WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical laboratory science

  1. Student perceptions of the clinical laboratory science profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the attitudes and perceptions among college biology and CLS/CLT students. These students were on selected college campuses at Texas universities in Houston, Dallas and the Austin/San Antonio areas for the Spring 2007 semester. Specifically, students were questioned on factors that influence their choice of field of study, career expectations, legislative measures which might be used to attract individuals to the career, and factors that will be required to keep them in the field of practice. This study was part of a larger qualitative study which included exploratory discovery and inductive logic regarding the attitudes of four focus groups in Texas. Focus groups took place on college campuses or in hotel conference rooms. (1) junior/senior-level college biology students and (2) junior/senior-level students currently enrolled in CLS/CLT programs. Focus group discussions using a standard set of questions; group sessions lasted about 45 minutes. This study was a qualitative study which included exploratory discovery and inductive logic regarding the attitudes of two groups in Texas. College biology and CLS/CLT students find the clinical laboratory science profession to be interesting and exciting as a career prospect, however, many do not see themselves remaining in the profession and perceive it does not have good prospects for career advancement. The majority of students must work to support themselves through their college education and would welcome additional grants, scholarships and loan forgiveness programs as incentives to study the clinical laboratory sciences. Students believe that additional recruitment on high school and college campuses is needed to increase the visibility of the field as career choice. The majority of students who are entering the clinical laboratory science profession do not see the profession as their final career choice, but rather a stepping stone to another career field in healthcare or a

  2. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meetings; Amendment The... Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development...

  3. Preparing clinical laboratory science students with teaching skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Jeanne M

    2010-01-01

    Training clinical laboratory science (CLS) students in techniques of preparation and delivery of an instructional unit is an important component of all CLS education programs and required by the national accrediting agency. Participants of this study included students admitted to the CLS program at Northern Illinois University and enrolled in the teaching course offered once a year between the years of 1997 and 2009. Courses on the topic of "teaching" may be regarded by CLS students as unnecessary. However, entry level practitioners are being recruited to serve as clinical instructors soon after entering the workforce. Evaluation of the data collected indicates that students are better prepared to complete tasks related to instruction of a topic after having an opportunity to study and practice skills of teaching. Mentoring CLS students toward the career role of clinical instructor or professor is important to maintaining the workforce.

  4. 77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board, Notice of Meeting Amendment The... Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board have changed...

  5. 78 FR 66992 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research..., behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  6. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research... biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for...

  7. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical...) that the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the...

  8. Updating the immunology curriculum in clinical laboratory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C D

    2000-01-01

    To determine essential content areas of immunology/serology courses at the clinical laboratory technician (CLT) and clinical laboratory scientist (CLS) levels. A questionnaire was designed which listed all major topics in immunology and serology. Participants were asked to place a check beside each topic covered. For an additional list of serological and immunological laboratory testing, participants were asked to indicate if each test was performed in either the didactic or clinical setting, or not performed at all. A national survey of 593 NAACLS approved CLT and CLS programs was conducted by mail under the auspices of ASCLS. Responses were obtained from 158 programs. Respondents from all across the United States included 60 CLT programs, 48 hospital-based CLS programs, 45 university-based CLS programs, and 5 university-based combined CLT and CLS programs. The survey was designed to enumerate major topics included in immunology and serology courses by a majority of participants at two distinct educational levels, CLT and CLS. Laboratory testing routinely performed in student laboratories as well as in the clinical setting was also determined for these two levels of practitioners. Certain key topics were common to most immunology and serology courses. There were some notable differences in the depth of courses at the CLT and CLS levels. Laboratory testing associated with these courses also differed at the two levels. Testing requiring more detailed interpretation, such as antinuclear antibody patterns (ANAs), was mainly performed by CLS students only. There are certain key topics as well as specific laboratory tests that should be included in immunology/serology courses at each of the two different educational levels to best prepare students for the workplace. Educators can use this information as a guide to plan a curriculum for such courses.

  9. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research.... Neurobiology-D June 10, 2011 Crowne Plaza DC/Silver Spring. Clinical Research Program June 13, 2011 VA Central...

  10. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... the panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research... Crowne Plaza Clinical Research Program December 3, 2010 *VA Central Office Mental Hlth & Behav Sci-A...

  11. 75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical... panels of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... & Behav Sci-A June 7, 2010 L'Enfant Plaza Hotel. Clinical Research Program June 9, 2010 *VA Central Office...

  12. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  13. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Medical Laboratory Science is a Quarterly Publication of the Association of Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria. It Publishes Original Research and Review Articles in All Fields of Biomedical Sciences and Laboratory Medicine, Covering Medical Microbiology, Medical Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, ...

  14. 76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board; Notice of Meeting Amendment The... and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board have been..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one...

  15. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board Panel for Eligibility, Notice of... and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review Board will meet on... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The...

  16. Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Security Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Scientific Publications Researchers Postdocs Exascale Computing Institute for Molecular Engineering at Argonne Work with Us About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Argonne National Laboratory

  17. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  18. Cooperative learning effects on teamwork attitudes in clinical laboratory science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatsch, Linda; Britton, Lynda; Keating, Susan; Kirchner, Phyllis; Lehman, Don; Madsen-Myers, Karen; Milson, Linda; Otto, Catherine; Spence, Libby

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate clinical laboratory science (CLS) student attitudes toward teamwork when using cooperative learning (CL) as compared to individual learning (IL) in a course and to determine if learning method affects student attitudes toward the course itself. This was a multi-institutional study involving eight classrooms in seven states. The effects of CL and IL on student attitudes were compared for 216 student participants. One group of students learned the course material through a CL approach while a second group of students learned via a traditional IL approach. For each course, the instructor, class material, and examination content was identical for the CL and IL students; the only variable was learning method. Student attitudes toward teamwork and toward the course were evaluated with a 35-item Attitude Questionnaire administered as a posttest. Mean scores for the CL and IL groups were compared using the Student t-test for independent samples. No significant difference was seen between the CL and IL students when assessing the first 30 questions on student attitudes toward teamwork (means = 98.42 and 98.22, respectively) when all institutions were combined. Comparable results were seen for each of the eight institutions. For the five questions comparing attitudes toward the course itself, there usually was no significant difference in attitude between CL and IL students. The only classrooms where CL students had more positive attitudes were those with instructors who had more than 10 years experience with CL. Results suggest that CL produces similar student attitudes toward teamwork and toward a CLS course as does IL.

  19. Clinical protein science developments for patient monitoring in hospital central laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Johan; Marko-Varga, György

    2016-12-01

    Patient care relies heavily on standardized tests performed in hospital laboratories, typically including clinical chemistry, pathology and microbiology. With the introduction of personalized medicine tremendous efforts have been made to identify new biomarkers of disease with various omics technologies, often including mass spectrometry. In order to validate new biomarkers and perform clinical studies high quality biobank samples are of key importance. In this editorial different aspects of mass spectrometry in future personalized medicine are discussed.

  20. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  1. Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) is a comprehensive resource for scientists performing animal-based research to gain a better understanding of cancer,...

  2. Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Tunison Laboratory of Aquatic Science (TLAS), located in Cortland, New York, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). TLAS was established...

  3. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The�Marine Sciences Laboratory sits on 140 acres of tidelands and uplands located on Sequim Bay, Washington. Key capabilities include 6,000 sq ft of analytical and...

  5. Decision-Making, Tacit Knowledge, and Motivation in Semi-Professional Practice: Humanizing the Environment through Anthropomorphism in Clinical Laboratory Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The clinical laboratory science field requires an abundance of technical knowledge; however, the importance of implicit or tacit knowledge gained through observation and practice is often discounted in this field, even though it is a critical part of reflective thinking, critical thinking, and reflective practice. The "de-skilling" of…

  6. Modern clinical laboratory diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakhovskij, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory diagnosis is auxillary medical discipline studying specific laboratory symptoms of diseases, revealed by investigations of materials taken from patients. The structure of laboratory servie in our country and abroad, items of laboratory investigations, organizational principles are described. Attention is being given to the cost of analyses, the amount of conducted investigations, methods of result presentation, problems of accuracy, quality control and information content

  7. COMMERCIALLY ORIENTED CLINICAL LABORATORIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, W. Max

    1964-01-01

    Out-of-state flat-rate mail order contract laboratories operating from states which have little or no legal control over them can do business in California without obedience to regulations that govern laboratories located within the state. The flat-rate contract principle under which some out-of-state laboratories operate is illegal in California. The use of such laboratories increases physician liability. Legislation for the control of these laboratories is difficult to construct, and laws which might result would be awkward to administer. The best remedy is for California physicians not to use an out-of-state laboratory offering contracts or conditions that it could not legally offer if it were located in California. PMID:14165875

  8. Mathematics and Computer Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Applications Software Extreme Computing Data-Intensive Science Applied Mathematics Science & Engineering Opportunities For Employees Staff Directory Argonne National Laboratory Mathematics and Computer Science Tools

  9. Science outside the laboratory measurement in field science and economics

    CERN Document Server

    Boumans, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The conduct of most of social science occurs outside the laboratory. Such studies in field science explore phenomena that cannot for practical, technical, or ethical reasons be explored under controlled conditions. These phenomena cannot be fully isolated from their environment or investigated by manipulation or intervention. Yet measurement, including rigorous or clinical measurement, does provide analysts with a sound basis for discerning what occurs under field conditions, and why. In Science Outside the Laboratory, Marcel Boumans explores the state of measurement theory, its reliability, and the role expert judgment plays in field investigations from the perspective of the philosophy of science. Its discussion of the problems of passive observation, the calculus of observation, the two-model problem, and model-based consensus uses illustrations drawn primarily from economics. Rich in research and discussion, the volume clarifies the extent to which measurement provides valid information about objects an...

  10. [Outsourcing of clinical laboratory department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, T

    2000-03-01

    Recently, to improve financial difficulties at various hospitals, outsourcing of the laboratory department is be coming more wide spread. At the department of clinical pathology of St. Luke's International Hospital, the system, so called, "Branch labo" which is one of the outsourcing laboratory conditions, was adopted in March 1999. In this reports. We described the decision procedure for accepting the situation and the circumstances of operation.

  11. Clinical laboratory accreditation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Anil; Sood, Swaroop Krishan

    2012-06-01

    Test results from clinical laboratories must ensure accuracy, as these are crucial in several areas of health care. It is necessary that the laboratory implements quality assurance to achieve this goal. The implementation of quality should be audited by independent bodies,referred to as accreditation bodies. Accreditation is a third-party attestation by an authoritative body, which certifies that the applicant laboratory meets quality requirements of accreditation body and has demonstrated its competence to carry out specific tasks. Although in most of the countries,accreditation is mandatory, in India it is voluntary. The quality requirements are described in standards developed by many accreditation organizations. The internationally acceptable standard for clinical laboratories is ISO15189, which is based on ISO/IEC standard 17025. The accreditation body in India is the National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories, which has signed Mutual Recognition Agreement with the regional cooperation the Asia Pacific Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation and with the apex cooperation the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation.

  12. Clinical laboratory analytics: Challenges and promise for an emerging discipline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian H Shirts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical laboratory is a major source of health care data. Increasingly these data are being integrated with other data to inform health system-wide actions meant to improve diagnostic test utilization, service efficiency, and "meaningful use." The Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists hosted a satellite meeting on clinical laboratory analytics in conjunction with their annual meeting on May 29, 2014 in San Francisco. There were 80 registrants for the clinical laboratory analytics meeting. The meeting featured short presentations on current trends in clinical laboratory analytics and several panel discussions on data science in laboratory medicine, laboratory data and its role in the larger healthcare system, integrating laboratory analytics, and data sharing for collaborative analytics. One main goal of meeting was to have an open forum of leaders that work with the "big data" clinical laboratories produce. This article summarizes the proceedings of the meeting and content discussed.

  13. Students' Psychosocial Perception of Science Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was obtained with the Science Laboratory Environment Questionnaire, administered on 338 third year science students. Four factors were found to influence students' perception of their science laboratory environment. Two distinct material environments emerged, which have not been reported in the literature.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  15. The Viability of Distance Education Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forinash, Kyle; Wisman, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of offering science laboratories via distance education. Explains current delivery technologies, including computer simulations, videos, and laboratory kits sent to students; pros and cons of distance labs; the use of spreadsheets; and possibilities for new science education models. (LRW)

  16. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this journal is to cover all aspects of medical laboratory science. Contributions are received from staff members of academic, basic and laboratory science departments of the different medical schools and research centres all over Egypt and it fulfils a real need amongst Egyptian doctors working in the ...

  17. Los Alamos National Laboratory A National Science Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Mark B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-20

    Our mission as a DOE national security science laboratory is to develop and apply science, technology, and engineering solutions that: (1) Ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the US nuclear deterrent; (2) Protect against the nuclear threat; and (3) Solve Energy Security and other emerging national security challenges.

  18. Outsourcing of Academic Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrak, Robert E.; Parslow, Tristram G.; Tomaszewski, John E.

    2018-01-01

    American hospitals are increasingly turning to service outsourcing to reduce costs, including laboratory services. Studies of this practice have largely focused on nonacademic medical centers. In contrast, academic medical centers have unique practice environments and unique mission considerations. We sought to elucidate and analyze clinical laboratory outsourcing experiences in US academic medical centers. Seventeen chairs of pathology with relevant experience were willing to participate in in-depth interviews about their experiences. Anticipated financial benefits from joint venture arrangements often eroded after the initial years of the agreement, due to increased test pricing, management fees, duplication of services in support of inpatients, and lack of incentive for utilization control on the part of the for-profit partner. Outsourcing can preclude development of lucrative outreach programs; such programs were successfully launched in several cases after joint ventures were either avoided or terminated. Common complaints included poor test turnaround time and problems with test quality (especially in molecular pathology, microbiology, and flow cytometry), leading to clinician dissatisfaction. Joint ventures adversely affected retention of academically oriented clinical pathology faculty, with adverse effects on research and education, which further exacerbated clinician dissatisfaction due to lack of available consultative expertise. Resident education in pathology and in other disciplines (especially infectious disease) suffered both from lack of on-site laboratory capabilities and from lack of teaching faculty. Most joint ventures were initiated with little or no input from pathology leadership, and input from pathology leadership was seen to have been critical in those cases where such arrangements were declined or terminated. PMID:29637086

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Microsystems Science & Technology Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Management System Pollution Prevention History 60 impacts Diversity Locations Facts & Figures Programs Nuclear Weapons About Nuclear Weapons Safety & Security Weapons Science & Technology Robotics R&D 100 Awards Laboratory Directed Research & Development Technology Deployment Centers

  20. Variation in interoperability across clinical laboratories nationwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vaishali; McNamara, Lauren; Dullabh, Prashila; Sawchuk, Megan E; Swain, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    To characterize nationwide variation and factors associated with clinical laboratories': (1) capabilities to send structured test results electronically to ordering practitioners' EHR systems; and (2) their levels of exchange activity, as measured by whether they sent more than three-quarters of their test results as structured data to ordering practitioners' EHR systems. A national survey of all independent and hospital laboratories was conducted in 2013. Using an analytic weighted sample of 9382 clinical laboratories, a series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify organizational and area characteristics associated with clinical laboratories' exchange capability and activity. Hospital-based clinical laboratories (71%) and larger clinical laboratories (80%) had significantly higher levels of capability compared to independent (58%) and smaller laboratories (48%), respectively; though all had similar levels of exchange activity, with 30% of clinical laboratories sending 75% or more of their test results electronically. In multivariate analyses, hospital and the largest laboratories had 1.87 and 4.40 higher odds, respectively, of possessing the capability to send results electronically compared to independent laboratories (pLaboratories located in areas with a higher share of potential exchange partners had a small but significantly greater capability to send results electronically and higher levels of exchange activity(pClinical laboratories' capability to exchange varied by size and type; however, all clinical laboratories had relatively low levels of exchange activity. The role of exchange partners potentially played a small but significant role in driving exchange capability and activity. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Travis

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

  2. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs.

  3. Life sciences: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    Life Sciences Research at LBL has both a long history and a new visibility. The physics technologies pioneered in the days of Ernest O. Lawrence found almost immediate application in the medical research conducted by Ernest's brother, John Lawrence. And the tradition of nuclear medicine continues today, largely uninterrupted for more than 50 years. Until recently, though, life sciences research has been a secondary force at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Today, a true multi-program laboratory has emerged, in which the life sciences participate as a full partner. The LBL Human Genome Center is a contribution to the growing international effort to map the human genome. Its achievements represent LBL divisions, including Engineering, Materials and Chemical Sciences, and Information and Computing Sciences, along with Cell and Molecular Biology and Chemical Biodynamics. The Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center will comprise not only beamlines and experimental end stations, but also supporting laboratories and office space for scientists from across the US. This effort reflects a confluence of scientific disciplines --- this time represented by individuals from the life sciences divisions and by engineers and physicists associated with the Advanced Light Source project. And finally, this report itself, the first summarizing the efforts of all four life sciences divisions, suggests a new spirit of cooperation. 30 figs

  4. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Errors in clinical laboratories or errors in laboratory medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory testing is a highly complex process and, although laboratory services are relatively safe, they are not as safe as they could or should be. Clinical laboratories have long focused their attention on quality control methods and quality assessment programs dealing with analytical aspects of testing. However, a growing body of evidence accumulated in recent decades demonstrates that quality in clinical laboratories cannot be assured by merely focusing on purely analytical aspects. The more recent surveys on errors in laboratory medicine conclude that in the delivery of laboratory testing, mistakes occur more frequently before (pre-analytical) and after (post-analytical) the test has been performed. Most errors are due to pre-analytical factors (46-68.2% of total errors), while a high error rate (18.5-47% of total errors) has also been found in the post-analytical phase. Errors due to analytical problems have been significantly reduced over time, but there is evidence that, particularly for immunoassays, interference may have a serious impact on patients. A description of the most frequent and risky pre-, intra- and post-analytical errors and advice on practical steps for measuring and reducing the risk of errors is therefore given in the present paper. Many mistakes in the Total Testing Process are called "laboratory errors", although these may be due to poor communication, action taken by others involved in the testing process (e.g., physicians, nurses and phlebotomists), or poorly designed processes, all of which are beyond the laboratory's control. Likewise, there is evidence that laboratory information is only partially utilized. A recent document from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) recommends a new, broader definition of the term "laboratory error" and a classification of errors according to different criteria. In a modern approach to total quality, centered on patients' needs and satisfaction, the risk of errors and mistakes

  6. Selecting automation for the clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Stacy E F; Lindeman, Neal I; Jarolim, Petr

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory automation proposes to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory operations, and may provide a solution to the quality demands and staff shortages faced by today's clinical laboratories. Several vendors offer automation systems in the United States, with both subtle and obvious differences. Arriving at a decision to automate, and the ensuing evaluation of available products, can be time-consuming and challenging. Although considerable discussion concerning the decision to automate has been published, relatively little attention has been paid to the process of evaluating and selecting automation systems. To outline a process for evaluating and selecting automation systems as a reference for laboratories contemplating laboratory automation. Our Clinical Chemistry Laboratory staff recently evaluated all major laboratory automation systems in the United States, with their respective chemistry and immunochemistry analyzers. Our experience is described and organized according to the selection process, the important considerations in clinical chemistry automation, decisions and implementation, and we give conclusions pertaining to this experience. Including the formation of a committee, workflow analysis, submitting a request for proposal, site visits, and making a final decision, the process of selecting chemistry automation took approximately 14 months. We outline important considerations in automation design, preanalytical processing, analyzer selection, postanalytical storage, and data management. Selecting clinical chemistry laboratory automation is a complex, time-consuming process. Laboratories considering laboratory automation may benefit from the concise overview and narrative and tabular suggestions provided.

  7. Laboratory hemostasis: milestones in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2013-01-01

    Hemostasis is a delicate, dynamic and intricate system, in which pro- and anti-coagulant forces cooperate for either maintaining blood fluidity under normal conditions, or else will prompt blood clot generation to limit the bleeding when the integrity of blood vessels is jeopardized. Excessive prevalence of anticoagulant forces leads to hemorrhage, whereas excessive activation of procoagulant forces triggers excessive coagulation and thrombosis. The hemostasis laboratory performs a variety of first, second and third line tests, and plays a pivotal role in diagnostic and monitoring of most hemostasis disturbances. Since the leading targets of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine include promotion of progress in fundamental and applied research, along with publication of guidelines and recommendations in laboratory diagnostics, this journal is an ideal source of information on current developments in the laboratory technology of hemostasis, and this article is aimed to celebrate some of the most important and popular articles ever published by the journal in the filed of laboratory hemostasis.

  8. 77 FR 41188 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... to general issues related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory medicine... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical... patient-centeredness of laboratory services; revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories...

  9. Service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramessur, Vinaysing; Hurreeram, Dinesh Kumar; Maistry, Kaylasson

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate a service quality framework that enhances service delivery in clinical laboratories by gauging medical practitioner satisfaction and by providing avenues for continuous improvement. The case study method has been used for conducting the exploratory study, with focus on the Mauritian public clinical laboratory. A structured questionnaire based on the SERVQUAL service quality model was used for data collection, analysis and for the development of the service quality framework. The study confirms the pertinence of the following service quality dimensions within the context of clinical laboratories: tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, turnaround time, technology, test reports, communication and laboratory staff attitude and behaviour. The service quality framework developed, termed LabSERV, is vital for clinical laboratories in the search for improving service delivery to medical practitioners. This is a pioneering work carried out in the clinical laboratory sector in Mauritius. Medical practitioner expectations and perceptions have been simultaneously considered to generate a novel service quality framework for clinical laboratories.

  10. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Julia C.

    2005-04-17

    This 2004 Annual Report describes the research and accomplishments of staff and users of the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), located in Richland, Washington. EMSL is a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization, operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The resources and opportunities within the facility are an outgrowth of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to fundamental research for understanding and resolving environmental and other critical scientific issues.

  11. Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Robotic Manufacturing Science and Engineering Laboratory (RMSEL) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the robotics research and testing currently in progress at SNL. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  12. Error tracking in a clinical biochemistry laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Ødum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We report our results for the systematic recording of all errors in a standard clinical laboratory over a 1-year period. METHODS: Recording was performed using a commercial database program. All individuals in the laboratory were allowed to report errors. The testing processes were cl...

  13. Clinical laboratory technologist professional development in Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Caridad García González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the results of research aimed at assessing the current conditions related to clinical laboratory technologist professional development. A descriptive cross study covering the period between November 2013 and January 2014 is presented. Several techniques for identifying and hierarchically arranging professional developmental related problems were used to study a sample at the Faculty of Health Technology of the Medical University “Carlos Juan Finlay”. The study involved heads of teaching departments and methodologists of health care technology specialties; moreover a survey and a content test were given graduate clinical laboratory technicians. The authors reached at the conclusion that clinical laboratory technologist professional development is limited and usually underestimate the necessities and interests of these graduates. Likewise, a lack of systematization and integration of the biomedical basic sciences contents and the laboratory diagnosis is noticeable.

  14. Life sciences laboratory breadboard simulations for shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, S. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Callahan, P. X.

    1975-01-01

    Breadboard simulations of life sciences laboratory concepts for conducting bioresearch in space were undertaken as part of the concept verification testing program. Breadboard simulations were conducted to test concepts of and scope problems associated with bioresearch support equipment and facility requirements and their operational integration for conducting manned research in earth orbital missions. It emphasized requirements, functions, and procedures for candidate research on crew members (simulated) and subhuman primates and on typical radioisotope studies in rats, a rooster, and plants.

  15. [Future roles of clinical laboratories and clinical laboratory technologists in university hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2013-08-01

    Clinical laboratories in university hospitals should be operated with a good balance of medical practice, education, research, and management. The role of a clinical laboratory is to promptly provide highly reliable laboratory data to satisfy the needs of clinicians involved in medical practice and health maintenance of patients. Improvement and maintenance of the quality of the laboratory staff and environment are essential to achieve this goal. In order to implement these requirements efficiently, an appropriate quality management system should be introduced and established, and evaluated objectively by a third party (e.g. by obtaining ISO 15189 certification). ISO 15189 is an international standard regarding the quality and competence of clinical laboratories, and specifies a review of the efficient operational system and technical requirements such as competence in implementing practical tests and calibration. This means the results of laboratory tests reported by accredited laboratories withstand any international evaluation, which is very important to assure the future importance of the existence and management of clinical laboratories as well as internationalization of medical practice. "Education" and "research" have important implications in addition to "medical practice" and "management", as the roles that clinical laboratories should play in university hospitals. University hospital laboratories should be operated by keeping these four factors in good balance. Why are "education" and "research" required in addition to "medical practice" services? If individual clinical laboratory technologists can provide an appropriate response to this question, the importance of the existence of clinical laboratories would be reinforced, without being compromised.

  16. Clinical laboratory billing: superfluous requirements without justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Congress occasionally passes new laws that affect how clinical laboratories handle test orders from physicians and, subsequently, process the billing for tests. Once a bill is signed into law, it is forwarded to administrative agencies, which draft regulations and administrative procedures, under which the intentions of Congress are carried out. In the case of laboratory test ordering and billing, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has the greatest influence over how these regulations and procedures are defined. Unfortunately, in many cases, billing rules have been promulgated in ways that create the need for hospitals and commercial laboratories to expend huge sums of money to bill within the confines of the administrative rules; cause clinical laboratories to suffer from omissions and mistakes of other parties who are part of the patient care process but are not accountable for the billing information they provide to laboratories; and, frankly, in some respects, simply defy common sense.

  17. Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Journal Home > Egyptian Journal of Medical Laboratory Sciences: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Clinical laboratory waste management in Shiraz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Motazedian, Nasrin; Palenik, Charles John

    2012-06-01

    Clinical laboratories are significant generators of infectious waste, including microbiological materials, contaminated sharps, and pathologic wastes such as blood specimens and blood products. Most waste produced in laboratories can be disposed of in the general solid waste stream. However, improper management of infectious waste, including mixing general wastes with infectious wastes and improper handling or storage, could lead to disease transmission. The aim of this study was to assess waste management processes used at clinical laboratories in Shiraz, Iran. One hundred and nine clinical laboratories participated In this cross sectional study, Data collection was by questionnaire and direct observation. Of the total amount of waste generated, 52% (by weight) was noninfectious domestic waste, 43% was non-sharps infectious waste and 5% consisted of sharps. There was no significant relationship between laboratory staff or manager education and the score for quality of waste collection and disposal at clinical laboratories. Improvements in infectious waste management processes should involve clearer, more uniformly accepted definitions of infectious waste and increased staff training.

  19. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  20. Selecting clinical quality indicators for laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Julian H

    2012-05-01

    Quality in laboratory medicine is often described as doing the right test at the right time for the right person. Laboratory processes currently operate under the oversight of an accreditation body which gives confidence that the process is good. However, there are aspects of quality that are not measured by these processes. These are largely focused on ensuring that the most clinically appropriate test is performed and interpreted correctly. Clinical quality indicators were selected through a two-phase process. Firstly, a series of focus groups of clinical scientists were held with the aim of developing a list of quality indicators. These were subsequently ranked in order by an expert panel of primary and secondary care physicians. The 10 top indicators included the communication of critical results, comprehensive education to all users and adequate quality assurance for point-of-care testing. Laboratories should ensure their tests are used to national standards, that they have clinical utility, are calibrated to national standards and have long-term stability for chronic disease management. Laboratories should have error logs and demonstrate evidence of measures introduced to reduce chances of similar future errors. Laboratories should make a formal scientific evaluation of analytical quality. This paper describes the process of selection of quality indicators for laboratory medicine that have been validated sequentially by deliverers and users of the service. They now need to be converted into measureable variables related to outcome and validated in practice.

  1. The changing face of clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, M

    1999-07-01

    Laboratory medicine has undergone a sea change, and medical laboratories must now adapt to, and meet new, customer-supplier needs springing from shifts in the patterns of disease prevalence, medical practice, and demographics. Managed care and other cost-containment processes have forced those involved in health care to cooperate to develop a full picture of patient care, and this has affected clinical laboratory objectives, the main focus now being on improvement in medical outcomes. More recently, the resource shortages in health care and results of cost/effectiveness analysis have demonstrated that the value of a laboratory test must be ascertained not only on the basis of its chemical or clinical performance characteristics, but also by its impact on patient management, the only true assessment of the quality of testing being quality of patient outcomes. The time is ripe for changing the vision of laboratory medicine, and some of the reasons for this are the availability of results in real-time, the introduction of more specific tests, and the trend to prevent diseases rather than cure them. The information from laboratory tests designed to evaluate biochemical or genetic risk and/or prognostic factors cannot be replaced either by physical examination and/or the assessment of symptoms. Today, the importance of laboratory scientists must be proven in three broad areas: a) guaranteeing the quality of tests, irrespective of where they are performed; b) improving the quality of the service; c) maximizing the impact of laboratory information on patient management.

  2. Clinical laboratory: bigger is not always better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2018-06-27

    Laboratory services around the world are undergoing substantial consolidation and changes through mechanisms ranging from mergers, acquisitions and outsourcing, primarily based on expectations to improve efficiency, increasing volumes and reducing the cost per test. However, the relationship between volume and costs is not linear and numerous variables influence the end cost per test. In particular, the relationship between volumes and costs does not span the entire platter of clinical laboratories: high costs are associated with low volumes up to a threshold of 1 million test per year. Over this threshold, there is no linear association between volumes and costs, as laboratory organization rather than test volume more significantly affects the final costs. Currently, data on laboratory errors and associated diagnostic errors and risk for patient harm emphasize the need for a paradigmatic shift: from a focus on volumes and efficiency to a patient-centered vision restoring the nature of laboratory services as an integral part of the diagnostic and therapy process. Process and outcome quality indicators are effective tools to measure and improve laboratory services, by stimulating a competition based on intra- and extra-analytical performance specifications, intermediate outcomes and customer satisfaction. Rather than competing with economic value, clinical laboratories should adopt a strategy based on a set of harmonized quality indicators and performance specifications, active laboratory stewardship, and improved patient safety.

  3. XML Syntax for Clinical Laboratory Procedure Manuals

    OpenAIRE

    Saadawi, Gilan; Harrison, James H.

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a document type description (DTD) in Extensable Markup Language (XML)1 for clinical laboratory procedures. Our XML syntax can adequately structure a variety of procedure types across different laboratories and is compatible with current procedure standards. The combination of this format with an XML content management system and appropriate style sheets will allow efficient procedure maintenance, distributed access, customized display and effective searching across a large b...

  4. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Von der Heydt, Max O.; Mogensen, Claus T.; Canham, John; Harpold, Dan N.; Johnson, Joel; Errigo, Therese; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-09-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover carries a set of five external verification standards in hermetically sealed containers that can be sampled as would be a Martian rock, by drilling and then portioning into the solid sample inlet of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite. Each organic check material (OCM) canister contains a porous ceramic solid, which has been doped with a fluorinated hydrocarbon marker that can be detected by SAM. The purpose of the OCM is to serve as a verification tool for the organic cleanliness of those parts of the sample chain that cannot be cleaned other than by dilution, i.e., repeated sampling of Martian rock. SAM possesses internal calibrants for verification of both its performance and its internal cleanliness, and the OCM is not used for that purpose. Each OCM unit is designed for one use only, and the choice to do so will be made by the project science group (PSG).

  5. Clinical science: prospects, payment and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslavicus, P A

    1999-01-01

    The last several decades of this century have witnessed significant changes in health care financing and delivery. Similar changes have occurred within laboratory medicine. While government involvement has been principally in insurance and the control of costs through regulation, the demise of the Clinton Health Plan ushered in an era of deregulation and market competition. In this environment, clinical science and clinical scientists have a new challenge: to prove their worth by establishing methods in which their services and tests are more clinically efficient than competing approaches.

  6. Decision analysis. Clinical art or Clinical Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    having helped some clients. Over the past half century, psychotherapy has faced a series of crises concerned with its transformation from an art to a...clinical science . These include validation of the effectiveness of various forms of therapy, validating elements of treatment programs and

  7. Viral Contamination Source in Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin Ling; Song, Juan; Song, Qin Qin; Yu, Jie; Luo, Xiao Nuan; Wu, Gui Zhen; Han, Jun

    2016-08-01

    To understand the potential causes of laboratory-acquired infections and to provide possible solutions that would protect laboratory personnel, samples from a viral laboratory were screened to determine the main sources of contamination with six subtypes of Rhinovirus. Rhinovirus contamination was found in the gloves, cuffs of protective wear, inner surface of biological safety cabinet (BSC) windows, and trash handles. Remarkably, high contamination was found on the inner walls of the centrifuge and the inner surface of centrifuge tube casing in the rotor. Spilling infectious medium on the surface of centrifuge tubes was found to contribute to contamination of centrifuge surfaces. Exposure to sodium hypochlorite containing no less than 0.2 g/L available chlorine decontaminated the surface of the centrifuge tubes from Rhinovirus after 2 min. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  9. What Clinical and Laboratory Parameters Distinguish Between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: In developing countries, a large number of patients presenting acutely in renal failure are indeed cases of advanced chronic renal failure. In this study, we compared clinical and laboratory parameters between patients with acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic renal failure (CRF), to identify discriminatory ...

  10. Educating Laboratory Science Learners at a Distance Using Interactive Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory science classes offered to students learning at a distance require a methodology that allows for the completion of tactile activities. Literature describes three different methods of solving the distance laboratory dilemma: kit-based laboratory experience, computer-based laboratory experience, and campus-based laboratory experience,…

  11. Space Science at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karl

    2017-09-01

    The Space Science and Applications group (ISR-1) in the Intelligence and Space Research (ISR) division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory lead a number of space science missions for civilian and defense-related programs. In support of these missions the group develops sensors capable of detecting nuclear emissions and measuring radiations in space including γ-ray, X-ray, charged-particle, and neutron detection. The group is involved in a number of stages of the lifetime of these sensors including mission concept and design, simulation and modeling, calibration, and data analysis. These missions support monitoring of the atmosphere and near-Earth space environment for nuclear detonations as well as monitoring of the local space environment including space-weather type events. Expertise in this area has been established over a long history of involvement with cutting-edge projects continuing back to the first space based monitoring mission Project Vela. The group's interests cut across a large range of topics including non-proliferation, space situational awareness, nuclear physics, material science, space physics, astrophysics, and planetary physics.

  12. Building bridges between clinical and forensic toxicology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bernardino Barcelo; Gomila, Isabel; Noce, Valeria

    2018-05-09

    Clinical and forensic toxicology can be defined as the two disciplines involved the detection, identification and measurement of xenobiotics in biological and non-biological specimens to help in the diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, prevention of poisonings and to disclose causes and contributory causes of fatal intoxications, respectively. This article explores the close connections between clinical and forensic toxicology in overlapping areas of interest. An update has been carried out of the following seven areas of interest in analytical toxicology: doping control, sudden cardiac death (SCD), brain death, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP), prenatal exposure to drugs and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), drug-facilitated crimes (DFC) and intoxications by new psychoactive substances (NPS). While issues such as SCD, SIDS or doping control are investigated mainly in forensic laboratories, other as prenatal exposure to drugs or FAS are mainly treated in clinical laboratories. On the other hand, areas such MSBP, DFC or the intoxications by NPS are of interest in both laboratories. Some of these topics are initially treated in hospital emergency departments, involving clinical laboratories and sometimes lately derived to forensic laboratories. Conversely, cases with initial medical-legal implications and fatalities are directly handled by forensic toxicology, but may trigger further studies in the clinical setting. Many areas of common interest between clinical and forensic laboratories are building bridges between them. The increasing relationships are improving the growth, the reliability and the robustness of both kind of laboratories. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  14. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd

    2017-01-01

    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  15. Mars Science Laboratory Rover System Thermal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Keith S.; Kempenaar, Joshua E.; Liu, Yuanming; Bhandari, Pradeep; Dudik, Brenda A.

    2012-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, NASA launched a large (900 kg) rover as part of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission to Mars. The MSL rover is scheduled to land on Mars on August 5, 2012. Prior to launch, the Rover was successfully operated in simulated mission extreme environments during a 16-day long Rover System Thermal Test (STT). This paper describes the MSL Rover STT, test planning, test execution, test results, thermal model correlation and flight predictions. The rover was tested in the JPL 25-Foot Diameter Space Simulator Facility at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The Rover operated in simulated Cruise (vacuum) and Mars Surface environments (8 Torr nitrogen gas) with mission extreme hot and cold boundary conditions. A Xenon lamp solar simulator was used to impose simulated solar loads on the rover during a bounding hot case and during a simulated Mars diurnal test case. All thermal hardware was exercised and performed nominally. The Rover Heat Rejection System, a liquid-phase fluid loop used to transport heat in and out of the electronics boxes inside the rover chassis, performed better than predicted. Steady state and transient data were collected to allow correlation of analytical thermal models. These thermal models were subsequently used to predict rover thermal performance for the MSL Gale Crater landing site. Models predict that critical hardware temperatures will be maintained within allowable flight limits over the entire 669 Sol surface mission.

  16. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.; Showalter, Mary Ann

    2007-03-23

    This report describes the activities and research performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a Department of Energy national scientific user facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, during Fiscal Year 2006.

  17. Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ARL-TR-7579 ● JAN 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Network Science Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by...Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit by Theron Trout and Andrew J Toth Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Research Laboratory (NSRL) Discrete Event Toolkit 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Theron Trout

  18. Investigating the status and barriers of science laboratory activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    of 1502 secondary schools) schools having science laboratories (MINEDUC, 2014). ... focusing on primary teacher‟s pre-service education in terms of trainability ..... teaching approaches used in teaching „science and elementary technology ...

  19. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Internal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Justin D.; Lam, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) team is sending the rover, Curiosity, to Mars, and therefore is physically and technically complex. During my stay, I have assisted the MSL Flight Software (FSW) team in implementing functional test scripts to ensure that the FSW performs to the best of its abilities. There are a large number of FSW requirements that have been written up for implementation; however I have only been assigned a few sections of these requirements. There are many stages within testing; one of the early stages is FSW Internal Testing (FIT). The FIT team can accomplish this with simulation software and the MSL Test Automation Kit (MTAK). MTAK has the ability to integrate with the Software Simulation Equipment (SSE) and the Mission Processing and Control System (MPCS) software which makes it a powerful tool within the MSL FSW development process. The MSL team must ensure that the rover accomplishes all stages of the mission successfully. Due to the natural complexity of this project there is a strong emphasis on testing, as failure is not an option. The entire mission could be jeopardized if something is overlooked.

  20. Status of Safety Precautions in Science Laboratories in Enugu State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the status of safety precautions in science laboratories in Enugu State of Nigeria. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The research questions include: 1. What are the sources of hazards in school science laboratories? 2. What are the causes of accidents in ...

  1. The laboratory in higher science education: Problems, premises and objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, P.A.; Meester, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    A university study in the natural sciences, devoid of a practical component such as laboratory work is virtually unthinkable. One could even go so far as saying that it is extremely rare for anyone to question the necessity of laboratory work in either high school or university science

  2. Clinical and laboratory evaluation of adrenal dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.; Fishman, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Because of their special physical and chemical properties, the adrenal secretory products were among the first hormonal substances to be measured by methods other than bioassay. Over the past several years, the development of sensitive and specific methods of hormone assay dependent on the use of radionuclides has revolutionized investigative and clinical endocrinology. While the capacity of defining most abnormalities of adrenal function antedates hormone measurement and adrenal imaging utilizing radioisotopes, the availability of such methods has greatly facilitated and made more precise the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected adrenal dysfunction. As an example of how clinical and laboratory considerations can be integrated into a rational approach to the diagnosis of adrenal disease, the problem of suspected adrenal hyperfunction is analyzed in light of current understanding of its pathophysiology. Reflection demonstrates that suspected primary aldosteronism and adrenal insufficiency are equally amenable to such an approach

  3. Hidden sources of mercury in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Chavez, C R; Federico-Perez, R A; Gomez-Alvarez, A; Velazquez-Contreras, L E; Perez-Rios, R

    2014-09-01

    The healthcare sector is an important contributor to mercury (Hg) pollution because of the potential presence of mercury in thermometers, blood pressure cuffs, amalgams, etc. There are also other potential sources of mercury in this sector which are used frequently and in high volumes where the presence of the metal is not obvious and which might be collectively contributing to pollution. For instance, some chemicals used for the clinical diagnosis of illness may contain mercury. The goal of this study was to investigate potential sources of mercury pollution, which originate from clinical laboratory discharges, using an exploratory approach. The focus was on the residue generated during automatic analysis of patients' bodily fluids at a medical center in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. This study shows an overview of what might be happening in the region or the country related to non-obvious sources of mercury in the healthcare sector. The results showed measurable levels of mercury in the residues coming from urine sediment analysis. These amounts do not exceed the maximum allowed by Mexican environmental regulations; nevertheless, the frequency and cumulative volume of residues generated, combined with the potential for persistence and the bioaccumulation of mercury in the environment, warrant attention. The work carried out in this study is being taken as a model for future studies for pollution prevention in the healthcare sector with the goal of measuring mercury emissions to the environment from clinical laboratory wastewater, including identifying sources which--while not obvious--could be important given the frequency and volume of their use in the clinical diagnosis.

  4. Implementation science: the laboratory as a command centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeras, Debrah I; Nkengasong, John N; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-03-01

    Recent advances in point-of-care technologies to ensure universal access to affordable quality-assured diagnostics have the potential to transform patient management, surveillance programmes, and control of infectious diseases. Decentralization of testing can put tremendous stresses on fragile health systems if the laboratory is not involved in the planning, introduction, and scale-up strategies. The impact of investments in novel technologies can only be realized if these tests are evaluated, adopted, and scaled up within the healthcare system with appropriate planning and understanding of the local contexts in which these technologies will be used. In this digital age, the laboratory needs to take on the role of the Command Centre for technology introduction and implementation. Implementation science is needed to understand the political, cultural, economic, and behavioural context for technology introduction. The new paradigm should include: building a comprehensive system of laboratories and point-of-care testing sites to provide quality-assured diagnostic services with good laboratory-clinic interface to build trust in test results and linkage to care; building and coordinating a comprehensive national surveillance and communication system for disease control and global health emergencies; conducting research to monitor the impact of new tools and interventions on improving patient care.

