinical and procedural skills, with ratings that indicated significantly greater capability than graduates of the previous UNSW content-based program. New program graduates rated themselves significantly more prepared for hospital practice in the confidence (reflective practice, prevention (social aspects of health, interpersonal skills (communication, and collaboration (teamwork subscales than old program students, and significantly better or equivalent to published benchmarks of graduates from other Australian medical schools. Clinical supervisors rated new program graduates highly capable for teamwork, reflective practice and communication. Conclusions Medical students from an outcomes-based integrated program graduate with excellent self-rated and supervisor-evaluated capabilities in a range of clinically-relevant outcomes. The program

  11. Clinical Legal Education Models: Recommended Assessment Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Riette (MA) du Plessis

    2015-01-01

    Clinical legal education (CLE) forms part of the LLB curriculum at most South African Universities. There are many similarities in the approach to CLE, but often also many differences. The clinical models of four South African university law clinics are reviewed in an effort to find suitable models. It is indicated that formulating a mission for the law clinic will have a direct impact on the clinical model chosen. The integration of CLE courses into the core curriculum of the law school will...

  12. Improving medical graduates' training in palliative care: advancing education and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Head BA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara A Head,1 Tara J Schapmire,1 Lori Earnshaw,1 John Chenault,2 Mark Pfeifer,1 Susan Sawning,3 Monica A Shaw,3 1Division of General Internal Medicine, Palliative Care and Medical Education, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 2Kornhouser Health Sciences Library, University of Louisville, 3Undergraduate Medical Education Office, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: The needs of an aging population and advancements in the treatment of both chronic and life-threatening diseases have resulted in increased demand for quality palliative care. The doctors of the future will need to be well prepared to provide expert symptom management and address the holistic needs (physical, psychosocial, and spiritual of patients dealing with serious illness and the end of life. Such preparation begins with general medical education. It has been recommended that teaching and clinical experiences in palliative care be integrated throughout the medical school curriculum, yet such education has not become the norm in medical schools across the world. This article explores the current status of undergraduate medical education in palliative care as published in the English literature and makes recommendations for educational improvements which will prepare doctors to address the needs of seriously ill and dying patients. Keywords: medical education, palliative care, end-of-life care

  13. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  14. Medication Management in Primary and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of Mental Health Related In-Service Education in Local Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, Thomas J.; Desai, Archana; Workman, Gloria; Atkin, John A.; Grady, Sarah; Todd, Timothy; Nguyen, Nhu; Watkins, Melissa; Tran, Kim; Liu, Nian; Rafinski, Michelle; Dang, Thanh

    2008-01-01

    An increasing number of students are taking medications while they are in school or are under the influence of medication during school hours. In a novel effort, clinical pharmacists and mental health therapists worked together to provide "mini-in-service" educational programs on psychological disorders and medications used to treat these…

  15. A prescription that addresses the decline of basic science education in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel; Thornton, Christina S; Keough, Michael B; Roberts, Jodie I; Yipp, Bryan; Hollenberg, Morley; Bau, Jason T; Peplowski, Michael A; Beck, Paul L

    2014-10-04

    Over 30 years ago a cry rang out through the proverbial halls of academia; "The clinician scientist is an endangered species." These prophetic words have been reverberated in the ears of every specialty and every general medical organization in deafening tones. Why is the role of the clinician scientist or clinician investigator so important that this phrase has been repeated subsequently in medical and educational journals? Simply put, the clinician scientist bridges the ravine between the ever-growing mountain of scientific knowledge and the demanding patient centered clinical care. Here, we describe the current educational model established by the University of Calgary, Leaders in Medicine Program. Our program seeks to train future physicians and clinician scientists by incorporating training in basic science, translational and clinical research with clinical and medical education in a longitudinal program to students of traditional MD/PhD, MD/MSc or MD/MBA stream as well as interested Doctor of Medicine students.

  16. Education and research in medical optronics in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

    2000-06-01

    First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

  17. Patients′ attitude towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukhari Iqbal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the attitudes of the patients towards medical students rotating in the dermatology clinic in the King Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU. Materials and Methods: One hundred and two adult outpatients attending the KFHU in Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia during the period March to June 2004 completed a questionnaire to evaluate their receptiveness towards medical students attending with the dermatologist. Results: Almost 57% preferred physician and medical student participation in their care and 46% welcomed their presence during physical examination. The majority of patients (64.8% felt comfortable disclosing personal information to the medical student and (68.7% enjoyed the interaction with the medical students. Patients (63.7% agreed that the students understood their healthcare needs. Conclusion: The majority of the patients in this study enjoyed their interactions with the students and felt comfortable disclosing information. Some patients want to spend time alone with the physician so permission for medical student participation should be requested.

  18. Monitor Preference for Electronic Medical Record in Outpatient Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong Soo; Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Jon Soo; Yun, Jonghoar; Baek, Hyun Young; Baek, Rong-Min; Hwang, Hee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this paper is to assess which wide type monitor configurations are preferred when physicians use an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system in an outpatient clinic setting. Methods We selected three kinds of monitor configurations available for adoption at outpatient clinics with reference to monitor market trends. Fifteen attending physicians of the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital used each monitor configuration in their outpatient clinics. After complet...

  19. Palliative and end of life care communication as emerging priorities in postgraduate medical education

    OpenAIRE

    des Ordons, Amanda Roze; Ajjawi, Rola; MacDonald, John; Sarti, Aimee; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Hartwick, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background Reliance on surveys and qualitative studies of trainees to guide postgraduate education about palliative and end of life (EOL) communication may lead to gaps in the curriculum. We aimed to develop a deeper understanding of internal medicine trainees’ educational needs for a palliative and EOL communication curriculum and how these needs could be met. Methods Mixed methods, including a survey and focus groups with trainees, and interviews with clinical faculty and medical educators,...

  20. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  1. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Nuclear Medicine (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasingly technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for nuclear medicine. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists who are based in a clinical setting. However an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) for the Asia-Pacific region. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in this region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specialising in nuclear medicine was started in 2009 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experience of clinical training in Australia, Croatia and Sweden and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. The present publication follows the approach of earlier IAEA publications in the Training Course Series, specifically Nos 37 and 47, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Radiation Oncology and Clinical Training of Medical Physicists

  2. The role of the postgraduate medical education and training board

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB) is a new organisation set up to develop, establish, and maintain standards and requirements for postgraduate medical education (PGME) and training. First trailed in the NHS Plan,1 its remit covers the UK. As such it aims to be a single, unifying framework for doctors in training.

  3. Promoting Interdisciplinary Collaboration: Trainees Addressing Siloed Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Robert Li; Christodoulou, Joanna; Goldman, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Professional siloing within medical institutions has been identified as a problem in medical education, including resident training. The authors discuss how trainees from different disciplines can collaborate to address this problem. Method: A group of trainees from psychiatry, developmental medicine, neurology, and education came…

  4. 42 CFR 412.322 - Indirect medical education adjustment factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indirect medical education adjustment factor. 412.322 Section 412.322 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Capital-Related Costs § 412.322 Indirect medical education adjustment factor. (a) Basic data....

