Sample records for clinical labelled compounds

  1. An open-label, randomized clinical trial to assess the immunomodulatory activity of a novel oligosaccharide compound in healthy adults

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    Karriem H. Ali


    Full Text Available Background: Rice Bran Arabinoxylan Compound (RBAC is a nutritional supplement produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose B derived from rice bran. Several in vitro studies and clinical reports have shown RBAC to possess promising immunomodulating effects, specifically with respect to natural killer cell and cytokine activity. The concept of a true immunomodulator is an agent possessing a broad range of activity dependent upon the existing state of health and immunity in the individual host. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory effect of RBAC in a healthy adult human population over 60 days by assessing changes in natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC and cytokines and growth factors. Subjects participated in a two-group, randomized intervention, where one group (n=10 consumed 1 gram/day and the other (n=10 consumed 3 gram/day. Safety and tolerability of RBAC were assessed with total bilirubin, total protein, creatinine, and liver function tests.Results: We found that both groups had similar responses for NKCC, cytokines, and growth factors. The NKCC peaked at 1 week, whereas interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins-1α, -1β, -8, and -10, and epidermal growth factor peaked at 30 days. All subjects tolerated the supplement without any adverse reactions.Conclusions: Our results showed transient, bi-directional, immune marker effects consistent with true, multifactorial immunomodulation rather than simply immunostimulation or immunosuppression. Given our findings, the immunomodulatory activity of RBAC merits studyFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(7:265-279 in conditions where the immune system is functionally compromised (e.g., otherwise-healthy smokers and HIV/AIDS or cancer patients. RBAC may not only help to destroy tumor cells and viruses directly, but also increase the activity of immune cells, thereby optimizing the immune system, especially NKCC, which can increase the chance and speed of host

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J


    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  3. 99mTc: Labeling Chemistry and Labeled Compounds (United States)

    Alberto, R.; Abram, U.

    This chapter reviews the radiopharmaceutical chemistry of technetium related to the synthesis of perfusion agents and to the labeling of receptor-binding biomolecules. To understand the limitations of technetium chemistry imposed by future application of the complexes in nuclear medicine, an introductory section analyzes the compulsory requirements to be considered when facing the incentive of introducing a novel radiopharmaceutical into the market. Requirements from chemistry, routine application, and market are discussed. In a subsequent section, commercially available 99mTc-based radiopharmaceuticals are treated. It covers the complexes in use for imaging the most important target organs such as heart, brain, or kidney. The commercially available radiopharmaceuticals fulfill the requirements outlined earlier and are discussed with this background. In a following section, the properties and perspectives of the different generations of radiopharmaceuticals are described in a general way, covering characteristics for perfusion agents and for receptor-specific molecules. Technetium chemistry for the synthesis of perfusion agents and the different labeling approaches for target-specific biomolecules are summarized. The review comprises a general introduction to the common approaches currently in use, employing the N x S4-x , [3+1] and 2-hydrazino-nicotinicacid (HYNIC) method as well as more recent strategies such as the carbonyl and the TcN approach. Direct labeling without the need of a bifunctional chelator is briefly reviewed as well. More particularly, recent developments in the labeling of concrete targeting molecules, the second generation of radiopharmaceuticals, is then discussed and prominent examples with antibodies/peptides, neuroreceptor targeting small molecules, myocardial imaging agents, vitamins, thymidine, and complexes relevant to multidrug resistance are given. In addition, a new approach toward peptide drug development is described. The section

  4. Assessment of the quality of sample labelling for clinical research

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    Pablo Pérez-Huertas


    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the quality of the labels for clinical trial samples through current regulations, and to analyze its potential correlation with the specific characteristics of each sample. Method: A transversal multicenter study where the clinical trial samples from two third level hospitals were analyzed. The eleven items from Directive 2003/94/EC, as well as the name of the clinical trial and the dose on the label cover, were considered variables for labelling quality. The influence of the characteristics of each sample on labelling quality was also analyzed. Outcome: The study included 503 samples from 220 clinical trials. The mean quality of labelling, understood as the proportion of items from Appendix 13, was of 91.9%. Out of these, 6.6% did not include the name of the sample in the outer face of the label, while in 9.7% the dose was missing. The samples with clinical trial-type samples presented a higher quality (p < 0.049, blinding reduced their quality (p = 0.017, and identification by kit number or by patient increased it (p < 0.01. The promoter was the variable which introduced the highest variability into the analysis. Conclusions: The mean quality of labelling is adequate in the majority of clinical trial samples. The lack of essential information in some samples, such as the clinical trial code and the period of validity, is alarming and might be the potential source for dispensing or administration errors.

  5. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    Isotope exchange reactions between S-35-labeled sulfur compounds were studied in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries at 21-degrees-C and pH 7.4-7.7. Two experiments labeled with radioactive elemental sulfur (S-35-degrees) and one labeled with radioactive sulfate ((SO42-)-S-35) were performed as time...

  6. Chains, clusters, inclusion compounds, paramagnetic labels, and organic rings

    CERN Document Server

    Zanello, P


    The role of stereochemistry to elucidate reaction patterns and physico-chemical properties in topical subjects ranging from inorganic to organic chemistry are treated in the fifth and final volume of this series. Detailed accounts are given to study: chaining in polyphosphates, electron-transfers in carbonyl clusters, inclusion of organometallic molecules in cyclodextrins, stereochemistry of paramagnetic metal complexes by labeling with nitroxyl radicals, stereocontrol in organic syntheses assisted by inorganic complexes.

  7. Domain adaptation for semantic role labeling of clinical text


    Zhang, Yaoyun; Tang, Buzhou; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi; Xu, Hua


    Objective Semantic role labeling (SRL), which extracts a shallow semantic relation representation from different surface textual forms of free text sentences, is important for understanding natural language. Few studies in SRL have been conducted in the medical domain, primarily due to lack of annotated clinical SRL corpora, which are time-consuming and costly to build. The goal of this study is to investigate domain adaptation techniques for clinical SRL leveraging resources built from newsw...

  8. Novel ocular antihypertensive compounds in clinical trials

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    Chen J


    Full Text Available June Chen1, Stephen A Runyan1, Michael R Robinson21Department of Biological Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Clinical Research, Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA, USAIntroduction: Glaucoma is a multifactorial disease characterized by progressive optic nerve injury and visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most widely recognized risk factor for the onset and progression of open-angle glaucoma, and IOP-lowering medications comprise the primary treatment strategy. IOP elevation in glaucoma is associated with diminished or obstructed aqueous humor outflow. Pharmacotherapy reduces IOP by suppressing aqueous inflow and/or increasing aqueous outflow.Purpose: This review focuses on novel non-FDA approved ocular antihypertensive compounds being investigated for IOP reduction in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients in active clinical trials within approximately the past 2 years.Methods: The mode of IOP reduction, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of these new agents were assessed. Relevant drug efficacy and safety trials were identified from searches of various scientific literature databases and clinical trial registries. Compounds with no specified drug class, insufficient background information, reformulations, and fixed-combinations of marketed drugs were not considered.Results: The investigational agents identified comprise those that act on the same targets of established drug classes approved by the FDA (ie, prostaglandin analogs and β-adrenergic blockers as well as agents belonging to novel drug classes with unique mechanisms of action. Novel targets and compounds evaluated in clinical trials include an actin polymerization inhibitor (ie, latrunculin, Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitors, adenosine receptor analogs, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, cannabinoid receptor agonists, and a serotonin receptor antagonist.Conclusion: The clinical value of novel compounds for the treatment of glaucoma will depend

  9. Production of N-13 labeled compounds with high specific activity

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    Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Sasaki, Motoji; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Haradahira, Terushi; Inoue, Osamu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)


    Nitrogen-13 was produced by irradiating ultra pure water saturated with a pure gas (N2, O2, He, H2) with 18 MeV protons. Ion species generated by irradiation were analyzed with radio ion chromatography systems. An automated equipment was developed to synthesize anhydrous (13N)NH3 as a synthetic precursor and (13N)p-nitrophenyl carbamate ((13N)NPC) as a model compound, using the (13N)NH3. The radiochemical yield and specific activity of (13N)NPC was high enough to carry out the receptor study with PET. (author)

  10. Synthesis of Melamine-d6 and the Feasibility of Deuterium Labeled Compounds as Internal Standard

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    GUO Yang-zhen


    Full Text Available S-triazine is an important chemical intermediate. Melamine belongs to s-triazine, which has been widely used as an additive in the food industry. To study the stable isotope labeling method of heterocyclic triazine compounds and its application, one step synthesis of melamine-d6 was achieved with a yield of 30% (calculate in ND4OD, which started from ND4OD by the reaction with cyanuric chloride. According to the exchange mechanism of H/D, the feasibility and the necessary conditions were discussed for applying deuterium labeled compounds in isotope dilution mass spectrometry method.

  11. Measurement of loss rates of organic compounds in snow using in situ experiments and isotopically labelled compounds

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    Erika von Schneidemesser


    Full Text Available Organic molecular marker compounds are widely used to identify emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic air pollution sources in atmospheric samples and in deposition. Specific organic compounds have been detected in polar regions, but their fate after deposition to snow is poorly characterized. Within this context, a series of exposure experiments were carried out to observe the post-depositional processing of organic compounds under real-world conditions in snow on the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet, at the Summit research station. Snow was prepared from water spiked with isotopically labelled organic compounds, representative of typical molecular marker compounds emitted from anthropogenic activities. Reaction rate constants and reaction order were determined based on a decrease in concentration to a stable, non-zero, threshold concentration. Fluoranthene-d10, docosane-d46, hexadecanoic acid-d31, docosanoic acid-d43 and azelaic acid-d14 were estimated to have first order loss rates within surface snow with reaction rate constants of 0.068, 0.040, 0.070, 0.067 and 0.047 h−1, respectively. No loss of heptadecane-d36 was observed. Overall, these results suggest that organic contaminants are archived in polar snow, although significant post-depositional losses of specific organic compounds occur. This has implications for the environmental fate of organic contaminants, as well as for ice-core studies that seek to use organic molecular markers to infer past atmospheric loadings, and source emissions.

  12. A simple method for the measurement of labelled compound incorporation into cells in culture. (United States)

    Suplisson, A; Boissel, J P


    A simple method for the measurement of labelled compound incorporation into cells in layer culture was developed. Compared to other methods it proves to spare time and to be more sensitive owing to the fact that cells are not detached from the culture vials until the end of the manipulation as these are dissolved in the scintillation medium together with the cells just before counting.

  13. Domain adaptation for semantic role labeling of clinical text (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Tang, Buzhou; Jiang, Min; Wang, Jingqi


    Objective Semantic role labeling (SRL), which extracts a shallow semantic relation representation from different surface textual forms of free text sentences, is important for understanding natural language. Few studies in SRL have been conducted in the medical domain, primarily due to lack of annotated clinical SRL corpora, which are time-consuming and costly to build. The goal of this study is to investigate domain adaptation techniques for clinical SRL leveraging resources built from newswire and biomedical literature to improve performance and save annotation costs. Materials and Methods Multisource Integrated Platform for Answering Clinical Questions (MiPACQ), a manually annotated SRL clinical corpus, was used as the target domain dataset. PropBank and NomBank from newswire and BioProp from biomedical literature were used as source domain datasets. Three state-of-the-art domain adaptation algorithms were employed: instance pruning, transfer self-training, and feature augmentation. The SRL performance using different domain adaptation algorithms was evaluated by using 10-fold cross-validation on the MiPACQ corpus. Learning curves for the different methods were generated to assess the effect of sample size. Results and Conclusion When all three source domain corpora were used, the feature augmentation algorithm achieved statistically significant higher F-measure (83.18%), compared to the baseline with MiPACQ dataset alone (F-measure, 81.53%), indicating that domain adaptation algorithms may improve SRL performance on clinical text. To achieve a comparable performance to the baseline method that used 90% of MiPACQ training samples, the feature augmentation algorithm required <50% of training samples in MiPACQ, demonstrating that annotation costs of clinical SRL can be reduced significantly by leveraging existing SRL resources from other domains. PMID:26063745

  14. Preparation and preclinical evaluation of {sup 211}At-labelled compounds for {alpha}-particle radiotherapy

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    Larsen, R.H.


    The interest for {alpha}-particle emitters in internal radiotherapy is increasing due to improved conjugation chemistry. Experimental work has concentrated on {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Bi since these to nuclides have radiochemical and physical properties suitable for medical application. In this report it is demonstrated that biologically active {sup 211}At-labelled compounds can be prepared within a relatively short time allowing utilization of this 7.2 h {alpha}-particle. It is further shown that {sup 211}At-TP-3 treatment of human osteosarcoma in vitro gives promising therapeutic ratios. 76 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. 3D Pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling in routine clinical practice: A review of clinically significant artifacts. (United States)

    Amukotuwa, Shalini A; Yu, Caroline; Zaharchuk, Gregory


    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a completely noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) perfusion method for quantitatively measuring cerebral blood flow utilizing magnetically labeled arterial water. Advances in the technique have enabled the major MRI vendors to make the sequence available to the clinical neuroimaging community. Consequently, ASL is being increasingly incorporated into the routine neuroimaging protocol. Although a variety of ASL techniques are available, the ISMRM Perfusion Study Group and the European ASL in Dementia Consortium have released consensus guidelines recommending standardized implementation of 3D pseudocontinuous ASL with background suppression. The purpose of this review, aimed at the large number of neuroimaging clinicians who have either no or limited experience with this 3D pseudocontinuous ASL, is to discuss the common and clinically significant artifacts that may be encountered with this technique. While some of these artifacts hinder accurate interpretation of studies, either by degrading the images or mimicking pathology, there are other artifacts that are of clinical utility, because they increase the conspicuity of pathology. Cognizance of these artifacts will help the physician interpreting ASL to avoid potential diagnostic pitfalls, and increase their level of comfort with the technique.

  16. Production of Specifically Labeled Compounds by Methanobacterium espanolae Grown on H(2)-CO(2) plus [C]Acetate. (United States)

    Patel, G B; Sprott, D; Ekiel, I


    Methanobacterium espanolae, an acidiphilic methanogen, required acetate for maximal growth on H(2)-CO(2). In the presence of 5 to 15 mM acetate, at a growth pH of 5.5, the mu(max) was 0.05 h. M. espanolae consumed 12.3 mM acetate during 96 h of incubation at 35 degrees C with shaking at 100 rpm. At initial acetate levels of 2.5 to 10.0 mM, the amount of biomass produced was dependent on the amount of acetate in the medium. C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of protein hydrolysates obtained from cultures grown on [1-C]- or [2-C]acetate indicated that an incomplete tricarboxylic acid pathway, operating in the reductive direction, was functional in this methanogen. The amino acids were labeled with a very high degree of specificity and at greater than 90% enrichment levels. Less than 2% label randomization occurred between positions primarily labeled from either the carboxyl or methyl group of acetate, and very little label was transferred to positions primarily labeled from CO(2). The labeling pattern of carbohydrates was typical for glucogenesis from pyruvate. This methanogen, by virtue of the properties described above and its ability to incorporate all of the available acetate (10 mM or lower) from the growth medium, has advantages over other microorganisms for use in the production of specifically labeled compounds.

  17. Off-label psychopharmacologic prescribing for children: History supports close clinical monitoring

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    Fegert Joerg M


    Full Text Available Abstract The review presents pediatric adverse drug events from a historical perspective and focuses on selected safety issues associated with off-label use of medications for the psychiatric treatment of youth. Clinical monitoring procedures for major psychotropic drug classes are reviewed. Prior studies suggest that systematic treatment monitoring is warranted so as to both minimize risk of unexpected adverse events and exposures to ineffective treatments. Clinical trials to establish the efficacy and safety of drugs currently being used off-label in the pediatric population are needed. In the meantime, clinicians should consider the existing evidence-base for these drugs and institute close clinical monitoring.

  18. Bismuth absorption from sup 205 Bi-labelled pharmaceutical bismuth compounds used in the treatment of peptic ulcer disease

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    Dresow, B.; Fischer, R.; Gabbe, E.E.; Wendel, J.; Heinrich, H.C. (Eppendorf University Hospital, Hamburg (Germany))


    The absorption of bismuth from five {sup 205}Bi-labelled pharmaceutically used bismuth compounds was studied in man. From single oral doses of all compounds under investigation only <0.1% bismuth was absorbed and excreted with the urine. A significantly higher absorption was observed from the colloidal bismuth subcitrate and the basic bismuth gallate than from the basic bismuth salicylate, nitrate and aluminate. No retention of bismuth in the whole body was found from the single dose experiment. The biologic fast-term half-lives of absorbed bismuth were calculated to be 0.12 and 1.5 days. 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Clinically relevant safety issues associated with St. John's wort product labels

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    Rutledge Jennifer C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background St. John's wort (SJW, used to treat depression, is popular in the USA, Canada, and parts of Europe. However, there are documented interactions between SJW and prescription medications including warfarin, cyclosporine, indinavir, and oral contraceptives. One source of information about these safety considerations is the product label. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinically relevant safety information included on labeling in a nationally representative sample of SJW products from the USA. Methods Eight clinically relevant safety issues were identified: drug interactions (SJW-HIV medications, SJW-immunosupressants, SJW-oral contraceptives, and SJW-warfarin, contraindications (bipolar disorder, therapeutic duplication (antidepressants, and general considerations (phototoxicity and advice to consult a healthcare professional (HCP. A list of SJW products was identified to assess their labels. Percentages and totals were used to present findings. Results Of the seventy-four products evaluated, no product label provided information for all 8 evaluation criteria. Three products (4.1% provided information on 7 of the 8 criteria. Four products provided no safety information whatsoever. Percentage of products with label information was: SJW-HIV (8.1%, SJW-immunosupressants (5.4%, SJW-OCPs (8.1%, SJW-warfarin (5.4%, bipolar (1.4%, antidepressants (23.0%, phototoxicity (51.4%, and consult HCP (87.8%. Other safety-related information on labels included warnings about pregnancy (74.3%, lactation (64.9%, discontinue if adverse reaction (23.0%, and not for use in patients under 18 years old (13.5%. The average number of a priori safety issues included on a product label was 1.91 (range 0–8 for 23.9% completeness. Conclusion The vast majority of SJW products fail to adequately address clinically relevant safety issues on their labeling. A few products do provide an acceptable amount of information on clinically relevant safety

  20. Functional investigations on embryonic stem cells labeled with clinically translatable iron oxide nanoparticles (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Liqin; Cao, Jianbo; Huang, Yue; Lin, Yu; Wu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Fan; Xu, Xiuqin; Liu, Gang


    Stem cell based therapies offer significant potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly used to track the transplanted cells, enabling in vivo determination of cell fate. However, the impact of SPIO-labeling on the cell phenotype and differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unclear. In this study, we wrapped SPIO nanoparticles with stearic acid grafted PEI600, termed as Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO, to generate efficient and non-toxic ESC labeling tools. Our results showed that efficient labeling of ESCs at an optimized low dosage of Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles did not alter the differentiation and self-renewal properties of ESCs. The localization of the transplanted ESCs observed by MRI correlated well with histological studies. These findings demonstrate that Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles have potential to be clinically translatable MRI probes and may enable non-invasive in vivo tracking of ESCs in experimental and clinical settings during cell-based therapies.Stem cell based therapies offer significant potential in the field of regenerative medicine. The development of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle labeling and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been increasingly used to track the transplanted cells, enabling in vivo determination of cell fate. However, the impact of SPIO-labeling on the cell phenotype and differentiation capacity of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) remains unclear. In this study, we wrapped SPIO nanoparticles with stearic acid grafted PEI600, termed as Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO, to generate efficient and non-toxic ESC labeling tools. Our results showed that efficient labeling of ESCs at an optimized low dosage of Stearic-LWPEI-SPIO nanoparticles did not alter the differentiation and self-renewal properties of ESCs. The localization of the transplanted ESCs observed by MRI

  1. Clinical utility of arterial spin-labeling as a confirmatory test for suspected brain death. (United States)

    Kang, K M; Yun, T J; Yoon, B-W; Jeon, B S; Choi, S H; Kim, J-H; Kim, J E; Sohn, C-H; Han, M H


    Diagnosis of brain death is made on the basis of 3 essential findings: coma, absence of brain stem reflexes, and apnea. Although confirmatory tests are not mandatory in most situations, additional testing may be necessary to declare brain death in patients in whom results of specific components of clinical testing cannot be reliably evaluated. Recently, arterial spin-labeling has been incorporated as part of MR imaging to evaluate cerebral perfusion. Advantages of arterial spin-labeling include being completely noninvasive and providing information about absolute CBF. We retrospectively reviewed arterial spin-labeling findings according to the following modified criteria based on previously established confirmatory tests to determine brain death: 1) extremely decreased perfusion in the whole brain, 2) bright vessel signal intensity around the entry of the carotid artery to the skull, 3) patent external carotid circulation, and 4) "hollow skull sign" in a series of 5 patients. Arterial spin-labeling findings satisfied the criteria for brain death in all patients. Arterial spin-labeling imaging has the potential to be a completely noninvasive confirmatory test to provide additional information to assist in the diagnosis of brain death.

  2. Hidden allergens in foods and implications for labelling and clinical care of food allergic patients. (United States)

    Zurzolo, Giovanni A; Mathai, Michael L; Koplin, Jennifer J; Allen, Katrina J


    The prevalence of precautionary labelling remains high. This prevalence restricts food choices, in some cases perhaps unnecessarily, for food allergic consumers. During processing, cross-contamination does often occur in food products due to the way that modern processing facilities operate; however, zero risk of cross contamination is not a realistic expectation. There is evidence to suggest that threshold levels below which reactions are not provoked in allergic individuals do exist and these have been established in the literature for peanuts. Additional information such as understanding threshold levels will be important to this field of research. The data that will be obtained from future clinical trials will help to underpin action plans for precautionary labelling. This paper will review the current literature that is available regarding: consumer behaviour and attitudes regarding precautionary labelling; risk to the consumer and analytical results of products that bear advisory labelling; the current debate regarding whether a tolerable level of risk can be obtained in food allergy; and finally, the newly introduced Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) system operating in Australia.

  3. What's in a Label? Is Diagnosis the Start or the End of Clinical Reasoning? (United States)

    Ilgen, Jonathan S; Eva, Kevin W; Regehr, Glenn


    Diagnostic reasoning has received substantial attention in the literature, yet what we mean by "diagnosis" may vary. Diagnosis can align with assignment of a "label," where a constellation of signs, symptoms, and test results is unified into a solution at a single point in time. This "diagnostic labeling" conceptualization is embodied in our case-based learning curricula, published case reports, and research studies, all of which treat diagnostic accuracy as the primary outcome. However, this conceptualization may oversimplify the richly iterative and evolutionary nature of clinical reasoning in many settings. Diagnosis can also represent a process of guiding one's thoughts by "making meaning" from data that are intrinsically dynamic, experienced idiosyncratically, negotiated among team members, and rich with opportunities for exploration. Thus, there are two complementary constructions of diagnosis: 1) the correct solution resulting from a diagnostic reasoning process, and 2) a dynamic aid to an ongoing clinical reasoning process. This article discusses the importance of recognizing these two conceptualizations of "diagnosis," outlines the unintended consequences of emphasizing diagnostic labeling as the primary goal of clinical reasoning, and suggests how framing diagnosis as an ongoing process of meaning-making might change how we think about teaching and assessing clinical reasoning.


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    Ranjith Kumar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Organophosphate insecticides/pesticides are used widely throughout the world. The organophosphorus poisoning is a very serious condition that needs rapid treatment. Emergent and appropriate management is always desirable to prevent the serious complications and high mortality. In this study, we determine the clinical presentation and outcome of organophosphorus poisoning in our institute. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study carried out in Medicine Department, SIMS, Shimoga, from January 1st, 2016 to April 20th 2016. A total of 100 cases of OP poisoning were studied. We included all patients of organophosphate poisoning presented either with signs of muscarinic involvement or signs of nicotinic involvement. Outcome measured according to W.H.O. classification of severity. RESULT Out of a total 100 patients of organophosphate poisoning were admitted, among these 44% were males and 56% females. Average age was 28.9±8.8 years. Nausea and vomiting was the most common clinical feature found in 93% of the patients followed by salivation seen in 91% and Miosis in 87%. According to W.H.O. Classification for Severity of Organophosphate poisoning. Mild 46%, 37% cases were moderate and 17% were severe. Overall mortality rate was 19%. CONCLUSION Present study shows the importance of WHO staging of severity of organophosphorus compound poisoning as mortality increases with severity. Study also showed that delayed arrival, lack of ICU facility and lack of preliminary management at the early stage are the causes of increased mortality in OP compound poisoning. OP compound poisoning needs rapid diagnosis, early and effective treatment to decrease the severity and mortality. These finding shows need for improvement in primary health care facility to decrease morbidity and mortality

  5. Non-labeling multiplex surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chi Lok; Dinish, U. S.; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk


    -pillars. In this experiment, detections of acetone and ethanol vapor at different concentrations were demonstrated. The detection limits were found to be 0.0017 ng and 0.0037 ng for ethanol and acetone vapor molecules respectively. Our approach is a non-labeling method such that it does not require the incorporation of any...... of acetone and ethanol vapor was also successfully demonstrated. The vibrational fingerprints of molecular structures provide specific Raman peaks for different VOCs contents. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first multiplex VOCs detection using SERS. We believe that this work may lead to a portable...

  6. Assessing the Zinc solubilization ability of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in maize rhizosphere using labelled (65)Zn compounds. (United States)

    Sarathambal, C; Thangaraju, M; Paulraj, C; Gomathy, M


    Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds like ZnCO(3) and ZnO by G. diazotrophicus was confirmed using radiotracers. The zinc compounds (ZnCO(3) and ZnO) were tagged with (65)Zn. (65)ZnCO(3) and (65)ZnO was effectively solubilized and the uptake of zn by the plants also more in G. diazotrophicus inoculated treatments compared to the uninoculated treatments. Three types of soils (Zn deficientsterile, Zn deficient-unsterile, and Zn sufficient-sterile) were used in experiment. Among the three soils, Zn deficient-unsterile soil registered maximum zinc solubilization compared to other two soils. This may be due to other soil microorganisms in unsterile soil. Application of ZnO with G. diazotrophicus showed better uptake of the nutrient.

  7. The influence of spin-labeled fluorene compounds on the assembly and toxicity of the aβ peptide.

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    Jitka Petrlova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The deposition and oligomerization of amyloid β (Aβ peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Aβ peptide arises from cleavage of the membrane-associated domain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP by β and γ secretases. Several lines of evidence point to the soluble Aβ oligomer (AβO as the primary neurotoxic species in the etiology of AD. Recently, we have demonstrated that a class of fluorene molecules specifically disrupts the AβO species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To achieve a better understanding of the mechanism of action of this disruptive ability, we extend the application of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of site-directed spin labels in the Aβ peptide to investigate the binding and influence of fluorene compounds on AβO structure and dynamics. In addition, we have synthesized a spin-labeled fluorene (SLF containing a pyrroline nitroxide group that provides both increased cell protection against AβO toxicity and a route to directly observe the binding of the fluorene to the AβO assembly. We also evaluate the ability of fluorenes to target multiple pathological processes involved in the neurodegenerative cascade, such as their ability to block AβO toxicity, scavenge free radicals and diminish the formation of intracellular AβO species. CONCLUSIONS: Fluorene modified with pyrroline nitroxide may be especially useful in counteracting Aβ peptide toxicity, because they possess both antioxidant properties and the ability to disrupt AβO species.

  8. Detection and Labeling of Vertebrae in MR Images Using Deep Learning with Clinical Annotations as Training Data. (United States)

    Forsberg, Daniel; Sjöblom, Erik; Sunshine, Jeffrey L


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of using clinically provided spine label annotations stored in a single institution image archive as training data for deep learning-based vertebral detection and labeling pipelines. Lumbar and cervical magnetic resonance imaging cases with annotated spine labels were identified and exported from an image archive. Two separate pipelines were configured and trained for lumbar and cervical cases respectively, using the same setup with convolutional neural networks for detection and parts-based graphical models to label the vertebrae. The detection sensitivity, precision and accuracy rates ranged between 99.1-99.8, 99.6-100, and 98.8-99.8% respectively, the average localization error ranges were 1.18-1.24 and 2.38-2.60 mm for cervical and lumbar cases respectively, and with a labeling accuracy of 96.0-97.0%. Failed labeling results typically involved failed S1 detections or missed vertebrae that were not fully visible on the image. These results show that clinically annotated image data from one image archive is sufficient to train a deep learning-based pipeline for accurate detection and labeling of MR images depicting the spine. Further, these results support using deep learning to assist radiologists in their work by providing highly accurate labels that only require rapid confirmation.

  9. Labeled extra virgin olive oil as food supplement; phenolic compounds in oils from some autochthonous Croatian olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobušić Brala, C.


    Full Text Available Within the framework of an incentive to provide labeled extra virgin olive oils as a food supplement in pharmacies, the phenolic profile analysis of extra virgin olive oils obtained from Croatian olive cultivars has been reported. With the aim of increasing the consumption of EVOO-s in northern Croatia, the varieties Bjelica, Buža and Italian Leccino have been studied involving two different agroclimatic locations, over two harvest years differing significantly in the amount of rainfall. The Croatian cultivars Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica and Lastovka, were also examined. Correlation tests and the insight from PCA reveal that the cultivars are highly individualized in character with regard to relationships among phenolic compounds. Some elements of an innovative labeling aimed to better present the authenticity, quality, excellence and uniqueness of the EVOO-s were suggested.En el marco de los incentivos que se han considerado para proporcionar el etiquetado de aceites de oliva virgen extra como suplemento alimenticio en farmacias, se reporta el análisis del perfil fenólico de aceites de oliva vírgenes extra obtenidos a partir de variedades croatas. Para ampliar el consumo de AOVE-s en el norte de Croacia, se han estudiado las variedades Bjelica, Buža y Leccino italiana procedentes de dos lugares agroclimáticos diferentes que difieren significativamente en la cantidad de lluvia y obtenidos en dos cosechas. Tambien fueron examinados los cultivares croatas Plominka, Žižolera, Oblica y Lastovka. Los test de correlación y los resultados de PCA revelan que las variedades están altamente individualizados en su carácter en lo que respecta a las relaciones entre los compuestos fenólicos. Se sugirieron algunos elementos innovadores para un etiquetado dirigido a presentar mejor la autenticidad, la calidad, la excelencia y la singularidad de los AOVE-s.

  10. Relation between clinical mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood and their spatial label free scattering patterns (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Zhenxi; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Li


    A single living cell's light scattering pattern (LSP) in the horizontal plane, which has been denoted as the cell's "2D fingerprint," may provide a powerful label-free detection tool in clinical applications. We have recently studied the LSP in spatial scattering planes, denoted as the cell's "3D fingerprint," for mature and immature lymphocyte cells in human peripheral blood. The effects of membrane size, morphology, and the existence of the nucleus on the spatial LSP are discussed. In order to distinguish clinical label-free mature and immature lymphocytes, the special features of the spatial LSP are studied by statistical method in both the spatial and frequency domains. Spatial LSP provides rich information on the cell's morphology and contents, which can distinguish mature from immature lymphocyte cells and hence ultimately it may be a useful label-free technique for clinical leukemia diagnosis.

  11. Clinical utility of labeled cells for detection of allograft rejection and myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawwaz, R.A.


    The choice of a specific radiolabeled blood component for use in detection of allograft rejection depends on several factors including the immunosuppressive agents used, the type of organ allografted, and particularly the length of time the allograft resides in the host and the duration of rejection. To date, only the use of 111In-labeled platelets in renal allograft recipients immunosuppressed with azathioprine and corticosteroids has shown clinical promise in the detection of early allograft rejection. Radiolabeled blood components are unlikely to play a significant role in detection of myocardial infarction. The use of these agents for monitoring therapeutic interventions or as indicators of prognosis in patients with myocardial infarction continues to be investigated.

  12. (90) Y/(177) Lu-labelled Cetuximab immunoconjugates: radiochemistry optimization to clinical dose formulation. (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Nair, K V Vimalnath; Rajeswari, Ardhi; Dash, Ashutosh


    Radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are increasingly being utilized in cancer theranostics, which is a significant move toward tailored treatment for individual patients. Cetuximab is a recombinant, human-mouse chimeric IgG1 mAb that binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity. We have optimized a protocol for formulation of clinically relevant doses (~2.22 GBq) of (90) Y-labelled Cetuximab and (177) Lu-labelled Cetuximab by conjugation of the mAb with a suitable bifunctional chelator, N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(paraisothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA). The radioimmunoconjugates demonstrated reasonably high specific activity (1.26 ± 0.27 GBq/mg for (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab and 1.14 ± 0.15 GBq/mg for (177) Lu-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab), high radiochemical purity (>95%) and appreciable in vitro stability under physiological conditions. Preliminary biodistribution studies with both (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab and (177) Lu-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab in Swiss mice bearing fibrosarcoma tumours demonstrated significant tumour uptake at 24-h post-injection (p.i.) (~16%ID/g) with good tumour-to-background contrast. The results of the biodistribution studies were further corroborated by ex vivo Cerenkov luminescence imaging after administration of (90) Y-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab in tumour-bearing mice. The tumour uptake at 24 h p.i. was significantly reduced with excess unlabelled Cetuximab, suggesting that the uptake was receptor mediated. The results of this study hold promise, and this strategy should be further explored for clinical translation.

  13. Graphic Warning Labels Elicit Affective and Thoughtful Responses from Smokers: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T Evans

    Full Text Available Observational research suggests that placing graphic images on cigarette warning labels can reduce smoking rates, but field studies lack experimental control. Our primary objective was to determine the psychological processes set in motion by naturalistic exposure to graphic vs. text-only warnings in a randomized clinical trial involving exposure to modified cigarette packs over a 4-week period. Theories of graphic-warning impact were tested by examining affect toward smoking, credibility of warning information, risk perceptions, quit intentions, warning label memory, and smoking risk knowledge.Adults who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes daily (N = 293; mean age = 33.7, did not have a contra-indicated medical condition, and did not intend to quit were recruited from Philadelphia, PA and Columbus, OH. Smokers were randomly assigned to receive their own brand of cigarettes for four weeks in one of three warning conditions: text only, graphic images plus text, or graphic images with elaborated text.Data from 244 participants who completed the trial were analyzed in structural-equation models. The presence of graphic images (compared to text-only caused more negative affect toward smoking, a process that indirectly influenced risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk perception->quit intention. Negative affect from graphic images also enhanced warning credibility including through increased scrutiny of the warnings, a process that also indirectly affected risk perceptions and quit intentions (e.g., image->negative affect->risk scrutiny->warning credibility->risk perception->quit intention. Unexpectedly, elaborated text reduced warning credibility. Finally, graphic warnings increased warning-information recall and indirectly increased smoking-risk knowledge at the end of the trial and one month later.In the first naturalistic clinical trial conducted, graphic warning labels are more effective than text-only warnings

  14. Development of pharmaceuticals with radioactive rhenium for cancer therapy. Production of {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, synthesis of labeled compounds and their biodistributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Production of the radioactive rhenium isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, and synthesis of their labeled compounds have been studied together with the biodistributions of the compounds. This work was carried out by the Working Group on Radioactive Rhenium, consisting of researchers of JAERI and some universities, in the Subcommittee for Production and Radiolabeling under the Consultative Committee of Research on Radioisotopes. For {sup 186}Re, production methods by the {sup 185}Re(n,{gamma}){sup 186}Re reaction in a reactor and by the {sup 186}W(p,n){sup 186}Re reaction with an accelerator, which can produce nocarrier-added {sup 186}Re, have been established. For {sup 188}Re, a production method by the double neutron capture reaction of {sup 186}W, which produces a {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator, has been established. For labeling of bisphosphonate, DMSA, DTPA, DADS, aminomethylenephosphonate and some monoclonal antibodies with the radioactive rhenium isotopes, the optimum conditions, including pH, the amounts of reagents and so on, have been determined for each compound. The biodistributions of each of the labeled compounds in mice have been also obtained. (author)

  15. Clinical evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte imaging in ulcerative colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yasuhiro; Aburano, Tamio; Takashio, Tetsuya; Shuke, Noriyuki; Ayabe, Tokiyoshi; Nomura, Masashi; Kohgo, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Yukio; Satoh, Junichi [Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan)


    Inflammatory imaging using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labeled mixed leukocytes was assessed for use in treating 11 cases diagnosed as ulcerative colitis: 10 cases with total colitis and 1 with left-sided colitis. They consisted of 8 patients with relapse-remitting type and 3 with chronic continuous type. Radionuclide abdominal images were obtained at 1 hr, 4 hr and 24 hr after intravenous injection of 200 MBq prepared {sup 99m}Tc leukocytes. Obvious colonic activity noted at 4 hr served as the basis for positive comparative criterion in the present study. The diagnostic efficacy of radionuclide imaging was compared with endoscopic findings (based on Matts` classification) and the clinical manifestations as reference. The sensitivity and specificity of this imaging were 83.3% and 85.7%, respectively, these values being consistent with endoscopic findings and clinical manifestations at sites of disease activity. All of positive images changed to negative after treatment by leukocyte apheresis or glucocorticoid. Based on these results, {sup 99m}Tc leukocyte imaging can be used to accurately evaluate severity and treatment response in ulcerative colitis. Leukocytes may be closely related to the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. (author)

  16. Ontology-supported processing of clinical text using medical knowledge integration for multi-label classification of diagnosis coding

    CERN Document Server

    Waraporn, Phanu; Clayton, Gareth


    This paper discusses the knowledge integration of clinical information extracted from distributed medical ontology in order to ameliorate a machine learning-based multi-label coding assignment system. The proposed approach is implemented using a decision tree based cascade hierarchical technique on the university hospital data for patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). The preliminary results obtained show a satisfactory finding.

  17. Off-label use of recombinant factor VIIa for treatment of haemorrhage: results from randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar


    Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is used for haemophilic patients with inhibitors against coagulation factor VIII or IX, but there is also an off-label use of rFVIIa for patients with massive bleeding. The aim of the present study was to review the randomized clinical trials (RCT...

  18. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine


    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging tracking of ferumoxytol-labeled human neural stem cells: studies leading to clinical use. (United States)

    Gutova, Margarita; Frank, Joseph A; D'Apuzzo, Massimo; Khankaldyyan, Vazgen; Gilchrist, Megan M; Annala, Alexander J; Metz, Marianne Z; Abramyants, Yelena; Herrmann, Kelsey A; Ghoda, Lucy Y; Najbauer, Joseph; Brown, Christine E; Blanchard, M Suzette; Lesniak, Maciej S; Kim, Seung U; Barish, Michael E; Aboody, Karen S; Moats, Rex A


    Numerous stem cell-based therapies are currently under clinical investigation, including the use of neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles to target therapeutic agents to invasive brain tumors. The ability to monitor the time course, migration, and distribution of stem cells following transplantation into patients would provide critical information for optimizing treatment regimens. No effective cell-tracking methodology has yet garnered clinical acceptance. A highly promising noninvasive method for monitoring NSCs and potentially other cell types in vivo involves preloading them with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) to enable cell tracking using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report here the preclinical studies that led to U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for first-in-human investigational use of ferumoxytol to label NSCs prior to transplantation into brain tumor patients, followed by surveillance serial MRI. A combination of heparin, protamine sulfate, and ferumoxytol (HPF) was used to label the NSCs. HPF labeling did not affect cell viability, growth kinetics, or tumor tropism in vitro, and it enabled MRI visualization of NSC distribution within orthotopic glioma xenografts. MRI revealed dynamic in vivo NSC distribution at multiple time points following intracerebral or intravenous injection into glioma-bearing mice that correlated with histological analysis. Preclinical safety/toxicity studies of intracerebrally administered HPF-labeled NSCs in mice were also performed, and they showed no significant clinical or behavioral changes, no neuronal or systemic toxicities, and no abnormal accumulation of iron in the liver or spleen. These studies support the clinical use of ferumoxytol labeling of cells for post-transplant MRI visualization and tracking.

  20. Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling for quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds in thyroid tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ruo-Jing [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Guan, Qing [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Zhang, Fang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Leng, Jia-Peng [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Sun, Tuan-Qi, E-mail: [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032 (China); Guo, Yin-Long, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Organmetallic Chemistry and National Center for Organic Mass Spectrometry in Shanghai, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 345 Lingling Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)


    Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) was explored to quantify the guanidino and ureido compounds (GCs and UCs). This method employed a common reagent, benzil, to label the guanidino and ureido groups through nucleophilic attacking then benzylic migrating. The use of BRSIL was investigated in the analysis of five GCs (creatine, L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, and methylguanidine) and two UCs (urea and citrulline). The labeling was found simple and specific. The introduction of bi-phenyl group and the generation of nitrogen heterocyclic ring in the benzil-d0/d5 labeled GCs and UCs improved the retention behaviors in liquid chromatography (LC) and increased the sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) detection. The fragment ion pairs of m/z 182/187 and m/z 210/215 from the benzil-d0/d5 tags facilitated the discovery of potential GCs and UCs candidates residing in biological matrices. The use of BRSIL combined with LC-ESI MS was applied for simultaneously quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues. It was demonstrated that nine GCs and UCs were detected, six of which were further quantified based on corresponding standards. It was concluded that five GCs and UCs (L-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, methylguanidine, and citrulline) were statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) between the para-carcinoma and carcinoma thyroid tissue samples. - Highlights: • A common reagent, benzil-d0/d5 was employed to label the GCs and UCs through BRSIL. • The benzil-d0/d5 labeling improved the retention behavior in RPLC and increased the sensitivity by ESI MS detection. • BRSIL coupled with LC-ESI MS was applied to the qualitation and quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues.