  5. Curiosity: the Mars Science Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Curiosity rover landed successfully in Gale Crater, Mars on August 5, 2012. This event was a dramatic high point in the decade long effort to design, build, test and fly the most sophisticated scientific vehicle ever sent to Mars. The real achievements of the mission have only just begun, however, as Curiosity is now searching for signs that Mars once possessed habitable environments. The Mars Science Laboratory Project has been one of the most ambitious and challenging planetary projects that NASA has undertaken. It started in the successful aftermath of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover project and was designed to take significant steps forward in both engineering and scientific capabilities. This included a new landing system capable of emplacing a large mobile vehicle over a wide range of potential landing sites, advanced sample acquisition and handling capabilities that can retrieve samples from both rocks and soil, and a high reliability avionics suite that is designed to permit long duration surface operations. It also includes a set of ten sophisticated scientific instruments that will investigate both the geological context of the landing site plus analyze samples to understand the chemical & organic composition of rocks & soil found there. The Gale Crater site has been specifically selected as a promising location where ancient habitable environments may have existed and for which evidence may be preserved. Curiosity will spend a minimum of one Mars year (about two Earth years) looking for this evidence. This paper will report on the progress of the mission over the first few months of surface operations, plus look retrospectively at lessons learned during both the development and cruise operations phase of the mission..

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: clinical and laboratory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Yorghi Khoury

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinically, and with laboratory, tests, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO. PATIENTS: One hundred and twelve women with PCO were studied. METHODS: The following data was recorded: Current age; age at menarche; menstrual irregularity, occurrence of similar cases in the family; fertility, obstetric history; body mass index (BMI; and presence of hirsutism. Serum measurements of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, prolactin, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were taken. RESULTS: All patients presented either oligomenorrhea (31 percent, periods of secondary amenorrhea (9 percent, or both alterations (60 percent. The majority of the patients were infertile (75.6 percent. The LH/FSH ratio was higher than 2:1 in 55 percent of the patients and higher than 3:1 in 26.2 percent. The ultrasonographic aspect of the ovaries was considered to be normal in 31 percent. CONCLUSION: The main clinical feature of the PCO is the irregularity of menses since menarche, and that the laboratory tests would be important to exclude other disorders such as hyperprolactinemia or hyperandrogenemia caused by late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  7. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  8. Liability of Science Educators for Laboratory Safety. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory investigations are essential for the effective teaching and learning of science. A school laboratory investigation ("lab") is an experience in the laboratory, classroom, or the field that provides students with opportunities to interact directly with natural phenomena or with data collected by others using tools, materials, data…

  9. Non-Stop Lab Week: A Real Laboratory Experience for Life Sciences Postgraduate Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular…

  10. Laboratory research at the clinical trials of Veterinary medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZHYLA M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the importance of laboratory test methods, namely pathomorfological at conduct of clinical trials. The article focuses on complex laboratory diagnostics at determination of clinical condition of animals, safety and efficacy of tested medicinal product.

  11. Laboratory Notebooks in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Christine; Lankford, Deanna

    2010-01-01

    Lab notebooks provide students with authentic science experiences as they become active, practicing scientists. Teachers gain insight into students' understanding of science content and processes, while students create a lasting personal resource. This article provides high school science teachers with guidelines for implementing lab notebooks in…

  12. Structures Laboratory | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  13. Research report 1987-1989: Environmental Quality Laboratory and Environmental Engineering Science, W. M. Keck Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1990-01-01

    This research biennial report for 1987-89 covers the activities of both the Environmental Engineering Science program and the Environmental Quality Laboratory for the period October 1987-November 1989. Environmental Engineering Science is the degree-granting academic program housed in the Keck Laboratories, with associated research projects. The Environmental Quality Laboratory is a research center focusing on large scale problems of environmental quality and natural resources. All the facult...

  14. Preanalytical quality in clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M Imteyaz; Ramesh, K L; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Haemolysis is usually caused by inadequate specimen collection or preanalytical handling and is suggested to be a suitable indicator of preanalytical quality. We investigated the prevalence of detectable haemolysis in all routine venous blood samples in OPDs and IPDs to identify differences in preanalytical quality. Haemolysis index (HI) values were obtained from a Vitros 5,1 in the routine clinical chemistry laboratory for samples collected in the outpatient department (OPD) collection centres, a hospital, and inpatient departments (IPD). Haemolysis was defined as a HI > or = 15 (detection limit). Samples from the OPD with the highest prevalence of haemolysis were 6.1 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.0 - 9.2) more often haemolysed compared to the center with the lowest prevalence. Of the samples collected in primary health care, 10.4% were haemolysed compared to 31.1% in the IPDs (p = 0.001). A notable difference in haemolysed samples was found between the IPDs section staffed by emergency medicine physicians and the section staffed by primary health care physicians (34.8% vs. 11.3%, p = 0.001). The significant variation in haemolysis indices among the investigated units is likely to reflect varying preanalytical conditions. The HI is a valuable tool for estimation and follow-up of preanalytical quality in the health care laboratory.

  15. Radiation protection in clinical chemical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, K.

    1980-01-01

    In the clinical-chemical laboratory, the problems of the personal radiation protection can be handled relatively simply. Important conditions are certain requirements as far as the building is concerned and the keeping to protection measures to invoid ingestion, inhalation, and resorption of open radioactive substances. Very intensive attention must be paid to a clean working technique in order to be able to exclude the danger of contamination which is very disturbing during the extremely sensitive measurements. The higgest problem in the handling of open radioactive substances, however, is in our opinion the waste management because it requires which space and personnel this causing high costs. Furthermore, since 1 January 1979, the permission for the final storage of radioactive waste in the shut down mine ASSE was taken back from the county collection places and it cannot be said yet if and when this permission will be given again. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Near-drowning and clinical laboratory changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmichen, Manfred; Hennig, Renate; Meissner, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Opposite to clinical laboratory findings in experimental drowning of animals (erythrocytic lysis, hyperkalemia, and final cardial fibrillation) are the observations in drowned humans (increase of pCO2, hypoxic encephalopathy), which leads to a different pathophysiological interpretation of the drowning process. This process, however, is recently discussed again, therefore an additional study seemed to be recommended. In a retrospective study, 31 cases of near-drowning (23 cases: fresh water; 8 cases: brackish water) clinical laboratory data were analysed. While 21 of the cases were fatal with a delay of up to 180 days, 10 individuals survived the accident, four cases with severe neurological deficits. Data of pH, potassium, sodium, chloride, hemoglobin and total protein were collected during the very early post-drowning period. Nearly all cases (96%) revealed a reduction of pH due to hypoxic acidosis, and only two cases (6.5%) exhibited a slight hyperkalemia. The hemoglobin level was normal in most of the cases (83%) and slightly reduced in the others (17%) while the protein level was slightly reduced in most of the fatalities (80%). As a result of our investigation we have to state the lack of hyperkalemia as well as of an increase of the hemoglobin level indicate that there is no distinct intravascular red cell lysis due to influx of water into the vascular compartment. Therefore the death by drowning in humans in most cases is the result of a hypoxic cerebral process. A comparison with animal experiments obviously is not helpful because the drowning process in humans leads to an aspiration of only 2-4 ml water/kg, while in animal experiments more than 10 ml water/kg will be artificially aspirated leading to red cell lysis as well as to electrolyte disturbances and cardial fibrillation.

  17. Bringing ayahuasca to the clinical research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riba, Jordi; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2005-06-01

    Since the winter of 1999, the authors and their research team have been conducting clinical studies involving the administration of ayahuasca to healthy volunteers. The rationale for conducting this kind of research is twofold. First, the growing interest of many individuals for traditional indigenous practices involving the ingestion of natural psychotropic drugs such as ayahuasca demands the systematic study of their pharmacological profiles in the target species, i.e., human beings. The complex nature of ayahuasca brews combining a large number of pharmacologically active compounds requires that research be carried out to establish the safety and overall pharmacological profile of these products. Second, the authors believe that the study of psychedelics in general calls for renewed attention. Although the molecular and electrophysiological level effects of these drugs are relatively well characterized, current knowledge of the mechanisms by which these compounds modify the higher order cognitive processes in the way they do is still incomplete, to say the least. The present article describes the development of the research effort carried out at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, commenting on several methodological aspects and reviewing the basic clinical findings. It also describes the research currently underway in our laboratory, and briefly comments on two new studies we plan to undertake in order to further our knowledge of the pharmacology of ayahuasca.

  18. Underground laboratories: Cosmic silence, loud science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coccia, Eugenio, E-mail: coccia@lngs.infn.i [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' and INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Underground laboratories provide the low radioactive background environment necessary to host key experiments in the field of particle and astroparticle physics, nuclear astrophysics and other disciplines that can profit of their characteristics and of their infrastructures. The cosmic silence condition existing in these laboratories allows the search for extremely rare phenomena and the exploration of the highest energy scales that cannot be reached with accelerators. I briefly describe all the facilities that are presently in operation around the world.

  19. 75 FR 39028 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... accommodate technological advances. Matters to be Discussed: The agenda will include agency updates from the... attendees are required to register for the meeting online at least 14 days in advance at http://wwwn.cdc.gov... Standards Branch, Division of Laboratory Science and Standards (proposed), Laboratory Science, Policy and...

  20. Changing the way science is taught through gamified laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Mads; Makransky, G.; Wandall, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large proportion of high school and college students indicate that they have little interest in science, and many graduate with marginal science competencies. However, laboratory exercises, usually the most engaging part of science courses, tend to be expensive, time consuming and occasionally...... the crime-scene case in an introductory, college-level, life science course was conducted revealed that a gamified laboratory simulation can significantly increase both learning outcomes and motivation levels when compared with, and particularly when combined with, traditional teaching....

  1. Decision Analysis: Engineering Science or Clinical Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT TR 79-2-97 DECISION ANALYSIS: ENGINEERING SCIENCE OR CLINICAL ART ? by Dennis M. Buede Prepared for Defense Advanced Research...APPLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEER- ING SCIENCE AND CLINICAL ART EXTREMES 9 3.1 Applications of the Engineering Science Approach 9 3.1.1 Mexican electrical...DISCUSSION 29 4.1 Engineering Science versus Clinical Art : A Characterization of When Each is Most Attractive 30 4.2 The Implications of the Engineering

  2. Nontyphoidal Salmonella: An Occupational Hazard for Clinical Laboratory Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Duster, Megan; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-acquired infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella are rare. Yet, recent outbreaks in microbiology teaching laboratories show that these species are still an appreciable occupational hazard for laboratory employees. This article presents two cases of nontyphoidal Salmonella that occurred at the authors' institution—an infected patient and a clinical laboratory worker who acquired the infection by handling this patient's specimens.

  3. Chemistry Students' Challenges in Using MBL's in Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Hakan Yavuz

    Understanding students' challenges about using microcomputer based laboratories (MBLs) would provide important data in understanding the appropriateness of using MBLs in high school chemistry laboratories. Identifying students' concerns about this technology will in part help educators identify the obstacles to science learning when using this…

  4. Investigating the status and barriers of science laboratory activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at investigating the barriers encountered by science teachers in laboratory activities in Rwandan teacher training colleges (TTCs) using questionnaires and interviews. The results confirmed that teachers face barriers like time limitation, material scarcity and lack of improvising skills in their everyday science ...

  5. A Guide to Undergraduate Science Course and Laboratory Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straumanis, Joan, Ed.; Watson, Robert F., Ed.

    Reported are activities carried out at colleges and universities during 1976-1980 with support from the National Science Foundation's Local Course Improvement (LOCI) and Instructional Scientific Equipment Program (ISEP). It is intended as a reference for persons interested in current course and laboratory developments in the sciences at the…

  6. [The future of clinical laboratory database management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, M; Imidy, D; Matsubara, A; Sugimoto, Y

    1999-09-01

    To assess the present status of the clinical laboratory database management system, the difference between the Clinical Laboratory Information System and Clinical Laboratory System was explained in this study. Although three kinds of database management systems (DBMS) were shown including the relational model, tree model and network model, the relational model was found to be the best DBMS for the clinical laboratory database based on our experience and developments of some clinical laboratory expert systems. As a future clinical laboratory database management system, the IC card system connected to an automatic chemical analyzer was proposed for personal health data management and a microscope/video system was proposed for dynamic data management of leukocytes or bacteria.

  7. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars. ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  8. Biological and Physical Space Research Laboratory 2002 Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, P. A. (Editor); Robinson, M. B. (Editor); Murphy, K. L. (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    With the International Space Station Program approaching core complete, our NASA Headquarters sponsor, the new Code U Enterprise, Biological and Physical Research, is shifting its research emphasis from purely fundamental microgravity and biological sciences to strategic research aimed at enabling human missions beyond Earth orbit. Although we anticipate supporting microgravity research on the ISS for some time to come, our laboratory has been vigorously engaged in developing these new strategic research areas.This Technical Memorandum documents the internal science research at our laboratory as presented in a review to Dr. Ann Whitaker, MSFC Science Director, in July 2002. These presentations have been revised and updated as appropriate for this report. It provides a snapshot of the internal science capability of our laboratory as an aid to other NASA organizations and the external scientific community.

  9. Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory - Preliminary Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Lesko, Kevin T; Alonso, Jose; Bauer, Paul; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Chinowsky, William; Dangermond, Steve; Detwiler, Jason A; De Vries, Syd; DiGennaro, Richard; Exter, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Felix B; Freer, Elizabeth L; Gilchriese, Murdock G D; Goldschmidt, Azriel; Grammann, Ben; Griffing, William; Harlan, Bill; Haxton, Wick C; Headley, Michael; Heise, Jaret; Hladysz, Zbigniew; Jacobs, Dianna; Johnson, Michael; Kadel, Richard; Kaufman, Robert; King, Greg; Lanou, Robert; Lemut, Alberto; Ligeti, Zoltan; Marks, Steve; Martin, Ryan D; Matthesen, John; Matthew, Brendan; Matthews, Warren; McConnell, Randall; McElroy, William; Meyer, Deborah; Norris, Margaret; Plate, David; Robinson, Kem E; Roggenthen, William; Salve, Rohit; Sayler, Ben; Scheetz, John; Tarpinian, Jim; Taylor, David; Vardiman, David; Wheeler, Ron; Willhite, Joshua; Yeck, James

    2011-01-01

    The DUSEL Project has produced the Preliminary Design of the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the rehabilitated former Homestake mine in South Dakota. The Facility design calls for, on the surface, two new buildings - one a visitor and education center, the other an experiment assembly hall - and multiple repurposed existing buildings. To support underground research activities, the design includes two laboratory modules and additional spaces at a level 4,850 feet underground for physics, biology, engineering, and Earth science experiments. On the same level, the design includes a Department of Energy-shepherded Large Cavity supporting the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment. At the 7,400-feet level, the design incorporates one laboratory module and additional spaces for physics and Earth science efforts. With input from some 25 science and engineering collaborations, the Project has designed critical experimental space and infrastructure needs, including space for a suite of multi...

  10. Science teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of technology in the laboratories: Implications for science education leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Niveen K.

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify science teachers' perceptions concerning the use of technology in science laboratories and identify teachers' concerns and recommendations for improving students' learning. Survey methodology with electronic delivery was used to gather data from 164 science teachers representing Texas public schools. The data confirmed that weaknesses identified in the 1990s still exist. Lack of equipment, classroom space, and technology access, as well as large numbers of students, were reported as major barriers to the implementation of technology in science laboratories. Significant differences were found based on gender, grade level, certification type, years of experience, and technology proficiency. Females, elementary teachers, traditionally trained teachers, and less experienced teachers revealed a more positive attitude toward the use of technology in science laboratories. Participants in this study preferred using science software simulations to support rather than replace traditional science laboratories. Teachers in this study recommended professional development programs that focused on strategies for a technology integrated classroom.

  11. Design of a Clinical Information Management System to Support DNA Analysis Laboratory Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Dubay, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, David; Popovich, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The LabDirector system has been developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University to support the operation of our clinical DNA analysis laboratory. Through an iterative design process which has spanned two years, we have produced a system that is both highly tailored to a clinical genetics production laboratory and flexible in its implementation, to support the rapid growth and change of protocols and methodologies in use in the field. The administrative aspects of the system are integrated ...

  12. Prevalence of estimated GFR reporting among US clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accetta, Nancy A; Gladstone, Elisa H; DiSogra, Charles; Wright, Elizabeth C; Briggs, Michael; Narva, Andrew S

    2008-10-01

    Routine laboratory reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) may help clinicians detect kidney disease. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting in clinical laboratories is unknown; thus, the extent of the situation of laboratories not routinely reporting eGFR with serum creatinine results is not quantified. Observational analysis. National Kidney Disease Education Program survey of clinical laboratories conducted in 2006 to 2007 by mail, web, and telephone follow-up. A national random sample, 6,350 clinical laboratories, drawn from the Federal Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments database and stratified by 6 major laboratory types/groupings. Laboratory reports serum creatinine results. Reporting eGFR values with serum creatinine results. Percentage of laboratories reporting eGFR along with reporting serum creatinine values, reporting protocol, eGFR formula used, and style of reporting cutoff values. Of laboratories reporting serum creatinine values, 38.4% report eGFR (physician offices, 25.8%; hospitals, 43.6%; independents, 38.9%; community clinics, 47.2%; health fair/insurance/public health, 45.5%; and others, 43.2%). Physician office laboratories have a reporting prevalence lower than other laboratory types (P laboratories reporting eGFR, 66.7% do so routinely with all adult serum creatinine determinations; 71.6% use the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation; and 45.3% use the ">60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" reporting convention. Independent laboratories are least likely to routinely report eGFR (50.6%; P laboratories across all strata are more likely to report eGFR (P laboratories, federal database did not have names of laboratory directors/managers (intended respondents), assumed accuracy of federal database for sample purposes. Routine eGFR reporting with serum creatinine values is not yet universal, and laboratories vary in their reporting practices.

  13. Medical Service Clinical Laboratory Procedure--Hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Army, Washington, DC.

    Presented are laboratory studies focusing on blood cells and the complete scheme of blood coagulation. Formed is the basis for the following types of laboratory operations: (1) distinguishing the morphology of normal and abnormal blood cells; (2) measuring the concentrations or number of blood cells; (3) measuring concentration and detecting…

  14. Assessment of leadership among clinical laboratories managers of teaching hospitals: Quantum leadership approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dargahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantum leadership approach causes efficient and effective procedures among health care organizations, specially clinical laboratories. Objective: This research was aimed to determine the status of quantum leadership dimensions among all management levels of clinical laboratories of teaching hospitals of medical sciences universities in Tehran. Methods: This descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study was induced among 180 managers of 35 clinical laboratories of Iran, Shahid Beheshti and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences 2016. The research tool was researcher - constructed questionnaire of quantum skills, demographic details that its content and face validity and reliability were confirmed. For analysis of data, T-test and ANOVA techniques were used. Findings: Most of the studied clinical laboratories managers were male, married, with 15-20 years work experiences, 1-5 years managerial services, and minimally one training courses in clinical laboratory management. The managers had relatively desired and desired score of quantum skills and leadership respectively. Also, there was significant correlation between quantum leadership with age (P=0.01, and with management training courses (P=0.02. Conclusion: It is expected this paradigm may change the clinical laboratory management in the near future with regards to desirability of quantum leadership dimensions among clinical laboratories.

  15. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  16. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  17. Clinical Correlations as a Tool in Basic Science Medical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J. Klement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical correlations are tools to assist students in associating basic science concepts with a medical application or disease. There are many forms of clinical correlations and many ways to use them in the classroom. Five types of clinical correlations that may be embedded within basic science courses have been identified and described. (1 Correlated examples consist of superficial clinical information or stories accompanying basic science concepts to make the information more interesting and relevant. (2 Interactive learning and demonstrations provide hands-on experiences or the demonstration of a clinical topic. (3 Specialized workshops have an application-based focus, are more specialized than typical laboratory sessions, and range in complexity from basic to advanced. (4 Small-group activities require groups of students, guided by faculty, to solve simple problems that relate basic science information to clinical topics. (5 Course-centered problem solving is a more advanced correlation activity than the others and focuses on recognition and treatment of clinical problems to promote clinical reasoning skills. Diverse teaching activities are used in basic science medical education, and those that include clinical relevance promote interest, communication, and collaboration, enhance knowledge retention, and help develop clinical reasoning skills.

  18. Clinical and laboratory features of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cárdenas

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The clinical presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC differs between patients in developing countries (African and Chinese populations from those in industrialized countries. In industrialized countries, HCC co-exists with symptomatic cirrhosis in 80% of cases and clinical manifestations are usually related to those of the underlying disease. On the other hand, patients from developing countries have HCC and cirrhosis in approximately 40% of cases. Underlying cirrhosis in many cases is not advanced and does not produce any symptoms or associated symptoms are masked by those of the tumor (right upper quadrant pain, mass in the upper abdomen, weight loss and weakness. In a subset of patients, there are no clinical manifestations as HCC may occur in the context of hepatitis B infection without cirrhosis.

    Clinical Manifestations

    In Western countries, nearly 35% percent of patients with HCC are asymptomatic. Some of the most common clinical manifestations include: abdominal pain (53-58% of patients, especially in epigastrium or right upper quadrant, abdominal mass (30%, weight loss, malaise, anorexia, cachexia, jaundice or fever.

    Physical Exam

    Physical findings vary with the stage of disease. The patient may exhibit slight or moderate wasting when first seen. In patients with cirrhosis, typical stigmata of chronic liver disease may be present. In advanced stages of HCC the liver may be enlarged and there is significant tenderness. An arterial bruit may be heard over the liver

  19. [How do hospital clinical laboratories and laboratory testing companies cooperate and build reciprocal relations?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Seiji

    2014-12-01

    As the 2nd Joint Symposium of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine and the Japanese Association of Laboratory Pathologists, the symposium on clinical test out-sourcing and branch laboratories was held at the 60th General Meeting of the Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine on November 2nd, 2013 in Kobe. For the symposium, we conducted a questionnaire survey on the usage of clinical test out-sourcing and the introduction of branch laboratories to clinical laboratories of Japanese university hospitals, both private and public, between July 25th and August 20th, 2013. Seventy-two hospitals responded to the questionnaire survey, consisting of 41 public medical school hospitals and 31 private ones. According to the survey, the selection of each clinical test for out-sourcing was mainly determined by the capacities of hospital clinical laboratories and their equipment, as well as the profitability of each test. The main concerns of clinical laboratory members of university hospitals involved the continuity of measurement principles, traceability, and standardization of reference values for each test. They strongly requested the interchangeability and computerization of test data between laboratory testing companies. A branch laboratory was introduced to six hospitals, all of which were private medical college hospitals, out of 72 university hospitals, and eight of the other hospitals were open to its introduction. The merits and demerits of introducing a branch laboratory were also discussed. (Review).

  20. Diversity in laboratory animal science: issues and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alworth, Leanne; Ardayfio, Krystal L; Blickman, Andrew; Greenhill, Lisa; Hill, William; Sharp, Patrick; Talmage, Roberta; Plaut, Victoria C; Goren, Matt

    2010-03-01

    Since diversity in the workplace began receiving scholarly attention in the late 1980s, many corporations and institutions have invested in programs to address and manage diversity. We encourage laboratory animal science to address the challenges and to build on the strengths that personal diversity brings to our field and workplaces. Diversity is already becoming increasingly relevant in the workplace and the laboratory animal science field. By addressing issues related to diversity, laboratory animal science could benefit and potentially fulfill its goals more successfully. To date, diversity has received minimal attention from the field as a whole. However, many individuals, workplaces, and institutions in industry, academia, and the uniformed services that are intimately involved with the field of laboratory animal science are actively addressing issues concerning diversity. This article describes some of these programs and activities in industry and academia. Our intention is that this article will provide useful examples of inclusion-promoting activities and prompt further initiatives to address diversity awareness and inclusion in laboratory animal science.

  1. [Why medical consultation is needed in the clinical laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T

    1998-10-01

    During the 20th century, at least until the 1980s, clinical laboratory practice had been rapidly expanded, mainly because of a significant advancement in medicine as a whole and also in laboratory technology. However, recent economic changes in health care environment worldwide have been influencing greatly future trends in clinical laboratory practice. Four major macroeconomic forces drive change in clinical laboratory practice as follows; (1) Increasing cost of health care, (2) Implications of an aging population, (3) Social change in the patient population, and (4) Explosion of new technologies. Obviously, the increasing cost of health care is the primary driver. Considering a rapid change in the health care environment, clearly there are two separate pathways to be considered with regard to future modes of delivering patient care services through the clinical laboratory: commercial independent laboratories and hospital laboratories. In most hospital laboratories, in addition to high-quality, accurate and precise laboratory data being delivered through automated informatics in a timely fashion, laboratory physicians and other laboratorians should be available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. The primary purpose of this approach is to develop a system in which the physician can order the most efficient number of tests, which will provide the maximum amount of clinically relevant informations most rapidly and most accurately at the least cost to the patient. Laboratory physicians must play a key role particularly in hospital laboratories. Their most important roles include those of a professional supplier of laboratory results being useful for health care and clinically relevant, and that of a consultative role for primary care physicians and other co-medical staffs to make important medical decision, based on laboratory results obtained. Therefore, the Japan Society of Clinical Pathology started in 1990 in publishing a series of proposed guidelines for adequate

  2. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D.; Thorp, Laurie; Coleman, Kayla; Kwame Yeboah, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  3. Design of a Clinical Information Management System to Support DNA Analysis Laboratory Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubay, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, David; Popovich, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    The LabDirector system has been developed at the Oregon Health Sciences University to support the operation of our clinical DNA analysis laboratory. Through an iterative design process which has spanned two years, we have produced a system that is both highly tailored to a clinical genetics production laboratory and flexible in its implementation, to support the rapid growth and change of protocols and methodologies in use in the field. The administrative aspects of the system are integrated with an enterprise schedule management system. The laboratory side of the system is driven by a protocol modeling and execution system. The close integration between these two aspects of the clinical laboratory facilitates smooth operations, and allows management to accurately measure costs and performance. The entire application has been designed and documented to provide utility to a wide range of clinical laboratory environments.

  4. Clinical caring science as a scientific discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnsfeldt, Arne; Arman, Maria; Lindström, Unni Å

    2017-09-01

    Clinical caring science will be described from a theory of science perspective. The aim of this theoretical article to give a comprehensive overview of clinical caring science as a human science-based discipline grounded in a theory of science argumentation. Clinical caring science seeks idiographic or specific variations of the ontology, concepts and theories, formulated by caring science. The rationale is the insight that the research questions do not change when they are addressed in different contexts. The academic subject contains a concept order with ethos concepts, core and basic concepts and practice concepts that unites systematic caring science with clinical caring science. In accordance with a hermeneutic tradition, the idea of the caring act is based on the degree to which the theory base is hermeneutically appropriated by the caregiver. The better the ethos, essential concepts and theories are understood, the better the caring act can be understood. In order to understand the concept order related to clinical caring science, an example is given from an ongoing project in a disaster context. The concept order is an appropriate way of making sense of the essence of clinical caring science. The idea of the concept order is that concepts on all levels need to be united with each other. A research project in clinical caring science can start anywhere on the concept order, either in ethos, core concepts, basic concepts, practice concepts or in concrete clinical phenomena, as long as no parts are locked out of the concept order as an entity. If, for example, research on patient participation as a phenomenon is not related to core and basic concepts, there is a risqué that the research becomes meaningless. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  5. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  6. 76 FR 39879 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... the standards to accommodate technological advances. Matters to be Discussed: The agenda will include... the meeting online at least 14 days in advance at http://www.cdc.gov/cliac/default.aspx by clicking... Information: Nancy Anderson, Chief, Laboratory Practice Standards Branch, Division of Laboratory Science and...

  7. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events. Figure 1. Associations between pre-ART clinical and laboratory characteristics with subsequent TB-IRIS events.

  8. Laboratory automation in clinical bacteriology: what system to choose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, A; Prod'hom, G; Faverjon, F; Rochais, Y; Greub, G

    2016-03-01

    Automation was introduced many years ago in several diagnostic disciplines such as chemistry, haematology and molecular biology. The first laboratory automation system for clinical bacteriology was released in 2006, and it rapidly proved its value by increasing productivity, allowing a continuous increase in sample volumes despite limited budgets and personnel shortages. Today, two major manufacturers, BD Kiestra and Copan, are commercializing partial or complete laboratory automation systems for bacteriology. The laboratory automation systems are rapidly evolving to provide improved hardware and software solutions to optimize laboratory efficiency. However, the complex parameters of the laboratory and automation systems must be considered to determine the best system for each given laboratory. We address several topics on laboratory automation that may help clinical bacteriologists to understand the particularities and operative modalities of the different systems. We present (a) a comparison of the engineering and technical features of the various elements composing the two different automated systems currently available, (b) the system workflows of partial and complete laboratory automation, which define the basis for laboratory reorganization required to optimize system efficiency, (c) the concept of digital imaging and telebacteriology, (d) the connectivity of laboratory automation to the laboratory information system, (e) the general advantages and disadvantages as well as the expected impacts provided by laboratory automation and (f) the laboratory data required to conduct a workflow assessment to determine the best configuration of an automated system for the laboratory activities and specificities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. 42 CFR 414.510 - Laboratory date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and pathology specimens. 414.510 Section 414.510 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... date of service for clinical laboratory and pathology specimens. The date of service for either a clinical laboratory test or the technical component of physician pathology service is as follows: (a...

  10. Managing Science: Management for R&D Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelès, Claude; Lindecker, Gilles; Month, Mel; Roche, Christian

    1999-10-01

    A unique "how-to" manual for the management of scientific laboratories This book presents a complete set of tools for the management of research and development laboratories and projects. With an emphasis on knowledge rather than profit as a measure of output and performance, the authors apply standard management principles and techniques to the needs of high-flux, open-ended, separately funded science and technology enterprises. They also propose the novel idea that failure, and incipient failure, is an important measure of an organization's potential. From the management of complex, round-the-clock, high-tech operations to strategies for long-term planning, Managing Science: Management for R&D Laboratories discusses how to build projects with the proper research and development, obtain and account for funding, and deal with rapidly changing technologies, facilities, and trends. The entire second part of the book is devoted to personnel issues and the impact of workplace behavior on the various functions of a knowledge-based organization. Drawing on four decades of involvement with the management of scientific laboratories, the authors thoroughly illustrate their philosophy with real-world examples from the physics field and provide tables and charts. Managers of scientific laboratories as well as scientists and engineers expecting to move into management will find Managing Science: Management for R&D Laboratories an invaluable practical guide.

  11. U.S. Ebola Treatment Center Clinical Laboratory Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelden, Katelyn C; Iwen, Peter C; Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Kraft, Colleen S; Saiman, Lisa; Smith, Philip W; Hewlett, Angela L; Gibbs, Shawn G; Lowe, John J

    2016-04-01

    Fifty-five hospitals in the United States have been designated Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) by their state and local health authorities. Designated ETCs must have appropriate plans to manage a patient with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) for the full duration of illness and must have these plans assessed through a CDC site visit conducted by an interdisciplinary team of subject matter experts. This study determined the clinical laboratory capabilities of these ETCs. ETCs were electronically surveyed on clinical laboratory characteristics. Survey responses were returned from 47 ETCs (85%). Forty-one (87%) of the ETCs planned to provide some laboratory support (e.g., point-of-care [POC] testing) within the room of the isolated patient. Forty-four (94%) ETCs indicated that their hospital would also provide clinical laboratory support for patient care. Twenty-two (50%) of these ETC clinical laboratories had biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) containment. Of all respondents, 34 (72%) were supported by their jurisdictional public health laboratory (PHL), all of which had available BSL-3 laboratories. Overall, 40 of 44 (91%) ETCs reported BSL-3 laboratory support via their clinical laboratory and/or PHL. This survey provided a snapshot of the laboratory support for designated U.S. ETCs. ETCs have approached high-level isolation critical care with laboratory support in close proximity to the patient room and by distributing laboratory support among laboratory resources. Experts might review safety considerations for these laboratory testing/diagnostic activities that are novel in the context of biocontainment care. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. [Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support.

  13. [Accreditation of clinical laboratories based on ISO standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2004-11-01

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have published two international standards (IS) to be used for accreditation of clinical laboratories; ISO/IEC 17025:1999 and ISO 15189:2003. Any laboratory accreditation body must satisfy the requirements stated in ISO/IEC Guide 58. In order to maintain the quality of the laboratory accreditation bodies worldwide, the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC) has established the mutual recognition arrangement (MRA). In Japan, the International Accreditation Japan (IAJapan) and the Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (JAB) are the members of the ILAC/MRA group. In 2003, the Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (JCCLS) and the JAB have established the Development Committee of Clinical Laboratory Accreditation Program (CLAP), in order to establish the CLAP, probably starting in 2005.

  14. Reducing the Environmental Impact of Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joseph B; Jackson, David; Gammie, Alistair; Badrick, Tony

    2017-02-01

    Healthcare is a significant contributor to environmental impact but this has received little attention. The typical laboratory uses far more energy and water per unit area than the typical office building. There is a need to sensitise laboratories to the importance of adopting good environmental practices. Since this comes at an initial cost, it is vital to obtain senior management support. Convincing management of the various tangible and intangible benefits that can accrue in the long run should help achieve this support. Many good environmental practices do not have a cost but will require a change in the culture and mind-set of the organisation. Continuing education and training are important keys to successful implementation of good practices. There is a need to undertake a rigorous cost-benefit analysis of every change that is introduced in going green. The adoption of good practices can eventually lead to ISO certification if this is desired. This paper provides suggestions that will allow a laboratory to start going green. It will allow the industry to enhance its corporate citizenship whilst improving its competitive advantage for long-term.

  15. Scientific data management in the environmental molecular sciences laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, P.R.; Keller, T.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is currently under construction at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This laboratory will be used for molecular and environmental sciences research to identify comprehensive solutions to DOE`s environmental problems. Major facilities within the EMSL include the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF), a laser-surface dynamics laboratory, a high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory, and a mass spectrometry laboratory. The EMSL is scheduled to open early in 1997 and will house about 260 resident and visiting scientists. It is anticipated that at least six (6) terabytes of data will be archived in the first year of operation. An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) and a mass storage system will be integrated to provide an intelligent, automated mechanism to manage data. The resulting system, called the DataBase Computer System (DBCS), will provide total scientific data management capabilities to EMSL users. A prototype mass storage system based on the National Storage Laboratory`s (NSL) UniTree has been procured and is in limited use. This system consists of two independent hierarchies of storage devices. One hierarchy of lower capacity, slower speed devices provides support for smaller files transferred over the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) network. Also part of the system is a second hierarchy of higher capacity, higher speed devices that will be used to support high performance clients (e.g., a large scale parallel processor). The ObjectStore OODBMS will be used to manage metadata for archived datasets, maintain relationships between archived datasets, and -hold small, duplicate subsets of archived datasets (i.e., derivative data). The interim system is called DBCS, Phase 0 (DBCS-0). The production system for the EMSL, DBCS Phase 1 (DBCS-1), will be procured and installed in the summer of 1996.

  16. Life Science-Related Physics Laboratory on Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, T. H.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment on geometrical optics designed for life science majors in a noncalculus introductory physics course. The thin lens equation is used by the students to calculate the focal length of the lens necessary to correct a myopic condition in an optical bench simulation of a human eye. (Author/MLH)

  17. [ISO 15189 accreditation in clinical microbiology laboratory: general concepts and the status in our laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyar, Işin

    2009-10-01

    One important trend in the laboratory profession and quality management is the global convergence of laboratory operations. The goal of an accredited medical laboratory is to continue "offering useful laboratory service for diagnosis and treatment of the patients and also aid to the health of the nation". An accredited clinical laboratory is managed by a quality control system, it is competent technically and the laboratory service meets the needs of all its patients and physicians by taking the responsibility of all the medical tests and therapies. For this purpose, ISO 15189 international standard has been prepared by 2003. ISO 15189 standard is originated from the arrangement of ISO 17025 and ISO 9001:2000 standards. Many countries such as England, Germany, France, Canada and Australia have preferred ISO 15189 as their own laboratory accreditation programme, meeting all the requirements of their medical laboratories. The accreditation performance of a clinical microbiology laboratory is mainly based on five essential points; preanalytical, analytical, postanalytical, quality control programmes (internal, external, interlaboratory) and audits (internal, external). In this review article, general concepts on ISO 15189 accreditation standards for the clinical microbiology laboratories have been summarized and the status of a private laboratory (Acibadem LabMed, Istanbul) in Turkey has been discussed.

  18. Enabling Data Intensive Science through Service Oriented Science: Virtual Laboratories and Science Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescinsky, D. T.; Wyborn, L. A.; Evans, B. J. K.; Allen, C.; Fraser, R.; Rankine, T.

    2014-12-01

    We present collaborative work on a generic, modular infrastructure for virtual laboratories (VLs, similar to science gateways) that combine online access to data, scientific code, and computing resources as services that support multiple data intensive scientific computing needs across a wide range of science disciplines. We are leveraging access to 10+ PB of earth science data on Lustre filesystems at Australia's National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) Research Data Storage Infrastructure (RDSI) node, co-located with NCI's 1.2 PFlop Raijin supercomputer and a 3000 CPU core research cloud. The development, maintenance and sustainability of VLs is best accomplished through modularisation and standardisation of interfaces between components. Our approach has been to break up tightly-coupled, specialised application packages into modules, with identified best techniques and algorithms repackaged either as data services or scientific tools that are accessible across domains. The data services can be used to manipulate, visualise and transform multiple data types whilst the scientific tools can be used in concert with multiple scientific codes. We are currently designing a scalable generic infrastructure that will handle scientific code as modularised services and thereby enable the rapid/easy deployment of new codes or versions of codes. The goal is to build open source libraries/collections of scientific tools, scripts and modelling codes that can be combined in specially designed deployments. Additional services in development include: provenance, publication of results, monitoring, workflow tools, etc. The generic VL infrastructure will be hosted at NCI, but can access alternative computing infrastructures (i.e., public/private cloud, HPC).The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) was developed as a pilot project to demonstrate the underlying technology. This base is now being redesigned and generalised to develop a Virtual Hazards Impact and Risk Laboratory

  19. Perspectives on the Science Advisor Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Heath, R.B.; Podlesny, A.; Channon, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Science Advisor Program which has been established at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the long term augmentation of math and science instruction in New Mexico schools. Volunteer SNL engineers and scientists team with the faculty of participating schools to enhance the teachers' abilities to capture and hold the student's scientific imagination and develop their scientific skills. This is done primarily through providing laboratory resources, training the teachers how to use those resources, and advising how to obtain them in the future. In its first year, over 140 advisors teamed with 132 schools, for average weekly contact with 500 teachers and 10,000 students. Surveys indicate a general rise in frequency and quality of hands-on science instruction, as well as teacher and student attitudes. An expanded evaluation is planned for subsequent years

  20. Plasma Levels of Uric Acid, Urea and Creatinine in Diabetics Who Visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amartey, N A A; Nsiah, K; Mensah, F O

    2015-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases worldwide. This metabolic disorder contributes greatly to the significant proportion of the burden of renal damage and dysfunction. The aim of the study was to investigate the renal function of the diabetic patients who visit the Clinical Analysis Laboratory (CAn-Lab) at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), Kumasi, Ghana. Demographic data as well as medical history were obtained through the administration of a questionnaire. Anthro-pometric measurements were taken and blood samples were analysed for glucose, uric acid, urea and creatinine. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. A total of 34 diabetic patients, aged from 40-77 y were recruited, 22 (64.7%) of them were males with mean age of 57.40 ± 11.8 y (±SD), while 12 (35.3%) were females with mean age of 58.17 ± 7.47 y. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean duration of the disease, as the females had longer duration, 12.50 ± 6.95 y, as compared to 7.32 ± 4.48 y in males (p=0.033). The mean plasma creatinine level in the females was 84.17 ± 54.73 μmol/l. In the diabetic population, there was a positive correlation between age and plasma creatinine level, (r=0.375, p=0.029). In the female diabetics, there was a positive correlation between fasting blood sugar (FBS) and the measured metabolic end products (r>0.5, p<0.05), a positive correlation between body mass index (BMI) and uric acid (r=0.576, p=0.005) and a positive correlation between BMI and FBS (r= 0.625, p= 0.030). Our results on the parameters measured; show that the diabetic population was experiencing mild kidney dysfunction, compared to non-diabetic controls.

  1. Clinical Laboratory Tests in Some Acute Exogenous Poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufkova, Stoilka G; Yankov, Ivan V; Paskaleva, Diana A

    2017-09-01

    There is no specific toxicological screening of clinical laboratory parameters in clinical toxicology when it comes to acute exogenous poisoning. To determine routine clinical laboratory parameters and indicators for assessment of vital functions in patients with acute intoxications. One hundred and fifty-three patients were included in the present study. They were hospitalized in the Department of Clinical Toxicology at St. George University Hospital, Plovdiv for cerebral toxicity inducing medication (n = 45), alcohol (n = 40), heroin abuse (n = 33). The controls were 35. The laboratory tests were conducted in compliance with the standards of the clinical laboratory. We used the following statistical analyses: analysis of variance (the ucriterion of normal distribution, the Student's t-test, dispersion analysis based on ANOVA) and non-parametric analysis. Based on the routine hematological parameters with statistically significant changes in three groups of poisoning are: red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin (except alcohol intoxication) and leukocytes. We found statistically significant changes in serum total protein, sodium and bilirubin. The highest statistical significance is the increased activity of AST and ALT. We present a model for selection of clinical laboratory tests for severe acute poisoning with modern equipment under standardized conditions. The results of the study suggest that the clinical laboratory constellation we used can be used as a mandatory element in the diagnosis of moderate and severe intoxication with the mentioned toxic substances.

  2. [Clinical laboratory approaches to parodontitis treatment optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Shul'diakov, A A; Oseeva, A O; Aleksandrova, E A

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine cycloferon liniment clinical-pathogenetic efficacy in comprehensive parodontitis therapy examination and treatment of 80 patients was done. It was determined that the cycloferon liniment use in comprehensive treatment of patients with parodontitis let to reduce infectious load in parodontal pockets and local inflammation intensity, to normalize the secretory immunoglobulin level and immune status indices that provided speed up of healing process and reduction relapse frequency.

  3. A Laboratory Course in Clinical Biochemistry Emphasizing Interest and Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Ten laboratory experiments are described which are used in a successful clinical biochemistry laboratory course (e.g. blood alcohol, glucose tolerance, plasma triglycerides, coronary risk index, gastric analysis, vitamin C and E). Most of the experiments are performed on the students themselves using simple equipment with emphasis on useful…

  4. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of women, indications and outcome, .... quality assurance, accuracy and reliability of results. ... controls for confirmation of results, while negative control.

  5. Clinical Laboratory Data Management: A Distributed Data Processing Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Martin; Morgner, Raymond; Packer, Bernice

    1980-01-01

    Two turn-key systems, one for patient registration and the other for the clinical laboratory have been installed and linked together at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, forming the nucleus of an evolving distributed Hospital Information System.