  5. Storytelling: Discourse Analysis for Understanding Collective Perceptions of Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovides, Yianna; Inman, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Using discourse analysis, the goal of this exploratory project was to determine what practitioners of medical education in Sub-Saharan Africa considered key achievements, within the scope of their Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) activities, after their initial two-year implementation efforts. To do so, a series of 58 video stories…

  6. Medical Education and the Physician Workforce of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mosawi, Aamir Jalal

    2008-01-01

    The lack of resources in a country experiencing decades of successive wars, blockade, administrative corruption, and poor governance led to deteriorated standards throughout medical education. Although professional certification programs exist, continuing medical education accreditation and credit systems are required to monitor and certify the…

  7. Positive Porn: Educational, Medical, and Clinical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mary Ann; Smith, Randyl D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its widespread use, pornography has been vilified as a symptom of personal and cultural depravity and as a cause of rape, aggression, devaluation of women, and marital dissolution. Yet in some cases there may be personal, relational, and social value to the use of sexually explicit material. In this paper, we briefly review the literature,…

  8. Expected Benefits of Streamlining Undergraduate Medical Education by Early Commitment to Specific Medical Specialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbassat, Jochanan; Baumal, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    Undergraduate medical education is too long; it does not meet the needs for physicians' workforce; and its content is inconsistent with the job characteristics of some of its graduates. In this paper we attempt to respond to these problems by streamlining medical education along the following three reforms. First, high school graduates would be…

  9. Medical education in India: current challenges and the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Anjali; Kashyap, Surender

    2014-12-01

    Medical education in India is suffering from various shortcomings at conceptual as well as implementation level. With the expansion in medical education, the doctor to patient ratio has increased but these numbers do not align well with the overall quality of medical care in the country. To address this issue, a comprehensive analysis of various associated factors is essential. Indian medical education is suffering from a maldistribution of resources, unregulated growth in the private sector, lack of uniform admission procedures and traditional curricula lacking innovative approaches. To achieve higher standards of medical education, our goal should be to re-evaluate each and every aspect; create an efficient accreditation system; promote an equal distribution of resources, redesign curricula with stricter implementation and improved assessment methodologies; all of which will generate efficient medical graduates and consequently better health care delivery, and resulting in desired change within the system.

  10. Widening Participation in Medical Education: Challenging Elitism and Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursicot, Kathy; Roberts, Trudie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine issues relating to the enduring nature of elitism and exclusion in medical education by exploring the changes in social and policy influences on the admission and inclusion of women and disabled people to undergraduate medical courses and the medical profession. The widening participation imperative in the United Kingdom…

  11. Economic analysis in medical education: definition of essential terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kieran

    2014-10-01

    Medical education is expensive. There is a growing interest in the subject of cost and value in medical education. However, in the medical education literature, terms are sometimes used loosely - and so there is a need for basic grounding in the meaning of commonly used and important terms in medical education economics. The purpose of this article is to define some terms that are frequently used in economic analysis in medical education. In this article, terms are described, and the descriptions are followed by a worked example of how the terms might be used in practice. The following terms are described: opportunity cost, total cost of ownership, sensitivity analysis, viewpoint, activity-based costing, efficiency, technical efficiency, allocative efficiency, price and transaction costs.

  12. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus. American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director co-ordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  13. Report of the American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director coordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  14. Enabling Access to Medical and Health Education in Rwanda Using Mobile Technology: Needs Assessment for the Development of Mobile Medical Educator Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Brian; Dusabejambo, Vincent; Ndayiragije, Vincent; Gonsalves, Snedden; Sawant, Aishwarya; Mumararungu, Angeline; Gasana, George; Amendezo, Etienne; Haake, Anne; Mutesa, Leon

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of access to health and medical education resources for doctors in the developing world is a serious global health problem. In Rwanda, with a population of 11 million, there is only one medical school, hence a shortage in well-trained medical staff. The growth of interactive health technologies has played a role in the improvement of health care in developed countries and has offered alternative ways to offer continuous medical education while improving patient's care. However, low and middle-income countries (LMIC) like Rwanda have struggled to implement medical education technologies adapted to local settings in medical practice and continuing education. Developing a user-centered mobile computing approach for medical and health education programs has potential to bring continuous medical education to doctors in rural and urban areas of Rwanda and influence patient care outcomes. Objective The aim of this study is to determine user requirements, currently available resources, and perspectives for potential medical education technologies in Rwanda. Methods Information baseline and needs assessments data collection were conducted in all 44 district hospitals (DHs) throughout Rwanda. The research team collected qualitative data through interviews with 16 general practitioners working across Rwanda and 97 self-administered online questionnaires for rural areas. Data were collected and analyzed to address two key questions: (1) what are the currently available tools for the use of mobile-based technology for medical education in Rwanda, and (2) what are user's requirements for the creation of a mobile medical education technology in Rwanda? Results General practitioners from different hospitals highlighted that none of the available technologies avail local resources such as the Ministry of Health (MOH) clinical treatment guidelines. Considering the number of patients that doctors see in Rwanda, an average of 32 patients per day, there is need for a

  15. MCI Regulations on Graduate Medical Education, 2012- Are we ready for paradigm shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj R Patel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical college equips medical students with the scientific background and technical skills they need for practice. But it is equally important for the new graduates to both understand and commit to high personal and professional values. Globally, there is an increasing concern among society about doctors‘ adequacy of the scientific education, clinical skills, interactions with patients and commitment to improving healthcare and providing leadership. India is no exception with frequent hue and cry expressed about proficiency of our doctors. Obviously a need has been felt since long for overhauling our medical education to make it more relevant to the role of future graduates as ―Good Doctors‖.

  16. Social accountability of medical education: Aspects on global accreditation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation ...

  17. EFSUMB statement on medical student education in ultrasound [short version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantisani, V; Dietrich, C F; Badea, R; Dudea, S; Prosch, H; Cerezo, E; Nuernberg, D; Serra, A L; Sidhu, P S; Radzina, M; Piscaglia, F; Bachmann Nielsen, M; Calliada, F; Gilja, O H

    2016-02-01

    The European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recommends that ultrasound should be used systematically as an easy accessible and instructive educational tool in the curriculum of modern medical schools. Medical students should acquire theoretical knowledge of the modality and hands-on training should be implemented and adhere to evidence-based principles. In this paper we summarise EFSUMB policy statements on medical student education in ultrasound. PMID:26871409

  18. What Can We Learn From Narratives in Medical Education?

    OpenAIRE

    Johna, Samir; Woodward, Brandon; Patel, Sunal

    2014-01-01

    Medical literature has demonstrated the effectiveness of narrative writing in enhancing self-reflection and empathy, which opens the door for deeper understanding of patients’ experiences of illness. Similarly, it promotes practitioner well-being. Therefore, it is no surprise that narrative writing finds a new home in medical education. The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), through its Outcome Project, established six core competencies that every residency program m...

  19. How well do final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Störmann, Sylvère

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The clinical examination and other practical clinical skills are fundamental to guide diagnosis and therapy. The teaching of such practical skills has gained significance through legislative changes and adjustments of the curricula of medical schools in Germany. We sought to find out how well final year undergraduate medical students master practical clinical skills.Methods: We conducted a formative 4-station objective structured clinical examination (OSCE focused on practical clinical skills during the final year of undergraduate medical education. Participation was voluntary. Besides the examination of heart, lungs, abdomen, vascular system, lymphatic system as well as the neurological, endocrinological or orthopaedic examination we assessed other basic clinical skills (e.g. interpretation of an ECG, reading a chest X-ray. Participants filled-out a questionnaire prior to the exam, inter alia to give an estimate of their performance.Results: 214 final year students participated in our study and achieved a mean score of 72.8% of the total score obtainable. 9.3% of participants (n=20 scored insufficiently (<60%. We found no influence of sex, prior training in healthcare or place of study on performance. Only one third of the students correctly estimated their performance (35.3%, whereas 30.0% and 18.8% over-estimated their performance by 10% and 20% respectively.Discussion: Final year undergraduate medical students demonstrate considerable deficits performing practical clinical skills in the context of a formative assessment. Half of the students over-estimate their own performance. We recommend an institutionalised and frequent assessment of practical clinical skills during undergraduate medical education, especially in the final year.