  1. Clinical comparison of three labeled-antibody immunoassays of free triiodothyronine. (United States)

    Piketty, M L; d'Herbomez, M; Le Guillouzic, D; Lebtahi, R; Cosson, E; Dumont, A; Dilouya, A; Helal, B O


    Three labeled-antibody immunoassays of free triiodothyronine (FT3) were studied in hyperthyroid patients, patients with nonthyroidal illness, and patients being treated with amiodarone; we also studied sera presenting known interferences (n for all groups = 465). The results were compared with those of a one-step labeled-analog assay. The precision of the two automated assays were similar to that of the manual assays. The three labeled-antibody FT3 assays demonstrated a satisfactory diagnostic performance for confirming hyperthyroidism and robustness to interference; nevertheless, two assays displayed unusual behavior in some patients with nonthyroidal illness, with chronic renal failure, or after amiodarone therapy.

  2. A neuroradiologist's guide to arterial spin labeling MRI in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grade, M. [Queen Square, UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Hernandez Tamames, J.A. [Rey Juan Carlos University, Medical Image Analysis and Biometry Laboratory, Madrid (Spain); Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pizzini, F.B. [Queen Square, UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Verona University Hospital, Neuroradiology, Department of Diagnostics and Pathology, Verona (Italy); Achten, E. [Ghent University Hospital, Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Golay, X. [Queen Square, UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Smits, M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Centre Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, PO Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands)


    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive MRI technique to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). This review provides a practical guide and overview of the clinical applications of ASL of the brain, as well its potential pitfalls. The technical and physiological background is also addressed. At present, main areas of interest are cerebrovascular disease, dementia and neuro-oncology. In cerebrovascular disease, ASL is of particular interest owing to its quantitative nature and its capability to determine cerebral arterial territories. In acute stroke, the source of the collateral blood supply in the penumbra may be visualised. In chronic cerebrovascular disease, the extent and severity of compromised cerebral perfusion can be visualised, which may be used to guide therapeutic or preventative intervention. ASL has potential for the detection and follow-up of arteriovenous malformations. In the workup of dementia patients, ASL is proposed as a diagnostic alternative to PET. It can easily be added to the routinely performed structural MRI examination. In patients with established Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia, hypoperfusion patterns are seen that are similar to hypometabolism patterns seen with PET. Studies on ASL in brain tumour imaging indicate a high correlation between areas of increased CBF as measured with ASL and increased cerebral blood volume as measured with dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion imaging. Major advantages of ASL for brain tumour imaging are the fact that CBF measurements are not influenced by breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, as well as its quantitative nature, facilitating multicentre and longitudinal studies. (orig.)

  3. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish V. Patel


    Full Text Available Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda. The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA. In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  4. A Complex Multiherbal Regimen Based on Ayurveda Medicine for the Management of Hepatic Cirrhosis Complicated by Ascites: Nonrandomized, Uncontrolled, Single Group, Open-Label Observational Clinical Study. (United States)

    Patel, Manish V; Patel, Kalapi B; Gupta, Shivenarain; Michalsen, Andreas; Stapelfeldt, Elmar; Kessler, Christian S


    Hepatic cirrhosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially if complicated by ascites. This chronic condition can be related to the classical disease entity jalodara in Traditional Indian Medicine (Ayurveda). The present paper aims to evaluate the general potential of Ayurvedic therapy for overall clinical outcomes in hepatic cirrhosis complicated by ascites (HCcA). In form of a nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single group, open-label observational clinical study, 56 patients fulfilling standardized diagnostic criteria for HCcA were observed during their treatment at the P. D. Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad, India. Based on Ayurvedic tradition, a standardized treatment protocol was developed and implemented, consisting of oral administration of single and compound herbal preparations combined with purificatory measures as well as dietary and lifestyle regimens. The outcomes were assessed by measuring liver functions through specific clinical features and laboratory parameters and by evaluating the Child-Pugh prognostic grade score. After 6 weeks of treatment and a follow-up period of 18 weeks, the outcomes showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements. Further larger and randomized trials on effectiveness, safety, and quality of the Ayurvedic approach in the treatment of HCcA are warranted to support these preliminary findings.

  5. Effect of Compound Sulfadiazine Suspension on Growth Performance of Broiler in Clinical Efficacy Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Wang


    Full Text Available Compound Sulfadiazine suspension is used mainly to prevent and cure E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken in veterinary clinical application. Effect of compound Sulfadiazine suspension on growth performance of broiler in clinical efficacy trial was studied in the study. One hundred eighty 15-day-old broilers were divided randomly into six groups, blank control group, negative control group, Trisulmixos gavage group, Trisulmixos drinking group, Sufuning gavage group and Sufuning drinking group, respectively. There were three repeating treatments in each group and ten broilers in each treatment. Results showed that compound Sulfadiazine suspension can promote the feed conversion rate of broiler when curing E. coli, Salmonella infection of chicken. Both from the perspective of efficacy and from the perspective of growth performance, giving drug by gavage were more effective than giving by drinking. When two products of Compound Sulfadiazine suspension were compared, the indicators of Sufuning were a little better Trisulmixos.

  6. Mn-doped Zinc Sulphide nanocrystals for immunofluorescent labeling of epidermal growth factor receptors on cells and clinical tumor tissues (United States)

    J, Aswathy; V, Seethalekshmy N.; R, Hiran K.; R, Bindhu M.; K, Manzoor; Nair, Shantikumar V.; Menon, Deepthy


    The field of molecular detection and targeted imaging has evolved considerably with the introduction of fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals. Manganese-doped zinc sulphide nanocrystals (ZnS:Mn NCs), which are widely used in electroluminescent displays, have been explored for the first time for direct immunofluorescent (IF) labeling of clinical tumor tissues. ZnS:Mn NCs developed through a facile wet chemistry route were capped using amino acid cysteine, conjugated to streptavidin and thereafter coupled to biotinylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody utilizing the streptavidin-biotin linkage. The overall conjugation yielded stable EGFR antibody conjugated ZnS:Mn NCs (EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 65 ± 15 nm, and having an intense orange-red fluorescence emission at 598 nm. Specific labeling of EGF receptors on EGFR+ve A431 cells in a co-culture with EGFR-ve NIH3T3 cells was demonstrated using these nanoprobes. The primary antibody conjugated fluorescent NCs could also clearly delineate EGFR over-expressing cells on clinical tumor tissues processed by formalin fixation as well as cryopreservation with a specificity of 86% and accuracy of 88%, in comparison to immunohistochemistry. Tumor tissues labeled with EGFR ZnS:Mn NCs showed good fluorescence emission when imaged after storage even at 15 months. Thus, ZnS nanobioconjugates with dopant-dependent and stable fluorescence emission show promise as an efficient, target-specific fluorophore that would enable long term IF labeling of any antigen of interest on clinical tissues.

  7. Assessment of volatile organic compounds and particulate matter in a dental clinic and health risks to clinic personnel. (United States)

    Hong, Yu-Jue; Huang, Yen-Ching; Lee, I-Long; Chiang, Che-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna


    This study was conducted to assess (1) levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM) in a dental clinic in southern Taiwan and (2) dental care personnel's health risks associated with due to chronic exposure to VOCs. An automatic, continuous sampling system and a multi-gas monitor were employed to quantify the air pollutants, along with environmental comfort factors, including temperature, CO2, and relative humidity at six sampling sites in the clinic over eight days. Specific VOC compounds were identified and their concentrations were quantified. Both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic VOC compounds were assessed based on the US Environmental Protection Agency's Principles of Health Risk Assessment in terms of whether those indoor air pollutants increased health risks for the full-time dental care professionals at the clinic. Increased levels of VOCs were recorded during business hours and exceeded limits recommended by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency. A total of 68 VOC compounds were identified in the study area. Methylene methacrylate (2.8 ppm) and acetone (0.176 ppm) were the only two non-carcinogenic compounds that posed increased risks for human health, yielding hazard indexes of 16.4 and 4.1, respectively. None of the carcinogenic compounds increased cancer risk. All detected PM10 levels ranged from 20 to 150 μg/m(3), which met the Taiwan EPA and international limits. The average PM10 level during business hours was significantly higher than that during non-business hours (P = 0.04). Improved ventilation capacity in the air conditioning system was recommended to reduce VOCs and PM levels.

  8. Isotopically labeled sulfur compounds and synthetic selenium and tellurium analogues to study sulfur metabolism in marine bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson L. Brock


    Full Text Available Members of the marine Roseobacter clade can degrade dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP via competing pathways releasing either methanethiol (MeSH or dimethyl sulfide (DMS. Deuterium-labeled [2H6]DMSP and the synthetic DMSP analogue dimethyltelluriopropionate (DMTeP were used in feeding experiments with the Roseobacter clade members Phaeobacter gallaeciensis DSM 17395 and Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, and their volatile metabolites were analyzed by closed-loop stripping and solid-phase microextraction coupled to GC–MS. Feeding experiments with [2H6]DMSP resulted in the incorporation of a deuterium label into MeSH and DMS. Knockout of relevant genes from the known DMSP demethylation pathway to MeSH showed in both species a residual production of [2H3]MeSH, suggesting that a second demethylation pathway is active. The role of DMSP degradation pathways for MeSH and DMS formation was further investigated by using the synthetic analogue DMTeP as a probe in feeding experiments with the wild-type strain and knockout mutants. Feeding of DMTeP to the R. pomeroyi knockout mutant resulted in a diminished, but not abolished production of demethylation pathway products. These results further corroborated the proposed second demethylation activity in R. pomeroyi. Isotopically labeled [2H3]methionine and 34SO42−, synthesized from elemental 34S8, were tested to identify alternative sulfur sources besides DMSP for the MeSH production in P. gallaeciensis. Methionine proved to be a viable sulfur source for the MeSH volatiles, whereas incorporation of labeling from sulfate was not observed. Moreover, the utilization of selenite and selenate salts by marine alphaproteobacteria for the production of methylated selenium volatiles was explored and resulted in the production of numerous methaneselenol-derived volatiles via reduction and methylation. The pathway of selenate/selenite reduction, however, proved to be strictly separated from sulfate reduction.

  9. Allergen reference doses for precautionary labeling (VITAL 2.0): Clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, K.J.; Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Crevel, R.W.R.; Houben, G.F.; Brooke-Taylor, S.; Kruizinga, A.G.; Taylor, S.L.


    Background There has been a dramatic proliferation of precautionary labeling by manufacturers to mitigate the perceived risk from low-level contamination from allergens in food. This has resulted in a significant reduction in choice of potentially safe foods for allergic consumers. Objectives We aim

  10. Clinical setting influences off-label and unlicensed prescribing in a paediatric teaching hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czarniak, Petra; Bint, Lewis; Favié, Laurent; Parsons, Richard; Hughes, Jeff; Sunderland, Bruce


    PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed prescribing during 2008 at a major paediatric teaching hospital in Western Australia. METHODS: A 12-month retrospective study was conducted at Princess Margaret Hospital using medication chart records randomly selected from 145,550 pati

  11. Clinical impact of ki-67 labeling index in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn


    The ki-67 index is a marker of proliferation in malignant tumors. Studies from the period 2000 to 2012 on the prognostic and predictive value of ki-67 labeling index (LI) in non-small cell cancer (NSCLC) are reviewed. Twenty-eight studies reported on the prognostic value of ki-67 index with various...

  12. Microbial utilization of sugars in soil assessed by position-specific labeling and compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis (United States)

    Apostel, Carolin; Dippold, Michaela; Glaser, Bruno; Kuzyakov, Yakov


    For the transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) in soil, which is an important process in the turnover of organic matter, microbial utilization is one of the most important processes. Position-specific labeling combined with compound-specific 13C-PLFA-analysis allows a closer look on the mechanisms of LMWOS transformation in soil. We assessed short- (3 and 10 days) and long-term (half year) transformations of monosaccharides by adding position-specifically 13C labeled glucose and ribose to soil in a field experiment conducted on an agriculturally used luvisol located in north-western Bavaria. We quantified the microbial utilization of the different functional groups by 13C-analysis of microbial biomass with the chloroform-fumigation-extraction method (CFE). 13C-PLFA analysis enabled us to distinguish individual microbial groups and compare their C-utilization. Preferential degradation of glucoses C-3 and C-4 respectively C-1 position enabled differentiation between the two main hexose metabolic pathways - glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. Microbial groups revealed different incorporation of specific C positions into their PLFA. The highest incorporation was reached by the prokaryotic gram- negative groups. The application of position-specifically labeled substances, coupled with compound-specific 13C-PLFA analysis opens a new way to investigate the microbial transformations of LMWOS in soil. Observing single C atoms and their utilization by specific microbial groups allow conclusions about the mechanisms and kinetics of microbial utilization and interaction between these groups and therefore will improve our understanding of soil carbon fluxes.

  13. Clinical significance of abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Farto, J.C.; Almoguera Arias, I.; Ortega Valle, A.; Perez Vazquez, J.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Lopez Longo, F.J.; Gonzalez Fernandez, C.M.; Monteagudo Saez, I.; Bascones, M.; Carreno Perez, L. [Department of Rheumatology, ' ' Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon' ' , Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)


    Abdominal scintigraphy shows silent gut inflammation in patients with spondyloarthropathies (Sp) without clinical evidence of gut inflammation. Abdominal scintigraphy images are different than those obtained in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease and are not related to the anti-inflammatory drugs administered. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical associations of findings on abdominal scintigraphy in patients with Sp. A total of 204 Sp patients (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) and 54 non-Sp controls receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were studied. Abdominal scintigraphy images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after injection of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scans were positive in 104 Sp patients (50.9%) and in six non-Sp controls (2.9%) (P<0.001; OR=8.32; 95% CI=3.23-22.67). Silent gut inflammation was not associated with any of the following: age of onset, duration of evolution, sex, family history of Sp or psoriasis, articular manifestations, extra-articular manifestations, radiological findings or HLA-B27 positivity. Positive abdominal scintigraphy was associated with active disease (P<0.0001; OR=52.7; 95% CI=19-145.6) and an increase in the C-reactive protein (P<0.005; OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.5-7.4). It is concluded that (a) abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes is of value in detecting the silent gut inflammation in Sp patients, and (b) silent gut inflammation is related to the clinical activity, but is not associated with any particular type of illness or with HLA-B27. (orig.)

  14. Isotope labeled internal standards (ILIS) as a basis for quality control in clinical studies using plasma samples. (United States)

    Rezeli, Melinda; Végvári, Akos; Marko-Varga, György; Laurell, Thomas


    For clinical proteomic studies, the quality of the biofluid samples such as human blood plasma is extremely important. In this study we have investigated the stability of human plasma samples by spiking stable isotope-labeled peptides into the plasma and monitoring their degradation under different storage conditions. FPA-1, C4A and C3f were synthesized with isotopically labeled amino acids, and used as reference peptides. The mixture of internal calibrants was spiked into plasma at the starting point of investigation, mimicking the time of collection for future biobanking efforts, and their qualitative and quantitative changes were analyzed over time by using both MALDI-MS (LTQ Orbitrap XL) and nanoLC-ESI-MS (LTQ XL ETD). We have found that all three synthetic peptides were stable in plasma at -20 and -80 degrees C during the examined 2-month period. However, different proteolytic degradation profiles of the peptides were observed at room temperature. We anticipate that the use of these isotope-labeled peptides as internal standards (ILIS) provides a quality control for long-term storage and proteomic plasma analysis.

  15. Label-free SRM-based relative quantification of antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick eCharretier


    Full Text Available Both acquired and intrinsic mechanisms play a crucial role in Pseudomonas aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. Many clinically relevant resistance mechanisms result from changes in gene expression, namely multidrug efflux pump overproduction, AmpC beta-lactamase induction or derepression, and inactivation or repression of the carbapenem-specific porin OprD. Changes in gene expression are usually assessed using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR assays. Here, we evaluated label-free Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM-based mass spectrometry to directly quantify proteins involved in antibiotic resistance. We evaluated the label-free SRM using a defined set of P. aeruginosa isolates with known resistance mechanisms and compared it against RT-qPCR. Referring to efflux systems, we found a more robust relative quantification of antibiotic resistance mechanisms by SRM than RT-qPCR. The SRM-based approach was applied to a set of clinical P. aeruginosa isolates to detect antibiotic resistance proteins. This multiplexed SRM-based approach is a rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of resistance mechanisms and we demonstrate its relevance for antibiotic resistance prediction.

  16. The interaction of popular and clinical diagnostic labeling: the case of embrujado. (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D; Canive, J M


    This paper explores the effect of a popular diagnosis of distress, "bewitchment," on diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of psychiatric illness in a small group of Hispanic patients in New Mexico. Two major approaches to such "culture-bound" illnesses in clinical settings are critiqued and synthesized in suggesting a practical way to understand how both folk and psychiatric explanations can affect experience with, and of psychiatric patients who present with their own culturally patterned diagnoses. Further study suggests that clinically focused ethnography can address the issue of change or persistence in both lay and clinical explanations of illness as they interact in a clinical setting.

  17. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper S


    Full Text Available Siegfried Kasper,1 Angelika Dienel2 1Universitätsklinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria; 2Dr Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Karlsruhe, Germany Purpose: This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group.Methods: The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. Results: The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to

  18. (99m)Tc-Cyclopentadienyl Tricarbonyl Chelate-Labeled Compounds as Selective Sigma-2 Receptor Ligands for Tumor Imaging. (United States)

    Li, Dan; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xia; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Chen, Xin; Jia, Bing; Dong, Chengyan; Steinbach, Jörg; Brust, Peter; Liu, Boli; Jia, Hongmei


    We have designed and synthesized a series of cyclopentadienyl tricarbonyl rhenium complexes containing a 5,6-dimethoxyisoindoline or a 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline pharmacophore as σ2 receptor ligands. Rhenium compound 20a possessed low nanomolar σ2 receptor affinity (K(i) = 2.97 nM) and moderate subtype selectivity (10-fold). Moreover, it showed high selectivity toward vesicular acetylcholine transporter (2374-fold), dopamine D2L receptor, NMDA receptor, opiate receptor, dopamine transporter, norepinephrine transporter, and serotonin transporter. Its corresponding radiotracer [(99m)Tc]20b showed high uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in DU145 prostate cells and C6 glioma cells. In addition, this tracer exhibited high tumor uptake (5.92% ID/g at 240 min) and high tumor/blood and tumor/muscle ratios (21 and 16 at 240 min, respectively) as well as specific binding to σ receptors in nude mice bearing C6 glioma xenografts. Small animal SPECT/CT imaging of [(99m)Tc]20b in the C6 glioma xenograft model demonstrated a clear visualization of the tumor at 180 min after injection.

  19. Animal models that best reproduce the clinical manifestations of human intoxication with organophosphorus compounds. (United States)

    Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X


    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans.

  20. Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms (United States)

    Kasper, Siegfried; Dienel, Angelika


    Purpose This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group. Methods The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales. Results The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day. Discussion The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout

  1. 78 FR 53773 - Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and Recommended Labeling for Intravascular... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Select Updates for Non-Clinical Engineering Tests and... Food and Drug Administration Staff; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of the...

  2. Generator 113{sup S}n-113m{sup I}n. Study of the most important characteristics in the evaluate composition for the preparation of clinical labelled compounds; Generador de 113{sup S}n- 113m{sup I}n. Estudio de las caracteristicas mas relevantes en la composicion del eluido con miras a la obtencion de compuestos marcados de aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adan, L.; Rebollo, D. V.


    The design for the construction of a generator 113{sup S}n -113m{sup l}n is described. A systematic assay for de adequate adsorbents has been made, to obtain solutions of high radiochemical purity, as it is required for the radiopharmaceutical preparations. The control of purity is carried on by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the solutions, complemented by radiochemical techniques. The following physico-chemical parameters has been determinate; consecutive equilibrium constants, pH, distribution constants, separation factors and electrophoretic factors. It has been considered the measure of these parameters for the best quality In the preparation of the radiopharmaceutical compounds. (Author) 53 refs.

  3. Rapid Spectrophotometric Technique for Quantifying Iron in Cells Labeled with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Potential Translation to the Clinic


    Dadashzadeh, Esmaeel R.; Hobson, Matthew; Bryant, L. Henry; Dean, Dana D.; Joseph A Frank


    Labeling cells with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles provides the ability to track cells by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Quantifying intracellular iron concentration in SPIO labeled cells would allow for the comparison of agents and techniques used to magnetically label cells. Here we describe a rapid spectrophotometric technique (ST) to quantify iron content of SPIO labeled cells, circumventing the previous requirement of an overnight acid digestion. Following lysis with 10% ...

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compound and respiratory CO2 emissions after 13C-labeling: online tracing of C translocation dynamics in poplar plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ghirardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally plants are the primary sink of atmospheric CO(2, but are also the major contributor of a large spectrum of atmospheric reactive hydrocarbons such as terpenes (e.g. isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. The prediction of plant carbon (C uptake and atmospheric oxidation capacity are crucial to define the trajectory and consequences of global environmental changes. To achieve this, the biosynthesis of BVOC and the dynamics of C allocation and translocation in both plants and ecosystems are important. METHODOLOGY: We combined tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS for studying isoprene biosynthesis and following C fluxes within grey poplar (Populus x canescens saplings. This was achieved by feeding either (13CO(2 to leaves or (13C-glucose to shoots via xylem uptake. The translocation of (13CO(2 from the source to other plant parts could be traced by (13C-labeled isoprene and respiratory (13CO(2 emission. PRINCIPAL FINDING: In intact plants, assimilated (13CO(2 was rapidly translocated via the phloem to the roots within 1 hour, with an average phloem transport velocity of 20.3±2.5 cm h(-1. (13C label was stored in the roots and partially reallocated to the plants' apical part one day after labeling, particularly in the absence of photosynthesis. The daily C loss as BVOC ranged between 1.6% in mature leaves and 7.0% in young leaves. Non-isoprene BVOC accounted under light conditions for half of the BVOC C loss in young leaves and one-third in mature leaves. The C loss as isoprene originated mainly (76-78% from recently fixed CO(2, to a minor extent from xylem-transported sugars (7-11% and from photosynthetic intermediates with slower turnover rates (8-11%. CONCLUSION: We quantified the plants' C loss as respiratory CO(2 and BVOC emissions, allowing in tandem with metabolic analysis to deepen our understanding of ecosystem C flux.

  5. Preliminary open-label clinical evaluation of the soothing and reepithelialization properties of a novel topical formulation for rosacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparavigna A


    Full Text Available Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti Derming Srl, Monza, Italy Background: Rosacea is a common, incurable skin barrier disorder characterized by relapses and remissions. Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of Farmaka Rosacea Cream (FRC, a novel topical formulation for rosacea. Methods: This single-center, open-label pilot study comprised a single-dose substudy in 20 healthy subjects and a long-term, repeat-dose substudy in 22 subjects with rosacea. The 2-hour, controlled, single-dose substudy assessed the soothing and reepithelialization properties of FRC after stripping-induced erythema based on the erythema index, transepidermal water loss, skin hydration, and clinical assessments of erythema. In the long-term substudy, subjects applied FRC twice daily for 8 weeks. Clinical assessments included vascular and pigmentary homogeneity and erythema and hemoglobin indices. Subjects completed questionnaires to assess FRC efficacy and cosmetic acceptability. Results: Greater reductions were seen in FRC-treated areas compared with untreated areas for the erythema index (-16% versus -8%; P<0.001 and mean transepidermal water loss (-35.8% versus -10.1%; P<0.001 30 minutes after stripping. Significant improvements over untreated areas were maintained 2 hours after stripping. Skin hydration and clinical erythema assessments also indicated that FRC soothed rosacea symptoms and promoted skin reepithelialization. Erythema and hemoglobin indices were significantly reduced from baseline after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Clinically assessed parameters were significantly improved following FRC application. Subjects assessed FRC positively. Conclusion: Improvement of rosacea symptoms was noted with FRC application. The main film-forming ingredients of FRC (trehalose, cholesterol, ceramide, and fatty acids, combined with other soothing and calming ingredients and ultraviolet filters, could explain its efficacy. Keywords: rosacea, erythema, skin

  6. Clinical evaluation of an arterial-spin-labeling product sequence in steno-occlusive disease of the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias A Mutke

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In brain perfusion imaging, arterial spin labeling (ASL is a noninvasive alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI. For clinical imaging, only product sequences can be used. We therefore analyzed the performance of a product sequence (PICORE-PASL included in an MRI software-package compared with DSC-MRI in patients with steno-occlusion of the MCA or ICA >70%. METHODS: Images were acquired on a 3T MRI system and qualitatively analyzed by 3 raters. For a quantitative analysis, cortical ROIs were placed in co-registered ASL and DSC images. Pooled data for ASL-cerebral blood flow (CBF and DSC-CBF were analyzed by Spearman's correlation and the Bland-Altman (BA-plot. RESULTS: In 28 patients, 11 ASL studies were uninterpretable due to patient motion. Of the remaining patients, 71% showed signs of delayed tracer arrival. A weak correlation for DSC-relCBF vs ASL-relCBF (r = 0.24 and a large spread of values in the BA-plot owing to unreliable CBF-measurement was found. CONCLUSION: The PICORE ASL product sequence is sensitive for estimation of delayed tracer arrival, but cannot be recommended to measure CBF in steno-occlusive disease. ASL-sequences that are less sensitive to patient motion and correcting for delayed blood flow should be available in the clinical setting.

  7. Carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol for signal transduction imaging by positron CT. Evaluation of the quality and safety for clinical use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Ryou [Nishijin Hospital, Kyoto (Japan); Imahori, Yoshio; Ido, Tatsuo [and others


    To elucidate the synaptic transmission in the neural system, we have been developing fundamental studies for intracellular signaling. For clinical application of carbon-11 labeled diacylglycerol (1-[1-{sup 11}C]butyryl-2-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol: {sup 11}C-DAG) using positron emission computed tomography (PET), we evaluated the quality and the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG as the solution for injection. As a result, {sup 11}C-DAG was synthesized within 50 minutes, including the preparation step for injection. The half life time and energy spectrum of {sup 11}C-DAG were the same as the physical character of carbon-11, and other radioisotopes were not detected. In the quality control, {sup 11}C-DAG solution was negative in the examination of bacterial contamination and the pyrogen test in three successive synthesis procedures. In the acute toxicity test by administration of {sup 11}C-DAG and 100 {mu}mol/kg of non-radioactive DAG to the rat intravenously, the systemic condition of the rat was not changed and no abnormalities were found in any organ 24 hours after administration. These findings indicated the safety of {sup 11}C-DAG solution. Clinical application of {sup 11}C-DAG using positron emission tomography may be useful to elucidate the dysfunction of intracellular signaling in disorders of higher cortical function such as Alzheimer disease. (author).

  8. Stable isotope applications in biomolecular structure and mechanisms. A meeting to bring together producers and users of stable-isotope-labeled compounds to assess current and future needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewhella, J.; Cross, T.A.; Unkefer, C.J. [eds.


    Knowledge of biomolecular structure is a prerequisite for understanding biomolecular function, and stable isotopes play an increasingly important role in structure determination of biological molecules. The first Conference on Stable Isotope Applications in Biomolecular Structure and Mechanisms was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, March 27--31, 1994. More than 120 participants from 8 countries and 44 institutions reviewed significant developments, discussed the most promising applications for stable isotopes, and addressed future needs and challenges. Participants focused on applications of stable isotopes for studies of the structure and function of proteins, peptides, RNA, and DNA. Recent advances in NMR techniques neutron scattering, EPR, and vibrational spectroscopy were highlighted in addition to the production and synthesis of labeled compounds. This volume includes invited speaker and poster presentations as well as a set of reports from discussion panels that focused on the needs of the scientific community and the potential roles of private industry, the National Stable Isotope Resource, and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in serving those needs. This is the leading abstract. Individual papers are processed separately for the database.

  9. The proliferative potential of the pilocytic astrocytoma : The relation between MIB-1 labeling and clinical and neuro-radiological follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirven, CMF; Koudstaal, J; Mooij, JJA; Molenaar, WM


    The proliferative potential of 39 pilocytic and 5 low grade astrocytomas was studied in relation to the Ki-67 activity as measured by the MIB-1 Labelings Index. The results were correlated to the biological behaviour of the tumor as measured by clinical and neuro-radiological (CT- or MRI-scans) foll

  10. Early response assessment in patients with multiple myeloma during anti-angiogenic therapy using arterial spin labelling: first clinical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, Michael [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Konaktchieva, Marina [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Tuebingen (Germany); Weisel, Katja; Kraus, Sabina [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brodoefel, Harald; Claussen, Claus D.; Horger, Marius [Eberhard-Karls University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    To determine if arterial-spin-labelling (ASL) MRI can reliably detect early response to anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with multiple myeloma by comparison with clinical/haematological response. Nineteen consecutive patients (10 men; mean age 63.5 {+-} 9.1 years) were included in the present study. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of stage III multiple myeloma and clinical indication for therapeutical administration of bortezomib or lenalidomide. We performed MRI on 3.0T MR in the baseline setting, 3 weeks after onset of therapy and after 8 weeks. Clinical responses were determined on the basis of international uniform response criteria in correlation with haematological parameters and medium-term patient outcome. MRI studies were performed after approval by the local institutional review board. Fifteen patients responded to anti-myeloma therapy; 4/19 patients were non-responders to therapy. Mean tumour perfusion assessed by ASL-MRI in a reference lesion was 220.7 {+-} 132.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} at baseline, and decreased to 125.7 {+-} 86.3 (134.5 {+-} 150.9) ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1} 3 (8) weeks after onset of therapy (P < 0.02). The mean decrease in paraproteinaemia at week 3 (8) was 52.3 {+-} 47.7% (58.2 {+-} 58.7%), whereas {beta}2-microglobulinaemia decreased by 20.3 {+-} 53.1% (23.3 {+-} 57.0%). Correlation of ASL perfusion with outcome was significant (P = 0.0037). ASL tumour perfusion measurements are a valuable surrogate parameter for early assessment of response to novel anti-angiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  11. High-resolution label-free vascular imaging using a commercial, clinically approved dermatological OCT scanner (United States)

    Byers, R. A.; Tozer, G.; Brown, N. J.; Matcher, S. J.


    Background and Aim: Recently developed decorrelative techniques such as speckle-variance optical coherence tomography (svOCT) have demonstrated non-invasive depth-resolved imaging of the microcirculation in-vivo. However, bulk tissue motion (BTM) originating from the subject's breathing or heartbeat remains problematic at low imaging speeds, often resulting in full frame decorrelation and a loss of vascular contrast. The aim of this study was to build upon existing svOCT techniques through utilisation of a commercially available, probe-based VivoSight OCT system running at 20 kHz Axial-scan rate. Methods and results: Custom four-dimensional scanning strategies were developed and utilised in order to maximise the interframe correlation during image acquisition. Volumes of structural OCT data were collected from various anatomical regions and processed using the aforementioned svOCT algorithm to reveal angiographic information. Following data collection, three dimensional image registration and novel filtering algorithms were applied to each volume in order to ensure that BTM artefacts were sufficiently suppressed. This enabled accurate visualisation of the microcirculation within the papillary dermis, to a depth of approximately 2mm. Applications of this technique, including quantitative capillary loop density measurement and visualisation of wound healing are demonstrated and enhanced through widefield mosaicing of the svOCT data. Conclusions: Non-invasive microcirculation imaging using an FDA 510(k) approved OCT scanner such as the VivoSight allows direct clinical utilisation of these techniques, in particular for the pathological analysis of skin diseases. This research was supported by BBSRC Doctoral Training Grant: BB/F016840/1. The authors also gratefully acknowledge the use of equipment funded by MRC grant: MR/L012669/1.

  12. Optical elastic scattering for early label-free identification of clinical pathogens (United States)

    Genuer, Valentin; Gal, Olivier; Méteau, Jérémy; Marcoux, Pierre; Schultz, Emmanuelle; Lacot, Éric; Maurin, Max; Dinten, Jean-Marc


    We report here on the ability of elastic light scattering in discriminating Gram+, Gram- and yeasts at an early stage of growth (6h). Our technique is non-invasive, low cost and does require neither skilled operators nor reagents. Therefore it is compatible with automation. It is based on the analysis of the scattering pattern (scatterogram) generated by a bacterial microcolony growing on agar, when placed in the path of a laser beam. Measurements are directly performed on closed Petri dishes. The characteristic features of a given scatterogram are first computed by projecting the pattern onto the Zernike orthogonal basis. Then the obtained data are compared to a database so that machine learning can yield identification result. A 10-fold cross-validation was performed on a database over 8 species (15 strains, 1906 scatterograms), at 6h of incubation. It yielded a 94% correct classification rate between Gram+, Gram- and yeasts. Results can be improved by using a more relevant function basis for projections, such as Fourier-Bessel functions. A fully integrated instrument has been installed at the Grenoble hospital's laboratory of bacteriology and a validation campaign has been started for the early screening of MSSA and MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus) carriers. Up to now, all the published studies about elastic scattering were performed in a forward mode, which is restricted to transparent media. However, in clinical diagnostics, most of media are opaque, such as blood-supplemented agar. That is why we propose a novel scheme capable of collecting back-scattered light which provides comparable results.

  13. Evidence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer by combined application of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled target compounds. (United States)

    Bahr, Arne; Fischer, Anko; Vogt, Carsten; Bombach, Petra


    The number of approaches to evaluate the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) within contaminated aquifers is limited. Here, we demonstrate the applicability of a novel method based on the combination of in situ and laboratory microcosms using (13)C-labelled PAHs as tracer compounds. The biodegradation of four PAHs (naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and acenaphthene) was investigated in an oxic aquifer at the site of a former gas plant. In situ biodegradation of naphthalene and fluorene was demonstrated using in situ microcosms (BACTRAP(®)s). BACTRAP(®)s amended with either [(13)C6]-naphthalene or [(13)C5/(13)C6]-fluorene (50:50) were incubated for a period of over two months in two groundwater wells located at the contaminant source and plume fringe, respectively. Amino acids extracted from BACTRAP(®)-grown cells showed significant (13)C-enrichments with (13)C-fractions of up to 30.4% for naphthalene and 3.8% for fluorene, thus providing evidence for the in situ biodegradation and assimilation of those PAHs at the field site. To quantify the mineralisation of PAHs, laboratory microcosms were set up with BACTRAP(®)-grown cells and groundwater. Naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, or acenaphthene were added as (13)C-labelled substrates. (13)C-enrichment of the produced CO2 revealed mineralisation of between 5.9% and 19.7% for fluorene, between 11.1% and 35.1% for acenaphthene, between 14.2% and 33.1% for phenanthrene, and up to 37.0% for naphthalene over a period of 62 days. Observed PAH mineralisation rates ranged between 17 μg L(-1) d(-1) and 1639 μg L(-1) d(-1). The novel approach combining in situ and laboratory microcosms allowed a comprehensive evaluation of PAH biodegradation at the investigated field site, revealing the method's potential for the assessment of PAH degradation within contaminated aquifers.

  14. Clinical Application of an Innovative Multiplex-Fluorescent-Labeled STRs Assay for Prader-Willi Syndrome and Angelman Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihui Zhang

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS and Angelman syndrome (AS are two clinically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders caused by absence of paternally or maternally expressed imprinted genes on chr15q11.2-q13.3. Three mechanisms are known to be involved in the pathogenesis: microdeletions, uniparental disomy (UPD and imprinting defects. Both disorders are difficult to be definitely diagnosed at early age if no available molecular cytogenetic tests. In this study, we identified 5 AS patients with the maternal deletion and 26 PWS patients with paternal deletion on chr15q11-q13 by using an innovative multiplex-fluorescent-labeled short tandem repeats (STRs assay based on linkage analysis, and validated by the methylation-specific PCR and array comparative genomic hybridization techniques. More interesting, one of these PWS patients was confirmed as maternal uniparental isodisomy by the STR linkage analysis. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of these individuals were also presented. Our results indicate that the new linkage analysis is much faster and easier for large-scale screening deletion and uniparental disomy, thus providing a valuable method for early diagnosis of PWS/AS patients, which is critical for genetic diagnosis, management and improvement of prognosis.

  15. Progesterone and Related Compounds in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Yeh


    Full Text Available Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC accounts for 85% to 90% of primary liver cancers. Major risk factors for HCC include infection with HBV or HCV, alcoholic liver disease, and most probably nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In general, men are two to four times more often associated with HCC than women. It can be suggested that sex hormones including progesterone may play some roles in HCC. Rather, very limited information discusses its potential involvement in HCC. This paper thus collects some recent studies of the potential involvement of progesterone and related compounds in HCC from basic and clinical aspects. In addition, two synthetic progestins, megestrol acetate (MA and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, will be discussed thoroughly. It is noted that progesterone can also serve as the precursor for androgens and estrogens produced by the gonadal and adrenal cortical tissues, while men have a higher incidence of HCC than women might be due to the stimulatory effects of androgen and the protective effects of estrogen. Eventually, this paper suggests a new insight on the associations of progesterone and related compounds with HCC development and treatment.

  16. Food Labels (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  17. A regenerative label-free fiber optic sensor using surface plasmon resonance for clinical diagnosis of fibrinogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen TT


    Full Text Available Tan Tai Nguyen,1 Sun Oh Bea,1 Dong Min Kim,2 Won Jung Yoon,3 Jin-Won Park,4 Seong Soo A An,1 Heongkyu Ju1,5,6 1Department of Bionano Technology, College of Bionano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong City, 3Department of Chemical and Bio Engineering, Gachon University, Seongnam, 4Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, College of Energy and Biotechnology, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul, 5Department of Nanophysics, College of Bionano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam, 6Neuroscience Institute, Gil Hospital, Incheon, South Korea Purpose: We present the regenerative label-free fiber optical biosensor that exploits surface plasmon resonance for quantitative detection of fibrinogen (Fbg extracted from human blood plasma.Materials and methods: The sensor head was made up of a multimode optical fiber with its polymer cladding replaced by metal composite of nanometer thickness made of silver, aluminum, and nickel. The Ni layer coated allowed a direct immobilization of histidine-tagged peptide (HP on its metal surface without an additional cross-linker in between. On the coated HP layer, immunoglobulin G was then immobilized for specific capturing of Fbg.Results: We demonstrated a real-time quantitative detection of Fbg concentrations with limit of detection of ~10 ng/mL. The fact that the HP layer could be removed by imidazole with acid also permitted us to demonstrate the regeneration of the outermost metal surface of the sensor head for the sensor reusability.Conclusion: The sensor detection limit was estimated to be ~10 pM, which was believed to be sensitive enough for detecting Fbg during the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, myocardial infarction, strokes, and Alzheimer’s diseases. Keywords: SPR, real-time assay, histidine-tagged peptide, protein sensing

  18. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial. (United States)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Zheng-Yun; Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen


    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50-0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27-0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733).

  19. Ringer’s lactate, but not hydroxyethyl starch, prolongs the food intolerance time after major abdominal surgery; an open-labelled clinical trial


    Li, Yuhong; He, Rui; Ying, Xiaojiang; Hahn, Robert


    Background: The infusion of large amounts of Ringers lactate prolongs the functional gastrointestinal recovery time and increases the number of complications after open abdominal surgery. We performed an open-labelled clinical trial to determine whether hydroxyethyl starch or Ringers lactate exerts these adverse effects when the surgery is performed by laparoscopy. Methods: Eighty-eight patients scheduled for major abdominal cancer surgery (83% by laparoscopy) received a first-line fluid trea...