  6. 76 FR 5379 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... modification of the standards to accommodate technological advances. Matters To Be Discussed: The agenda will... Coordinating Council on the Clinical Laboratory Workforce; the National Institutes of Health Genetic Test...

  7. [CAP quality management system in clinical laboratory and its issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiromitsu

    2004-03-01

    The CAP (College of American Pathologists) was established in 1962 and, at present, CAP-accredited laboratories include about 6000 institutions all over the world, mainly in the U.S. The essential purpose of CAP accreditation is high quality reservation and improvement of clinical laboratory services for patient care, and is based on seven points, listed below. (1) Establishment of a laboratory management program and laboratory techniques to assure accuracy and improve overall quality of laboratory services. (2) Maintenance and improvement of accuracy objectively by centering on a CAP survey. (3) Thoroughness in safety and health administration. (4) Reservation of the performance of laboratory services by personnel and proficiency management. (5) Provision of appropriate information to physicians, and contribution to improved quality of patient care by close communication with physicians (improvement in patient care). (6) Reduction of running costs and personnel costs based on evidence by employing the above-mentioned criteria. (7) Reduction of laboratory error. In the future, accreditation and/or certification by organizations such as CAP, ISO, etc., may become a requirement for providing any clinical laboratory services in Japan. Taking the essence of the CAP and the characteristics of the new international standard, ISO151589, into consideration, it is important to choose the best suited accreditation and/or certification depending of the purpose of clinical laboratory.

  8. Quality control of parasitology stool examination in Tabriz clinical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahram Khademvatan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of quality control program was to make doctors and laboratory personnel trust in laboratory results and consequently increasing confidence in laboratory achievements. The quality assurance means raising the level of quality in all tests that lead to raising the level of work efficiency and laboratories including minimum expense for society and minimum time for lab personnel. This study aimed to assess and determine the accuracy and precision of results in Tabriz medical diagnostic laboratories. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, 790 stool samples were selected randomly and tested by standard methods.Student t- test, SPSS software and sensitivity and accuracy formulas were used for data analysis. Results: The sensitivity was 62%, 22% and 8% with 95% confidence intervals for worm's eggs, protozoan cysts and trophozoite detection respectively. Conclusion: To elevate quality assurance in clinical diagnostic laboratory, monitoring and check of the laboratories by standard methods continually should be done.

  9. Sensitivity and Specificity of Clinical and Laboratory Otolith Function Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Thakar, Alok; Thakur, Bhaskar; Sikka, Kapil

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate clinic based and laboratory tests of otolith function for their sensitivity and specificity in demarcating unilateral compensated complete vestibular deficit from normal. Prospective cross-sectional study. Tertiary care hospital vestibular physiology laboratory. Control group-30 healthy adults, 20-45 years age; Case group-15 subjects post vestibular shwannoma excision or post-labyrinthectomy with compensated unilateral complete audio-vestibular loss. Otolith function evaluation by precise clinical testing (head tilt test-HTT; subjective visual vertical-SVV) and laboratory testing (headroll-eye counterroll-HR-ECR; vesibular evoked myogenic potentials-cVEMP). Sensitivity and specificity of clinical and laboratory tests in differentiating case and control subjects. Measurable test results were universally obtained with clinical otolith tests (SVV; HTT) but not with laboratory tests. The HR-ECR test did not indicate any definitive wave forms in 10% controls and 26% cases. cVEMP responses were absent in 10% controls.HTT test with normative cutoff at 2 degrees deviations from vertical noted as 93.33% sensitive and 100% specific. SVV test with normative cutoff at 1.3 degrees noted as 100% sensitive and 100% specific. Laboratory tests demonstrated poorer specificities owing primarily to significant unresponsiveness in normal controls. Clinical otolith function tests, if conducted with precision, demonstrate greater ability than laboratory testing in discriminating normal controls from cases with unilateral complete compensated vestibular dysfunction.

  10. Revising laboratory work: sociological perspectives on the science classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobér, Anna

    2017-09-01

    This study uses sociological perspectives to analyse one of the core practices in science education: schoolchildren's and students' laboratory work. Applying an ethnographic approach to the laboratory work done by pupils at a Swedish compulsory school, data were generated through observations, field notes, interviews, and a questionnaire. The pupils, ages 14 and 15, were observed as they took a 5-week physics unit (specifically, mechanics). The analysis shows that the episodes of laboratory work could be filled with curiosity and exciting challenges; however, another picture emerged when sociological concepts and notions were applied to what is a very common way of working in the classroom. Laboratory work is characterised as a social activity that is expected to be organised as a group activity. This entails groups becoming, to some extent, `safe havens' for the pupils. On the other hand, this way of working in groups required pupils to subject to the groups and the peer effect, sometimes undermining their chances to learn and perform better. In addition, the practice of working in groups when doing laboratory work left some pupils and the teacher blaming themselves, even though the outcome of the learning situation was a result of a complex interplay of social processes. This article suggests a stronger emphasis on the contradictions and consequences of the science subjects, which are strongly influenced by their socio-historical legacy.

  11. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. CaTs Lab (CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teate, Anthony A.

    2002-01-01

    The CHAOS and Thermal Sciences Laboratory (CaTs) at James Madison University evolved into a noteworthy effort to increase minority representation in the sciences and mathematics. Serving ten students and faculty directly, and nearly 50 students indirectly, CaTs, through recruitment efforts, workshops, mentoring programs, tutorial services and research and computational laboratories, fulfilled its intent to initiate an academically enriched research program aimed at strengthening the academic and self-actualization skills of undergraduate students with potential to pursue doctoral study in the sciences. The stated goal of the program was to increase by 5% the number of enrolled mathematics and science students into the program. Success far exceeded the program goals by producing 100% graduation rate of all supported recipients during its tenure, with 30% of the students subsequently in pursuit of graduate degrees. Student retention in the program exceeded 90% and faculty participation exceeded the three members involved in mentoring and tutoring, gaining multi-disciplinary support. Aggressive marketing of the program resulted in several paid summer internships and commitments from NASA and an ongoing relationship with CHROME, a nationally recognized organization which focuses on developing minority students in the sciences and mathematics. Success of the program was only limited by the limited fiscal resources at NASA which resulted in phasing out of the program.

  13. Promoting Good Clinical Laboratory Practices and Laboratory Accreditation to Support Clinical Trials in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shott, Joseph P.; Saye, Renion; Diakité, Moussa L.; Sanogo, Sintry; Dembele, Moussa B.; Keita, Sekouba; Nagel, Mary C.; Ellis, Ruth D.; Aebig, Joan A.; Diallo, Dapa A.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory capacity in the developing world frequently lacks quality management systems (QMS) such as good clinical laboratory practices, proper safety precautions, and adequate facilities; impacting the ability to conduct biomedical research where it is needed most. As the regulatory climate changes globally, higher quality laboratory support is needed to protect study volunteers and to accurately assess biological parameters. The University of Bamako and its partners have undertaken a comprehensive QMS plan to improve quality and productivity using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standards and guidelines. The clinical laboratory passed the College of American Pathologists inspection in April 2010, and received full accreditation in June 2010. Our efforts to implement high-quality standards have been valuable for evaluating safety and immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidates in Mali. Other disease-specific research groups in resource-limited settings may benefit by incorporating similar training initiatives, QMS methods, and continual improvement practices to ensure best practices. PMID:22492138

  14. Antiphospholipid antibody: laboratory, pathogenesis and clinical manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ziglioli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL represent a heterogeneous group of antibodies that recognize various antigenic targets including beta2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI, prothrombin (PT, activated protein C, tissue plasminogen activator, plasmin and annexin A2. The most commonly used tests to detect aPL are: lupus anticoagulant (LAC, a functional coagulation assay, anticardiolipin antibody (aCL and anti-β2GPI antibody (anti-β2GPI, which are enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA. Clinically aPL are associated with thrombosis and/or with pregnancy morbidity. Apparently aPL alone are unable to induce thrombotic manifestations, but they increase the risk of vascular events that can occur in the presence of another thrombophilic condition; on the other hand obstetrical manifestations were shown to be associated not only to thrombosis but mainly to a direct antibody effect on the trophoblast.

  15. Science laboratory behavior strategies of students relative to performance in and attitude to laboratory work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okebukola, Peter Akinsola

    The relationship between science laboratory behavior strategies of students and performance in and attitude to laboratory work was investigated in an observational study of 160 laboratory sessions involving 600 class five (eleventh grade) biology students. Zero-order correlations between the behavior strategies and outcome measures reveal a set of low to strong relationships. Transmitting information, listening and nonlesson related behaviors exhibited low correlations with practical skills and the attitude measure. The correlations between manipulating apparatus and observation with practical skills measures were found to be strong. Multiple correlation analysis revealed that the behaviors of students in the laboratories observed accounted for a large percentage of the variance in the scores on manipulative skills and a low percentage on interpretation of data, responsibility, initiative, and work habits. One significant canonical correlation emerged. The loadings on this canonical variate indicate that the practical skills measures, i.e., planning and design, manipulative skills and conduct of experiments, observation and recording of data, and attitude to laboratory work made primary contributions to the canonical relationship. Suggestions as to how students can be encouraged to go beyond cookbook-like laboratories and develop a more favorable attitude to laboratory work are made.

  16. The uses of Interactive Whiteboard in a science laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    In the last ten years several studies were conducted about the educational use of interactive whiteboard (IWB) in teaching and learning activities, showing different advantages introduced by this technology and analysing different implications for teachers (both from technical and pedagogical point of view). In this context, we planned a research with the aim of analysing the activities that can be performed through the interactive whiteboard in science laboratories, in order to characterize ...

  17. Multimedia interactive eBooks in laboratory science education

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, NP; Lambe, J

    2017-01-01

    Bioscience students in the UK higher education system are making increasing use of technology to support their learning within taught classes and during private study. This experimental study was designed to assess the role for multimedia interactive eBooks in bioscience laboratory classes, delivered using a blended learning approach. Thirty-nine second-year students on a Biomedical Science undergraduate course in a UK university were grouped using an experimental design into alternating tria...

  18. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Laboratory and software applications for clinical trials: the global laboratory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Chad

    2011-11-01

    The Applied Pharmaceutical Software Meeting is held annually. It is sponsored by The Boston Society, a not-for-profit organization that coordinates a series of meetings within the global pharmaceutical industry. The meeting generally focuses on laboratory applications, but in recent years has expanded to include some software applications for clinical trials. The 2011 meeting emphasized the global laboratory environment. Global clinical trials generate massive amounts of data in many locations that must be centralized and processed for efficient analysis. Thus, the meeting had a strong focus on establishing networks and systems for dealing with the computer infrastructure to support such environments. In addition to the globally installed laboratory information management system, electronic laboratory notebook and other traditional laboratory applications, cloud computing is quickly becoming the answer to provide efficient, inexpensive options for managing the large volumes of data and computing power, and thus it served as a central theme for the meeting.

  20. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2011-08-15

    To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by implementing changes in the next fiscal

  1. Clinical laboratory as an economic model for business performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljanović, Vikica; Patajac, Hrvoje; Petrovečki, Mladen

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of a clinical laboratory as an economic model that may be used to improve business performance of laboratories by removing weaknesses, minimizing threats, and using external opportunities and internal strengths. Methods Impact of possible threats to and weaknesses of the Clinical Laboratory at Našice General County Hospital business performance and use of strengths and opportunities to improve operating profit were simulated using models created on the basis of SWOT analysis results. The operating profit as a measure of profitability of the clinical laboratory was defined as total revenue minus total expenses and presented using a profit and loss account. Changes in the input parameters in the profit and loss account for 2008 were determined using opportunities and potential threats, and economic sensitivity analysis was made by using changes in the key parameters. The profit and loss account and economic sensitivity analysis were tools for quantifying the impact of changes in the revenues and expenses on the business operations of clinical laboratory. Results Results of simulation models showed that operational profit of €470 723 in 2008 could be reduced to only €21 542 if all possible threats became a reality and current weaknesses remained the same. Also, operational gain could be increased to €535 804 if laboratory strengths and opportunities were utilized. If both the opportunities and threats became a reality, the operational profit would decrease by €384 465. Conclusion The operational profit of the clinical laboratory could be significantly reduced if all threats became a reality and the current weaknesses remained the same. The operational profit could be increased by utilizing strengths and opportunities as much as possible. This type of modeling may be used to monitor business operations of any clinical laboratory and improve its financial situation by

  2. [View of a Laboratory Physician on the Present and Future of Clinical Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Shuji

    2014-10-01

    It is meaningful to discuss the "present and future of laboratories" for the development of laboratories and education of medical technologists. Laboratory staff must be able to perform urgent high-quality tests and take part in so-called team-based medicine and should be proud of devising systems that efficiently provide laboratory data for all medical staff. On the other hand, there may be staff with a poor sense of professionalism who work no more than is expected and too readily ask firms and commercial laboratories to solve problems. Overwork caused by providing team-based medicine and a decrease in numbers of clinical chemists are concerns. The following are hoped for in the future. Firstly, laboratory staff will become conscious of their own high-level abilities and expand their areas of work, for example, bioscience, proteomics, and reproductive medicine. Secondly, a consultation system for medical staff and patients will be established. Thirdly, clinical research will be advanced, such as investigating unknown pathophysiologies using laboratory data and samples, and developing new methods of measurement. Lastly, it is of overriding importance that staff of laboratory and educational facilities will cooperate with each other to train the next generation. In conclusion, each laboratory should be appreciated, attractive, positive regarding its contribution to society, and show individuality.

  3. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF DENGUE FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Fazal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Dengue is a major health problem in many parts of India and Gulbarga (North Karnataka was previously not a known endemic area f or dengue. Infection with dengue virus can cause a spectrum of three clinical syndromes , classic dengue fever (DF , dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS. The present study was undertaken to determine the disease profile of dengue virus infection in hospitalized patients. METHODS AND MATERIAL: One hundred patients admitted in Basaveshwar Teaching and General hospital with fever more than 38.5 degree Celsius and IgM dengue positive were selected. They were followed from the onset of fever to twelve days or till they are recovered according to WHO discharge criteria whichever is earlier. They underwent relevant investigations to identify specific organ dysfunction and categorize them into the spectrum of Dengue fever in accordance to W HO criteria . RESULTS: Out of 100 cases in this study 70 cases belongs to DF , 23 cases to DHF and 7 cases to DSS based on WHO criteria. All the cases had fever (100%. Other common symptoms noted were myalgia (61% , joint pain (54% , headache (66% , vomitin g (55% , pain abdomen (48% , rash (41% , hepatomegaly (20% , bleeding (21% and shock (8%. Hess test was positive in 24% patients. Low platelet count of less than 100 , 000/cu mm according to WHO criteria was present in 73% patients. Deranged liver functio n test and renal parameters were seen in 26 and 8 patients respectively . Mortality documented was 7 patients due to delayed presentation. The average duration of hospital stay was 4.65 days. CONCLUSION: Dengue fever was a more common manifestation than DHF or DSS. During aepidemic , dengue should be strongly considered on the differential diagnosis of any patient with fever. The treatment of dengue is mainly fluid management and supportive. Early recognition and management of alarm symptoms is the key to bet ter outcome

  4. Burkholderia pseudomallei: Challenges for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemarajata, Peera; Baghdadi, Jonathan D; Hoffman, Risa; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-12-01

    Melioidosis is a potentially fatal infection caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei Clinical diagnosis of melioidosis can be challenging since there is no pathognomonic clinical syndrome, and the organism is often misidentified by methods used routinely in clinical laboratories. Although the disease is more prevalent in Thailand and northern Australia, sporadic cases may be encountered in areas where it is not endemic, including the United States. Since the organism is considered a tier 1 select agent according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, clinical laboratories must be proficient at rapidly recognizing isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei, be able to safely perform necessary rule-out tests, and to refer suspect isolates to Laboratory Response Network reference laboratories. In this minireview, we report a case of melioidosis encountered at our institution and discuss the laboratory challenges encountered when dealing with clinical isolates suspicious for B. pseudomallei or clinical specimens from suspected melioidosis cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. [Strategy Development for International Cooperation in the Clinical Laboratory Field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yoshiko; Osawa, Susumu

    2015-10-01

    The strategy of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field was analyzed to improve the quality of intervention by reviewing documents from international organizations and the Japanese government. Based on the world development agenda, the target of action for health has shifted from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (NCD). This emphasizes the importance of comprehensive clinical laboratories instead of disease-specific examinations in developing countries. To achieve this goal, the World Health Organization (WHO) has disseminated to the African and Asian regions the Laboratory Quality Management System (LQMS), which is based on the same principles of the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) 15189. To execute this strategy, international experts must have competence in project management, analyze information regarding the target country, and develop a strategy for management of the LQMS with an understanding of the technical aspects of laboratory work. However, there is no appropriate pre- and post-educational system of international health for Japanese international workers. Universities and academic organizations should cooperate with the government to establish a system of education for international workers. Objectives of this education system must include: (1) training for the organization and understanding of global health issues, (2) education of the principles regarding comprehensive management of clinical laboratories, and (3) understanding the LQMS which was employed based on WHO's initiative. Achievement of these objectives will help improve the quality of international cooperation in the clinical laboratory field.

  6. Hyperthermia: from the clinic to the laboratory and back again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Murine tumours have been used extensively to investigate the effects of heat and radiation, but there are significant differences between controlled laboratory studies and relatively uncontrolled clinical experience. From 1983 to 1986 a simple clinical system was developed in order to investigate biological questions in the clinic. This involved identifying a suitable patient population, reliable heating and thermometry, and methods of evaluating response of human tumours and their vasculature. (author)

  7. Cognitive knowledge, attitude toward science, and skill development in virtual science laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Mahya

    The purpose of this quantitative, descriptive, single group, pretest posttest design study was to explore the influence of a Virtual Science Laboratory (VSL) on middle school students' cognitive knowledge, skill development, and attitudes toward science. This study involved 2 eighth grade Physical Science classrooms at a large urban charter middle school located in Southern California. The Buoyancy and Density Test (BDT), a computer generated test, assessed students' scientific knowledge in areas of Buoyancy and Density. The Attitude Toward Science Inventory (ATSI), a multidimensional survey assessment, measured students' attitudes toward science in the areas of value of science in society, motivation in science, enjoyment of science, self-concept regarding science, and anxiety toward science. A Virtual Laboratory Packet (VLP), generated by the researcher, captured students' mathematical and scientific skills. Data collection was conducted over a period of five days. BDT and ATSI assessments were administered twice: once before the Buoyancy and Density VSL to serve as baseline data (pre) and also after the VSL (post). The findings of this study revealed that students' cognitive knowledge and attitudes toward science were positively changed as expected, however, the results from paired sample t-tests found no statistical significance. Analyses indicated that VSLs were effective in supporting students' scientific knowledge and attitude toward science. The attitudes most changed were value of science in society and enjoyment of science with mean differences of 1.71 and 0.88, respectively. Researchers and educational practitioners are urged to further examine VSLs, covering a variety of topics, with more middle school students to assess their learning outcomes. Additionally, it is recommended that publishers in charge of designing the VSLs communicate with science instructors and research practitioners to further improve the design and analytic components of these

  8. 78 FR 32637 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ..., Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project, Department of... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project, Department of the Army, Army Research, Development and...

  9. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Rishi MD; Syed T. Hoda MD; James M. Crawford MD, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and ins...

  10. Selection of the Mars Science Laboratory landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M.; Grant, J.; Kipp, D.; Vasavada, A.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fergason, Robin L.; Bellutta, P.; Calef, F.; Larsen, K.; Katayama, Y.; Huertas, A.; Beyer, R.; Chen, A.; Parker, T.; Pollard, B.; Lee, S.; Hoover, R.; Sladek, H.; Grotzinger, J.; Welch, R.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Michalski, J.; Watkins, M.

    2012-01-01

    The selection of Gale crater as the Mars Science Laboratory landing site took over five years, involved broad participation of the science community via five open workshops, and narrowed an initial >50 sites (25 by 20 km) to four finalists (Eberswalde, Gale, Holden and Mawrth) based on science and safety. Engineering constraints important to the selection included: (1) latitude (±30°) for thermal management of the rover and instruments, (2) elevation (surface that is safe for landing and roving and not dominated by fine-grained dust. Science criteria important for the selection include the ability to assess past habitable environments, which include diversity, context, and biosignature (including organics) preservation. Sites were evaluated in detail using targeted data from instruments on all active orbiters, and especially Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. All of the final four sites have layered sedimentary rocks with spectral evidence for phyllosilicates that clearly address the science objectives of the mission. Sophisticated entry, descent and landing simulations that include detailed information on all of the engineering constraints indicate all of the final four sites are safe for landing. Evaluation of the traversabilty of the landing sites and target “go to” areas outside of the ellipse using slope and material properties information indicates that all are trafficable and “go to” sites can be accessed within the lifetime of the mission. In the final selection, Gale crater was favored over Eberswalde based on its greater diversity and potential habitability.

  11. [Quality use of commercial laboratory for clinical testing services - considering laboratory's role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinji

    2014-12-01

    The number of commercial laboratories for clinical testing in Japan run privately has decreased to about 30 companies, and their business is getting tougher. Branch Lab. and FMS businesses have not expanded recently due to the new reimbursement system which adds an additional sample management fee, becoming effective in 2010. This presentation gives an outline of each role for hospital and commercial laboratories, and their pros & cons considering the current medical situation. Commercial laboratories have investigated how to utilize ICT systems for sharing test information between hospitals and our facilities. It would be very helpful to clarify issues for each hospital. We will develop and create new values for clinical laboratory testing services and forge mutually beneficial relationships with medical institutions. (Review).

  12. Pharmacology Portal: An Open Database for Clinical Pharmacologic Laboratory Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen Bjånes, Tormod; Mjåset Hjertø, Espen; Lønne, Lars; Aronsen, Lena; Andsnes Berg, Jon; Bergan, Stein; Otto Berg-Hansen, Grim; Bernard, Jean-Paul; Larsen Burns, Margrete; Toralf Fosen, Jan; Frost, Joachim; Hilberg, Thor; Krabseth, Hege-Merete; Kvan, Elena; Narum, Sigrid; Austgulen Westin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    More than 50 Norwegian public and private laboratories provide one or more analyses for therapeutic drug monitoring or testing for drugs of abuse. Practices differ among laboratories, and analytical repertoires can change rapidly as new substances become available for analysis. The Pharmacology Portal was developed to provide an overview of these activities and to standardize the practices and terminology among laboratories. The Pharmacology Portal is a modern dynamic web database comprising all available analyses within therapeutic drug monitoring and testing for drugs of abuse in Norway. Content can be retrieved by using the search engine or by scrolling through substance lists. The core content is a substance registry updated by a national editorial board of experts within the field of clinical pharmacology. This ensures quality and consistency regarding substance terminologies and classification. All laboratories publish their own repertoires in a user-friendly workflow, adding laboratory-specific details to the core information in the substance registry. The user management system ensures that laboratories are restricted from editing content in the database core or in repertoires within other laboratory subpages. The portal is for nonprofit use, and has been fully funded by the Norwegian Medical Association, the Norwegian Society of Clinical Pharmacology, and the 8 largest pharmacologic institutions in Norway. The database server runs an open-source content management system that ensures flexibility with respect to further development projects, including the potential expansion of the Pharmacology Portal to other countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rules for the certification of good practices in clinical laboratories. No regulation. 3-2009. Good Laboratory Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Regulation for Certification of Good Practices in clinical laboratories, hereinafter Regulation establishes the methodology and procedures for clinical laboratories to demonstrate their state of compliance with good practices, according to Regulation 3-2009, and that the CECMED can verify.

  14. A Review of Research on Technology-Assisted School Science Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Ka; Lee, Silvia Wen-Yu; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Chang, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Ying-Tien; Chiou, Guo-Li; Chen, Sufen; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Lin, Jing-Wen; Lo, Hao-Chang; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Studies that incorporate technologies into school science laboratories have proliferated in the recent two decades. A total of 42 studies published from 1990 to 2011 that incorporated technologies to support school science laboratories are reviewed here. Simulations, microcomputer-based laboratories (MBLs), and virtual laboratories are commonly…

  15. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Science Teachers Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pre-tes...

  16. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T.

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future

  17. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future.

  18. Filter Strategies for Mars Science Laboratory Orbit Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul F.; Gustafson, Eric D.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft had ambitious navigation delivery and knowledge accuracy requirements for landing inside Gale Crater. Confidence in the orbit determination (OD) solutions was increased by investigating numerous filter strategies for solving the orbit determination problem. We will discuss the strategy for the different types of variations: for example, data types, data weights, solar pressure model covariance, and estimating versus considering model parameters. This process generated a set of plausible OD solutions that were compared to the baseline OD strategy. Even implausible or unrealistic results were helpful in isolating sensitivities in the OD solutions to certain model parameterizations or data types.

  19. Science with multiply-charged ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Thieberger, P.

    1987-01-01

    The production of multiply-charged heavy ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their use in different types of experiments are discussed. The main facilities that are used are the Double MP Tandem Van de Graaff and the National Synchrotron Light Source. The capabilities of a versatile Atomic Physics Facility based on a combination of the two facilities and a possible new heavy-ion storage ring are summarized. It is emphasized that the production of heavy ions and the relevant science necessitates very flexible and diverse apparatus

  20. The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, N.; Lamarche, P.; Lagin, L.; Ritter, C.; Carroll, D. L.

    1996-11-01

    The Science on Saturday Program at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory consists of a series of Saturday morning lectures on various topics in science by scientists, engineers, educators, and others with an interesting story. This program has been in existence for over twelve years and has been advertised to and primarily aimed at the high school level. Topics ranging from superconductivity to computer animation and gorilla conservation to pharmaceutical design have been covered. Lecturers from the staff of Princeton, Rutgers, AT and T, Bristol Meyers Squibb, and many others have participated. Speakers have ranged from Nobel prize winners, astronauts, industrialists, educators, engineers, and science writers. Typically, there are eight to ten lectures starting in January. A mailing list has been compiled for schools, science teachers, libraries, and museums in the Princeton area. For the past two years AT and T has sponsored buses for Trenton area students to come to these lectures and an effort has been made to publicize the program to these students. The series has been very popular, frequently overfilling the 300 seat PPPL auditorium. As a result, the lectures are videotaped and broadcast to a large screen TV for remote viewing. Lecturers are encouraged to interact with the audience and ample time is provided for questions.

  1. The Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Kevin T [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley and the Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS50R5239, Berkeley, CA 94720-8146 (United States)], E-mail: KTLesko@lbl.gov

    2008-11-01

    The National Science Foundation and the international underground science community are well into establishing a world-class, multidisciplinary Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) at the former Homestake mine in Lead South Dakota. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected the Homestake Proposal and site as the prime location to be developed into an international research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at several different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer from the Homestake Mining Corp. The State, through its Science and Technology Authority with state funds and those of a philanthropic donor has initiated rehabilitation of the surface and underground infrastructure including the Ross and Yates hoists accessing the 4850 Level (feet below ground, 4100 to 4200 mwe). The scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in establishing the preliminary design of the facility and the associated suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility by the NSF are presented.

  2. The deep underground science and engineering laboratory at Homestake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Kevin T, E-mail: ktlesko@lbl.go [Department of Physics, University of California Berkeley and Institute for Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 50R5239, Berkeley, CA 94720-8156 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The US National Science Foundation and the US underground science community are well into the campaign to establish a world-class, multi-disciplinary deep underground science and engineering laboratory - DUSEL. The NSF's review committee, following the first two NSF solicitations, selected Homestake as the prime site to be developed into an international, multidisciplinary, world-class research facility. Homestake DUSEL will provide much needed underground research space to help relieve the worldwide shortage, particularly at great depth, and will develop research campuses at different depths to satisfy the research requirements for the coming decades. The State of South Dakota has demonstrated remarkable support for the project and has secured the site with the transfer of the former Homestake Gold Mine and has initiated re-entry and rehabilitation of the facility to host a modest interim science program with state funds and those from a substantial philanthropic donor. I review the scientific case for DUSEL and the progress in developing the preliminary design of DUSEL in Homestake and the initial suite of experiments to be funded along with the facility.

  3. Laboratory exercises to teach clinically relevant chemistry of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Khalid A; Chelette, Candace T

    2014-03-12

    To design, implement, and evaluate student performance on clinically relevant chemical and spectral laboratory exercises on antibiotics. In the first of 2 exercises, second-year pharmacy students enrolled in an integrated laboratory sequence course studied the aqueous stability of ß-lactam antibiotics using a spectral visual approach. In a second exercise, students studied the tendency of tetracycline, rifamycins, and fluoroquinolones to form insoluble chelate complexes (turbidity) with polyvalent metals. On a survey to assess achievement of class learning objectives, students agreed the laboratory activities helped them better retain important information concerning antibiotic stability and interactions. A significant improvement was observed in performance on examination questions related to the laboratory topics for 2012 and 2013 students compared to 2011 students who did not complete the laboratory. A 1-year follow-up examination question administered in a separate course showed >75% of the students were able to identify rifamycins-food interactions compared with laboratory exercises. The use of spectral visual approaches allowed students to investigate antibiotic stability and interactions, thus reinforcing the clinical relevance of medicinal chemistry. Students' performance on questions at the 1-year follow-up suggested increased retention of the concepts learned as a result of completing the exercises.

  4. Information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Vanessa; Rosecler Bez el Boukhari, Marta

    2007-11-01

    This article describes information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories. The quality of laboratory analyses is of fundamental importance for health professionals in aiding appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information systems allow the automation of internal quality management processes, using standard sample tests, Levey-Jennings charts and Westgard multirule analysis. This simplifies evaluation and interpretation of quality tests and reduces the possibility of human error. This study proposes the development of an information system with appropriate functions and costs for the automation of internal quality control in small and medium-sized clinical laboratories. To this end, it evaluates the functions and usability of two commercial software products designed for this purpose, identifying the positive features of each, so that these can be taken into account during the development of the proposed system.

  5. Information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, Vanessa; Boukhari, Marta Rosecler Bez el

    2007-01-01

    This article describes information systems as a quality management tool in clinical laboratories. The quality of laboratory analyses is of fundamental importance for health professionals in aiding appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Information systems allow the automation of internal quality management processes, using standard sample tests, Levey-Jennings charts and Westgard multirule analysis. This simplifies evaluation and interpretation of quality tests and reduces the possibility of human error. This study proposes the development of an information system with appropriate functions and costs for the automation of internal quality control in small and medium-sized clinical laboratories. To this end, it evaluates the functions and usability of two commercial software products designed for this purpose, identifying the positive features of each, so that these can be taken into account during the development of the proposed system

  6. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Welker (Martin); M. Erhard (Marcel); S. Chatellier (Sonia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been

  7. Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Articular Disorders Among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiologist for features of avascular necrosis (AVN) and sacroiliitis, respectively. Synovial fluid was obtained, for analysis and microscopy, culture/sensitivity testing and acid fast bacilli detection in those with demonstrable joint effusion. The clinically evident articular features, laboratory, and radiographic findings were used ...

  8. Symptomatic HIV infection in infancy - clinical and laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in infancy - clinical and laboratory markers of infection. M P Meyer, Z Latief, C Haworlh, 5 Salie,. A van Dyk. Objective. To investigate the usefulness of immunological tests in the diagnosis of HIV infection in young symptomatic children « 15 months of age). Design. Tests were evaluated in HIV-infected (HIV antibody- and ...

  9. Multiple myeloma in Nigeria: An insight to the clinical, laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the clinician to investigate along the lines of MM. Majority of patients have osteolytic lesions on X‑ray and pathological fractures, and benefit from melphalan based combinations in situations where facilities for transplant are not available. Key words: Clinical features, chemotherapy, laboratory features, multiple myeloma, ...

  10. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chorionic villous sampling is a first trimester invasive diagnosis procedure that was introduced in Nigeria <2 decades ago. Objective: The objective of the following study is to review experience with chorionic villous sampling in relation to clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of ...

  11. A Computerized Clinical Support System and Psychological Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Russell N.

    1978-01-01

    Advocating "holistic" medicine, this article details the benefits to be derived from using a computerized clinical support system in a psychological laboratory focusing on internal healing where the client/patient becomes a committed partner utilizing biofeedback equipment, gaming, and simulation to achieve self-understanding and…

  12. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  13. Interference by pralidoxime (PAM) salts in clinical laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagase, Sumika; Kohguchi, Katsunori; Tohyama, Kaoru; Watanabe, Mikio; Iwatani, Yoshinori

    2013-02-01

    Drugs sometimes alter the results of clinical laboratory tests. We examined the effects of pralidoxime (PAM) salts, a medicine used to treat organophosphorus poisoning, on clinical laboratory test results for the first time. The effects of PAM salts on glucose (GLU) measurements were examined using a point-of-care testing (POCT) meter, four self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) meters, and two biochemical autoanalyzers. The effects of PAM salts on other clinical tests were also evaluated. The addition of PAM iodide or potassium iodide, but not of PAM chloride or potassium chloride, to blood samples increased the GLU values measured by one POCT meter and 4 SMBG meters using the enzyme electrode (hydrogen peroxidase or oxygen electrode) method. On the other hand, PAM iodide or PAM chloride, but not KI or KCl, affected the values measured at 340 nm by an autoanalyzer using absorption spectrophotometry in 8 of 14 clinical laboratory tests. The absorption spectrum of PAM changed from 294 to 338 nm due to the reaction between PAM and the alkaline buffer, a component of the measuring reagents. PAM iodide increases the GLU values measured by the enzyme electrode method, and PAM salts affected the values measured at 340 nm by absorption spectrophotometry in many other clinical test items. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education.

  15. Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annesley, Thomas M.; Cooks, Robert G.; Herold, David A.; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.

    2016-01-04

    Each year the journal Clinical Chemistry publishes a January special issue on a topic that is relevant to the laboratory medicine community. In January 2016 the topic is mass spectrometry, and the issue is entitled “Clinical Mass Spectrometry: Achieving Prominence in Laboratory Medicine”. One popular feature in our issues is a Q&A on a topic, clearly in this case mass spectrometry. The journal is assembling a panel of 5-6 experts from various areas of mass spectrometry ranging from instrument manufacturing to practicing clinical chemists. Dick Smith is one of the scientist requested to participate in this special issue Q&A on Mass Spectrometry. The Q&A Transcript is attached

  16. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2015 Wage Survey of Medical Laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Fisher, Patrick B

    2017-05-01

    To inform the pathology and laboratory field of the most recent national wage data from the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2015 wage survey was conducted through collaboration between the ASCP's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the ASCP Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Electronic survey invitations were sent to individuals who are currently practicing in the field. Data reveal increased salaries since 2013 for all staff-level laboratory professionals surveyed except phlebotomists and pathologists' assistants. Laboratory assistants and phlebotomists, regardless of level, continue to have lower salaries while pathologists' assistants and administration personnel have higher salaries than the rest of the laboratory professions surveyed. Survey results put emphasis on strategic recruitment and retention by laboratory training programs and institutions that hire laboratory professionals. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. The American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2014 vacancy survey of medical laboratories in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Edna; Ali, Asma M; Soles, Ryan M; Lewis, D Grace

    2015-09-01

    To determine the extent and distribution of workforce shortages within the nation's medical laboratories. Historically, the results of this biennial survey have served as a basis for additional research on laboratory recruitment, retention, education, marketing, certification, and advocacy. The 2014 Vacancy Survey was conducted through collaboration between American Society for Clinical Pathology's Institute of Science, Technology, and Policy in Washington, DC, and the Evaluation, Measurement, and Assessment Department and Board of Certification in Chicago, Illinois. Data were collected via an Internet survey that was distributed to individuals who were able to report on staffing and certifications for their laboratories. Data reveal increased overall vacancy rates since 2012 for all departments surveyed except cytology and cytogenetics. Also, results show higher anticipated retirement rates for both staff and supervisors. Overall certification rates are highest among laboratory personnel in cytogenetics, hematology/coagulation, and flow cytometry departments and lowest among phlebotomy, specimen processing, and anatomic pathology. Factors such as retirement and the improving economy are driving the need for more laboratory professionals. Recruitment of qualified laboratory professionals in the workforce and students in laboratory programs will be the key in fulfilling the higher vacancies revealed from the survey results in 2014. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  18. Understanding the interface between clinical and laboratory staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankie van den Broek

    2014-07-01

    Objectives: To propose a new conceptual model to gain insight and analyse factors that influence the laboratory–clinical staff interface. Methods: To develop the conceptual model, a literature study was performed, regulatory guidelines and standards for laboratories were analysed and discussions were held with experts on the topic. Result: A conceptual model and analytical framework provided good guidance in understanding and assessing the organisational and personal factors shaping the interface. The model was based on three elements: (1 the three phases of communication (pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical; (2 the organisational and personal factors of interaction; and (3 the socio-political, economic and cultural context in which clinicians and laboratory staff operate. Conclusion: Assessment of the interface between clinicians and laboratory workers can be performed in a systematic way. Applying this model will provide information to managers of health institutions and heads of laboratories and clinical departments about what happens when clinicians and laboratory staff interact, thus aiding them in designing strategies to improve this interface.

  19. Quality documentation challenges for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2008-05-01

    An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.

  20. Bonding to oxide ceramics—laboratory testing versus clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Despite a huge number of published laboratory bonding studies on dental oxide ceramics clinical long-term studies on resin bonded oxide ceramic restorations are rare. The purpose of this review is to present the best available clinical evidence for successful bonding of dental oxide ceramic restorations. Clinical trials with resin-bonded restorations that had no or only limited mechanical retention and were made from alumina or zirconia ceramic were identified using an electronic search in PubMed database. Overall 10 publications with clinical trials could be identified. Their clinical outcome was compared with that laboratory bond strength studies. Clinical data provide strong evidence that air-abrasion at a moderate pressure in combination with using phosphate monomer containing primers and/or luting resins provide long-term durable bonding to glass-infiltrated alumina and zirconia ceramic under the humid and stressful oral conditions. As simple and clinically reliable bonding methods to oxide ceramics exist, the rationale for development of alternative bonding methods might be reconsidered especially when these methods are more time consuming or require rather complicated and/or technique sensitive procedures. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Walking the bridge: Nursing students' learning in clinical skill laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Allvin, Renée; Holmström, Inger K; Blomberg, Karin

    2015-07-01

    Despite an increasing focus on simulation as a learning strategy in nursing education, there is limited evidence on the transfer of simulated skills into clinical practice. Therefore it's important to increase knowledge of how clinical skills laboratories (CSL) can optimize students' learning for development of professional knowledge and skills, necessary for quality nursing practice and for patient safety. Thus, the aim was to describe nursing students' experiences of learning in the CSL as a preparation for their clinical practice. Interviews with 16 students were analysed with content analysis. An overall theme was identified - walking the bridge - in which the CSL formed a bridge between the university and clinical settings, allowing students to integrate theory and practice and develop a reflective stance. The theme was based on categories: conditions for learning, strategies for learning, tension between learning in the skills laboratory and clinical settings, and development of professional and personal competence. The CSL prepared the students for clinical practice, but a negative tension between learning in CSL and clinical settings was experienced. However, this tension may create reflection. This provides a new perspective that can be used as a pedagogical approach to create opportunities for students to develop their critical thinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  3. Developing Medicare Competitive Bidding: A Study of Clinical Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, Thomas J.; Meadow, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Competitive bidding to derive Medicare fees promises several advantages over administered fee systems. The authors show how incentives for cost savings, quality, and access can be incorporated into bidding schemes, and they report on a study of the clinical laboratory industry conducted in preparation for a bidding demonstration. The laboratory industry is marked by variable concentration across geographic markets and, among firms themselves, by social and economic heterogeneity. The authors conclude that these conditions can be accommodated by available bidding design options and by careful selection of bidding markets. PMID:10180003

  4. [Qualitative translational science in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Pei-Fan

    2013-10-01

    Qualitative translational research refers to the "bench-to-bedside" enterprise of harnessing knowledge from the basic sciences to produce new treatment options or nursing interventions for patients. Three evidence-based translational problems related to qualitative translational research discussed this year address the interfaces among the nursing paradigm, the basic sciences, and clinical nursing work. This article illustrates the definition of translational science and translational blocks of evidence-based practice; discusses the qualitative research perspective in evidence synthesis, evidence translation and evidence utilization; and discusses the research questions that must be answered to solve the problems of the three translational gaps from the qualitative research perspective. Qualitative inquiry has an essential role to play in efforts to improve current healthcare-provider nursing interventions, experiences, and contexts. Thus, it is vital to introduce qualitative perspectives into evidence-based practice from the knowledge discovery through to the knowledge implementation process.

  5. Clinical and laboratory profile of patients with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelipe Gabriel dos Santos Sant'Ana

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to describe and analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with sickle cell anemia treated at the Hemominas Foundation, in Divinópolis, Brazil. Furthermore, this study aimed to compare the clinical and laboratory outcomes of the group of patients treated with hydroxyurea with those patients that were not treated with hydroxyurea. Methods: Clinical and laboratorial data were obtained by analyzing medical records of patients with sickle cell anemia. Results: Data from the medical records of 50 patients were analyzed. Most of the patients were female (56%, aged between 20 and 29 years old. Infections, transfusions, cholecystectomy, splenectomy and systemic arterial hypertension were the most common clinical adverse events of the patients. The most frequent cause of hospitalization was painful crisis. The majority of patients had reduced values of hemoglobin and hematocrit (8.55 ± 1.33 g/dL and 25.7 ± 4.4%, respectively and increased fetal hemoglobin levels (12 ± 7%. None of the clinical variables was statistically significant on comparing the two groups of patients. Among hematological variables only hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were statistically different between patients treated with hydroxyurea and untreated patients (p-value = 0.005 and p-value = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Sickle cell anemia requires treatment and follow-up by a multiprofessional team. A current therapeutic option is hydroxyurea. This drug reduces complications and improves laboratorial parameters of patients. In this study, the use of the drug increased the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels of patients.