  20. Comparison of medication reconciliation and medication review: errors and clinical importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjeldbak-Olesen, Mette; Danielsen, Anja Gadsbølle; Tomsen, Dorthe Vilstrup;

    2013-01-01

    of Cardiology, Hillerød Hos­pital. Medication reconciliation compared the prescriptions in patient records, an electronic medication system (EMS) and in discharge summaries (DS). The medication review was based on the EMS. The two methods were performed on the same data material. To assess the clinical...... importance of the errors, a four-point scale was applied. Results: A total of 75 patient records were included. In all, 198 discrepancies were identified by medication reconcili­ation, 2.6 per patient. The most frequent discrepancies were omission of a drug in the DS and discrepancy between the drugs noted...

  1. Ethnographic nexus analysis in clinical nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Purpose;Internationally, student nurses' attrition after clinical practice is an increasing problem (Hamshire, Willgoss, & Wibberley, 2012; Pilegård Jensen, 2006). A better understanding of 'becoming a nurse' as situated practice in the hospital wards might help avoid pitfalls in the clinical...... practice. Thus a thorough insight into the field is necessary in order to change it. The purpose of this paper is to show and discuss how it is possible methodologically to do ethnographic research in clinical education and how the field of clinical nursing education in the hospital wards might be improved...... practice in the health care settings.Findings;The paper contributes with insights into the field of clinical nursing education, gained through a thorough methodological framework of nexus analysis as an ethnographic way to conduct research in education and grasp the various multimodal social actions...

  2. Clinical Experience of Medical Students at University Sains Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Quah, Ban Seng; Malik, Alam Sher; Simpson, Hamish

    2000-01-01

    Experience of acute medical, surgical conditions, and clinical procedures of undergraduate students were assessed via a questionnaire survey during the final week of the 1993/1998 programme at the School of Medical Sciences, Univestiti Sains Malaysia. Individual performances were assessed by a scoring system. One hundred and twenty four students responded, (response rate 97%). More than 90% had seen myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, respiratory distress, gastroenteri...

  3. Learning style preferences among pre-clinical medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Aye Aye Mon; Amirah Fatini; Chang Wei Ye; Mohamad Ammar Barakat; Paw Lih Jen; Tai Ken Lin

    2014-01-01

    Generally, different students employ different learning styles dur-ing their studies and medical students are exposed to diverse methods of teaching. Therefore, understanding students’ learning style preference is an important consideration for a high quality and effective teaching and learning process.The aim of the study was to study the variation of learning styles among pre-clinical medical students of SEGi University, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was performed by using VARK (Visual,...

  4. The development of scientific reasoning in medical education: a psychological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Daniela Luminita; Achimaş-Cadariu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Scientific reasoning has been studied from a variety of theoretical perspectives, which have tried to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of this particular cognitive process. Scientific reasoning has been defined as a problem-solving process that involves critical thinking in relation to content, procedural, and epistemic knowledge. The development of scientific reasoning in medical education was influenced by current paradigmatic trends, it could be traced along educational curriculum and followed cognitive processes. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the role of scientific reasoning in medical education and outline educational methods for its development. Current evidence suggests that medical education should foster a new ways of development of scientific reasoning, which include exploration of the complexity of scientific inquiry, and also take into consideration the heterogeneity of clinical cases found in practice. PMID:27004023

  5. Doctors or technicians: assessing quality of medical education

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyab Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Tayyab HasanPAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, University Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, BruneiAbstract: Medical education institutions usually adapt industrial quality management models that measure the quality of the process of a program but not the quality of the product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of industrial quality management models on medical education and students, and to highlight the importance of introducing a proper educational quality manageme...

  6. Self-Determination in Medical Education: Encouraging Medical Educators to Be More like Blues Artists and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Williams, Geoffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, medical education has focused largely on medical students' intellectual development, mostly ignoring the broader psychological milieu of medical practice. This chasm can result in practitioners who are less likely to process their emotions and/or support their patient's needs, and more likely to experience burnout. Self-determination…

  7. Incorporating the principles of the patient- centered medical home into a student-run free clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddle MC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Megan C Riddle,1,* Jiahui Lin,3,* Jonathan B Steinman,2 Joshua D Salvi,2 Margaret M Reynolds,3 Anne S Kastor,3,† Christina Harris,4 Carla Boutin-Foster3 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, 2Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan-Kettering Tri-Institutional MD–PhD Program, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, 4Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, LA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work †Anne S Kastor passed away on July 5, 2013. Abstract: As the health care delivery landscape changes, medical schools must develop creative strategies for preparing future physicians to provide quality care in this new environment. Despite the growing prominence of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH as an effective model for health care delivery, few medical schools have integrated formal education on the PCMH into their curricula. Incorporating the PCMH model into medical school curricula is important to ensure that students have a comprehensive understanding of the different models of health care delivery and can operate effectively as physicians. The authors provide a detailed description of the process by which the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC, a student-run free clinic, has integrated PCMH principles into a service-learning initiative. The authors assessed patient demographics, diagnoses, and satisfaction along with student satisfaction. During the year after a PCMH model was adopted, 112 students and 19 licensed physicians volunteered their time. A review of the 174 patients seen from July 2011 to June 2012 found that the most common medical reasons for visits included management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, anxiety, and depression. During the year after the adoption of the PCMH model, 87

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AMONG MEDICAL UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Ramamurthy; Lilian D; Ranganath; Arun Mohan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The improved health of all people is the ultimate goal of medical education. Every student works hard to get into the best educational institution in order to pursue a competent career. Every institution has its core objective as imparting high standards of education and bringing out well trained students. The environment in which a student learns and grows is crucial to the overall development. AIM: To assess the perceptions of medical students of their educat...

  9. Need for injury-prevention education in medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Isaac; Sayegh, Rockan; Lotfipour, Shahram; Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury.

  10. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  11. 临床药师开展用药教育对老年高血压合并高胆固醇血症患者的影响%The Effect of Medication Education from Clinical Pharmacists on the Elderly Hypertension Patients with Hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳萍; 王烨; 李影影; 邢玉晶; 蔡郁

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨临床药师开展用药教育对老年高血压合并高胆固醇血症患者用药依从性及治疗达标率的影响。方法:依据是否实施用药教育将老年高血压合并高胆固醇血症患者分为试验组和对照组,分别在用药教育前和教育后半年对2组患者进行用药依从性和治疗达标率的调查。结果:临床药师通过用药教育可提高老年高血压合并高胆固醇血症患者的用药依从性和降压调脂治疗达标率。结论:影响老年高血压合并高胆固醇血症患者用药依从性的因素是多方面的,临床药师可通过个体化的用药指导,提高药物治疗的依从性及治疗达标率。%Objective: To discuss the effect of medication education from clinical pharmacists on medication compliance and therapeutic efficiency of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension treatment for the elderly hypertension patients. Methods: Elderly hypertension patients with hypercholesterolemia were randomly divided into intervention group and control group. The intervention group was given medication education, while control group was not. Medication compliance and the rate of patient reaching the treatment standard were investigated before the intervention and 0.5 year after the intervention. Results:Medication education from clinical pharmacists couldsignificantly enhance medication compliance and increase the rate of patient reaching the standard of blood pressure and lipid lowering therapy. Conclusion:There were many influential factors which could affect medication compliance of the elderly hypertension patients with hypercholesterolemia. Clinical pharmacists could improve patient medication compliance and therapeutic efficiency with individual medication education.