  20. A clinical comparative study of the management of chronic renal failure with Punarnavadi compound. (United States)

    Prashanth, G S; Baghel, M S; Ravishankar, B; Gupta, S N; Mehta, Miten P


    India like any other country is facing a silent epidemic of chronic renal failure (CRF)- a facet of the health transition associated with industrialization partly fuelled by increase in sedentary lifestyle, low birth weight and malnutrition. Increasing figures by many folds seen is posing a difficult situation to overcome with respect to economy and health of the working and earning population of the nation. There is an urgent need to explore, highlight new interventions and modify modifiable risk factors as a basis for treatment strategies to prevent the development and progression of CRF. The present study was taken up to evaluate the role of trial formulation tab. Punarnavadi compound in the management of chronic renal failure. This was an open clinical comparative study in controlled circumstances wherein 67 patients were studied for two months in three groups- Group A (allopathic control), Group B (ayurvedic control) and Group C (ayurvedic test). It was a multi-centric study; patients were registered from Anandababa charitable dialysis centre, Jamnagar, Kayachikitsa O.P.D. of I.P.G.T. and R.A. Jamnagar and P. D. Patel Ayurveda hospital, Nadiad. Results were assessed on 15 parameters using Students (paired) 't' test. Group A patients showed comparatively better results in eight parameters- weight, platelet count, serum urea, serum uric acid, serum sodium, potassium, chloride and total proteins. Parameter Hemoglobin% showed better results in Group B patients and in Group C patients comparatively better results in six parameters viz.- quality of life (breathlessness, weakness, general functional capacity), total count, serum creatinine and serum calcium - were observed. Throughout the study, trial drug tab. Punarnavadi compound did not show any adverse drug reaction. The results of this study will help in developing a cheap and safe treatment for the management of CRF.

  1. Clinical Efficacy Comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and Yogurt Fluid in Acute Non-Bloody Diarrhea in Children: A Randomized, Controlled, Open Label Study


    Makbule EREN; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas,Yvan


    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 ± 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, a...

  2. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a herbal compound made for treatment of discolorations caused by dental fluorosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mohammdi Basir


    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was research on a new herbal compound (Seidlitzia Rosmarinus made by Traditional Medicine Research Group, University of shahed to find a safer alternative to HCL-Pumice compound technique.   Materials and Methods: In this randomized clinical trial seventy two anterior teeth from 9 patients were divided in to three groups according to fluorosis severity: mild (34 teeth, moderate (14 teeth, and sever (24 teeth. In each patient, half of the teeth were treated with “Shahed” compound and other half treated with HCL-Pumice compound. Before and after treatment, photographs were taken in both groups. HCL-Pumice treatment compound was applied for 30 seconds periods and continued for 10 minutes if necessary. In case of herbal Shahed compound the time was determined by clinical symptoms or when labial contour was dismissed, If the result was not esthetistically acceptabale for the patient, HCL-Pumice compound was applied on teeth. NaF was applied after mouth washing. The photographs of the teeth before and after treatment were reviewed by two experienced observer unaware of the treatment modality. The results were analyzed using willcoxon’s, kruskal-wallis and scheffe test.   Results: There was over 81.3% acceptance between two observers and no significant differences in intraobservers evaluation (P>0.05. Improvement in beauty indexes were observed in all degrees of dental fluorosis by 18% with HCL-Pumice compound application, but “Shahed” herbal compound induced significant reduction in the amount of white spots in mild fluorosis and stain intensity of moderate fluorosis (P<0.05 , while the reduction in the severity of discoloration in group 2, these two techniques were statistically equivalent but in the remainder, HCL-Pumice compound was more significantly effective (P<0.05 .   Conclusion: HCL-Pumice compound reduces the severity of the discoloration of the teeth. Shahed herbal compound

  3. Comparison of the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin in acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media: A randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Ghosh


    Full Text Available Objective : To compare the effectiveness and safety of cefpodoxime and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of mild to moderate cases of acute exacerbation of chronic suppurative otitis media (AECSOM. Materials and Methods : Adult patients diagnosed with AECSOM were screened and patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to receive either cefpodoxime 200 mg twice daily or ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice daily orally for 7 days. The primary outcome of this randomized, open-labeled, phase IV clinical trial (Registration Number - CTRI/2011/10/002079 was clinical success rate at day 14 visit and the secondary outcome was incidence of adverse events (AEs. Forty-six patients were enrolled: 23 in the cefpodoxime group and 23 in the ciprofloxacin group. Results : The clinical success rates were 95.6% in the cefpodoxime group versus 90.9% in the ciprofloxacin group. These rates are comparable, but no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. Few mild and self-limiting AEs were observed and the tolerability of both the drugs was also good. Conclusion : The results of this randomized, open-labeled phase IV clinical trial showed that a 7-day course of cefpodoxime is therapeutically comparable to ciprofloxacin in terms of both clinical effectiveness and safety for the treatment of patients with AECSOM.

  4. Label-free porous silicon immunosensor for broad detection of opiates in a blind clinical study and results comparison to commercial analytical chemistry techniques. (United States)

    Bonanno, Lisa M; Kwong, Tai C; DeLouise, Lisa A


    In this work, we evaluate for the first time the performance of a label-free porous silicon (PSi) immunosensor assay in a blind clinical study designed to screen authentic patient urine specimens for a broad range of opiates. The PSi opiate immunosensor achieved 96% concordance with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) results on samples that underwent standard opiate testing (n = 50). In addition, successful detection of a commonly abused opiate, oxycodone, resulted in 100% qualitative agreement between the PSi opiate sensor and LC-MS/MS. In contrast, a commercial broad opiate immunoassay technique (CEDIA) achieved 65% qualitative concordance with LC-MS/MS. Evaluation of important performance attributes including precision, accuracy, and recovery was completed on blank urine specimens spiked with test analytes. Variability of morphine detection as a model opiate target was <9% both within-run and between-day at and above the cutoff limit of 300 ng mL(-1). This study validates the analytical screening capability of label-free PSi opiate immunosensors in authentic patient samples and is the first semiquantitative demonstration of the technology's successful clinical use. These results motivate future development of label-free PSi technology to reduce complexity and cost of diagnostic testing particularly in a point-of-care setting.

  5. Ultrastructural characterization of mesenchymal stromal cells labeled with ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles for clinical tracking studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Louise; Hansen, Alastair B; Mathiasen, Anders B


    INTRODUCTION: To evaluate survival and engraftment of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vivo, it is necessary to track implanted cells non-invasively with a method, which does not influence cellular ultrastructure and functional characteristics. Iron-oxide particles have been applied for cell...... tracking for years, but knowledge regarding possible cytotoxic ultrastructural changes subsequent to iron-oxide particle labeling is limited. Hence, the purpose of this study was to label MSCs with dextran-coated ultrasmall super-paramagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) particles conjugated with the transduction...

  6. Lyophilized kits of diamino dithiol compounds for labelling with {sup 99m}-technetium. Pharmacokinetics studies and distribution compartmental models of the related complexes; Conjuntos de reativos liofilizados de compostos diaminoditiolicos para marcacao com tecnecio-99m. Estudo farmacocinetico e elaboracao de modelos compartimentalizados dos respectivos complexos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de


    The present work reflects the clinical interest for labelling diamino dithiol compounds with technetium-99m. Both chosen compounds, L,L-Ethylene dicysteine (L,L-EC) and L,L-Ethylene dicysteine diethyl esther (L,L-ECD) were obtained with relative good yield and characterized by IR and NMR. The study of labelling conditions with technetium-99m showed the influence of the type and mass of reducing agent as well as the pH on the formation of complexes with desired biological characteristics. Radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lyophilised kits of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD for labelling with {sup 99m}Tc were obtained, with stability superior to 120 days, when stored under refrigeration, enabling the kits marketing. The ideal formulation of the kits as well as the use of liquid nitrogen in the freezing process, determined the lyophilization success. Distribution biological studies of the {sup 99m}Tc complexes were performed on mice by invasive method and on bigger animals by scintigraphic evaluation. Biological distribution studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC showed fast blood clearance, with the elimination of about 90% of the administered dose after 60 minutes, almost exclusively by the urinary system. The biological distribution results were adjusted to a three compartmental distribution model, as expected for a radiopharmaceutical designed to renal dynamic studies, with tubular elimination. The complex interaction with renal tubular receptors is related with structural characteristics of the compound, more specifically with the presence and location of polar groups. In comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-L,L-EC, biological studies of the complex {sup 99m}Tc -L,L-ECD showed different distribution aspects, despite some structural similarities. The presence of ethyl groups confers to the complex neutrality and lipophilicity. It cross the intact blood brain barrier and is retained in the brain

  7. Efficient synthesis of D-branched-chain amino acids and their labeled compounds with stable isotopes using D-amino acid dehydrogenase. (United States)

    Akita, Hironaga; Suzuki, Hirokazu; Doi, Katsumi; Ohshima, Toshihisa


    D-Branched-chain amino acids (D-BCAAs) such as D-leucine, D-isoleucine, and D-valine are known to be peptide antibiotic intermediates and to exhibit a variety of bioactivities. Consequently, much effort is going into achieving simple stereospecific synthesis of D-BCAAs, especially analogs labeled with stable isotopes. Up to now, however, no effective method has been reported. Here, we report the establishment of an efficient system for enantioselective synthesis of D-BCAAs and production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes. This system is based on two thermostable enzymes: D-amino acid dehydrogenase, catalyzing NADPH-dependent enantioselective amination of 2-oxo acids to produce the corresponding D-amino acids, and glucose dehydrogenase, catalyzing NADPH regeneration from NADP(+) and D-glucose. After incubation with the enzymes for 2 h at 65°C and pH 10.5, 2-oxo-4-methylvaleric acid was converted to D-leucine with an excellent yield (>99 %) and optical purity (>99 %). Using this system, we produced five different D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes: D-[1-(13)C,(15)N]leucine, D-[1-(13)C]leucine, D-[(15)N]leucine, D-[(15)N]isoleucine, and D-[(15)N]valine. The structure of each labeled D-amino acid was confirmed using time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. These analyses confirmed that the developed system was highly useful for production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes, making this the first reported enzymatic production of D-BCAAs labeled with stable isotopes. Our findings facilitate tracer studies investigating D-BCAAs and their derivatives.

  8. 99mTc-labeled interleukin 8 for the scintigraphic detection of infection and inflammation: first clinical evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Rennen, H.J.J.M.; Boerman, O.C.; Wymenga, A.B.; Visser, E.P.; Bakker, J.H.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.


    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemotactic cytokine that binds with a high affinity to receptors expressed on neutrophils. Previous studies with various animal models showed that (99m)Tc-labeled IL-8 accumulates specifically and rapidly in infectious and inflammatory foci. The aims of the present study w

  9. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost automated (68)Gallium-labeling synthesis unit for clinical use. (United States)

    Heidari, Pedram; Szretter, Alicia; Rushford, Laura E; Stevens, Maria; Collier, Lee; Sore, Judit; Hooker, Jacob; Mahmood, Umar


    The interest in (68)Gallium labeled PET probes continues to increase around the world. Widespread use in Europe and Asia has led to great interest for use at numerous sites in the US. One barrier to entry is the cost of the automated synthesis units for relatively simple labeling procedures. We describe the construction and testing of a relatively low-cost automated (68)Ga-labeling unit for human-use. We provide a guide for construction, including part lists and synthesis timelists to facilitate local implementation. Such inexpensive systems could help increase use around the globe and in the US in particular by removing one of the barriers to greater widespread availability. The developed automated synthesis unit reproducibly synthesized (68)Ga-DOTATOC with average yield of 71 ± 8% and a radiochemical purity ≥ 95% in a synthesis time of 25 ± 1 minutes. Automated product yields are comparable to that of manual synthesis. We demonstrate in-house construction and use of a low-cost automated synthesis unit for labeling of DOTATOC and similar peptides with (68)Gallium.

  10. Abdominal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in patients with seronegative spondylarthropathies without clinical evidence of inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Virgen de Alarcos, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Longo, F.J. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Lampreave, J.L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, C.M. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Vegazo, O. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Carreno, L. [Department of Rheumatology, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Almoguera, I. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)


    Abdominal scintigraphy with technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocytes is an excellent tool for evaluating disease extent and activity of intestinal lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In some cases of seronegative spondylarthropathies (SSp), IBD may remain subclinical. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of positive abdominal scintigraphy in patients with SSp and without clinical symptoms or signs of IBD. To this end we studied 32 patients with active SSp (European Spondylarthropathy Study Group 1991 criteria) without clinical evidence of IBD (eight had ankylosing spondylitis, four psoriatic arthritis, three reactive arthritis an 17 undifferentiated SSp) and 11 controls without SSp. All SSp and control patients received similar doses of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Abdominal scintigraphic images were obtained at 30 and 120 min after re-injection of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan was positive in 17 patients with SSp (53.1%) (six with ankylosing spondylitis, three with psoriatic arthritis, two with reactive arthritis and six with undifferentiated SSp). Fourteen patients scored from 2 to 4 on the intensity of uptake scale. The colon and terminal ileum were predominantly involved. Axial involvement was more frequent in patients with a positive scan than in patients with negative results (P<0.05) (64.7% vs 26.6%; odds ratio: 5). No control patient showed a positive scan. It is concluded that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scan shows increased uptake among patients with SSp without evidence of IBD. These findings provide new evidence linking SSp with intestinal inflammation and suggest that in some cases a bowel-related process could contribute to the development of SSp. Long-term follow-up studies with more patients are necessary to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these results.

  11. SELDI-TOF-MS determination of hepcidin in clinical samples using stable isotope labelled hepcidin as an internal standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Philip J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepcidin is a 25-residue peptide hormone crucial to iron homeostasis. It is essential to measure the concentration of hepcidin in cells, tissues and body fluids to understand its mechanisms and roles in physiology and pathophysiology. With a mass of 2791 Da hepcidin is readily detectable by mass spectrometry and LC-ESI, MALDI and SELDI have been used to estimate systemic hepcidin concentrations by analysing serum or urine. However, peak heights in mass spectra may not always reflect concentrations in samples due to competition during binding steps and variations in ionisation efficiency. Thus the purpose of this study was to develop a robust assay for measuring hepcidin using a stable isotope labelled hepcidin spiking approach in conjunction with SELDI-TOF-MS. Results We synthesised and re-folded hepcidin labelled with 13C/15N phenylalanine at position 9 to generate an internal standard for mass spectrometry experiments. This labelled hepcidin is 10 Daltons heavier than the endogenous peptides and does not overlap with the isotopic envelope of the endogenous hepcidin or other common peaks in human serum or urine mass spectra and can be distinguished in low resolution mass spectrometers. We report the validation of adding labelled hepcidin into serum followed by SELDI analysis to generate an improved assay for hepcidin. Conclusion We demonstrate that without utilising a spiking approach the hepcidin peak height in SELDI spectra gives a good indication of hepcidin concentration. However, a stable isotope labelled hepcidin spiking approach provides a more robust assay, measures the absolute concentration of hepcidin and should facilitate inter-laboratory hepcidin comparisons.

  12. Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Husted, David S; Shapira, Nathan A; Murphy, Tanya K; Mann, Giselle D; Ward, Herbert E; Goodman, Wayne K


    Currently, there are limited published data evaluating the effects of tics on serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) monotherapy responses in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). One retrospective case-controlled analysis of OCD patients treated with SRI monotherapy showed lesser improvement in OCD symptoms in patients with tics than those without. However, more recently there were preliminary reports of OCD subjects treated with SRI monotherapy which did not demonstrate poorer response in subjects with tics or Tourette's Syndrome (TS). The specific aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of comorbid chronic tics affected "clinically meaningful improvement" [McDougle, C.J., Goodman, W.K., Leckman, J.F., Barr, L.C., Heninger, G.R., Price, L.H., 1993. The efficacy of fluvoxamine in obsessive-compulsive disorder: effects of comorbid chronic tic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 13, 354-358] of OCD in an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine monotherapy. Seventy-four adult subjects (13 patients with comorbid chronic tics and 61 patients without tics) with a primary DSM-IV OCD diagnosis were treated with up to 40mg fluoxetine for 8 weeks and had at least one post-baseline evaluation. The results indicate that there was a significant response by time in both fluoxetine-with-tic subjects and fluoxetine-without-tic subjects. Additionally, there were 3 (23.0%) OCD subjects with tics who had clinically meaningful improvement versus 16 (26.2%) OCD subjects without tics that demonstrated similar levels of improvement. These findings indicate that OCD patients with or without chronic tic disorders did not have a differential response to an 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine. Limitations include the relatively low number of tic subjects and the open-label nature of the study. Additional data are needed on how comorbid tics may affect SRI treatment response in OCD.

  13. Synthesis of F-18 labeled raloxifene derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. C.; Moon, B. S.; Jun, K. S. [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, J. H.; Ji, D. Y. [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Raloxifene, [6-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl) benzo [b] thiophen-3-yl]-[4-(2-piperidin-1-yl-ethoxy)phenyl] methanone, a tissue-selective estrogen mixed agonist/antagonist, classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), is currently under clinical evaluation for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, breast cancer, uterine dysfunction, and other disorders of the female reproductive system. Based on SAR studies of substituted raloxifenes, we synthesized 3 kinds of fluoroalkylated raloxifene derivatives. These compounds show high relative binding affinities (RBA) to the estrogen receptor in vitro (RBA of estradiol = 100%). The RBA values for compounds 1, 2 and 3 are 89, 60, and 45%, respectively, which are all higher than that of raloxifene itself (34%). Among these compounds, we selected to take the best RBA value one and F-18 labeled. Using 2 kinds of labeling method ; 1) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 10 min at 120 .deg. C. 2) Radiolabeling using [{sup 18}F]KF was carried out in anhydrous acetonitrile for 15 min at 120 .deg. C in ionic liquid, [bmim][OTf]. Deprotection step added 1N HCl and reacted for 3 min at 120 .deg. C. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative obtained 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield by HPLC system (C18 xterra, 10 i, 34% Acetonitrile/0.1 M formate buffer, flow rate: 4 mL/1 min, collection time : 28-29 min) and total time was around 70 min. Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative has the best RBA value among the other synthesized derivatives and chose it for radiolabeling. [{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl raloxifene derivative prepared 5-23% decay corrected labeling yield. This preparation is on going for labeling optimizing and preparing of in vitro and in vivo test.

  14. The experimental chemotherapy of leishmaniasis. II. The activity in tissue culture of some antiparasitic and antimicrobial compounds in clinical use. (United States)

    Mattock, N M; Peters, W


    A variety of compounds used in the treatment of parasitic or bacterial infections in man, including leishmaniasis itself, were examined for their activity against three lines of Leishmania in tissue culture. The organisms used were L. mexicana mexicana, L. tropical major and L. donovani; they were grown in dog sarcoma and hamster peritoneal exudate cell lines. Leishmanicidal activity was observed in a number of compounds currently in clinical use for the treatment of one or other form of leishmaniasis. Cycloguanil, nifurtimox, amphotericin B and monomycin were effective but pentamidine showed poor activity. In each case marked differences were observed in the level of response in the different parasite lines. Organic antimonials were most active when anmastigotes were exposed to them prior to entry of the parasites into host cells. This suggests that such compounds may exert an effect on amastigotes during their brief extracellular transit from one host cell to another in vivo. A number of antimalarials showed good to moderate leishmanicidal action, particularly against L. mexicana and L.t. major. Several schistosomicidal agents also possessed leishmanicidal properties. The commonly used broad spectrum antibiotics showed little if any activity. In discusssion a comparison is drawn between data published on the action of some of these drugs against L.t. major in mice and our observations with the same strain and L. mexicana in tissue culture. A remarkably good agreement is found for most of the compounds examined. General agreement is also noted between these data and reports of clinical trials although it is not possible to draw too many conclusions because of the failure in most clinical studies to make an accurate identification of the causative Leishmania. It is concluded that, although the tissue culture model is not to be considered as ideal and can probably be improved, data obtained by its use do bear relevance to the action compounds in vivo, and the model

  15. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral Karine M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT, measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2 in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1 during the placebo treatment (p Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial registration NCT00872430

  16. Plant-Derived Anti-Inflammatory Compounds: Hopes and Disappointments regarding the Translation of Preclinical Knowledge into Clinical Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fürst


    Full Text Available Many diseases have been described to be associated with inflammatory processes. The currently available anti-inflammatory drug therapy is often not successful or causes intolerable side effects. Thus, new anti-inflammatory substances are still urgently needed. Plants were the first source of remedies in the history of mankind. Since their chemical characterization in the 19th century, herbal bioactive compounds have fueled drug development. Also, nowadays, new plant-derived agents continuously enrich our drug arsenal (e.g., vincristine, galantamine, and artemisinin. The number of new, pharmacologically active herbal ingredients, in particular that of anti-inflammatory compounds, rises continuously. The major obstacle in this field is the translation of preclinical knowledge into evidence-based clinical progress. Human trials of good quality are often missing or, when available, are frequently not suitable to really prove a therapeutical value. This minireview will summarize the current situation of 6 very prominent plant-derived anti-inflammatory compounds: curcumin, colchicine, resveratrol, capsaicin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, and quercetin. We will highlight their clinical potential and/or pinpoint an overestimation. Moreover, we will sum up the planned trials in order to provide insights into the inflammatory disorders that are hypothesized to be beneficially influenced by the compound.

  17. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G


    Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... choices, but the nutritional content of food products may not always be clear to consumers, nutrition labeling can contribute to making the nutritional content more transparent, thus reducing the frequency of unhealthy choices. Nutrition labeling is sometimes also motivated by consumers’ right to know......, implying that the availability of information on the nutritional content on food products is of value in itself, no matter how this impacts consumer choices. Another argument for nutrition labeling is that making information about nutritional content transparent will lead to healthier products, partly...

  18. Development of C60-based labeling reagents for the determination of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass (I): Determination of amino acids in microliter biofluids. (United States)

    Wu, Pin; Xiao, Hua-Ming; Ding, Jun; Deng, Qian-Yun; Zheng, Fang; Feng, Yu-Qi


    Quantification of low molecular weight compounds (<800 Da) using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) is challenging due to the matrix signal interference at low m/z region and poor reproducibility of MS responses. In this study, a C60 labeling-MALDI MS strategy was proposed for the fast, sensitive and reliable determination of amino acids (AAs) in biofluids. An N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized C60 was synthesized as the labeling reagent and added as an 880 Da tag to AAs; a carboxyl acid containing C60 was employed as the internal standards to normalize MS variations. This solved the inherent problems of MALDI MS for small molecule analysis. The entire analytical procedure-which consisted of simple protein precipitation and 10 min of derivatization in a microwave prior to the MALDI MS analysis-could be accomplished within 20 min with high throughput and great sample matrix tolerance. AA quantification showed good linearity from 0.7 to 70.0 μM with correlation coefficients (R) larger than 0.9954. The limits of detection were 70.0-300.0 fmol. Good reproducibility and reliability of the method were demonstrated by intra-day and inter-day precision with relative standard deviations less than 13.8%, and the recovery in biofluid ranged from 80.4% to 106.8%. This approach could be used in 1 μL of urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. Most importantly, the C60 labeling strategy is a universal approach for MALDI MS analysis of various LMW compounds because functionalized C60 is now available on demand.

  19. Tracing in situ amino acid uptake in plants and microbes with15N13C labelled compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Louise Christoffersen; Michelsen, Anders; Jonasson, Sven Evert

    amino acids. Furthermore, tannin addition tended to reduce plant uptake of label. By combining data on 15N recovery after 1 day in shoots and roots (fine and coarse) of the dominant heathland plants: the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the graminoid Deschampsia flexuosa, in soil...... microorganisms (chloroform fumigation extraction) and in soil water, we discuss the relative importance of free amino acids and ammonium as plant nutrients and microbial substrates in natural N-limited ecosystems with a high proportion of soil N held in tannin-N complexes. ...

  20. Efficacy and safety of Tofacitinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis resistant to conventional therapy: Preliminary results of an open-label clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Luchikhina


    Full Text Available Despite the advances in the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, which are associated with the use of biological anti-rheumatic drugs, the problemof effective treatment of RA is not still solved. Inclusion of new methods in treatment strategies, in particular the so-called «small molecules», i.e. synthetic compounds acting on intracellular signaling pathways, such as Tofacitinib (TOFA approved for use in rheumatologic practice, is very important.Objective: to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapy with TOFA in combination with synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (s-DMARDs, primarily methotrexate (MTX in in patients with active RA in real clinical practice.Subjects and methods. This ongoing open-label trial is a part of the scientific program «Russian Investigation of Methotrexate and Biologics in Early Active Inflammatory Arthritis» (REMARCA that explores the possibility of adapting the «treat-to-target» strategy in real prac-tice in Russia. The study included RA patients with moderate to high disease activity despite treatment with MTX or other DMARDs. A total of 41 patients with RA were included (8 males, 33 females; mean age 52.6±14.2 years, disease duration 47.2±49.7 months, 82.9% RF+ and 80.5% anti-CCP+,DAS28-ESR 5.45±0.95, SDAI 30.2±12.2. All the patients had previously received s-DMARDs; 12 (29.3% patients also had biological DMARDs (1 to 4 biologics. Oral TOFA 5 mg in combination with MTX or leflunomide was administered twice daily to 40 and 1 patients, respectively, with the possibility of increasing the dose up to 10 mg BID. To date, 37 and 12 patients received TOFA for 3 and 6 months, respectively.Results. TOFA was used as a second-line drug (after s-DMARDs failure in 29 (70.7%, as a third line drug (after s-DMARDs and biologics failure in 12 (29.3% patients. The dose was escalated to 10 mg BID in 13 (31.2% patients, on the average, 11.2±1.7 weeks after treatment initiation. TOFA was not

  1. Clinical Observation in 86 Cases of Acne Vulgaris Treated with Compound Oldenlandis Mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瓦林; 沈冬; 宋坪; 许铣


    86 cases of acne vulgaris were treated with Fu Fang She She Cao He Ji (复方蛇舌草合剂 CompoundPrepared from Chinese Angelica and Flavescent Sophora Root) as the controls, to observe the therapeuticeffect of the former. The results showed that the cure plus markedly effective rate was 73.26% in thetreatment group, and 47.06% in the control group, with a significant difference in the cure plus markedlyeffective rate between the two groups (P<0.01), and also in the total effective rate between the two groupssignificant (P<0.05). It may be concluded that the Compound Oldenlandis Mixture is a better agent for theillness.

  2. Non-clinical toxicity studies on bioactive compounds within the framework of nutritional and health claims. (United States)

    Gil, Ana Gloria; Arbillaga, Leire; López de Cerain, Adela


    The growing presence of products on the market with added value in terms of health makes essential their regulation and harmonization in critical aspects such as safety. The toxicology applied to the bioactive compounds should demonstrate the absence of toxic effects at doses advised for consumption, as well as evaluate the potential toxic effects in the assumption that the products are used in quantities superior to those recommended. The specific strategy should be defined case by case; therefore, prior to any toxicological development, it is essential to study all the information regarding the bioactive compounds (BACs) characterization, nutridynamics and nutrikinetics, that is available. In this guideline, a general strategy to be applied in the development of BACs is proposed. It includes a first in vitro phase to discard genotoxicity and endocrine effects and a second in vivo phase with different possibilities regarding the duration and the extension of the studies.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦必光; 胡北喜; 等


    In the present paper,the authors make a review on the progresses of acupuncture anesthesia(AA) from (1)historical development,(2)research on acupuncture combined with local anesthesia;(3)research on acupuncture combined with epidural anesthesia;and (4)research on acupuncture combined with general anesthesia.Compound acupuncture anesthesia provides a new anesthetic measure for surgical operations and has a definits analyesic effect and many advantages,and should be investigated further.

  4. MIB1/Ki-67 labelling index can classify grade 2 breast cancer into two clinically distinct subgroups


    Aleskandarany, Mohammed A.; Rakha, Emad A.; MacMillan, R. Douglas; Desmond G. Powe; Ellis, Ian O.; Green, Andrew R.


    Abstract Histological grade is recognized as one of the strongest prognostic factors in operable breast cancer (BC). Although grade 1 and grade 3 tumours are biologically and clinically distinct, grade 2 tumours bear considerable difficulty in outcome prediction and planning therapies. Several attempts such as genomic grade index have been performed to subclassify grade 2 into two subgroups with clinical relevance. Here, we present evidence that the routinely evaluable immunohistoc...

  5. Basic and Clinical Research Against Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs): New Compounds to Tackle Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetic Complications. (United States)

    Nenna, Antonio; Spadaccio, Cristiano; Lusini, Mario; Ulianich, Luca; Chello, Massimo; Nappi, Francesco


    Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and recent advances in research indicate that a detailed understanding of the pathophysiology of its effects is mandatory to reduce diabetes-related mortality and morbidity. Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) play a central role in the genesis and progression of complications of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and have been found to be important even in non-diabetic patients as a marker of cardiovascular disease. AGEs have a profound impact on patient's prognosis regardless of the glycemic control, and therefore pharmacologic approaches against AGEs accumulation have been proposed over the years to treat cardiovascular diseases, parallel to a more detailed understanding of AGEs pathophysiology. Compounds with anti-AGEs effects are currently under investigation in both pre-clinical and clinical scenarios, and many of the drugs previously used to treat specific diseases have been found to have AGE-inhibitory effects. Some products are still in "bench evaluation", whereas others have been already investigated in clinical trials with conflicting evidences. This review aims at summarizing the mechanisms of AGEs formation and accumulation, and the most relevant issues in pre-clinical and clinical experiences in anti-AGEs treatment in cardiovascular research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Omendra Pal


    Full Text Available Computer vision syndrome is one among the lifestyle disorders in children. About 88% of people who use computers everyday suffer from this problem and children are no exception. Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS is the complex of eye and vision problems related to near works which are experienced during the use of Video Display Terminals (TV and computers. Therefore, considering these prospects a randomized double blind placebo control study was conducted among 40 clinically diagnosed children (5-15 years age group of computer Vision Syndrome to evaluate the role of akshitarpana, shirodhara and an ayurvedic compound in childhood computer vision syndrome.

  7. Clinical use of an herbal-derived compound (Huperzine A) to treat putative complex partial seizures in a dog. (United States)

    Schneider, Barbara M; Dodman, Nicholas H; Faissler, Dominik; Ogata, Niwako


    A Bernese mountain dog was diagnosed with complex partial seizures that were supported by electroencephalographic findings. Clinical signs of the problem included "star gazing," fly snapping, licking, vacuous chewing, and ongoing anxiety. Treatment with Huperzine A, a compound isolated from Chinese club moss with NMDA receptor blocking activity, anticholinesterase activity, and anticonvulsant properties, produced useful suppression of the abnormal behavior for more than months. A relapse occurred when the dog was treated with tramadol for joint pain and the improvement that had been made was not recaptured with Huperzine A. At this stage, phenobarbital therapy was instituted and the dog improved greatly. The role of Huperzine A in controlling seizures is discussed.

  8. Differential Effects of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors on Clinical Responses and Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A 12-Month, Randomized, and Open-Label Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Shimizu


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study evaluated the differences in treatment outcomes and brain perfusion changes among 3 types of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AchEIs, i.e. donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine. Methods: This was a prospective, longitudinal, randomized, open-label, 3-arm (donepezil, rivastigmine, or galantamine, parallel-group, 12-month clinical trial carried out in 55 patients with AD. Results: At 6 months, the results of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Trail Making Test (TMT-Part A showed an improvement versus baseline in the donepezil treatment group. All groups showed a significant increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, mainly in the frontal lobe. Significant rCBF reduction was observed in the temporal lobe and cingulate gyrus in all 3 groups. Conclusion: AchEI treatment prevents the progression of cognitive impairment and increases the relative rCBF in the frontal lobe.

  9. Stock market returns and clinical trial results of investigational compounds: an event study analysis of large biopharmaceutical companies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Hwang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For biopharmaceutical companies, investments in research and development are risky, and the results from clinical trials are key inflection points in the process. Few studies have explored how and to what extent the public equity market values clinical trial results. METHODS: Our study dataset matched announcements of clinical trial results for investigational compounds from January 2011 to May 2013 with daily stock market returns of large United States-listed pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Event study methodology was used to examine the relationship between clinical research events and changes in stock returns. RESULTS: We identified public announcements for clinical trials of 24 investigational compounds, including 16 (67% positive and 8 (33% negative events. The majority of announcements were for Phase 3 clinical trials (N = 13, 54%, and for oncologic (N = 7, 29% and neurologic (N = 6, 24% indications. The median cumulative abnormal returns on the day of the announcement were 0.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.3, 13.4%; P = 0.02 for positive events and -2.0% (95% CI: -9.1, 0.7%; P = 0.04 for negative events, with statistically significant differences from zero. In the day immediately following the announcement, firms with positive events were associated with stock price corrections, with median cumulative abnormal returns falling to 0.4% (95% CI: -3.8, 12.3%; P = 0.33. For firms with negative announcements, the median cumulative abnormal returns were -1.7% (95% CI: -9.5, 1.0%; P = 0.03, and remained significantly negative over the two day event window. The magnitude of abnormal returns did not differ statistically by indication, by trial phase, or between biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms. CONCLUSIONS: The release of clinical trial results is an economically significant event and has meaningful effects on market value for large biopharmaceutical companies. Stock return underperformance due to negative events

  10. Association between in vivo iododeoxyuridine labeling, MIB-1 expression, malignancy grade and clinical stage in human prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borre, M; Høyer, M; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;


    Large variability in the biological behavior of prostate cancer makes prognostic markers important. The extent of tumor cell proliferation has been suggested as an important predictor of clinical outcome. Fifty-five patients suspected of having or with previously diagnosed prostate cancer were...

  11. Compound facial expressions of emotion: from basic research to clinical applications. (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Martinez, Aleix M


    Emotions are sometimes revealed through facial expressions. When these natural facial articulations involve the contraction of the same muscle groups in people of distinct cultural upbringings, this is taken as evidence of a biological origin of these emotions. While past research had identified facial expressions associated with a single internally felt category (eg, the facial expression of happiness when we feel joyful), we have recently studied facial expressions observed when people experience compound emotions (eg, the facial expression of happy surprise when we feel joyful in a surprised way, as, for example, at a surprise birthday party). Our research has identified 17 compound expressions consistently produced across cultures, suggesting that the number of facial expressions of emotion of biological origin is much larger than previously believed. The present paper provides an overview of these findings and shows evidence supporting the view that spontaneous expressions are produced using the same facial articulations previously identified in laboratory experiments. We also discuss the implications of our results in the study of psychopathologies, and consider several open research questions.

  12. A new, rapid in vivo method to evaluate allergic responses through distinctive distribution of a fluorescent-labeled immune complex: Potential to investigate anti-allergic effects of compounds administered either systemically or topically to the skin. (United States)

    Yamaki, Kouya; Yoshino, Shin


    We herein established a new method to evaluate allergic responses in mice rapidly and easily with ethical improvement by reducing the number of animals used. A single intravenous injection of a mixture of anti-OVA monoclonal IgE and fluorescein-ovalbumin (FITC-OVA) induced the distinctive spotted distribution of FITC-OVA in skin, named "ASDIS (Anaphylaxis-dependent Spotted Distribution of a fluorescent-labeled Immune complex in Skin)", and this was easily detected by in vivo imaging. The parallel induction of hypothermia, scratching, serum histamine increases, and ASDIS as well as the inhibition of ASDIS by either the systemic administration of a histamine H1 receptor antagonist or mast cell-depleting antibody suggested that our method, which only required 15 min, induced these allergic responses including ASDIS. Relatively mild but significant ASDIS was induced also in mice with passive systemic anaphylaxis by the method, requiring 2 separate days. The painting of anti-histamines on the skin markedly reduced ASDIS in the painted area only, suggesting the potential of this model to simultaneously compare the anti-allergic effects of several candidate compounds with control drugs in the same mice. ASDIS was suggested to originate from extravasated FITC-OVA/OE-1 immune complexes from blood to skin tissues other than mast cells. Our new method has the advantages of rapidity, easy method, and lower animal numbers to evaluate anti-allergic compounds as well as the characteristics of the used antibody, antigen, labeling molecules, additives, and other formulations. Our model for inducing ASDIS may contribute to the development of anti-allergic drugs, especially those intended for application to the skin.

  13. Pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of solution and soft gelatin capsule formulations for a BCS class 3 compound with atypical physicochemical properties. (United States)

    Ramsay-Olocco, Karen; Alexandrova, Ludmila; Nellore, Ranjani; Killion, Robert; Li, Li; Coen, Patricia; Ho, Quynh; Jung, Donald; Rocha, Cynthia


    R1481 is a sub-type selective muscarinic receptor antagonist with the potential treatment of overactive bladder. R1481 presents two challenges for drug development. The first is the viscous semi-solid nature of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The second challenge is the poor oral bioavailability of this water soluble, metabolically stable compound due to low intestinal permeability, and the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux mechanism. Vitamin E TPGS is reported by others to enhance bioavailability by increasing the solubility of active compounds and by inhibiting P-gp in the intestine. In this report, compatibility of R1481 in Capmul MCM-based formulations with and without vitamin E TPGS is summarized. Review of accelerated stability studies of oral formulations led to the identification of a soft gelatin capsule formulation using neat Capmul MCM as an acceptable formulation for Phase 1 clinical studies. Soft gelatin capsules (5 mg strength) were manufactured with and without the addition of vitamin E TPGS. Clinical data show that vitamin E TPGS does not improve systemic exposure of R1481 in humans.

  14. Clinical Research of Compound Zhebei Granules for Increasing the Therapeutic Effect of Chemotherapy in Refractory Acute Leukemia Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Dian-rong; LI Dong-yun; CHEN Xin-yi; YE Pei-zhi; TIAN Shao-dan


    Objective:To observe the effects of Compound Zhebei Granules (复方浙贝颗粒 CZG) in chemotherapy for refractory acute leukemia.Method:Using a randomized, double-blind and multi-central concurrent control clinical research project, the patients conformed with the diagnostic criteria, according to the drug randomized method, were divided into a CZG group and a control group.The patients of the two groups respectively took the observation drug or a placebo 3 days before chemotherapy, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated after one course of chemotherapy.According to the clinical research project, 137 patients were enrolled, including 71 cases in the CZG group and 66 cases in the control group.Results:The clinical complete remission (CR)rate was 42.3% in the CZG group with a total effective rate of 73.2%, and it was 25.8% in the control group with a total effective rate of 53.0%, showing a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusion:CZG can increase the clinical remission rate for refractory acute leukemia during chemotherapy.

  15. Preparation of 19-iodo cholesterol labelled with 125 I; Preparacion del 19-yodocolesterol marcado con 125 I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.; Rebollo, D. V.; Ruiz, J. M.


    In this paper a new method of synthesis of 19-iodo cholesterol labelled with ''125 I, from commercial cholesterol, is described. Its high chemical (96%) and radiochemical (99.9%) purities high yield and short time of preparation permit us to dispose or a more accessible labelled compound, which results appropriates for clinical investigations and in the diagnosis of disturbances of the suprarenal glands. (Author) 9 refs.

  16. BCR-ABL1 compound mutations combining key kinase domain positions confer clinical resistance to ponatinib in Ph chromosome-positive leukemia. (United States)

    Zabriskie, Matthew S; Eide, Christopher A; Tantravahi, Srinivas K; Vellore, Nadeem A; Estrada, Johanna; Nicolini, Franck E; Khoury, Hanna J; Larson, Richard A; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge E; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jabbour, Elias J; Kornblau, Steven M; Lipton, Jeffrey H; Rea, Delphine; Stenke, Leif; Barbany, Gisela; Lange, Thoralf; Hernández-Boluda, Juan-Carlos; Ossenkoppele, Gert J; Press, Richard D; Chuah, Charles; Goldberg, Stuart L; Wetzler, Meir; Mahon, Francois-Xavier; Etienne, Gabriel; Baccarani, Michele; Soverini, Simona; Rosti, Gianantonio; Rousselot, Philippe; Friedman, Ran; Deininger, Marie; Reynolds, Kimberly R; Heaton, William L; Eiring, Anna M; Pomicter, Anthony D; Khorashad, Jamshid S; Kelley, Todd W; Baron, Riccardo; Druker, Brian J; Deininger, Michael W; O'Hare, Thomas


    Ponatinib is the only currently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that suppresses all BCR-ABL1 single mutants in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) leukemia, including the recalcitrant BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. However, emergence of compound mutations in a BCR-ABL1 allele may confer ponatinib resistance. We found that clinically reported BCR-ABL1 compound mutants center on 12 key positions and confer varying resistance to imatinib, nilotinib, dasatinib, ponatinib, rebastinib, and bosutinib. T315I-inclusive compound mutants confer high-level resistance to TKIs, including ponatinib. In vitro resistance profiling was predictive of treatment outcomes in Ph(+) leukemia patients. Structural explanations for compound mutation-based resistance were obtained through molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings demonstrate that BCR-ABL1 compound mutants confer different levels of TKI resistance, necessitating rational treatment selection to optimize clinical outcome.