  6. Increasing Scientific Literacy about Global Climate Change through a Laboratory-Based Feminist Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Linda A.; Brenner, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    The authors have developed and implemented a novel general education science course that examines scientific knowledge, laboratory experimentation, and science-related public policy through the lens of feminist science studies. They argue that this approach to teaching general science education is useful for improving science literacy. Goals for…

  7. Clinimetrics: the science of clinical measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, G A; Tomba, E; Sonino, N

    2012-01-01

    'Clinimetrics' is the term introduced by Alvan R. Feinstein in the early 1980s to indicate a domain concerned with indexes, rating scales and other expressions that are used to describe or measure symptoms, physical signs and other clinical phenomena. Clinimetrics has a set of rules that govern the structure of indexes, the choice of component variables, the evaluation of consistency, validity and responsiveness. This review illustrates how clinimetrics may help expanding the narrow range of information that is currently used in clinical science. It will focus on characteristics and types of clinimetric indexes and their current use. The clinimetric perspective provides an intellectual home for clinical judgment, whose implementation is likely to improve outcomes both in clinical research and practice. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Implementation of a companion diagnostic in the clinical laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancini, Irene; Pinzani, Pamela; Simi, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    A companion diagnostic test provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product as indicated in the drug instructions. The implementation of a companion diagnostic follows the rules of a molecular test for somatic mutations in a routine...... clinical laboratory environment and needs guidance on practical aspects, including the choice of the proper analytical method and the procedures for internal and external quality controls. Selection of the appropriate assay for detection of genetic alterations depends on several factors: the type...... on restrictions of the method used. In relation to these aspects herein we report an opinion paper of the Working Group Personalized Laboratory Medicine jointly constituted by the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) and by the European Society of Pharmacogenomics and Theranostics (ESPT) using...

  9. Duplicate laboratory test reduction using a clinical decision support tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procop, Gary W; Yerian, Lisa M; Wyllie, Robert; Harrison, A Marc; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice

    2014-05-01

    Duplicate laboratory tests that are unwarranted increase unnecessary phlebotomy, which contributes to iatrogenic anemia, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased health care costs. We employed a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to block unnecessary duplicate test orders during the computerized physician order entry (CPOE) process. We assessed laboratory cost savings after 2 years and searched for untoward patient events associated with this intervention. This CDST blocked 11,790 unnecessary duplicate test orders in these 2 years, which resulted in a cost savings of $183,586. There were no untoward effects reported associated with this intervention. The movement to CPOE affords real-time interaction between the laboratory and the physician through CDSTs that signal duplicate orders. These interactions save health care dollars and should also increase patient satisfaction and well-being.

  10. Pharmacy students' use and perceptions of Apple mobile devices incorporated into a basic health science laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Jennifer E; Richard, Craig A H

    To describe pharmacy students' use of mobile devices in a basic health science laboratory and to report the students' perceptions on how solving cases with their mobile devices influenced their attitudes, abilities, and view on the use of mobile devices as tools for pharmacists. First-year pharmacy students utilized mobile devices to solve clinical case studies in a basic health sciences laboratory. A pre-survey and two post-surveys were administered to assess the students' comfort, awareness, use, and perceptions on the use of their mobile devices and apps. The pre-survey and first post-survey each had a response rate of 99%, and the second post-survey had a response rate of 100%. In comparing the pre-survey and first post-survey data, there was a statistically significant increase in the number of students that agreed or strongly agreed that they were more comfortable utilizing their mobile device (p = 0.025), they were more aware of apps for pharmacists (p mobile devices, to be more aware of apps that can be useful for pharmacists, and to be more agreeable with mobile device utilization by pharmacists in improving patient care. In addition, the second post-survey also demonstrated that 84% of students responded that using their mobile devices to solve the cases influenced them to either use their mobile device in a clinical setting for a clinical and/or pharmacy-related purpose for the first time or to use it more frequently for this purpose. The use of mobile devices to solve clinical cases in a first-year basic health science laboratory course was perceived as beneficial by students and influenced them to utilize their mobile device even more in a pharmacy practice setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  12. The Development of Laboratory Safety Questionnaire for Middle School Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpullukcu, Simge; Cavas, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a "valid and reliable laboratory safety questionnaire" which could be used to identify science teachers' understanding about laboratory safety issues during their science laboratory activities. The questionnaire was developed from a literature review and prior instruments developed on laboratory…

  13. Using network science in the language sciences and clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Castro, Nichol

    2015-02-01

    A number of variables—word frequency, word length—have long been known to influence language processing. This study briefly reviews the effects in speech perception and production of two more recently examined variables: phonotactic probability and neighbourhood density. It then describes a new approach to study language, network science, which is an interdisciplinary field drawing from mathematics, computer science, physics and other disciplines. In this approach, nodes represent individual entities in a system (i.e. phonological word-forms in the lexicon), links between nodes represent relationships between nodes (i.e. phonological neighbours) and various measures enable researchers to assess the micro-level (i.e. the individual word), the macro-level (i.e. characteristics about the whole system) and the meso-level (i.e. how an individual fits into smaller sub-groups in the larger system). Although research on individual lexical characteristics such as word-frequency has increased understanding of language processing, these measures only assess the "micro-level". Using network science, researchers can examine words at various levels in the system and how each word relates to the many other words stored in the lexicon. Several new findings using the network science approach are summarized to illustrate how this approach can be used to advance basic research as well as clinical practice.

  14. A 50-year research journey. From laboratory to clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John

    2009-01-01

    Prior important research is not always cited, exemplified by Oswald Avery's pioneering discovery that DNA is the genetic transforming factor; it was not cited by Watson and Crick 10 years later. My first laboratory research (National Institutes of Health 1950s) resulted in the clinical development of transseptal left heart catheterization. Laboratory studies on cardiac muscle mechanics in normal and failing hearts led to the concept of afterload mismatch with limited preload reserve. At the University of California, San Diego in La Jolla (1968) laboratory experiments on coronary artery reperfusion after sustained coronary occlusion showed salvage of myocardial tissue, a potential treatment for acute myocardial infarction proven in clinical trials of thrombolysis 14 years later. Among 60 trainees who worked with me in La Jolla, one-third were Japanese and some of their important laboratory experiments are briefly recounted, beginning with Sasayama, Tomoike and Shirato in the 1970 s. Recently, we developed a method for cardiac gene transfer, and subsequently we showed that gene therapy for the defect in cardiomyopathic hamsters halted the progression of advanced disease. Cardiovascular research and medicine are producing continuing advances in technologies for gene transfer and embryonic stem cell transplantation, targeting of small molecules, and tissue and organ engineering.

  15. U.S. Ebola Treatment Center Clinical Laboratory Support

    OpenAIRE

    Jelden, Katelyn C.; Iwen, Peter C.; Herstein, Jocelyn J.; Biddinger, Paul D.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Saiman, Lisa; Smith, Philip W.; Hewlett, Angela L.; Gibbs, Shawn G.; Lowe, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Fifty-five hospitals in the United States have been designated Ebola treatment centers (ETCs) by their state and local health authorities. Designated ETCs must have appropriate plans to manage a patient with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) for the full duration of illness and must have these plans assessed through a CDC site visit conducted by an interdisciplinary team of subject matter experts. This study determined the clinical laboratory capabilities of these ETCs. ETCs were electronic...

  16. Machine Learning Techniques in Clinical Vision Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caixinha, Miguel; Nunes, Sandrina

    2017-01-01

    This review presents and discusses the contribution of machine learning techniques for diagnosis and disease monitoring in the context of clinical vision science. Many ocular diseases leading to blindness can be halted or delayed when detected and treated at its earliest stages. With the recent developments in diagnostic devices, imaging and genomics, new sources of data for early disease detection and patients' management are now available. Machine learning techniques emerged in the biomedical sciences as clinical decision-support techniques to improve sensitivity and specificity of disease detection and monitoring, increasing objectively the clinical decision-making process. This manuscript presents a review in multimodal ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring based on machine learning approaches. In the first section, the technical issues related to the different machine learning approaches will be present. Machine learning techniques are used to automatically recognize complex patterns in a given dataset. These techniques allows creating homogeneous groups (unsupervised learning), or creating a classifier predicting group membership of new cases (supervised learning), when a group label is available for each case. To ensure a good performance of the machine learning techniques in a given dataset, all possible sources of bias should be removed or minimized. For that, the representativeness of the input dataset for the true population should be confirmed, the noise should be removed, the missing data should be treated and the data dimensionally (i.e., the number of parameters/features and the number of cases in the dataset) should be adjusted. The application of machine learning techniques in ocular disease diagnosis and monitoring will be presented and discussed in the second section of this manuscript. To show the clinical benefits of machine learning in clinical vision sciences, several examples will be presented in glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration

  17. Behavioral Economic Laboratory Research in Tobacco Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidey, Jennifer W; Cassidy, Rachel N; Miller, Mollie E; Smith, Tracy T

    2016-10-01

    Research that can provide a scientific foundation for the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) tobacco policy decisions is needed to inform tobacco regulatory policy. One factor that affects the impact of a tobacco product on public health is its intensity of use, which is determined, in part, by its abuse liability or reinforcing efficacy. Behavioral economic tasks have considerable utility for assessing the reinforcing efficacy of current and emerging tobacco products. This paper provides a narrative review of several behavioral economic laboratory tasks and identifies important applications to tobacco regulatory science. Behavioral economic laboratory assessments, including operant self-administration, choice tasks and purchase tasks, can be used generate behavioral economic data on the effect of price and other constraints on tobacco product consumption. These tasks could provide an expedited simulation of the effects of various tobacco control policies across populations of interest to the FDA. Tobacco regulatory research questions that can be addressed with behavioral economic tasks include assessments of the impact of product characteristics on product demand, assessments of the abuse liability of novel and potential modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs), and assessments of the impact of conventional and novel products in vulnerable populations.

  18. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  19. Science and production laboratories: integration between the industry and universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, A.N.; Sivokon', V.P.; Rakitin, I.D.

    2010-01-01

    Industry laboratories provide students with an opportunity to resolve real serious tasks and be exposed to a wide range of professional activities. Staffing in the Russian nuclear industry is a serious concern. There is a shortage of experienced specialists, and it is impossible to train a replacement for them quickly. Creation of a true professional is a long and thorough process, whereby the amount of knowledge and experience very slowly transforms into quality of performance. The authors underline that the teacher of a modern technical university should not and must not act as a middle man between the textbook and the students. The teacher must instead become a holder of the latest technological knowledge, which he will pass to students during lessons. The authors report on the ERGOLAB, a problematic science and research laboratory for ergonomic research and development in the nuclear field. Ergonomic support is one of the more important factors in the prevention of human errors, maintenance of professional health and improvement of performance efficiency [ru

  20. Computing, Environment and Life Sciences | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computing, Environment and Life Sciences Research Divisions BIOBiosciences CPSComputational Science DSLData Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Biosciences Division Environmental Science Division Mathematics and Computer Science Division Facilities and Institutes Argonne Leadership Computing Facility News Events About

  1. Implementing planetary protection measures on the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Beaudet, Robert A; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), comprising a cruise stage; an aeroshell; an entry, descent, and landing system; and the radioisotope thermoelectric generator-powered Curiosity rover, made history with its unprecedented sky crane landing on Mars on August 6, 2012. The mission's primary science objective has been to explore the area surrounding Gale Crater and assess its habitability for past life. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission and compliance with international treaty was required, planetary protection measures were implemented on MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. By applying the proper antimicrobial countermeasures throughout all phases of assembly, the total bacterial endospore burden of MSL at the time of launch was kept to 2.78×10⁵ spores, well within the required specification of less than 5.0×10⁵ spores. The total spore burden of the exposed surfaces of the landed MSL hardware was 5.64×10⁴, well below the allowed limit of 3.0×10⁵ spores. At the time of launch, the MSL spacecraft was burdened with an average of 22 spores/m², which included both planned landed and planned impacted hardware. Here, we report the results of a campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the MSL flight system.

  2. An analysis of laboratory activities found in "Applications In Biology/Chemistry: A Contextual Approach to Laboratory Science"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Sandra Sue

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine whether the material found in ABC promotes scientific inquiry through the inclusion of science process skills, and to quantitatively determine the type (experimental, comparative, or descriptive) and character (wet-lab, paper and pencil, model, or computer) of laboratory activities. The research design allowed for an examination of the frequency and type of science process skills required of students in 79 laboratory activities sampled from all 12 units utilizing a modified 33-item laboratory analysis inventory (LAI) (Germane et al, 1996). Interrater reliability for the science process skills was completed on 19 of the laboratory activities with a mean score of 86.1%. Interrater reliability for the type and character of the laboratory, on the same 19 laboratory activities, was completed with mean scores of 79.0% and 96.5%, respectively. It was found that all laboratory activities provide a prelaboratory activity. In addition, the science process skill category of student performance is required most often of students with the skill of learning techniques or manipulating apparatus occurring 99% of the time. The science process skill category observed the least was student planning and design, occurring only 3% of the time. Students were rarely given the opportunity to practice science process skills such as developing and testing hypotheses through experiments they have designed. Chi-square tests, applied at the .05 level of significance, revealed that there was a significant difference in the type of laboratory activities; comparative laboratory activities appeared more often (59%). In addition the character of laboratory activities, "wet-lab" activities appeared more often (90%) than any of the others.

  3. An Investigation into Prospective Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Laboratory Course and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Laboratory Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Elvan Ince

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify the attitudes towards the laboratory course and self-efficacy beliefs in the laboratory use of prospective teachers who are attending Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Primary Education Science Teaching program, and to investigate the relationship between the attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs.…

  4. Assessing clinical competency in the health sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Karen Joanne

    To test the success of integrated curricula in schools of health sciences, meaningful measurements of student performance are required to assess clinical competency. This research project analyzed a new performance assessment tool, the Integrated Standardized Patient Examination (ISPE), for assessing clinical competency: specifically, to assess Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students' clinical competence as the ability to integrate basic science knowledge with clinical communication skills. Thirty-four DPT students performed two ISPE cases, one of a patient who sustained a stroke and the other a patient with a herniated lumbar disc. Cases were portrayed by standardized patients (SPs) in a simulated clinical setting. Each case was scored by an expert evaluator in the exam room and then by one investigator and the students themselves via videotape. The SPs scored each student on an overall encounter rubric. Written feedback was obtained from all participants in the study. Acceptable reliability was demonstrated via inter-rater agreement as well as inter-rater correlations on items that used a dichotomous scale, whereas the items requiring the use of the 4-point rubric were somewhat less reliable. For the entire scale both cases had a significant correlation between the Expert-Investigator pair of raters, for the CVA case r = .547, p performances on the ISPE with other independent estimates of students' competence. The unique integration questions of the ISPE were judged to have good content validity from experts and students, suggestive that integration, a most crucial element of clinical competence, while done in the mind of the student, can be practiced, learned and assessed.

  5. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  6. Transformation From a Conventional Clinical Microbiology Laboratory to Full Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Camacho, José L; Calva-Espinosa, Diana Y; Leal-Leyva, Yoseli Y; Elizalde-Olivas, Dolores C; Campos-Romero, Abraham; Alcántar-Fernández, Jonathan

    2017-12-22

    To validate the performance, reproducibility, and reliability of BD automated instruments in order to establish a fully automated clinical microbiology laboratory. We used control strains and clinical samples to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and reliability of the BD Kiestra WCA, the BD Phoenix, and BD Bruker MALDI-Biotyper instruments and compared them to previously established conventional methods. The following processes were evaluated: sample inoculation and spreading, colony counts, sorting of cultures, antibiotic susceptibility test, and microbial identification. The BD Kiestra recovered single colonies in less time than conventional methods (e.g. E. coli, 7h vs 10h, respectively) and agreement between both methodologies was excellent for colony counts (κ=0.824) and sorting cultures (κ=0.821). Antibiotic susceptibility tests performed with BD Phoenix and disk diffusion demonstrated 96.3% agreement with both methods. Finally, we compared microbial identification in BD Phoenix and Bruker MALDI-Biotyper and observed perfect agreement (κ=1) and identification at a species level for control strains. Together these instruments allow us to process clinical urine samples in 36h (effective time). The BD automated technologies have improved performance compared with conventional methods, and are suitable for its implementation in very busy microbiology laboratories. © American Society for Clinical Pathology 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. SSPM based radiation sensing: Preliminary laboratory and clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnoff, Daniel C.; Plant, Thomas K.; Shiner, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recent Solid State Photomultiplier (SSPM) technology has matured, reaching a performance level that is suitable for replacement of the ubiquitous photomultiplier tube in selected applications for environmental radiation monitoring, clinical dosimetry, and medical imaging purposes. The objective of this work is low signal level laboratory and high signal level clinical testing of the Hamamatsu MPPC (S10362-11-050C), Photonique SSPM (0810G1), and Voxtel SiPM (SQBF-EKAA/SQBF-EIOA) SSPMs coupled to different inorganic scintillator crystals (Prelude 420, BGO), inorganic doped glass scintillator material SiO 2 :Cu 2+ and organic BCF-12 plastic scintillating fibers, used as detector elements. Plastic Optical Fibers (POFs) and Glass Optical Fibers (GOFs) are used as signal conduits for laboratory and clinical testing. Further, reduction of electron-beam-generated Cerenkov light in optical fibers is facilitated by the inclusion of metalized air-core capillary tubing between the BCF-12 plastic scintillating fiber and the POF. In a clinical setting dose linearity, percent depth dose, and angular measurements for 6 MV/18 MV photon beams and 9 MeV electron beams are compared with and without the use of the air-core capillary tubing for BCF-12 plastic scintillating fiber. These same measurements are repeated for SiO 2 :Cu 2+ scintillator material without air-core capillary tubing.

  8. Candida bloodstream infection: a clinical microbiology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Kristóf, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) has been on the rise in several countries worldwide. Species distribution is changing; an increase in the percentage of non-albicans species, mainly fluconazole non-susceptible C. glabrata was reported. Existing microbiology diagnostic methods lack sensitivity, and new methods need to be developed or further evaluation for routine application is necessary. Although reliable, standardized methods for antifungal susceptibility testing are available, the determination of clinical breakpoints remains challenging. Correct species identification is important and provides information on the intrinsic susceptibility profile of the isolate. Currently, acquired resistance in clinical Candida isolates is rare, but reports indicate that it could be an issue in the future. The role of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to isolate and correctly identify the infective agent and provide relevant and reliable susceptibility data as soon as possible to guide antifungal therapy.

  9. Atomic spectrometry and trends in clinical laboratory medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2007-09-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical laboratories are transitioning away from flame and electrothermal AAS methods to those based on ICP-MS. Still, for many laboratories, the choice of instrumentation is based upon (a) the element(s) to be determined, (b) the matrix/matrices to be analyzed, and (c) the expected concentration(s) of the analytes in the matrix. Most clinical laboratories specialize in measuring Se, Zn, Cu, and Al in serum, and/or Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr in blood and/or urine, while other trace elements (e.g., Pt, Au etc.) are measured for therapeutic purposes. Quantitative measurement of elemental species is becoming more widely accepted for nutritional and/or toxicological screening purposes, and ICP-MS interfaced with separation techniques, such as liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis, offers the advantage of on-line species determination coupled with very low detection limits. Polyatomic interferences for some key elements such as Se, As, and Cr require instrumentation equipped with dynamic reaction cell or collision cell technologies, or might even necessitate the use of sector field ICP-MS, to assure accurate results. Nonetheless, whatever analytical method is selected for the task, careful consideration must be given both to specimen collection procedures and to the control of pre-analytical variables. Finally, all methods benefit from access to reliable certified reference materials (CRMs). While a variety of reference materials (RMs) are available for trace element measurements in clinical matrices, not all can be classified as CRMs. The major metrological organizations (e.g., NIST, IRMM, NIES) provide a limited number of clinical CRMs, however, secondary reference materials are readily available from commercial organizations and organizers of external quality assessment schemes.

  10. Atomic spectrometry and trends in clinical laboratory medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Barbosa, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    Increasing numbers of clinical laboratories are transitioning away from flame and electrothermal AAS methods to those based on ICP-MS. Still, for many laboratories, the choice of instrumentation is based upon (a) the element(s) to be determined, (b) the matrix/matrices to be analyzed, and (c) the expected concentration(s) of the analytes in the matrix. Most clinical laboratories specialize in measuring Se, Zn, Cu, and Al in serum, and/or Pb, Cd, Hg, As, and Cr in blood and/or urine, while other trace elements (e.g., Pt, Au etc.) are measured for therapeutic purposes. Quantitative measurement of elemental species is becoming more widely accepted for nutritional and/or toxicological screening purposes, and ICP-MS interfaced with separation techniques, such as liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis, offers the advantage of on-line species determination coupled with very low detection limits. Polyatomic interferences for some key elements such as Se, As, and Cr require instrumentation equipped with dynamic reaction cell or collision cell technologies, or might even necessitate the use of sector field ICP-MS, to assure accurate results. Nonetheless, whatever analytical method is selected for the task, careful consideration must be given both to specimen collection procedures and to the control of pre-analytical variables. Finally, all methods benefit from access to reliable certified reference materials (CRMs). While a variety of reference materials (RMs) are available for trace element measurements in clinical matrices, not all can be classified as CRMs. The major metrological organizations (e.g., NIST, IRMM, NIES) provide a limited number of clinical CRMs, however, secondary reference materials are readily available from commercial organizations and organizers of external quality assessment schemes

  11. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: Clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is an uncommon disorder with worldwide distribution, characterized by fever and benign enlargement of the lymph nodes, primarily affecting young adults. Awareness about this disorder may help prevent misdiagnosis and inappropriate investigations and treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi′s disease from a tertiary care center in southern India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all adult patients with histopathologically confirmed Kikuchi′s disease from January 2007 to December 2011 in a 2700-bed teaching hospital in South India was done. The clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcome were analyzed. Results: There were 22 histopathologically confirmed cases of Kikuchi′s disease over the 5-year period of this study. The mean age of the subjects′ was 29.7 years (SD 8.11 and majority were women (Male: female- 1:3.4. Apart from enlarged cervical lymph nodes, prolonged fever was the most common presenting complaint (77.3%. The major laboratory features included anemia (54.5%, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (31.8%, elevated alanine aminotransferase (27.2% and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (31.8%. Conclusion: Even though rare, Kikuchi′s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young individuals, especially women, presenting with lymphadenopathy and prolonged fever. Establishing the diagnosis histopathologically is essential to avoid inappropriate investigations and therapy.

  12. Implementing self sustained quality control procedures in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Roshan; K C, Sanjay; Shrestha, Prabodh; Sinha, J N

    2013-01-01

    Quality control is an essential component in every clinical laboratory which maintains the excellence of laboratory standards, supplementing to proper disease diagnosis, patient care and resulting in overall strengthening of health care system. Numerous quality control schemes are available, with combinations of procedures, most of which are tedious, time consuming and can be "too technical" whereas commercially available quality control materials can be expensive especially for laboratories in developing nations like Nepal. Here, we present a procedure performed at our centre with self prepared control serum and use of simple statistical tools for quality assurance. The pooled serum was prepared as per guidelines for preparation of stabilized liquid quality control serum from human sera. Internal Quality Assessment was performed on this sample, on a daily basis which included measurement of 12 routine biochemical parameters. The results were plotted on Levey-Jennings charts and analysed with quality control rules, for a period of one month. The mean levels of biochemical analytes in self prepared control serum were within normal physiological range. This serum was evaluated every day along with patients' samples. The results obtained were plotted on control charts and analysed using common quality control rules to identify possible systematic and random errors. Immediate mitigation measures were taken and the dispatch of erroneous reports was avoided. In this study we try to highlight on a simple internal quality control procedure which can be performed by laboratories, with minimum technology, expenditure, and expertise and improve reliability and validity of the test reports.

  13. On-Orbit Planetary Science Laboratories for Simulating Surface Conditions of Planets and Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Our work has identified the use of on-orbit centrifuge science laboratories as a key enabler towards low-cost, fast-track physical simulation of off-world environments for future planetary science missions.

  14. Customized laboratory information management system for a clinical and research leukemia cytogenetics laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Sonal R; Shukla, Shilin N; Shah, Pankaj M

    2009-01-01

    We developed a Microsoft Access-based laboratory management system to facilitate database management of leukemia patients referred for cytogenetic tests in regards to karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The database is custom-made for entry of patient data, clinical details, sample details, cytogenetics test results, and data mining for various ongoing research areas. A number of clinical research laboratoryrelated tasks are carried out faster using specific "queries." The tasks include tracking clinical progression of a particular patient for multiple visits, treatment response, morphological and cytogenetics response, survival time, automatic grouping of patient inclusion criteria in a research project, tracking various processing steps of samples, turn-around time, and revenue generated. Since 2005 we have collected of over 5,000 samples. The database is easily updated and is being adapted for various data maintenance and mining needs.

  15. Evaluating laboratory key performance using quality indicators in Alexandria University Hospital Clinical Chemistry Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mostafa M; Zaki, Adel; Hossam, Nermine; Aboul-Ela, Yasmin

    2014-12-01

    The performance of clinical laboratories plays a fundamental role in the quality and effectiveness of healthcare. To evaluate the laboratory performance in Alexandria University Hospital Clinical Laboratories using key quality indicators and to compare the performance before and after an improvement plan based on ISO 15189 standards. The study was carried out on inpatient samples for a period of 7 months that was divided into three phases: phase I included data collection for evaluation of the existing process before improvement (March-May 2012); an intermediate phase, which included corrective, preventive action, quality initiative and steps for improvement (June 2012); and phase II, which included data collection for evaluation of the process after improvement (July 2012-September 2012). In terms of the preanalytical indicators, incomplete request forms in phase I showed that the total number of received requests were 31 944, with a percentage of defected request of 33.66%; whereas in phase II, there was a significant reduction in all defected request items (Plaboratories.

  16. Laboratory hematology in the history of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2013-01-01

    For the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), an historic overview of papers that the journal has published in the field of laboratory hematology (LH) is presented. All past volumes of CCLM were screened for papers on LH and these were categorized. Bibliographic data of these papers were also analyzed. CCLM published in total 387 LH papers. The absolute number of LH papers published annually showed a significant increase over the years since 1985. Also the share of LH papers demonstrated a steady increase (overall mean 5%, but mean 8% over the past 4 years). The most frequent category was coagulation and fibrinolysis (23.5%). Authors from Germany contributed the most LH papers to the journal (22.7%), followed by the Netherlands and Italy (16.3 and 13.2%, respectively). Recent citation data indicated that other publications cited LH review papers much more frequently than other types of papers. The history of the journal reflects the emergence and development of laboratory hematology as a separate discipline of laboratory medicine.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  18. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region

  19. [Critical role of clinical laboratories in hospital infection control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Tetsuya

    2010-11-01

    The hospital infection control and prevention is recognized to be more and more important according to the advances in modern medical treatment and care. Clinical microbiology laboratory play critical roles in the hospital infection control as a member of infection control team (ICT). They are the first in a hospital to identify outbreak of MRSA in NICU and molecular epidemiological analysis of the isolates lead proper intervention of ICT to the concerned ward. From a viewpoint of infectious disease specialist, rapid and precise microbiological information is essential for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Each medical technologist need to make efforts to understand the characteristics of the examinations for infectious diseases and send out information useful for clinical practices. In our hospital, with the participation of all members of medical technologists, rapid reporting system was developed for blood culture examinations, which greatly contribute to the appropriate treatment of bloodstream infections. Collaborations of clinical microbiology laboratory with other members of ICT realize high quality hospital infection control. They also need to be aware of themselves as good practitioners of infection control measures to prevent hospital infections.

  20. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  1. Discourse in science communities: Issues of language, authority, and gender in a life sciences laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conefrey, Theresa Catherine

    Government-sponsored and private research initiatives continue to document the underrepresentation of women in the sciences. Despite policy initiatives, women's attrition rates each stage of their scientific careers remain higher than those of their male colleagues. In order to improve retention rates more information is needed about why many drop out or do not succeed as well as they could. While broad sociological studies and statistical surveys offer a valuable overview of institutional practices, in-depth qualitative analyses are needed to complement these large-scale studies. This present study goes behind statistical generalizations about the situation of women in science to explore the actual experience of scientific socialization and professionalization. Beginning with one reason often cited by women who have dropped out of science: "a bad lab experience," I explore through detailed observation in a naturalistic setting what this phrase might actually mean. Using ethnographic and discourse analytic methods, I present a detailed analysis of the discourse patterns in a life sciences laboratory group at a large research university. I show how language accomplishes the work of indexing and constituting social constraints, of maintaining or undermining the hierarchical power dynamics of the laboratory, of shaping members' presentation of self, and of modeling social and professional skills required to "do science." Despite the widespread conviction among scientists that "the mind has no sex," my study details how gender marks many routine interactions in the lab, including an emphasis on competition, a reinforcement of sex-role stereotypes, and a conversational style that is in several respects more compatible with men's than women's forms of talk.

  2. The Conceptions of Learning Science by Laboratory among University Science-Major Students: Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yu-Li; Lin, Tzung-Jin; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sophistication of students' conceptions of science learning has been found to be positively related to their approaches to and outcomes for science learning. Little research has been conducted to particularly investigate students' conceptions of science learning by laboratory. Purpose: The purpose of this research, consisting of…

  3. Epidemiological, clinical and sleep laboratory evaluations of insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, E. O.; Kales, A.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have contributed to the understanding of the total scope of the insomnia problem, both in terms of the incidence of sleep difficulties, and the extent and frequency of hypnotic drug use. Clinical studies - at the Sleep Research and Treatment Center - have been used to evaluate the medical, psychological, pharmacological and situational factors contributing to insomnia, and to evaluate the psychotherapy and chemotherapy best suited to treatment of insomnia. The sleep laboratory studies were of two types: (1) the study of sleep induction, sleep maintenance, and sleep stages, and (2) the use of hypnotic drugs, emphasizing their effectiveness in inducing and maintaining sleep, and the duration of this effectiveness.

  4. Quality Management Systems in the Clinical Laboratories in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of management systems in accordance with standards like ISO 9001:2008 (1,2) in the clinical laboratories has conferred and added value of reliability and therefore a very significant input to patient safety. As we know the ISO 9001:2008 (1) a certification standard, and ISO 15189:2012 (2) an accreditation standard, both, at the time have generated institutional memory where they have been implemented, the transformation of culture focused on correct execution, control and following, evidence needed and the importance of register. PMID:27683495

  5. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R

    2014-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory Flight Software Boot Robustness Testing Project Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Brian

    2011-01-01

    On the surface of Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory will boot up its flight computers every morning, having charged the batteries through the night. This boot process is complicated, critical, and affected by numerous hardware states that can be difficult to test. The hardware test beds do not facilitate testing a long duration of back-to-back unmanned automated tests, and although the software simulation has provided the necessary functionality and fidelity for this boot testing, there has not been support for the full flexibility necessary for this task. Therefore to perform this testing a framework has been build around the software simulation that supports running automated tests loading a variety of starting configurations for software and hardware states. This implementation has been tested against the nominal cases to validate the methodology, and support for configuring off-nominal cases is ongoing. The implication of this testing is that the introduction of input configurations that have yet proved difficult to test may reveal boot scenarios worth higher fidelity investigation, and in other cases increase confidence in the robustness of the flight software boot process.

  7. Laboratory for Nuclear Science. High Energy Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-07-30

    High energy and nuclear physics research at MIT is conducted within the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS). Almost half of the faculty in the MIT Physics Department carry out research in LNS at the theoretical and experimental frontiers of subatomic physics. Since 2004, the U.S. Department of Energy has funded the high energy physics research program through grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 (other grants and cooperative agreements provided decades of support prior to 2004). The Director of LNS serves as PI. The grant supports the research of four groups within LNS as “tasks” within the umbrella grant. Brief descriptions of each group are given here. A more detailed report from each task follows in later sections. Although grant DE-FG02-05ER41360 has ended, DOE continues to fund LNS high energy physics research through five separate grants (a research grant for each of the four groups, as well as a grant for AMS Operations). We are pleased to continue this longstanding partnership.

  8. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David

    2012-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  9. Aerothermodynamic Environments Definition for the Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Wright, Michael J.; Tang, Chun Y.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of the aerothermodynamic environments definition status is presented for the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle. The environments are based on Navier-Stokes flowfield simulations on a candidate aeroshell geometry and worst-case entry heating trajectories. Uncertainties for the flowfield predictions are based primarily on available ground data since Mars flight data are scarce. The forebody aerothermodynamics analysis focuses on boundary layer transition and turbulent heating augmentation. Turbulent transition is expected prior to peak heating, a first for Mars entry, resulting in augmented heat flux and shear stress at the same heatshield location. Afterbody computations are also shown with and without interference effects of reaction control system thruster plumes. Including uncertainties, analysis predicts that the heatshield may experience peaks of 225 W/sq cm for turbulent heat flux, 0.32 atm for stagnation pressure, and 400 Pa for turbulent shear stress. The afterbody heat flux without thruster plume interference is predicted to be 7 W/sq cm on the backshell and 10 W/sq cm on the parachute cover. If the reaction control jets are fired near peak dynamic pressure, the heat flux at localized areas could reach as high as 76 W/sq cm on the backshell and 38 W/sq cm on the parachute cover, including uncertainties. The final flight environments used for hardware design will be updated for any changes in the aeroshell configuration, heating design trajectories, or uncertainties.

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Leishmaniasis in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Kazinian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the clinical and laboratory characteristics of visceral leishmaniasis according to the data from Clinical hospital of infectious diseases «Nork» in Yerevan for 2013. It is shown that Armenia is a country endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. Most patients (81 % were males. About half of the patients were young children (up to 2 years. It was found that the majority of patients had acute onset of the disease with fever up to 40 °C, severe symptoms of intoxication and single hemorrhages on the skin. Enlargement of the liver and spleen was noted in all patients. The enlargement of the spleen was more pronounced, and it reached the level of the pelvis. One of the cardinal symptoms of visceral leishmaniasis — anemia — developed in all patients admitted to the hospital, and a significant change in the hemogram was observed in young children.

  11. An evaluation of community college student perceptions of the science laboratory and attitudes towards science in an introductory biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nakia Rae

    The science laboratory is an integral component of science education. However, the academic value of student participation in the laboratory is not clearly understood. One way to discern student perceptions of the science laboratory is by exploring their views of the classroom environment. The classroom environment is one determinant that can directly influence student learning and affective outcomes. Therefore, this study sought to examine community college students' perceptions of the laboratory classroom environment and their attitudes toward science. Quantitative methods using two survey instruments, the Science Laboratory Environment Instrument (SLEI) and the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TORSA) were administered to measure laboratory perceptions and attitudes, respectively. A determination of differences among males and females as well as three academic streams were examined. Findings indicated that overall community college students had positive views of the laboratory environment regardless of gender of academic major. However, the results indicated that the opportunity to pursue open-ended activities in the laboratory was not prevalent. Additionally, females viewed the laboratory material environment more favorably than their male classmates did. Students' attitudes toward science ranged from favorable to undecided and no significant gender differences were present. However, there were significantly statistical differences between the attitudes of nonscience majors compared to both allied health and STEM majors. Nonscience majors had less positive attitudes toward scientific inquiry, adoption of scientific attitudes, and enjoyment of science lessons. Results also indicated that collectively, students' experiences in the laboratory were positive predicators of their attitudes toward science. However, no laboratory environment scale was a significant independent predictor of student attitudes. .A students' academic streams was the only significant

  12. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoda, Syed T.; Crawford, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9) felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates. PMID:28725766

  13. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Rishi MD

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9 felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates.

  14. [Laboratory unification: advantages and disadvantages for clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Antonia; Matas, Lurdes

    2010-10-01

    This article aims to reflect on which areas or tasks of microbiology laboratories could be unified with those of clinical biochemistry, hematology, immunology or pathology laboratories to benefit patients and the health system, as well as the areas that should remain independent since their amalgamation would not only fail to provide a benefit but could even jeopardize the quality of microbiological diagnosis, and consequently patient care. To do this, the distinct analytic phases of diagnosis are analyzed, and the advantages and disadvantages of amalgamation are evaluated in each phase. The pros and cons of the unification of certain areas such as the computer system, occupational risk units, customer service, purchasing logistics, and materials storage, etc, are also discussed. Lastly, the effect of unification on urgent microbiology diagnosis is analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis should be unique. The microbiologist should perform an overall evaluation of the distinct techniques used for a particular patient, both those that involve direct diagnosis (staining, culture, antigen detection techniques or molecular techniques) and indirect diagnosis (antibody detection). Moreover, the microbiology laboratory should be independent, with highly trained technicians and specialists in microbiology that provide added value as experts in infection and as key figures in the process of establishing a correct etiological diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of reference change values in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugdayci, Guler; Oguzman, Hamdi; Arattan, Havva Yasemin; Sasmaz, Guler

    2015-01-01

    The use of Reference Change Values (RCV) has been advocated as very useful for monitoring individuals. Most of these are performed for monitoring individuals in acute situations and for following up the improvement or deterioration of chronic diseases. In our study, we aimed at evaluating the RCV calculation for 24 clinical chemistry analytes widely used in clinical laboratories and the utilization of this data. Twenty-four serum samples were analyzed with Abbott kits (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA), manufactured for use with the Architect c8000 (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) auto-analyzer. We calculated RCV using the following formula: RCV = Z x 2 1/2x (CVA2 + CVw2)1/2. Four reference change values (RCV) were calculated for each analyte using four statistical probabilities (0.95, and 0.99, unidirectional and bidirectional). Moreover, by providing an interval after identifying upper and lower limits with the Reference Change Factor (RCF), serially measured tests were calculated by using two formulas: exp (Z x 2 1/2 x (CV(A)2 + CVw2)½/100) for RCF(UP) and (1/RCF(UP)) for RCF(DOWN). RCVs of these analytes were calculated as 14.63% for glucose, 29.88% for urea, 17.75% for ALP, 53.39% for CK, 46.98% for CK-MB, 21.00% amylase, 8.00% for total protein, 8.70% for albumin, 51.08% for total bilirubin, 86.34% for direct bilirubin, 6.40% for calcium, 15.03% for creatinine, 21.47% for urate, 14.19% for total cholesterol, 46.62% for triglyceride, 20.51% for HDL-cholesterol, 29.59% for AST, 46.31% for ALT, 31.54% for GGT, 20.92% for LDH, 19.75% for inorganic phosphate, 3.05% for sodium, 11.75% for potassium, 4.44% for chloride (RCV, p laboratories. RCV could be available as a tool for making clinical decision, especially when monitoring individuals.

  16. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of women with uterine leiomiyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ÖZKUL

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare clinical and laboratory findings of women with or without uterine leiomyoma.Study group consisted of 82 women with uterine leiomyoma and the control group comprised 42 healthy women. Women’s age, gravity, parity, blood groups, pattern of menstrual cycles, complaints at presentation, fertility, ultrasonographical findings, surgical operations and thyroid function tests were evaluated.There were no significant differences in blood group distribution, gravity, parity and thyroid function test results between the patients and the control subjects (P>0.05. A significant difference was found in the complaints at presentation between two groups (P<0.001. Mentrual cycles irregularity was more frequently found in the patients compared with the controls (57.3% vs. 42.9%, respectively, P=0.009. Although no infertile woman was found in the control group, 8.5% of patients were found to have infertility. The sensitivity of ultrasonography was found to be 97.6%. Except for the existence of higher infertility rate and the menstrual cycles irregularities, no significant difference was found in the clinical and laboratory findings between women with or without uterine leiomyoma. Therefore, physical examination and imaging methods are remained as the most important diagnostic tools for uterine leiomyoma.

  17. Transmission of hepatitis B virus in clinical laboratory areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, J L; VanDrunen, N A; Washburn, J W; Balfour, H H

    1979-10-01

    The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in clinical laboratory areas was delineated by the use of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as presumptive evidence for the presence of the infective agent. Twenty-six (34%) of 76 environmental surfaces sampled were positive for HBsAg. The outer surfaces of blood- and serum-specimen containers had HBsAg contamination rates of 55% (six of 11) and 44% (four of nine), respectively. Subsequent handling of pipetting aids, marking devices, and other items led to their contamination and further dissemination of HBsAg. An assay instrument for complete determinations of blood cell counts was observed to splatter and drip blood during its operation. The contamination rate for environmental surfaces associated with this instrument was 15%. The data indicate that transmission of HBV in the clinical laboratory is subtle and mainly via hand contact with contaminated items during the various steps of blood processing. These data support the concept that the portal of entry of HBV is through inapparent breaks in skin and mucous membranes.

  18. Math and science education programs from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This booklet reviews math and science education programs at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The programs can be categorized into six groups: teacher programs; science laboratories for students; student programs; education outreach programs; INEL Public Affairs Office; and programs for college faculty and students

  19. Experimental Psychopathology: From laboratory studies to clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Philippot

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, David Barlow (2004, a pioneer in the field of anxiety disorders, has proposed that psychologists should abandon the concept of psychotherapy and rather use the one of “psychological treatment”. The provoking idea behind this proposal is that the concept of psychotherapy, relying on the notion of “therapeutic school” should be discarded by professional psychologists because it relies too much on conceptions based on pre-scientific models. Barlow (2004 insists that, today, psychology as an empirical science has gathered sufficient knowledge and know-how to found clinical practice. It is no longer necessary to rely on pre-scientific theories. Further, Barlow’s perspective opens clinical practice to the entire field of psychology, i.e. to the advances accomplished by research on emotion, cognition, learning, development, etc.

  20. Clinical and Laboratory Findings in Various Reasons of Thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Akin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombocytopenia is an important cause of bleeding. Different clinical conditions associated with thrombocytopenia and their reflections to the hemostatic table will be examined in this study. Methods: A total of 100 patients with thrombocytopenia who were treated in Hacettepe University between 1993 and 2013, 29 with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, 36 with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP, and 35 with aplastic anemia (AA, were included in the study. Clinical features and laboratory values were reviewed. Results: Thrombosis, fever, and sepsis were more frequently seen in TTP. The most common bleeding type was subcutaneous bleeding in all patient groups. Among patients with TTP, twenty-five patients (86, 2% had fever, 26 patients (89, 7% had a neurologic disorder, and 16 patients (55, 1% had renal dysfunction. Regarding the diagnostic criteria of TTP, 13 patients (44, 8% met five, 12 (41, 4% patients met four and 4 (13, 8% patients met three criteria. The median session of plasmapheresis was 17 (range; 2-127. There was no relation between session count and remission (p=0.28. Conclusion: The severity of clinical presentation and underlying disorders are the most important points with which to approach patients with thrombocytopenia. Clinical reflections may help to identify the cause of thrombocytopenia but not sufficiently demonstrative for diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 316-322

  1. MODERN CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ENTEROVIRAL MENINGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Usacheva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous viral meningitises from 80% to 90% of cases are accounted for meningitis of enteroviral etiology according to the international data. Despite the favorable disease course, there are forms which are characterized by severe damage of CNS. In order to improve diagnostics of enteroviral meningitis in this article we have made a comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters in 23 patients with enteroviral meningitis and 18 patients with serous meningitis of non-enteroviral etiology. Anamnesis data and the major clinical manifestations of the disease dynamics were analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of diagnoses, by which patients were sent to infectious hospital, the symptoms that occurred during patients’ admission into hospitals and their severity. The presence and severity of meningeal symptoms and the indices of cerebrospinal fluid in the patients of the comparison group were analyzed in detail. It is shown that enteroviruses are the important factor in the development of meningitis in the children of younger age. The clinical picture of enteroviral meningitis often develops gradually for 2-3 days and includes the typical syndromes: intoxication and meningeal ones. Every third patient with enterovirus infection has diarrhea and catarrhal symptoms, that’s why it is difficult to diagnose meningitis in its early stages, but it allows to assume enteroviral etiology of the disease. The meningitis of enteroviral etiology is characterized by multiple meningeal signs, while the non-enteroviral meningitis is characterized by dissociation with the prevalence of the of Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s symptoms. The analysis of the laboratory data showed that the enteroviral meningitis is characterized by low (over 50-100 cells "mixed" pleocytosis (the ratio of lymphocytes and neutrophils is about 1:1. These data can be used for differential diagnosis between enteroviral meningitis and serous meningitis of

  2. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bac...