  12. Nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD REZA HEIDARI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of optimal clinical nursing education in professional skills development is undeniable. In clinical education, nursing students are often faced with problems. Recognizing nursing students’ perception on clinical education is the first step to remove the barriers of this challenge. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education. 150 nursing students were selected randomly from nursing and midwifery schools (Tehran. Data collection instrument was a researcher made questionnaire consisting of five domains: objective and curricula, instructor, feedback to student in clinical field, clinical environment, supervision and evaluation. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for each item, using SPSS, ver. 14. Chi-square test was used to compare the nursing students’ perspectives on clinical education based on age, sex and the work experience. The significance level was considered 0.05. Results: Mean age of the students was 21.58±26.97 students (66% were male. 44 students (30.1% had work experience (3.58±6.48 month. Male and female students had different perceptions in domains of clinical education (p<0.05. Nursing student had different perceptions as to objectives and curricula (p=0.039, how to deal with students in the clinical environment (p=0.032, supervision, and evaluation (p<0.001 with respect to their work experience duration. The most positive responses were in clinical instructor (81.5% and the most negative ones were the clinical environment (33.66%, respectively. Conclusion: Providing an optimal clinical environment and improving the supervision and evaluation of student practice should prioritized in schools of nursing and midwifery.

  13. Clinical and Educational Gaps in Diagnosis of Nail Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Anna Q; Rich, Phoebe

    2016-07-01

    Dermatologists care for skin, hair, and nails, yet many dermatologists find nail disorders challenging. Practice gaps in knowledge, skill, and attitude in clinical practice and resident education are sometimes impediments to timely medical and surgical diagnosis of nail disorders. Limited resident exposure to diagnosis and management of complicated nail disorders and lack of experience performing diagnostic and surgical procedures impairs progress toward surmounting these gaps. PMID:27363883

  14. Toward a more professional and practical medical education: a novel Central European approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drexel H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heinz Drexel,1–4,* Alexander Vonbank,1–3,* Peter Fraunberger,3,5 Walter F Riesen,3 Christoph H Saely1–3 1Vorarlberg Institute for Vascular Investigation and Treatment, 2Department of Medicine and Cardiology, Academic Teaching Hospital Feldkirch, Feldkirch, Austria; 3Private University of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Triesen, Liechtenstein; 4Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 5Medical Central Laboratories, Feldkirch, Austria  *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We here present an innovative curriculum for a complete medical education that conforms to the current European Bologna system of academic training. The curriculum aims at raising doctors who are excellently prepared for clinical work over as short a time as 5 years; it provides a comprehensive, yet shorter than usual, education that strongly pronounces the importance of increasing the students’ practical clinical competences and rigorously excludes superfluous contents. The curriculum encompasses 52 modules, 32 at the bachelor’s and 20 at the master’s level. Already at the level of the bachelor degree, full employability is given; the students finish the master’s course as medical doctors optimally prepared to manage patients at the level of postgraduate medical education. The structure of the curriculum is modular; each modular component is essential for medical education and contains an average of five European Credit Transfer System credits, amounting to 150 hours of education. Depending on the subspecialty, the courses include lectures, seminars, practical laboratory training, and clinical training at varying quantities. In addition to attendance times, sufficient time slots are prepared for self-study in lectures, seminars, and practical work. With our curriculum, we provide an easily applicable backbone for a modern course of medicine that can be installed also at smaller academic institutions. Keywords: Bologna

  15. Medical Device Data and Modeling for Clinical Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Zaleski, John R

    2010-01-01

    This cutting-edge volume is the first book that provides you with practical guidance on the use of medical device data for bioinformatics modeling purposes. You learn how to develop original methods for communicating with medical devices within healthcare enterprises and assisting with bedside clinical decision making. The book guides in the implementation and use of clinical decision support methods within the context of electronic health records in the hospital environment.This highly valuable reference also teaches budding biomedical engineers and bioinformaticists the practical benefits of

  16. [How Can We Cuddle Up to Dying Patients? Attempts of Cancer Philosophy Clinic and Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    What is needed to treat problems about how can we cuddle up to dying patients is not scientific thinking but philosophical thinking. Cancer philosophy clinic is a place where both patients and medical staffs think about death and how to live until death. The author tries to manage cancer philosophy clinic with the idea of logotherapy and terminal art. The author also tries to educate medical students and other medical staffs in cancer philosophy.

  17. [How Can We Cuddle Up to Dying Patients? Attempts of Cancer Philosophy Clinic and Education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2016-03-01

    What is needed to treat problems about how can we cuddle up to dying patients is not scientific thinking but philosophical thinking. Cancer philosophy clinic is a place where both patients and medical staffs think about death and how to live until death. The author tries to manage cancer philosophy clinic with the idea of logotherapy and terminal art. The author also tries to educate medical students and other medical staffs in cancer philosophy. PMID:27097505

  18. 78 FR 13347 - Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General...

  19. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W.

    2011-01-01

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Objective We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Methods A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World W...

  20. Nursing preceptors' experiences of two clinical education models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Hellström-Hyson, Eva; Persson, Elisabeth; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2014-08-01

    Preceptors play an important role in the process of developing students' knowledge and skills. There is an ongoing search for the best learning and teaching models in clinical education. Little is known about preceptors' perspectives on different models. The aim of the study was to describe nursing preceptors' experiences of two clinical models of clinical education: peer learning and traditional supervision. A descriptive design and qualitative approach was used. Eighteen preceptors from surgical and medical departments at two hospitals were interviewed, ten representing peer learning (student work in pairs) and eight traditional supervision (one student follows a nurse during a shift). The findings showed that preceptors using peer learning created room for students to assume responsibility for their own learning, challenged students' knowledge by refraining from stepping in and encouraged critical thinking. Using traditional supervision, the preceptors' individual ambitions influenced the preceptorship and their own knowledge was empathized as being important to impart. They demonstrated, observed and gradually relinquished responsibility to the students. The choice of clinical education model is important. Peer learning seemed to create learning environments that integrate clinical and academic skills. Investigation of pedagogical models in clinical education should be of major concern to managers and preceptors. PMID:24512652

  1. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M. Molenaar; A. Zanting; P. van Beukelen; W. de Grave; J.A. Baane; J.A. Bustraan; R. Engbers; T.E. Fick; J.C.G. Jacobs; J.M. Vervoorn

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education th

  2. A framework of teaching competencies across the medical education continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W. M.; Zanting, A.; Van Beukelen, P.; De Grave, W.; Baane, J. A.; Bustraan, J. A.; Engbers, R.; Fick, Th E.; Jacobs, J. C. G.; Vervoorn, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The quality of teachers in higher education is Subject of increasing attention, its exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Aim: Because medical education takes a special position in higher education t

  3. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprawls, P [Emory University and Sprawls Educational Foundation, Montreat, NC (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  4. MO-E-18C-06: Enriching Medical Physics Education By Visualizing The Invisible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enhance the understanding of medical physics concepts and develop higher levels of learning relating to invisible physics phenomena such as radiation. To provide medical physics educators in all countries of the world with understanding of knowledge structures in the human brain, the different levels of learning, and the types of knowledge required for higher level functions such as problem solving, creative innovations, and applied clinical applications. To provide medical physics educators with an open access resource (tool) that they can use in their teaching activities to enrich and elevate the level of learning for their students, residents, etc. with respect to the invisible realm of medical physics. Methods: An experienced clinical medical physicist and educator has created and provided with open access three complementary web-based resources to achieve the purposes described above. One is a module focusing on the medical physics learning process with respect to mental knowledge structures, how they relate to outcomes and applications, and learning activities that are required to develop the required knowledge structures. The second is an extensive set of visuals that educators can use in their activities (classes, small group discussions, etc.) to visualize the invisible. The third is an interactive online simulation where learners can adjust factors and visually observe changes in x-radiation.These resources are available online at www.BLINDED FOR REVIEW . Results: Medical physics education, especially for non-physicists, is becoming much more interesting and useful especially with respect to invisible radiation. The global impact is that medical imaging professionals can be more effective in optimizing x-ray imaging procedures and risk management when they have knowledge levels that enhance problem solving, innovation, and creativity. Conclusion: Medical physics educators in all institutions can be much more effective and efficient in the

  5. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community.