  17. Labeling of Patient Specimens (United States)


    noted during the event that the number of near miss incidmts reported monthly was low due to laboratory personnel performing rounds each...specimens never leaves label and if moved it is labeled), All orders in system and all near misses and errors reported to patient safety Purchase/Install...Meeting 14 Aug 09, 1400 in lab break room thru out Develop TICK sheet to track near misses .JDI Ms. Clark Clinics will provide toPS 1st working day of

  18. Long-Term Effects of Goshajinkigan in Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Randomized Open-Labeled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Watanabe


    Full Text Available Objective. This clinical trial was designed to investigate whether goshajinkigan reduces the onset of diabetic complications or not. Materials and Methods. A total of 332 type 2 diabetic mellitus patients were registered from 9 clinical centers from March 2000 to August 2007. Patients were randomly assigned to take goshajinkigan extract powder, 2.5 grams for 3 times a day or no kampo therapy, additionally to the regular treatment. The primary endpoints were the onset of macrovascular diseases or progression of nephropathy or retinopathy. Statistical analysis was performed by the intention-to-treat method. Results. After 5 years of observation, 116 patients were submitted to analysis. Among them, no macrovascular events were observed in both groups. Although 43 participants had upstaging of retinopathy or nephropathy in total, there was no significant difference between goshajinkigan group and control group. Deterioration of ankle reflex was suppressed in goshajinkigan group. Also glycated hemoglobin, and fasting plasma glucose were decreased in the goshajinkigan group. Conclusion. Although the power of analysis was too low to demonstrate any effects of goshajinkigan on the progression of macrovascular diseases, retinopathy or nephropathy, goshajinkigan may be beneficial for diabetic neuropathy and glycemic control.

  19. Clinical efficacy comparison of Saccharomyces boulardii and yogurt fluid in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children: a randomized, controlled, open label study. (United States)

    Eren, Makbule; Dinleyici, Ener C; Vandenplas, Yvan


    The purpose of this trial is to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost/effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii compared with yogurt fluid (YF) in acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. This randomized, prospective open-label clinical trial includes 55 children (36 boys, 19 girls; mean age 21.2 +/- 28.2 months). Group A (N = 28) received lyophilized S. boulardii and group B (N = 27) received YF. The duration of diarrhea was shorter with S. boulardii but the hospital stay was reduced with YF, although these differences were not significant. However, diarrhea had resolved in significantly more children on day 3 in the S. boulardii group (48.5% versus 25.5%; P yogurt treatment was cheaper than S. boulardii whereas in hospitalized patients, treatment cost was similar. In conclusion, the effect of daily freshly prepared YF was comparable to S. boulardii in the treatment of acute non-bloody diarrhea in children. The duration of diarrhea was shorter in the S. boulardii group, expressed as a significantly higher number of patients with normal stools on day 3.

  20. Clinical outcomes of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients with brain metastasis treated with lapatinib and capecitabine: an open-label expanded access study in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro Jungsil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate efficacy in patients with brain metastasis (BM on entry into the lapatinib expanded access program (LEAP. Methods LEAP is a worldwide, single-arm, open-label study. HER2-positive, locally-advanced or metastatic breast cancer patients with progression after an anthracycline, taxane, and trastuzumab were eligible. Patients received capecitabine 2000 mg/m2 daily in two divided doses, days 1–14, every 21 days and lapatinib 1250 mg once daily. Results Among 186 patients enrolled in 6 Korean centers, 58 had BM. Progression-free survival (PFS was 18.7 weeks in patients with BM and 19.4 weeks without BM (P = 0.88. In patients with BM, brain response was synchronized with systemic responses (P = 0.0001. Overall survival (OS was 48.9 weeks in patients with BM and 64.6 weeks without BM (P = 0.23. Multivariable analysis found hormone receptor positivity (P = 0.003 and clinical benefit rate (CBR of combined systemic and brain disease (P  Conclusion Lapatinib plus capecitabine is equally effective in patients with or without BM. Trial registration (NCT00338247

  1. Clearance of /sup 99m/-technetium-labelled DTPA in asbestos-exposed subjects without clinical or radiological evidence of interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellert, A.R.; Langford, J.A.; Winter, R.J.; Lewis, C.A.; Tolfree, S.E.; Rudd, R.M.


    The half-time clearance of an inhaled aerosol of /sup 99m/-technetium-labelled diethylene triamine pentacetate from lung to blood (T1/2LB) was measured using a gamma camera in 20 non-smoking subjects (mean age 54, range 40-69 years) with previous occupational asbestos exposure, but no clinical or radiological evidence of asbestosis, and 20 non-smoking normal subjects (mean age 54, range 40-62). Mean T1/2LB was 44.7 minutes (range 12-102) in exposed subjects, significantly less than 57.2 minutes (range 30.5-109) in normal subjects (P less than 0.05). There was no correlation between age and T1/2LB in either group. In exposed subjects T1/2LB showed a weak rank correlation with the membrane component of DLco (Dm) (r = 0.40, P less than 0.05) but no significant correlation with FVC, TLC, DLco, Kco, resting Pao2 or change in Pao2 on exercise. In six exposed subjects T1/2LB was shorter than in any of the normal subjects. These six did not differ from the other 14 exposed subjects in any physiological variables. T1/2LB is abnormal in some asbestos-exposed subjects without clinical, radiological or physiological evidence of asbestosis. Follow-up will show whether it is an early indicator of development of interstitial lung disease.

  2. Neuroprotective compounds and innovative therapeutic strategies for Parkinson’s disease: experimental and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Blandini


    Full Text Available Fabio BlandiniInterdepartmental Research Center for Parkinson’s Disease (CRIMP, IRCCS Neurological Institute “C. Mondino Foundation”, Pavia, ItalyAbstract: Identifying new therapeutic strategies capable of modifying the course of Parkinson’s disease (PD is currently one of the major goals for the researchers of this field. Various mechanistic definitions have been proposed to describe the hypothetical ability of a therapeutic intervention to prevent, block or reverse the neurodegenerative process underlying PD. The general term “neuroprotection” has been related to the capacity of interfering with the ongoing process of neuronal cell death, in order to slow or halt disease progression, while a term such as “neurorestoration” would apply to any intervention capable of increasing the number of surviving dopaminergic neurons. Although none of the therapeutic approaches tested in PD patients has so far shown the ability to stop or reverse disease progression, a certain degree of neuroprotection can be achieved with compounds that are already available in the pharmacological armamentarium of the neurologist. Treatment with dopamine agonists or MAO-B inhibitors, particularly when started in the very early phases of the disease, may play disease-modifying effects and even L-DOPA, at low doses, may be slightly neuroprotective. For a true neurorestorative intervention, promising perspectives are being provided by neurotrophic factors and stem cells, which, however, still need to unveil their full potential.Keywords: L-DOPA, dopamine agonists, MAO-B inhibitors, trophic factors, stem cells

  3. Clinical Study on Treatment of Mid-Late Stage Gastric Carcinoma by Compound Xiansu Capsule (

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUA; Bao-jin


    [1]National Tumor Prevention and Treatment Office, National Association of Anti-Cancer Co-edited. “Chinese common malignant tumor standard of diagnosis and treatment”, the fourth fascicle, 2nd edition. Beijing: Beijing Medical University and Chinese Union Medical University United Press, 1991∶14-50.[2]SUN Y, ZHOU JC, chief edited. Clinical tumor medical handbook. 3rd edition. Beijing: People's Health Publishing House, 1996∶24.[3]Jiangsu New Medical College, chief edited. Chinese drugs dictionary. Shanghai: Shanghai Science and Technology Press, 1986∶34.[4]SHEN ZQ, SUN JX, HUANG LX. Astragalus in treating selective immunoglobin A deficiency. New Drug and Clinical 1997;16(4)∶246.[5]DING HZ, YANG LY. Application of Ginseng Astragalus decoction in the hepatic artery ligation and embolization in treating mid-late stage liver cancer. CJITWM 1994;14(suppl)∶302.[6]Berghella AM, Barni S, Robin T, et al. Progression mechanisms in gastric or colon cancer: soluble interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor, IL-2 plus anti-CD3 proliferative response and tumor stage correlation. Cancer Immunol 1994;38(3)∶160.[7]Rosenberg SA, Kusugamik, Kawase T, et al. The development of new immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer using interleukin-2. Ann Surg 1990;208∶121.

  4. Vitamin D compounds: clinical development as cancer therapy and prevention agents. (United States)

    Trump, Donald L; Muindi, Josephia; Fakih, Marwan; Yu, Wei-Dong; Johnson, Candace S


    While 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) is best recognized for its effects on bone and mineral metabolism, epidemiological data indicate that low vitamin D levels may play a role in the genesis and progression of breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer, as well as malignant lymphoma and melanoma. Calcitriol has strong antiproliferative effects in prostate, breast, colorectal, head/neck and lung cancer, as well as lymphoma, leukemia and myeloma model systems. Antiproliferative effects are seen in vitro and in vivo. The mechanisms of these effects are associated with G0/G1 arrest, induction of apoptosis, differentiation and modulation of growth factor-mediated signaling in tumor cells. In addition to the direct effects on tumor cells, recent data strongly support the hypothesis that the stromal effects of vitamin D analogs (e.g., direct effects on tumor vasculature) are also important in the antiproliferative effects. Antitumor effects are seen in a wide variety of tumor types and there are few data to suggest that vitamin D-based approaches are more effective in any one tumor type. Glucocorticoids potentiate the antitumor effect of calcitriol and decrease calcitriol-induced hypercalcemia. In addition, calcitriol potentiates the antitumor effects of many cytotoxic agents. Preclinical data indicate that maximal antitumor effects are seen with pharmacological doses of calcitriol and that such exposure can be safely achieved in animals using a high dose, intermittent schedule of administration. AUC and C(max) calcitriol concentrations of 32 ng.h/ml and 9.2 ng/ml are associated with striking antitumor effects in a murine squamous cell carcinoma model and there is increasing evidence from clinical trials that such exposures can be safely attained in patients. Another approach to maximizing intra-tumoral exposure to vitamin D analogs is to inhibit their catabolism. The data clearly indicate that agents which inhibit the major vitamin D catabolizing enzyme

  5. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging in moyamoya disease compared with clinical assessments and other MR imaging finings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki, E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Matsushima, Toshio [Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan); Irie, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1, Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501 (Japan)


    Purpose: Our purpose was to identify the causal factors for the perfusion distribution obtained with ASL-MRI by comparing ASL-MRI with clinical information and other MRI findings in moyamoya disease. Methods: Seventy-one patients with moyamoya disease underwent ASL-MRI and other MRI, including fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging (FLAIR) and three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) on 3.0-Tesla MRI system. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) values (ASL values) for the cerebral hemispheres (142 sides) were measured on CBF maps generated by ASL-MRI. Relationships between the ASL values and the following 9 factors were assessed: sex, family history, revascularization surgery, age at MR exam, age at onset, the steno-occlusive severity on MRA (MRA score), degree of basal collaterals, degree of leptomeningeal high signal intensity seen on FLAIR, and size of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident lesion (CVA score). Results: Patients with a family history had significantly higher ASL values than those without such a history. There were significant negative correlations between ASL values and age at MR exam, MRA score, and CVA score. Conclusions: ASL-MRI may have cause-and-effect or mutual associations with family history, current patient age, size of CVA lesion, and intracranial arterial steno-occlusive severity in Moyamoya disease.

  6. Safety and performance of cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting – an open-label, multicenter study (United States)

    Kühne, Ulrich; Esmann, Jørgen; von Heimburg, Dennis; Imhof, Matthias; Weissenberger, Petra; Sattler, Gerhard


    Cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM®) hyaluronic acid fillers are now available with or without lidocaine. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and performance of CPM® fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting. In an open-label, prospective, postmarketing study, 108 patients from seven sites in Germany and Denmark were treated with one or more lidocaine-containing CPM® fillers. Performance was assessed using the Merz Aesthetics Scales® (MAS). Pain was rated on an 11-point visual analog scale. Patients’ and physicians’ satisfaction as well as adverse events were recorded. Improvements of ≥1-point on MAS immediately after and 17 days posttreatment were observed in ~90% of patients compared with baseline. All investigators assessed ejection force, product positioning, and performance as similar or superior to the respective nonlidocaine products. Overall, 94% of investigators were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and were willing to continue using the products. All patients except one were satisfied with the results, and all were willing to repeat the treatment. Mean pain scores were low during (<3.0) and after injection (<0.6). Except for one case of bruising, all adverse events were mild to moderate. CPM® fillers with lidocaine are safe and effective for a wide range of esthetic facial indications. PMID:27799807

  7. An Open-Label, Multicenter Observational Study for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Treated with Memantine in the Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Stamouli


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this post-marketing observational study, the safety and effectiveness of memantine were evaluated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: In a 6-month, observational, open-label study at 202 specialist sites in Greece, the effectiveness of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scale at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Discontinuation rates and adverse drug reactions (ADRs were also recorded to evaluate the safety profile of memantine. Results: 2,570 patients participated in the study. Three and 6 months after baseline, MMSE and IADL scores were significantly improved compared to baseline. At the end of the study, 67% of the patients had improved their MMSE score; 7.1% of the patients reported ≧1 ADRs, and treatment was discontinued due to ADR in 0.7%. Conclusion: Memantine was well tolerated and had a positive effect on the patient’s cognitive and functional ability in real-life clinical practice, in agreement with randomized, controlled trials.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Organophosphorus compound is used for committing suicidal are on upswing in developing countries A grading system of severity of OP poisoning suggests that most cases can be managed in the ICU which cannot be applied to developing countries, where facilities for ICU management are rather limited. Hence, the pr esent study is undertaken to identify the factors both clinical and biochemical, which help in predicting the need for ventilator support and thus helping to reduce the mortality by timely institution of ventilator support. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To study the clinical and biochemical parameters in organophosphate poisoning, which help to predict the need for ventilator support. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a Descriptive Study done at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, with a sample size of 50 cases. Patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria are assessed as per proforma specifically designed for the study. RESULTS: In this study population, 12 patients who reached the hospital for treatment > 4 hour of consumption, 11(91.7% required ventil ator support . In this study, out of patients with pinpoint pupils at admission required ventilator support. In this study, all patients ( required ventilator support with a fasciculation score of more than as compared to none with a bsent fasciculation. In this study, lower the Glasgow coma scale at admission, more vulnerable are the patients for ventilator support . In This study, patients with reduced levels of Pseudo cholinesterase i.e. out of patients ( required ventilato r support. CONCLUSION: Clinical and biochemical parameters such as Greater the time lag from consumption of OP poison till getting specific treatment, Lower GCS scoring, Generalized Fasiculations, Low Pseudo cholinesterase levels, Larger initial dose of At ropine required for Atropinization were strong predictors for the need for Assisted Ventilation in OP poisoning. Grading of the degree of the poisoning taking

  9. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of ongoing statin plus ezetimibe versus doubling the ongoing statin dose in hypercholesterolemic Taiwanese patients: an open-label, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chih-Chieh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is associated with reduced risk for major coronary events. Despite statin efficacy, a considerable proportion of statin-treated hypercholesterolemic patients fail to reach therapeutic LDL-C targets as defined by guidelines. This study compared the efficacy of ezetimibe added to ongoing statins with doubling the dose of ongoing statin in a population of Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Methods This was a randomized, open-label, parallel-group comparison study of ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statin compared with doubling the dose of ongoing statin. Adult Taiwanese hypercholesterolemic patients not at optimal LDL-C levels with previous statin treatment were randomized (N = 83 to ongoing statin + ezetimibe (simvastatin, atorvastatin or pravastatin + ezetimibe at doses of 20/10, 10/10 or 20/10 mg or doubling the dose of ongoing statin (simvastatin 40 mg, atorvastatin 20 mg or pravastatin 40 mg for 8 weeks. Percent change in total cholesterol, LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and triglycerides, and specified safety parameters were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks. Results At 8 weeks, patients treated with statin + ezetimibe experienced significantly greater reductions compared with doubling the statin dose in LDL-C (26.2% vs 17.9%, p = 0.0026 and total cholesterol (20.8% vs 12.2%, p = 0.0003. Percentage of patients achieving treatment goal was greater for statin + ezetimibe (58.6% vs doubling statin (41.2%, but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.1675. The safety and tolerability profiles were similar between treatments. Conclusion Ezetimibe added to ongoing statin therapy resulted in significantly greater lipid-lowering compared with doubling the dose of statin in Taiwanese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Studies to assess clinical outcome benefit are ongoing. Trial registration Registered at NCT00652327

  10. Safety and performance of cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting – an open-label, multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne U


    Full Text Available Ulrich Kühne,1 Jørgen Esmann,2 Dennis von Heimburg,3 Matthias Imhof,1 Petra Weissenberger,4 Gerhard Sattler,5 On behalf of the BALIA Study Group 1Aesthetische Dermatologie im Medico Palais, Bad Soden, Germany; 2Jørgen Esmann Aps, Hellerup, Denmark; 3Praxisklinik Kaiserplatz, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 4Corporate Clinical Research, Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 5Rosenparkklinik GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: Cohesive polydensified matrix (CPM® hyaluronic acid fillers are now available with or without lidocaine. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and performance of CPM® fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting. In an open-label, prospective, postmarketing study, 108 patients from seven sites in Germany and Denmark were treated with one or more lidocaine-containing CPM® fillers. Performance was assessed using the Merz Aesthetics Scales® (MAS. Pain was rated on an 11-point visual analog scale. Patients’ and physicians’ satisfaction as well as adverse events were recorded. Improvements of ≥1-point on MAS immediately after and 17 days posttreatment were observed in ~90% of patients compared with baseline. All investigators assessed ejection force, product positioning, and performance as similar or superior to the respective nonlidocaine products. Overall, 94% of investigators were satisfied with the esthetic outcomes and were willing to continue using the products. All patients except one were satisfied with the results, and all were willing to repeat the treatment. Mean pain scores were low during (<3.0 and after injection (<0.6. Except for one case of bruising, all adverse events were mild to moderate. CPM® fillers with lidocaine are safe and effective for a wide range of esthetic facial indications. Keywords: cohesive polydensified matrix, dermal fillers, Belotero, Esthélis, Fortélis, Modélis

  11. Contribution to the study of the biological properties of compounds labeled with radio-chromium {sup 51}Cr; Contribution a l'etude des proprietes biologiques des composes marques au radiochrome {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingrand, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Among the radioisotopes commonly used in biology and medicine which are controlled Individually in the Radioelement Departement of the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre before being sent to the users, the author has chosen chromium 51 incorporated in inorganic salts or in organic substrates for a study of the biological properties of the compounds. In the first part, he has compared the pathways followed by the radioactive sodium chromate and chromic chloride mixed with blood or given to the whole animal, the object being to determine whether a reduction of hexavalent chromium occurs, both in vitro and in vivo. In the second part, the author has tried to show the validity of using, various substrates labeled with chromium 51, red cells, haemoglobin, plasma proteins and cytochrome c. The results obtained have contributed to underline the interest of using such compounds for biological applications. (author) [French] Parmi les radioisotopes d'utilisation courants en biologie et en medecine qui sont l'objet d'un controle particulier dans le Departement des Radioelements du Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay avant leur diffusion aux utilisateurs, l'auteur a choisi le chrome 51 incorpore a des sels mineraux ou a des substrats organiques, afin d'en etudier les proprietes biologiques. Dans la premiere partie, il a compare le sort du chromate de sodium et du chlorure chromique radioactifs melanges a du sang ou administres a l'animal entier en s'efforcant de mettre en evidence une reduction du chrome hexavalent aussi bien in vitro qu'in vivo. Dans la deuxieme partie, il a cherche a etablir la validite de l'emploi de differents substrats marques au chrome 51, l'hematie, l'hemoglobine, les proteines plasmatiques et le cytochrome c. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de souligner le reel interet des applications biologiques des composes marques par le radioisotope. (auteur)

  12. Evaluation of radiolabeling of annexin A5 with technetium-99m: influence of the labeling methods on physico-chemical and biological properties of the compounds; Avaliacao da radiomarcacao da anexina A5 com tecnecio-99m: influencia do metodo de marcacao nas propriedades fisico-quimicas e biologicas do composto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Josefina da Silva


    Annexin A5 (ANXA5) is an intracellular human protein of 36 kDa with high affinity for membrane-bound phosphatidylserine that is selectively exposed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis is important in normal physiology and innumerous pathologic states. Clinical applications for ANXA5 imaging are being developed in oncology, organ transplantation and cardiovascular diseases. Many strategies to radiolabel the protein have been described, including direct labeling, derivatization through a bifunctional chelating agent (BFC), production of mutated protein or peptide analogs. Several {sup 99}mTc-labeling techniques have been reported using different cores, including [Tc=O]{sup +3}, [Tc]HYNIC, [Tc{identical_to}N]+2 and [Tc(CO{sub 3})]{sup +1}. In this study, we evaluated the influence of {sup 99}mTc cores on biological behavior and physico-chemical properties of radiolabeled annexin. Radiolabeling procedure using [Tc{identical_to}N]{sup +2} core was a two-step procedure including the reaction of {sup 99}mTcO4 - with SDH in the presence of SnCl{sub 2} and PDTA to obtain the intermediate {sup 99}mTcN-SDH, and successive addition of ANXA5. The results obtained were not satisfactory, despite the high efficiency in the production of the intermediate. The [Tc=O]{sup +3} core was produced using the ethylene dicysteine (EC) as BFC. TSTU was employed in the derivatization to produce the corresponding hydroxysuccinimide ester. Different ANXA5:EC ratios were studied and all labeling conditions resulted in high radiochemical yield but with differences in lipophilicity, stability, biological distribution and affinity for apoptotic cells. The HYNIC-ANXA5 also produced the labeled protein with high radiochemical yield. The stability of the radiolabeled ANXA5 was evaluated after storing at room temperature, at 2 - 8 degree C and in human serum at 37 degree C. The analysis of these results showed that the {sup 99}mTc-EC-ANXA5 (ratio 10-2) was the most stable compound

  13. Comparison of Two Kinds of 64Cu Labelled Octreotide Analogues

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    HAN Zhen-yi1;LIANG Ji-xin1;HU Ji2;LUO Hong-yi1;QING Jing2;CHEN Yu-qing2;LI Guang2;LI Hong-yu1,2


    Full Text Available Octreotide analogues DOTA-TOC and DOTA-TATE were labeled with 64Cu. The influences of the ratio of peptide mass to 64Cu activity, pH value, temperature and reaction time on labeling yield were investigated. The optimum labeling was determined. In vitro stability tests in saline and 10% bovine serum had been carried out. Biodistribution of the two radiolabelled compounds in normal mice and Micro PET imaging in nude mice bearing U87MG tumor had been evaluated. The results showed that the labeling yields of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE were higher than 95%. Two kinds of octreotide analogues labeled with 64Cu were quite stable in saline and decomposed slowly in 10% bovine serum at 37 ℃. Biodistribution results in normal mice showed that two 64Cu labelled tracers had similar profiles. Both of the compounds washed out from the blood quickly. High uptake of radioactivity in liver and kidneys indicated the tracers were excreted via both hepatobiliary system and renal system. At the same time, compared to 64Cu-DOTA-TOC, higher radioactivity accumulation of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in liver and kidneys was observed. Micro PET images of U87MG tumor-bearing nude mice with 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed the tumors very clearly. The radioactivity uptake of 64Cu-DOTA-TATE in tumor was higher than that of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC. This work has paved the way for further preclinical and clinical application of 64Cu-DOTA-TOC and 64Cu-DOTA-TATE as PET tumor imaging agents.

  14. Introduction to Pesticide Labels (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  15. Clonal Evolutionary Analysis during HER2 Blockade in HER2-Positive Inflammatory Breast Cancer: A Phase II Open-Label Clinical Trial of Afatinib +/- Vinorelbine (United States)

    Schmid, Ramona; Arpornwirat, Wichit; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Ganju, Vinod; Im, Seock-Ah; Kim, Sung-Bae; Dechaphunkul, Arunee; Maneechavakajorn, Jedzada; Spector, Neil; Yau, Thomas; Afrit, Mehdi; Ahmed, Slim Ben; Johnston, Stephen R.; Gibson, Neil; Herrero, Javier; Swanton, Charles


    Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, aggressive form of breast cancer associated with HER2 amplification, with high risk of metastasis and an estimated median survival of 2.9 y. We performed an open-label, single-arm phase II clinical trial ( NCT01325428) to investigate the efficacy and safety of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family inhibitor, alone and in combination with vinorelbine in patients with HER2-positive IBC. This trial included prospectively planned exome analysis before and after afatinib monotherapy. Methods and Findings HER2-positive IBC patients received afatinib 40 mg daily until progression, and thereafter afatinib 40 mg daily and intravenous vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 weekly. The primary endpoint was clinical benefit; secondary endpoints were objective response (OR), duration of OR, and progression-free survival (PFS). Of 26 patients treated with afatinib monotherapy, clinical benefit was achieved in 9 patients (35%), 0 of 7 trastuzumab-treated patients and 9 of 19 trastuzumab-naïve patients. Following disease progression, 10 patients received afatinib plus vinorelbine, and clinical benefit was achieved in 2 of 4 trastuzumab-treated and 0 of 6 trastuzumab-naïve patients. All patients had treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Whole-exome sequencing of tumour biopsies taken before treatment and following disease progression on afatinib monotherapy was performed to assess the mutational landscape of IBC and evolutionary trajectories during therapy. Compared to a cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) patients with HER2-positive non-IBC, HER2-positive IBC patients had significantly higher mutational and neoantigenic burden, more frequent gain-of-function TP53 mutations and a recurrent 11q13.5 amplification overlapping PAK1. Planned exploratory analysis revealed that trastuzumab-naïve patients with tumours harbouring somatic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling had significantly shorter PFS compared to those without

  16. Chiral separation of the clinically important compounds fucose and pipecolic acid using CE: determination of the most effective chiral selector. (United States)

    Hadjistasi, Christoforos A; Stavrou, Ioannis J; Stefan-Van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Kapnissi-Christodoulou, Constantina P


    In this study, simple electrophoretic methods were developed for the chiral separation of the clinically important compounds fucose and pipecolic acid. In recent years, these analytes, and particularly their individual enantiomers, have attracted considerable attention due to their role in biological functions and disorders. The detectability and sensitivity of pipecolic acid and fucose were improved by reacting them with fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) and 5-amino-2-naphthalene-sulfonic acid (ANSA), respectively. The enantioseparation conditions were optimized by initially investigating the type of the chiral selector. Different chiral selectors, such as polymeric surfactants and cyclodextrins, were used and the most effective ones were determined with regard to resolution and analysis time. A 10-mM β-cyclodextrin was able to separate the enantiomers of ANSA-DL-fucose and the polymeric surfactant poly(sodium N-undecanoyl-LL-leucine-valinate) was able to separate the enantiomers of FMOC-DL-pipecolic acid, with resolution values of 3.45 and 2.78, respectively. Additional parameters, such as the concentration and the pH of the background electrolyte (BGE), the concentration of the chiral selector, and the addition of modifiers were examined in order to optimize the separations. The addition of the chiral ionic liquid D-alanine tert-butyl ester lactate into the BGE was also investigated, for the first time, in order to improve resolution of the enantiomers.

  17. Clinical evaluation of Rasayana compound as an adjuvant in the management of tuberculosis with anti-Koch's treatment. (United States)

    Vyas, Purvi; Chandola, H M; Ghanchi, Firoz; Ranthem, Shivprakash


    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to intimidate the human race since time immemorial not only due to its effects as a medical malady, but also by its impact as a social and economic tragedy. At the dawn of the new millennium, we are still mute witnesses to the silent yet efficient march of this sagacious disease, its myriad manifestations and above all its unequalled, vicious power. Through the millennia, TB never ever disappeared from the developing world. In 1991, the World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution recognized TB as a major global public health problem. The DOTS strategy was launched in 1994, and became the global recommended strategy for TB control since then. The present study deals with clinical evaluation of Rasayana drugs considering of Amalaki (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia willd.), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) Dunal, Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.), Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Sariva (Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.), Kustha (Saussurea lappa Falc.), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.) and Kulinjan (Alpinia galangal Linn.) as an adjuvant therapy with anti-Koch's treatment. The results obtained revealed that Rasayana compound was found to decrease cough (83%), fever (93%), dyspnea (71.3%), hemoptysis (87%) and increase body weight (7.7%) with statistically highly significant (P<0.001).

  18. In Vivo Anti-Candida Activity of Phenolic Extracts and Compounds: Future Perspectives Focusing on Effective Clinical Interventions (United States)

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.


    Candida species have increasingly deserved a special attention among the medical community. In spite of the presence of Candida species as a human commensal, alarming rates of local and systemic infections have been observed, varying from moderate to severe impact. Currently available antifungal drugs have progressively lost their effectiveness, pointing urgently the problem of the microorganisms with acquired-resistance. Natural matrices are secularly used for numerous purposes, being inclusive and highly effective as antimicrobials. Increasing evidence gives a particular emphasis to the contribution of phenolic extracts and related individual compounds. In vitro studies clearly confirm their prominent effects, but the confirmation through in vivo studies, including the involved mechanisms of action, is not so much deepened. Therefore, the present report aims to provide extensive knowledge about all these aspects, highlighting the most efficient phytochemical formulations, including therapeutic doses. Further studies need to be incited to deepen knowledge on this area, namely, focused on clinical trials to provide safer and more effective antimicrobials than the current ones. PMID:26380266

  19. Radioimmunotherapy in medullary thyroid cancer using bispecific antibody and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten: preliminary results of a phase I/II clinical trial. (United States)

    Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Bardet, S; Hoefnagel, C A; Vieira, M R; Vuillez, J P; Murat, A; Ferreira, T C; Bardiès, M; Ferrer, L; Resche, I; Gautherot, E; Rouvier, E; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F


    The toxicity and therapeutic efficacy of escalating doses of anti-carcinoembryonic antigen x anti-N alpha-(diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N''-tetraacetic acid)-In bispecific monoclonal antibody (F6-734) and iodine 131-labeled bivalent hapten were determined in a Phase I/II trial. A total of 26 patients with recurrences of medullary thyroid cancer documented by imaging and a rise in serum thyrocalcitonin were enrolled. Twenty to 50 mg of F6-734 and 40-100 mCi of 131I-hapten were injected 4 days apart. Quantitative scintigraphy was performed after the second injection for dosimetry estimations in eight cases. Clinical, biological, and morphological follow-up was carried out for 1 year after treatment. The mean percentage of injected activity per gram of tumor at the time of maximum uptake was 0.08% (range, 0.003-0.26%). The tumor biological half-life ranged from 3 to 95 days, and tumor doses ranged from 2.91 to 184 cGy/mCi. The estimated tumor-to-nontumor dose ratios were 43.8 x 53.4, 29.6 x 35.3, 10.9 x 13.6, and 8.4 x 10.0 for total body, red marrow, liver, and kidney, respectively. Grade III/IV hematological toxicity was observed in seven patients, most of them with bone metastases. Among the 17 evaluable patients, 4 pain reliefs, 5 minor tumor responses, and 4 biological responses with decrease of thyrocalcitonin were observed. Nine patients developed human anti-mouse antibody. Dose-limiting toxicity was hematological, and maximum tolerated activity was 48 mCi/m2 in this group of patients, most of whom had suspected bone marrow involvement. The therapeutic responses observed in patients mainly with a small tumor burden are encouraging for the performance of a Phase II trial with minimal residual disease.

  20. Eggshell membrane: A possible new natural therapeutic for joint and connective tissue disorders. Results from two open-label human clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Ruff


    Full Text Available Kevin J Ruff1, Dale P DeVore2, Michael D Leu3, Mark A Robinson41ESM Technologies, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA; 2Membrell, LLC, Carthage, MO, USA; 3Private Practice, Jenks, OK, USA; 4Robinson Family Health Center, Carthage, MO, USABackground: Natural Eggshell Membrane (NEM® is a novel dietary supplement that contains naturally occurring glycosaminoglycans and proteins essential for maintaining healthy joint and connective tissues. Two single center, open-label human clinical studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NEM® as a treatment for pain and inflexibility associated with joint and connective tissue disorders. Methods: Eleven (single-arm trial and 28 (double-arm trial patients received oral NEM® 500 mg once daily for four weeks. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the change in general pain associated with the treatment joints/areas (both studies. In the single-arm trial, range of motion (ROM and related ROM-associated pain was also evaluated. The primary treatment response endpoints were at seven and 30 days. Both clinical assessments were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT population within each study.Results: Single-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response at seven days for flexibility (27.8% increase; P = 0.038 and at 30 days for general pain (72.5% reduction; P = 0.007, flexibility (43.7% increase; P = 0.006, and ROM-associated pain (75.9% reduction; P = 0.021. Double-arm trial: Supplementation with NEM® produced a significant treatment response for pain at seven days for both treatment arms (X: 18.4% reduction; P = 0.021. Y: 31.3% reduction; P = 0.014. There was no clinically meaningful difference between treatment arms at seven days, so the Y arm crossed over to the X formulation for the remainder of the study. The significant treatment response continued through 30 days for pain (30.2% reduction; P = 0.0001. There were no adverse events reported during either

  1. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír


    In the online labeling problem with parameters n and m we are presented with a sequence of nkeys from a totally ordered universe U and must assign each arriving key a label from the label set {1,2,…,m} so that the order of labels (strictly) respects the ordering on U. As new keys arrive it may be...

  2. EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND): An Open-Label Phase II Clinical Trial of Hydroxyurea Treatment in Sickle Cell Anemia (United States)

    Little, Courtney R; Reid, Marvin E; Soares, Deanne P; Taylor-Bryan, Carolyn; Knight-Madden, Jennifer M; Stuber, Susan E; Badaloo, Asha V; Aldred, Karen; Wisdom-Phipps, Margaret E; Latham, Teresa; Ware, Russell E


    Background Cerebral vasculopathy in sickle cell anemia (SCA) begins in childhood and features intracranial arterial stenosis with high risk of ischemic stroke. Stroke risk can be reduced by transcranial doppler (TCD) screening and chronic transfusion therapy; however, this approach is impractical in many developing countries. Accumulating evidence supports the use of hydroxyurea for the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease in children with SCA. Recently we reported that hydroxyurea significantly reduced the conversion from conditional TCD velocities to abnormal velocities; whether hydroxyurea can be used for children with newly diagnosed severe cerebrovascular disease in place of starting transfusion therapy remains unknown. Objective The primary objective of the EXpanding Treatment for Existing Neurological Disease (EXTEND) trial is to investigate the effect of open label hydroxyurea on the maximum time-averaged mean velocity (TAMV) after 18 months of treatment compared to the pre-treatment value. Secondary objectives include the effects of hydroxyurea on serial TCD velocities, the incidence of neurological and non-neurological events, quality of life (QOL), body composition and metabolism, toxicity and treatment response, changes to brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), genetic and serologic markers of disease severity, and cognitive and pulmonary function. Methods This prospective Phase II trial will enroll children with SCA in Jamaica, between the ages of 2 and 17 years, with either conditional (170-199 cm/sec) or abnormal (≥ 200 cm/sec) TCD velocities. Oral hydroxyurea will be administered daily and escalated to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Participants will be seen in the Sickle Cell Unit (SCU) in Kingston, Jamaica monthly until achieving MTD, and then every 3 months. TCD will be performed every 6 months. Results Currently, 43 participants have been enrolled out of a projected 50. There was one

  3. Open-label comparative clinical study of chlorproguanil-dapsone fixed dose combination (Lapdap alone or with three different doses of artesunate for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Wootton

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: The objective of this study was to determine the appropriate dose of artesunate for use in a fixed dose combination therapy with chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPG-DDS for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: Open-label clinical trial comparing CPG-DDS alone or with artesunate 4, 2, or 1 mg/kg at medical centers in Blantyre, Malawi and Farafenni, The Gambia. The trial was conducted between June 2002 and February 2005, including 116 adults (median age 27 years and 107 children (median age 38 months with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Subjects were randomized into 4 groups to receive CPG-DDS alone or plus 4, 2 or 1 mg/kg of artesunate once daily for 3 days. Assessments took place on Days 0-3 in hospital and follow-up on Days 7 and 14 as out-patients. Efficacy was evaluated in the Day 3 per-protocol (PP population using mean time to reduce baseline parasitemia by 90% (PC90. A number of secondary outcomes were also included. Appropriate artesunate dose was determined using a pre-defined decision matrix based on primary and secondary outcomes. Treatment emergent adverse events were recorded from clinical assessments and blood parameters. Safety was evaluated in the intent to treat (ITT population. RESULTS: In the Day 3 PP population for the adult group (N = 85, mean time to PC90 was 19.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, significantly longer than for the +artesunate 1 mg/kg (12.5 h; treatment difference -6.6 h [95%CI -11.8, -1.5], 2 mg/kg (10.7 h; -8.4 h [95%CI -13.6, -3.2] and 4 mg/kg (10.3 h; -8.7 h [95%CI -14.1, -3.2] groups. For children in the Day 3 PP population (N = 92, mean time to PC90 was 21.1 h in the CPG-DDS group, similar to the +artesunate 1 mg/kg group (17.7 h; -3.3 h [95%CI -8.6, 2.0], though the +artesunate 2 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg groups had significantly shorter mean times to PC90 versus CPG-DDS; 14.4 h (treatment difference -6.4 h [95%CI -11.7, -1.0] and 12.8 h (-7.4 h [95%CI -12.9, -1

  4. Quantifying exploratory low dose compounds in humans with AMS. (United States)

    Dueker, Stephen R; Vuong, Le T; Lohstroh, Peter N; Giacomo, Jason A; Vogel, John S


    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry is an established technology whose essentiality extends beyond simply a better detector for radiolabeled molecules. Attomole sensitivity reduces radioisotope exposures in clinical subjects to the point that no population need be excluded from clinical study. Insights in human physiochemistry are enabled by the quantitative recovery of simplified AMS processes that provide biological concentrations of all labeled metabolites and total compound related material at non-saturating levels. In this paper, we review some of the exploratory applications of AMS (14)C in toxicological, nutritional, and pharmacological research. This body of research addresses the human physiochemistry of important compounds in their own right, but also serves as examples of the analytical methods and clinical practices that are available for studying low dose physiochemistry of candidate therapeutic compounds, helping to broaden the knowledge base of AMS application in pharmaceutical research.

  5. The effect of a unique propolis compound (PropoelixTM on clinical outcomes in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroy L


    Full Text Available Lardo Soroy,1 Sulistyo Bagus,2 Iswandi Purnama Yongkie,1 Wibisono Djoko2 1Division of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Research Committee, Gatot Soebroto Central Army Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia Background: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. It is an old virus that has re-emerged globally over the past 20 years and now causes a global burden of 50 million infections per year across approximately 100 countries. Despite this, there is no safe vaccine available, and therapy is largely supportive. Its pathogenesis is multifaceted and currently still poorly understood, leading to a lack of disease-specific therapy. Propolis is a natural antiviral and anti-inflammatory product derived from the saps of plants and mixed with the saliva of honeybees. Propoelix™ is a uniquely potent and water-soluble extract of propolis containing high concentrations of anti-inflammatory compounds like caffeic acid phenethyl ester. Objective: The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness of a unique propolis extract (Propoelix™ on the clinical course of patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF. The secondary objective is to examine the effect of Propoelix™ on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels in patients with DHF. Methods: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at the Department of Internal Medicine, Gatot Soebroto Central Army Hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, from May 2012 to July 2013. Sixty-three patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the trial. Patients were randomized to receive either two capsules of Propoelix™ 200 mg three times a day or placebo daily for 7 days. Clinical and laboratory variables of both groups, including the anti-inflammatory marker TNF-α, were investigated. Patients were deemed technically fit for discharge if their platelet counts had recovered and exceeded 100,000/µL but were all

  6. Utilization of a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator for the preparation of {sup 90}Y-labeled RGD peptide dimer in clinically relevant dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Chakravarty, Rubel; Pillai, Maroor Raghavan Ambikalmajan; Dash, Ashutosh [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiopharmaceuticals Div.; Sarma, Haladhar Dev [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div.


    The work reported in this paper provides a systematic study towards the development of an optimized strategy for preparation of a clinically relevant dose of {sup 90}Y-labeled dimeric RGD peptide derivative, DOTA-E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} [DOTA-(RGD){sub 2}] for in vivo targeted therapy utilizing {sup 90}Y obtained from a novel electrochemical {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y generator. The performance of the generator was evaluated to ensure its suitability for providing {sup 90}Y in adequate quantity and purity required for formulation of clinically relevant dose for PRRT. {sup 90}Y-DOTA-(RGD){sub 2} was synthesized in high yield (86.2 ± 2.5%) and radiochemical purity (98.4 ± 0.5%) using clinically relevant dose (∝ 3.8 GBq) of {sup 90}Y. In vitro stability studies revealed that the radiolabeled conjugate retained its radiochemical purity in normal saline and human serum. Preliminary biodistribution studies carried out in C57/BL6 mice bearing melanoma tumors showed that the preparation exhibited significant tumor uptake (5.30 ± 0.78% of injected activity at 30 min post-injection) with good tumor to background ratio. The optimized radiolabeling protocol seems to be an attractive strategy which is largely viewed as a springboard to realize scope of developing {sup 90}Y labeled cyclic RGD peptides for targeted therapy of tumors over-expressing integrin-α{sub ν}β{sub 3} receptors. (orig.)