  3. Lean-Agile Adaptations in Clinical Laboratory Accredited ISO 15189

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vilaplana Pérez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It’s introduced Lean techniques in a Clinical Laboratory to improve the operability and the efficiency in continuous processes of analysis, failsafe systems, analysis of areas of value pursuit of zero defects and reduction of waste, and it promote continuous improvement in presented difficulties in adapting to the changing needs of the healthcare environment. Whereas it is necessary to incorporate certification and accreditation, note that the adaptability of the clinical laboratory to the changing needs of physicians in obtaining analytical information is reduced. The application of an agile methodology on analytical systems can provide a line of work that allows the incorporation of planning short work cycles on equips quickly with operational autonomy on the basis of demand and respecting the accreditation requirements and flexibility to ensure adequate performance as the intercomparison of results from the different units analytics, analytical quality and turnaround times. Between 2012 and 2014, a process of analysis and improvement was applied to circuits, a 5 s system, transportation of samples, inventory of reactive and samples, motion of personal and samples, reductions of waiting and delays, overproduction, over processing, and defects of results and reports. At last it seems necessary to apply the Agile methodology to adapt to the evolving necessities in time and the different origins of the samples. It’s have used modular systems where the modules of this study are programmed with immunoassay techniques and it has reduced the operative modules depending on the required activity, ensuring the goals of turnaround times, analytic quality, service, health care continuity, and keeping up with the ISO 15189 accreditation requirements. The results of applying the concept of Lean-Agile to a modular system allows us to reduce the associated costs to the seasonal variation of the health care demand and to adapt the system to the changes on

  4. Effect of Using Separate Laboratory and Lecture Courses for Introductory Crop Science on Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebold, W. J.; Slaughter, Leon

    1986-01-01

    Reviews a study that examined the effects of laboratories on the grade performance of undergraduates in an introductory crop science course. Results indicated that students enrolled in lecture and laboratory concurrently did not receive higher lecture grades than students enrolled solely in lecture, but did have higher laboratory grades. (ML)

  5. 42 CFR 405.515 - Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed by physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services... Criteria for Determining Reasonable Charges § 405.515 Reimbursement for clinical laboratory services billed... limitation on reimbursement for markups on clinical laboratory services billed by physicians. If a physician...

  6. Definition of Life Sciences laboratories for shuttle/Spacelab. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Research requirements and the laboratories needed to support a Life Sciences research program during the shuttle/Spacelab era were investigated. A common operational research equipment inventory was developed to support a comprehensive but flexible Life Sciences program. Candidate laboratories and operational schedules were defined and evaluated in terms of accomodation with the Spacelab and overall program planning. Results provide a firm foundation for the initiation of a life science program for the shuttle era.

  7. Physical and Virtual Laboratories in Science and Engineering Education: review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; Linn, Marcia C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.

    2013-01-01

    The world needs young people who are skillful in and enthusiastic about science and who view science as their future career field. Ensuring that we will have such young people requires initiatives that engage students in interesting and motivating science experiences. Today, students can investigate

  8. Review of clinical and laboratory features of human Brucellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantur B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Brucella spp. continues to pose a human health risk globally despite strides in eradicating the disease from domestic animals. Brucellosis has been an emerging disease since the discovery of Brucella melitensis by Sir David Bruce in 1887. Although many countries have eradicated B. abortus from cattle, in some areas B. melitensis and B. suis have emerged as causes of this infection in cattle, leading to human infections. Currently B. melitensis remains the principal cause of human brucellosis worldwide including India. The recent isolation of distinct strains of Brucella from marine mammals as well as humans is an indicator of an emerging zoonotic disease. Brucellosis in endemic and non-endemic regions remains a diagnostic puzzle due to misleading non-specific manifestations and increasing unusual presentations. Fewer than 10% of human cases of brucellosis may be clinically recognized and treated or reported. Routine serological surveillance is not practiced even in Brucella - endemic countries and we suggest that this should be a part of laboratory testing coupled with a high index of clinical suspicion to improve the level of case detection. The screening of family members of index cases of acute brucellosis in an endemic area should be undertaken to pick up additional unrecognised cases. Rapid and reliable, sensitive and specific, easy to perform and automated detection systems for Brucella spp. are urgently needed to allow early diagnosis and adequate antibiotic therapy in time to decrease morbidity / mortality. The history of travel to endemic countries along with exposure to animals and exotic foods are usually critical to making the clinical diagnosis. Laboratory testing is indispensable for diagnosis. Therefore alertness of clinician and close collaboration with microbiologist are essential even in endemic areas to correctly diagnose and treat this protean human infection. Existing treatment options, largely based on

  9. Glycogen storage disease type I: clinical and laboratory profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice L. Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To characterize the clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric profile of a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease type I managed at an outpatient referral clinic for inborn errors of metabolism. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional outpatient study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Data on diagnosis, management, anthropometric parameters, and follow-up were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients were included (median age 10 years, range 1-25 years, all using uncooked cornstarch therapy. Median age at diagnosis was 7 months (range, 1-132 months, and 19 patients underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Overweight, short stature, hepatomegaly, and liver nodules were present in 16 of 21, four of 21, nine of 14, and three of 14 patients, respectively. A correlation was found between height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores (r = 0.561; p = 0.008. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type I is delayed in Brazil. Most patients undergo liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation, even though the combination of a characteristic clinical presentation and molecular methods can provide a definitive diagnosis in a less invasive manner. Obesity is a side effect of cornstarch therapy, and appears to be associated with growth in these patients.

  10. Autoimmune thyroiditis goitrogenic. Aspects of clinical and laboratorial diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, H.F.Z. da.

    1986-01-01

    To asses the accuracy achieved by the A.C.A.T. and other clinical and laboratorial criterion in the diagnoses of T.A.I.B. we investigated twenty patients with goiter and antimicrossomal antibodies titres of 1/1.600 or more. Analysing the parameters useful in the diagnosis, we found a significant correlation between the antimicrossomal antibodies titres and the basal TSH concentration, an elevated basal TSH and an exaggerated response to TRH independent of the patient clinical status reflecting in the majority of the cases a state of subclinical hypotyroidism; an irregular appearance of the radioisotope thyroid scan and a positive response to a perchlorate discharge test. We conclude that from the parameters useful in the T.A.I.B. diagnosis, the A.C.A.T. detection mainly the antimicrossomal antibodies, is an excellent tool to detect patients with a clinical suspect of thyroid auto-immune disease and when we found high tires in a patient with goiter and an elevated basal TSH concentration we can suggest T.A.I.B. diagnosis. (author)

  11. The science of laboratory and project management in regulated bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Steve; Lloyd, Thomas; Tan, Melvin; Hou, Jingguo; Wells, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Pharmaceutical drug development is a complex and lengthy process, requiring excellent project and laboratory management skills. Bioanalysis anchors drug safety and efficacy with systemic and site of action exposures. Development of scientific talent and a willingness to innovate or adopt new technology is essential. Taking unnecessary risks, however, should be avoided. Scientists must strategically assess all risks and find means to minimize or negate them. Laboratory Managers must keep abreast of ever-changing technology. Investments in instrumentation and laboratory design are critical catalysts to efficiency and safety. Matrix management requires regular communication between Project Managers and Laboratory Managers. When properly executed, it aligns the best resources at the right times for a successful outcome. Attention to detail is a critical aspect that separates excellent laboratories. Each assay is unique and requires attention in its development, validation and execution. Methods, training and facilities are the foundation of a bioanalytical laboratory.

  12. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  13. Legal aspects associated with dismissal from clinical laboratory education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrys, V A; Beck, S J; Laudicina, R J

    1995-01-01

    To review academic dismissals, students' rights in dismissal cases, and several key cases involving academic and disciplinary dismissals. Recent academic literature and legal precedents. Not applicable. Not applicable. Students involved in dismissals are protected under the principles of constitutional law and/or contract law, depending on whether the institution is public or private. The basis for dismissal from educational programs is either academic or disciplinary in nature. In academic dismissals, a student has failed to meet either the cognitive or the noncognitive academic standards of the program. In disciplinary dismissals, a student has violated the institutional rules governing conduct. Policies that affect progress in the program and the dismissal process should be published and distributed to students, as well as reviewed for consistency with institutional policies. The amount of documentation needed in the defense of a dismissal decision has not been specified, but, in general, more is better. Procedures are suggested as a guide to dismissals in clinical laboratory programs.

  14. Biocarbon urinary conduit: laboratory experience and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, L I; Raible, D A

    1980-07-01

    A new urinary conduit utilizing pure vitreous carbon has been used successfully in dogs. Pure carbon appears to be inert with respect to urine and urothelium. Lack of urinary salt encrustation on the exposed surface provides a well-functioning urinary conduit for vesical drainage. Twenty-one vesicostomies were performed in dogs. Careful follow-up and histologic studies of removed specimens were done to establish the biocompatibility of pure carbon. All vesicostomies functioned well. A description of the device, protocol, and results of laboratory experimentation are outlined. The surgical procedure is explained in detail. Results encourage the clinical trial of these devices in humans. Indications include patients with neurogenic vesicla dysfunction and those with total urinary incontinence, both of which require permanent indwelling catheters.

  15. Clinical and laboratory factors associated with mortality in dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroch, Atul; Arya, Vivek; Sinha, Nitin; Taneja, R S; Sahai, Pooja; Mahajan, R K

    2017-04-01

    Dengue is endemic in more than 100 countries, giving rise to an increased number of deaths in the last five years in the South-East Asian region. We report our findings from a retrospective study of adults admitted with confirmed dengue at our institution. We studied the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality in these patients. Of the 172 hospitalised patients studied, 156 (90.69 %) recovered while 16 (9.3%) died. Univariate analysis showed altered sensorium on presentation, lower haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, higher serum creatinine, higher serum transaminase and lower serum albumin levels to be significantly associated with mortality in dengue. Further, using stepwise multivariate logistic regression, altered sensorium ( P = 0.006) and hypoalbuminemia ( P = 0.013) were identified as independent predictors of mortality in dengue. Identification of these parameters early in the course of disease should prompt intensification of treatment in dengue cases.

  16. Abnormalities of laboratory coagulation tests versus clinically evident coagulopathic bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Ronald; Fox, Erin E; Greene, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laboratory-based evidence of coagulopathy (LC) is observed in 25-35% of trauma patients, but clinically-evident coagulopathy (CC) is not well described. METHODS: Prospective observational study of adult trauma patients transported by helicopter from the scene to nine Level 1 trauma...... centers in 2015. Patients meeting predefined highest-risk criteria were divided into CC+ (predefined as surgeon-confirmed bleeding from uninjured sites or injured sites not controllable by sutures) or CC-. We used a mixed-effects, Poisson regression with robust error variance to test the hypothesis...... that abnormalities on rapid thrombelastography (r-TEG) and international normalized ratio (INR) were independently associated with CC+. RESULTS: Of 1,019 highest-risk patients, CC+ (n=41, 4%) were more severely injured (median ISS 32 vs 17), had evidence of LC on r-TEG and INR, received more transfused blood...

  17. Pyelonephritis in Pregnancy: Clinical and Laboratorial Aspects and Perinatal Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Djulie Anne de Lemos; Rossini, Mariane de Mello; Trapani Júnior, Alberto

    2017-12-01

    Objective  To identify the prevalence of pyelonephritis during pregnancy and to analyze the clinical and laboratorial aspects, perinatal results and complications. Methods  A transversal study of 203 pregnant women who had pyelonephritis during pregnancy and whose labor took place between 2010 and 2016 at a hospital in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The analysis was based on medical records as well as on the hospital's database. Clinical and laboratory conditions, antibiotics, bacterial resistance, perinatal outcomes and complications were all taken into account. The data was compared using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-square test. Results  A prevalence of 1.97% with pyelonephritis was evidenced, with most patients having it during the second trimester of gestation. The bacteria most commonly found in the urine cultures was Escherichia coli , in 76.6% of cases, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.7%). Ceftriaxone had the lowest bacterial resistance (only 3.5% of the cases). On the other hand, ampicillin and cephalothin presented higher bacterial resistance, 52% and 36.2%, respectively. The risk of very premature delivery was more than 50% higher in patients with pyelonephritis. Conclusion  Ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins are associated with a higher bacterial resistance while ceftriaxone proved to have a high efficacy for the treatment of pyelonephritis due to low bacterial resistance. Patients with pyelonephritis showed a higher risk for very premature delivery (< 32 weeks). In this casuistry, there were no others significant differences in the overall perinatal outcomes when compared with the routine service series. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Post-genome integrative biology: so that's what they call clinical science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J

    2001-01-01

    Medical science is increasingly dominated by slogans, a characteristic reflecting its growing bureaucratic and corporate structure. Chief amongst these slogans is the idea that genomics will transform the public health. I believe this view is mistaken. Using studies of the genetics of skin cancer and the genetics of skin pigmentation, I describe how recent discoveries have contributed to our understanding of these topics and of human evolution. I contrast these discoveries with insights gained from other approaches, particularly those based on clinical studies. The 'IKEA model of medical advance'--you just do the basic science in the laboratory and self-assemble in the clinic--is not only damaging to clinical advance, but reflects a widespread ignorance about the nature of disease and how clinical discovery arises. We need to think more about disease and less about genes; more in the clinic and less in the laboratory.

  19. Use of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards Guidelines for Disk Diffusion Susceptibility Testing in New York State Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiehlbauch, Julia A.; Hannett, George E.; Salfinger, Max; Archinal, Wendy; Monserrat, Catherine; Carlyn, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Accurate antimicrobial susceptibility testing is vital for patient care and surveillance of emerging antimicrobial resistance. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) outlines generally agreed upon guidelines for reliable and reproducible results. In January 1997 we surveyed 320 laboratories participating in the New York State Clinical Evaluation Program for General Bacteriology proficiency testing. Our survey addressed compliance with NCCLS susceptibility testing guidelines for bacterial species designated a problem (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species) or fastidious (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae) organism. Specifically, we assessed compliance with guidelines for inoculum preparation, medium choice, number of disks per plate, and incubation conditions for disk diffusion tests. We also included length of incubation for S. aureus and Enterococcus species. We found overall compliance with the five characteristics listed above in 80 of 153 responding laboratories (50.6%) for S. aureus and 72 of 151 (47.7%) laboratories for Enterococcus species. The most common problem was an incubation time shortened to less than 24 h. Overall compliance with the first four characteristics was reported by 92 of 221 (41.6%) laboratories for S. pneumoniae, 49 of 163 (30.1%) laboratories for H. influenzae, and 11 of 77 (14.3%) laboratories for N. gonorrhoeae. Laboratories varied from NCCLS guidelines by placing an excess number of disks per plate. Laboratories also reported using alternative media for Enterococcus species, N. gonorrhoeae, and H. influenzae. This study demonstrates a need for education among clinical laboratories to increase compliance with NCCLS guidelines. PMID:10970381

  20. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also

  1. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The

  2. [Applications of MALDI-TOF-MS in clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnelle, Etienne; Nassif, Xavier

    2011-10-01

    For twenty years, mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a particularly powerful tool for analysis and characterization of proteins in research. It is only recently that this technology, especially MALDI-TOF-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight) has entered the field of routine microbiology. This method has proven to be reliable and safe for the identification of bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. MALDI-TOF-MS is a rapid, precise and cost-effective method for identification, compared to conventional phenotypic techniques or molecular biology. Its ability to analyse whole microorganisms with few sample preparation has greatly reduced the time to identification (1-2 min). Furthermore, this technology can be used to identify bacteria directly from clinical samples as blood culture bottles or urines. Future applications will be developed in order to provide direct information concerning virulence or resistance protein markers. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  3. [Evaluation of clinical laboratories--assurance of their quality and competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2007-01-01

    Since ISO 15189:2003 was published, the accreditation program of clinical laboratories based on ISO 15189 has been introduced in many countries, except for those in USA where all clinical laboratories must be required to follow the federal law, CLIA'88. It will certainly help the accredited clinical laboratories improve their quality and competence. In relation to the activity of JCTLM, reference measurement laboratories will be accredited, based on ISO 15195 which is now under its review and amendment by ISO/TC212/WG2. In Japan, JCCLS (Japanese Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) and JAB (Japan Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment) cojointly started the accreditation program for clinical laboratories, based on ISO 15189:2003, and a total of 15 laboratories including university hospitals, community hospitals and independent clinical laboratories have been accredited up until the end of 2006.

  4. Custom software development for use in a clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinard, John H; Gershkovich, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In-house software development for use in a clinical laboratory is a controversial issue. Many of the objections raised are based on outdated software development practices, an exaggeration of the risks involved, and an underestimation of the benefits that can be realized. Buy versus build analyses typically do not consider total costs of ownership, and unfortunately decisions are often made by people who are not directly affected by the workflow obstacles or benefits that result from those decisions. We have been developing custom software for clinical use for over a decade, and this article presents our perspective on this practice. A complete analysis of the decision to develop or purchase must ultimately examine how the end result will mesh with the departmental workflow, and custom-developed solutions typically can have the greater positive impact on efficiency and productivity, substantially altering the decision balance sheet. Involving the end-users in preparation of the functional specifications is crucial to the success of the process. A large development team is not needed, and even a single programmer can develop significant solutions. Many of the risks associated with custom development can be mitigated by a well-structured development process, use of open-source tools, and embracing an agile development philosophy. In-house solutions have the significant advantage of being adaptable to changing departmental needs, contributing to efficient and higher quality patient care.

  5. Automated blood-sample handling in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Bodtker, K; Uyeno, D; Goh, L O

    1990-09-01

    The only significant advances in blood-taking in 25 years have been the disposable needle and evacuated blood-drawing tube. With the exception of a few isolated barcode experiments, most sample-tracking is performed through handwritten or computer-printed labels. Attempts to reduce the hazards of centrifugation have resulted in air-tight lids or chambers, the use of which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Most commonly used clinical analyzers require serum or plasma, distributed into specialized containers, unique to that analyzer. Aliquots for different tests are prepared by handpouring or pipetting. Moderate to large clinical laboratories perform so many different tests that even multi-analyzers performing multiple analyses on a single sample may account for only a portion of all tests ordered for a patient. Thus several aliquots of each specimen are usually required. We have developed a proprietary serial centrifuge and blood-collection tube suitable for incorporation into an automated or robotic sample-handling system. The system we propose is (a) safe--avoids or prevents biological danger to the many "handlers" of blood; (b) small--minimizes the amount of sample taken and space required to adapt to the needs of satellite and mobile testing, and direct interfacing with analyzers; (c) serial--permits each sample to be treated according to its own "merits," optimizes throughput, and facilitates flexible automation; and (d) smart--ensures quality results through monitoring and intelligent control of patient identification, sample characteristics, and separation process.

  6. Burning mouth syndrome: Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halac, Gulistan; Tekturk, Pinar; Eroglu, Saliha; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Cimendur, Ozlem; Kilic, Elif; Asil, Talip

    2016-07-30

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic and persistent painful condition characterized by burning sensation in the oral mucosa. We investigated the etiological factors of patients presented with the history of burning in the mouth who admitted our outpatient clinics over the 8-years period and who had no underlying identifiable local factors. We also tried to determine their demographic and clinical characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the association between burning mouth and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and other laboratory studies in patients complaining of solely burning in the mouth. The study included patients with the history of burning in mouth who presented in our outpatient clinic between 2005 and 2012. They were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist, an internist, and a dentist. Complete blood counts, biochemical analysis and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for all patients. A total of 26 (22 (84%) females, 4 (15%) males; mean age 55.9 years) patients were enrolled in this study. Five (19.2%) of the patients had depression, 2 (7.7%) had anxiety disorder, 2 (7.7%) had diabetes mellitus, 8 (30%) had B12 vitamin deficiency, 3 (11.5%) had decreased ferritin levels in blood, and 1 (3.8%) had folic acid deficiency. Cranial MRI of all patients were normal. Nine patients (34.6%) had no etiological causes. A multidisciplinary approach in the management of burning mouth and establishment of common criteria for the diagnosis would provide insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

  7. value-sensitive clinical accompaniment in community nursing science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-05

    Nov 5, 2010 ... negative effects on clinical learning in community nursing science. The goal of this ..... such positive effect of value-sensitive communication during clinical .... computer games the whole morning; it was unpleasant);. 'Ons [die ...

  8. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  9. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science - Vol 13, No 2 (2004)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategies for the Reactivation of Human Vaccine Laboratories in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Incubators and the Effects of a Spray-Disinfectant - A Quarterly Ammonium ... The Occurrence of Vibrio species in the Gut of Sardinella madrensis in Port ...

  10. [Clinical governance and patient safety culture in clinical laboratories in the Spanish National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Marín, Á; Rivas-Ruiz, F

    To conduct a situational analysis of patient safety culture in public laboratories in the Spanish National Health System and to determine the clinical governance variables that most strongly influence patient safety. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out, in which a Survey of Patient Safety in Clinical Laboratories was addressed to workers in 26 participating laboratories. In this survey, which consisted of 45 items grouped into 6 areas, scores were assigned on a scale from 0 to 100 (where 0 is the lowest perception of patient safety). Laboratory managers were asked specific questions about quality management systems and technology. The mean scores for the 26 participating hospitals were evaluated, and the following results observed: in 4of the 6areas, the mean score was higher than 70 points. In the third area (equipment and resources) and the fourth area (working conditions), the scores were lower than 60 points. Every hospital had a digital medical record system. This 100% level of provision was followed by that of an electronic request management system, which was implemented in 82.6% of the hospitals. The results obtained show that the culture of security is homogeneous and of high quality in health service laboratories, probably due to the steady improvement observed. However, in terms of clinical governance, there is still some way to go, as shown by the presence of weaknesses in crucial dimensions of safety culture, together with variable levels of implementation of fail-safe technologies and quality management systems. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. [Laboratory medicine in the obligatory postgraduate clinical training system--common clinical training program in the department of laboratory medicine in our prefectural medical university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yasuyuki

    2003-04-01

    I propose a postgraduate common clinical training program to be provided by the department of laboratory medicine in our prefectural medical university hospital. The program has three purposes: first, mastering basic laboratory tests; second, developing the skills necessary to accurately interpret laboratory data; third, learning specific techniques in the field of laboratory medicine. For the first purpose, it is important that medical trainees perform testing of their own patients at bedside or in the central clinical laboratory. When testing at the central clinical laboratory, instruction by expert laboratory technicians is helpful. The teaching doctors in the department of laboratory medicine are asked to advise the trainees on the interpretation of data. Consultation will be received via interview or e-mail. In addition, the trainees can participate in various conferences, seminars, and meetings held at the central clinical laboratory. Finally, in order to learn specific techniques in the field of laboratory medicine, several special courses lasting a few months will be prepared. I think this program should be closely linked to the training program in internal medicine.

  12. Integrated Earth Science Research in Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. S.; Hazen, T. C.; Conrad, M. E.; Johnson, L. R.; Salve, R.

    2004-12-01

    There are three types of sites being considered for deep-underground earth science and physics experiments: (1) abandoned mines (e.g., the Homestake Gold Mine, South Dakota; the Soudan Iron Mine, Minnesota), (2) active mines/facilities (e.g., the Henderson Molybdenum Mine, Colorado; the Kimballton Limestone Mine, Virginia; the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [in salt], New Mexico), and (3) new tunnels (e.g., Icicle Creek in the Cascades, Washington; Mt. San Jacinto, California). Additional sites have been considered in the geologically unique region of southeastern California and southwestern Nevada, which has both very high mountain peaks and the lowest point in the United States (Death Valley). Telescope Peak (along the western border of Death Valley), Boundary Peak (along the California-Nevada border), Mt. Charleston (outside Las Vegas), and Mt. Tom (along the Pine Creek Valley) all have favorable characteristics for consideration. Telescope Peak can site the deepest laboratory in the United States. The Mt. Charleston tunnel can be a highway extension connecting Las Vegas to Pahrump. The Pine Creek Mine next to Mt. Tom is an abandoned tungsten mine. The lowest levels of the mine are accessible by nearly horizontal tunnels from portals in the mining base camp. Drainage (most noticeable in the springs resulting from snow melt) flows (from the mountain top through upper tunnel complex) out of the access tunnel without the need for pumping. While the underground drifts at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have not yet been considered (since they are relatively shallow for physics experiments), they have undergone extensive earth science research for nearly 10 years, as the site for future storage of nation's spent nuclear fuels. All these underground sites could accommodate different earth science and physics experiments. Most underground physics experiments require depth to reduce the cosmic-ray-induced muon flux from atmospheric sources. Earth science experiments can be

  13. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  14. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of this... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Laboratories performing moderate...

  15. Glycogen storage disease type I: clinical and laboratory profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice L. Santos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To characterize the clinical, laboratory, and anthropometric profile of a sample of Brazilian patients with glycogen storage disease type I managed at an outpatient referral clinic for inborn errors of metabolism. Methods: This was a cross-sectional outpatient study based on a convenience sampling strategy. Data on diagnosis, management, anthropometric parameters, and follow-up were assessed. Results: Twenty-one patients were included (median age 10 years, range 1–25 years, all using uncooked cornstarch therapy. Median age at diagnosis was 7 months (range, 1–132 months, and 19 patients underwent liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation. Overweight, short stature, hepatomegaly, and liver nodules were present in 16 of 21, four of 21, nine of 14, and three of 14 patients, respectively. A correlation was found between height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores (r = 0.561; p = 0.008. Conclusions: Diagnosis of glycogen storage disease type I is delayed in Brazil. Most patients undergo liver biopsy for diagnostic confirmation, even though the combination of a characteristic clinical presentation and molecular methods can provide a definitive diagnosis in a less invasive manner. Obesity is a side effect of cornstarch therapy, and appears to be associated with growth in these patients. Resumo: Objetivos: Caracterizar o perfil clínico, laboratorial e antropométrico de uma amostra de pacientes brasileiros com doença de depósito de glicogênio tipo I tratados em um ambulatório de referência para erros inatos do metabolismo. Métodos: Este foi um estudo ambulatorial transversal com base em uma estratégia de amostragem de conveniência. Foram avaliados os dados com relação ao diagnóstico, tratamento, parâmetros antropométricos e acompanhamento. Resultados: Foram incluídos 21 pacientes (idade média de 10 anos, faixa 1-25 anos de idade, e todos se encontravam em terapia de amido de milho cru. A idade média na época do diagn

  16. Pre-analytical issues in the haemostasis laboratory: guidance for the clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnette, A; Chatelain, M; Chatelain, B; Ten Cate, H; Mullier, F

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring quality has become a daily requirement in laboratories. In haemostasis, even more than in other disciplines of biology, quality is determined by a pre-analytical step that encompasses all procedures, starting with the formulation of the medical question, and includes patient preparation, sample collection, handling, transportation, processing, and storage until time of analysis. This step, based on a variety of manual activities, is the most vulnerable part of the total testing process and is a major component of the reliability and validity of results in haemostasis and constitutes the most important source of erroneous or un-interpretable results. Pre-analytical errors may occur throughout the testing process and arise from unsuitable, inappropriate or wrongly handled procedures. Problems may arise during the collection of blood specimens such as misidentification of the sample, use of inadequate devices or needles, incorrect order of draw, prolonged tourniquet placing, unsuccessful attempts to locate the vein, incorrect use of additive tubes, collection of unsuitable samples for quality or quantity, inappropriate mixing of a sample, etc. Some factors can alter the result of a sample constituent after collection during transportation, preparation and storage. Laboratory errors can often have serious adverse consequences. Lack of standardized procedures for sample collection accounts for most of the errors encountered within the total testing process. They can also have clinical consequences as well as a significant impact on patient care, especially those related to specialized tests as these are often considered as "diagnostic". Controlling pre-analytical variables is critical since this has a direct influence on the quality of results and on their clinical reliability. The accurate standardization of the pre-analytical phase is of pivotal importance for achieving reliable results of coagulation tests and should reduce the side effects of the influence

  17. From Laboratories to Classrooms: Involving Scientists in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, E. K.

    2001-12-01

    Scientists play a key role in science education: the adventure of making new discoveries excites and motivates students. Yet, American science education test scores lag behind those of other industrial countries, and the call for better science, math and technology education is widespread. Thus, improving American science, math and technological literacy is a major educational goal for the NSF and NASA. Today, funding for research often carries a requirement that the scientist be actively involved in education and public outreach (E/PO) to enhance the science literacy of students, teachers and citizens. How can scientists contribute effectively to E/PO? What roles can scientists take in E/PO? And, how can this be balanced with research requirements and timelines? This talk will focus on these questions, with examples drawn from the author's projects that involve scientists in working with K-12 teacher professional development and with K-12 curriculum development and implementation. Experiences and strategies for teacher professional development in the research environment will be discussed in the context of NASA's airborne astronomy education and outreach projects: the Flight Opportunities for Science Teacher EnRichment project and the future Airborne Ambassadors Program for NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Effective partnerships with scientists as content experts in the development of new classroom materials will be described with examples from the SETI Institute's Life in the Universe curriculum series for grades 3-9, and Voyages Through Time, an integrated high school science course. The author and the SETI Institute wish to acknowledge funding as well as scientific and technical support from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Hewlett Packard Company, the Foundation for Microbiology, and the Combined Federated Charities.

  18. Department of Defense Laboratory Civilian Science and Engineering Workforce - 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Aerospace Engineering 1,995 2,207 2,166 -41 -1.9% Electrical Engineering 982 1,193 1,413 220 18.4% Chemistry 744 873 804 -69 -7.9% Operations Research...1313 Geophysics 180 Psychology 690 Industrial Hygiene 1315 Hydrology 184 Sociology 701 Veterinary Medical Science 1320 Chemistry 190 General...Engineering 1520 Mathematics 470 Soil Science 861 Aerospace Engineering 1529 Mathematical Statistician 471 Agronomy 871 Naval Architecture 1530

  19. The Next Generation Laboratory Interface for Students with Blindness or Low Vision in the Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supalo, Cary A.

    2012-01-01

    Entry into science education for students with blindness or low vision can present economic and technological barriers to access. This manuscript discusses funding hands-on student experiences in middle school, high school, and post-secondary education. Further, the use of access technologies recently developed for science education is also…

  20. 76 FR 56406 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Demonstration Project; Department of the Army; Army...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Demonstration Project; Department of the Army; Army Research, Development and Engineering Command; Tank... personnel management demonstration project for eligible TARDEC employees. Within that notice the table...

  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory Science Education Programs. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report is quarterly progress report on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Science Education Programs. Included in the report are dicussions on teacher and faculty enhancement, curriculum improvement, student support, educational technology, and institutional improvement.

  2. Chemical Analysis of Soils: An Environmental Chemistry Laboratory for Undergraduate Science Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Joan D.; Avery, G. Brooks, Jr.; Manock, John J.; Skrabal, Stephen A.; Stehman, Charles F.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise for undergraduate science students in which they evaluate soil samples for various parameters related to suitability for crop production and capability for retention of contaminants. (Contains 18 references.) (WRM)

  3. About Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services at EPA's Environmental Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission & contact information for EPA Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services located at EPA's Environmental Science Center: the Office of Analytical Services and Quality Assurance & Field Inspection Program

  4. Overview of theory and simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex

    2007-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  5. [Quality Management and Quality Specifications of Laboratory Tests in Clinical Studies--Challenges in Pre-Analytical Processes in Clinical Laboratories].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Midori

    2015-01-01

    The cost, speed, and quality are the three important factors recently indicated by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for the purpose of accelerating clinical studies. Based on this background, the importance of laboratory tests is increasing, especially in the evaluation of clinical study participants' entry and safety, and drug efficacy. To assure the quality of laboratory tests, providing high-quality laboratory tests is mandatory. For providing adequate quality assurance in laboratory tests, quality control in the three fields of pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical processes is extremely important. There are, however, no detailed written requirements concerning specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping. Most laboratory tests for clinical studies are performed onsite in a local laboratory; however, a part of laboratory tests is done in offsite central laboratories after specimen shipping. As factors affecting laboratory tests, individual and inter-individual variations are well-known. Besides these factors, standardizing the factors of specimen collection, handling, preparation, storage, and shipping, may improve and maintain the high quality of clinical studies in general. Furthermore, the analytical method, units, and reference interval are also important factors. It is concluded that, to overcome the problems derived from pre-analytical processes, it is necessary to standardize specimen handling in a broad sense.

  6. Virtual Laboratories in Science Education: Students' Motivation and Experiences in Two Tertiary Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrberg, Nadia Rahbek; Treusch, Alexander H.; Wiegand, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Potential benefits of simulations and virtual laboratory exercises in natural sciences have been both theorised and studied recently. This study reports findings from a pilot study on student attitude, motivation and self-efficacy when using the virtual laboratory programme Labster. The programme allows interactive learning about the workflows and…

  7. Assessing and Analyzing Behavior Strategies of Instructors in College Science Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, William C., Jr.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Analyzed are university instructor behaviors in introductory and advanced level laboratories of botany, chemistry, geology, physics and zoology. Science Laboratory Interaction Categories--Teacher (SLIC) was used to assess 15 individual categories of teacher behaviors in the areas of questioning, giving directions, transmitting information,…

  8. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  9. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  10. Laboratory Experiences in an Introduction to Natural Science Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sister Marquita

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-semester course designed to meet the needs of future elementary teachers, home economists, and occupational therapists. Laboratory work includes homemade calorimeters, inclined planes, and computing. Content areas of the course include measurement, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, geology, and meteorology. (JN)

  11. A Sustainable Energy Laboratory Course for Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Stephen A.; Loxsom, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable energy is growing in importance as the public becomes more aware of climate change and the need to satisfy our society's energy demands while minimizing environmental impacts. To further this awareness and to better prepare a workforce for "green careers," we developed a sustainable energy laboratory course that is suitable…

  12. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science - Vol 12, No 2 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Hazards of Chaotic Importation, Certification, Distribution and Marketing of Medical Laboratory Consumables in Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. BC Nlemadim, 25-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jmls.v12i2.35283 ...

  13. The Effect of Using 3E, 5E Learning Cycle in General Chemistry Laboratory to Prospective Scinence Teachers’ Attitude and Perceptions to the Science, Chemistry and Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Toprak, Fatih; Çelikler, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the emerging changes in prospective science teachers" attitudes and perceptions towards science, chemistry and laboratory resulting from the implementation of 3E. 5E learning cycles and traditional instruction in laboratory environment in which learning is achieved by doing and experiencing. The study included 74 first grade prospective science teachers from Ondokuz Mayıs University at the Department of Science Education. In the study, quasi-experimental pr...

  14. Science and Technology Teachers' Views about the Causes of Laboratory Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Cemil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine science and technology teachers' views about the causes of the problems encountered in laboratories. In this research, phenomenology, a qualitative research design, was used. 21 science and technology teachers who were working in elementary schools in Eskisehir during the 2010-2011 spring semester were the…

  15. How Should Students Learn in the School Science Laboratory? The Benefits of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Ayala; Cohen, Sarit; Aflalo, Ester

    2017-07-01

    Despite the inherent potential of cooperative learning, there has been very little research into its effectiveness in middle school laboratory classes. This study focuses on an empirical comparison between cooperative learning and individual learning in the school science laboratory, evaluating the quality of learning and the students' attitudes. The research included 67 seventh-grade students who undertook four laboratory experiments on the subject of "volume measuring skills." Each student engaged both in individual and cooperative learning in the laboratory, and the students wrote individual or group reports, accordingly. A total of 133 experiment reports were evaluated, 108 of which also underwent textual analysis. The findings show that the group reports were superior, both in terms of understanding the concept of "volume" and in terms of acquiring skills for measuring volume. The students' attitudes results were statistically significant and demonstrated that they preferred cooperative learning in the laboratory. These findings demonstrate that science teachers should be encouraged to implement cooperative learning in the laboratory. This will enable them to improve the quality and efficiency of laboratory learning while using a smaller number of experimental kits. Saving these expenditures, together with the possibility to teach a larger number of students simultaneously in the laboratory, will enable greater exposure to learning in the school science laboratory.

  16. Science Laboratories and Indoor Air Quality in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bruce W.

    Some of the issues surrounding the indoor air quality (IAQ) problems presented by science labs are discussed. Described are possible contaminants in labs, such as chemicals and biological organisms, and ways to lessen accidents arising from these sources are suggested. Some of the factors contributing to comfort, such as temperature levels, are…

  17. The Laboratory for School Science at the University of Oslo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Svein

    1976-01-01

    Describes the purposes of the Center for Science Education at the University of Oslo as follows: to give help and advice to acting teachers; to make the staff at the university more aware of the needs and problems of the schools. Outlines the activities involved in fulfilling these purposes. (GS)

  18. Basic energy sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, H.

    1985-01-01

    The testimony expresses concerns about two areas of the FY-86 budget and goes on to discuss basic energy science programs at ORNL, scientific results, support of technologies, user facilities, recent significant discoveries, support of major facilities and ORNL trends in basic research

  19. Quality assurance of laboratory work and clinical use of laboratory tests in general practice in norway: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thue, Geir; Jevnaker, Marianne; Gulstad, Guri Andersen; Sandberg, Sverre

    2011-09-01

    Virtually all the general practices in Norway participate in the Norwegian Quality Improvement of Laboratory Services in Primary Care, NOKLUS. In order to assess and develop NOKLUS's services, it was decided to carry out an investigation in the largest participating group, general practices. In autumn 2008 a questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian general practices asking for feedback on different aspects of NOKLUS's main services: contact with medical laboratory technologists, sending of control materials, use and maintenance of practice-specific laboratory binders, courses, and testing of laboratory equipment. In addition, attitudes were elicited towards possible new services directed at assessing other technical equipment and clinical use of tests. Responses were received from 1290 of 1552 practices (83%). The great majority thought that the frequency of sending out control material should continue as at present, and they were pleased with the feedback reports and follow-up by the laboratory technologists in the counties. Even after many years of practical experience, there is still a need to update laboratory knowledge through visits to practices, courses, and written information. Practices also wanted quality assurance of blood pressure meters and spirometers, and many doctors wanted feedback on their use of laboratory tests. Services regarding quality assurance of point-of-care tests, guidance, and courses should be continued. Quality assurance of other technical equipment and of the doctor's clinical use of laboratory tests should be established as part of comprehensive quality assurance.

  20. Anterior choroidal artery occlusions: Clinical and laboratory features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lale Gündoğdu Çelebi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The anterior choroidal artery (ACHA irrigation area, this area is very volatile infarction incidence and clinical characteristics of classical knowledge. In our study, patients with infarct lesion limited irrigation area of Achan was to determine the clinical and laboratory features. METHODS: The patient group, magnetic resonance imaging, patients with lesions limited to the area by selecting Achan was created. In addition to the acute lesion Achan, the other in the sprawling grounds of the arteries of patients, additional lesions Those who define transient ischemic attack attributable to infarct Achan, the applicant passed before the first signs of neurological sequelae due to cerebrovascular disease and / or old lesions deemed capable of neurological deficits were excluded. Acha deciding that the irrigation area of the lesion, which is a deep dive irrigation area and medial thalamus, globus pallidus delimit the lateral thalamus formed the typical image of the lesion which were taken into account. For the superficial branch of the amygdala and hippocampus lentikülo-striate arteries occlusion seen in the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle of the lesion until komşuluğuna taken into account. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in hypertension common modifiable risk factor for the highest rate (p <0.000. Pure motor or sensory examination in all patients except 1 patient showed signs of stroke. According to the classification of etiologic TOAST small vessel disease, significantly higher rate compared to other etiologies (p <0.000. Etiologic groups compared to the risk factors of hypertension and hyperlipidemia in patients with small vessel disease, atrial firillasyon (AF kardioemboli group was significantly higher (p = 0.035 and p = 0.011, p = 0.005. Introduction of the patients were between NIHSS 1-15 (6 + 3.2. Between mRS 0-4 at baseline (1.83 +1.22. Infarct area, Acha is one of the branches or the entire irrigation

  1. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G W; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M; Johnson, Elizabeth R; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I; Lilley, Elliot J; Longridge, Emma R; McLeod, Carmen M; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C; Ormandy, Elisabeth H; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J; Scudamore, Cheryl L; Smith, Jane A; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs'), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  2. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gail F.; Greenhough, Beth J; Hobson-West, Pru; Kirk, Robert G. W.; Applebee, Ken; Bellingan, Laura C.; Berdoy, Manuel; Buller, Henry; Cassaday, Helen J.; Davies, Keith; Diefenbacher, Daniela; Druglitrø, Tone; Escobar, Maria Paula; Friese, Carrie; Herrmann, Kathrin; Hinterberger, Amy; Jarrett, Wendy J.; Jayne, Kimberley; Johnson, Adam M.; Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Konold, Timm; Leach, Matthew C.; Leonelli, Sabina; Lewis, David I.; Lilley, Elliot J.; Longridge, Emma R.; McLeod, Carmen M.; Miele, Mara; Nelson, Nicole C.; Ormandy, Elisabeth H.; Pallett, Helen; Poort, Lonneke; Pound, Pandora; Ramsden, Edmund; Roe, Emma; Scalway, Helen; Schrader, Astrid; Scotton, Chris J.; Scudamore, Cheryl L.; Smith, Jane A.; Whitfield, Lucy; Wolfensohn, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the ‘3Rs’), work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, ‘cultures of care’, harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving communication across

  3. Developing a Collaborative Agenda for Humanities and Social Scientific Research on Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail F Davies

    Full Text Available Improving laboratory animal science and welfare requires both new scientific research and insights from research in the humanities and social sciences. Whilst scientific research provides evidence to replace, reduce and refine procedures involving laboratory animals (the '3Rs', work in the humanities and social sciences can help understand the social, economic and cultural processes that enhance or impede humane ways of knowing and working with laboratory animals. However, communication across these disciplinary perspectives is currently limited, and they design research programmes, generate results, engage users, and seek to influence policy in different ways. To facilitate dialogue and future research at this interface, we convened an interdisciplinary group of 45 life scientists, social scientists, humanities scholars, non-governmental organisations and policy-makers to generate a collaborative research agenda. This drew on methods employed by other agenda-setting exercises in science policy, using a collaborative and deliberative approach for the identification of research priorities. Participants were recruited from across the community, invited to submit research questions and vote on their priorities. They then met at an interactive workshop in the UK, discussed all 136 questions submitted, and collectively defined the 30 most important issues for the group. The output is a collaborative future agenda for research in the humanities and social sciences on laboratory animal science and welfare. The questions indicate a demand for new research in the humanities and social sciences to inform emerging discussions and priorities on the governance and practice of laboratory animal research, including on issues around: international harmonisation, openness and public engagement, 'cultures of care', harm-benefit analysis and the future of the 3Rs. The process outlined below underlines the value of interdisciplinary exchange for improving

  4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN CLINICAL LABORATORIES ACCORDING TO THE ISO 15189:2007 STANDARD - EVALUATION OF THE BENEFITS OF IMPLEMENTATION IN AN ASSISTED REPRODUCTION LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Sialakouma

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical science is a sensitive discipline and presents unique challenges due to its social character, continuous development and competitiveness. The issue of quality management systems and accreditation is gaining increasing interest in this sector. All over Europe, Health Services Units have started to introduce quality management systems and harmonization of criteria for accreditation is of increasing importance. Moreover, clinical laboratories, like the Assisted Reproduction laboratories and biochemical laboratories are required to apply a Quality Management System in order to ensure their correct, scientific and effective operation. Ultimately, it is a moral obligation for every health care organisation to supply the best possible care for the patient. The specific features and the diversity of clinical laboratories led to the introduction (2003 and, recently to the revision (2007 of the international standard ISO 15189, which is the first international standard developed specifically to address the requirements for accreditation of this type of laboratory. The basic principles for the quality assurance in the clinical laboratories are: x Complete and unambiguous standardized operating procedures. x Complete and unambiguous directives of operation. x Obligatory detailed written documentation, i.e., how each action is done, who will do it, where will this action take place and when. x Suitable scheduling of calibration/control/preventive maintenance of laboratory equipment and recording of each activity. x Distribution of responsibilities among the staff and continuous education and briefing according to current scientific data. x Complete and informed record file keeping. x Continuous improvement which is monitored with the adoption of quantified indicators. x Internal and external audit of all activities. x Troubleshooting. All these principles should be supported by the Management in order that the necessary adaptations should be made

  5. A Guided-Inquiry pH Laboratory Exercise for Introductory Biological Science Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Meagan A.; Lux, Nicholas; Metz, Anneke M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a continuing need for engaging inquiry-based laboratory experiences for advanced high school and undergraduate biology courses. The authors describe a guided-inquiry exercise investigating the pH-dependence of lactase enzyme that uses an inexpensive, wide-range buffering system, lactase dietary supplement, over-the-counter glucose test…

  6. Los Alamos National Laboratory Science Education Program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    The National Teacher Enhancement program (NTEP) is a three-year, multi-laboratory effort funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy to improve elementary school science programs. The Los Alamos National Laboratory targets teachers in northern New Mexico. FY96, the third year of the program, involved 11 teams of elementary school teachers (grades 4-6) in a three-week summer session, four two-day workshops during the school year and an on-going planning and implementation process. The teams included twenty-one teachers from 11 schools. Participants earned a possible six semester hours of graduate credit for the summer institute and two hours for the academic year workshops from the University of New Mexico. The Laboratory expertise in the earth and environmental science provided the tie between the Laboratory initiatives and program content, and allowed for the design of real world problems.