  6. Medical students' use of Facebook for educational purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Anam

    2016-06-01

    Medical students use Facebook to interact with one another both socially and educationally. This study investigates how medical students in a UK medical school use Facebook to support their learning. In particular, it identifies the nature of their educational activities, and details their experiences of using an educational Facebook group. Twenty-four medical students who self-identified as being Facebook users were invited to focus groups to attain a general overview of Facebook use within an educational context. A textual analysis was then conducted on a small group of intercalating medical students who used a self-created Facebook group to supplement their learning. Five of these students participated in semi-structured interviews. Six common themes were generated. These included 'collaborative learning', 'strategic uses for the preparation for assessment', 'sharing experiences and providing support', 'creating and maintaining connections', 'personal planning and practical organization' and 'sharing and evaluating educational resources'. Evidence from this study shows that medical students are using Facebook informally to enhance their learning and undergraduate lives. Facebook has enabled students to create a supportive learning community amongst their peers. Medical educators wishing to capitalize on Facebook, as a platform for formal educational initiatives, should remain cautious of intruding on this peer online learning community. PMID:27271571

  7. Continuing Education Instrumentation Training in Clinical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra

    1980-01-01

    Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)

  8. The Medical Staff Ride: an education tool for military medical leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M

    2016-08-01

    This paper provides a description of the Medical Staff Ride as an educational tool for military medical leadership. It is based upon two Medical Staff Rides covering the Somme Campaign 1916 and the Normandy Campaign 1944. It describes the key educational activity 'The Stand' at which history and current issues are brought together through study of a particular location on the historical battlefield. The Medical Staff Ride can be divided into six distinct phases, each of which have common question sets for analysis by attendees. The Medical Staff Ride can be shown to have valuable educational outcomes that are efficient in time and cost, and effective in achieving personal learning. The supporting Readers for the two Medical Staff Rides covered by this paper are available as electronic supplement to this edition of the journal. PMID:26115999

  9. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour. PMID:11371287

  10. Designing effective on-line continuing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimitat, Craig

    2001-03-01

    The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.

  11. 75 FR 79006 - Council on Graduate Medical Education; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Council on Graduate Medical Education...-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Council on Graduate Medical Education... of presentations covering various aspects of graduate medical education, Bureau of Health...

  12. [Undergraduate education of medical technologists to promote scientific and technological literacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Akizawa, Hirotsugu

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for today's medical technologists to receive proper training on the safety of medical treatment and healthcare in order to accommodate the rapid changes and advancement in medical technology. In particular, because of the increase of hospital-acquired infections, the role of medical technologists involved in infection control has become much more important. In addition, particularly in Japan, the career options available to students graduating with a degree in medical technology have become much more diverse, ranging from research laboratories to clinical services; however, undergraduate education for medical technologists is limited. It is therefore deemed necessary for undergraduate students to be provided with adequate training from their universities by offering a wider selection of classes in this subject area. In this paper, we summarize our preliminary findings on the trial lessons that are offered to medical technology students in their microbiology class. These lessons are designed to enhance students' academic potential and to engage their interest.

  13. Clinical reasoning of nursing students on clinical placement: Clinical educators' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sharyn; Arthur, Carol

    2016-05-01

    Graduate nurses may have knowledge and adequate clinical psychomotor skills however they have been identified as lacking the clinical reasoning skills to deliver safe, effective care suggesting contemporary educational approaches do not always facilitate the development of nursing students' clinical reasoning. While nursing literature explicates the concept of clinical reasoning and develops models that demonstrate clinical reasoning, there is very little published about nursing students and clinical reasoning during clinical placements. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten clinical educators to gain an understanding of how they recognised, developed and appraised nursing students' clinical reasoning while on clinical placement. This study found variability in the clinical educators' conceptualisation, recognition, and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. Although most of the clinical educators conceptualised clinical reasoning as a process those who did not demonstrated the greatest variability in the recognition and facilitation of students' clinical reasoning. The clinical educators in this study also described being unable to adequately appraise a student's clinical reasoning during clinical placement with the use of the current performance assessment tool. PMID:27235568

  14. Job Analysis Techniques for Restructuring Health Manpower Education and Training in the Navy Medical Department. Attachment 4. Clinic QPCB Task Sort for Clinical Physician Assistants--Dermatology, ENT, Opththalmology, Orthopedics, and Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technomics, Inc., McLean, VA.

    This publication is Attachment 4 of a set of 16 computer listed QPCB task sorts, by career level, for the entire Hospital Corps and Dental Technician fields. Statistical data are presented in tabular form for a detailed listing of job duties for clinical physician assistants. (BT)

  15. Role of accrediting bodies in providing education leadership in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Leinster

    2014-01-01

    Role of accreditation authorities: If accreditation authorities are to provide leadership in medical education they must undertake regular review of their standards. This should be informed by all stakeholders and include experts in medical education. The format of the standards must provide clear direction to medical schools. Accreditation should take place regularly and should result in the production of a publicly accessible report.

  16. Internationalizing Medical Education: The Special Track Curriculum 'Global Health' at Justus Liebig University Giessen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Michael; Baumann, Adrian; Hofstetter, Christine; Korte, Rolf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Internationalizing higher education is considered to be a major goal for universities in Germany and many medical students aspire to include international experiences into their academic training. However, the exact meaning of "internationalizing" medical education is still poorly defined, just as is the possible pedagogic impact and effects. Against this background, this article presents the special track curriculum on global health (in German: Schwerpunktcurriculum Global Health, short: SPC) at Justus Liebig University Giessen, which was established in 2011 as a comprehensive teaching program to integrate international perspectives and activities systematically into the clinical years of the medical curriculum. The report of the structure, content, didactic principles and participants' evaluations of the SPC is embedded into a larger discussion of the pedagogic value of a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on "global health" in medical education, that explicitly includes attention for health inequities, social determinants of health and the cultural dimensions of medicine and health abroad and "at home" (e.g. in relation to migration). We conclude that if properly defined, the emerging field of "global health" represents a didactically meaningful approach for adding value to medical education through internationalizing the curriculum, especially in regard to themes that despite of their uncontested value are often rather weak within medical education. The concrete curricular structures, however, have always to be developed locally. The "SPC" at Giessen University Medical School is only one possible way of addressing these globally relevant issues in one particular local academic setting. PMID:26604994

  17. Internationalizing Medical Education: The Special Track Curriculum 'Global Health' at Justus Liebig University Giessen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knipper, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internationalizing higher education is considered to be a major goal for universities in Germany and many medical students aspire to include international experiences into their academic training. However, the exact meaning of “internationalizing” medical education is still poorly defined, just as is the possible pedagogic impact and effects. Against this background, this article presents the special track curriculum on global health (in German: , short: at Justus Liebig University Giessen, which was established in 2011 as a comprehensive teaching program to integrate international perspectives and activities systematically into the clinical years of the medical curriculum. The report of the structure, content, didactic principles and participants’ evaluations of the SPC is embedded into a larger discussion of the pedagogic value of a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on “global health” in medical education, that explicitly includes attention for health inequities, social determinants of health and the cultural dimensions of medicine and health abroad and “at home” (e.g. in relation to migration. We conclude that if properly defined, the emerging field of “global health” represents a didactically meaningful approach for adding value to medical education through internationalizing the curriculum, especially in regard to themes that despite of their uncontested value are often rather weak within medical education. The concrete curricular structures, however, have always to be developed locally. The “SPC” at Giessen University Medical School is only one possible way of addressing these globally relevant issues in one particular local academic setting.