  7. Pittsburgh compound B imaging and cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β in a multicentre European memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leuzy, Antoine; Chiotis, Konstantinos; Hasselbalch, Steen G;


    The aim of this study was to assess the agreement between data on cerebral amyloidosis, derived using Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography and (i) multi-laboratory INNOTEST enzyme linked immunosorbent assay derived cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of amyloid-β42; (ii) centrally me...

  8. Clinical application research on the use of the Photon Therapeutic Apparatus combined with Hops extract compound ointment in treatment for breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunzhu


    Full Text Available Objective: To research Carnation-87C photon theraapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment in the clinical effect of breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis. Method: The experimental group is treated by the conventional therapy and Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment, while the control group is treated by the conventional therapy only, such as regular dressing change. The other treatments for two groups of patients are the same. Through 4 weeks’ treatment, the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time were observed between two groups. Results: There were statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in the growth of fresh granulation tissue and healing time between two groups of patients with non-healing skin flap necrosis after the operation. Conclusion: The treatment with the Carnation-87C photon therapeutic apparatus combine with compound hops extract ointment for breast cancer patients after operation with unhealed incision of skin flap necrosis is easy to operate with good curative effect, and it is worth popularizing in clinical application.

  9. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N. (Organon Int. B.V., Oss (Netherlands). Akzo-Pharma Div.)


    An overview is given of the possibilities of [sup 3]H NMR in the characterisation of [sup 3]H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author).

  10. MR implant labelling and its use in clinical MRI practice; MR-Implantatkennzeichnungen und ihre Anwendung in der klinischen MRT-Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlenweg, M. [Krankenhaus Martha-Maria Halle-Doelau, Institut fuer Radiologie, Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schaefers, G. [MR:comp GmbH, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)


    Before a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination, implants in patients must be cleared for MR safety in order to exclude the risk of possible severe injuries and implant malfunction in an MR environment. The general contraindication for measurements of patients with implants still applies; however, in the recent past a way has been found to legally circumvent this contraindication. For this purpose special conditions are required: explicit implant identification and the original manufacturer's labelling are necessary, the required conditions for conditionally MR safe implants must be assured and a risk-benefit analysis with appropriate explanation to the patient has to be performed. This process can be very complex as the implants are often poorly documented and detailed information on the implant MR labelling is also often outdated or not easy to interpret. This article provides information about legal and normative principles of MR measurement of patients with implants. The possible physical interactions with implants will be briefly dealt with as well as possible strategies for better identification and investigation of implants and MR labelling. General approaches for minimizing the risk will be discussed using some examples. The second part deals with the content of MR implant labelling and the current test standards. Furthermore, the additional information from the operating instructions of the MR scanner that are necessary for the interpretation of the MR implant labelling, will be explained. The article concludes with an explanation of the current pattern for MR labelling of implants from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and an exemplary application. (orig.) [German] Implantate in Patienten muessen vor einer MR-Untersuchung auf MR-Sicherheit abgeklaert werden, um moegliche z. T. schwere Verletzungen und Implantatfehlfunktionen in einer MR-Umgebung weitestgehend auszuschliessen. Es gilt unveraendert die generelle Kontraindikation von

  11. Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Less than 15 Years in Guinea-Bissau - An Open-Label Non-Inferiority Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia;


    BACKGROUND: Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify...... an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days.......022. In a modified intention to treat analysis in which treatment failures day 0 and reinfections were also considered as treatment failures adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 94% and 97% (OR 0.42 [95% CI, 0.13-1.38], p = 0.15). Parasite clearance and symptom resolution were similar with both...

  12. Compound heterozygosity with a novel S222N GALT mutation leads to atypical galactosemia with loss of GALT activity in erythrocytes but little evidence of clinical disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher


    Full Text Available Galactosemia is an inborn error of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the GALT gene. Though early detection and galactose restriction prevent severe liver disease, affected individuals have persistently elevated biomarkers and often neuro-developmental symptoms. We present a teenage compound heterozygote for a known pathogenic mutation (H132Q and a novel variant of unknown significance (S222N, with nearly absent erythrocyte GALT enzyme activity but normal biomarkers and only mild anxiety despite diet non-adherence. This case is similar to a previously reported S135L mutation. In this report we investigate the novel S222N variant and critically evaluate a clinically puzzling case.

  13. 特异性溶瘤重组腺病毒KH901的碘标记方法及其生物学分布%Iodination Conditions of KH901, a Tumor-specific Oncolytic Recombinant Adenovirus, and Its ~(125)I-labeled Compounds Biodistribution in Animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米彦霞; 李云春; 龙亚红; 解朋


    研究一种~(125)I直接标记特异性溶瘤重组腺病毒KH901的简便高效的方法,以及评价~(125)I-KH901的体内生物学行为.采用N-溴代琥珀酰亚胺(NBS)方法对KH901进行标记,确定最佳标记条件;用凝胶过滤层析法对标记物进行分离纯化,纸层析法测定放化纯度.对~(125)I-KH901进行正常小鼠体内生物学分布检测.结果显示,~(125)I-KH901的放化纯达到95%以上,标记率可达到78%;正常小鼠尾静脉注射~(125)I-KH901后体内分布显示肝脏中放射性浓集度最高,24 h检测肝脏仍有较多放射性滞留,可达13.34 %ID/g,标记物在肾脏的摄取也较高,为8.06% ID/g. 因此, N-溴代琥珀酰亚胺(NBS)方法是一种步骤简便、标记率高的比较理想的碘标记病毒方法,~(125)I-KH901主要分布在肝脏和肾脏.%In this research was developed high efficiency method using ~(125)I for directly labeling KH901,a tumor-specific oncolytic recombinant adenovirus,biodistribution of ~(125)I-labeled compound in normal mice was investigated. ~(125)I-KH901 was prepared by N-bromosuccinimide labeling method to find the optimal ratio of labeling response. The compounds were isolated and purified by Sephadex-G10 agarose and the radiochemical purity of compounds was analyzed by paper chromatography. The radioactivity biodistribution in mice was measured at different times after caudal vein injection with 0.1ml ~(125)I-KH901. The labeling yield of ~(125)I-KH901 was 78% and the radiochemical purity was 95% after purification by Sephadex-G10 agarose. Biodistribution revealed that the uptake of ~(125)I-KH901 in liver was higher than in other organs at all time points of the experiment. ~(125)I-KH901 was mainly concentrated in liver,kidneys,spleen and lung. It can be seen that N-bromosuccinimide labeling method is an optimal method with simple steps and high labeling yield in labeling KH901 with ~(125)I. ~(125)I-KH901 has a biodistribution trait which is an advantage to treating liver

  14. Lu-177-Labeled Zirconia Particles for Radiation Synovectomy. (United States)

    Polyak, Andras; Nagy, Lívia Naszályi; Drotár, Eszter; Dabasi, Gabriella; Jóba, Róbert P; Pöstényi, Zita; Mikolajczak, Renata; Bóta, Attila; Balogh, Lajos


    The present article describes the preparation of β-emitter lutetium-177-labeled zirconia colloid and its preliminary physicochemical and biological evaluation of suitability for local radionuclide therapy. The new (177)Lu-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceutical candidate was based on the synthesis mode of a previously described zirconia nanoparticle system. The size and shape of the developed radiopharmaceutical compound were observed through a scanning electron microscope and dynamic light scattering methods. The radiocolloid had a 1.7 μm mean diameter and showed high in vitro radiochemical and colloid size stability at room temperature and during the blood sera stability test. After the in vitro characterizations, the product was investigated in the course of the treatment of a spontaneously diseased dog veterinary patient's hock joint completed with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging follow-up measurements and a dual-isotope SPECT imaging tests with conventional (99m)Tc-methanediphosphonic acid bone scintigraphy. In the treated dog, no clinical side-effects or signs of histopathological changes of the joints were recorded during the treatment. SPECT follow-up studies clearly and conspicuously showed the localization of the (177)Lu-labeled colloid in the hock joint as well as detectable but negligible leakages of the radiocolloid in the nearest lymph node. On the basis of biological follow-up tests, the orthopedic team assumed that the (177)Lu-labeled zirconia colloid-based local radionuclide therapy resulted in a significant and long-term improvement in clinical signs of the patient without any remarkable side-effects.

  15. 99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy as an alternative to angiography in the investigation of gastrointestinal bleeding: clinical experience in a district general hospital. (United States)

    Bearn, P.; Persad, R.; Wilson, N.; Flanagan, J.; Williams, T.


    99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy (99mTc RBC scintigraphy) was used as the second-line investigation to localise bleeding in 23 patients (11 male, 12 female; mean age 67 years) presenting with active bleeding per rectum. Scintigraphy was available on a 24 h basis. A total of 18 patients had positive scans (78%). Surgery was performed urgently in 11 patients and the site of bleeding, as predicted by scintigraphy, was confirmed in 9 (82%). 99mTc RBC scintigraphy was less useful in patients who were not bleeding actively or who were being investigated for chronic anaemia. This study suggests that 99mTc RBC scintigraphy can play a useful role in the preoperative localisation of unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding in hospitals with nuclear medicine facilities, but confirms it has little place in the management of patients unless they are bleeding actively. PMID:1319696

  16. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)


    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  17. Mental Labels and Tattoos (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph


    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  18. Pesticide Product Label System (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  19. Simultaneous Segmentation and Statistical Label Fusion. (United States)

    Asman, Andrew J; Landmana, Bennett A


    Labeling or segmentation of structures of interest in medical imaging plays an essential role in both clinical and scientific understanding. Two of the common techniques to obtain these labels are through either fully automated segmentation or through multi-atlas based segmentation and label fusion. Fully automated techniques often result in highly accurate segmentations but lack the robustness to be viable in many cases. On the other hand, label fusion techniques are often extremely robust, but lack the accuracy of automated algorithms for specific classes of problems. Herein, we propose to perform simultaneous automated segmentation and statistical label fusion through the reformulation of a generative model to include a linkage structure that explicitly estimates the complex global relationships between labels and intensities. These relationships are inferred from the atlas labels and intensities and applied to the target using a non-parametric approach. The novelty of this approach lies in the combination of previously exclusive techniques and attempts to combine the accuracy benefits of automated segmentation with the robustness of a multi-atlas based approach. The accuracy benefits of this simultaneous approach are assessed using a multi-label multi- atlas whole-brain segmentation experiment and the segmentation of the highly variable thyroid on computed tomography images. The results demonstrate that this technique has major benefits for certain types of problems and has the potential to provide a paradigm shift in which the lines between statistical label fusion and automated segmentation are dramatically blurred.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Epidural Analgesia is used for relief of pain during and following surgical operations, for relief of chronic pain, for relief of pain in labour, reduction of bleeding by producing sympathetic blockade and hypotension during surgery or to supplement light general anaesthesia, thereby suppressing the transmission of afferent impulses and autonomic and hormonal response to surgery. The commonly used drugs for epidural analgesia are 2% xylocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine. Mixing of the local anaesthetics and altering the pH have been found to be safe and cost effective.1,2 our study was a prospective randomized controlled double blind study to investigate effect of the benefits of usage of a compounded solution (2% xylocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine in a 1:1 ratio over a single drug (0.5% bupivacaine and ascertain whether it can be recommended for routine use in epidural analgesia in regular anaesthetic practice.3,4,5 The following parameters are Studied 1 The time of onset of analgesia. 2 The quality of analgesia. 3 The degree of motor blockade. 4 Duration of analgesia. 5 Safety of compounding local anaesthetics. METHODS AND MATERIAL: One Hundred Adult Patients of either sex ranging between 20-60 years of age belonging to ASA grade 1 and II were studied. All patients were at random divided into 2 groups fifty in each group. Group A received 0.5% bupivacaine 15cc. Group B received a mixture of 0.5% bupivacine and 2% xylocaine (7.5cc + 7.5cc RESULTS: Mean time of onset of analgesia in group B was lower (11.50 + 2.05 as compared to group A (22.24 + 2.18 and this difference was statistically highly significant (P<0.001. 16% of group A and 6% of group B required to be changed over to general anaesthesia. Grade IV motor blockade was seen only in 24% of group A and 30% of the group B which is significant. Mean duration of action in group A was higher (128.90 + 6.70 than in group B (98.30 + 5.29 and this difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The

  1. Efficacy of biocides used in the modern food industry to control salmonella enterica, and links between biocide tolerance and resistance to clinically relevant antimicrobial compounds. (United States)

    Condell, Orla; Iversen, Carol; Cooney, Shane; Power, Karen A; Walsh, Ciara; Burgess, Catherine; Fanning, Séamus


    Biocides play an essential role in limiting the spread of infectious disease. The food industry is dependent on these agents, and their increasing use is a matter for concern. Specifically, the emergence of bacteria demonstrating increased tolerance to biocides, coupled with the potential for the development of a phenotype of cross-resistance to clinically important antimicrobial compounds, needs to be assessed. In this study, we investigated the tolerance of a collection of susceptible and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica strains to a panel of seven commercially available food-grade biocide formulations. We explored their abilities to adapt to these formulations and their active biocidal agents, i.e., triclosan, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, and benzalkonium chloride, after sequential rounds of in vitro selection. Finally, cross-tolerance of different categories of biocidal formulations, their active agents, and the potential for coselection of resistance to clinically important antibiotics were investigated. Six of seven food-grade biocide formulations were bactericidal at their recommended working concentrations. All showed a reduced activity against both surface-dried and biofilm cultures. A stable phenotype of tolerance to biocide formulations could not be selected. Upon exposure of Salmonella strains to an active biocidal compound, a high-level of tolerance was selected for a number of Salmonella serotypes. No cross-tolerance to the different biocidal agents or food-grade biocide formulations was observed. Most tolerant isolates displayed changes in their patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial compounds. Food industry biocides are effective against planktonic Salmonella. When exposed to sublethal concentrations of individual active biocidal agents, tolerant isolates may emerge. This emergence was associated with changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities.

  2. Synthesis of {sup 14}C-labelled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitrocellulose (NC) and glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) for use in assessing the biodegradation potential of these energetic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampleman, G.; Thiboutot, S.; Lavigne, J.; Marois, A. [Defence Research Establishment Valcartier, Courcelette, PQ (Canada); Hawari, J.; Jones, A.M.; Rho, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Within the framework of an R and D project on bioremediation of soils contaminated with energetic compounds, the biodegradation of energetic products such as hexogen (RDX), trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitrocellulose (NC) and glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) is under study. Microcosm assays must be performed with radioactive carbon-14 labelled products in order to follow the biodegradation process. {sup 14}C-RDX was prepared by nitration of hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) according to the Hale process. {sup 14}C-ring and methyl labelled TNTs synthesized according to the Dorey and Carper procedure. {sup 14}C-cellulose was synthesized from {sup 14}C-glucose by Acetobacter xylinum. Nitration of the {sup 14}C-cellulose yielded {sup 14}C-nitrocellulose. {sup 14}C-glycidyl azide polymer was obtained by polymerization and azidation of {sup 14}C-epichlorohydrin (ECH) which was synthesized from {sup 14}C-glycerol. Hydrochlorination of {sup 14}C-glycerol and epoxidation of the resulting {sup 14}C-1,3-dichloro 2-propanol yielded {sup 14}C-ECH. The syntheses of these {sup 14}C-labelled explosives are described in this paper. (Author).

  3. Labeling Schemes with Queries



    We study the question of ``how robust are the known lower bounds of labeling schemes when one increases the number of consulted labels''. Let $f$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An $f$-labeling scheme for a family of graphs $\\cF$ labels the vertices of all graphs in $\\cF$ such that for every graph $G\\in\\cF$ and every two vertices $u,v\\in G$, the value $f(u,v)$ can be inferred by merely inspecting the labels of $u$ and $v$. This paper introduces a natural generalization: the notion of $f$-...

  4. TAAR6 variation effect on clinic presentation and outcome in a sample of schizophrenic in-patients: an open label study. (United States)

    Pae, Chi-Un; Drago, Antonio; Kim, Jung-Jin; Patkar, Ashwin A; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Chul; Mandelli, Laura; De Ronchi, Diana; Paik, In-Ho; Serretti, Alessandro


    We recently reported an association between TAAR6 (trace amine associated receptor 6 gene) variations and schizophrenia (SZ). We now report an association of a set of TAAR6 variations and clinical presentation and outcome in a sample of 240 SZ Korean patients. Patients were selected by a Structured Clinical Interview, DSM-IV Axis I disorders - Clinical Version (SCID-CV). Other psychiatric or neurologic disorders, as well as medical diseases, were exclusion criteria. To assess symptom severity, patients were administered the CGI scale and the PANSS at baseline and at the moment of discharge, 1 month later on average. TAAR6 variations rs6903874, rs7452939, rs8192625 and rs4305745 were investigated; rs6903874, rs7452939 and rs8192625 entered the statistical investigation after LD analysis. Rs8192625 G/G homozygosis was found to be significantly associated both with a worse clinical presentation at PANSS total and positive scores and with a shorter period of illness before hospitalization. No haplotype significant findings were found. The present study stands for a role of the TAAR6 in the clinical presentation of SZ. Moreover, our results show that this genetic effect may be counteracted by a correct treatment. Haplotype analysis was not informative in our sample, probably also because of the incomplete SNPs' coverage of the gene we performed. Further studies in this direction are warranted.

  5. Synthesis Of Labeled Metabolites (United States)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Silks, III, Louis A.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Atcher, Robert


    The present invention is directed to labeled compounds, for example, isotopically enriched mustard gas metabolites including: [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1-[[2-(methylsulfinyl)ethyl]sulfonyl]-2-(methylthio); [1,1',2,2'-.sup.13 C.sub.4 ]ethane, 1,1'-sulfonylbis[2-(methylsulfinyl)]; and, 2,2'-sulfinylbis([1,2-.sup.13 C.sub.2 ]ethanol of the general formula ##STR1## where Q.sup.1 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone (--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), at least one C* is .sup.13 C, X is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and deuterium, and Z is selected from the group consisting of hydroxide (--OH), and --Q.sup.2 --R where Q.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of sulfide (--S--), sulfone(--S(O)--), sulfoxide (--S(O.sub.2)--) and oxide (--O--), and R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a C.sub.1 to C.sub.4 lower alkyl, and amino acid moieties, with the proviso that when Z is a hydroxide and Q.sup.1 is a sulfide, then at least one X is deuterium.

  6. Labeled Cocaine Analogs (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Shi, Bing Zhi; Keil, Robert N.


    Novel compounds having the structure: ##STR1## where X in .beta. configuration is phenyl, naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-iodophenyl; 2,3 or 4-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl; 3,4,5 or 6-iodonaphthyl; 3,4,5 or 6-(trimethylsilyl)naphthyl; 2,3 or 4-(trialkylstannyl)phenyl; or 3,4,5 or 6-(trialkylstannyl)naphthyl Y in .beta. configuration is Y.sub.1 or Y.sub.2, where Y.sub.1 is 2-fluoroethoxy, 3-fluoropropoxy, 4-fluorobutoxy, 2-fluorocyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-fluorocyclobutoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, R 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, S 1'-fluoroisopropoxy, 1',3'-difluoroisopropoxy, R,S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 1'-fluoroisobutoxy, R,S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, R 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, S 4'-fluoroisobutoxy, or 1',1'-di(fluoromethyl)isobutoxy, and Y.sub.2 is 2-methanesulfonyloxy ethoxy, 3-methanesulfonyloxy propoxy, 4-methanesulfonyloxy butoxy, 2-methanesulfonyloxy cyclopropoxy, 2 or 3-methanesulfonyloxy cyclobutoxy, 1'methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-fluoro, 3'-methanesulfonyloxy isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy, 3'-fluoro isopropoxy, 1'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy, or 4'-methanesulfonyloxy isobutoxy bind dopamine transporter protein and can be labeled with .sup.18 F or .sup.123 I for imaging.

  7. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty


    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.


    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  9. The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys? (United States)

    van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W


    Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, noninvasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only noninvasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath (EB) and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in EB and EBC in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which nine contained original data on VOCs in EB and 84 on biomarkers in EBC. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practice. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation to reveal whether EB and EBC analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use.

  10. International, open-label, noncomparative, clinical trial of micafungin alone and in combination for treatment of newly diagnosed and refractory candidemia. (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Kontoyiannis, D; Raffalli, J; Mullane, K M; Vazquez, J; Anaissie, E J; Lipton, J; Jacobs, P; van Rensburg, J H Jansen; Rex, J H; Lau, W; Facklam, D; Buell, D N


    Candida spp. are the fourth leading cause of bloodstream infections, and non-albicans species are increasing in importance. Micafungin is a new echinocandin antifungal agent with excellent in vitro activity against Candida spp. Pediatric, neonatal, and adult patients with new or refractory candidemia were enrolled into this open-label, noncomparative, international study. The initial dose of micafungin was 50 mg/d (1 mg/kg for patients <40 kg) for infections due to C. albicans and 100 mg/d (2 mg/kg for patients <40 kg) for infections due to other species. Dose escalation was allowed. Maximum length of therapy was 42 days. A total of 126 patients were evaluable (received at least five doses of micafungin). Success (complete or partial response) was seen in 83.3% patients overall. Success rates for treatment of infections caused by the most common Candida spp. were as follows: C. albicans 85.1%, C. glabrata 93.8%, C. parapsilosis 86.4%, and C. tropicalis 83.3%. Serious adverse events related to micafungin were uncommon. Micafungin shows promise as a safe and effective agent for the treatment of newly diagnosed and refractory cases of candidemia. Large-scale, randomized, controlled trials are warranted.

  11. Clinical and functional characterization of a patient carrying a compound heterozygous pericentrin mutation and a heterozygous IGF1 receptor mutation. (United States)

    Müller, Eva; Dunstheimer, Desiree; Klammt, Jürgen; Friebe, Daniela; Kiess, Wieland; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Kruis, Tassilo; Laue, Sandy; Pfäffle, Roland; Wallborn, Tillmann; Heidemann, Peter H


    Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA) with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X]) were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration.

  12. Clinical and functional characterization of a patient carrying a compound heterozygous pericentrin mutation and a heterozygous IGF1 receptor mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Müller

    Full Text Available Intrauterine and postnatal longitudinal growth is controlled by a strong genetic component that regulates a complex network of endocrine factors integrating them with cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic processes in target tissues, particularly the growth centers of the long bones. Here we report on a patient born small for gestational age (SGA with severe, proportionate postnatal growth retardation, discreet signs of skeletal dysplasia, microcephaly and moyamoya disease. Initial genetic evaluation revealed a novel heterozygous IGF1R p.Leu1361Arg mutation affecting a highly conserved residue with the insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor suggestive for a disturbance within the somatotropic axis. However, because the mutation did not co-segregate with the phenotype and functional characterization did not reveal an obvious impairment of the ligand depending major IGF1R signaling capabilities a second-site mutation was assumed. Mutational screening of components of the somatotropic axis, constituents of the IGF signaling system and factors involved in cellular proliferation, which are described or suggested to provoke syndromic dwarfism phenotypes, was performed. Two compound heterozygous PCNT mutations (p.[Arg585X];[Glu1774X] were identified leading to the specification of the diagnosis to MOPD II. These investigations underline the need for careful assessment of all available information to derive a firm diagnosis from a sequence aberration.

  13. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein


    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the website.

  14. Nitrogen-Based Diazeniumdiolates: Versatile Nitric Oxide-Releasing Compounds for Biomedical Research and Potential Clinical Applications (United States)

    Saavedra, Joseph E.; Keefer, Larry K.


    Nitric oxide-generating ions of the nitrogen-diazeniumdiolate class with the general structure R1R2N-[N(O)NO]1 have been prepared by exposing primary, secondary, and polyamines to nitric oxide (NO). The resulting complexes regenerate bioactive NO at physiological pH with half-lives ranging from 2 seconds to 20 hours. An important goal in our research is to deliver NO to a specific organ or cell type where it is needed without affecting other NO-sensitive parts of the anatomy. By taking advantage of the remarkable chemical versatility of diazeniumdiolates, we have developed general strategies to prepare either tissue-selective NO donor drugs or materials containing NO delivery agents that can be physically placed near the target sites. Inhibition of blood coagulation, induction of penile erection, relief of pulmonary hypertension, and reversal of cerebral vasospasm are a few examples of their potential clinical applications. See Featured Molecules.

  15. Crystal structures of PRK1 in complex with the clinical compounds lestaurtinib and tofacitinib reveal ligand induced conformational changes. (United States)

    Chamberlain, Philip; Delker, Silvia; Pagarigan, Barbra; Mahmoudi, Afshin; Jackson, Pilgrim; Abbasian, Mahan; Muir, Jeff; Raheja, Neil; Cathers, Brian


    Protein kinase C related kinase 1 (PRK1) is a component of Rho-GTPase, androgen receptor, histone demethylase and histone deacetylase signaling pathways implicated in prostate and ovarian cancer. Herein we describe the crystal structure of PRK1 in apo form, and also in complex with a panel of literature inhibitors including the clinical candidates lestaurtinib and tofacitinib, as well as the staurosporine analog Ro-31-8220. PRK1 is a member of the AGC-kinase class, and as such exhibits the characteristic regulatory sequence at the C-terminus of the catalytic domain--the 'C-tail'. The C-tail fully encircles the catalytic domain placing a phenylalanine in the ATP-binding site. Our inhibitor structures include examples of molecules which both interact with, and displace the C-tail from the active site. This information may assist in the design of inhibitors targeting both PRK and other members of the AGC kinase family.

  16. Ivabradine: A Review of Labeled and Off-Label Uses. (United States)

    Oliphant, Carrie S; Owens, Ryan E; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Jha, Sunil K


    Ivabradine is a unique medication recently approved in the USA for the treatment of select heart failure patients. It was first approved for use in several countries around the world over a decade ago as an anti-anginal agent, with subsequent approval for use in heart failure patients. Since ivabradine has selective activity blocking the I f currents in the sinus node, it can reduce heart rate without appreciable effects on blood pressure. Given this heart-rate-specific effect, it has been investigated in many off-label indications as an alternative to traditional heart-rate-reducing medications such as beta blockers and calcium channel blockers. We conducted searches of PubMed and Google Scholar for ivabradine, heart failure, HFrEF, HFpEF, angina, coronary artery disease, inappropriate sinus tachycardia, postural orthostatic hypotension, coronary computed tomography angiography and atrial fibrillation. We reviewed and included studies, case reports, and case series published between 1980 and June 2016 if they provided information relevant to the practicing clinician. In many cases, larger clinical trials are needed to solidify the benefit of ivabradine, although studies indicate benefit in most therapeutic areas explored to date. The purpose of this paper is to review the current labeled and off-label uses of ivabradine, with a focus on clinical trial data.

  17. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia


    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the ......It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not....... In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  18. Off-label paediatric drug use for juvenile depression and the Clinical Trial Regulations 2004: The impact of available protective mechanisms


    Glover-Thomas, Nicola


    Across Europe, around one in four adults experience a mental health problem in any 1 year. It is estimated that 2-6% of children and adolescents suffer from depression and suicide is now the third leading cause of death in 10-19 year olds. Despite traditional Freudian teachings that children rarely suffer from clinically diagnosed depression, treatment figures for juvenile depression have soared in recent years. For adults, the current treatment trend, as advocated by the National Institute f...

  19. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience (United States)

    Callis Duffin, Kristina; Bukhalo, Michael; Bobonich, Margaret A; Shrom, David; Zhao, Fangyi; Kershner, James R; Gill, Anne; Pangallo, Beth; Shuler, Catherine L; Bagel, Jerry


    Background Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers). Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers) used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg). At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two injection failures of 674 total self-injections performed over 12 weeks. At the first use of the device, 95% of subjects either agreed or strongly agreed that the device was “overall easy to use”, and they felt “confident the dose was complete” according to the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire. Conclusion The ixekizumab autoinjector was used successfully by patients and caregivers with or without training. Subjects using the autoinjector in a clinical trial felt it was easy to use and felt confident while using it. PMID:27785115

  20. Safety and performance of cohesive polydensified matrix hyaluronic acid fillers with lidocaine in the clinical setting – an open-label, multicenter study


    Kühne U; Esmann J; von Heimburg D; Imhof M; Weissenberger P; Sattler G


    Ulrich Kühne,1 Jørgen Esmann,2 Dennis von Heimburg,3 Matthias Imhof,1 Petra Weissenberger,4 Gerhard Sattler,5 On behalf of the BALIA Study Group 1Aesthetische Dermatologie im Medico Palais, Bad Soden, Germany; 2Jørgen Esmann Aps, Hellerup, Denmark; 3Praxisklinik Kaiserplatz, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 4Corporate Clinical Research, Merz Pharmaceuticals GmbH, Frankfurt am Main, Germany; 5Rosenparkklinik GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany Abstract: Cohesive polydensified ma...

  1. Crystal structures of PRK1 in complex with the clinical compounds lestaurtinib and tofacitinib reveal ligand induced conformational changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chamberlain

    Full Text Available Protein kinase C related kinase 1 (PRK1 is a component of Rho-GTPase, androgen receptor, histone demethylase and histone deacetylase signaling pathways implicated in prostate and ovarian cancer. Herein we describe the crystal structure of PRK1 in apo form, and also in complex with a panel of literature inhibitors including the clinical candidates lestaurtinib and tofacitinib, as well as the staurosporine analog Ro-31-8220. PRK1 is a member of the AGC-kinase class, and as such exhibits the characteristic regulatory sequence at the C-terminus of the catalytic domain--the 'C-tail'. The C-tail fully encircles the catalytic domain placing a phenylalanine in the ATP-binding site. Our inhibitor structures include examples of molecules which both interact with, and displace the C-tail from the active site. This information may assist in the design of inhibitors targeting both PRK and other members of the AGC kinase family.

  2. Economical synthesis of 13C-labeled opiates, cocaine derivatives and selected urinary metabolites by derivatization of the natural products. (United States)

    Karlsen, Morten; Liu, Huiling; Johansen, Jon Eigill; Hoff, Bård Helge


    The illegal use of opiates and cocaine is a challenge world-wide, but some derivatives are also valuable pharmaceuticals. Reference samples of the active ingredients and their metabolites are needed both for controlling administration in the clinic and to detect drugs of abuse. Especially, (13)C-labeled compounds are useful for identification and quantification purposes by mass spectroscopic techniques, potentially increasing accuracy by minimizing ion alteration/suppression effects. Thus, the synthesis of [acetyl-(13)C4]heroin, [acetyl-(13)C4-methyl-(13)C]heroin, [acetyl-(13)C2-methyl-(13)C]6-acetylmorphine, [N-methyl-(13)C-O-metyl-(13)C]codeine and phenyl-(13)C6-labeled derivatives of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene was undertaken to provide such reference materials. The synthetic work has focused on identifying (13)C atom-efficient routes towards these derivatives. Therefore, the (13)C-labeled opiates and cocaine derivatives were made from the corresponding natural products.

  3. Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patient-reported experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callis Duffin K


    Full Text Available Kristina Callis Duffin,1 Michael Bukhalo,2 Margaret A Bobonich,3 David Shrom,4 Fangyi Zhao,4 James R Kershner,4 Anne Gill,4 Beth Pangallo,4 Catherine L Shuler,4 Jerry Bagel5 1Department of Dermatology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Arlington Dermatology, Arlington Heights, IL, 3CWRU Schools of Medicine and Nursing, Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, OH, 4Lilly Research Labs, Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Corporate Center, Indianapolis, IN, 5Psoriasis Treatment Center of Central New Jersey, East Windsor, NJ, USA Background: Most biologic therapies for psoriasis are delivered via subcutaneous injection. Ixekizumab, an anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody approved for patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, is delivered subcutaneously via prefilled syringe or autoinjector. Here we report the results of an ixekizumab autoinjector usability study as well as the patient-reported experience with the autoinjector in a clinical trial. Methods: The usability study enrolled 49 subjects (patients with a range of autoimmune conditions or their caregivers. Subjects were randomized to a trained or untrained group and were evaluated for their ability to perform an injection successfully when provided the device and the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, 102 subjects (patients with psoriasis or their caregivers used the autoinjector to deliver injections of ixekizumab (80 mg every 2 weeks after a starting dose of 160 mg. At weeks 0, 4, and 8, subjects completed the subcutaneous administration assessment questionnaire, which assesses the ease of use and confidence with using an injection device. Results: In the usability study, all subjects in the untrained arm performed successful injections, while two subjects in the trained arm had an injection failure. These incidences were not consistent with any pattern of issues with the device or the instructions for use. In the clinical trial, there were two

  4. Clinical result of intra-arterial lymphocyte injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema and the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy. Quantitative analysis by an injection of {sup 111}In-labeled lymphocytes and by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizumi, Masanori; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Hori, Takaki; Katoh, Itsuo; Harada, Masashi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    We have employed the intra-arterial lymphocytes injection therapy for treatment of lymphedema of the limbs with various causes. In the present study, we observed the clinical outcome of our therapy in 38 patients with lymphedema of the limbs. Results showed that the therapy was effective in 26 of 38 patients (68% of the total). Moreover, a marked efficacy was obtained in 13 of 38 patients (34% of the total). In the latest 5 patients, to evaluate the efficacy of our therapy, we examined the distribution of the {sup 111}In-oxine labeled lymphocytes injected into the proximal artery of the affected limb. The radioactivities of the affected limbs were apparently higher than that of the healthy limbs in effective cases. Moreover, MR imaging showed that the reduction of STIR ratio and T{sub 2} ratio well correlate with the results of clinical course. Thus, the efficacy of the lymphocyte injection therapy is able to be evaluated by radiolabeled lymphocytes and MR imaging. (author).

  5. Study on Rational Use of Compound Vitamin B in Veterinary Clinic%合理使用复合维生素B尝试和探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓双义; 杨仰实; 刘晓娜


    Vitamin B is important to maintain normal metabolism and function in animal is one of six nutritious elements(sugar,protein,fat,salt,vitamin,and water) in animal body.Although the need of the vitamin is very small,it plays a role of controlling metabolism.Due to its uniqueness it is also applied as a kind of drug in veterinary clinic.In this paper the use of compound vitamin B in veterinary clinic was reported.%维生素是维持动物机体中正常代谢和机能所必须的一类化合物,是动物机体六大营养要素(糖、蛋白质、脂肪、盐类、维生素、水)之一,虽然动物对维生素的需要量很小,但在动物体内的作用极大,起着控制新陈代谢的作用。由于它的独特性,在兽医临床上既作为营养物质,又作为药物而广泛应用。本文就我们在兽医临床上对B族维生素的使用情况进行总结和报告。

  6. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.


    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace /sup 3/H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary /sup 3/H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting /sup 3/H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit /sup 3/H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Method for determining the composition of the sugar moiety of a sugar containing compound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to methods of labeling sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds including glycopeptides. The compounds presented in the present invention facilitate reliable detection of sugar moieties of sugar containing compounds by a combination of spectroscopy methods...

  8. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya


    This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...... because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use...... actors and institutions to develop practices associated with the NNC label. Third, organized dissemination allowed the excitement and engagement with the new label to spread quickly....

  9. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subhash


    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK{sub 1} kidney cells at mass 28 ({sup 13}C{sup 15}N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of {sup 39}K, {sup 23}Na and {sup 40}Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  10. Subcellular SIMS imaging of isotopically labeled amino acids in cryogenically prepared cells (United States)

    Chandra, Subhash


    Ion microscopy is a potentially powerful technique for localization of isotopically labeled molecules. In this study, L-arginine and phenylalanine amino acids labeled with stable isotopes 13C and 15N were localized in cultured cells with the ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution. Cells were exposed to the labeled amino acids and cryogenically prepared. SIMS analyses were made in fractured freeze-dried cells. A dynamic distribution was observed from labeled arginine-treated LLC-PK 1 kidney cells at mass 28 ( 13C15N) in negative secondaries, revealing cell-to-cell heterogeneity and preferential accumulation of the amino acid (or its metabolite) in the nucleus and nucleolus of some cells. The smaller nucleolus inside the nucleus was clearly resolved in SIMS images and confirmed by correlative light microscopy. The distribution of labeled phenylalanine contrasted with arginine as it was rather homogeneously distributed in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Images of 39K, 23Na and 40Ca were also recorded to confirm the reliability of sample preparation and authenticity of the observed amino acid distributions. These observations indicate that SIMS techniques can provide a valuable technology for subcellular localization of nitrogen-containing molecules in proteomics since nitrogen does not have a radionuclide tracer isotope. Amino acids labeled with stable isotopes can be used as tracers for studying their transport and metabolism in distinct subcellular compartments with SIMS. Further studies of phenylalanine uptake in human glioblastoma cells may have special significance in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as a boron analogue of phenylalanine, boronophenylalanine is a clinically approved compound for the treatment of brain tumors.

  11. FDA Online Label Repository (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  12. Behind the Label "Alcoholic." (United States)

    Wright, Deborah M.


    Relates individual's personal story of her childhood influenced by her parent's alcoholism, her own alcoholism as a young adult, and her experiences with counseling. Asks others not to reject her because of the label "alcoholic." (ABL)

  13. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.


    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Preparation of Several Tritiated Macromolecular Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Bao-jun; YU; Ning-wen; FAN; Cai-yun


    Tritiated compounds are widely used in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic studies.They play an important role in new drug research.Isotope exchange method is a very effective method for the preparation of tritiated compounds.It is particularly suitable for labeling macromolecule

  15. Chiral dimethylamine flutamide derivatives-modeling, synthesis, androgen receptor affinities and carbon-11 labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Orit [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Laky, Desideriu [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Carlson, Kathryn E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Elgavish, Sharona [Bioinformatics Unit, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Gozin, Michael [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Even-Sapir, Einat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 64239 (Israel); Leibovitc, Ilan [Department of Urology, Meir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar Sava 44281 (Israel); Gutman, Mordechai [Department of Surgery A, Sapir Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kfar Sava 44281 (Israel); Chisin, Roland [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel); Katzenellenbogen, John A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Mishani, Eyal [Department of Medical Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem 91120 (Israel)]. E-mail:


    Most prostate cancers are androgen dependent upon initial diagnosis. On the other hand, some very aggressive forms of prostate cancer were shown to have lost the expression of the androgen receptor (AR). Although the AR is routinely targeted in endocrine treatment, the clinical outcome remains suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to demonstrate the presence and activity of the AR in each case of prostate cancer, before and after treatment. While noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to determine AR expression of tumor cells in vivo, fully optimized PET imaging agents are not yet available. Based on molecular modeling, three novel derivatives of hydroxyflutamide (Compounds 1-3) were designed and synthesized. They contain an electron-rich group (dimethylamine) located on the methyl moiety, which may confer a better stability to the molecule in vivo. Compounds 1-3 have AR binding that is similar or higher than that of the currently used commercial drugs. An automated carbon-11 radiolabeling route was developed, and the compounds were successfully labeled with a 10-15% decay-corrected radiochemical yield, 99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 4Ci/{mu}mol end of bombardment (n=15). These labeled biomarkers may facilitate the future quantitative molecular imaging of AR-positive prostate cancer using PET and may also allow for image-guided treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández


    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  17. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;


    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoill...

  18. Clinical Study of Drug-resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis Treated by Combination of Anti-Tuberculosis Chemicals and Compound Astragalus Capsule(复方黄芪胶囊)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜艳; 李新; 于志勇; 尹红义; 韩玉庆


    Objective: To observe and evaluate the therapeutic effect of anti-tuberculosis (anti-TB) chemicals and Compound Astragalus Capsule (CAC) in combinedly treating drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (DR-TB). Methods: Ninety-two patients with DR-TB were equally randomized into the treated group (treated with combination therapy) and the control group (treated with anti-TB chemicals alone). The therapeutic course for both groups was 18 months. Therapeutic effects between the two groups were compared at the end of the therapeutic course. Sputum bacterial negative rate, focal absorption effective rate, cavity closing rate, 10-day symptom improving rate, the incidence of adverse reaction and 2-year bacteriological recurrence rate between the two groups were compared. Results: In the treated group, the sputum bacterial negative conversion rate was 84. 8%, focal absorption effective rate 91.3 %, cavity closing rate 58. 7 % and 10-day symptom improving rate 54.4%, while in the control group, the corresponding rates were 65.2%,73.9 %, 37. 0% and 26.1%, respectively. Comparison between the groups showed significant difference in all the parameters ( P<0.05, P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01 ). The incidence of adverse reaction and 2year bacteriological recurrence rate in the treated group were 23.9 % and 2.6 % respectively, while those in the control group 50.0% and 16.7%, which were higher than the former group with significant difference ( P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of combined treatment with antiTB and CAC is superior to that of treatment with anti-TB chemicals alone, and the Chinese herbal medicine showed an adverse reaction alleviating effect, which provides a new therapy for DR-TB, and therefore, it is worth spreading in clinical practice.

  19. Preparation of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with metal radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.