  7. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immele, J.

    1995-01-01

    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis's total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer's requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to open-quotes why have we adopted a science-based strategyclose quotes is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working

  8. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M. [comps.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  9. Report on Computing and Networking in the Space Science Laboratory by the SSL Computer Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Science Laboratory (SSL) at Marshall Space Flight Center is a multiprogram facility. Scientific research is conducted in four discipline areas: earth science and applications, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, and microgravity science and applications. Representatives from each of these discipline areas participate in a Laboratory computer requirements committee, which developed this document. The purpose is to establish and discuss Laboratory objectives for computing and networking in support of science. The purpose is also to lay the foundation for a collective, multiprogram approach to providing these services. Special recognition is given to the importance of the national and international efforts of our research communities toward the development of interoperable, network-based computer applications.

  10. [Laboratory and clinical evaluations of flomoxef sodium in neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, N; Nakamura, H; Miyazu, M; Kasai, K; Watanabe, Y; Taneda, Y; Ozaki, T; Matsui, S; Maki, T; Tauchi, N

    1991-11-01

    Haemophilus influenzae which were responsible for these infections were all rated as "eradicated". Moreover, the drug, administered with or without prophylactic intentions showed complete prophylactic effects in all 27 cases tested. No side effects were observed in any of the patients. Concerning abnormal clinical laboratory results, increases in GOT were noted in 2, eosinophilia in 1, and thrombocytosis in 1, but these abnormalities were invariably mild and the normalized in 1 patient without treatment. The results suggest that FMOX is useful and safe also in neonates.

  11. Report on the International Society for Laboratory Hematology Survey on guidelines to support clinical hematology laboratory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, C P M; Moffat, K A; George, T I; Proytcheva, M; Iorio, A

    2016-05-01

    Given the importance of evidence-based guidelines in health care, we surveyed the laboratory hematology community to determine their opinions on guideline development and their experience and interest in developing clinical hematology laboratory practice guidelines. The study was conducted using an online survey, distributed to members of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology (ISLH) in 2015, with analysis of collected, anonymized responses. A total of 245 individuals participated. Most worked in clinical and/or research laboratories (83%) or industry (11%). 42% felt there were gaps in current guidelines. The majority (58%) recommended that ISLH engages its membership in guideline development. Participants differed in their familiarity with, and use of, different organizations' guidelines. Participants felt it was important to follow best practice recommendations on guideline development, including engagement of experts, statement about conflict of interests and how they were managed, systematic review and grading evidence for recommendations, identifying recommendations lacking evidence or consensus, and public input and peer review of the guideline. Moreover, it was considered important to provide guidelines free of charge. Industry involvement in guidelines was considered less important. The clinical laboratory hematology community has high expectations of laboratory practice guidelines that are consistent with recent recommendations on evidence-based guideline development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Progress Report 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    partment, April 1987 TR-388 hirsch, D.E. An Expert System for Diagnosing Gait in Cerebral Palsy Patients, S.M. The~is, EE & CS Department, May 1987 276... games -space wars and computer chess. These early developments laid the foundation for the Laboratory’s work in the 1970’s on knowledge-based systems-for...domains and has seriously impaired th,- ability of developers to maintain them [264]. In response to these inadequacies, researchers turned in the early

  13. Important clinical and laboratory correlates of glomerular filtration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-03

    Feb 3, 2015 ... for glomerular changes seen in sickle cell disease (SCD). These include ... sex, frequency of crises per annum, as well as steady state laboratory indices .... nephropathy in sickle cell does not arise from a vaso‑occlusive effect.

  14. The National Market for Medicare Clinical Laboratory Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Current Medicare payment policy for outpatient laboratory services is outdated. Future reforms, such as competitive bidding, should consider the characteristics of...

  15. Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry Laboratory: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Course of action analysis has demonstrated that laboratory ... Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). ... samples with their corresponding request slips and any errors .... Frequent changes of health care.

  16. Liposomal drug delivery system from laboratory to clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of drug delivery systems is to deliver a drug effectively, specifically to the site of action and to achieve greater efficacy and minimise the toxic effects compared to conventional drugs. Amongst various carrier systems, liposomes have generated a great interest because of their versatility. Liposomes are vesicular concentric bilayered structures, which are biocompatible, biodegradable and nonimmumnogenic. They can control the delivery of drugs by targeting the drug to the site of action or by site avoidance drug delivery or by prolonged circulation of drugs. Amphotericin B (Amp B remains the drug of choice in most systemic mycoses and also as a second line treatment for Kala azar. However, its toxic effects often limit its use. Although the liposome delivery system has been tried for several drugs, only a few have been used in patients due to the slow development of necessary large-scale pharmaceutical procedures. This paper reviews the development of the technique for liposomal Amphotericin B (L-Amp-LRC-1, FungisomeTM drug delivery system in our laboratory in collaboration with the department of Biochemistry, Delhi University in India and proving the safety and efficacy of this preparation in clinical practice. It also attempts to compare the efficacy and benefits of our product for Indian patients with those of similar products and it includes facts from the publications that flowed from our work. As compared to conventional Amp B, Fungisome is infused over a much shorter period requiring a smaller volume and no premedication. It was found to be safe in patients who had developed serious unacceptable toxicity with conventional Amp B. In renal transplant patients, Fungisome did not produce any nephrotoxicity. Fungisome is effective in fungal infections resistant to fluconazole, conventional Amp B and in virgin and resistant cases of visceral leishmaniasis. The cost of any drug is of great significance, especially in India

  17. Infections in British clinical laboratories, 1986-87.

    OpenAIRE

    Grist, N R; Emslie, J A

    1989-01-01

    During 1986-87 this continuing survey showed 15 specific infections in the staff of 235 laboratories, representing 28,524 person years of exposure. The community was the probable source of four of the five cases of tuberculosis and one of the five cases of salmonellosis. Occupational exposure was the probable cause of four infections by Shigella flexneri, three by Salmonella typhimurium, and one by S typhi, all affecting medical laboratory scientific officers (MLSOs) in microbiology. Occupati...

  18. Yeast identification in routine clinical microbiology laboratory and its clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification of yeast infections is helpful in prompt appropriate antifungal therapy. In the present study, the usefulness of chromogenic medium, slide culture technique and Vitek2 Compact (V2C has been analysed. A total of 173 clinical isolates of yeast species were included in the study. An algorithm to identify such isolates in routine clinical microbiology laboratory was prepared and followed. Chromogenic medium was able to identify Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Trichosporon asahii. Chromogenic medium was also helpful in identifying "multi-species" yeast infections. The medium was unable to provide presumptive identification of C. pelliculosa, C. utilis, C. rugosa, C. glabrata and C. hemulonii. Vitek 2 compact (V2C differentiated all pseudohypae non-producing yeast species. The algorithm followed was helpful in timely presumptive identification and final diagnosis of yeast infections, including multi-species yeast infections.

  19. The management of clinical laboratories in Europe: a FESCC survey. Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari

    2002-03-01

    The professional duties of the specialists in clinical chemistry differ from country to country in Europe. One of the main goals of the Strategic Plan of the Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC; IFCC-Europe) is to promote a high scientific and professional standard in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe. This can be stimulated by the knowledge of the local conditions in each country and by striving towards a strong and harmonised position in all the European countries. In order to enhance the knowledge of the managerial situation of the specialists in clinical chemistry in Europe, FESCC launched a survey in September 2000. This survey provides information about the position of the specialists in clinical chemistry in the various disciplines in the medical laboratories and in hospitals, and about the advisory tasks and the managerial education during the post-graduate training in clinical chemistry. Of the 35 FESCC member countries 33 have participated in the survey (94%). The results show a rather heterogeneous situation in Europe caused by the local historical developments, the differences in academic background and the relative numbers of private and physicians' office laboratories. Large differences exist between the European countries in the disciplines of laboratory medicine that are headed by a specialist in clinical chemistry. In the different countries the clinical chemistry laboratories are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 20% and 100% of the laboratories. The haematology, immunology, microbiology, therapeutic drug monitoring, molecular biology and haemostasis laboratories and departments of blood banking are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 0% and 100% of the laboratories. The responsibilities for the various managerial tasks of the specialists in clinical chemistry show no uniformity in Europe. In the majority of the countries the

  20. Tactical Approaches for Trading Science Objectives Against Measurements and Mission Design: Science Traceability Techniques at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A. E., III

    2017-12-01

    The most common approaches to identifying the most effective mission design to maximize science return from a potential set of competing alternative design approaches are often inefficient and inaccurate. Recently, Team-X at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory undertook an effort to improve both the speed and quality of science - measurement - mission design trade studies. We will report on the methodology & processes employed and their effectiveness in trade study speed and quality. Our results indicate that facilitated subject matter expert peers are the keys to speed and quality improvements in the effectiveness of science - measurement - mission design trade studies.

  1. Comparison of student achievement among two science laboratory types: traditional and virtual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Mary Celeste

    Technology has changed almost every aspect of our daily lives. It is not surprising then that technology has made its way into the classroom. More and more educators are utilizing technological resources in creative ways with the intent to enhance learning, including using virtual laboratories in the sciences in place of the "traditional" science laboratories. This has generated much discussion as to the influence on student achievement when online learning replaces the face-to-face contact between instructor and student. The purpose of this study was to discern differences in achievement of two laboratory instruction types: virtual laboratory and a traditional laboratory. Results of this study indicate statistical significant differences in student achievement defined by averages on quiz scores in virtual labs compared with traditional face-to-face laboratories and traditional laboratories result in greater student learning gains than virtual labs. Lecture exam averages were also greater for students enrolled in the traditional laboratories compared to students enrolled in the virtual laboratories. To account for possible differences in ability among students, a potential extraneous variable, GPA and ACT scores were used as covariates.

  2. Use and Acceptance of Information and Communication Technology Among Laboratory Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Brenda C.

    Online and blended learning platforms are being promoted within laboratory science education under the assumption that students have the necessary skills to navigate online and blended learning environments. Yet little research has examined the use of information and communication technology (ICT) among the laboratory science student population. The purpose of this correlational, survey research study was to explore factors that affect use and acceptance of ICT among laboratory science students through the theoretical lens of the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) model. An electronically delivered survey drew upon current students and recent graduates (within 2 years) of accredited laboratory science training programs. During the 4 week data collection period, 168 responses were received. Results showed that the UTAUT model did not perform well within this study, explaining 25.2% of the variance in use behavior. A new model incorporating attitudes toward technology and computer anxiety as two of the top variables, a model significantly different from the original UTAUT model, was developed that explained 37.0% of the variance in use behavior. The significance of this study may affect curriculum design of laboratory science training programs wanting to incorporate more teaching techniques that use ICT-based educational delivery, and provide more options for potential students who may not currently have access to this type of training.

  3. Full-participation of students with physical disabilities in science and engineering laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannis, Hervens; Joseph, James; Goldberg, Mary; Seelman, Katherine; Schmeler, Mark; Cooper, Rory A

    2018-02-01

    To conduct a literature review identifying barriers and facilitators students with physical disabilities (SwD-P) may encounter in science and engineering (S&E) laboratories. Publications were identified from 1991 to 2015 in ERIC, web of science via web of knowledge, CINAHL, SCOPUS, IEEEXplore, engineering village, business source complete and PubMed databases using search terms and synonyms for accommodations, advanced manufacturing, additive manufacturing, assistive technology (AT), barriers, engineering, facilitators, instructor, laboratory, STEM education, science, students with disabilities and technology. Twenty-two of the 233 publications that met the review's inclusion criteria were examined. Barriers and facilitators were grouped based on the international classification of functioning, disability and health framework (ICF). None of the studies directly found barriers or facilitators to SwD-P in science or engineering laboratories within postsecondary environments. The literature is not clear on the issues specifically related to SwD-P. Given these findings, further research (e.g., surveys or interviews) should be conducted to identify more details to obtain more substantial information on the barriers that may prevent SwD-P from fully participating in S&E instructional laboratories. Implications for Rehabilitation Students with disabilities remain underrepresented going into STEM careers. A need exist to help uncover barriers students with disabilities encounter in STEM laboratory. Environments. Accommodations and strategies that facilitate participation in STEM laboratory environments are promising for students with disabilities.

  4. Building Transnational Bodies: Norway and the International Development of Laboratory Animal Science, ca. 1956–1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druglitrø, Tone; Kirk, Robert G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Argument This article adopts a historical perspective to examine the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine, an auxiliary field which formed to facilitate the work of the biomedical sciences by systematically improving laboratory animal production, provision, and maintenance in the post Second World War period. We investigate how Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine co-developed at the local level (responding to national needs and concerns) yet was simultaneously transnational in orientation (responding to the scientific need that knowledge, practices, objects and animals circulate freely). Adapting the work of Tsing (2004), we argue that national differences provided the creative “friction” that helped drive the formation of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine as a transnational endeavor. Our analysis engages with the themes of this special issue by focusing on the development of Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine in Norway, which both informed wider transnational developments and was formed by them. We show that Laboratory Animal Science and Medicine can only be properly understood from a spatial perspective; whilst it developed and was structured through national “centers,” its orientation was transnational necessitating international networks through which knowledge, practice, technologies, and animals circulated. More and better laboratory animals are today required than ever before, and this demand will continue to rise if it is to keep pace with the quickening tempo of biological and veterinary research. The provision of this living experimental material is no longer a local problem; local, that is, to the research institute. It has become a national concern, and, in some of its aspects . . . even international. (William Lane-Petter 1957, 240) PMID:24941794

  5. Gouty arthritis in Nigerians: clinical and laboratory correlates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... diuretics and low dosage of aspirin may also be among the contributing factors. These factors are also increasingly been found in black Africans. ... The clinic serves as a major referral rheumatology clinic for Lagos and the adjoining states.

  6. [Historic Development of Clinical Biology Laboratories in Luxembourg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennig R; Humbel R-L

    2014-01-01

    After a short overview on the development of diagnostic tools in clinical biology at an international level from Antiquity towards today, a history of the clinical biology including public and private institutions in Luxembourg will be outlined.

  7. Aeronautics Learning Laboratory for Science, Technology, and Research (ALLSTAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Cesar; Ebadian, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    We finished the material development of Level 1, Level 2 and most of Level 3. We created three new galleries, one of streaming videos enabling the user to select his/her appropriate speed of Internet connectivity for better performance. The second gallery on NASA's X-series aircraft and the third is on F-series aircraft. We also completed the placement and activation of all thirteen kiosks. We added one more kiosk over the number suggested in the proposal at Baker Aviation High School - a Dade County Public School for special aviation programs. We felt that the goals of this school matched ALLSTAR's goals and that the placement of the kiosk would better help the local students become interested in the Aviation and Aeronautics field. We continue to work on the development of our "Teacher Resource Guide to ALLSTAR material" in which we tied our material into the national and Florida State standards. We finished the Florida Sunshine State standards, getting positive feedback from local and other educators who use the material on a regular basis. We had another successful workshop on October 29 th, 1997. We introduced the ALLSTAR website and kiosk to about twenty science and history teachers from Dade County Public Schools (DCPS). Most teachers were from middle schools, although we had some from elementary schools also. We provided several demonstrations of the ALLSTAR material to local schools in the Dade County Public Schools (DCPS) system. We used the ALLSTAR material with FIU's summer immersion program for FLAME students. This program includes a high number of minority students interested in science and engineering. We also presented the material at National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and National Congress on Aviation and Space Education (NCASE) conferences and will be presenting the material at the Southeast Florida Aviation Consortium (SEFAC). We provided two on-site workshops in the NSTA conference with total attended of about 70 teachers. The BBS was

  8. Integration of Basic and Clinical Science in the Psychiatry Clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Kirsten M; Moore, David; Rohrbaugh, Robert M; Briscoe, Gregory W

    2017-06-01

    Integration of basic and clinical science is a key component of medical education reform, yet best practices have not been identified. The authors compared two methods of basic and clinical science integration in the psychiatry clerkship. Two interventions aimed at integrating basic and clinical science were implemented and compared in a dementia conference: flipped curriculum and coteaching by clinician and physician-scientist. The authors surveyed students following each intervention. Likert-scale responses were compared. Participants in both groups responded favorably to the integration format and would recommend integration be implemented elsewhere in the curriculum. Survey response rates differed significantly between the groups and student engagement with the flipped curriculum video was limited. Flipped curriculum and co-teaching by clinician and physician-scientist are two methods of integrating basic and clinical science in the psychiatry clerkship. Student learning preferences may influence engagement with a particular teaching format.

  9. Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences: A New Baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences · January - December ... determined with certainty as some cases are asymptomatic .... Bangal et al. reported a rare case of Peritonitis ... following emergency exploratory laparotomy and.

  10. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Operations System: Version 4.0 - system requirements specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashporenko, D.

    1996-07-01

    This document is intended to provide an operations standard for the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory OPerations System (EMSL OPS). It is directed toward three primary audiences: (1) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) facility and operations personnel; (2) laboratory line managers and staff; and (3) researchers, equipment operators, and laboratory users. It is also a statement of system requirements for software developers of EMSL OPS. The need for a finely tuned, superior research environment as provided by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory has never been greater. The abrupt end of the Cold War and the realignment of national priorities caused major US and competing overseas laboratories to reposition themselves in a highly competitive research marketplace. For a new laboratory such as the EMSL, this means coming into existence in a rapidly changing external environment. For any major laboratory, these changes create funding uncertainties and increasing global competition along with concomitant demands for higher standards of research product quality and innovation. While more laboratories are chasing fewer funding dollars, research ideas and proposals, especially for molecular-level research in the materials and biological sciences, are burgeoning. In such an economically constrained atmosphere, reduced costs, improved productivity, and strategic research project portfolio building become essential to establish and maintain any distinct competitive advantage. For EMSL, this environment and these demands require clear operational objectives, specific goals, and a well-crafted strategy. Specific goals will evolve and change with the evolution of the nature and definition of DOE`s environmental research needs. Hence, EMSL OPS is designed to facilitate migration of these changes with ease into every pertinent job function, creating a facile {open_quotes}learning organization.{close_quotes}

  11. Using Live Tissue Laboratories to Promote Clinical Reasoning in Doctor of Physical Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. Allen; Noonan, Ann Cassidy

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the use of animal laboratories has decreased in medical and basic science programs due to lack of trained faculty members, student concerns about animal welfare, and the increased availability of inexpensive alternatives such as computer simulations and videos. Animal laboratories, however, have several advantages over alternative forms…

  12. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Dermatomyositis: Associations with Clinical and Laboratory Features Including Autoantibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Mugii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Minoru; Matsushita, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Oohata, Sacihe; Okita, Hirokazu; Yahata, Tetsutarou; Someya, Fujiko; Inoue, Katsumi; Murono, Shigeyuki; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takehara, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dysphagia develops with low frequency in patients with dermatomyositis. Our objective was to determine the clinical and laboratory features that can estimate the development of dysphagia in dermatomyositis. Methods This study included 92 Japanese patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis. The associations between dysphagia and clinical and laboratory features including disease-specific autoantibodies determined by immunoprecipitation assays were analyzed. Results Videofluoroscopy sw...

  13. Practicing Handoffs Early: Applying a Clinical Framework in the Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D.; Dos Santos, Jason A.; Haidet, Paul M.; Whitcomb, Tiffany L.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy laboratory provides an ideal environment for the integration of clinical contexts as the willed-donor is often regarded as a student's "first patient." This study evaluated an innovative approach to peer teaching in the anatomy laboratory using a clinical handoff context. The authors introduced the "Situation,…

  14. Single and Combined Diagnostic Value of Clinical Features and Laboratory Tests in Acute Appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laméris, Wytze; van Randen, Adrienne; Go, Peter M. N. Y. H.; Bouma, Wim H.; Donkervoort, Sandra C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Stoker, Jaap; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical features and laboratory test results in detecting acute appendicitis. Methods: Clinical features and laboratory test results were prospectively recorded in a consecutive series of 1,101 patients presenting with abdominal

  15. The Role of the Clinical Laboratory in the Future of Health Care: Lean Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Linoj

    2014-01-01

    This commentary will introduce lean concepts into the clinical microbiology laboratory. The practice of lean in the clinical microbiology laboratory can remove waste, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. Lean, Six Sigma, and other such management initiatives are useful tools and can provide dividends but must be accompanied by organizational leadership commitment to sustaining the lean culture in the laboratory setting and providing resources and time to work through the process. PMID:24574289

  16. Laboratory animal science course in Switzerland: participants' points of view and implications for organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crettaz von Roten, Fabienne

    2018-02-01

    Switzerland has implemented a mandatory training in laboratory animal science since 1999; however a comprehensive assessment of its effects has never been undertaken so far. The results from the analysis of participants in the Swiss Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) Category B compulsory courses in laboratory animal science run in 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016 showed that the participants fully appreciated all elements of the course. The use of live animals during the course was supported and explained by six arguments characterized with cognitive, emotional and forward-looking factors. A large majority considered that the 3R (replacement, reduction and refinement) principles were adequately applied during the course. Responses to an open question offered some ideas for improvements. This overall positive picture, however, revealed divergent answers from different subpopulations in our sample (for example, scientists with more hindsight, scientists trained in biology, or participants from Asian countries).

  17. A Comparison of Students' Achievement and Attitude Changes Resulting From a Laboratory and Non-Laboratory Approach to General Education Physical Science Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Leonhardt Maurice

    Student achievement and attitude changes resulting from two different approaches to teaching of physical science were studied among 94 non-science freshmen enrolled at Valley City State College during the 1970-71 winter quarter. Thirty-four students were taught the laboratory-oriented Physical Science for Nonscience Students (PSNS) Project course…

  18. The Effect of a Laboratory Approach Based on Predict-Observation-Explain (POE Strategy on the Development of Students’ Science Process Skills and Views about Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Bilen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a laboratory instruction prepared based on “Predict-Observation-Explain” (POE strategy compared to a verification laboratory approach on the development of pre-service science teachers’ science skill processes and their views of nature of sceince in a general biology laboratory course. The participants of this study consisted of 122 pre-service teachers who took the General Biology Laboratory at the department of science education at Pamukkale University during the fall semester of 2007-2008 academic year. Data was collected through Science Process Skills Test (SPST and Nature of Science Questionnaire. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the verification laboratory approach and the laboratory approach based on the POE strategy on the development of students’ science process skills [F=10.41, p

  19. The effectiveness of digital microscopy as a teaching tool in medical laboratory science curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Demetra

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental component to the practice of Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) is the microscope. While traditional microscopy (TM) is gold standard, the high cost of maintenance has led to an increased demand for alternative methods, such as digital microscopy (DM). Slides embedded with blood specimens are converted into a digital form that can be run with computer driven software. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of digital microscopy as a teaching tool in the field of Medical Laboratory Science. Participants reviewed known study slides using both traditional and digital microscopy methods and were assessed using both methods. Participants were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 performed TM as the primary method and DM as the alternate. Group 2 performed DM as the primary and TM as the alternate. Participants performed differentials with their primary method, were assessed with both methods, and then performed differentials with their alternate method. A detailed assessment rubric was created to determine the accuracy of student responses through comparison of clinical laboratory and instructor results. Student scores were reflected as a percentage correct from these methods. This assessment was done over two different classes. When comparing results between methods for each, independent of the primary method used, results were not statistically different. However, when comparing methods between groups, Group 1 (n = 11) (TM = 73.79% +/- 9.19, DM = 81.43% +/- 8.30; paired t10 = 0.182, p < 0.001) showed a significant difference from Group 2 (n = 14) (TM = 85.64% +/- 5.30, DM = 85.91% +/- 7.62; paired t13 = 3.647, p = 0.860). In the subsequent class, results between both groups (n = 13, n = 16, respectively) did not show any significant difference between groups (Group 1 TM = 86.38% +/- 8.17, Group 1 DM = 88.69% +/- 3.86; paired t12 = 1.253, p = 0.234; Group 2 TM = 86.75% +/- 5.37, Group 2 DM = 86.25% +/- 7.01, paired t15 = 0.280, p

  20. Introduction to clinical pathology: A brief course of laboratory medicine in the field for medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidifar, Navid; Keshtkari, Ali; Dehghani, Mohammadreza; Shokripour, Mansoureh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Teaching of clinical pathology to medical students has been ignored in many countries such as Iran. We aim to introduce a practical brief course and its proper timing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of medical students from consecutive years of entrance passed a 1.5 working day practical course on the field. Their level of knowledge was assessed by pre- and post-tests. Their idea and satisfaction were gathered by questionnaires. RESULTS: Knowledge of students became significantly higher after the course. Their satisfaction was high. Students in later year of education got significantly higher marks. Most of the students wished such a course should be away from basic sciences period and as near as possible to internship. DISCUSSION: Due to overloaded curriculum of general medicine in Iran, we decided to run a brief practical course of laboratory medicine education for medical students. Although the course was practical, the knowledge of students became higher. Students with more clinical experience and knowledge absorbed more. Being actively involved in the classes lit the enthusiasm of students and made them satisfied with the course. It seemed that the course should be placed in later years of clinical training to get the best uptake and results. PMID:29114552

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Predictors of Articular Disorders Among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laboratory features of HIV‑infected patients and articular disorders. Aims: To ... The recruitment of subjects for the study took place ..... [4-8,10]. The reported range is wide and reflects prevalence from ... this study may be close to the true value because the subjects .... hence higher ESR values, indicating widespread systemic.

  2. Audit of clinical-laboratory practices in haematology and blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania, there is paucity of data for monitoring laboratory medicine including haematology. This therefore calls for audits of practices in haematology and blood transfusion in order to provide appraise practice and devise strategies that would result in improved quality of health care services. This descriptive ...

  3. Evaluation of Neonatal Hemolytic Jaundice: Clinical and Laboratory Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anet Papazovska Cherepnalkovski

    2015-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The laboratory profile in ABO/Rh isoimmunisation cases depicts hemolytic mechanism of jaundice. These cases carry a significant risk for early and severe hyperbilirubinemia and are eligible for neurodevelopmental follow-up. Hematological parameters and blood grouping are simple diagnostic methods that assist the etiological diagnosis of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

  4. 78 FR 44954 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... pathology. Advancing laboratory interoperability in health information technology will also be discussed... for international registrants. Providing Oral or Written Comments: It is the policy of CLIAC to accept written public comments and provide a brief period for oral public comments whenever possible. Oral...

  5. Biomedical laboratory science education: standardising teaching content in resource-limited countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Arneson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a worldwide shortage of qualified laboratory personnel to provide adequate testing for the detection and monitoring of diseases. In an effort to increase laboratory capacity in developing countries, new skills have been introduced into laboratory services. Curriculum revision with a focus on good laboratory practice is an important aspect of supplying entry-level graduates with the competencies needed to meet the current needs. Objectives: Gaps in application and problem-solving competencies of newly graduated laboratory personnel were discovered in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya. New medical laboratory teaching content was developed in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Kenya using national instructors, tutors, and experts and consulting medical laboratory educators from the United States of America (USA. Method: Workshops were held in Ethiopia to create standardised biomedical laboratory science (BMLS lessons based on recently-revised course objectives with an emphasis on application of skills. In Tanzania, course-module teaching guides with objectives were developed based on established competency outcomes and tasks. In Kenya, example interactive presentations and lesson plans were developed by the USA medical laboratory educators prior to the workshop to serve as resources and templates for the development of lessons within the country itself. Results: The new teaching materials were implemented and faculty, students and other stakeholders reported successful outcomes. Conclusions: These approaches to updating curricula may be helpful as biomedical laboratory schools in other countries address gaps in the competencies of entry-level graduates.

  6. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory's defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location

  7. A pocket guide to electronic laboratory notebooks in the academic life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirnagl, Ulrich; Przesdzing, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Every professional doing active research in the life sciences is required to keep a laboratory notebook. However, while science has changed dramatically over the last centuries, laboratory notebooks have remained essentially unchanged since pre-modern science. We argue that the implementation of electronic laboratory notebooks (eLN) in academic research is overdue, and we provide researchers and their institutions with the background and practical knowledge to select and initiate the implementation of an eLN in their laboratories. In addition, we present data from surveying biomedical researchers and technicians regarding which hypothetical features and functionalities they hope to see implemented in an eLN, and which ones they regard as less important. We also present data on acceptance and satisfaction of those who have recently switched from paper laboratory notebook to an eLN.  We thus provide answers to the following questions: What does an electronic laboratory notebook afford a biomedical researcher, what does it require, and how should one go about implementing it?

  8. [Software for illustrating a cost-quality balance carried out by clinical laboratory practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishibori, Masahiro; Asayama, Hitoshi; Kimura, Satoshi; Takagi, Yasushi; Hagihara, Michio; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Yoneyama, Akiko; Watanabe, Takashi

    2010-09-01

    We have no proper reference indicating the quality of clinical laboratory practice, which should clearly illustrates that better medical tests require more expenses. Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine was concerned about recent difficult medical economy and issued a committee report proposing a guideline to evaluate the good laboratory practice. According to the guideline, we developed software that illustrate a cost-quality balance carried out by clinical laboratory practice. We encountered a number of controversial problems, for example, how to measure and weight each quality-related factor, how to calculate costs of a laboratory test and how to consider characteristics of a clinical laboratory. Consequently we finished only prototype software within the given period and the budget. In this paper, software implementation of the guideline and the above-mentioned problems are summarized. Aiming to stimulate these discussions, the operative software will be put on the Society's homepage for trial

  9. Integrating Bioethics into Clinical and Translational Science Research: A Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Robyn S.; Layde, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Recent initiatives to improve human health emphasize the need to effectively and appropriately translate new knowledge gleaned from basic biomedical and behavioral research to clinical and community application. To maximize the beneficial impact of scientific advances in clinical practice and community health, and to guard against potential deleterious medical and societal consequences of such advances, incorporation of bioethics at each stage of clinical and translational science research is essential. At the earliest stage, bioethics input is critical to address issues such as whether to limit certain areas of scientific inquiry. Subsequently, bioethics input is important to assure not only that human subjects trials are conducted and reported responsibly, but also that results are incorporated into clinical and community practices in a way that promotes and protects bioethical principles. At the final stage of clinical and translational science research, bioethics helps to identify the need and approach for refining clinical practices when safety or other concerns arise. The framework we present depicts how bioethics interfaces with each stage of clinical and translational science research, and suggests an important research agenda for systematically and comprehensively assuring bioethics input into clinical and translational science initiatives. PMID:20443821

  10. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jason M.; Dighe, Anand S.

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption. PMID:21886891

  11. Computerized provider order entry in the clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason M Baron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians have traditionally ordered laboratory tests using paper-based orders and requisitions. However, paper orders are becoming increasingly incompatible with the complexities, challenges, and resource constraints of our modern healthcare systems and are being replaced by electronic order entry systems. Electronic systems that allow direct provider input of diagnostic testing or medication orders into a computer system are known as Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE systems. Adoption of laboratory CPOE systems may offer institutions many benefits, including reduced test turnaround time, improved test utilization, and better adherence to practice guidelines. In this review, we outline the functionality of various CPOE implementations, review the reported benefits, and discuss strategies for using CPOE to improve the test ordering process. Further, we discuss barriers to the implementation of CPOE systems that have prevented their more widespread adoption.

  12. [External quality assessment in clinical biochemistry laboratories: pilot study in 11 laboratories of Lomé (Togo)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Kafui; Fétéké, Lochina; Assignon, Selom; Dorkenoo, Ameyo; Napo-Koura, Gado

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of a few biochemistry analysis and make recommendations to the place of the stakeholders. It is a cross-sectional study conducted between the October 1(st), 2012 and the July 31, 2013 bearing on the results of 5 common examinations of clinical biochemistry, provided by 11 laboratories volunteers opening in the public and private sectors. These laboratories have analysed during the 3 cycles, 2 levels (medium and high) of serum concentration of urea, glucose, creatinine and serum aminotransferases. The performance of laboratories have been determined from the acceptable limits corresponding to the limits of total errors, defined by the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC). A system of internal quality control is implemented by all laboratories and 45% of them participated in international programs of external quality assessment (EQA). The rate of acceptable results for the entire study was of 69%. There was a significant difference (plaboratories engaged in a quality approach and the group with default implementation of the quality approach. Also a significant difference was observed between the laboratories of the central level and those of the peripheral level of our health system (plaboratories remains relatively unsatisfactory. It is important that the Ministry of Health put in place a national program of EQA with mandatory participation.

  13. Clinical laboratory detection of carbapenem-resistant and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shelley; Humphries, Romney M

    2016-08-01

    Carbapenemases, enzymes that hydrolyze carbapenem-class antimicrobials, pose serious clinical and diagnostic challenges, including their recent rapid spread among members of the Enterobacteriaceae, a family with no inherent carbapenem resistance. Currently there is no one-size-fits-all method for detecting carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in the laboratory, nor how to differentiate carbapenemase-producers (CP) from isolates that are carbapenem-resistant via other or combined mechanisms. This article reviews definitions for CRE and CP-CRE, and discusses current phenotypic and molecular methods available to the clinical laboratory for the detection of both CP and non-CP CRE. Expert commentary: Routine evaluation of carbapenem resistance mechanism by the routine clinical laboratory are not necessary for patient care, as clinical breakpoints best predict response. However, evaluation for carbapenemase is integral to infection control efforts, and laboratories should have the capacity to do such testing, either in house or by submitting isolates to a reference laboratory.

  14. The quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D; Maher, Tammy

    2012-03-01

    Although evaluation of biochemical analytes in blood is common in veterinary practice, studies assessing the global quality of veterinary in-clinic and reference laboratory testing have not been reported. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of biochemical testing in veterinary laboratories using results obtained from analyses of 3 levels of assayed quality control materials over 5 days. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index to determine factors contributing to poor performance, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory mean results. The suitability of in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Reference laboratories were able to achieve desirable quality requirements more frequently than in-clinic laboratories. Across all 3 materials, > 50% of in-clinic analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 2 analytes, whereas > 50% of reference laboratory analyzers achieved a sigma metric ≥ 6.0 for measurement of 6 analytes. Expanded uncertainty of measurement and ± total allowable error resulted in the highest mean percentages of analytes demonstrating agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratories. Owing to marked variation in bias and coefficient of variation between analyzers of the same and different types, the percentages of analytes suitable for statistical quality control varied widely. These findings reflect the current state-of-the-art with regard to in-clinic and reference laboratory analyzer performance and provide a baseline for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  15. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era: The typened model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G.M. Niesters (Bert); J.W. Rossen (John); H.G.A.M. van der Avoort (Harrie); D. Baas; K. Benschop (Kimberley); E.C.J. Claas (Eric); A. Kroneman; N.M. van Maarseveen (Noortje); S.D. Pas (Suzan); W. van Pelt (Wilfred); J. Rahamat-Langendoen (Janette); R. Schuurman (Rob); H. Vennema (Harry); L. Verhoef; K.C. Wolthers (Katja); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractLaboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories

  16. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era : the TYPENED model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H G; Rossen, J W; van der Avoort, H; Baas, D; Benschop, K; Claas, E C; Kroneman, A; van Maarseveen, N; Pas, S; van Pelt, W; Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; Schuurman, R; Vennema, H; Verhoef, L; Wolthers, K; Koopmans, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories for

  17. Laboratory-based surveillance in the molecular era: the TYPENED model, a joint data-sharing platform for clinical and public health laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesters, H. G.; Rossen, J. W.; van der Avoort, H.; Baas, D.; Benschop, K.; Claas, E. C.; Kroneman, A.; van Maarseveen, N.; Pas, S.; van Pelt, W.; Rahamat-Langendoen, J. C.; Schuurman, R.; Vennema, H.; Verhoef, L.; Wolthers, K.; Koopmans, M.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories for

  18. Sporotrichosis: an update on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, laboratory and clinical therapeutics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; de Macedo, Priscila Marques; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa Reis

    2017-01-01

    In the late 90's there was a change in both the route of transmission and the people at risk for sporotrichosis. This zoonotic cat-man alternative transmission route elicited changes in strategies to control the epidemic. There was a progressive increase in the number of cases involving especially children and the elderly. In addition to becoming hyperendemic, uncommon clinical pictures like immunoreactive clinical presentations or severe systemic cases have emerged. New species were identified and classified through molecular tools using more virulent clinical isolates, like S. brasiliensis, compared to the environmental isolates. Likewise, different species of Sporothrix have been associated with different geographic regions. The serological and molecular techniques are used as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis and/or for species identification, although the isolation and the identification of Sporothrix spp. in clinical specimen is still the gold standard. Currently sporotrichosis epidemics requires the knowledge of the epidemiological-molecular profile to control the disease and the specific treatment. Itraconazole, potassium iodide, terfinafine, and amphotericin B are the available drugs in Brazil to treat sporotrichosis. The drug of choice, its posology, and treatment duration vary according to the clinical presentation, the Sporothrix species, and host immune status. New treatment choices, including a vaccine, are being developed; nevertheless, more clinical trials are required to confirm its efficacy. PMID:29166494

  19. Sporotrichosis: an update on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, laboratory and clinical therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino-Costa, Rosane; Macedo, Priscila Marques de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bernardes-Engemann, Andréa Reis

    2017-01-01

    In the late 90's there was a change in both the route of transmission and the people at risk for sporotrichosis. This zoonotic cat-man alternative transmission route elicited changes in strategies to control the epidemic. There was a progressive increase in the number of cases involving especially children and the elderly. In addition to becoming hyperendemic, uncommon clinical pictures like immunoreactive clinical presentations or severe systemic cases have emerged. New species were identified and classified through molecular tools using more virulent clinical isolates, like S. brasiliensis, compared to the environmental isolates. Likewise, different species of Sporothrix have been associated with different geographic regions. The serological and molecular techniques are used as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis and/or for species identification, although the isolation and the identification of Sporothrix spp. in clinical specimen is still the gold standard. Currently sporotrichosis epidemics requires the knowledge of the epidemiological-molecular profile to control the disease and the specific treatment. Itraconazole, potassium iodide, terfinafine, and amphotericin B are the available drugs in Brazil to treat sporotrichosis. The drug of choice, its posology, and treatment duration vary according to the clinical presentation, the Sporothrix species, and host immune status. New treatment choices, including a vaccine, are being developed; nevertheless, more clinical trials are required to confirm its efficacy.

  20. Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Molecular Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (MBIL) is adjacent-a nd has access-to the Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences clinical imaging facilities. MBIL...

  1. Incidence of ricket clinical symptoms and relation between clinical and laboratory findings in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukalović M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rickets presents osteomalacia which is developed due to negative balance of calcium and / or phosphorus during growth and development. Therefore it appears only in children. The most common reason of insufficient mineralization is deficiency of vitamin D, which is necessary for inclusion of calcium in cartilage and bones. As result, proliferation of cartilage and bone tissue appears, creating calluses on typical places. Bones become soft and curve, resulting in deformities. Our present study included 86 infants, in whom, besides other diseases, clinical and laboratory signs of rickets were identified. In our study, rickets is most common (82.5% in infants older than 6 months. By clinical picture, craniotabes is present in 46.5% of cases, Harisson groove in 26.7%, rachitic bracelets in 17.4%, rachitic rosary in 17.4% and carpopedal spasms in 2.3% of cases. Leading biochemical signs of vitamin D deficient rickets is hypophosphatemia (in 87.3% of cases, normal calcemia (in 75.6% of cases and increased values of alkaline phosphatase (in 93% of cases. It has been shown that rickets in infant age may later affect higher incidence of juvenile diabetes, infection of lower respiratory tract, osteoporosis, and so on.