  18. Internationalizing Medical Education: The Special Track Curriculum 'Global Health' at Justus Liebig University Giessen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Michael; Baumann, Adrian; Hofstetter, Christine; Korte, Rolf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Internationalizing higher education is considered to be a major goal for universities in Germany and many medical students aspire to include international experiences into their academic training. However, the exact meaning of "internationalizing" medical education is still poorly defined, just as is the possible pedagogic impact and effects. Against this background, this article presents the special track curriculum on global health (in German: Schwerpunktcurriculum Global Health, short: SPC) at Justus Liebig University Giessen, which was established in 2011 as a comprehensive teaching program to integrate international perspectives and activities systematically into the clinical years of the medical curriculum. The report of the structure, content, didactic principles and participants' evaluations of the SPC is embedded into a larger discussion of the pedagogic value of a broad and interdisciplinary perspective on "global health" in medical education, that explicitly includes attention for health inequities, social determinants of health and the cultural dimensions of medicine and health abroad and "at home" (e.g. in relation to migration). We conclude that if properly defined, the emerging field of "global health" represents a didactically meaningful approach for adding value to medical education through internationalizing the curriculum, especially in regard to themes that despite of their uncontested value are often rather weak within medical education. The concrete curricular structures, however, have always to be developed locally. The "SPC" at Giessen University Medical School is only one possible way of addressing these globally relevant issues in one particular local academic setting.

  19. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  20. Clinical Training of Medical Physicists Specializing in Diagnostic Radiology (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of radiation in human health, for both diagnosis and treatment of disease, is an important component of the work of the IAEA. The responsibility for the increasing technical aspects of this work is undertaken by the medical physicist. To ensure good practice in this vital area, structured clinical training programmes are required to complement academic learning. This publication is intended to be a guide to the practical implementation of such a programme for diagnostic radiology. There is a general and growing awareness that radiation medicine is increasingly dependent on well trained medical physicists based in the clinical setting. However, an analysis of the availability of medical physicists indicates a large shortfall of qualified and capable professionals. This is particularly evident in developing countries. While strategies to increase academic educational opportunities are critical to such countries, the need for guidance on structured clinical training was recognized by the members of the Regional Cooperative Agreement (RCA) for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Sciences for Asia and the Pacific. Consequently, a technical cooperation regional project (RAS6038) under the RCA programme was formulated to address this need in the Asia-Pacific region by developing suitable material and establishing its viability. Development of a clinical training guide for medical physicists specializing in diagnostic radiology started in 2007 with the appointment of a core drafting committee of regional and international experts. The publication drew on the experiences of clinical training programmes in Australia and New Zealand, the UK and the USA, and was moderated by physicists working in the Asian region. This publication follows the approach of the IAEA publication Training Course Series No. 37, Clinical Training of Medical Physicists specializing in Radiation Oncology. This approach to clinical training has been successfully tested

  1. Developing technology-enhanced active learning for medical education: challenges, solutions, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Lise; Pettit, Robin K; Lewis, Joy H; Bennett, Thomas; Carrasco, Noel; Brysacz, Stanley; Makin, Inder Raj S; Hutman, Ryan; Schwartz, Frederic N

    2015-04-01

    Growing up in an era of video games and Web-based applications has primed current medical students to expect rapid, interactive feedback. To address this need, the A.T. Still University-School of Osteopathic Medicine in Arizona (Mesa) has developed and integrated a variety of approaches using technology-enhanced active learning for medical education (TEAL-MEd) into its curriculum. Over the course of 3 years (2010-2013), the authors facilitated more than 80 implementations of games and virtual patient simulations into the education of 550 osteopathic medical students. The authors report on 4 key aspects of the TEAL-MEd initiative, including purpose, portfolio of tools, progress to date regarding challenges and solutions, and future directions. Lessons learned may be of benefit to medical educators at academic and clinical training sites who wish to implement TEAL-MEd activities. PMID:25830576

  2. Mentoring for first year medical students: humanising medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Arati; Singh, Navjeevan; Dhaliwal, Upreet

    2013-01-01

    New entrants are vulnerable to the challenges of the medical course; mentoring programmes are known to offer support. This paper evaluated the experiences of students and faculty enrolled in a new mentoring programme. After needs analysis of students and faculty, a small-group mentoring programme for new medical students was initiated. Fifty-five volunteer faculty mentors were allocated two-three students each. At year-end, feedback using an open-ended questionnaire, revealed that there was no contact in one-third of the cases; the commonest reasons cited were lack of mentee initiative, time and commitment. Supportive mentors were appreciated. Over 95% of respondents believed that mentoring was a good idea; many believed the mentee benefitted; mentors also reported improved communication and affective skills; 60 (77.0%) mentees wanted to mentor new students the following year. Thus, mentoring of first-year students by faculty was effective, when contact occurred, in making the mentee feel supported. Mentoring may be a means of honing the affective domain and humanitarian instincts of medical faculty and students.

  3. Activities for education at work for Medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna León Acebo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: the growing demands of a health professional that combines study and work, school with life and teaching-learning in primary and secondary health care constitute a current social problem for the country.Objective: to design a set of activities for education at work for first year medical students, from the family doctor's office, to contribute to health promotion and disease prevention in the community, favoring the integral formation of future doctors.Methods: the program was designed in work areas for the integrated teaching of biomedical disciplines for contributing to health promotion and disease prevention in "Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” polyclinic in Las Tunas. It carried out the historic and graphical analysis of the problem; students’,  professors’ and community members’ behaviors were observed; interviews and surveys were applied to explore knowledge and experiences of students and health professionals on the promotion of health education at work; workshops on critical opinion and collective elaboration were carried out and permitted to  socialize with other teachers and health professionals the proposed program for its redesign based on collective criticism.Results: the shortcomings caused by the fragmentation of subject contents and biomedical disciplines in education at work were characterized and the plan to help to eliminate the inadequacies that occur in education at work was designed by work areas and determined by the general guidelines for its implementation, without specific indications.Conclusions: the clinical method was applied its pedagogical dimension, allowing the coordination between the traditional methods of teaching-learning and for diagnosing, to contribute to eliminate the spontaneous character in the development of education in the workplace. The program of activities was designed by work areas.

  4. Self-explanation fosters clinical reasoning among medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Chamberland (Martine)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis explores the use of self-explanation by medical students as a tool supporting the learning of clinical reasoning in the clerkship. Self-explanation (SE) is a learning technique in which students explain to themselves pieces of a learning material for the pur

  5. Assessment of technical documentation of medical devices for clinical investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roszek B; Bruijn ACP de; Drongelen AW van; Geertsma RE; BMT

    2007-01-01

    The technical documentation on non-market approved medical devices intended for clinical investigation contains major shortcomings. This could imply increased risks which could affect patient safety. The investigation described here focused on the availability and quality of the technical documentat

  6. Role Models and Teachers: medical students perception of teaching-learning methods in clinical settings, a qualitative study from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Vathsala; Nazeer, Ishra; Athauda, Lathika; Perera, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical education research in general, and those focusing on clinical settings in particular, have been a low priority in South Asia. This explorative study from 3 medical schools in Sri Lanka, a South Asian country, describes undergraduate medical students’ experiences during their final year clinical training with the aim of understanding the teaching-learning experiences. Methods Using qualitative methods we conducted an exploratory study. Twenty eight graduates from 3 medical s...