    We recently developed a useful zinc-62/copper-62 generator and are presently evaluating copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals for clinical studies. While developing these copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals, in collaboration with the University of Missouri Research Reactor, Columbia we have also explored copper-64 radiopharmaceuticals. The PET images we obtained with copper-64 tracers were of such high quality that we have developed and evaluated copper-64 labeled antibodies for PET imaging. The major research activities described herein include: the development and assessment of gallium-68 radiopharmaceuticals; the development and evaluation of a new zinc-62/copper-62 generator and the assessment of copper-62 radiopharmaceuticals; mechanistic studies on proteins labeled with metal radionuclides.

  20. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure [(14) C]-labelled morpholine derivatives for a class of trace amine-associate receptor 1 agonists. (United States)

    Edelmann, Martin R; Hartung, Thomas; Trussardi, René; Iding, Hans; Galley, Guido; Pflieger, Philippe; Norcross, Roger D


    Various agonists of the trace amine-associate receptor 1, under consideration as potential clinical development candidates, were labelled with carbon-14 for use in preclinical in vitro and in vivo drug metabolism studies. Herein, the [(14) C]-radiosynthesis of 2-phenyl-substituted morpholines 1 is described. After evaluating and optimizing different synthetic routes, 4-iodonitrobenzene 3 was selected as starting material for the 14-step synthesis. Incorporation of carbon-14 into the acetyl moiety allowed a safe and efficient synthesis of [(14) C]-labelled 4-nitroacetophenone 2 in five steps and 38% yield. Further transformation of 2 to the target compounds 1 was achieved in a 9-step synthesis. In a representative example, [(14) C]-labelled 1 was obtained in an overall yield of 11% and was isolated in >99% radiochemical purity and a specific activity of 47 mCi/mmol.

  1. An open label randomized multicentre phase IIIb trial comparing parenteral substitution versus best supportive nutritional care in subjects with pancreatic adenocarcinoma receiving 5-FU plus oxaliplatin as 2nd or higher line chemotherapy regarding clinical benefit - PANUSCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rötzer Ingeborg


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy. Subjects are afflicted with a variety of disconcerting symptoms, including profound cachexia. Recent data indicate that the outcome of oncological patients suffering from cancer cachexia could be improved by parenteral nutrition and that parenteral nutrition results in an improvement of quality of life and in prolonged survival. Currently, there is no recommendation of routine use of parenteral nutrition. Furthermore, there is no clear recommendation for 2nd line therapy (or higher for pancreatic adenocarcinoma but often asked for. Methods/Design PANUSCO is an open label, controlled, prospective, randomized, multicentre phase IIIb trial with two parallel arms. All patients will be treated with 5-fluorouracil, folinic acid and oxaliplatin on an outpatient basis at the study sites. Additionally, all patients will receive best supportive nutritional care (BSNC. In the experimental group BSNC will be expanded with parenteral nutrition (PN. In contrast, patients in the control group obtain solely BSNC. Parenteral nutrition will be applied overnight and at home by experienced medical staff. A total of 120 patients are planned to be enrolled. Primary endpoint is the comparison of the treatment groups with respect to event-free survival (EFS, defined as the time from randomization till time to development of an event defined as either an impairment (change from baseline of at least ten points in EORTC QLQ-C30, functional domain total score or withdrawal due to fulfilling the special defined stopping criteria for chemotherapy as well as for nutritional intervention (NI or death from any cause (whichever occurs first. Discussion The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate whether parenteral nutrition in combination with defined 2nd line or higher chemotherapy has an impact on quality of life for patients suffering from pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Trial registration Current

  2. The efficacy of oral isotretinoin versus cyproterone compound in female patients with acne and the triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Faghihi


    Conclusion: This study indicates that cyproterone compound is not superior to isotretinoin in the treatment of nodulocystic acne in patient with SAHA syndrome or triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism. Indeed, other studies are needed to evaluate the effect of cyproterone compound (regardless of androgen level and isotretinoin in subjects with only nodulocystic acne.

  3. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Nasui


    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.

  4. Bioactive Labels for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasui Liana


    Full Text Available Pesticide residues and microbial load on the surface of fresh fruits and vegetables becomes a major concern due to the safety and quality of these products for consumer.In order to minimize these risk factors (pesticide residues and microbial load, were achieved labels for fruits and vegetables that are consumed with shell which disintegrates under the influence of water jet and thus reduce the amount of these contaminants. Were elaborated labels based on polymer (chitosan at a concentration of 2%, which incorporate bioactive compounds from green tea with potential decontaminant of the peel of this products. Green tea extract was obtained by infusing 1 g of dried green tea in 100 ml water at 80° C for 10 minutes. The extract was filtered and then mixed with 2 g chitosan acidified with 0.7% glacial acetic acid and dilute to the mark with distilled water. Were identified bioactive compounds from green tea, using UV-VIS and HPLC. Then were elaborated the labels. These tags were used on pepper, tomato, apple and  nectarine. Were quantified the microbial load and the pesticide residues on their surface unwashed, washed only with water and were monitored the influence of labels on these factors. Identified pesticides were mefenoxan and thiamethoxam, which were quantified by HPLC. In what it concerns the influence, were founded the absence of germs at pepper and a significant decrease at the other. In terms of  the potential of reducing pesticide, the experimental results have indicated that the label can prove its effectiveness.  

  5. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with /sup 99m/Tc and its clinic evaluation. Desarrollo y evaluacion clinica de un juego de reactivos para la marcacion de globulos rojos con /sup 99m/Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Mondino, M.H.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.


    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with /sup 99m/Tc based on a Tin Pyro-phosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen, has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The labelling yield (95% to 88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen


    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  7. Compuestos nitrogenados de interés en nutrición clínica Nitrogenous compounds of interest in clinical nutricion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fontana Gallego


    , choline, and polyamines are conditionally essential compounds. In addition, dietary nucleotides are considered semi-essential since some rapidly growing tissues such as the gut, bone marrow, and lymphocytes, preferentially use preformed purine and pyrimidine bases for nucleic acid synthesis. This review discusses the study of conditionally essential nitrogenous nutrients of interest in clinical nutrition. Among them we highlight arginine, involved in endothelial, immune, gastrointestinal, and renal functions, in reproduction, neonatal development, wound healing, and tumorigenesis; glutamine, necessary for maintaining bowel integrity, and with beneficial effects on catabolic states such as sepsis, infection, trauma, and cancer; and nucleotides, implicated in cell growth and differentiation, and with various effects on lipid metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and immune system.

  8. Figuring Out Food Labels (United States)

    ... should get 30%-40% of calories from fat. Saturated Fat and Trans Fat The amount of saturated fat appears beneath total fat. The FDA also requires ... to list trans fats separately on the label. Saturated fats and trans fats are often called "bad fats" ...

  9. Labelled Execution Systems (United States)


    This is most starkly evident in the classical example used to demonstrate that, in the case of infinitely branching systems, a transfinite number of... transfinite number of iterations to converge, what can be shown to fail by appropriately embedding the labelled transition systems of [46, prop. 10.5

  10. Multi-label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Abdelhamid


    Full Text Available Generating multi-label rules in associative classification (AC from single label data sets is considered a challenging task making the number of existing algorithms for this task rare. Current AC algorithms produce only the largest frequency class connected with a rule in the training data set and discard all other classes even though these classes have data representation with the rule’s body. In this paper, we deal with the above problem by proposing an AC algorithm called Enhanced Multi-label Classifiers based Associative Classification (eMCAC. This algorithm discovers rules associated with a set of classes from single label data that other current AC algorithms are unable to induce. Furthermore, eMCAC minimises the number of extracted rules using a classifier building method. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a real world application data set related to website phishing and the results reveal that eMCAC’s accuracy is highly competitive if contrasted with other known AC and classic classification algorithms in data mining. Lastly, the experimental results show that our algorithm is able to derive new rules from the phishing data sets that end-users can exploit in decision making.

  11. Waisda?: video labeling game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hildebrand, M.; Brinkerink, M.; Gligorov, R.; Steenbergen, M. van; Huijkman, J.; Oomen, J.


    The Waisda? video labeling game is a crowsourcing tool to collect user-generated metadata for video clips. It follows the paradigm of games-with-a-purpose, where two or more users play against each other by entering tags that describe the content of the video. Players score points by entering the sa

  12. Potent synergistic in vitro interaction between nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds and itraconazole against clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus resistant to itraconazole.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afeltra, J.; Vitale, R.G.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.


    To develop new approaches for the treatment of invasive infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, the in vitro interactions between itraconazole (ITZ) and seven different nonantimicrobial membrane-active compounds--amiodarone (AMD), amiloride, lidocaine, lansoprazole (LAN), nifedipine (NIF), verap

  13. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.


    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  14. Development of a general methodology for labelling peptide-morpholino oligonucleotide conjugates using alkyne-azide click chemistry. (United States)

    Shabanpoor, Fazel; Gait, Michael J


    We describe a general methodology for fluorescent labelling of peptide conjugates of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotides (PMOs) by alkyne functionalization of peptides, subsequent conjugation to PMOs and labelling with a fluorescent compound (Cy5-azide). Two peptide-PMO (PPMO) examples are shown. No detrimental effect of such labelled PMOs was seen in a biological assay.

  15. Effects of a 250-mL enema containing sodium phosphate on electrolyte concentrations in healthy volunteers: An open-label, randomized, controlled, two-period, crossover clinical trial* (United States)

    Sédaba, Belén; Azanza, Josh R.; Campanero, Miguel A.; Garcia-Quetglas, Emilio; Muñoz, Maria Josh; Marco, Santiago


    Background: Enemas are used by individuals with constipation and are often required before certain medical diagnostic procedures and surgical interventions. However, abnormalities in serum electrolyte concentrations have been associated with enema use. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in serum electrolyte concentrations (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and urinary phosphorus elimination after the administration of a sodium phosphate enema. Methods: Healthy volunteers aged 35 to 70 years were eligible for this open-label, randomized, controlled, 2-period, crossover clinical trial at the Clinical Research Unit of the University Hospital of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. The study comprised 2 one-day periods separated by a 7-day washout. All subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 study sequences: (1) a single dose of Enema Casen® 250 mL in the first period followed by no treatment (control) in the second period, or (2) no treatment in the first period followed by a single dose of the study drug in the second period. The sequence of treatment was assigned using a randomization table that was prepared before the beginning of the study. Serum concentrations of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and calcium were measured in both periods. Urinary phosphorus elimination was measured for 12 hours after enema administration (Ae0–12) in a subset of the subjects in the second period. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored by the investigators throughout the study. Normal ranges for the electrolytes were as follows: phosphorus, 2.5 to 5 mg/dL; calcium, 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dL; sodium, 135 to 145 mEq/L; and potassium, 3.5 to 5 mEq/L. Results: Twenty-four subjects (12 men, 12 women; mean [SD] age, 47.8 [9.6] years [range, 36–68 years]) participated in the study. All of the subjects were white and none were smokers. Twelve hours after enema administration, mean serum phosphorus and sodium concentrations increased by a mean of 1.18 mg

  16. Efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin 1% combination in acne vulgaris: A randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, phase IV clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Prasad


    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris is a very common skin disease with a significant detrimental effect on the quality of life of the patients. Aims: To assess the comparative efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination with its conventional formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face. It was a prospective, randomized, open label, active-controlled, multicentric, clinical trial. Methods: Eligible patients suffering from acne vulgaris of the face were randomized to receive once-daily treatment with a nano-emulsion gel or conventional gel formulation of adapalene 0.1% and clindamycin (as phosphate 1% combination for 12 weeks. Total, inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts, with grading of acne severity were carried out on a monthly basis. Safety assessments were done to determine the comparative local and systemic tolerability. Two-tailed significance testing was carried out with appropriate statistical tests, and P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: 209/212 patients enrolled in the study were eligible for efficacy and safety assessments in both nano-emulsion gel (118/119 patients and conventional gel (91/93 patients groups. Significantly better reductions in total (79.7% vs. 62.7%, inflammatory (88.7% vs. 71.4% and noninflammatory (74.9% vs. 58.4% lesions were reported with the nano-emulsion gel as compared to the conventional gel (P < 0.001 for all. Mean acne severity score also reduced significantly more with the nano-emulsion formulation (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.4 ± 1.0; P < 0.001 than the comparator. Significantly lower incidence and lesser intensity of adverse events like local irritation (4.2% vs. 19.8%; P < 0.05 and erythema (0.8% vs. 9.9%; P < 0.05 were recorded with the nano-emulsion gel. Conclusions: The nano-emulsion gel formulation of adapalene and clindamycin combination appears to be more efficacious and better tolerated than the conventional formulation

  17. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo (United States)

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  18. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants. (United States)

    McConkey, Sandra E; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy


    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr).

  19. Targeted Radiolabeled Compounds in Glioma Therapy. (United States)

    Cordier, Dominik; Krolicki, Leszek; Morgenstern, Alfred; Merlo, Adrian


    Malignant gliomas of World Health Organization (WHO) grades II-IV represent the largest entity within the group of intrinsic brain tumors and are graded according to their pathophysiological features with survival times between more than 10 years (WHO II) and only several months (WHO IV). Gliomas arise from astrocytic or oligodendrocytic precursor cells and exhibit an infiltrative growth pattern lacking a clearly identifiable tumor border. The development of effective treatment strategies of the invasive tumor cell front represents the main challenge in glioma therapy. The therapeutic standard consists of surgical resection and, depending on the extent of resection and WHO grade, adjuvant external beam radiotherapy or systemic chemotherapy. Within the last decades, there has been no major improvement of the prognosis of patients with glioma. The consistent overexpression of neurokinin type 1 receptors in gliomas WHO grades II-IV has been used to develop a therapeutic substance P-based targeting system. A substance P-analogue conjugated to the DOTA or DOTAGA chelator has been labeled with different alpha-particle or beta-particle emitting radionuclides for targeted glioma therapy. The radiopharmaceutical has been locally injected into the tumors or the resection cavity. In several clinical studies, the methodology has been examined in adjuvant and neoadjuvant clinical settings. Although no large controlled series have so far been generated, the results of radiolabeled substance P-based targeted glioma therapy compare favorably with standard therapy. Recently, labeling with the alpha particle emitting Bi-213 has been found to be promising due to the high linear energy transfer and the very short tissue range of 0.08 mm. Further development needs to focus on the improvement of the stability of the compound and the application by dedicated catheter systems to improve the intratumoral distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the prognostically critical

  20. Polybenzimidazole compounds (United States)

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.


    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  1. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus


    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable to...

  2. Scaffolding Visitors' Learning through Labels (United States)

    Wang, Joyce; Yoon, Susan


    In museum literature, labels have been found to increase visitor learning and contribute to greater cognitive gains. In this study, we seek to understand how various labels support the visitors' learning experience, and specifically in regards to conceptual and cognitive learning. We investigated the increasing use of three types of labels (visual…

  3. Food Labels Tell the Story! (United States)

    ... My World From the Label to the Table! Food Labels Tell the Story! What is in food? Food provides your body with all of the ... your food choices. Nutrition Facts—the Labels on Food Products Beginning in 1994, the US government began ...

  4. Sediment Transport Study in Haeundae Beach using Radioisotope Labelled Compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Seop; Kim, Jong Bum; Jung, Sung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Sup [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Haeundae beach is one of the most famous resorts in Korea and plays an important role as a special tourism district. However, the length and width of the beach are being reduced continuously, which would have bad influence on the regional economy and be the financial burden to the local authority considering that a large amount of budget is spent in the beach nourishment annually. Hence, it is necessary to understand the dynamic behavior of sediments in the coast for the systematic preservation plan of coastal environment. Lately a monitoring system using radioactive isotope as tracers is considered as a novel technique in understanding the dynamic transport of sediments. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible variations in sedimentary distribution and quantify the characteristics of sediments using radiotracer.

  5. Site-specific labeling of cysteine-tagged camelid single-domain antibody-fragments for use in molecular imaging. (United States)

    Massa, Sam; Xavier, Catarina; De Vos, Jens; Caveliers, Vicky; Lahoutte, Tony; Muyldermans, Serge; Devoogdt, Nick


    Site-specific labeling of molecular imaging probes allows the development of a homogeneous tracer population. The resulting batch-to-batch reproducible pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties are of great importance for clinical translation. Camelid single-domain antibody-fragments (sdAbs)-the recombinantly produced antigen-binding domains of heavy-chain antibodies, also called Nanobodies-are proficient probes for molecular imaging. To safeguard their intrinsically high binding specificity and affinity and to ensure the tracer's homogeneity, we developed a generic strategy for the site-specific labeling of sdAbs via a thio-ether bond. The unpaired cysteine was introduced at the carboxyl-terminal end of the sdAb to eliminate the risk of antigen binding interference. The spontaneous dimerization and capping of the unpaired cysteine required a reduction step prior to conjugation. This was optimized with the mild reducing agent 2-mercaptoethylamine in order to preserve the domain's stability. As a proof-of-concept the reduced probe was subsequently conjugated to maleimide-DTPA, for labeling with indium-111. A single conjugated tracer was obtained and confirmed via mass spectrometry. The specificity and affinity of the new sdAb-based imaging probe was validated in a mouse xenograft tumor model using a modified clinical lead compound targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) cancer biomarker. These data provide a versatile and standardized strategy for the site-specific labeling of sdAbs. The conjugation to the unpaired cysteine results in the production of a homogeneous group of tracers and is a multimodal alternative to the technetium-99m labeling of sdAbs.

  6. Testing of Experimental Antileishmanial Compounds. (United States)


    administrative and clerical assistance and Ms. Barbara L. Harris, Laboratory Technician II, for technical assistance with this study. Their efforts are appreciated...braziliensis) leishmaniasis . Although several new compounds have been identified with activity against L. (V.) braziliensis, none have shown adequate warrant initiation of clinical trials. However, among the most promising active compounds found against visceral leishmaniasis during these

  7. Development and validation of a direct headspace GC-FID method for the determination of sevoflurane, desflurane and other volatile compounds of forensic interest in biological fluids: application on clinical and post-mortem samples. (United States)

    Kovatsi, Leda; Giannakis, Dimitrios; Arzoglou, Vasileios; Samanidou, Victoria


    A simple and reliable headspace GC-flame ionization detection (HS-GC-FID) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of seven volatile compounds of forensic interest: sevoflurane, desflurane, ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, acetone and acetaldehyde. All seven compounds including acetonitrile (internal standard) eluted within 10 min and were well resolved with no endogenous interference. Good linearity was observed in the range of 1-12 mg/dL for both anesthetics and 2.5-40 mg/dL for the other five analytes. The method showed good precision, sensitivity and repeatability. Most of the analytes remained stable during the storage of samples at 4°C. Desflurane and acetone degraded (>10%), when the samples remained on the autosampler for more than 2 and 3 h, respectively. The method was finally applied on clinical and post-mortem blood and urine samples. The clinical samples were collected both from patients who underwent surgery, as well as from the occupationally exposed medical and nursing staff of the university hospital, working in the operating rooms. The hospital staff samples were found negative for all compounds, while the patients' samples were found positive for the anesthetic administered to the patient. The post-mortem blood samples were found positive for ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  8. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  9. Radioimmunoassay in basic and clinical pharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrono, C.; Peskar, B.A.


    The subject of the book is the development, validation and application of radioimmunoassay (RIA) techniques for the measurement of a variety of substances in animal and human body fluids. The book discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to the main classes of mediators of drug action and to drugs themselves, as assayed by this particular analytical technique. A number of introductory chapters provide basic information concerning production and characterization of antibodies, labeling techniques, statistical aspects and validation criteria, insight into problems related to the development and validation of RIA for the newly discovered mediator(s). In the following chapters, the emphasis is placed on the technical details relevant to each class of compounds and on specific aspects of their applications to basic and/or clinical pharmacological studies. New developments in this area, such as monoclonal antibodies and non-radioactive labeling techniques, are also covered.

  10. A generative probability model of joint label fusion for multi-atlas based brain segmentation. (United States)

    Wu, Guorong; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Daoqiang; Nie, Feiping; Huang, Heng; Shen, Dinggang


    Automated labeling of anatomical structures in medical images is very important in many neuroscience studies. Recently, patch-based labeling has been widely investigated to alleviate the possible mis-alignment when registering atlases to the target image. However, the weights used for label fusion from the registered atlases are generally computed independently and thus lack the capability of preventing the ambiguous atlas patches from contributing to the label fusion. More critically, these weights are often calculated based only on the simple patch similarity, thus not necessarily providing optimal solution for label fusion. To address these limitations, we propose a generative probability model to describe the procedure of label fusion in a multi-atlas scenario, for the goal of labeling each point in the target image by the best representative atlas patches that also have the largest labeling unanimity in labeling the underlying point correctly. Specifically, sparsity constraint is imposed upon label fusion weights, in order to select a small number of atlas patches that best represent the underlying target patch, thus reducing the risks of including the misleading atlas patches. The labeling unanimity among atlas patches is achieved by exploring their dependencies, where we model these dependencies as the joint probability of each pair of atlas patches in correctly predicting the labels, by analyzing the correlation of their morphological error patterns and also the labeling consensus among atlases. The patch dependencies will be further recursively updated based on the latest labeling results to correct the possible labeling errors, which falls to the Expectation Maximization (EM) framework. To demonstrate the labeling performance, we have comprehensively evaluated our patch-based labeling method on the whole brain parcellation and hippocampus segmentation. Promising labeling results have been achieved with comparison to the conventional patch-based labeling

  11. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari


    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  12. 40 CFR 59.103 - Container labeling requirements. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.103... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings § 59.103 Container... automobile refinish coating or coating component container or package, the day, month, and year on which...

  13. 40 CFR 59.405 - Container labeling requirements. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Container labeling requirements. 59.405... National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Architectural Coatings § 59.405 Container... section on the coating container in which the coating is sold or distributed. (1) The date the coating...

  14. Multipurpose Compound (United States)


    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  15. Radio labeling with pre-assigned frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Broersma, H.J.; Fomin, F.V.; Pyatkin, A.V.; Woeginer, G.J.


    A radio labeling of a graph G is an assignment of pairwise distinct, positive integer labels to the vertices of G such that labels of adjacent vertices differ by at least 2. The radio labeling problem (RL) consists in determining a radio labeling that minimizes the maximum label that is used (the so

  16. Towards Multi Label Text Classification through Label Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta C. Dharmadhikari


    Full Text Available Classifying text data has been an active area of research for a long time. Text document is multifaceted object and often inherently ambiguous by nature. Multi-label learning deals with such ambiguous object. Classification of such ambiguous text objects often makes task of classifier difficult while assigning relevant classes to input document. Traditional single label and multi class text classification paradigms cannot efficiently classify such multifaceted text corpus. Through our paper we are proposing a novel label propagation approach based on semi supervised learning for Multi Label Text Classification. Our proposed approach models the relationship between class labels and also effectively represents input text documents. We are using semi supervised learning technique for effective utilization of labeled and unlabeled data for classification. Our proposed approach promises better classification accuracy and handling of complexity and elaborated on the basis of standard datasets such as Enron, Slashdot and Bibtex.

  17. The efficacy of oral isotretinoin versus cyproterone compound in female patients with acne and the triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism: A randomized clinical trial


    Gita Faghihi; Kioumars Jamshidi; Nabet Tajmirriahi; Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini; Mohamadali Nilforoshzadeh; Mohamadreza Radan; Sayed Mohsen Hosseini


    Background: SAHA (Seborrhea, Acne, Hirsutism and Androgenetic Alopecia) syndrome is a dermatologic disorder, with variant response to treatment. Triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism included nodulocystic or severe acne, female pattern hair loss and hirsutism. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of isotretinoin and cyproterone compound in the treatment of nodulocystic acne, in patients with SAHA syndrome or triad of cutaneous hyperandrogenism. Materials and Method...

  18. A synthetic approach to carbon-14 labeled anti-bacterial naphthyridine and quinolone carboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekhato, I.V.; Huang, C.C. (Parke, Davis and Co., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))


    Labeled versions of (S)-clinafloxacin (1) and two napththyridine carboxylic acid anti-bacterial compounds 2 and 3 which are currently in development were synthesized. Preparations started from hitherto unknown bromo compounds 22 and 10, from which the corresponding [sup 14]C-labeled aromatic carboxylic acids 23 and 12 were generated by metal-halogen exchange followed by carboxylation reaction. Details of these preparations are given. (author).

  19. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval (United States)


    ... submitted for evaluation and approval before use under the final rule are: (1) Labels for chicken produced..., such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or...

  20. 复方黄芩喷雾剂的抗真菌临床试验%The clinical experiments about Chinese herbal compound Huangqin spray in treatment the disease of the fungal skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏英; 金德珍; 戴蜀平


    目的:临床试验观察复方黄芩喷雾剂对皮肤浅层真菌病治疗情况.方法:以益康唑的疗效进行对照,观察外用皮肤浅层真菌感染部位,考察复方黄芩喷雾剂的疗效.结果:复方黄芩喷雾剂对皮肤浅层真菌病疗效显著,其与益康唑在治疗皮肤浅层真菌病无显著性差异,无明显不良反应.结论:复方黄芩喷雾剂可作为治疗皮肤浅层真菌病的复方中药外用制剂,值得推广.%OBJECTIVE To research the clinical experiments about Chinese herbal compound Huangqin spray in treatment disease of the fungal skin. METHODS Apply the medicine on the area of the fungal skin. The detective medicine was Chinese herbal compound Huangqin spray. The reference medicine was Econazole lotion. RESULTS The curative effect of Chinese herbal compound Huangqin spray in treatment the disease of the fungal skin was well and obvious. Its curative effect was well and obvious as Econazole lotion. CONCLUSION The medicine of Chinese herbal compound Huangqin spray is for external use. The Chinese herbal compound can be used in treatment the disease of the fungal skin.

  1. GEO label: The General Framework for Labeling and Certification (United States)

    Bye, B. L.; McCallum, I.; Maso, J.


    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is coordinating efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems, or GEOSS. As part of a strategy to increase the involvement of the science and technology community in GEOSS, both as users and developers of GEOSS itself, GEO decided to develop a GEO label concept related to the scientific relevance, quality, acceptance and societal needs for services and data sets of GEOSS. The development of a GEO label is included in the GEO work plan and several projects address the challenges of developing a GEO label concept. Within the different projects developing the GEO label, various perspectives and approaches are being applied. In order to arrive at a generally accepted GEO label concept, a common understanding and basic knowledge of labeling is necessary. Assessment of quality of internationally standardized Earth observation data products implies possible certification. A general understanding of the framework for international standards and certification will also contribute to a more coherent discussion and more efficient development of a GEO label. We will describe the general labeling and certification framework emphasizing the relation to the three elements of the GEO label: quality, user acceptance and relevance. Based on a survey of international labels done by the EGIDA project, we have analyzed the legal framework and organization of labels and certification. We will discuss the frameworks for certification, user ratings, registration and analysis of user requirements. Quality assessment is a particular focus of the analysis and is based on the work done by the GeoViQua project. A GEO label will function both as a data distribution strategy and as a general management system for data. Through a label users can compare different data sets and get access to more information about the relevant data, including quality. A label will provide traceability of data both in the interest of users as well as data

  2. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine


    This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, human values as measured by the Schwartz value domains, and country differences. The results imply that sustainability labels currently do not play a major role in consumers’ food choices, and future use of these labels will depend on the extent to which consumers’ general concern about sustainability...

  3. Intermetallic Compounds (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.


    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  4. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav


    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  5. Organic Compounds (United States)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  6. 76 FR 75809 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval (United States)


    ... Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book; does not bear any special claims, such as quality claims... addition, deletion, or amendment of recipe suggestions for the product; j. Any change in punctuation; k... Policy Book, and questions and answers on various topics, such as irradiation and the labeling...

  7. Quality Evaluation Model for Map Labeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong; ZHANG Zuxun; DU Daosheng


    This paper discusses and sums up the basic criterions of guaranteeing the labeling quality and abstracts the four basic factors including the conflict for a label with a label, overlay for label with the features, position's priority and the association for a label with its feature. By establishing the scoring system, a formalized four-factors quality evaluation model is constructed. Last, this paper introduces the experimental result of the quality evaluation model applied to the automatic map labeling system-MapLabel.

  8. 三种烤瓷桥临床修复六年的回顾分析%The 6-year clinical comparison of compound galvano-ceramic bridges with gold alloy and Ni-Cr alloy ceramic bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤; 张相嗥; 刘峰; 周团锋; 孙萍


    目的 追踪观察金沉积基底冠熔结镍铬桥体烤瓷桥、金合金烤瓷桥和镍铬合金烤瓷桥的临床效果,为评价不同烤瓷桥临床修复的远期效果提供参考.方法 制作金沉积基底冠熔结镍铬桥体烤瓷桥(A组)35件,同期分别制作金合金烤瓷桥(B组)和镍铬合金烤瓷桥(c组)各35件,临床检查105件修复体的边缘密合性,随访复查修复体的基牙继发龋和修复体折裂、折断、脱落情况.结果 105件修复体平均随访6年.A组边缘密合性好(100%),明显好于B组(91%)与C组(77%)(P0.05).其余修复体均无桥架松动、折断以及修复体脱落.结论 金沉积基底冠熔结镍铬桥体烤瓷桥有良好的边缘密合度,强度可满足临床要求,有临床应用价值.但其与常规铸造合金烤瓷桥一样,需谨慎使用,提倡用于无髓基牙烤瓷桥修复.%Objective To evaluate and compare effects of compound galvano-ceramic bridges with Ni-Cr alloy ceramic bridges and gold alloy ceramic bridges in clinic.Methods A total of 105 bridges were made for 103 patients.Of them,35 were compound galvano-ceramic bridges,35 Ni-Cr alloy ceramic bridges,and 35 gold alloy ceramic bridges respectively.The marginal fitness and fracture of ceramic bridges were checked and caries or second caries of all abutments were also examined in clinic at 6 years after cementation.Results The marginal fitness of compound galvano-ceramic bridges was evaluated as good in 100% of the bridges,which was better than the fitness of gold alloy ceramic bridges(91%) and Ni-Cr alloy ceramic bridges(77%)(P0.05).None of compound galvano-ceramic bridge was found out caries or second caries of abutments.Two of 35(6%) gold alloy ceramic bridges was found out second caries of abutments and five of 35(14%) Ni-Cr alloy ceramic bridges were found out caries or second caries of abutments at 6 years.None of frameworks of all bridges was loose or broken.Conclusions The 6-year clinical study on compound galvano

  9. Synthesis and Preliminary Biological Evaluations of Fluorescent or 149Promethium Labeled Trastuzumab-Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Fitzsimmons


    Full Text Available Background: Radioimmunotherapy utilize a targeting antibody coupled to a therapeutic isotope to target and treat a tumor or disease. In this study we examine the synthesis and cell binding of a polymer scaffold containing a radiotherapeutic isotope and a targeting antibody. Methods: The multistep synthesis of a fluorescent or 149Promethium-labeled Trastuzumab-polyethyleneimine (PEI, Trastuzumab, or PEI is described. In vitro uptake, internalization and/or the binding affinity to the Her2/neu expressing human breast adenocarcinoma SKBr3 cells was investigated with the labeled compounds. Results: Fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab-PEI was internalized more into cells at 2 and 18 h than fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab or PEI. The fluorescent-labeled Trastuzumab was concentrated on the cell surface at 2 and 18 h and the labeled PEI had minimal uptake. DOTA-PEI was prepared and contained an average of 16 chelates per PEI; the compound was radio-labeled with 149Promethium and conjugated to Trastuzumab. The purified 149Pm-DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab had a radiochemical purity of 96.7% and a specific activity of 0.118 TBq/g. The compound demonstrated a dissociation constant for the Her2/neu receptor of 20.30 ± 6.91 nM. Conclusion: The results indicate the DOTA-PEI-Trastuzumab compound has potential as a targeted therapeutic carrier, and future in vivo studies should be performed.

  10. A fluorescent-labeled microcystin-LR terbium cryptate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Eduardo J.A. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Vila Nova, Suzana P.; Alves-Junior, Severino; Santa-Cruz, Petrus [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Molica, Renato J.R. [Associacao Instituto de Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Teixeira, Antonio [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Malageno, Elizabete; Lima Filho, Jose L. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Lab. de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami


    A new fluorescent labeled compound of microcystin-LR with terbium cryptate was obtained by initial conjugation of microcystins-LR with aminoethanethiol followed by the reaction with the ester group of terbium cryptate. The product formation was followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at 238 nm and 310 nm. The presence of microcystin-LR in the labeled molecule was confirmed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA and by protein reaction with bicinhonic acid. Luminescence spectra of cryptate and the conjugated molecule were carried through as well. (author)

  11. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben;


    variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  12. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita


    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  13. EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of encapsulated spin-labels: impact of the hydrogen bonding topology. (United States)

    Frecus, Bogdan; Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Murugan, N Arul; Vahtras, Olav; Kongsted, Jacob; Ågren, Hans


    Encapsulation of spin-labels into "host" compounds, like cucurbit[n]urils or cyclodextrins, in solutions has profound effects on the EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of the spin-labels. In this work we study the microscopic origin of the EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters of spin-labels enclosed in hydrophobic cavities. We focus on the dependence of the EPR properties of encapsulated spin-labels on the hydrogen bonding topologies that occur upon encapsulation, and quantize various contributions to these parameters according to specific hydrogen bonding patterns. The obtained results provide refined insight into the role of the hydrogen bonding induced encapsulation shifts of EPR spin Hamiltonian parameters in solvated "spin-label@host compound" complexes.

  14. To Observe the Clinical Effect of Eczema and Contact Dermatitis by Therapy Compound Polymyxin B Ointment Combination with Compound Flumetasone Ointment%复方多粘菌素B软膏联合复方氟米松软膏治疗湿疹和接触性皮炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧霞; 莎娜


    Objective:To explore and observation the clinical effect of Eczema and Contact Dermatitis by therapy Compound Polymyxin B Ointment combination with Compound Flumetasone Ointment.Methods:Selecting 210 cases who went o to see doctor and diagnosis of Eczema and Contact Dermatitis in our hospital from May of 2010 to May of 2011,these patients were randomly divided into trial group and control group,using Compound Polymyxin B Ointment joint Compound Flumetasone Ointment in trial group and a separate Compound Flumetasone Ointment in control group.Results:The trial group total effective is significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.05),The trial group total effective is 82.28% and 83.33%、 no ineffectiveness;the control group total effective only 54.72% and 60%、 there cases ineffectiveness of Eczema and one case Contact Dermatitis;The time of cure of trial group significantly is lower than the control group (P<0.01).Conclusion:Compound Polymyxin B Ointment combination with Compound Flumetasone Ointment can reduce the time of cure and more significantly better than only Compound Flumetasone Ointment in the clinical effect.%目的:探讨与观察复方多粘菌素B软膏联合复方氟米松软膏治疗湿疹和接触性皮炎的临床疗效.方法:选择2010年5月~2010年11月在我院就诊并诊断为湿疹和接触性皮炎的患者210例,并随机分为联合治疗组和单纯治疗组,联合治疗组采用复方多粘菌素B软膏联合复方氟米松软膏治疗,单纯治疗组采用复方氟米松软膏治疗.结果:湿疹和接触性皮炎的治疗有效率:联合治疗组分别为82.28%和83.33%,无治疗无效患者;单纯治疗组治疗有效率仅为54.72%和60%,且有3例湿疹和1例接触性皮炎患者治疗无效,联合治疗组的治疗有效率显著高于单纯治疗组(P<0.05);联合治疗组临床疗效转折时间显著短于单纯治疗组(P<0.01).结论:复方多粘菌素B软膏联合复方氟米松软膏治疗湿疹和接触性皮

  15. 78 FR 951 - Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content and Format Public Workshop; Request for... (United States)


    ... caregivers, and patients themselves. As more medical devices migrate out of clinical care environments and... Labeling 1. Review the outline for a draft standard content and format of medical device labeling. 2... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Accessible Medical Device Labeling in a Standard Content...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2050 - General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or... TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Laboratory Instruments § 862.2050 General purpose laboratory equipment labeled or promoted for a specific medical use. (a) Identification. General purpose laboratory equipment labeled...

  17. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.


    Based on insights from behavioral economics, it is suggested to extend carbon footprint labeling with information about relative performance, using the well-known “traffic light” color scheme to communicate relative performance. To test this proposition, the impact of a carbon footprint label...... on Danish consumers’ choice of ground coffee was tested in a 3 price levels x 3 levels of carbon emission x 3 certifying organizations x 2 organic labeling conditions discrete choice experiment. Participants were randomly assigned to two slightly different variants of the experiment: In one condition......, participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices...

  18. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  19. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF HOME INSULATION § 460.12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels...

  20. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a...

  1. Development of lyophilized kit of Tin-Glucoheptonate for in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 99m}Tc; Desenvolvimento de reagente liofilizado de glucoheptonato-estanho para marcacao de leucocitos com Tecnecio-99m in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Rosemeire Fagundes


    The study and localization of inflammatory and infection process in Nuclear Medicine represents a relevant tool in diagnostic procedures. In same cases, the diagnostic is easy and based on anamnesis and clinical observation; in other cases, the patients are asymptomatic or present non specific symptoms that difficult the diagnostic. The early diagnostic of inflammatory or infectious process allow the early introduction of therapy and prevents complications. Farther, the differentiation between inflammation and infection is of extreme importance as well as the localization of the focus. The use of labeled leucocytes, studied and applied in much pathologies, is the method of choice for the visualization of inflammation and infection. The scintigraphy using labeled leucocytes was introduced at 1976 by McAffe and Thakur and since of this is used in the diagnostic of different pathologies related to leucocyte infiltration like intestinal inflammatory disease, bone or prosthetic-vascular infections. The in vitro labeling of leucocytes with {sup 111}In was performed using oxime or tropolone as ligand and with {sup 99m}Tc using hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) as ligand, resulting in a lipophilic complex. The {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAG complex was preferably employed in many indications and countries do to the ideal physical properties of {sup 99m}Tc that results in low dose to the patient. However, the labeling employing the HMPAO complex results in some disadvantages like the low stability of the complex, and some requirements related to the {sup 99m}Tc elution (like the time pos elution), beyond the high cost of the compound that is imported. The aim of this work was the development of a tin-glucoheptonate lyophilized kit for in vitro leucocytes labeling with {sup 99m}Tc using the pre-stannization method. The optimization of the labeling technique was developed using leucocytes isolated from total blood and employing different volumes of the tinglucoheptonate reagent and

  2. Warning labels. A source of toxicity information for parents. (United States)

    Benson, B E; Klein-Schwartz, W; Oderda, G M; Lucy, J S


    The Hazardous Substances Act specifies that warning labels for household products contain specific signal words. This study was designed to determine whether this warning label format provides enough information for parents to accurately assess product toxicity. One hundred forty-two parents from two different sites (community health clinic, private pediatrician's office) were asked to rate the toxicity of four common household products (Crystal Drano, Lysol Basin/Tub and Tile Cleaner, Clorox Bleach, Tempera Poster Paint) and four imaginary products based on the warning labels found on them. Parents had a fairly accurate perception of the toxicity of products and the toxicity to be anticipated based on the warning label. There was considerable variability in response for products which were less toxic or nontoxic. Confusion was noted regarding the meaning of the term nontoxic.

  3. Off-label drug in the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cuzzolin


    Full Text Available The lack of specific drugs and labelling recommendations for the neonatal population is a long-standing problem throughout the world. With the introduction of the Paediatric Regulation in 2007, in Europe tangible steps have been made to increase clinical research in children, but only a limited number of clinical trials included neonates that remain therapeutic orphans. This leads to a widespread use of medicines outside the terms indicated in the product license (off-label as regards dose, route of administration, indication, age group or in an unlicensed manner (formulations modified, extemporaneous preparations, imported medicines, chemicals used as drugs. This use, often made on the basis of a consolidated clinical experience in absence of other authorized options, does not imply that a drug is contraindicated or disapproved, but simply means that insufficient data are available to grant approval status and the risks and benefits of using a drug in a particular situation have not been examined. Given the importance that neonatal population not be denied of drugs that are clearly beneficial, an updated overview of the worldwide situation of off-label and unlicensed drug use in the newborn will be presented, by analyzing also the impact of recent legislative initiatives and the well recognized problems (increased risk of ineffective or toxic treatments, adverse drug reactions and medication errors. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  4. Fluorine-18 labeled tracers for PET studies in the neurosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Yu-Shin; Fowler, J.S.