  2. Integration and timing of basic and clinical sciences education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Glen; Boucher, Andree; Neville, Alan; Kuper, Ayelet; Hodges, Brian

    2013-05-01

    Medical education has traditionally been compartmentalized into basic and clinical sciences, with the latter being viewed as the skillful application of the former. Over time, the relevance of basic sciences has become defined by their role in supporting clinical problem solving rather than being, of themselves, a defining knowledge base of physicians. As part of the national Future of Medical Education in Canada (FMEC MD) project, a comprehensive empirical environmental scan identified the timing and integration of basic sciences as a key pressing issue for medical education. Using the literature review, key informant interviews, stakeholder meetings, and subsequent consultation forums from the FMEC project, this paper details the empirical basis for focusing on the role of basic science, the evidentiary foundations for current practices, and the implications for medical education. Despite a dearth of definitive relevant studies, opinions about how best to integrate the sciences remain strong. Resource allocation, political power, educational philosophy, and the shift from a knowledge-based to a problem-solving profession all influence the debate. There was little disagreement that both sciences are important, that many traditional models emphasized deep understanding of limited basic science disciplines at the expense of other relevant content such as social sciences, or that teaching the sciences contemporaneously rather than sequentially has theoretical and practical merit. Innovations in integrated curriculum design have occurred internationally. Less clear are the appropriate balance of the sciences, the best integration model, and solutions to the political and practical challenges of integrated curricula. New curricula tend to emphasize integration, development of more diverse physician competencies, and preparation of physicians to adapt to evolving technology and patients' expectations. Refocusing the basic/clinical dichotomy to a foundational

  3. Clinical and laboratorial correlation of postoperative hypocalcemia after extensive thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Gonçalves

    Full Text Available The medical records of 84 patients submitted to extensive thyroidectomy from January 1991 to April 1995 were reviewed and the data was analyzed in order to verify a correlation between postoperative laboratories results and physical findings suggestive of hypocalcemia. It was verified that there was hypocalcemia in 51.2 percent of the patients, of which only 18.6 percent presented symptoms. It was concluded that asymptomatic hypocalcemia is frequent in extensive thyroidectomy and a routine screening for serum calcium in the postoperative period following thyroidectomy and calcium reposition must be systematic.

  4. Quality knowledge of science through virtual laboratory as an element of visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizman Herga, Natasa

    Doctoral dissertation discusses the use of virtual laboratory for learning and teaching chemical concepts at science classes in the seventh grade of primary school. The dissertation has got a two-part structure. In the first theoretical part presents a general platform of teaching science in elementary school, teaching forms and methods of teaching and among modern approaches we highlight experimental work. Particular emphasis was placed on the use of new technologies in education and virtual laboratories. Scientific findings on the importance of visualization of science concepts and their triple nature of their understanding are presented. These findings represent a fundamental foundation of empirical research presented in the second part of the doctoral dissertation, whose basic purpose was to examine the effectiveness of using virtual laboratory for teaching and learning chemical contents at science from students' point of view on knowledge and interest. We designed a didactic experiment in which 225 pupils participated. The work was conducted in the experimental and control group. Prior to its execution, the existing school practice among science and chemistry teachers was analysed in terms of: (1) inclusion of experimental work as a fundamental method of active learning chemical contents, (2) the use of visualization methods in the classroom and (3) the use of a virtual laboratory. The main findings of the empirical research, carried out in the school year 2012/2013, in which 48 science and chemistry participated, are that teachers often include experimental work when teaching chemical contents. Interviewed science teachers use a variety of visualization methods when presenting science concepts, in particular computer animation and simulation. Using virtual laboratory as a new strategy for teaching and learning chemical contents is not common because teachers lack special-didactic skills, enabling them to use virtual reality technology. Based on the didactic

  5. Opening the Big Black Box: European study reveals visitors' impressions of science laboratories

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "On 29 - 30 March the findings of 'Inside the Big Black Box'- a Europe-wide science and society project - will be revealed during a two-day seminar hosted by CERN*. The principle aim of Inside the Big Black Box (IN3B) is to determine whether a working scientific laboratory can capture the curiosity of the general public through visits" (1 page)

  6. 75 FR 60091 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Project, Department of the Army, Army Research, Development and... project; correction. SUMMARY: On September 9, 2010 (75 FR 55199), DoD published a notice concerning the...

  7. Use of a Laboratory Field Project in an Introductory Crop Science Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert A.

    1986-01-01

    Assesses the benefits resulting from a laboratory field project and report for agricultural students in an introductory crop science course. Student responses to evaluation statements indicated that the project helped them identify crops, understand cultural and management practices, and recognize environmental influences that affect crop…

  8. Developing Critical Thinking Skills Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, N. S.; Sadler-McKnight, N. P.

    2016-01-01

    The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory approach is a teaching and learning tool which combines writing, inquiry, collaboration and reflection, and provides scaffolding for the development of critical thinking skills. In this study, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking skills of…

  9. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Strategies for the assessment of competence in laboratory animal science courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sørensen, Dorte Bratbo

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of skills, knowledge and competencies is an essential part of education in laboratory animal science. In Europe, a greater emphasis will be placed on such evaluations going forward, because the European Union will base its education and training framework on learning outcomes rather than...

  11. Gamification in Science Education: Gamifying Learning of Microscopic Processes in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Katja; Ariel, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and trouble-shooting microscopic processes involved in laboratory tests are often challenging for students in science education because of the inability to visualize the different steps and the various errors that may influence test outcome. The effectiveness of gamification or the use of game design elements and game-mechanics were…

  12. Biomedical and environmental sciences programs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.; Johnson, C.A.

    1988-02-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Programs of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the major organizational units. Following the accounts of research programs, is a list of publications and awards to its members. 6 figs., 14 tabs

  13. 76 FR 67154 - Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory Personnel Management Demonstration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... to eight legacy Science and Technology Reinvention Laboratory (STRL) Personnel Management Demonstration (demo) Project Plans resulting from section 1107(c) of the National Defense Authorization Act... flexibilities, modifying demo project plans, or executing Federal Register Notices has identified some areas for...

  14. Examining the Effects of Reflective Journals on Pre-Service Science Teachers' General Chemistry Laboratory Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Canan; Karatas, Faik Özgür

    2015-01-01

    The general chemistry laboratory is an appropriate place for learning chemistry well. It is also effective for stimulating higher-order thinking skills, including reflective thinking, a skill that is crucial for science teaching as well as learning. This study aims to examine the effects of feedback-supported reflective journal-keeping activities…

  15. Multi-modality molecular imaging: pre-clinical laboratory configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanjun; Wellen, Jeremy W.; Sarkar, Susanta K.

    2006-02-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of in vivo molecular imaging applications has rapidly increased. Here we report on the construction of a multi-modality imaging facility in a pharmaceutical setting that is expected to further advance existing capabilities for in vivo imaging of drug distribution and the interaction with their target. The imaging instrumentation in our facility includes a microPET scanner, a four wavelength time-domain optical imaging scanner, a 9.4T/30cm MRI scanner and a SPECT/X-ray CT scanner. An electronics shop and a computer room dedicated to image analysis are additional features of the facility. The layout of the facility was designed with a central animal preparation room surrounded by separate laboratory rooms for each of the major imaging modalities to accommodate the work-flow of simultaneous in vivo imaging experiments. This report will focus on the design of and anticipated applications for our microPET and optical imaging laboratory spaces. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to maximize the daily throughput of animal scans through development of efficient experimental work-flows and the use of multiple animals in a single scanning session.

  16. ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING: CURRENT ROLE FROM THE CLINICAL LABORATORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunella Posteraro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of many antifungal agents, antifungal clinical resistance occurs, perhaps as a result of an infecting organism found to be resistant in vitro to one or more antifungals tested. Thus, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST results, if timely generated by the clinical microbiology and communicated to clinicians, can aid them in the therapeutic decision making, especially for difficult-to-treat invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. Although recently refined AFST methods are commercially available to allow a close antifungal resistance surveillance in many clinical setting, novel assays, relying on short-time antifungal drug exposure of fungal isolates, are upcoming tools for AFST. Based on emerging technologies such as flow cytometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and isothermal microcalorimetry, these assays could provide a reliable means for quicker and sensitive assessment of AFST.

  17. Customer satisfaction survey with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Rae; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, In Suk; Chang, Chulhun L; Lee, Eun Yup; Son, Han Chul; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2014-09-01

    We performed customer satisfaction surveys for physicians and nurses regarding clinical laboratory services, and for outpatients who used phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level to evaluate our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Thus, we wish to share our experiences with the customer satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. Board members of our laboratory designed a study procedure and study population, and developed two types of questionnaire. A satisfaction survey for clinical laboratory services was conducted with 370 physicians and 125 nurses by using an online or paper questionnaire. The satisfaction survey for phlebotomy services was performed with 347 outpatients who received phlebotomy services by using computer-aided interviews. Mean satisfaction scores of physicians and nurses was 58.1, while outpatients' satisfaction score was 70.5. We identified several dissatisfactions with our clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services. First, physicians and nurses were most dissatisfied with the specimen collection and delivery process. Second, physicians and nurses were dissatisfied with phlebotomy services. Third, molecular genetic and cytogenetic tests were found more expensive than other tests. This study is significant in that it describes the first reference survey that offers a survey procedure and questionnaire to assess customer satisfaction with clinical laboratory and phlebotomy services at a tertiary care unit level.

  18. The Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory project -- Continuous evolution in leadership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knutson, D.E.; McClusky, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, is a $230M Major Systems Acquisition for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The completed laboratory will be a national user facility that provides unparalleled capabilities for scientists involved in environmental molecular science research. This project, approved for construction by the Secretary of Energy in October 1993, is underway. The United States is embarking on an environmental cleanup effort that dwarfs previous scientific enterprise. Using current best available technology, the projected costs of cleaning up the tens of thousands of toxic waste sites, including DOE sites, is estimated to exceed one trillion dollars. The present state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of exogenous chemicals on human biology is very limited. Long term environmental research at the molecular level is needed to resolve the concerns, and form the building blocks for a structure of cost effective process improvement and regulatory reform

  19. The Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory project -- Continuous evolution in leadership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, D.E.; McClusky, J.K.

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington, is a $230M Major Systems Acquisition for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The completed laboratory will be a national user facility that provides unparalleled capabilities for scientists involved in environmental molecular science research. This project, approved for construction by the Secretary of Energy in October 1993, is underway. The United States is embarking on an environmental cleanup effort that dwarfs previous scientific enterprise. Using current best available technology, the projected costs of cleaning up the tens of thousands of toxic waste sites, including DOE sites, is estimated to exceed one trillion dollars. The present state of scientific knowledge regarding the effects of exogenous chemicals on human biology is very limited. Long term environmental research at the molecular level is needed to resolve the concerns, and form the building blocks for a structure of cost effective process improvement and regulatory reform.

  20. Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory aspects of hepatitis E

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HEV infection: Clinical features · Hepatitis virus superinfection · HEV and cirrhosis: methods · HEV superinfection in cirrhosis · Hepatitis E: host cell damage · Intracellular cytokine expression · Slide 34 · Cytokine-expressing CD4 cells (ORF2) · Cytokine-expressing CD8 cells (ORF2) · Cytokine-expressing CD4 cells (ORF3).

  1. Implementation of Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP) guidelines within the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Christopher A; Sanchez, Ana M; Garcia, Ambrosia; Denny, Thomas N; Sarzotti-Kelsoe, Marcella

    2014-07-01

    The EQAPOL contract was awarded to Duke University to develop and manage global proficiency testing programs for flow cytometry-, ELISpot-, and Luminex bead-based assays (cytokine analytes), as well as create a genetically diverse panel of HIV-1 viral cultures to be made available to National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers. As a part of this contract, EQAPOL was required to operate under Good Clinical Laboratory Practices (GCLP) that are traditionally used for laboratories conducting endpoint assays for human clinical trials. EQAPOL adapted these guidelines to the management of proficiency testing programs while simultaneously incorporating aspects of ISO/IEC 17043 which are specifically designed for external proficiency management. Over the first two years of the contract, the EQAPOL Oversight Laboratories received training, developed standard operating procedures and quality management practices, implemented strict quality control procedures for equipment, reagents, and documentation, and received audits from the EQAPOL Central Quality Assurance Unit. GCLP programs, such as EQAPOL, strengthen a laboratory's ability to perform critical assays and provide quality assessments of future potential vaccines. © 2013.

  2. 1.2 million kids and counting-Mobile science laboratories drive student interest in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amanda L; Stapleton, Mary K

    2017-05-01

    In today's increasingly technological society, a workforce proficient in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) skills is essential. Research has shown that active engagement by K-12 students in hands-on science activities that use authentic science tools promotes student learning and retention. Mobile laboratory programs provide this type of learning in schools and communities across the United States and internationally. Many programs are members of the Mobile Lab Coalition (MLC), a nonprofit organization of mobile and other laboratory-based education programs built on scientist and educator collaborations. A recent survey of the member programs revealed that they provide an impressive variety of programming and have collectively served over 1.2 million students across the US.

  3. An audit of dental prescriptions between clinics and dental laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C A

    2011-08-12

    To discover the quality of written instructions from dentists to dental technicians and the nature of non-compliant prescriptions. An audit of laboratory prescription compliance was conducted within an NHS Trust Dental Teaching Hospital to determine the level of communication between dentists and dental technicians. One hundred and fifty prescriptions were audited from dental undergraduates and qualified dentists throughout the different departments. A total of two-thirds of prescriptions were considered non-compliant and failed to meet relevant ethical and legal guidelines. This problem was seen throughout all departments and at all professional levels. A breakdown in communication between dentists and technicians through the use of prescriptions is evident even within a close working environment.

  4. Social science in a stem cell laboratory: what happened when social and life sciences met.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn; Stephens, Neil

    2012-01-01

    We describe the experience of conducting intensive social science research at the UK Stem Cell Bank from the viewpoint of both the person conducting the social science research and the Director of the Bank. We detail the initial misunderstandings and concerns held by both and the problems these caused. Then we describe how the relationship developed as the project progressed and shared benefits became apparent. Finally, while acknowledging potential areas of tension between the life and social sciences, we suggest further interaction between the disciplines would prove beneficial for both and speculate as to how this may be achieved. In the discussion we identify a set of learning points from our experience and definitions of social science terminology that may help to inform future engagements between life and social scientists.

  5. Clinical and laboratory assessment of dehydration severity in children with acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Patricia C; Macarthur, Colin; Khambalia, Amina; Goldman, Ran D; Friedman, Jeremy N

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate clinical and laboratory assessment of dehydration severity in children, 1 to 36 months, with acute gastroenteritis. Clinical and laboratory measures and weight change following rehydration were collected for enrolled children. Pediatric emergency department. Likelihood ratio (LR+) and 95% confidence interval (CI): for a clinical score of 0, the LR+ was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.3); for a clinical score of 1 to 4, the LR+ was 1.3 (95% CI = 0.90-1.74); for a clinical score of 5 to 8, the LR+ was 5.2 (95% CI = 2.2-12.8); for a venous pH Dehydration Scale and laboratory measures into clinical decision-making algorithms to assess dehydration severity in children with acute gastroenteritis.

  6. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH IDIOPATHIC CD4 LYMPHOCYTOPENIA- A RARE CLINICAL ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree Thyagaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Since 1989, several investigators have reported unusual cases of severe opportunistic infections associated with CD4 lymphocytopenia in the absence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The cause of this condition is unknown. The Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC defines Idiopathic CD4 T Lymphocytopenia (ICL as a clinical condition in which patients with depressed numbers of circulating CD4+ T-cell lymphocytes (<300 cells/μL or <20% of total T cells at a minimum of two separate time points at least 6 weeks apart, have no laboratory evidence of infection with human HIV-1 or HIV-2, or any defined immunodeficiency or therapy associated with depressed levels of CD4 T cells. The aim of the study is to analyse the clinical profile, opportunistic infections, laboratory parameters and outcome in terms of survival of patients diagnosed with ICL. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eight HIV negative patients who presented with opportunistic infections and who were diagnosed with ICL from 2007 to 2015 were included in the study. A detailed history was taken; physical examination was performed and the nature of illness with which they presented was documented. Then, CD4 and CD8 counts were done and CD4 count was repeated after a 6-week interval. The patients were followed up until discharge or death. RESULTS The mean age was 37.50±9.55 years. There were six males (75% and two females (25%. Fever was a presenting symptom among six (75% of them. Two were diagnosed to have cutaneous cryptococcosis (25%, two with invasive aspergillosis (25% and four with tuberculosis (50%. Absolute lymphocyte count was less than 1200 in seven patients (87.5%, which roughly correlates with a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/μL, among PLWHIV. The mean CD4 count was 183.63±63.74 cells/μL during the first measurement and 214.43±103.98 cells/μL during the second one. Two patients died (37.5%. None of the patients were recorded to have any form of malignancy

  7. BETA-THALASSEMIA SYNDROMES, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Türkkan, Emine; Berrak, Su Gülsün; Canpolat, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The Beta ((3) thalassemia syndromes are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders. The frequency of thalassemia is dependent on the ethnic origins of the patient population. Turkey is located in a geographic area of the world where thalassemia syndromes are common. The incidence rate of (3-thalassemia carriers was stated to be 2 per cent in Turkey. Clinical manifestations are diverse and range from asymptomatic hypochromia and microcytosis to profound anemia leading to death in early childho...

  8. Clinical and Some Laboratory Findings in Cats with Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastan, Idil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study wasto draw attention to the clinical course of the disease and some laboratoryfindings in cats diagnosed with Toxoplasmosis.Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondiiseropositive 14 cats were used in this study.  A serologicalevaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasmagondii specific IgG using commercial diagnostic kits, by theenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Hematological andclinical changes of those cats were recorded. Results:...

  9. Glycated albumin: from biochemistry and laboratory medicine to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozio, Elena; Di Gaetano, Nicola; Findeisen, Peter; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano Marco

    2017-03-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge about glycated albumin. We review the changes induced by glycation on the properties of albumin, the pathological implications of high glycated albumin levels, glycated albumin quantification methods, and the use of glycated albumin as a complementary biomarker for diabetes mellitus diagnosis and monitoring and for dealing with long-term complications. The advantages and limits of this biomarker in different clinical settings are also discussed.

  10. Clinical and laboratorial study of 19 cases of mucopolysaccharidoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albano Lilian M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of lysosomal glycosaminoglycan (GAG metabolism. The importance of this group of disorders among the inborn errors of metabolism led us to report 19 cases. METHOD: We performed clinical, radiological, and biochemical evaluations of the suspected patients, which allowed us to establish a definite diagnosis in 19 cases. RESULTS: Not all patients showed increased GAG levels in urine; enzyme assays should be performed in all cases with strong clinical suspicion. The diagnosis was made on average at the age of 48 months, and the 19 MPS cases, after a full clinical, radiological, and biochemical study, were classified as follows: Hurler -- MPS I (1 case; Hunter -- MPS II (2 cases; Sanfilippo -- MPS III (2 cases; Morquio -- MPS IV (4 cases; Maroteaux-Lamy -- MPS VI (9 cases; and Sly -- MPS VII (1 case. DISCUSSION: The high relative frequency of Maroteaux-Lamy disease contrasts with most reports in the literature and could express a population variability.

  11. Obtaining patient test results from clinical laboratories: a survey of state law for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    To identify states with laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories may release copies of laboratory test results and to describe how these laws may affect pharmacists' ability to obtain patient laboratory test results. Researchers examined state statutes and administrative codes for all 50 states and the District of Columbia at the University of Iowa Law Library between June and July 2007. Researchers also consulted with lawyers, state Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments officers, and law librarians. Laws relating to the study objective were analyzed. 34 jurisdictions do not restrict the release of laboratory test results, while 17 states have laws that restrict to whom clinical laboratories can send copies of test results. In these states, pharmacists will have to use alternative sources, such as physician offices, to obtain test results. Pharmacists must consider state law before requesting copies of laboratory test results from clinical laboratories. This may be an issue that state pharmacy associations can address to increase pharmacist access to important patient information.

  12. Clinical and laboratory findings in 220 children with recurrent abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsbers, C. F. M.; Benninga, M. A.; Büller, H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical and laboratory findings in children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP). Methods: Consecutive patients with RAP (Apley criteria), age 4-16 years, referred to a secondary medical centre were evaluated by a standardized history, physical examination and laboratory

  13. The intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the causes of cancer, early detection, prevention or treatment need accurate, comprehensive, and timely cancer data. The clinical laboratory provides important cancer information needed for physicians which influence clinical decisions regarding treatment, diagnosis and patient monitoring. Poor communication between health care providers and clinical laboratory personnel can lead to medical errors and wrong decisions in providing cancer care. Because of the key impact of laboratory information on cancer diagnosis and treatment the quality of the tests, lab reports, and appropriate lab management are very important. A laboratory information management system (LIMS) can have an important role in diagnosis, fast and effective access to cancer data, decrease redundancy and costs, and facilitate the integration and collection of data from different types of instruments and systems. In spite of significant advantages LIMS is limited by factors such as problems in adaption to new instruments that may change existing work processes. Applications of intelligent software simultaneously with existing information systems, in addition to remove these restrictions, have important benefits including adding additional non-laboratory-generated information to the reports, facilitating decision making, and improving quality and productivity of cancer care services. Laboratory systems must have flexibility to change and have the capability to develop and benefit from intelligent devices. Intelligent laboratory information management systems need to benefit from informatics tools and latest technologies like open sources. The aim of this commentary is to survey application, opportunities and necessity of intelligent clinical laboratory as a tool to increase cancer care management productivity.

  14. Quality and future of clinical laboratories: the Vico's whole cyclical theory of the recurring cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2018-05-24

    In the last few decades, laboratory medicine has undergone monumental changes, and laboratory technology, which has made enormous advances, now has new clinical applications thanks to the identification of a growing number of biomarkers and risk factors conducive to the promotion of predictive and preventive interventions that have enhanced the role of laboratory medicine in health care delivering. However, the paradigm shift in the past 50 years has led to a gap between laboratory and clinic, with an increased risk of inappropriateness in test request and interpretation, as well as the consolidation of analytical work in focused factories and megastructurers oriented only toward achieving greater volumes, decreasing cost per test and generating a vision of laboratory services as simple commodities. A careful historical revision of the changing models for delivering laboratory services in the United States leads to the prediction that there are several reasons for counteracting the vision of clinical laboratory as a commodity, and restoring the true nature of laboratory services as an integral part of the diagnosis and therapy process. The present study, which reports on internal and external drivers for change, proposes an integrated vision of quality in laboratory medicine.

  15. Integration of basic sciences and clinical sciences in oral radiology education for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdady, Mariam T; Carnahan, Heather; Lam, Ernest W N; Woods, Nicole N

    2013-06-01

    Educational research suggests that cognitive processing in diagnostic radiology requires a solid foundation in the basic sciences and knowledge of the radiological changes associated with disease. Although it is generally assumed that dental students must acquire both sets of knowledge, little is known about the most effective way to teach them. Currently, the basic and clinical sciences are taught separately. This study was conducted to compare the diagnostic accuracy of students when taught basic sciences segregated or integrated with clinical features. Predoctoral dental students (n=51) were taught four confusable intrabony abnormalities using basic science descriptions integrated with the radiographic features or taught segregated from the radiographic features. The students were tested with diagnostic images, and memory tests were performed immediately after learning and one week later. On immediate and delayed testing, participants in the integrated basic science group outperformed those from the segregated group. A main effect of learning condition was found to be significant (pbasic sciences integrated with clinical features produces higher diagnostic accuracy in novices than teaching basic sciences segregated from clinical features.

  16. Clinical and laboratory criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children

    OpenAIRE

    T.V. Sorokman; O.V. Makarova; V.G. Ostapchuk

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review was the analysis of literature data on clinical and laboratory criteria for type 2 diabetes mellitus in children. A review of scientific literature was conducted using Pubmed as the search engine by the keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, clinical picture, laboratory criteria, risk factors, taking into consideration studies conducted in the last 10 years, citation review of relevant primary and review articles, conference abstracts, personal files...

  17. Research with radioisotopes in clinical and laboratory medicine: a bibliographic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, J.; Van der Walt, L.A.; Malan, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This bibliography is restricted mainly to AEC-supported projects which are considered to amply reflect the widespread use of radioisotopes in clinical and laboratory medicine in South Africa and which describe research with radioisotopes of some direct relevance to diagnostic-clinical or laboratory medicine, or both, but excluding therapy with isotopes. General information is given in this review on oncology, endocrinology, metabolism and nutrition, haematology, neurology, angiocardiology, pulmonology, gastroenterology, gynaecology and obstetrics, nephrology, immunology and transplantation, microbiology and parasitology

  18. Detection Limit of Smectite by Chemin IV Laboratory Instrument: Preliminary Implications for Chemin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archilles, Cherie; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2011-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) is an miniature X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of detecting the mineralogical and elemental compositions of rocks, outcrops and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus-source Co X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CRISM and OMEGA have identified the presence of phyllosilicates at several locations on Mars including the four candidate MSL landing sites. The objective of this study was to conduct preliminary studies to determine the CheMin detection limit of smectite in a smectite/olivine mixed mineral system.

  19. 76 FR 38668 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General.... In response to feedback during the April 13, 2010, Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and...

  20. 76 FR 38188 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General..., 2011, the committee will discuss current strategies for FDA's Office of Pharmaceutical Science...

  1. 75 FR 11551 - Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ...] Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and... of Committee: Advisory Committee for Pharmaceutical Science and Clinical Pharmacology. General... Pharmaceutical Science (OPS) on the regulatory challenges of drug-induced phospholipidosis (excessive...

  2. Excellence in clinical laboratories: the standard ISO 15189:2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scipioni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I laboratori clinici operano in stretto contatto con i pazienti e collaborano direttamente alla loro cura, in modo corresponsabile con i medici e i reparti ospedalieri. L’importanza della loro attività per la salute pubblica rende obbligatoria l’esplicitazione di alcuni punti finora spesso considerati ovvii. Ai pazienti dev’essere infatti garantito che: - i metodi di analisi utilizzati siano stati preliminarmente valutati, per confermare la loro rispondenza agli obiettivi dell’analisi stessa, verificati, per controllarne l’effettiva efficacia e, se necessario, validati per garantire che siano appropriati allo scopo; - il personale che esegue le analisi sia stato adeguatamente formato e quindi tecnicamente competente; - il laboratorio assicuri un’adeguata consulenza allo staff clinico che richiede le analisi, allo scopo di ottenere una sinergia tra il laboratorio e il clinico che ha in cura il paziente, sia nella fase di prelievo di materiale biologico, sia nella fase di interpretazione dei risultati. Tutto ciò è necessario per dimostrare ai pazienti

  3. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  4. MIH supplementation strategies: prospective clinical and laboratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, C; Marchionni, S

    2011-03-01

    The use of calcium-phosphate casein on hypomineralized molars (molar incisor hypomineralization, MIH) has been proposed but not clinically investigated. Qualitative and quantitative effects of supplementation with a calcium-phosphate casein product on MIH molars were monitored over a period of three years. Molar replicas, minimally invasive biopsies and their SEM microphotographs, plus ESEM/EDX semi-quantitative peaks of elements present in affected enamel were evaluated. Mineralization, morphology, and porosity appeared markedly improved, with calcium and phosphate levels reaching almost normal levels at three years' follow-up. The hypothesis tested was rejected, since calcium-phosphate casein improved enamel morphology in vivo.

  5. Exploratory analyses of the association of MRI with clinical, laboratory and radiographic findings in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emery, Paul; van der Heijde, Désirée; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate relationships between MRI and clinical/laboratory/radiographic findings in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......Evaluate relationships between MRI and clinical/laboratory/radiographic findings in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  6. The Effects of Using Jigsaw Method Based on Cooperative Learning Model in the Undergraduate Science Laboratory Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacop, Ataman

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the present study is to determine the influence of a Jigsaw method based on cooperative learning and a confirmatory laboratory method on prospective science teachers' achievements of physics in science teaching laboratory practice courses. The sample of this study consisted of 33 female and 15 male third-grade prospective science…

  7. Evolution and validation of a personal form of an instrument for assessing science laboratory classroom environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.; Giddings, Geoffrey J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    The research reported in this article makes two distinctive contributions to the field of classroom environment research. First, because existing instruments are unsuitable for science laboratory classes, the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) was developed and validated. Second, a new Personal form of the SLEI (involving a student's perceptions of his or her own role within the class) was developed and validated in conjunction with the conventional Class form (involving a student's perceptions of the class as a whole), and its usefulness was investigated. The instrument was cross-nationally fieldtested with 5,447 students in 269 senior high school and university classes in six countries, and cross-validated with 1,594 senior high school students in 92 classes in Australia. Each SLEI scale exhibited satisfactory internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and factorial validity, and differentiated between the perceptions of students in different classes. A variety of applications with the new instrument furnished evidence about its usefulness and revealed that science laboratory classes are dominated by closed-ended activities; mean scores obtained on the Class form were consistently somewhat more favorable than on the corresponding Personal form; females generally held more favorable perceptions than males, but these differences were somewhat larger for the Personal form than the Class form; associations existed between attitudinal outcomes and laboratory environment dimensions; and the Class and Personal forms of the SLEI each accounted for unique variance in student outcomes which was independent of that accounted for by the other form.

  8. Enhancing the actinide sciences in Europe through hot laboratories networking and pooling: from ACTINET to TALISMAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourg, S.; Poinssot, C.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, Europe supports the strengthening of the European actinides sciences scientific community through the funding of dedicated networks: (i) from 2004 to 2008, the ACTINET6 network of excellence (6. Framework Programme) gathered major laboratories involved in nuclear research and a wide range of academic research organisations and universities with the specific aims of funding and implementing joint research projects to be performed within the network of pooled facilities; (ii) from 2009 to 2013, the ACTINET-I3 integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) supports the cost of access of any academics in the pooled EU hot laboratories. In this continuation, TALISMAN (Trans-national Access to Large Infrastructures for a Safe Management of Actinides) gathers now the main European hot laboratories in actinides sciences in order to promote their opening to academics and universities and strengthen the EU-skills in actinides sciences. Furthermore, a specific focus is set on the development of advanced cutting-edge experimental and spectroscopic capabilities, the combination of state-of-the art experimental with theoretical first-principle methods on a quantum mechanical level and to benefit from the synergy between the different scientific and technical communities. ACTINET-I3 and TALISMAN attach a great importance and promote the Education and Training of the young generation of actinides scientists in the Trans-national access but also by organizing Schools (general Summer Schools or Theoretical User Lab Schools) or by granting students to attend International Conference on actinide sciences. (authors)

  9. Effect of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Methods on Students' Achievements and Identifications of Laboratory Equipments in Science-Technology Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Science lessons taught via experiments motivate the students, and make them more insistent on learning science. This study aims to examine the effects of cooperative learning on students' academic achievements and their skills in identifying laboratory equipments. The sample for the study consisted of a total of 43 sophomore students in primary…

  10. Chemistry as the defining science: discipline and training in nineteenth-century chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2011-06-01

    The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Socio-demographic, Clinical and Laboratory Features of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children Treated in Pediatric Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azemi, Mehmedali; Berisha, Majlinda; Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Kolgeci, Selim; Avdiu, Muharrem; Jakupi, Xhevat; Hoxha, Rina; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of work was presentation of several socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. The examinees and methods: The examinees were children under the age of five years treated at the Pediatric Clinic due to acute gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus. Rotavirus is isolated by method chromatographic immunoassay by Cer Test Biotec. Results: From the total number of patients (850) suffering from acute gastroenteritis, feces test on bacteria, viruses. protozoa and fungi was positive in 425 (49.76%) cases. From this number the test on bacteria was positive in 248 (58.62%) cases, on viruses it was positive in 165 (39.0%), on protozoa in 9 (2.12%) cases and on fungi only one case. Rotavirus was the most frequent one in viral test, it was isolated in 142 (86.06%) cases, adenoviruses were found in 9 (5.45%) cases and noroviruses in only one case. The same feces sample that contained rotavirus and adenoviruses were isolated in five cases, whereas rotavirus with bacteria was isolated in the same feces sample in five cases. The biggest number of cases 62 (43.66%) were of the age 6-12 months, whereas the smallest number 10 (7.04%) cases were of the age 37-60 months. There were 76 (53.52%) of cases of male gender, from rural areas there were 81 (57.04%) cases and there were 58 (40.80%) cases during the summer period. Among the clinical symptoms the most prominent were diarrhea, vomiting, high temperature, whereas the different degree of dehydration were present in all cases (the most common one was moderate dehydration). The most frequent one was isonatremic dehydration in 91 (64.08%) cases, less frequent one was hypernatremic dehydration in 14 (9.85%) cases. The majority of cases (97.89%) had lower blood pH values, whereas 67 (47.17%) cases had pH values that varied from 7.16 -7.20 (curve peak), normal values were registered in only 3 (2.11%) cases. Urea values were increased in 45 (31.07%) cases (the maximum value

  12. Outbreak of chikungunya in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: clinical and laboratory features of hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, L P; Chua, H H

    2009-09-01

    In 2008, an outbreak of chikungunya infection occurred in Johor. We performed a retrospective review of all laboratory confirmed adult chikungunya cases admitted to Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru from April to August 2008, looking into clinical and laboratory features. A total of 18 laboratory confirmed cases of chikungunya were identified with patients presenting with fever, joint pain, rash and vomiting. Haemorrhagic signs were not seen. Lymphopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, raised liver enzymes and deranged coagulation profile were the prominent laboratory findings. We hope this study can help guide physician making a diagnosis of chikungunya against other arborviruses infection.

  13. [The analytical reliability of clinical laboratory information and role of the standards in its support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men'shikov, V V

    2012-12-01

    The article deals with the factors impacting the reliability of clinical laboratory information. The differences of qualities of laboratory analysis tools produced by various manufacturers are discussed. These characteristics are the causes of discrepancy of the results of laboratory analyses of the same analite. The role of the reference system in supporting the comparability of laboratory analysis results is demonstrated. The project of national standard is presented to regulate the requirements to standards and calibrators for analysis of qualitative and non-metrical characteristics of components of biomaterials.

  14. Detection of intestinal protozoa in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHardy, Ian H; Wu, Max; Shimizu-Cohen, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Humphries, Romney M

    2014-03-01

    Despite recent advances in diagnostic technology, microscopic examination of stool specimens remains central to the diagnosis of most pathogenic intestinal protozoa. Microscopy is, however, labor-intensive and requires a skilled technologist. New, highly sensitive diagnostic methods have been developed for protozoa endemic to developed countries, including Giardia lamblia (syn. G. intestinalis/G. duodenalis) and Cryptosporidium spp., using technologies that, if expanded, could effectively complement or even replace microscopic approaches. To date, the scope of such novel technologies is limited and may not include common protozoa such as Dientamoeba fragilis, Entamoeba histolytica, or Cyclospora cayetanensis. This minireview describes canonical approaches for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa, while highlighting recent developments and FDA-approved tools for clinical diagnosis of common intestinal protozoa.

  15. Has compliance with CLIA requirements really improved quality in US clinical laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmeyer, Sharon S; Laessig, Ronald H

    2004-08-02

    The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA'88) mandate universal requirements for all U.S. clinical laboratory-testing sites. The intent of CLIA'88 is to ensure quality testing through a combination of minimum quality practices that incorporate total quality management concepts. These regulations do not contain established, objective indicators or measures to assess quality. However, there is an implicit assumption that compliance with traditionally accepted good laboratory practices--following manufacturers' directions, routinely analysing quality control materials, applying quality assurance principles, employing and assessing competent testing personnel, and participating in external quality assessment or proficiency testing (PT)--will result in improved test quality. The CLIA'88 regulations do include PT performance standards, which intentionally or unintentionally, define intra-laboratory performance. Passing PT has become a prime motivation for improving laboratory performance; it can also be used as an objective indicator to assess whether compliance to CLIA has improved intra-laboratory quality. Data from 1994 through 2002 indicate that the percentage of laboratories passing PT has increased. In addition to PT performance, subjective indicators of improved quality--frequency of inspection deficiencies, the number of government sanctions for non-compliance, and customer satisfaction--were evaluated. The results from these subjective indicators are more difficult to interpret but also seem to show improved quality in US clinical laboratories eleven years post-CLIA'88.

  16. The Individualized Quality Control Plan - Coming Soon to Clinical Microbiology Laboratories Everywhere!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy

    2015-11-15

    As of January 1, 2016, microbiology laboratories can choose to adopt a new quality control option, the Individualized Quality Control Plan (IQCP), under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA). This voluntary approach increases flexibility for meeting regulatory requirements and provides laboratories the opportunity to customize QC for their testing in their unique environments and by their testing personnel. IQCP is an all-inclusive approach to quality based on risk management to address potential errors in the total testing process. It includes three main steps, (1) performing a risk assessment, (2) developing a QC plan, and (3) monitoring the plan through quality assessment. Resources are available from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Microbiology, Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, and accrediting organizations, such as the College of American Pathologists and Joint Commission, to assist microbiology laboratories implementing IQCP.

  17. Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Microgravity Material Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical models to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of scientific and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymer reactions. Materials studied include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities.

  18. 10 CFR 32.71 - Manufacture and distribution of byproduct material for certain in vitro clinical or laboratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... certain in vitro clinical or laboratory testing under general license. 32.71 Section 32.71 Energy NUCLEAR... certain in vitro clinical or laboratory testing under general license. An application for a specific... only by physicians, veterinarians in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratories or...

  19. Clinical Science: showcasing the breadth of the journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Mark E; Touyz, Rhian M

    2017-07-15

    This Editorial introduces the review articles published in this issue to showcase the range of subject areas, such as neurology, the respiratory system, kidney disease and oxidative stress, covered by Clinical Science . © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Sheakley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose: To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods: This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (n l=515 and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066. Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4 that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%. USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results: Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003. Discussion: Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum.

  1. Nomenclature and basic concepts in automation in the clinical laboratory setting: a practical glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulos, Angelos A; Dalamaga, Maria; Panoutsopoulos, Konstantinos; Dima, Kleanthi

    2013-01-01

    In the early 80s, the word automation was used in the clinical laboratory setting referring only to analyzers. But in late 80s and afterwards, automation found its way into all aspects of the diagnostic process, embracing not only the analytical but also the pre- and post-analytical phase. While laboratories in the eastern world, mainly Japan, paved the way for laboratory automation, US and European laboratories soon realized the benefits and were quick to follow. Clearly, automation and robotics will be a key survival tool in a very competitive and cost-concious healthcare market. What sets automation technology apart from so many other efficiency solutions are the dramatic savings that it brings to the clinical laboratory. Further standardization will assure the success of this revolutionary new technology. One of the main difficulties laboratory managers and personnel must deal with when studying solutions to reengineer a laboratory is familiarizing themselves with the multidisciplinary and technical terminology of this new and exciting field. The present review/glossary aims at giving an overview of the most frequently used terms within the scope of laboratory automation and to put laboratory automation on a sounder linguistic basis.

  2. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  3. A national survey on pediatric critical values used in clinical laboratories across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanping; Adeli, Khosrow

    2009-11-01

    Notification of critical values to clinical staff is an important post-analytical process in all acute care clinical laboratories. No data are available however on how laboratories obtain or establish critical values, particularly in pediatric settings. This study was designed to examine and compare critical values used for pediatric patients in biochemistry laboratories in Canada and assess potential interlaboratory variability. Fourteen clinical laboratories, including two in pediatric hospitals and twelve in hospitals caring for both children and adults, participated in a survey that included 14 pre-selected STAT chemistry tests and 19 pre-selected therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) tests. Among fourteen chemistry tests, good agreement was observed for critical values used for sodium and pH at both low and high levels within 14 participant laboratories. Significant interlaboratory variability existed for glucose critical values at the high end, magnesium at high end, and PO2 at the low end. For 19 TDM tests, the majority of laboratories did not have alert values to report values over the therapeutic level but not toxic. For critical values greater than the toxic range, significant variability existed at both trough and peak levels among laboratories surveyed. When asked to provide the source for critical values established at each site, only a limited number of laboratories identified their sources as either internal decision or published references. Although all laboratories have established and routinely use critical values to alert clinical staff, considerable variability exists in both the critical limits reported as well as the source of such values. There is a clear need for new national efforts to standardize pediatric critical value reporting and establish evidence-based critical limits for all medical laboratories across Canada.

  4. Neurobrucellosis: Clinical and laboratory findings in 22 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoolinejad M

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a multisystem disease with diverse clinical presentations and involvement of the nervous system is considered to 5 to be 10% in adult patients and 1% in children. The presentations of neurobrucellosis includes meningoencephalitis, subarachnoid haemorrhage, myelitis, radiculoneuritis, intracerebral and epidural abscess, psychosis and vascular syndrome. Twenty-two patients with neurobrucellosis are described. Ten patients had meningoencephalitis, seven patients had meningitis, three patients had polyradiculopathy and one patient presented with spinal epidural abscess and one patient had brain abscess. Results of an agglutination test for Brucella in serum were positive for all patients (>1:160; eight of 15 patients had positive agglutination test in CSF. Five patients had positive blood cultures, 3 patients had positive bone marrow cultures and 2 of 15 patients had positive CSF cultures. All of cultures were Brucella Mellitensis. Antimicrobial treatment included concurrent administration of Doxycycline, Rifampin and Trimethoprim-Sulfametoxazole. Four patients received Dexamethason concurrently. In conclusion, nervous system involvement is a serious manifestation of brucellosis. As brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran we suggest that brucellosis be investigated with neurological symptoms and signs.

  5. Exploring a Laboratory Model of Pharmacogenetics as Applied to Clinical Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Smith, PharmD Candidate

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a pilot of a laboratory model for relating pharmacogenetics to clinical decision making. Case Study: This pilot was undertaken and evaluated to help determine if a pharmacogenetics laboratory should be included in the core Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. The placement of the laboratory exercise in the curriculum was determined by identifying the point in the curriculum where the students had been introduced to the chemistry of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA as well as instructed on the chemistry of genetic variation. The laboratory included cytochrome P450 2C19 genotyping relative to the *2 variant. Twenty-four students served as the pilot group. Students provided buccal swabs as the source of DNA. Students stabilized the samples and were then provided instructions related to sample preparation, polymerase chain reaction, and gel electrophoresis. The results were reported as images of gels. Students used a reference gel image to compare their results to. Students then applied a dosing algorithm to make a “clinical decision” relative to clopidogrel use. Students were offered a post laboratory survey regarding attitudes toward the laboratory. Twenty-four students completed the laboratory with genotyping results being provided for 22 students (91.7%. Sixteen students were wild-type (*1/*1, while six students were heterozygous (*1/*2. Twenty-three students (96% completed the post laboratory survey. All 23 agreed (6, 26.1% or strongly agreed (17, 73.9% that the laboratory “had relevance and value in the pharmacy curriculum”. Conclusion: The post pilot study survey exploring a laboratory model for pharmacogenetics related to clinical decision making indicated that such a laboratory would be viewed positively by students. This model may be adopted by colleges to expand pharmacogenetics education.