  7. Autonomy support for autonomous motivation in medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi A. Kusurkar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical students often study only to fare well in their examinations or pursue a specific specialty, or study only those topics that they perceive to be useful in medical practice. The motivation for study in these cases comes from external or internal pressures or from the desire to obtain rewards. Self-determination theory (SDT classifies this type of motivation as controlled motivation and the type of motivation that comes from genuine interest or personal value as autonomous motivation. Autonomous motivation, in comparison with controlled motivation, has been associated with better learning, academic success, and less exhaustion. SDT endorses autonomous motivation and suggests that autonomy support is important for autonomous motivation. The meaning of autonomy is misinterpreted by many. This article tries to focus on how to be autonomy-supportive in medical education. Discussion: Autonomy support refers to the perception of choice in learning. Some of the ways of supporting autonomy in medical education are small group teaching, problem-based learning, and gradual increase in responsibility of patients. Autonomy-supportive teaching behavior is not a trait and can be learned. Autonomy support in medical education is not limited to bringing in changes in the medical curriculum for students; it is about an overall change in the way of thinking and working in medical schools that foster autonomy among those involved in education. Research into autonomy in medical education is limited. Some topics that need to be investigated are the ideas and perceptions of students and teachers about autonomy in learning. Conclusion: Autonomy support in medical education can enhance autonomous motivation of students for medical study and practice and make them autonomy-supportive in their future medical practice and teaching.

  8. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF CLINICAL SCENARIO’S INFORMATION MODEL IN THE MEDICAL SIMULATION CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Tolmachyov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is the big issue in medical education which is students don’t have enough skills. Often even with theoretical knowledge graduate medical students need to improve their skills by working with patients. Obviously it can be a risk for patients and takes quite long time. This situation could be changed with applying simulation technologies in medical education. Medical education with virtual simulators allows reducing the time of skills development and improving the quality of training. The aims of this work are developing informational model and creating clinical scenarios of emergency states in the Medical Simulation Center.Objectives:– to analyze the process of scenario conducting;– to create clinical scenarios of emergency states (anaphylactic shock, hypovolemic shock, obstructive shock with specialist’s help.The scenarios consist of sections such as main aim, skills, required mannequins, preparation of the mannequins, preparation of medical equipment and instruments for the scenario, preparation of special materials, scenario description, guide for operator, information for trainees.By analyzing the process of scenario conducting the key participants were defined who are operator, assistant, trainer, trainees. Also the main scenario stages were defined. Based on the stages diagram of variants of scenario conducting was designed.As an example there are fragments of scenario “Obstructive shock – a pulmonary embolism” in this article. Learn skills are cognitive, technical, social ones.Results. This paper presents an analysis of the clinical scenario conducting. Information model was developed which based on object-oriented decomposition. The model is the diagram of variants of scenario conducting. Scenario’s structure for emergency states was formulated. The scenarios are anaphylactic shock, hypovolemic shock, obstructive shock (pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, pulmonary edema, hypertensive crisis, respiratory

  10. The use of Facebook in medical education – A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pander, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The vogue of social media has changed interpersonal communication as well as learning and teaching opportunities in medical education. The most popular social media tool is Facebook. Its features provide potentially useful support for the education of medical students but it also means that some new challenges will have to be faced. Aims: This review aimed to find out how Facebook has been integrated into medical education. A systematical review of the current literature and grade of evidence is provided, research gaps are identified, links to prior reviews are drawn and implications for the future are discussed.Method: The authors searched six databases. Inclusion criteria were defined and the authors independently reviewed the search results. The key information of the articles included was methodically abstracted and coded, synthesized and discussed in the categories study design, study participants’phase of medical education and study content.Results: 16 articles met all inclusion criteria. 45-96% of health care professionals in all phases of their medical education have a Facebook profile. Most studies focused on Facebook and digital professionalism. Unprofessional behavior and privacy violations occurred in 0.02% to 16%. In terms of learning and teaching environment, Facebook is well accepted by medical students. It is used to prepare for exams, share online material, discuss clinical cases, organize face-to-face sessions and exchange information on clerkships. A few educational materials to teach Facebook professionalism were positively evaluated. There seems to be no conclusive evidence as to whether medical students benefit from Facebook as a learning environment on higher competence levels.Discussion: Facebook influences a myriad of aspects of health care professionals, particularly at undergraduate and graduate level in medical education. Despite an increasing number of interventions, there is a lack of

  11. Teamwork of clinical teachers in postgraduate medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, Irene Arida

    2016-08-01

    Teamwork among clinical teachers is essential for continuous improvement of postgraduate medical training. This thesis deconstructs teamwork in four studies, mostly based on qualitative research approaches and one study utilizes mixed methods. We found that clinical teachers do train residents, but individually rather than as a team. The programme directors as leaders focus more on teaching activities than on the collective ambition and mutual engagement of clinical teachers. During the teaching meetings, mistakes and conflicts are mainly discussed in a general sense and are often neither directed at the individual, nor result-oriented. A valid evaluation instrument is constructed to improve teamwork. PMID:27432367

  12. Teamwork of clinical teachers in postgraduate medical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slootweg, Irene Arida

    2016-08-01

    Teamwork among clinical teachers is essential for continuous improvement of postgraduate medical training. This thesis deconstructs teamwork in four studies, mostly based on qualitative research approaches and one study utilizes mixed methods. We found that clinical teachers do train residents, but individually rather than as a team. The programme directors as leaders focus more on teaching activities than on the collective ambition and mutual engagement of clinical teachers. During the teaching meetings, mistakes and conflicts are mainly discussed in a general sense and are often neither directed at the individual, nor result-oriented. A valid evaluation instrument is constructed to improve teamwork.

  13. Social accountability of medical education: aspects on global accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Stefan; Karle, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Medical doctors constitute a profession which embraces trust from and accountability to society. This responsibility extends to all medical educational institutions. Social accountability of medical education means a willingness and ability to adjust to the needs of patients and health care systems both nationally and globally. But it also implies a responsibility to contribute to the development of medicine and society through fostering competence for research and improvement. Accreditation is a process by which a statutory body evaluates and recognises an educational institution and/or its programme with respect to meeting approved criteria. It is a means for quality assurance, but also a strong power to reinforce the need for improvement and reforms. It must be performed through internationally recognised and transparent standards and should foremost promote quality development. The social accountability of medical education must be included in all accreditation processes at all levels. The global standards programme by World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) provides tools for national or regional accreditation but also guidance for reforms and quality improvement. The standards are used worldwide and have been adopted to local needs in most parts of the world. They are framed to specify attainment at two levels: basic standards or minimum requirements and standards for quality development. The concept of social accountability is embedded in all parts of the WFME standards documents. In 2011, a revision of the standards for undergraduate education has been instituted. Strengthening of aspects on social accountability of medical education will be a particular concern. PMID:21774655

  14. [Quality assurance and quality improvement in medical practice. Part 3: Clinical audit in medical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godény, Sándor

    2012-02-01

    The first two articles in the series were about the definition of quality in healthcare, the quality approach, the importance of quality assurance, the advantages of quality management systems and the basic concepts and necessity of evidence based medicine. In the third article the importance and basic steps of clinical audit are summarised. Clinical audit is an integral part of quality assurance and quality improvement in healthcare, that is the responsibility of any practitioner involved in medical practice. Clinical audit principally measures the clinical practice against clinical guidelines, protocols and other professional standards, and sometimes induces changes to ensure that all patients receive care according to principles of the best practice. The clinical audit can be defined also as a quality improvement process that seeks to identify areas for service improvement, develop and carry out plans and actions to improve medical activity and then by re-audit to ensure that these changes have an effect. Therefore, its aims are both to stimulate quality improvement interventions and to assess their impact in order to develop clinical effectiveness. At the end of the article key points of quality assurance and improvement in medical practice are summarised.