    This chapter focuses on fluorine-18, the positron emitter with the longest half-life, the lowest positron energy and probably, the most challenging chemistry. The incorporation of F-18 into organic compounds presents many challenges, including: the need to synthesize and purify the compound within a 2--3 hour time frame; the limited number of labeled precursor molecules; the need to work on a microscale; and the need to produce radiotracers which are chemically and radiochemically pure, sterile and pyrogen-free, and suitable for intravenous injection. The PET method and F-18 labeling of organic molecules are described followed by highlights of the applications of F-18 labeled compounds in the neurosciences and neuropharmacology. It is important to emphasize the essential and pivotal role that organic synthesis has played in the progression of the PET field over the past twenty years from one in which only a handful of institutions possessed the instrumentation and staff to carry out research to the present-day situation where there are more than 200 PET centers worldwide. During this period PET has become an important scientific tool in the neurosciences, cardiology and oncology. It is important to point out that PET is by no means a mature field. The fact that a hundreds of different F-18 labeled compounds have been developed but only a few possess the necessary selectivity and sensitivity in vivo to track a specific biochemical process illustrates this and underscores a major difficulty in radiotracer development, namely the selection of priority structures for synthesis and the complexities of the interactions between chemical compounds and living systems. New developments in rapid organic synthesis are needed in order to investigate new molecular targets and to improve the quantitative nature of PET experiments.

  5. 40 CFR 60.442 - Standard for volatile organic compounds. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for volatile organic compounds... Pressure Sensitive Tape and Label Surface Coating Operations § 60.442 Standard for volatile organic compounds. (a) On and after the date on which the performance test required by § 60.8 has been...

  6. [Medicalization I. 'Disease labeling: All business.']. (United States)

    Cerecedo Pérez, María Jesús; Tovar Bobo, Margarita; Rozadilla Arias, Aurora


    Western societies have displaced problems from the subjective and social fields over to medicine, and the search for the perfect health has become an obsession and a pathogenic predominant factor. Paradoxically, the number of ilnesses and sick people arises proportionally with health levels. We now tend to add «disease labels» in daily clinical practice to behaviors and events that are nothing but elements of character or even healthy reactions to laboral and familial conflicts or mourning. In this article, we analyze the factors that determine this «medicalization» process and its consequences, with a particular emphasis in the iatrogenesis of unnecessary medical interventions.

  7. Clinical Study on Treatment of Mid-Late Stage Gastric Carcinoma by Compound Xiansu Capsule (仙酥胶囊) Combined with Chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To assess the effect and mechanism of compound Xiansu capsule (仙酥胶囊, XSC) combined with chemotherapy in treating gastric carcinoma of mid-late stage. Methods: Sixty-one patients of the test group were treated by XSC combined with chemotherapy and 30 patients of the control group treated with chemotherapy alone. The effect of treatment and cell mediated immunity of patients were observed. Results: The effective rate of the test group and the control group was 32.8% and 13.3% respectively (P<0.05), the toxic reaction occurrence caused by chemotherapy was less in the former than that in the latter group (P<0.01). The CD8 level of patients in the test group decreased, and CD4/CD8 level was raised obviously, which suggested that XSC had immuno-regulating effect on T-cell. Conclusion: XSC could enhance the efficacy and reduce the toxic and side-effect of chemotherapy. To regulate the cell mediated immunity of patients is possibly its mechanism.

  8. Unpacking Noun-Noun Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Zlatev, Jordan


    market and using Danish NNCs. Specifically, we addressed a highly productive type of compound food names where the modifier denotes a geographical entity and the head denotes a type of food, e.g. Hawaii pizza. Our findings contribute new evidence to central issues of (cognitive) linguistic theory...... concerning the relations between semantics and pragmatics, as well as system and usage, and psycholinguistic issues concerning the processing of NNCs. New insights and methodological tools are also provided for supporting future best practices in the field of food naming and labelling...

  9. Limitations of Label-Free Sensors in Serum Based Molecular Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Varma, Manoj M


    Immunoassay formats applicable for clinical or point-of-care diagnostics fall into two broad classes. One which uses labeled secondary antibodies for signal transduction and the other which does not require the use of any labels. Comparison of the limits of detection (LoD) reported by these two sensing approaches over a wide range of detection techniques and target molecules in serum revealed that labeled techniques achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude better LoDs. Further, a vast majority of commercial tests and recent examples of technology translations are based on labeled assay formats. In light of this data, it is argued that extension of traditional labeled approaches and enhancing their functionality may have better clinical impact than the development of newer label-free techniques.

  10. Compound Danshen dripping pills combined with Mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy clinical observation%复方丹参滴丸联合甲钴胺治疗糖尿病周围神经病变临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective to investigate the compound danshen dropping pill combined a cobalt amine treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy clinical curative effect. Methods select 88 cases of diabetic peripheral neuropathy were randomly divided into observation group and control group and observation group of 44 cases choose compound danshen dropping pill with a cobalt amino therapy; control group of 44 cases of individual chooses a cobalt amine treatment, compared two groups of treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy clinical curative effect. Results the two groups after 4W treatment group, the clinical symptoms and signs of diabetic peripheral nerve lesions were improved, but the total effective rate of the therapy in the observation group (93.18%,) than the control group (81.82%), a comparative analysis of curative effect, with statistical significance difference (P<0.05). Conclusion compound danshen dripping pill combined with Mecobalamin significant therapeutic effect in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, safe and reliable.%目的:探讨复方丹参滴丸联合甲钴胺治疗糖尿病周围神经病变临床疗效。方法选取糖尿病周围神经病变88例,随机分为观察组与对照组,其中观察组44例选用复方丹参滴丸联合甲钴胺治疗;对照组44例单独选用甲钴胺治疗,比较两组治疗糖尿病周围神经病变临床疗效。结果两组治疗4w后,各组糖尿病周围神经病变临床症状及体征均有改善,但治疗总有效率中观察组(93.18%,)优于对照组(81.82%),疗效比较分析,具有差异性统计学意义(P<0.05)。

  11. Discussion on the Clinical Effects of Anemia Treated by Compound Donkey-hide Gelatin Slurry%复方阿胶浆治疗贫血的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To discuss the clinical effects and the safety of anemia treated by compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry.Methods 100 cases of patients with anemia were selected as the study objects.They were patients treated in our hospital during January 2013 to December 2013.These 100 patients were divided into control group and observation group based on the difference of therapeutic methods.The patients in control group were given regular treatment,while patients in the observation group were given regular treatment combine with treatment of compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry.Observe and compare both groups’ clinical effects.Results Patients in the observation group treatment effect significantly better than the control group,the difference was statisticaly significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Compound donkey-hide gelatin slurry plays an important role in treating anemia with outstanding clinical effects and high safety.%目的:探讨复方阿胶浆治疗贫血的临床效果及安全性。方法收集2013年1月至2013年12月期间我院收治的100例贫血患者资料,将患者按照治疗方法的不同分为观察组与对照组。对照组患者进行常规治疗,观察组患者在此基础上联合复方阿胶浆进行治疗,对两组患者的临床治疗效果进行观察比较。结果观察组患者的治疗效果明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论复方阿胶浆治疗贫血临床效果明显,且安全性较高。

  12. Magnesium compounds (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.


    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  13. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions. (United States)

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A


    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    [目的]研究复方胃膜素治疗消化性溃疡的效果.[方法]将我院2010年住院的64例HP阴性消化性溃疡患者随机分为两组,分别采用复方胃膜素和胃膜素治疗,比较两组治疗6周后的主观感受症状、治疗效果及不良反应有无差异.[结果]复方胃膜素组患者喛气、腹胀、上腹痛和有症状的发生率均低于胃膜素组,P<0.05;溃疡的总有效率显著商于胃膜素组,X2=4.27,P=0.039;不良反应显著低于胃膜素组X2=4.95,P=0.026.[结论]复方胃膜素在胃膜素基础上添加了碳酸钙、碳酸镁、次碳酸铋和维生素U,与胃膜素相比,对消化性溃疡的治疗效果更好,不良反应发生率更低,值得临床推广应用.%[Objective] To study the treatment effect of compound gastric mucin on peptic ulcer. [Methods] 64 patients who hospitalized in 2010 were randomly divided into two groups, and respectively got compound gastric mucin and gastric mucin. We compared the subjective feelings, treatment effects and side effects of two groups after treating six weeks. [Results] The incidence rate of belching, bloating, upper abdominal pain and persons with symptoms in compound gastric mucin group were significantly lower than gastric mucin group (P< 0.05) ; The effective rate was significantly higher than that of the gastric mucin group, x2 = 4.27, P= 0.039; The side effects were significantly lower than gastric mucin group, x2 = 4.95, P= 0.026. [Conclusion] Based on the gastric mucin, the compound gastric mucin was added with calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, bismuth sub-carbonate and vitamin U. Compared to gastric mucin, compound gastric mucin is better to cure peptic ulcer, with lower side effect, and is worth for clinical use.

  15. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For ...

  16. Radiochromatographic Determination of 131I Labeled Eugenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zümrüt Biber Müftüler


    Full Text Available Phenolic phytochemicals are a broad class of nutraceuticals found in plants which have been extensively researched by scientists for medicinal potential. Eugenol, a phenolic natural compound available in the essential oils primarily extracted from clove plants, has been exploited for various medicinal applications. It possesses antioxidant, antimutagenic, antigenotoxic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. The goal of current study was to extract Eugenol compound from clove plant and radiolabel the eugenol with 131I which is a well known radioisotope for imaging and therapy in Nuclear Medicine by utilizing iodogen method. The yield of radiolabeling of Eugenol (131I-E was calculated over 80% by Thin Layer Radio Chromatography and High Performance Liquid Radio Chromatograpy methods. Structural analysis of Eugenol was confirmed by Liguid Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy. Lipophilicity and stability studies were performed. Due to the attachment of iodine to Eugenol, radioiodinated Eugenol was more lipophilic. Stability of 131I-E was appropriate for study period. All experimental results suggest that 131I labeled Eugenol compound may be used in the applications of Nuclear Medicine as a radiolabeled agent for imaging and therapy on various cancer types.

  17. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for measuring ¹³C-labeling in intermediates of the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway. (United States)

    Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Alonso, Ana Paula


    This chapter describes a procedure to analyze (13)C-labeled phosphorylated compounds by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Phosphorylated compounds, intermediaries of the glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway, are separated by anion exchange chromatography and their isotopic labeling is determined by mass spectrometry. A sensitivity in the fmole range is achieved using scheduled multiple reaction monitoring mode.

  18. Labelling of benzocaine with tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sohail (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States))


    A convenient method is described to label a local anesthetic, benzocaine, with tritium. The bromoester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was prepared from para-nitrotoluene and was reduced with tritium. The generation of isotopic hydrogen and labelling of benzocaine was achieved in one-step. A mixture of sodium borohydride (NaB[sup 3]H[sub 4]) with cobalt (II) chloride was used to generate tritium gas. 5% Pd/C was used as a catalyst. This constitutes the first report of tritium labelled benzocaine. (author).

  19. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))


    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Hemanta


    Full Text Available Parikartika (Anal fissure is the most common cause of anal pain. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the effectiveness of Ayurvedic compound along with manual dilatation of Anus and Jatyadi tail in anal fissure. 40 patients were included in this study and the therapeutic outcome and side effects were recorded. Recurrence of symptoms occurred in two healed patients in four months. Remission of the disease was found in 80% of cases which is statistically significant. Partial remission in 12.5% and no remission was found in 7.5% of cases. The appetite was markedly improved, which was either nil or, reduced before treatment. The mean was 0.4 as compared to 2.375 before treatment with SD 0.5905 and P is significant <0.001. Complete healing of the fissure occurred in 95% of the subjects by the end of 30 days (P<0.0001, statistically highly significant. The pain score in the subjects dropped from 3.325 (mean to 0.35 (mean in 30days time with SD 0.4830, SEM dropped from 0.1154 to 0.07638 with P value < 0.001 which is statistically significant. Ninty nine percent of the subjects experienced a significant fall in the bleeding by the end of 30 days. There was also a significant reduction in the discharge with mean dropped from 3.375 to 0.2 and SD 0.4051, P value <0.0001.Perianal pruritis was also significantly reduced with mean dropped from 3.175 to 0.35 before and after treatment respectively with SD 0.4830, SEM0.07638, and P value <0.001.

  1. General Compact Labeling Schemes for Dynamic Trees



    Let $F$ be a function on pairs of vertices. An {\\em $F$- labeling scheme} is composed of a {\\em marker} algorithm for labeling the vertices of a graph with short labels, coupled with a {\\em decoder} algorithm allowing one to compute $F(u,v)$ of any two vertices $u$ and $v$ directly from their labels. As applications for labeling schemes concern mainly large and dynamically changing networks, it is of interest to study {\\em distributed dynamic} labeling schemes. This paper investigates labelin...

  2. Odontoma compuesto: Diagnóstico radiográfico y tratamiento quirúrgico de un caso clínico Compound odontoma: Radiographic diagnosis and surgical management of a clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vázquez Diego


    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso clínico de odontoma compuesto asociado a un diente supernumerario y un canino retenido superior derecho. El paciente de 16 años de edad es de sexo masculino. Se realizan diversos estudios radiográficos para su diagnóstico, que consisten en técnica panorámica y técnicas intraorales. Posteriormente se realizó la intervención quirúrgica para extirpar la lesión y las estructuras dentarias asociadas a ella. El estudio histopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico presuntivo. Basado en lo expuesto se analiza al odontoma compuesto según localización, sexo y edad habiendo realizado una revisión del tema según diversos autores.A clinical case of a compound odontoma associated with a supernumerary tooth and an upper right impacted canine in a 16-year-old male, is reported. To perform the diagnosis, several radiographic studies were made, mainly consisting of panoramic and intraoral techniques. Then, a surgical procedure was carried out to remove both the lesion and the surrounding tooth structures. The histo-pathological examination confirmed our presumptive diagnosis. Therefore, based on these findings, the compound odontoma is analyzed according to its location, sex and age of patients as well, after reviewing other authors´ opinions in the current literature.

  3. New Ideas on Labeling Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotbart, Noy Galil

    evaluation of fully dynamic labeling schemes. Due to a connection between adjacency labeling schemes and the graph theoretical study of induced universal graphs, we study these in depth and show novel results for bounded degree graphs and power-law graphs. We also survey and make progress on the related......With ever increasing size of graphs, many distributed graph systems emerged to store, preprocess and analyze them. While such systems ease up congestion on servers, they incur certain penalties compared to centralized data structure. First, the total storage required to store a graph...... in a distributed fashion increases. Second, attempting to answer queries on vertices of a graph stored in a distributed fashion can be significantly more complicated. In order to lay theoretical foundations to the first penalty mentioned a large body of work concentrated on labeling schemes. A labeling scheme...

  4. Off-Label Drug Use (United States)

    ... it’s not legal for drug companies to market (advertise or promote) their drugs for off-label uses. ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  5. First realisation of a labelling kit of N.T.P. 15-5 ligand by {sup 99m}Tc in view of a clinical application in cartilage functional imaging; Premiere realisation d'une trousse de marquage du ligand NTP 15-5 par le 99mTc en vue d'une application clinique en imagerie fonctionnelle du cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miot-Noirault, E.; Cachin, F.; Vidal, A.; Auzeloux, P.; Chezal, J.M.; Gaumet, V.; Askienazy, S. [Inserm, EA4231, UMR 990, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Guenu, S. [UFR de pharmacie, laboratoire de chimie analytique, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, S. [Laboratoires Cyclopharma, 63 - Saint-Beauzire (France)


    We are working on a SPECT tracer for functional imaging of articular cartilage, the {sup 99m}Tc-NTP 15-5. This molecule has its application in degenerative diseases of cartilage (arthrosis, arthritis and chondrosarcoma). Excellent reports of cartilage versus tissues fixing ratios are obtained in different animal models as well as human anatomical parts. For clinical application, we present the development of a labelling kit by the technetium of the ligand NTP 15-5. (N.C.)

  6. New selenium-75 labeled radiopharmaceuticals: selenonium analogues of dopamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek, S.A.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Hsu, P.M.; Rieger, J.A.


    Selenium-75 labeled selenonium analogues of dopamine, (2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl)dimethylselenonium iodide and its dihydroxy analogue, were prepared by reducing (/sup 75/Se)selenious acid with sodium borohydride at pH 6.0 and reacting the NaSeH produced with 1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxy)ethane. Tissue distribution studies in rats given the /sup 75/Se-labeled selenonium agents intravenously demonstrated high initial heart uptake. Prolonged adrenal retention and high adrenal to blood ratio of compound 4 were observed. The high uptake and adrenal to blood ratio suggest the potential use of compound 4 as a radiopharmaceutical for the adrenal gland.

  7. New opioid affinity labels containing maleoyl moiety. (United States)

    Szatmári, I; Orosz, G; Rónai, A Z; Makó, E; Medzihradszky, K; Borsodi, A


    Opioid receptor binding properties and pharmacological profiles of novel peptides containing maleoyl function were determined in order to develop new affinity labels. Based on the enkephalin structure peptide ligands were synthesized and tested. Both in in vitro receptor binding experiments and pharmacological studies, all ligands showed agonist character with relatively high affinity (Ki values in the nanomolar range) and good to moderate selectivity. Replacement of Gly2 in the enkephalin frame with D-Ala led to higher affinities with a small decrease in selectivity. The longer peptide chains resulted in compounds with high percentage (up to 86%) of irreversible binding. The selectivity pattern of the ligands is in good agreement with the data obtained from the pharmacological assays (guinea pig ileum and mouse vas deferens bioassays). The newly synthesized peptides could be used in further studies in order to determine more detailed characteristics of the ligand-receptor interaction.

  8. Synthesis of some useful tritium labelled auxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchman, O.; Pri-Bar, I.; Shimoni, M.; Azran, J. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev)


    The synthesis of six useful auxins labelled with tritium is described. The following compounds were prepared: 3-indoleacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (28.9 Ci-1.07 TBq/mmol), 3-indolebutyric acid-5-[sup 3]H (7.3 Ci-270 GBq/mmol), 1-naphthylacetic acid-4-[sup 3]H (27.6 Ci-1.02 TBq/mmol), 2,4-dichloropheno-xyacetic acid-5-[sup 3]H (18.5 Ci-685 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy-5-[sup 3]H) -propionic acid (20.7 Ci-766 GBq/mmol), 2(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid-3-[sup 3]H (0.39 Ci-14.4 GMq/mmol), and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid-2-[sup 3]H (13.3 Ci-492 GBq/mmol). (author).

  9. Development of diagnostic SPR based biosensor for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva (United States)

    Sonny, Susanna; Sesay, Adama M.; Virtanen, Vesa


    The aim of the study is to develop diagnostic tests for the detection of pharmaceutical compounds in saliva. Oral fluid is increasingly being considered as an ideal sample matrix. It can be collected non-invasively and causes less stress to the person being tested. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds and drugs in saliva can give valuable information on individual bases on dose response, usage, characterization and clinical diagnostics. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is a highly sensitive, fast and label free analytical technique for the detection of molecular interactions. The specific binding of measured analyte onto the active gold sensing surface of the SPR device induces a refractive index change that can be monitored. To monitor these pharmaceutical compounds in saliva the immunoassays were developed using a SPR instrument. The instrument is equipped with a 670nm laser diode and has two sensing channels. Monoclonal antibodies against the pharmaceutical compounds were used to specifically recognise and capture the compounds which intern will have an effect of the refractive index monitored. Preliminary results show that the immunoassays for cocaine and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) are very sensitive and have linear ranges of 0.01 pg/ml - 1 ng/ml and 0.1 pg/ml - 100 ng/ml, respectively.

  10. Preparation of compound lanolin urea cream and investigation of its stability and clinical application%复方羊毛脂尿素乳膏的制备及稳定性考察和临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成; 巫小娟; 蔡柳清; 路伟; 曾繁涛; 吴远婷


    目的:制备水包油型非离子复方羊毛脂尿素乳膏,考察其稳定性,并验证其治疗皮肤皲裂的临床效果。方法以羊毛脂和尿素为主药,以非离子型乳化剂司盘-60和吐温-60为配对乳化剂,以单硬脂酸甘油酯为稳定剂,采用反相快速加入法制备O/W型乳剂;通过离心试验、耐寒耐热试验、留样观察、pH值、乳滴粒径等考察其稳定性;并以尿素乳膏作对照,观察临床疗效。结果制备的乳膏细腻、均匀、稳定,易于涂布及洗除;稳定性试验均符合规定;临床疗效优于尿素乳膏。结论按本处方及制备工艺所得乳膏质量合格、性质稳定,所建立的质控方法可靠,临床疗效好。%Objective To prepare a nonionic compound lanolin urea cream of the oil in water type and inves-tigate its stability, and to verify its clinical efficacy for the treatment of chapped skin. Methods The O/W compound lanolin urea cream was prepared by fast-adding reversed phase preparation method with urea and lanolin as principal components, non-ionic emulsifier span-60 and tween-60 as paired emulsifier, and glycerol monostearate as stabilizer. The stability of cream was evaluated by centrifugation test, cold and heat resistant test, sample observation test under room temperature, pH, droplet size. The clinical efficacy of cream was verified with urea cream as a reference prepara-tion. Results The prepared cream was stable, uniform in color, homogeneous, exquisite and easy to spread and wash out. The results of stability test were in accordance with the regulations of SFDA. The clinical efficacy of the prepared cream was better than that of urea cream. Conclusion The formulation and preparation technology of compound lan-olin urea cream is optimal and feasible. The prepared cream has a good stability and controllable quality. The cream has excellent clinical efficacy and is worthy of wide use in clinical practice.

  11. 灯盏花素联合复方氨基酸治疗眩晕症55例临床体会%Clinical Experience of 55 Cases of Breviscapine Joint Compound Amino Acid Treatment of Vertigo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张台明; 李金荣


    Objective To investigate the efficacy of Breviscapine joint compound amino acid in the treatment of vertigo. Methods From January 2009 to December 2011,98 cases of patients with vertigo original according to the different treatment was divided into 55 cases of the observation group and control group (n =43) ,in the observation group with Breviscapine joint compound amino acid therapy;the control group with a simple the breviscapine treatment,two groups of patients were compared. Results The clinical efficacy of the observation group was significantly better than the control group,differences of two groups of patients in an average of vertigo remission time, five days remission rate, duration of hospitalization and relapse rate were statistically significant (P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Breviscapine joint compound amino acid treatment of vertigo was effective and fast relief of symptoms,and with significantly shorter hospital stay and low recurrence rate, which was better than that of Breviscapine treatment,it was worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨灯盏花素联合复方氨基酸治疗眩晕症的疗效.方法 收集2009年1月-2011年12月98例眩晕症原患者,按不同治疗方法分为观察组55例,对照组43例,观察组采用灯盏花素联合复方氨基酸治疗,对照组采用单纯灯盏花素治疗,对比两组患者的治疗效果.结果 观察组临床疗效明显优于对照组,两组患者平均眩晕缓解时间、5天症状缓解率,住院时间及复发率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 灯盏花素联合复方氨基酸治疗眩晕症疗效肯定,症状缓解快,住院时间明显缩短,复发率低,优于单纯灯盏花素治疗,值得临床推广应用.

  12. 复方石韦片治疗尿路感染的临床观察%Clinical observation of compound Shiwei tablets in the treatment of urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:观察复方石韦片治疗尿路感染的临床效果。方法:收治尿路感染患者82例,随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组采用三金片治疗,治疗组采用复方石韦片治疗,对比两组患者的治疗效果和中医证候评分结果。结果:治疗后治疗组上尿路感染患者和下尿路感染患者的中医证候评分结果分别是(7.00±5.13)分和(3.95±2.92)分,和对照组上尿路感染患者和下尿路感染患者的中医证候评分结果对比差异存在统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:尿路感染患者采用复方石韦片治疗后,明显改善了患者的中医证候积分情况。%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of compound Shiwei tablets in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Methods:82 patients with urinary tract infections were selected.They were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group.The control group was treated with Sanjin tablets treatment,and the treatment group with compound Shiwei tablets in the treatment.Curative effect and traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score results were compared.Results:After treatment, upper urinary tract infection and lower urinary tract infections in patients with traditional Chinese medicine symptoms score results were(7.00±5.13)points and(3.95±2.92)points,and comparing the control group of upper urinary tract infection patients and lower urinary tract infection in patients with traditional Chinese medicine syndrome score results,there was a significant difference (P<0.05).Results:The clinical effect of compound Shiwei tablets in the treatment of urinary tract infections is outstanding.

  13. Clinical study of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease%复方牛胎肝提取物对非酒精性脂肪肝的治疗作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永红; 宁秀花; 王军伟


    Objective To analysis the clinical efficacy of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NARV).Method 58 patients with NAFLD were divided into two groups: treatment group and control group.Control group was given intervention of life only,while treatment group was given the same treament plus compound embryonic bovine liver extract.The period of treatment of both groups were 3 months,hepatic function,blood lipid and serum fibrosis index were detected before and after the treatment.Results Hepatic function and blood lipid of both gzvups were improved.Treament group was improved more than control group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).Liver fibrosis index of treatment group improved after treatment,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).But liver fibrosis index of control group didn't improve after treaunent.Conclusions The clinical efficacy of compound embryonic bovine liver extract in tieatment of NAFLD is significant.%目的 观察复方牛胎肝提取物对非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)患者的疗效.方法 将我院2(135年12月-2007年12月的58例NAFLD患者随机分为两组,对照组单纯生活干预,治疗组在生活干预基础上加复方牛胎肝提取物治疗,疗程均为3个月,比较两组治疗前后的肝功能、血脂及肝纤维化指标的变化.结果 治疗后两组肝功能、血脂均有改善,治疗组优于对照组(P<0.05).对照组肝纤维指标治疗前后差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),治疗组肝纤维化指标治疗前后差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.05).结论 复方牛胎肝提取物对NAFLD患者有明显疗效.

  14. 复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗寻常型银屑病临床疗效观察%Clinical Curative Effect Observation on Compound Clobetasol Propionate Ointment in the Treatment of Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建国; 顾艳丽; 王欣


    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety on compound clobetasol propionate ointment in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris.Methods 153 cases of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were randomly divided into treatment group(compound clobetasol propionate ointment)and the control group 1(0.05% clobetasol propionate cream),control group 2(0.025% of al trans retinoic acid cream),and observed the curative effect.Results After comparing the treatment group and the control group 1,control group 2,the effective rate was significantly different(P0.9) no difference. The treatment group was better than the two control group.Conclusion Compound clobetasol propionate ointment is a safe,effective and innovative compound external preparation in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris,curative effect is better than that of the same concentration of preparations and the compliance of the patients is higher.%目的:观察复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏治疗寻常型银屑病的临床疗效和安全性。方法选取寻常型银屑病患者153例随机分成治疗组(复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏)和对照1组(0.05%丙酸氯倍他索霜)、对照2组(0.025%全反式维甲酸霜),并观察各组疗效。结果治疗组与对照1组、对照2组比较,有效率均有显著性差异(P0.9)无差异。治疗组疗效优于两对照组。结论复方丙酸氯倍他索软膏是治疗寻常型银屑病的一种安全、有效的创新复方外用制剂,疗效优于同等浓度的单方制剂且患者的依从性较高。

  15. Spectral study, stability and protein labeling of two Carbazole–Benzothiazole derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Lu; Li, Ling; Fei, Xuening, E-mail:


    3-benzothiazole-9-ethyl-carbazole (BEC) and 3,6-di-benzothiazole-9-ethyl-carbazole (DBEC) were synthesized by using carbazole as base and then characterized by {sup 1}H NMR. The optical properties of them were investigated and compared with carbazole and 9-ethyl-carbazole. The photostability and thermostability of the compounds were studied and the results indicated they are both very stable. Effects of solvent properties including polarity, viscosity and refractive index on the spectra properties of the compounds were investigated. Quantum yield of the compounds in organic solvent was also determined and it is found the most complex compound has the highest quantum yield up to 0.68. Finally the synthesized compounds were used to label bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and simultaneously stability constant (K{sub s}) between them is calculated and compared with other similar dyes. The results showed that the fluorescent intensity of the compound is increased significantly after labeling with BSA protein. - Highlights: • Synthesis and optical properties of two carbazole-benzothiazole derivatives. • Photostability and thermostability of the compounds and compared the results with each other. • Quantum yields of the compounds and the relationship with the structure. • Protein labeling properties of the compounds and stability constant.

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of ...

  17. 21 CFR 606.121 - Container label. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 606.121 Section 606.121 Food and... Container label. (a) The container label requirements are designed to facilitate the use of a uniform container label for blood and blood components (except Source Plasma) by all blood establishments. (b)...

  18. An Optimal Labeling Scheme for Ancestry Queries



    An ancestry labeling scheme assigns labels (bit strings) to the nodes of rooted trees such that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered merely by looking at their corresponding labels. The quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is measured by its label size, that is the maximal number of bits in a label of a tree node. In addition to its theoretical appeal, the design of efficient ancestry labeling schemes is motivated by applications in web search engines. For this p...

  19. A brief history of cell labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. [Royal Sussex Country Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)


    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling.

  20. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Otagiri


    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  1. Patient identification and tube labelling - a call for harmonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Ibarz, Mercedes;


    Venous blood sampling (phlebotomy) is the most common invasive procedure performed in patient care. Guidelines on the correct practice of phlebotomy are available, including the H3-A6 guideline issued by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). As the quality of practices and procedures...... of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...

  2. Utilisation and off-label prescriptions of respiratory drugs in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Schmiedl

    Full Text Available Respiratory drugs are widely used in children to treat labeled and non-labeled indications but only some data are available quantifying comprehensively off-label usage. Thus, we aim to analyse drug utilisation and off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs focusing on age- and indication-related off-label use. Patients aged ≤18 years documented in the Bavarian Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians database (approx. 2 million children between 2004 and 2008 were included in our study. Annual period prevalence rates (PPRs per 10,000 children and the proportion of age- and indication-related off-label prescriptions were calculated and stratified by age and gender. Within the study period, highest PPRs were found for the fixed combination of clenbuterol/ambroxol (between 374-575 per 10,000 children and the inhaled short acting beta-2-agonist salbutamol (between 378-527 per 10,000 children. Highest relative PPR increase was found for oral salbutamol (approx. 39-fold whereas the most distinct decrease was found for oral long-acting beta-2-agonist clenbuterol (-97%. Compound classes most frequently involved in off-label prescribing were inhaled bronchodilative compounds (91,402; 37.3% and oral beta-2-agonists (26,850; 22.5%. The highest absolute number of off-label prescriptions were found for inhaled salbutamol (n = 67,084; 42.0% and oral clenbuterol/ambroxol (fixed combination, n = 18,897; 20.7%. Off-label prescribing due to indication was of much greater relevance than age-related off-label use. Most frequently, bronchodilative compounds were used off-label to treat respiratory tract infections. Highest off-label prescription rates were found in the youngest patients without relevant gender-related differences. Off-label prescribing of respiratory drugs is common especially in young children. Bronchodilative drugs were most frequently used off-label for treating acute bronchitis or upper respiratory tract infections

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label...

  4. In Vitro Activity of Ceftazidime-Avibactam against Isolates in a Phase 3 Open-Label Clinical Trial for Complicated Intra-Abdominal and Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Ceftazidime-Nonsusceptible Gram-Negative Pathogens. (United States)

    Stone, Gregory G; Bradford, Patricia A; Newell, Paul; Wardman, Angela


    The in vitro activity of ceftazidime-avibactam was evaluated against 341 Gram-negative isolates from 333 patients in a randomized, phase 3 clinical trial of patients with complicated urinary tract or intra-abdominal infections caused by ceftazidime-nonsusceptible pathogens (NCT01644643). Ceftazidime-avibactam MIC90 values against Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (including several class B or D enzyme producers that avibactam does not inhibit) were 1 and 64 μg/ml, respectively. Overall, the ceftazidime-avibactam activity against ceftazidime-nonsusceptible isolates was comparable to the activity of ceftazidime-avibactam previously reported against ceftazidime-susceptible isolates. (This study has been registered at under identifier NCT01644643.).

  5. Fibrinogen labelling with I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seminario, C.; Capillo, T.; Montanez, J. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima)


    Of the different techniques of labelling liophylized human fibrinogen, the technique of mono-chloride with modified iodine was selected. The labelling of the molecule was performed in alkali media of buffalo glycine in which the solution of stable iodine will react as well as on a later stage will the radioactive isotope. The labelling processes which were undertaken with different activities had an efficiency of over 40%; when purification with resins amberlite was carried through, in none of the cases were the impurities over 5%. Daily controls till the seventh day showed that the average values of radiochemical purity decrease were lower than 1%. The specific activity as well as the concentration of I/sup 131/, the fibrinogen and other characteristics come up to the norms of the pharmacopoeia which are applied.

  6. Learning With Auxiliary Less-Noisy Labels. (United States)

    Duan, Yunyan; Wu, Ou


    Obtaining a sufficient number of accurate labels to form a training set for learning a classifier can be difficult due to the limited access to reliable label resources. Instead, in real-world applications, less-accurate labels, such as labels from nonexpert labelers, are often used. However, learning with less-accurate labels can lead to serious performance deterioration because of the high noise rate. Although several learning methods (e.g., noise-tolerant classifiers) have been advanced to increase classification performance in the presence of label noise, only a few of them take the noise rate into account and utilize both noisy but easily accessible labels and less-noisy labels, a small amount of which can be obtained with an acceptable added time cost and expense. In this brief, we propose a learning method, in which not only noisy labels but also auxiliary less-noisy labels, which are available in a small portion of the training data, are taken into account. Based on a flipping probability noise model and a logistic regression classifier, this method estimates the noise rate parameters, infers ground-truth labels, and learns the classifier simultaneously in a maximum likelihood manner. The proposed method yields three learning algorithms, which correspond to three prior knowledge states regarding the less-noisy labels. The experiments show that the proposed method is tolerant to label noise, and outperforms classifiers that do not explicitly consider the auxiliary less-noisy labels.

  7. Comparative studies of antibody anti-CD20 labeled with {sup 188}Re; Estudo comparativo da marcacao do anticorpo anti-CD20 com {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Carla Roberta de Barros Rodrigues


    via carbonyl group, the results showed that the - SH groups of RTX{sub red} are a possible way of labeling. The formulation of {sup 99}mTc(I)-RTX{sub red} was faster than {sup 188}Re(I)-RTX{sub red}, that on the other hand showed better stability in human plasma and no transquelation in the cysteine or histidine challenge studies. Both compounds showed good binding affinity and a biodistribution in mice bearing tumor compatible with the normal mAb distribution and a reasonable tumor uptake proving the efficiency of the labeling and the potential clinical use. (author)

  8. 泮托拉唑联合复方丹参治疗胃溃疡的临床分析%Clinical Analysis of Pantoprazole Combined with Compound Danshen in Treatment of Gastric Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁晓云; 罗建平; 王舒云; 袁珍娥


    Objective:To study the compound salvia miltiorrhiza combined with diazepam tora clinical curative effect of treatment for gastric ulcer. Method:A retrospective analysis of our hospital in recent years,diagnosed and treated 86 patients with gastric ulcer,of which 43 cases were treated with pantoprazole treatment oceanic record for the control group. The other 43 cases with diazepam tora azole sodium enteric-coated metformin hydrochloride in compound danshen dropping pill+healer for combined group. To compare the two groups of clinical curative effect and drug safety situation. Result:The combined group the cure rate was 27.9%,the total efficiency of 90.7%,higher than in the control group(P<0.05);void rate of 9.3%,significantly lower than the control group 16.3%(P<0.01). Joint group of adverse drug reaction of 16.3%,no significant difference compared with the control group of 18.6%. Conclusion:Diazepam tora azole panxi tora azole+compound danshen dropping pill treatment of gastric ulcer clinical efficacy is superior to single panxi tora azole therapy,and drug safety guaranteed,is worthy of popularization and application.%目的:研究复方丹参联合泮托拉唑治疗胃溃疡的临床疗效。方法:回顾性分析本院近年确诊并收治的胃溃疡患者86例,其中43例采用洋托拉唑治疗者为对照组,另43例采用泮托拉唑钠肠溶片+复方丹参滴丸治疗者为联合组,比较两组临床疗效及用药安全性情况。结果:联合组治愈率27.9%、总有效率90.7%,均明显高于对照组(P<0.05);无效率9.3%,显著低于对照组的16.3%(P<0.01)。联合组用药不良反应16.3%,与对照组的18.6%比较差异无统计学意义。结论:泮托拉唑+复方丹参滴丸治疗胃溃疡临床疗效明显优于单一的泮托拉唑疗法,且用药安全性有保障,值得推广应用。

  9. Denture labeling: A new approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardeep K Bansal


    Full Text Available The need for denture labeling is important for forensic and social reasons in case patients need to be identified individually. The importance of denture marking has long been acknowledged by the dental profession. Over the years, various denture marking systems have been reported in the literature, but none till date fulfills all the prescribed ADA specifications. A simple, easy, inexpensive procedure for marking accurate identification marks on dentures with a lead foil is described here. The label caring the patient information is incorporated in the acrylic resin during the denture processing.

  10. Clinical Observation of Compound Tea Polyphenols Film for Periodontitis in Diabetic Patients%复方茶多酚膜剂治疗糖尿病患者牙周炎的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蕾; 李红玉; 王惟


    目的:观察复方茶多酚膜剂对2型糖尿病患者牙周炎的临床疗效.方法:将72例2型糖尿病并发慢性牙周炎患者采用区组随机化分组法随机均分为试验组与对照组,对照组采用基础治疗,试验组在对照组基础治疗上加用复方茶多酚膜剂辅助治疗,观察用药前,用药第4、8周时的牙周临床指标(菌斑指数、牙龈指数、探诊深度、附着丧失).结果:用药后第4、8周2组患者牙周临床指标均有显著改善(P<0.05),且试验组牙周临床指标改善优于对照组(P<0.05).2组均未见明显不良反应发生.结论:复方茶多酚膜剂可以明显改善糖尿病患者牙周基础治疗后的疗效.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical efficacy of Compound tea polyphenols film for periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: 72 type 2 diabetic patients with chronic periodontitis were selected and divided into 2 groups. 36 patients in experimental group were treated with compound tea polyphenols film besides conventional treatment, while 36 patients in control group received conventional oral treatment only. Periodontal index (PLI、GI、PD、AL) were observed before treatment and 4 weeks and 8 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: The periodontal indexes of 2 groups after 4 weeks and 8 weeks treatment were improved significantly (P< 0.05), and the changes of experimental group were superior to control group. There was statistical significance (P<0.05). There was no significant ADR found in both group. CONCLUSION: Compound tea polyphenols film might improve therapeutic efficacy of periodontal base treatment in diabetic patients significantly.

  11. Increasing magnetite contents of polymeric magnetic particles dramatically improves labeling of neural stem cell transplant populations. (United States)

    Adams, Christopher F; Rai, Ahmad; Sneddon, Gregor; Yiu, Humphrey H P; Polyak, Boris; Chari, Divya M


    Safe and efficient delivery of therapeutic cells to sites of injury/disease in the central nervous system is a key goal for the translation of clinical cell transplantation therapies. Recently, 'magnetic cell localization strategies' have emerged as a promising and safe approach for targeted delivery of magnetic particle (MP) labeled stem cells to pathology sites. For neuroregenerative applications, this approach is limited by the lack of available neurocompatible MPs, and low cell labeling achieved in neural stem/precursor populations. We demonstrate that high magnetite content, self-sedimenting polymeric MPs [unfunctionalized poly(lactic acid) coated, without a transfecting component] achieve efficient labeling (≥90%) of primary neural stem cells (NSCs)-a 'hard-to-label' transplant population of major clinical relevance. Our protocols showed high safety with respect to key stem cell regenerative parameters. Critically, labeled cells were effectively localized in an in vitro flow system by magnetic force highlighting the translational potential of the methods used.

  12. Does Early Postsurgical Temozolomide Plus Concomitant Radiochemotherapy Regimen Have Any Benefit in Newly-diagnosed Glioblastoma Patients? A Multi-center,Randomized, Parallel, Open-label, Phase Ⅱ Clinical Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Mao; Yu Yao; Li-Wei Zhang; Yi-Cheng Lu; Zhong-Ping Chen; Jian-Min Zhang; Song-Tao Qi


    Background:The radiochemotherapy regimen concomitantly employing temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) 4 weeks after surgery,followed by 6 cycles of TMZ is a common treatment for glioblastoma (GBM).However,its median overall survival (OS) is only 14.6 months.This study was to explore the effectiveness and safety of early TMZ chemotherapy between surgery and chemoradiotherapy plus the standard concomitant radiochemotherapy regimen.Methods:A randomized,parallel group,open-label study of 99 newly diagnosed GBM patients was conducted at 1 0 independent Chinese neurosurgical departments from June 2008 to June 2012.Patients were treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy regimen plus early postsurgical temozolomide (early TMZ group) or standard concomitant radiochemotherapy regimen (control group).Overall response was assessed based on objective tumor assessments,administration ofcorticosteroid and neurological status test.Hematological,biochemical,laboratory,adverse event (AE),and neurological condition were measured for 24 months of follow-up.The primary efficacy endpoint of this study was overall survival (OS).The secondary endpoint was progression free survival (PFS).Results:The median OS time in the early TMZ group was 17.6 months,compared with 13.2 months in the control group (log-rank test P =0.021).In addition,the OS rate in the early TMZ group was higher at 6,12,and 18 months than in the control group,respectively (P <0.05).The median PFS time was 8.7 months in the early TMZ group and 10.4 months in the control group (log-rank test P =0.695).AEs occurred in 29 (55.8%) and 31(73.8%) patients respectively in early and control groups,including nausea (15.4% vs.33.3%),vomiting (7.7% vs.28.6%),fever (7.7% vs.11.9%),and headache (3.8% vs.23.8%).Only 30.8% and 33.3% were drug-related,respectively.Conclusions:Addition of TMZ chemotherapy in the early break of the standard concomitant radiochemotherapy regimen was well tolerated

  13. Imaging integrin alpha-v-beta-3 expression in tumors with an 18F-labeled dimeric RGD peptide (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Terry, Samantha; McBride, William J.; Goldenberg, David M.; Laverman, Peter; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.