  6. Critical value reporting: a survey of 36 clinical laboratories in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapkaitz, Elise; Mafika, Zipho

    2013-10-11

    Critical value policies are used by clinical laboratories to decide when to notify caregivers of life-threatening results. Despite their widespread use, critical value policies have not been published locally. A survey was designed to determine critical value policies for haematology tests in South Africa. A survey was carried out on 136 identified laboratories across South Africa in January 2013. Of these, 36 responded. Data collected included critical value policies, critical values for haematology parameters, and critical value reporting. Of the 36 laboratories surveyed, 11.1% (n=4) were private, 33.3% (n=12) were affiliated to academic institutions and 55.6% (n=20) were peripheral or regional National Health Laboratory Service laboratories. All the laboratories confirmed that they had a critical value policy, and 83.3% of such policies were derived from local clinical opinion. Mean low and high critical limits for the most frequently listed tests were as follows: haemoglobin 20 g/dl, platelet count 1 000 ×10(9)/l, white cell count 46 ×10(9)/l, activated partial thromboplastin time >101 seconds, and international normalised ratio >6. In almost all cases critical value reporting was performed by the technologist on duty (97.2%). The majority of laboratories required that the person notified of the critical value be the doctor who ordered the test or the caregiver directly involved in the patient's care (83.3%); 73.3% of laboratories indicated that they followed an algorithm if the doctor/caregiver could not be reached. Each laboratory is responsible for establishing clinically relevant critical limits. Clinicians should be involved in developing the laboratory's critical value policy. The findings of this survey may be of value to local laboratories that are in the process of establishing or reviewing critical value policies.

  7. Exploring a Laboratory Model of Pharmacogenetics as Applied to Clinical Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Kisor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a pilot of a laboratory model for relating pharmacogenetics to clinical decision making. Case Study: This pilot was undertaken and evaluated to help determine if a pharmacogenetics laboratory should be included in the core Doctor of Pharmacy curriculum. The placement of the laboratory exercise in the curriculum was determined by identifying the point in the curriculum where the students had been introduced to the chemistry of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA as well as instructed on the chemistry of genetic variation. The laboratory included cytochrome P450 2C19 genotyping relative to the *2 variant. Twenty-four students served as the pilot group. Students provided buccal swabs as the source of DNA. Students stabilized the samples and were then provided instructions related to sample preparation, polymerase chain reaction, and gel electrophoresis. The results were reported as images of gels. Students used a reference gel image to compare their results to. Students then applied a dosing algorithm to make a "clinical decision" relative to clopidogrel use. Students were offered a post laboratory survey regarding attitudes toward the laboratory. Twenty-four students completed the laboratory with genotyping results being provided for 22 students (91.7%. Sixteen students were wild-type (*1/*1, while six students were heterozygous (*1/*2. Twenty-three students (96% completed the post laboratory survey. All 23 agreed (6, 26.1% or strongly agreed (17, 73.9% that the laboratory "had relevance and value in the pharmacy curriculum" Conclusion: The post pilot study survey exploring a laboratory model for pharmacogenetics related to clinical decision making indicated that such a laboratory would be viewed positively by students. This model may be adopted by colleges to expand pharmacogenetics education.   Type: Case Study

  8. A 2-year study of patient safety competency assessment in 29 clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robyn C; Kim, Sara; Farquharson, Kara; Astion, Michael L

    2008-06-01

    Competency assessment is critical for laboratory operations and is mandated by the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988. However, no previous reports describe methods for assessing competency in patient safety. We developed and implemented a Web-based tool to assess performance of 875 laboratory staff from 29 laboratories in patient safety. Question categories included workplace culture, categorizing error, prioritization of patient safety interventions, strength of specific interventions, and general patient safety concepts. The mean score was 85.0%, with individual scores ranging from 56% to 100% and scores by category from 81.3% to 88.6%. Of the most difficult questions (laboratory technologists. Computer-based competency assessments help laboratories identify topics for continuing education in patient safety.

  9. PNH revisited: Clinical profile, laboratory diagnosis and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, marrow failure, nocturnal hemoglobinuria and thrombophila. This acquired disease caused by a deficiency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored proteins on the hematopoietic cells is uncommon in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: Data of patients diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year were collected. Clinical data (age, gender, various presenting symptoms, treatment information and follow-up data were collected from medical records. Results of relevant diagnostic tests were documented i.e., urine analysis, Ham′s test, sucrose lysis test and sephacryl gel card test (GCT for CD55 and CD59. Results: A total of 5 patients were diagnosed with PNH in the past 1 year. Presenting symptoms were hemolytic anemia (n=4 and bone marrow failure (n=1. A GCT detected CD59 deficiency in all erythrocytes in 4 patients and CD55 deficiency in 2 patients. A weak positive PNH test for CD59 was seen in 1 patient and a weak positive PNH test for CD55 was seen in 3 patients. All patients were negative by sucrose lysis test. Ham′s test was positive in two cases. Patients were treated with prednisolone and/or androgen and 1 patient with aplastic anemia was also given antithymocyte globulin. A total of 4 patients responded with a partial recovery of hematopoiesis and 1 patient showed no recovery. None of the patients received a bone marrow transplant. Conclusion: The study highlights the diagnostic methods and treatment protocols undertaken to evaluate the PNH clone in a developing country where advanced methods like flowcytometry immunophenotyping (FCMI and bone marrow transplants are not routinely available.

  10. Theoretical and practical considerations for teaching diagnostic electronic-nose technologies to clinical laboratory technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphus D. Wilson

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of new electronic technologies and instruments, utilized to perform many current clinical operations in the biomedical field, is changing the way medical health care is delivered to patients. The majority of test results from laboratory analyses, performed with these analytical instruments often prior to clinical examinations, are frequently used...

  11. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  12. The Value of Laboratory Tests in Diagnosing Secondary Osteoporosis at a Fracture and Osteoporosis Outpatient Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Klerk, Gijs; Hegeman, J. Han; van der Velde, Detlef; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; ten Duis, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As more and more patients meeting the criteria for osteoporosis are referred to a fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic (FO clinic), the laboratory costs to screen for secondary osteoporosis also increases. This study was conducted to determine the value of screening on underlying

  13. CLINIC-LABORATORY DESIGN BASED ON FUNCTION AND PHILOSOPHY AT PURDUE UNIVERSITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HANLEY, T.D.; STEER, M.D.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES THE DESIGN OF A NEW CLINIC AND LABORATORY FOR SPEECH AND HEARING TO ACCOMMODATE THE THREE BASIC PROGRAMS OF--(1) CLINICAL TRAINING OF UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE STUDENT MAJORS, (2) SERVICES MADE AVAILABLE TO THE SPEECH AND HEARING HANDICAPPED, AND (3) RESEARCH IN SPEECH PATHOLOGY, AUDIOLOGY, PSYCHO-ACOUSTICS, AND…

  14. Using Self-Reflection To Increase Science Process Skills in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veal, William R.; Taylor, Dawne; Rogers, Amy L.

    2009-03-01

    Self-reflection is a tool of instruction that has been used in the science classroom. Research has shown great promise in using video as a learning tool in the classroom. However, the integration of self-reflective practice using video in the general chemistry laboratory to help students develop process skills has not been done. Immediate video feedback and direct instruction were employed in a general chemistry laboratory course to improve students' mastery and understanding of basic and advanced process skills. Qualitative results and statistical analysis of quantitative data proved that self-reflection significantly helped students develop basic and advanced process skills, yet did not seem to influence the general understanding of the science content.

  15. The laboratory of the mind thought experiments in the natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    1993-01-01

    Thought experiments are performed in the laboratory of the mind. Beyond this metaphor it is difficult to say just what these remarkable devices for investigating nature are or how they work. Though most scientists and philosophers would admit their great importance, there has been very little serious study of them. This volume is the first book-length investigation of thought experiments. Starting with Galileo's argument on falling bodies, Brown describes numerous examples of the most influential thought experiments from the history of science. Following this introduction to the subject, some substantial and provocative claims are made, the principle being that some thought experiments should be understood in the same way that platonists understand mathematical activity: as an intellectual grasp of an independently existing abstract realm. With its clarity of style and structure, The Laboratory of the Mind will find readers among all philosophers of science as well as scientists who have puzzled over how thou...

  16. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  17. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barnett, J. Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Marine Sciences Laboratory located on Battelle Land – Sequim. This report is prepared to document compliance with the 40 CFR Part 61, Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code . The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2015 was 1.1E-04 mrem (1.1E-06 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2015. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  18. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  19. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  20. Automated Scheduling of Personnel to Staff Operations for the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; Mishkin, Andrew; Allbaugh, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Leveraging previous work on scheduling personnel for space mission operations, we have adapted ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) [1] to the domain of scheduling personnel for operations of the Mars Science Laboratory. Automated scheduling of personnel is not new. We compare our representations to a sampling of employee scheduling systems available with respect to desired features. We described the constraints required by MSL personnel schedulers and how each is handled by the scheduling algorithm.

  1. Transnational Organizational Considerations for Sociocultural Differences in Ethics and Virtual Team Functioning in Laboratory Animal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Pritt, Stacy L; Mackta, Jayne

    2010-01-01

    Business models for transnational organizations include linking different geographies through common codes of conduct, policies, and virtual teams. Global companies with laboratory animal science activities (whether outsourced or performed inhouse) often see the need for these business activities in relation to animal-based research and benefit from them. Global biomedical research organizations can learn how to better foster worldwide cooperation and teamwork by understanding and working wit...

  2. The Effect of Simulation-Assisted Laboratory Applications on Pre-Service Teachers' Attitudes towards Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulukök, Seyma; Sari, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of computer-assisted laboratory applications on pre-service science teachers' attitudes towards science teaching were investigated and the opinions of the pre-service teachers about the application were also determined. The study sample consisted of 46 students studying science teaching Faculty of Education. The study…

  3. Motivational interviewing and the clinical science of Carl Rogers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Moyers, Theresa B

    2017-08-01

    The clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) evolved from the person-centered approach of Carl Rogers, maintaining his pioneering commitment to the scientific study of therapeutic processes and outcomes. The development of MI pertains to all 3 of the 125th anniversary themes explored in this special issue. Applications of MI have spread far beyond clinical psychology into fields including health care, rehabilitation, public health, social work, dentistry, corrections, coaching, and education, directly impacting the lives of many people. The public relevance and impact of clinical psychology are illustrated in the similarity of MI processes and outcomes across such diverse fields and the inseparability of human services from the person who provides them, in that both relational and technical elements of MI predict client outcomes. Within the history of clinical psychology MI is a clear product of clinical science, arising from the seminal work of Carl Rogers whose own research grounded clinical practice in empirical science. As with Rogers' work 70 years ago, MI began as an inductive empirical approach, observing clinical practice to develop and test hypotheses about what actually promotes change. Research on MI bridges the current divide between evidence-based practice and the well-established importance of therapeutic relationship. Research on training and learning of MI further questions the current model of continuing professional education through self-study and workshops as a way of improving practice behavior and client outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  5. Quality of Control of Clinical-Biochemical Laboratories – Serbian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinko Peric

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years in medical laboratories, numerous activities regarding quality and accreditation system were taken. Approach to this problem in European countries is different, so the task of the Accreditation Work Group of the Confederation of European societies for clinical chemistry (EC 4 to help the efforts to harmonize this issue. External quality control in clinical-chemical laboratories imposed the need for the implementation of quality management system. »Good laboratory practice« and its principles were adopted by nominated bodies, both international and national. In the beginning, the standard ISO 9001 was applied for certification and for accreditation EN 45001 and ISO Guide 25, which are prepared for testing and calibration laboratories. Standard ISO 17025 is the successor of the previous documents and for now it is a reference for mentioned laboratories. Accreditation Work Group of the Confederation of European societies for clinical chemistry (EC 4 made an amendment of the requirements for medical laboratories, which this standard describes. Standard draft ISO 15189 was adopted on February 2003 as a final version with requirements for medical laboratories.

  6. Health and safety in clinical laboratories in developing countries: safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejilemele, A A; Ojule, A C

    2004-01-01

    Clinical laboratories are potentially hazardous work areas. Health and safety in clinical laboratories is becoming an increasingly important subject as a result of the emergence of highly infectious diseases such as hepatitis and HIV. This is even more so in developing countries where health and safety have traditionally been regarded as low priority issues, considering the more important health problems confronting the health authorities in these countries. We conducted a literature search using the medical subheadings titles on the INTERNET over a period of twenty years and summarized our findings. This article identifies hazards in the laboratories and highlights measures to make the laboratory a safer work place. It also emphasizes the mandatory obligations of employers and employees towards the attainment of acceptable safety standards in clinical laboratories in Third World countries in the face of the current HIV/AIDS epidemic in many of these developing countries especially in the sub-Saharan Africa while accommodating the increasing work load in these laboratories. Both the employer and the employee have major roles to play in the maintenance of a safe working environment. This can be achieved if measures discussed are incorporated into everyday laboratory practice.

  7. Comparison of clinical associations and laboratory abnormalities in children with moderate and severe dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayajneh, Wail A; Jdaitawi, Hussein; Al Shurman, Abdullah; Hayajneh, Yaseen A

    2010-03-01

    To search for possible early clinical associations and laboratory abnormalities in children with severe dehydration in northern Jordan. We prospectively evaluated 251 children with acute gastroenteritis. Dehydration assessment was done following a known clinical scheme. Probable clinical associations and laboratory abnormalities were examined against the preassigned dehydration status. Children with severe dehydration had significantly more hypernatremia and hyperkalemia, less isonatremia, and higher mean levels of urea, creatinine, and glucose (P dehydration. Historic clinical characteristics of patients did not correlate to dehydration degree. Serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and glucose were useful independently in augmenting clinical examination to diagnose the degree of dehydration status among children presenting with gastroenteritis. Serum urea performed the best among all. On the contrary, none of the examined historical clinical patterns could be correlated to the dehydration status. Larger and multicenter studies are needed to validate our results and to examine their impact on final outcomes.

  8. 76 FR 63615 - Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...The U.S. EPA invites interested stakeholders to participate in a laboratory-based technical workshop that will focus on the conduct of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Use-dilution method (UDM) and the status and implementation of a new test method, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Quantitative Method for Evaluating Bactericidal Activity of Microbicides Used on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces. The workshop is being held to discuss current and proposed revisions mainly associated with the Staphyloccocus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa methodologies. The goals of the workshop are to provide a comprehensive review and discussion period on the status of the UDM and OEDC methods integrated with hands-on laboratory demonstrations. An overview of various data sets and collaborative studies will be used to supplement the discussions which will be held at the EPA Environmental Science Center Microbiology Laboratory.

  9. Experiences in Accreditation of Laboratories in the Field of Radiation Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.; Galjanic, S.; Krizanec, D.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient interaction of technical legislation, metrology, standardization and accreditation within the system of quality infrastructure is precondition for assurance of safety of goods and services as well as protection of humans and environment. In the paper importance of quality infrastructure on national and international levels is presented while special interest is paid to accreditation. Current situation regarding the accreditation of laboratories in the field of radiation science is presented. Regarding this field, in Croatia three laboratories are accredited by Croatian Accreditation Agency: 1. Laboratory for Radioecology, Rudjer Boskovic Institute (Scope: Measurement of radionuclide content in environmental samples and commodities - Including foodstuffs and drinking water) 2. EKOTEH Dozimetrija Ltd., Department for Radiation Protection (Scope: Testing in the scope of ionizing and nonionizing radiation) 3. Radiation Protection Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (Scope: Determination of radioactivity). (author)

  10. The European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: guide to the Register, version 3-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more...... than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous...

  11. Utility of repeat testing of critical values: a Q-probes analysis of 86 clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Christopher M; Howanitz, Peter J; Souers, Rhona; Karcher, Donald S

    2014-06-01

    A common laboratory practice is to repeat critical values before reporting the test results to the clinical care provider. This may be an unnecessary step that delays the reporting of critical test results without adding value to the accuracy of the test result. To determine the proportions of repeated chemistry and hematology critical values that differ significantly from the original value as defined by the participating laboratory, to determine the threshold differences defined by the laboratory as clinically significant, and to determine the additional time required to analyze the repeat test. Participants prospectively reviewed critical test results for 4 laboratory tests: glucose, potassium, white blood cell count, and platelet count. Participants reported the following information: initial and repeated test result; time initial and repeat results were first known to laboratory staff; critical result notification time; if the repeat result was still a critical result; if the repeat result was significantly different from the initial result, as judged by the laboratory professional or policy; significant difference threshold, as defined by the laboratory; the make and model of the instrument used for primary and repeat testing. Routine, repeat analysis of critical values is a common practice. Most laboratories did not formally define a significant difference between repeat results. Repeated results were rarely considered significantly different. Median repeated times were at least 17 to 21 minutes for 10% of laboratories. Twenty percent of laboratories reported at least 1 incident in the last calendar year of delayed result reporting that clinicians indicated had adversely affected patient care. Routine repeat analysis of automated chemistry and hematology critical values is unlikely to be clinically useful and may adversely affect patient care.

  12. Factors that impact clinical laboratory scientists' commitment to their work organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberg, Richard; Akroyd, Duane; Moore, Ti'eshia M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the predictive ability of various aspects of the work environment for organizational commitment. A questionnaire measuring three dimensions of organizational commitment along with five aspects of work environment and 10 demographic and work setting characteristics was sent to a national, convenience sample of clinical laboratory professionals. All persons obtaining the CLS certification by NCA from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2006. Only respondents who worked full-time in a clinical laboratory setting were included in the database. Levels of affective, normative, and continuance organizational commitment, organizational support, role clarity, role conflict, transformational leadership behavior of supervisor, and organizational type, total years work experience in clinical laboratories, and educational level of respondents. Questionnaire items used either a 7-point or 5-point Likert response scale. Based on multiple regression analysis for the 427 respondents, organizational support and transformational leadership behavior were found to be significant positive predictors of affective and normative organizational commitment. Work setting (non-hospital laboratory) and total years of work experience in clinical laboratories were found to be significant positive predictors of continuance organizational commitment. Overall the organizational commitment levels for all three dimensions were at the neutral rating or below in the slightly disagree range. The results indicate a less than optimal level of organizational commitment to employers, which were predominantly hospitals, by CLS practitioners. This may result in continuing retention problems for hospital laboratories. The results offer strategies for improving organizational commitment via the significant predictors.

  13. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  14. Systematic review of the global epidemiology, clinical and laboratory profile of enteric fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Azmatullah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Children suffer the highest burden of enteric fever among populations in South Asian countries. The clinical features are non–specific, vary in populations, and are often difficult to distinguish clinically from other febrile illnesses, leading to delayed or inappropriate diagnosis and treatment. We undertook a systematic review to assess the clinical profile and laboratory features of enteric fever across age groups, economic regions, level of care and antibiotic susceptibility patterns.

  15. Sociology of scientific knowledge and science education part 2: Laboratory life under the microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    1994-10-01

    This article is the second of two that examine some of the claims of contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) and the bearing of these claims upon the rationale and practice of science teaching. In the present article the celebrated work Laboratory Life of Latour and Woolgar is critically examined. Its radical, iconoclastic view of science is shown to be not merely without foundation but an extravagant deconstructionist nihilism according to which all science is fiction and the world is said to be socially constructed by negotiation. On this view, the success of a theory is not due to its intellectual merits or explanatory plausibility but to the capacity of its proponents to “extract compliance” from others. If warranted, such views pose a revolutionary challenge to the entire Western tradition of science and the goals of science education which must be misguided and unrealizable in principle. Fortunately, there is little reason to take these views seriously, though their widespread popularity is cause for concern among science educators.

  16. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.

    2008-10-20

    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the

  17. Terrain Safety Assessment in Support of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Devin

    2012-01-01

    In August 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission will pioneer the next generation of robotic Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) systems by delivering the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. The process to select the MSL landing site took over five years and began with over 50 initial candidate sites from which four finalist sites were chosen. The four finalist sites were examined in detail to assess overall science merit, EDL safety, and rover traversability on the surface. Ultimately, the engineering assessments demonstrated a high level of safety and robustness at all four finalist sites and differences in the assessment across those sites were small enough that neither EDL safety nor rover traversability considerations could significantly discriminate among the final four sites. Thus the MSL landing site at Gale Crater was selected from among the four finalists primarily on the basis of science considerations.

  18. A national clinical quality program for Veterans Affairs catheterization laboratories (from the Veterans Affairs clinical assessment, reporting, and tracking program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Thomas M; Plomondon, Mary E; Petrich, Megan; Tsai, Thomas T; Gethoffer, Hans; Noonan, Gregory; Gillespie, Brian; Box, Tamara; Fihn, Stephen D; Jesse, Robert L; Rumsfeld, John S

    2014-12-01

    A "learning health care system", as outlined in a recent Institute of Medicine report, harnesses real-time clinical data to continuously measure and improve clinical care. However, most current efforts to understand and improve the quality of care rely on retrospective chart abstractions complied long after the provision of clinical care. To align more closely with the goals of a learning health care system, we present the novel design and initial results of the Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program-a national clinical quality program for VA cardiac catheterization laboratories that harnesses real-time clinical data to support clinical care and quality-monitoring efforts. Integrated within the VA electronic health record, the CART program uses a specialized software platform to collect real-time patient and procedural data for all VA patients undergoing coronary procedures in VA catheterization laboratories. The program began in 2005 and currently contains data on 434,967 catheterization laboratory procedures, including 272,097 coronary angiograms and 86,481 percutaneous coronary interventions, performed by 801 clinicians on 246,967 patients. We present the initial data from the CART program and describe 3 quality-monitoring programs that use its unique characteristics-procedural and complications feedback to individual labs, coronary device surveillance, and major adverse event peer review. The VA CART program is a novel approach to electronic health record design that supports clinical care, quality, and safety in VA catheterization laboratories. Its approach holds promise in achieving the goals of a learning health care system. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Clinical laboratories collaborate to resolve differences in variant interpretations submitted to ClinVar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Steven M; Dolinsky, Jill S; Knight Johnson, Amy E; Pesaran, Tina; Azzariti, Danielle R; Bale, Sherri; Chao, Elizabeth C; Das, Soma; Vincent, Lisa; Rehm, Heidi L

    2017-10-01

    Data sharing through ClinVar offers a unique opportunity to identify interpretation differences between laboratories. As part of a ClinGen initiative, four clinical laboratories (Ambry, GeneDx, Partners Healthcare Laboratory for Molecular Medicine, and University of Chicago Genetic Services Laboratory) collaborated to identify the basis of interpretation differences and to investigate if data sharing and reassessment resolve interpretation differences by analyzing a subset of variants. ClinVar variants with submissions from at least two of the four participating laboratories were compared. For a subset of identified differences, laboratories documented the basis for discordance, shared internal data, independently reassessed with the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics-Association for Molecular Pathology (ACMG-AMP) guidelines, and then compared interpretations. At least two of the participating laboratories interpreted 6,169 variants in ClinVar, of which 88.3% were initially concordant. Laboratories reassessed 242/724 initially discordant variants, of which 87.2% (211) were resolved by reassessment with current criteria and/or internal data sharing; 12.8% (31) of reassessed variants remained discordant owing to differences in the application of the ACMG-AMP guidelines. Participating laboratories increased their overall concordance from 88.3 to 91.7%, indicating that sharing variant interpretations in ClinVar-thereby allowing identification of differences and motivation to resolve those differences-is critical to moving toward more consistent variant interpretations.Genet Med advance online publication 09 March 2017.

  20. Authentic school science knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1995-01-01

    According to John Dewey, Seymour Papert, Donald Schon, and Allan Collins, school activities, to be authentic, need to share key features with those worlds about which they teach. This book documents learning and teaching in open-inquiry learning environments, designed with the precepts of these educational thinkers in mind. The book is thus a first-hand report of knowing and learning by individuals and groups in complex open-inquiry learning environments in science. As such, it contributes to the emerging literature in this field. Secondly, it exemplifies research methods for studying such complex learning environments. The reader is thus encouraged not only to take the research findings as such, but to reflect on the process of arriving at these findings. Finally, the book is also an example of knowledge constructed by a teacher-researcher, and thus a model for teacher-researcher activity.

  1. Mass Spectrometry in Clinical Laboratory: Applications in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Uttam; Zhang, Yan Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been used in research and specialized clinical laboratories for decades as a very powerful technology to identify and quantify compounds. In recent years, application of MS in routine clinical laboratories has increased significantly. This is mainly due to the ability of MS to provide very specific identification, high sensitivity, and simultaneous analysis of multiple analytes (>100). The coupling of tandem mass spectrometry with gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC) has enabled the rapid expansion of this technology. While applications of MS are used in many clinical areas, therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, and clinical toxicology are still the primary focuses of the field. It is not uncommon to see mass spectrometry being used in routine clinical practices for those applications.

  2. Addressing the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodvin, Brita; Aase, Karina; Brekken, Anita Løvås; Charani, Esmita; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer; Smith, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied, identifying emergent themes, subthemes and corresponding descriptions. The main barrier to communication is disruption involving specimen logistics, information on request forms, verbal reporting of test results and information transfer between poorly integrated IT systems. Furthermore, communication is challenged by lack of insight into each other's area of expertise and limited provision of laboratory services, leading to prolonged turnaround time, limited advisory services and restricted opening hours. Communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units can be improved by a review of testing processes, educational programmes to increase insights into the other's area of expertise, an evaluation of work tasks and expansion of rapid and point-of-care test services. Antibiotic stewardship programmes may serve as a valuable framework to establish these measures. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  3. Psychosocial and individual characteristics and musculoskeletal complaints among clinical laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Farideh; Kasaeian, Amir; Noroozi, Pirasteh; Vatani, Javad; Taiebi, Seiyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are an important health problem among healthcare workers, including clinical laboratory ones. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of MSDs and individual and psychosocial risk factors among clinical laboratory workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 156 workers of 30 clinical laboratories in 3 towns of Iran. The Nordic questionnaire with individual and psychosocial risk factors was used to collect data. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of reported MSDs among the study population was 72.4% in the past 12 months. The most prevalent MSDs were pain in the lower back and neck; 42.7% and 33.3%, respectively. Significant relations were found between MSDs and age, gender, heavy work at home and job control (p workers were high and associated with age, gender, heavy work at home and job control. More research into measuring these factors and workplace physical demands is suggested.

  4. [The balanced scorecard used as a management tool in a clinical laboratory: internal business processes indicators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas La Casta, Maria; Flores Pardo, Emilio; Uris Selles, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    to propose a set of indicators as a management tool for a clinical laboratory, by using the balanced scorecard internal business processes perspective. indicators proposed are obtained from different sources; external proficiency testing of the Valencia Community Government, by means of internal surveys and laboratory information system registers. One year testing process proportion indicators results are showed. internal management indicators are proposed (process, appropriateness and proficiency testing). The process indicators results show gradual improvement since its establishment. after one years of using a conceptually solid Balanced Scorecard Internal business processes perspective indicators, the obtained results validate the usefulness as a laboratory management tool.

  5. An approach to quality and performance control in a computer-assisted clinical chemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undrill, P E; Frazer, S C

    1979-01-01

    A locally developed, computer-based clinical chemistry laboratory system has been in operation since 1970. This utilises a Digital Equipment Co Ltd PDP 12 and an interconnected PDP 8/F computer. Details are presented of the performance and quality control techniques incorporated into the system. Laboratory performance is assessed through analysis of results from fixed-level control sera as well as from cumulative sum methods. At a simple level the presentation may be considered purely indicative, while at a more sophisticated level statistical concepts have been introduced to aid the laboratory controller in decision-making processes. PMID:438340

  6. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W; Ezrailson, Cathy M; Pearce, David A; Elliott, Amy J; Vitiello, Peter F

    2015-12-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  7. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael W.; Ezrailson, Cathy M.; Pearce, David A.; Elliott, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of developing effective science educators has been a long-standing objective of the broader education community. Numerous studies have recommended not only depth in a teacher's subject area but also a breadth of professional development grounded in constructivist principles, allowing for successful student-centered and inquiry-based instruction. Few programs, however, have addressed the integration of the scientific research laboratory into the science classroom as a viable approach to professional development. Additionally, while occasional laboratory training programs have emerged in recent years, many lack a component for translating acquired skills into reformed classroom instruction. Given the rapid development and demand for knowledgeable employees and an informed population from the biotech and medical industries in recent years, it would appear to be particularly advantageous for the physiology and broader science education communities to consider this issue. The goal of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on the integration of reformed teaching principles into the classrooms of secondary teachers. This was measured through the program's ability to instill in its participants elevated academic success while gaining fulfillment in the classroom. The findings demonstrated a significant improvement in the use of student-centered instruction and other reformed methods by program participants as well as improved self-efficacy, confidence, and job satisfaction. Also revealed was a reluctance to refashion established classroom protocols. The combination of these outcomes allowed for construction of an experiential framework for professional development in applied science education that supports an atmosphere of reformed teaching in the classroom. PMID:26628658

  8. National survey on internal quality control for tumour markers in clinical laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; He, Falin; Du, Yuxuan; Hu, Zhehui; Wang, Zhiguo

    2018-06-15

    This survey was initiated to obtain knowledge on the current situation of internal quality control (IQC) practice for tumour markers (TMs) in China. Additionally, we tried to acquire the most appropriate quality specifications. This survey was a current status survey. The IQC information had been collected via online questionnaires. All of 1821 clinical laboratories which participated in the 2016 TMs external quality assessment (EQA) programme had been enrolled. The imprecision evaluation criteria were the minimal, desirable, and optimal allowable imprecisions based on biological variations, and 1/3 total allowable error (TEa) and 1/4 TEa. A total of 1628 laboratories answered the questionnaires (89%). The coefficients of variation (CVs) of the IQC of participant laboratories varied greatly from 1% (5 th percentile) to 13% (95 th percentile). More than 82% (82 - 91%) of participant laboratories two types of CVs met 1/3 TEa except for CA 19-9. The percentiles of current CVs were smaller than cumulative CVs. A number of 1240 laboratories (76%) reported their principles and systems used. The electrochemiluminescence was the most used principle (45%) and had the smallest CVs. The performance of laboratories for TMs IQC has yet to be improved. On the basis of the obtained results, 1/3 TEa would be realistic and attainable quality specification for TMs IQC for clinical laboratories in China.

  9. Reduction in Unnecessary Clinical Laboratory Testing Through Utilization Management at a US Government Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konger, Raymond L; Ndekwe, Paul; Jones, Genea; Schmidt, Ronald P; Trey, Marty; Baty, Eric J; Wilhite, Denise; Munshi, Imtiaz A; Sutter, Bradley M; Rao, Maddamsetti; Bashir, Chowdry M

    2016-03-01

    To implement an electronic laboratory utilization management system (laboratory expert system [LES]) to provide safe and effective reductions in unnecessary clinical laboratory testing. The LES is a set of frequency filter subroutines within the Veterans Affairs hospital and laboratory information system that was formulated by an interdisciplinary medical team. Since implementing the LES, total test volume has decreased by a mean of 11.18% per year compared with our pre-LES test volume. This change was not attributable to fluctuations in outpatient visits or inpatient days of care. Laboratory cost savings were estimated at $151,184 and $163,751 for 2012 and 2013, respectively. A significant portion of these cost savings was attributable to reductions in high-volume, large panel testing. No adverse effects on patient care were reported, and mean length of stay for patients remained unchanged. Electronic laboratory utilization systems can effectively reduce unnecessary laboratory testing without compromising patient care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines for use of tumor markers in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturgeon, Catharine M; Hoffman, Barry R; Chan, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This report presents updated National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines summarizing quality requirements for the use of tumor markers. METHODS: One subcommittee developed guidelines for analytical quality relevant to serum and tissue-based tumor...... questions to ensure selection of the appropriate test, adherence to good clinical and laboratory practices (e.g., minimization of the risk of incorrect patient and/or specimen identification, tube type, or timing), use of internationally standardized and well-characterized methods, careful adherence...... records. Also mandatory is extensive validation encompassing all stages of analysis before introduction of new technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry. Provision of high-quality tumor marker services is facilitated by dialogue involving researchers, diagnostic companies, clinical...

  11. Evaluating the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amolins, Michael Wayne

    The development of effective science educators has been a long-standing goal of the American education system. Numerous studies have suggested a breadth of professional development programs that have sought to utilize constructivist principles in order to orchestrate movement toward student-led, inquiry-based instruction. Very few, however, have addressed a missing link between the modern scientific laboratory and the traditional science classroom. While several laboratory-based training programs have begun to emerge in recent years, the skills necessary to translate this information into the classroom are rarely addressed. The result is that participants are often left without an outlet or the confidence to integrate these into their lessons. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a laboratory-based professional development program focused on classroom integration and reformed science teaching principles. This was measured by the ability to invigorate its seven participants in order to achieve higher levels of success and fulfillment in the classroom. These participants all taught at public high schools in South Dakota, including both rural and urban locations, and taught a variety of courses. Participants were selected for this study through their participation in the Sanford Research/USD Science Educator Research Fellowship Program. Through the use of previously collected data acquired by Sanford Research, this study attempted to detail the convergence of three assessments in order to demonstrate the growth and development of its participants. First, pre- and post-program surveys were completed in order to display the personal and professional growth of its participants. Second, pre- and post-program classroom observations employing the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol allowed for the assessment of pedagogical modifications being integrated by each participant, as well as the success of such modifications in constructively

  12. Report of the results of the International Clinical Cytometry Society and American Society for Clinical Pathology workload survey of clinical flow cytometry laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniak, Kristy; Goolsby, Charles; Choi, Sarah; Ali, Asma; Serdy, Nina; Stetler-Stevenson, Maryalice

    2017-11-01

    Thorough review of current workload, staffing, and testing practices in clinical laboratories allows for optimization of laboratory efficiency and quality. This information is largely missing with regard to clinical flow cytometry laboratories. The purpose of this survey is to provide comprehensive, current, and accurate data on testing practices and laboratory staffing in clinical laboratories performing flow cytometric studies. Survey data was collected from flow cytometry laboratories through the ASCP website. Data was collected on the workload during a 1-year time period of full-time and part-time technical and professional (M.D./D.O./Ph.D. or equivalent) flow cytometry employees. Workload was examined as number of specimens and tubes per full time equivalent (FTE) technical and professional staff. Test complexity, test result interpretation, and reporting practices were also evaluated. There were 205 respondent laboratories affiliated predominantly with academic and health system institutions. Overall, 1,132 FTE employees were reported with 29% professional FTE employees and 71% technical. Fifty-one percent of the testing performed was considered high complexity and 49% was low complexity. The average number of tubes per FTE technologist was 1,194 per year and the average number of specimens per FTE professional was 1,659 per year. The flow cytometry reports were predominantly written by pathologists (57%) and were typically written as a separate report (58%). This survey evaluates the overall status of the current practice of clinical flow cytometry and provides a comprehensive dataset as a framework to help laboratory departments, directors, and managers make appropriate, cost-effective staffing decisions. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  13. Cryosphere Science Outreach using the Ice Sheet System Model and a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. L. C.; Halkides, D. J.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of Cryosphere Science within the larger context of Sea Level Rise is both a technical and educational challenge that needs to be addressed if the public at large is to trulyunderstand the implications and consequences of Climate Change. Within this context, we propose a new approach in which scientific tools are used directly inside a mobile/website platform geared towards Education/Outreach. Here, we apply this approach by using the Ice Sheet System Model, a state of the art Cryosphere model developed at NASA, and integrated within a Virtual Ice Sheet Laboratory, with the goal is to outreach Cryospherescience to K-12 and College level students. The approach mixes laboratory experiments, interactive classes/lessons on a website, and a simplified interface to a full-fledged instance of ISSM to validate the classes/lessons. This novel approach leverages new insights from the Outreach/Educational community and the interest of new generations in web based technologies and simulation tools, all of it delivered in a seamlessly integrated web platform. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory undera contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Cryosphere Science Program.

  14. Definition of an XML markup language for clinical laboratory procedures and comparison with generic XML markup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadawi, Gilan M; Harrison, James H

    2006-10-01

    Clinical laboratory procedure manuals are typically maintained as word processor files and are inefficient to store and search, require substantial effort for review and updating, and integrate poorly with other laboratory information. Electronic document management systems could improve procedure management and utility. As a first step toward building such systems, we have developed a prototype electronic format for laboratory procedures using Extensible Markup Language (XML). Representative laboratory procedures were analyzed to identify document structure and data elements. This information was used to create a markup vocabulary, CLP-ML, expressed as an XML Document Type Definition (DTD). To determine whether this markup provided advantages over generic markup, we compared procedures structured with CLP-ML or with the vocabulary of the Health Level Seven, Inc. (HL7) Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) narrative block. CLP-ML includes 124 XML tags and supports a variety of procedure types across different laboratory sections. When compared with a general-purpose markup vocabulary (CDA narrative block), CLP-ML documents were easier to edit and read, less complex structurally, and simpler to traverse for searching and retrieval. In combination with appropriate software, CLP-ML is designed to support electronic authoring, reviewing, distributing, and searching of clinical laboratory procedures from a central repository, decreasing procedure maintenance effort and increasing the utility of procedure information. A standard electronic procedure format could also allow laboratories and vendors to share procedures and procedure layouts, minimizing duplicative word processor editing. Our results suggest that laboratory-specific markup such as CLP-ML will provide greater benefit for such systems than generic markup.

  15. The path to the future: The role of science and technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reck, R.A.

    1996-04-30

    Today some scientists are concerned that present budget considerations in Washington will make it impossible for the US to maintain its preeminence in important areas of science and technology. In the private sector there has been a demise of substantive R & D efforts through most of the major industries. For DOE a lack of future support for science and technology would be an important issue because this could impact DOE`s abilities to solve problems in its major areas of concern, national security, energy, environment. In fact some scientists maintain that were the present trend to continue unabated it could lead to a national security issue. Preeminence in science and technology plays a critical role in our nation`s position as the leader of world democracy. In contrast with this point of view of gloom and doom, however, in this presentation I hope to bring to you what I see as an exciting message of good news. Today I will list the important opportunities and challenges for the future that I note for ANL, the leadership role that I believe ANL can play and the qualities that will help our laboratory to maintain its status as an outstanding DOE National Laboratory.

  16. [Study of continuous quality improvement for clinical laboratory processes via the platform of Hospital Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenqi; Shen, Ying; Peng, Xiaoxia; Tian, Jian; Wang, Hui; Xu, Lili; Nie, Xiaolu; Ni, Xin

    2015-05-26

    The program of continuous quality improvement in clinical laboratory processes for complete blood count (CBC) was launched via the platform of Beijing Children's Hospital Group in order to improve the quality of pediatric clinical laboratories. Fifteen children's hospitals of Beijing Children's Hospital group were investigated using the method of Chinese adapted continuous quality improvement with PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Action). The questionnaire survey and inter-laboratory comparison was conducted to find the existing problems, to analyze reasons, to set forth quality targets and to put them into practice. Then, targeted training was conducted to 15 children's hospitals and the second questionnaire survey, self examinations by the clinical laboratories was performed. At the same time, the Group's online internal quality control platform was established. Overall effects of the program were evaluated so that lay a foundation for the next stage of PDCA. Both quality of control system documents and CBC internal quality control scheme for all of clinical laboratories were improved through this program. In addition, standardization of performance verification was also improved, especially with the comparable verification rate of precision and internal laboratory results up to 100%. In terms of instrument calibration and mandatory diagnostic rates, only three out of the 15 hospitals (20%) failed to pass muster in 2014 from 46.67% (seven out of the 15 hospitals) in 2013. The abnormal data of intraday precision variance coefficients of the five CBC indicator parameters (WBC, RBC, Hb, Plt and Hct) of all the 15 laboratories accounted for 1.2% (2/165) in 2014, a marked decrease from 9.6% (14/145) in 2013. While the number of the hospitals using only one horizontal quality control object for daily quality control has dropped to three from five. The 15 hospitals organized a total of 263 times of training in 2014 from 101 times in 2013, up 160%. The quality improvement program for

  17. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Automation in the 21st Century - Amat Victoria curam (Victory loves careful preparation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory

  18. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  19. Panel session: Part 1, In flux -- Science Policy and the social structure of Big Laboratories, 1964--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)]|[CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)]|[Fermilab History Collaboration, Batavia, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report discusses the in flux of science policy and the social structure of big laboratories during the period of 1964 to 1979 and some sociological consequences of high energy physicists` development of the standard model during the same period.

  20. Laboratory Diagnosis and Characterization of Fungal Disease in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF): A Survey of Current UK Practice in a Cohort of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Maeve; Moore, John E; Whitehouse, Joanna L; Bilton, Diana; Downey, Damian G

    2018-03-02

    There is much uncertainty as to how fungal disease is diagnosed and characterized in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A 19-question anonymous electronic questionnaire was developed and distributed to ascertain current practice in clinical microbiology laboratories providing a fungal laboratory service to CF centres in the UK. Analyses of responses identified the following: (1) current UK laboratory practice, in general, follows the current guidelines, but the scope and diversity of what is currently being delivered by laboratories far exceeds what is detailed in the guidelines; (2) there is a lack of standardization of fungal tests amongst laboratories, outside of the current guidelines; (3) both the UK CF Trust Laboratory Standards for Processing Microbiological Samples from People with Cystic Fibrosis and the US Cumulative Techniques and Procedures in Clinical Microbiology (Cumitech) Guidelines 43 Cystic Fibrosis Microbiology need to be updated to reflect both new methodological innovations, as well as better knowledge of fungal disease pathophysiology in CF; (4) there is a need for clinical medicine to decide upon a stratification strategy for the provision of new fungal assays that will add value to the physician in the optimal management of CF patients; (5) there is also a need to rationale what assays should be performed at local laboratory level and those which are best served at National Mycology Reference Laboratory level; and (6) further research is required in developing laboratory assays, which will help ascertain the clinical importance of 'old' fungal pathogens, as well as 'emerging' fungal pathogens.