  15. Evaluation der ärztlichen Ausbildung [Evaluation of medical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The importance of evaluation is increasing, not only in medical education. Apart from giving feedback to the teachers the results of evaluations can be used for allocation of educational funds. At the medical faculty of the University of Hamburg the evaluation of medical education has been performed since ten years. Results: An analysis of the Hamburg experience in the standardized evaluation of medical education shows a series of problems. 1. The cumulative evaluation of curriculum parts tends to turn out different than the detailed evaluation of its consisting parts. 2. Theoretical courses tend to be assessed worse than clinical courses - irrespective of their real quality. The reason for this "handicap" of theoretical courses is that students tend to rate their benefit for clinical practice lower. 3. There are differences between prompt and delayed assessments of the same courses. 4. Students' assessment also depends on the stage of their training and on the didactic type of the evaluated course. Conclusion: Ranking of courses should be performed with caution. To improve reliability and validity of results the following suggestions are made: 1. Results of cumulative evaluation of curriculum parts should be interpreted with care. 2. Unequal opportunities of theoretical and clinical courses to gain good results should be considered. 3. Repeated assessments and longitudinal comparisons are essential. 4. Comparisons should be made only between similar didactical types of courses. 5. Results should be analysed with respect to their possible causes, preferably by mixed evaluation commissions. 6. It is recommended to evaluate aspects of process quality rather than of result quality. [german] Hintergrund: Die Evaluation von Lehrveranstaltungen und curricularen Abschnitten durch Studierende nimmt nicht nur in der ärztlichen Ausbildung zu. Neben der Rückmeldung an die Dozenten können die Ergebnisse eine wichtige Basis f

  16. Statistical trends in the Journal of the American Medical Association and implications for training across the continuum of medical education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren D Arnold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistical training across the continuum of medical education may not have advanced at the pace of statistical reporting in the medical literature, yet a comprehensive understanding of statistical concepts most commonly presented in current research is critical to the effective practice of Evidence Based Medicine. The objective of this content analysis was to describe statistical techniques used in a leading medical journal, JAMA, across a 20-year period, with a focus on implications for medical education. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two issues of JAMA published each month in 1990, 2000, and 2010 were randomly selected; from these, 361 articles were reviewed. Primary focus, study design, and statistical components were abstracted and examined by year of publication. The number of published RCTs and cohort studies differed significantly across years of interest, with an increasing trend of publication. The most commonly reported statistics over the 20-year period of interest included measures of morbidity and mortality, descriptive statistics, and epidemiologic outcomes. However, between 1990 and 2010, there was an increase in reporting of more advanced methods, such as multivariable regression, multilevel modeling, survival analysis, and sensitivity analysis. While this study is limited by a focus on one specific journal, a strength is that the journal examined is widely read by a range of clinical specialties and is considered a leading journal in the medical field, setting standards for published research. CONCLUSIONS: The increases in frequency and complexity of statistical reporting in the literature over the past two decades may suggest that moving beyond basic statistical concepts to a more comprehensive understanding of statistical methods is an important component of clinicians' ability to effectively read and use the medical research. These findings provide information to consider as medical schools and graduate medical education

  17. Comparison of empathy score among medical students in both basic and clinical levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRA KHADEMALHOSSEINI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empathy refers to a personality character that has a great role in communication with others. Thus, proper evaluation and education of empathy in medical students is important for medical education. Because previous studies had suggested that physician’s empathy may reduce with clinical trainings, in this study we decided to measure the empathy score among medical students. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted on medical students in the first to seventh years of their studies at Shiraz medical school (south of Iran in 2010. We designed new Iranian version questionnaire of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. Sample size was 260 students and the results were analyzed in SPSS, version 11.5 (statistical tests such as descriptive methods, t-test, and ANOVA and p<0.05 was considered as the significant level. Results: The empathy score decreased with increase in the students’ age (p=0.001 and educational level (p=0.030. The overall rate of empathy score in basic science level (65.5±0.84 was more than that in the clinical level (55.5±1.78. The lowest empathy score was seen in the seventh year students (55.51 and the highest was in the first year students (65.50. Female students had higher mean empathy score (65.53 while it was 59.02 in the male students. Conclusion: In general, medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had low empathy level and this may be a cause for concern; as such we suggest a possible inclusion of courses on empathy in the curriculum.

  18. Marketing to Increase Participation in a Web-Based Continuing Medical Education Cultural Competence Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of…

  19. How do you deliver a good obstetrician? Outcome-based evaluation of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, David A; Nicholson, Sean; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Herrin, Jeph; Epstein, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of medical education is the production of a workforce capable of improving the health and health care of patients and populations, but it is hard to use a goal that lofty, that broad, and that distant as a standard against which to judge the success of schools or training programs or particular elements within them. For that reason, the evaluation of medical education often focuses on elements of its structure and process, or on the assessment of competencies that could be considered intermediate outcomes. These measures are more practical because they are easier to collect, and they are valuable when they reflect activities in important positions along the pathway to clinical outcomes. But they are all substitutes for measuring whether educational efforts produce doctors who take good care of patients.The authors argue that the evaluation of medical education can become more closely tethered to the clinical outcomes medical education aims to achieve. They focus on a specific clinical outcome-maternal complications of obstetrical delivery-and show how examining various observable elements of physicians' training and experience helps reveal which of those elements lead to better outcomes. Does it matter where obstetricians trained? Does it matter how much experience they have? Does it matter how good they were to start? Each of these questions reflects a component of the production of a good obstetrician and, most important, defines a good obstetrician as one whose patients in the end do well.

  20. Socrates was not a pimp: changing the paradigm of questioning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Amanda; Chen, Frederick M

    2015-01-01

    The slang term "pimping" is widely recognized by learners and educators in the clinical learning environment as the act of more senior members of the medical team publicly asking questions of more junior members. Although questioning as a pedagogical practice has many benefits, pimping, as described in the literature, evokes negative emotions in learners and leads to an environment that is not conducive to adult learning. Medical educators may employ pimping as a pedagogic technique because of beliefs that it is a Socratic teaching method. Although problems with pimping have previously been identified, no alternative techniques for questioning in the clinical environment were suggested. The authors posit that using the term "pimping" to describe questioning in medical education is harmful and unprofessional, and they propose clearly defining pimping as "questioning with the intent to shame or humiliate the learner to maintain the power hierarchy in medical education." Explicitly separating pimping from the larger practice of questioning allows the authors to make three recommendations for improving questioning practices. First, educators should examine the purpose of each question they pose to learners. Second, they should apply historic and modern interpretations of Socratic teaching methods that promote critical thinking skills. Finally, they should consider adult learning theories to make concrete changes to their questioning practices. These changes can result in questioning that is more learner centered, aids in the acquisition of knowledge and skills, performs helpful formative and summative assessments of the learner, and improves community in the clinical learning environment.