    Integrin αvβ3 receptors are expressed on activated endothelial cells during neovascularization to maintain tumor growth. Many radiolabeled probes utilize the tight and specific association between the arginine-glycine-aspartatic acid (RGD) peptide and integrin αvβ3, but one main obstacle for any clinical application of these probes is the laborious multistep radiosynthesis of 18F. In this study, the dimeric RGD peptide, E-[c(RGDfK)]2, was conjugated with NODAGA and radiolabeled with 18F in a simple one-pot process with a radiolabeling yield of 20%; the whole process lasting only 45 min. NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 labeled with 18F at a specific activity of 1.8 MBq/nmol and a radiochemical purity of 100% could be achieved. Log P value of 18F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 was −4.26 ± 0.02. In biodistribution studies, 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 cleared rapidly from the blood with 0.03 ± 0.01 %ID/g in the blood at 2 h p.i., mainly via the kidneys and showed good in vivo stability. Tumor uptake of 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (3.44 ± 0.20 %ID/g, 2 h p.i.) was significantly lower than that of reference compounds 68Ga-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (6.26 ± 0.76 %ID/g; P <0.001) and 111In-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 (4.99 ± 0.64 %ID/g; P < 0.01). Co-injection of an excess of unlabeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 along with 18F-NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 resulted in significantly reduced radioactivity concentrations in the tumor (0.85 ± 0.13 %ID/g). The αvβ3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumor could be successfully visualized by microPET with 18F-labeled NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2. In conclusion, NODAGA-E-[c(RGDfK)]2 could be labeled rapidly with 18F using a direct aqueous, one-pot method and it accumulated specifically in αvβ3 integrin-expressing SK-RC-52 tumors, allowing for visualization by microPET. PMID:23606427

  14. Connected Component Labeling Using Components Neighbors-Scan Labeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Rakhmadi


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many approaches have been proposed in previous such as the classic sequential connected components labeling algorithm which is relies on two subsequent raster-scans of a binary image. This method produced good performance in terms of accuracy, but because of the implementation of the image processing systems now requires faster process of the computer, the speed of this technique’s process has become an important issue. Approach: A computational approach, called components neighbors-scan labeling algorithm for connected component labeling was presented in this study. This algorithm required scanning through an image only once to label connected components. The algorithm started by scanning from the head of the component’s group, before tracing all the components neighbors by using the main component’s information. This algorithm had desirable characteristics, it is simple while promoted accuracy and low time consuming. By using a table of components, this approach also gave other advantages as the information for the next higher process. Results: The approach had been tested with a collection of binary images. In practically all cases, the technique had successfully given the desired result. Averagely, from the results the algorithm increased the speed around 67.4% from the two times scanning method. Conclusion: Conclusion from the comparison with the previous method, the approach of components neighbors-scan for connected component labeling promoted speed, accuracy and simplicity. The results showed that the approach has a good performance in terms of accuracy, the time consumed and the simplicity of the algorithm.

  15. Polyelectrolyte coating of ferumoxytol nanoparticles for labeling of dendritic cells (United States)

    Celikkin, Nehar; Jakubcová, Lucie; Zenke, Martin; Hoss, Mareike; Wong, John Erik; Hieronymus, Thomas


    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are emerging to be used as cell tracers, drug delivery vehicles, and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced theragnostic applications in biomedicine. In vitro labeling of target cell populations with MNPs and their implantation into animal models and patients shows promising outcomes in monitoring successful cell engraftment, differentiation and migration by using MRI. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that initiate adaptive immune responses. Thus, DCs have been the focus of cellular immunotherapy and are increasingly applied in clinical trials. Here, we addressed the coating of different polyelectrolytes (PE) around ferumoxytol particles using the layer-by-layer technique. The impact of PE-coated ferumoxytol particles for labeling of DCs and Flt3+ DC progenitors was then investigated. The results from our studies revealed that PE-coated ferumoxytol particles can be readily employed for labeling of DC and DC progenitors and thus are potentially suitable as contrast agents for MRI tracking.

  16. Fluorine-18 radiochemistry, labeling strategies and synthetic routes. (United States)

    Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan


    Fluorine-18 is the most frequently used radioisotope in positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals in both clinical and preclinical research. Its physical and nuclear characteristics (97% β(+) decay, 109.7 min half-life, 635 keV positron energy), along with high specific activity and ease of large scale production, make it an attractive nuclide for radiochemical labeling and molecular imaging. Versatile chemistry including nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions allows direct or indirect introduction of (18)F into molecules of interest. The significant increase in (18)F radiotracers for PET imaging accentuates the need for simple and efficient (18)F-labeling procedures. In this review, we will describe the current radiosynthesis routes and strategies for (18)F labeling of small molecules and biomolecules.

  17. {sup 18}F-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for PET in oncology, excluding FDG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varagnolo, L.; Stokkel, M.P.M.; Mazzi, U.; Pauwels, E.K.J


    This article reviews possible use of {sup 18}F-labelled radiopharmaceuticals in oncology with positron emission tomography. The characteristics of various {sup 18}F-labelled compounds are proteins and peptides, those that bind to {center_dot} receptors, agents to assess hypoxia, and agents to evaluate gene therapy are highlighted. Furthermore, different {sup 18}F-labelled tissue specific agents are indicated for the detection and monitoring of various malignancies: melanoma, brain tumours, breast cancer, prostate cancer and colorectal cancer. {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose has been excluded from this summary.

  18. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská


    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  19. Off label use of devices and drugs in interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvavanjanja, R.C., E-mail: [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Odetoyinbo, T.O.; Rowlands, P.C.; Healey, A.; Abdelsalam, H.; Powell, S.; Evans, J.C.; Hughes, M.L.; Gould, D.A.; McWilliams, R.G. [Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom)


    Aim: To establish how often off-label device and drug use occurs in interventional radiology (IR) in a UK tertiary referral hospital and consider the wider implications for the interventional radiologist. Materials and methods: Prospective data were collected during interventional procedures for 1 working week in a university hospital. Out-of-hours procedures and procedures outside the department were excluded. Operators were asked to record the drugs and devices used, the indication, and method of use. The instructions for use/summary of product characteristics were then studied for each device/drug used to assess if the use was on or off-label. Results: During the study period 52 cases were performed and data were available on 26 cases (50%). In 22 of the 26 cases (84%) there was evidence of off-label use of devices or drugs. Off-label use of drugs included treatment of venous malformations with Fibrovein{sup Copyright-Sign} (sodium tetradecyl sulphate), which is licensed for the treatment of varicose veins in the leg, and intra-arterial injection of heparin, which is licensed for intravenous and subcutaneous use. Off-label device use included placing vascular sheaths in the urinary tract, using angiographic catheters to guide wires in the urinary tract, using sheaths for thrombosuction, reshaping of the tip of most guidewires, and using angioplasty balloons to dislodge the arterial plug at fistula thrombectomy. Conclusion: Off-label device and drugs use is common in a UK tertiary hospital IR department and literature suggests this is common in the wider IR community. There are important clinical and legal implications for off-label use for patients and physicians.

  20. Synthesis and properties of differently charged chemiluminescent acridinium ester labels. (United States)

    Natrajan, Anand; Sharpe, David


    Chemiluminescent acridinium dimethylphenyl esters containing N-sulfopropyl groups in the acridinium ring are highly sensitive, hydrophilic labels that are used in automated immunoassays for clinical diagnostics. Light emission from these labels is triggered with alkaline peroxide in the presence of a cationic surfactant. At physiological pH, N-sulfopropyl acridinium esters exist as water adducts that are commonly referred to as pseudobases. Pseudobase formation, which results from addition of water to the zwitterionic N-sulfopropyl acridinium ring, neutralizes the positive charge on the acridinium nitrogen and imparts a net negative charge to the label due to the sulfonate moiety. As a consequence, N-sulfopropyl acridinium ester conjugates of small molecule haptens as well as large molecules such as proteins gain negative charges at neutral pH. In the current study, we describe the synthesis and properties of two new hydrophilic acridinium dimethylphenyl ester labels where the net charge in the labels was altered. In one label, the structure of the hydrophilic N-alkyl group attached to the acridinium ring was changed so that the pseudobase of the label contains no net charge. In the second acridinium ester, two additional negative charges in the form of sulfopropyl groups were added to the acridinium ring to make this label's pseudobase strongly anionic. Chemiluminescence measurements of these labels, as well as their conjugates of an antibody with a neutral pI, indicate that acridinium ester charge while having a modest effect on emission kinetics has little influence on light output. However, our results demonstrate that acridinium ester charge can affect protein pI, apparent chemiluminescence stability and non-specific binding of protein conjugates to microparticles. These results emphasize the need for careful consideration of acridinium ester charge in order to optimize reagent stability and performance in immunoassays. In the current study, we observed that

  1. A single-arm, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial evaluating disease response following treatment with BI-505, a human anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody, in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (United States)

    Wichert, Stina; Juliusson, Gunnar; Johansson, Åsa; Sonesson, Elisabeth; Teige, Ingrid; Wickenberg, Anna Teige; Frendeus, Björn; Korsgren, Magnus; Hansson, Markus


    Background Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an indolent disease stage, considered to represent the transition phase from the premalignant MGUS (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance) state towards symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM). Even though this diagnosis provides an opportunity for early intervention, few treatment studies have been done and the current standard of care is observation until progression. BI-505, a monoclonal antibody directed against intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) with promising anti-myeloma activity in preclinical trials, is a possible treatment approach for this patient category with potential to eliminate tumor cells with minimal long-term side effects. BI-505 was well tolerated in an earlier phase 1 trial. Methods and findings In this phase 2 trial the effects of BI-505 in patients with SMM were studied. Four patients were enrolled and three of them completed the first cycle of treatment defined as 5 doses of BI-505, a total of 43 mg/kg BW, over a 7-week period. In the three evaluable patients, BI-505 showed a benign safety profile. None of the patients achieved a response as defined per protocol. EudraCT number: 2012-004884-29. Conclusions The study was conducted to assess the efficacy, safety and pharmacodynamics of BI-505 in patients with SMM. BI-505 showed no clinically relevant efficacy on disease activity in these patients with SMM, even if well tolerated. Trial registration Identifier: NCT01838369. PMID:28158311

  2. The Labelling Approach to Deviance. (United States)

    Rains, Prudence M.; Kitsuse, John L.; Duster, Troy; Freidson, Eliot


    This reprint of one chapter from the 1975 text, "Issues in the Classification of Children" by Nicholas Hobbs and others, addresses the theoretical, methodological, and empirical issues involved in the "labeling" approach to the sociology of deviance. It examines the social process of classification, the use of classification in social agencies,…

  3. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey


    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  4. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome;


    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions...

  5. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  6. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn


    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  7. Label-free high-throughput imaging flow cytometry (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Chen, C.; Niazi, K. R.; Rabizadeh, S.; Jalali, B.


    Flow cytometry is an optical method for studying cells based on their individual physical and chemical characteristics. It is widely used in clinical diagnosis, medical research, and biotechnology for analysis of blood cells and other cells in suspension. Conventional flow cytometers aim a laser beam at a stream of cells and measure the elastic scattering of light at forward and side angles. They also perform single-point measurements of fluorescent emissions from labeled cells. However, many reagents used in cell labeling reduce cellular viability or change the behavior of the target cells through the activation of undesired cellular processes or inhibition of normal cellular activity. Therefore, labeled cells are not completely representative of their unaltered form nor are they fully reliable for downstream studies. To remove the requirement of cell labeling in flow cytometry, while still meeting the classification sensitivity and specificity goals, measurement of additional biophysical parameters is essential. Here, we introduce an interferometric imaging flow cytometer based on the world's fastest continuous-time camera. Our system simultaneously measures cellular size, scattering, and protein concentration as supplementary biophysical parameters for label-free cell classification. It exploits the wide bandwidth of ultrafast laser pulses to perform blur-free quantitative phase and intensity imaging at flow speeds as high as 10 meters per second and achieves nanometer-scale optical path length resolution for precise measurements of cellular protein concentration.

  8. Multi-label classification for colon cancer using histopathological images. (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Jiao, Liping; Wang, Siyu; Wei, Junsheng; Fan, Yubo; Lai, Maode; Chang, Eric I-Chao


    Colon cancer classification has a significant guidance value in clinical diagnoses and medical prognoses. The classification of colon cancers with high accuracy is the premise of efficient treatment. Our task is to build a system for colon cancer detection and classification based on slide histopathological images. Some former researches focus on single label classification. Through analyzing large amount of colon cancer images, we found that one image may contain cancer regions of multiple types. Therefore, we reformulated the task as multi-label problem. Four kinds of features (Color Histogram, Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix, Histogram of Oriented Gradients and Euler number) were introduced to compose our discriminative feature set, extracted from our dataset that includes six single categories and four multi-label categories. In order to evaluate the performance and make comparison with our multi-label model, three commonly used multi-classification methods were designed in our experiment including one-against-all SVM (OAA), one-against-one SVM (OAO) and multi-structure SVM. Four indicators (Precision, Recall, F-measure, and Accuracy) under 3-fold cross-validation were used to validate the performance of our approach. Experiment results show that the precision, recall and F-measure of multi-label method as 73.7%, 68.2%, and 70.8% with all features, which are higher than the other three classifiers. These results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method on colon histopathological images analysis.

  9. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia


    . A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very....... The remaining consumers, about 55%, trust the institutions guaranteeing the labels and they use the labels as a signal without actually knowing the content of each label. Segment composition will probably change depending on the food group studied. It is therefore recommended that the different consumer types...

  10. A Multi-Label Classification Approach Based on Correlations Among Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Alazaidah


    Full Text Available Multi label classification is concerned with learning from a set of instances that are associated with a set of labels, that is, an instance could be associated with multiple labels at the same time. This task occurs frequently in application areas like text categorization, multimedia classification, bioinformatics, protein function classification and semantic scene classification. Current multi-label classification methods could be divided into two categories. The first is called problem transformation methods, which transform multi-label classification problem into single label classification problem, and then apply any single label classifier to solve the problem. The second category is called algorithm adaptation methods, which adapt an existing single label classification algorithm to handle multi-label data. In this paper, we propose a multi-label classification approach based on correlations among labels that use both problem transformation methods and algorithm adaptation methods. The approach begins with transforming multi-label dataset into a single label dataset using least frequent label criteria, and then applies the PART algorithm on the transformed dataset. The output of the approach is multi-labels rules. The approach also tries to get benefit from positive correlations among labels using predictive Apriori algorithm. The proposed approach has been evaluated using two multi-label datasets named (Emotions and Yeast and three evaluation measures (Accuracy, Hamming Loss, and Harmonic Mean. The experiments showed that the proposed approach has a fair accuracy in comparison to other related methods.

  11. Clinical and cost-effectiveness analysis of an open label, single-centre, randomised trial of spinal cord stimulation (SCS versus percutaneous myocardial laser revascularisation (PMR in patients with refractory angina pectoris: The SPiRiT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SN


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with refractory angina have significant morbidity. This study aimed to compare two of the treatment options, Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS and Percutaneous Myocardial Laser Revascularisation (PMR in terms of clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness. Methods Eligible patients were randomised to PMR or SCS and followed up for exercise tolerance time (ETT, Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS classification and the quality of life measures SF-36, Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the EuroQoL at 3, 12 and 24 months. Utilities were calculated using the EQ-5D and these and costs were compared between groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER per QALY for SCS compared to PMR was also calculated. Results At 24 months post-randomisation, patients that had SCS and PMR had similar ETT (mean difference 0.05, 95% CI -2.08, 2.18, p = 0.96 and there was no difference in CCS classification or quality of life outcomes. The difference in overall mean costs when comparing SCS to PMR was GBP5,520 (95% CI GBP1,966 to GBP8,613; p Conclusion Outcomes after SCS did not differ appreciably from those after PMR, with the former procedure being less cost-effective as currently applied. Larger studies could clarify which patients would most benefit from SCS, potentially increasing cost-effectiveness. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN09648950


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oudone Phanalasy


    Full Text Available An antimagic labeling of a graph with q edges is a bijection from the set of edges to the set of positive integers {1,2,...,q} such that all vertex weights are pairwise distinct, where the vertex weight of a vertex is the sum of the labels of all the edges incident with that vertex. A graph is antimagic if it has an antimagic labeling. In this paper we construct antimagic labeling for the family of generalized sausage graphs.




    This article discusses economic issues related to public labeling. The main contributions in both the empirical and theoretical literatures are presented in order to motivate responses to the questions, when should a regulator promote public labeling, and what are the limits to and the possible market distortions from public labeling? Although the issues are complicated, there is already much economic guidance that can be given to inform the policy debate over food labeling.

  14. Automatic Labelling of Topics with Neural Embeddings


    Bhatia, Shraey; Lau, Jey Han; Baldwin, Timothy


    Topics generated by topic models are typically represented as list of terms. To reduce the cognitive overhead of interpreting these topics for end-users, we propose labelling a topic with a succinct phrase that summarises its theme or idea. Using Wikipedia document titles as label candidates, we compute neural embeddings for documents and words to select the most relevant labels for topics. Compared to a state-of-the-art topic labelling system, our methodology is simpler, more efficient, and ...

  15. Labeling nuclear DNA using DAPI. (United States)

    Chazotte, Brad


    A number of fluorescent stains are available that label DNA and allow easy visualization of the nucleus in interphase cells and chromosomes in mitotic cells, including Hoechst, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), ethidium bromide, propidium iodide, and acridine orange. Although not as bright as the vital Hoechst stains for DNA, DAPI has greater photostability. It is believed that DAPI associates with the minor groove of double-stranded DNA, with a preference for the adenine-thymine clusters. Cells must be permeabilized and/or fixed for DAPI to enter the cell and to bind DNA. Fluorescence increases approximately 20-fold when DAPI is bound to double-stranded DNA. This protocol describes the use of DAPI to label nuclear DNA of cells grown in culture.

  16. White Label Space GLXP Mission (United States)

    Barton, A.


    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  17. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin


    action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...... mortality, particularly in older women, are yet to be established. Adverse cardiovascular effects have not been seen in studies of transdermal testosterone therapy in women. Clinical trials suggest that exogenous testosterone enhances cognitive performance and improves musculoskeletal health...

  18. The Effect of Aggressive Blood Pressure Control on the Recurrence of Atrial Fibrillation After Catheter Ablation: A Randomized, Open Label, Clinical Trial (Substrate Modification with Aggressive Blood Pressure Control: SMAC- AF). (United States)

    Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Sapp, John L; Healey, Jeffrey S; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Greiss, Isabelle; Rivard, Léna; Roux, Jean-Francois; Gula, Lorne; Nault, Isabelle; Novak, Paul G; Birnie, David H; Ha, Andrew C; Wilton, Stephen B; Mangat, Iqwal; Gray, Christopher J; Gardner, Martin J; Tang, Anthony S L


    Background -Radiofrequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation has become an important therapy for AF, however recurrence rates remain high. We proposed to determine whether aggressive blood pressure (BP) lowering prevents recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after catheter ablation in patients with AF and a high symptom burden. Methods -We randomly assigned 184 patients with AF and a BP greater than 130/80 mmHg to aggressive BP (target <120/80 mm Hg) or standard BP treatment (target <140/90 mmHg) prior to their scheduled AF catheter ablation. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrence of AF/atrial tachycardia/atrial flutter lasting greater than 30 seconds, determined 3 months beyond catheter ablation by a blinded endpoint evaluation. Results -The median follow-up was 14 months. At six months, the mean systolic BP in the aggressive BP treatment group was 123.2±13.2 versus 135.4±15.7mm Hg (p<0.001) in the standard treatment group. The primary outcome occurred in 106 patients, 54 (61.4%) in the aggressive BP treatment group, compared to 52 (61.2%) in the standard treatment group, (Hazard Ratio 0.94, 95% Confidence Interval 0.65-1.38, p=0.763). In the prespecified subgroup analysis of the influence of age, patients aged ≥ 61 years had a lower primary outcome event rate with aggressive BP (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% Confidence Interval (0.34, 0.97), p=0.013). There was a higher rate of hypotension requiring medication adjustment in the aggressive BP group (26% versus 0%). Conclusions -In this study, this duration of aggressive BP treatment did not reduce atrial arrhythmia recurrence after catheter ablation for AF, but resulted in more hypotension. Clinical Trial Registration Identifier: NCT00438113.

  19. An open labeled, comparative clinical study on efficacy and tolerability of oral minipulse of steroid (OMP alone, OMP with PUVA and broad / narrow band UVB phototherapy in progressive vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rath Namita


    Full Text Available Background: Several modalities of treatment have been tried in vitiligo with varied results; however, Indian data on comparative studies of two or more therapies are limited. Aims: We compared different phototherapy methods with an oral steroid as an adjunct to determine the method with the best tolerability and efficacy. Methods: Eighty-six patients with progressive vitiligo were randomly assigned to different study groups according to a continuous selection method over a period of one year. Group 1 was given OMP + PUVA, group 2 OMP + UVB (NB, group 3 OMP + UVB (BB and group 4 was given OMP alone. Each patient was followed up for six months and then released from treatment. Clinical evaluation was made at the end of three and six months. Results: In group 1 (OMP + PUVA, marked improvement was seen in 18.51% while moderate improvement was seen in 66.66% of the patients. Marked improvement was seen in 37.03% in group 2 (OMP + NB-UVB while 44.44% had moderate improvement. In group 3 (OMP + BB UVB, 8.33% showed marked improvement while moderate improvement was seen in 25% of the patients. Marked and moderate improvement was seen in 5 and 10% of group 4 (OMP patients, respectively. Conclusions: Our study compared four treatment modalities in vitiligo patients, out of which oral minipulse of steroids (OMP only had an adjunct value and was not very effective by itself. Narrow band UVB has a definite edge over broad band UVB and should be preferred when both options are available. NB-UVB and PUVA showed comparable efficacy.

  20. Politique de label et commerce international



    This article investigates the effects of a public labelling system in a context of international trade. A simple framework allows to present some distortions linked to such a policy. A trade liberalisation situation may lead to a change in the label policy, where the foreign seller incurs the label cost. Classification JEL : F1, D8

  1. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.


    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size, posit


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宗伟; 林争辉; 张镭


    DAG-MAP is an FPGA technology mapping algorithm for delay optimization and the labeling phase is the algorithm's kernel. This paper studied the labeling phase and presented an improved labeling method. It is shown through the experimental results on MCNC benchmarks that the improved method is more effective than the original method while the computation time is almost the same.

  3. Quantitative measurement of demethylation of /sup 14/C-methoxyl labeled DMPEA and TMA-2 in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, T. III; Shulgin, A.T.; Kusubov, N.


    Some reports have suggested that methylation and demethylation of compounds related to 6-hydroxydopamine may be involved in endogenous mental disorder. We report the synthesis of 3,4-dimethyoxyphenethylamine (DMPEA) and 2,4,5-trimethoxyphenylisopropylamine (TMA-2) with each methoxyl group separately labeled with /sup 14/C. The rate and percent demethylation of these two compounds, with five labeled positions, were determined in the rat. The results suggest that TMA-2 might be metabolized to a hydroquinone in vivo; a similar metabolic intermediate of the psychoactive compound DOM is known to give rise in vitro to an indole.

  4. Fluorescent Labeling of Nanometer Hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan ZHANG; Yuan YUAN; Changsheng LIU


    A novel surface treatment method using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AMPTES), was developed to immobilize the fluorescein molecule on nano-HAP (nanometer hydroxyapatite) powders. By pretreating the nano-HAP powders surface with AMPTES, fluorescein, chosen on the basis of the chemical structure of the nano- HAP powders, could be bound to the nano-HAP powders surface. The chemical compositions of nano-HAP before and after being labeled were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology, phase composition, and the fluorescence characteristics of the nano-HAP powders with and without staining were also investigated. The FTIR and XPS results revealed that fiuorescein had been successfully immobilized on the surface of AMPTES-bound nano-HAP powders via the acylamide bond formation between the -COOH of fluorescein and the -NH2 of AMPTES. The labeled nano-HAP powders possessed strong fluorescent intensity with a little deviation from the maximum emission wavelength of fluorescein. But the morphology and phase composition had no obvious alteration. Under fluorescence microscopy, the labeled nano-HAP powders., even after 24 h cell incubation, exhibited strong fluorescence.

  5. Clinical Study on Compound Yejuhua Buccal Tablets in Treating Sore Throat Due to Wind-heat%复方野菊花含片治疗外感风热咽痛症临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 林友平; 邓可斌; 刘同祥


    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Compound Yejuhua Buccal Tablets in the treatment of sore throat due to wind-heat. Methods A randomized, blind, positive parallel controlled, multi-center clinical trial was carried out in 567 patients. The trial group (426 cases) was given Compound Yejuhua Buccal Tablets and the contral group (141 cases) was given Yinhuang Buccal Tablets orally, 6 times per day (2 tablets/times), with the course of acpuei pharyngitis of 5 days and acute catarrhal tonsillitis of 7 days. Results For the treatment of acpuei pharyngitis, the total effective rate was 71.4% (152/213) in the trial group and 59.2% (42/71) in the control group. For the treatment of acute catarrhal tonsillitis, the total effective rate was 70.4% (150/213) in the trial group and 67.1% (47/70) in the control group, the difference was not statistically significant between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no significant changes of laboratory indexes and side effects related to trial drugs. Conclusion Compound Yejuhua Buccal Tablets can improve exogenous wind-heat-induced sore throat, painful swallowing, throat irritation, etc. It is safe and effective in the treatment of acpuei pharyngitis and acute catarrhal tonsillitis.%目的 评价复方野菊花含片治疗外感风热引起的咽痛症(急性咽炎、急性卡他性扁桃体炎)的临床疗效和安全性.方法 采用分层区组随机、盲法、阳性药平行对照、非劣效的、多中心临床试验方法,共观察病例567例.试验组426例,含化服复方野菊花含片.对照组141例,含化服银黄含化片.2组均2片/次,6次/d,急性咽炎5 d为1个疗程,急性卡他性扁桃体炎7 d为1个疗程.结果 对急性咽炎的治疗,试验组总有效率为71.4%(152/213)、对照组为59.2%(42/71);对急性卡他性扁桃体炎的治疗,试验组总有效率为70.4%(150/213),对照组为67.1%(47/70),组间疗效差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).试验期间未见有与试验药物相关的

  6. Clinical Application of Compound Rhizoma Curcumae Powder for Post-operative Treatment in Pa- tients with Endometriosis%复方莪术散在子宫内膜异位症术后的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂玲; 刘笑梅


    目的:探讨复方莪术散在子宫内膜异位症腹腔镜术后的价值。方法:将Ⅱ~Ⅲ期子宫内膜异位症腹腔镜术后肾虚血瘀证患者120例回顾性随机分为3组,复方莪术散组(n=40)于术后7 d开始服用复方莪术散;曲普瑞林组(n=44)术后7 d开始肌肉注射曲普瑞林,每4周1次;联合组(n=36)给药方式同复方莪术散组及曲普瑞林组。结果:在临床疗效方面复方莪术散组、曲普瑞林组及联合组比较,受孕率、症状改善率均提高,复发率下降,3组临床疗效比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),莪术散组不良反应发生率(20%)较曲普瑞林组(79%)和联合组(89%)明显降低(P<0.01)。结论:腹腔镜术后辅助复方莪术散,对提高子宫内膜异位症患者受孕率、降低复发率、改善疼痛有重要作用,且副作用少、费用低。%Objective To explore the Compound Rhizoma Curcumae Powder in endometriosis following val-ue of laparoscopic surgery. Methods A total of 120 patients with stage Ⅱ~Ⅲ endometriosis foiiowing laparo-scopic surgery complicated with kidney deficiency blood stasis syndrome were randomly divided into three groups. Curcumae Powder group(n=40) received the treatment of Compound Rhizoma Curcumae Powder since 1week after surgery; Triptorelin group(n=44) was given by intramuscular infection of Triptorelin 3.75 mg since 7 days after surgery and Joint group(n=36)was given both drugs. Results In the aspect of clinical efficacy, in all the three groups, the conception rate and symptoms improving period increased, the recurrence rate dropped significantly with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) at total effective rate and recurrence. The inci-dence of adverse reactions in Curcumae Powder group(20%) significantly decreased (P<0.01)much less than Triptorelin group (79%) and the joint group (89%). Conclusion Laparoscopic surgery assisted compound zedo-ary turmeric powder, to

  7. The Clinical Research on Compound Xuanju Capsule for the Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis%复方玄驹胶囊治疗膝骨关节炎的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳围堤; 白阳涛; 张芳


    Objective:This paper is to observe (he clinical effects and safety of Compound Xuanju Capsule for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and objectively appraises its improvements in the quality of life of patients with knee osteoarthritis by using SF -36 (Chinese Version) health questionnaire survey. Method:Choose 57 patients with knee osteoarthritis according to diagnostic criteria, and randomly divide them into treatment group and control group respectively. The treatment group take Compound Xuanju Capsule by 0. 42g/grain, 4 grains/time, 3 times/day; and the control group take Celecoxib, 0. 2g/time, 1 time/day. Both of the groups take by oral use continuously for six weeks. Observe the overall effect, WOMAC index and the changes of eight indexes in international used SF -36 (Chinese Version) health questionnaire survey before and after treatment. Result;The good effective rate and effective rate after treatment of the two groups were 48. 2% ,82. 7% and 42. 7% ,89. 3% respectively, but the WOMAC index, including pain, stiff joints and dysfunction index, all had clear improvements after treatment. The quality of patients" life from the two groups, including physiological function, role physical, psychological pain, vigor, sensibility function, mental health and health change, also all had clear improvements (P0.05). Conclusion; The Compound Xuanju Capsule is effective in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and it can obviously raise the quality of patients'life.%目的:观察复方玄驹胶囊治疗膝骨关节炎的临床疗效及安全性,并运用健康调查问卷SF-36(中文版)全面客观评价其对膝骨关节炎患者生存质量的改善程度.方法:按照诊断标准选择57例膝骨关节炎患者,随机分为治疗组及对照组,治疗组服用复方玄驹胶囊,每粒0.42g,4粒/次,3次/d,对照组口服塞来昔布,0.2g/次,1次/d,均饭后口服,连续服用6周.观察两组治疗前后总体疗效、WOMAC积分及国际通用的SF-36(

  8. 78 FR 24211 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Safety Considerations for Container Labels and Carton Labeling... (United States)


    ... Container Labels and Carton Labeling Design To Minimize Medication Errors; Availability AGENCY: Food and... the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Safety Considerations for Container... aspects of the container label and carton labeling design for prescription drug and biological...

  9. Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Safety of the Novel Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Enzyme Inhibitor Darapladib in Healthy Chinese Subjects: An Open Label Phase-1 Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoying Hu NCT02000804.

  10. Pre-clinical evaluation of a 213Bi-labeled 2556 antibody to HIV-1 gp41 glycoprotein in HIV-1 mouse models as a reagent for HIV eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Dadachova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any strategy for curing HIV infection must include a method to eliminate viral-infected cells. Based on our earlier proof-of-principle results targeting HIV-1 infected cells with radiolabeled antibody (mAb to gp41 viral antigen, we embarked on identifying a suitable candidate mAb for preclinical development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among the several human mAbs to gp41 tested, mAb 2556 was found to have high affinity, reactivity with multimeric forms of gp41 present on both the surface of virus particles and cells expressing HIV-1 Env, and recognition of a highly conserved epitope of gp41 shared by all HIV-1 subtypes. Also, mAb 2556 was the best in competition with HIV-1+ serum antibodies, which is an extremely important consideration for efficacy in the treatment of HIV patients. When radiolabeled with alpha-emitting radionuclide 213-Bismuth ((213Bi - (213Bi-2556 efficiently and specifically killed ACH-2 human lymphocytes chronically infected with HIV-1, and HIV-1 infected human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs. The number of binding sites for (213Bi-2556 on the surface of the infected cells was >10(6. The in vivo experiments were performed in two HIV-1 mouse models--splenic and intraperitoneal. In both models, the decrease in HIV-1 infected hPBMCs from the spleens and peritoneum, respectively, was dose-dependent with the most pronounced killing of hPBMCs observed in the 100 µCi (213Bi-2556 group (P = 0.01. Measurement of the blood platelet counts and gross pathology of the treated mice demonstrated the lack of toxicity for (213Bi-2556. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We describe the preclinical development of a novel radiolabeled mAb reagent that could potentially be part of an HIV eradication strategy that is ready for translation into the clinic as the next step in its development. As viral antigens are very different from "self" human antigens - this approach promises high selectivity, increased efficacy and low

  11. Pyrolysis of Cigarette Ingredients Labelled with Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stotesbury S


    mass spectra from the labelled compounds and their natural counterparts, the major degradation products from the labelled compounds could be readily identified in the chromatograms of the corresponding smoke extracts. Evidence of some degradation at above the transfer temperature was indicated for both additives. The amount of degradation was found to be less than 1% for p-anisaldehyde and only 0.1% for vanillin. This low level of degradation was acceptably consistent with the intact transfer values of 97% and 100%, respectively, obtained by pyrolysis.

  12. Clinical Glargine Joint Compound Hyperthyroidism Tablet to Treat Diabetes With Hyperthyroidism%甘精胰岛素联合复方甲亢片治疗糖尿病伴甲亢的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective Joint analysis glargine Fufangjiakang tablets to treat diabetes with hyperthyroidism clinical results. MethodsRetrospective analysis of December 2012 December -2014 hospital 89 cases of diabetic patients with hyperthyroidism data, divided into two groups according to the different treatment options, the control group of 43 regular routine treatment, research group of 46 routine glargine and Fufangjiakang tablets treatment, blood sugar and complications were observed.ResultsResearch on blood glucose levels were significantly lower than the control group, and the complication rate 6.5% 27.9% lower than the control group, the difference was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion Glargine and compound hyperthyroidism tablet to treat diabetes with hyperthyroidism effect is signiifcant.%目的:分析甘精胰岛素联合复方甲亢片治疗糖尿病伴甲亢的临床效果。方法回顾分析2012年12月~2014年12月本院89例糖尿病伴甲亢患者资料,按不同治疗方案分为两组,对照组43例行常规治疗,研究组46例行甘精胰岛素与复方甲亢片治疗,观察两组血糖及并发症。结果研究组血糖水平均低于对照组,且并发症发生率(6.5%)低于对照组(27.9%),差异具统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论甘精胰岛素与复方甲亢片治疗糖尿病伴甲亢的效果显著。

  13. Stigma of a label: educational expectations for high school students labeled with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Shifrer, Dara


    Poorer outcomes for youth labeled with learning disabilities (LDs) are often attributed to the student's own deficiencies or cumulative disadvantage; but the more troubling possibility is that special education placement limits rather than expands these students' opportunities. Labeling theory partially attributes the poorer outcomes of labeled persons to stigma related to labels. This study uses data on approximately 11,740 adolescents and their schools from the Education Longitudinal Survey of 2002 to determine if stigma influences teachers' and parents' educational expectations for students labeled with LDs and labeled adolescents' expectations for themselves. Supporting the predictions of labeling theory, teachers and parents are more likely to perceive disabilities in, and hold lower educational expectations for labeled adolescents than for similarly achieving and behaving adolescents not labeled with disabilities. The negative effect of being labeled with LDs on adolescents' educational expectations is partially mechanized through parents' and particularly teachers' lower expectations.

  14. Clinical Efficacy of Iron Sucrose Injection Combined with Compound Ejiao Slurry in Treating Postpartum Anemia in 69 Cases%蔗糖铁注射液联合复方阿胶浆治疗产后贫血69例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅; 苗金辉


    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Iron Sucrose Injection combined with Compound Ejiao Slurry in treating postpartum anemia,and to summarize and analyze its nursing key points. Methods 138 patients with postpartum anemia were randomly divided into the control group and the observation group,69 cases in each group. The control group was treated by Iron Sucrose Injection,while the ob-servation group was treated by Iron Sucrose Injection combined with Compound Ejiao Slurry. The changes of red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin(Hb),hemotocrit(HCT),serum ferritin(SF)and total iron binding capacity(TIBC)indexes before and after treatment were ob-served in the two groups. At the same time,the curative effects were evaluated by combining with the improvement situation of symptoms and signs,furthermore the occurrence situation of adverse reactions was also observed. The nursing key points were summarized and ana-lyzed. Results The total effective rate after treatment in the control group was 65. 22%,which was significantly lower than 79. 71% in the observation group( P 0. 05). Conclusion Iron Sucrose Injection combined with Compound Ejiao Slurry in treating postpartum anemia has better clinical effect,can effectively promote erythropoiesis,improves the patient's anemia symptoms with less adverse reactions,which is worthy of clinical promotion.%目的:观察蔗糖铁注射液联合复方阿胶浆治疗产后贫血的临床疗效,并总结和分析产后贫血的护理要点。方法将138例产后贫血患者随机分为对照组和观察组,各69例,对照组患者给予蔗糖铁注射液治疗,观察组患者在对照组基础上加用复方阿胶浆治疗,蔗糖铁注射液治疗3 d,复方阿胶浆治疗4周。分别观察治疗前后红细胞(RBC)、血红蛋白(Hb)、红细胞比容(HCT)、血清铁蛋白(SF)、总铁结合力(TIBC)等指标的变化,结合患者症状和体征的改善情况评价疗效,并观察不良反应


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Khabirov


    Axoglatiran® FS and Copaxone®Teva were evaluated as satisfactory in both groups: local reactions were the most common adverse event (57.7 and 63.0 % in the 1st  and 2nd groups respectively.Conclusion. Efficiency, safety and tolerability of Axoglatiran® FS is comparable with the reference medicine Copaxone®-Teva in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. This result allows to recommend the use of Axoglatiran® FS in clinical practice.

  16. Rectified-Linear-Unit-Based Deep Learning for Biomedical Multi-label Data. (United States)

    Wang, Pu; Ge, Ruiquan; Xiao, Xuan; Cai, Yunpeng; Wang, Guoqing; Zhou, Fengfeng


    Disease diagnosis is one of the major data mining questions by the clinicians. The current diagnosis models usually have a strong assumption that one patient has only one disease, i.e. a single-label data mining problem. But the patients, especially when at the late stages, may have more than one disease and require a multi-label diagnosis. The multi-label data mining is much more difficult than a single-label one, and very few algorithms have been developed for this situation. Deep learning is a data mining algorithm with highly dense inner structure and has achieved many successful applications in the other areas. We propose a hypothesis that rectified-linear-unit-based deep learning algorithm may also be good at the clinical questions, by revising the last layer as a multi-label output. The proof-of-concept experimental data support the hypothesis, and the community may be interested in trying more applications.

  17. An Optimal Labeling Scheme for Ancestry Queries

    CERN Document Server

    Fraigniaud, Pierre


    An ancestry labeling scheme assigns labels (bit strings) to the nodes of rooted trees such that ancestry queries between any two nodes in a tree can be answered merely by looking at their corresponding labels. The quality of an ancestry labeling scheme is measured by its label size, that is the maximal number of bits in a label of a tree node. In addition to its theoretical appeal, the design of efficient ancestry labeling schemes is motivated by applications in web search engines. For this purpose, even small improvements in the label size are important. In fact, the literature about this topic is interested in the exact label size rather than just its order of magnitude. As a result, following the proposal of a simple interval-based ancestry scheme with label size $2\\log_2 n$ bits (Kannan et al., STOC '88), a considerable amount of work was devoted to improve the bound on the size of a label. The current state of the art upper bound is $\\log_2 n + O(\\sqrt{\\log n})$ bits (Abiteboul et al., SODA '02) which is...

  18. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.


    Nutrition labels on food packages are among the most prominent and far-reaching policy measures related to diet and have the capacity to promote healthy eating. Unfortunately, certain nutrition label characteristics may impede consumer detection and comprehension of labels. Research using precise...... cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  19. Fate of 15N and 14C from labelled plant material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Gjettermann, Birgitte; Eriksen, Jørgen;


    strength of labelled plant residues in dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and dissolved organic N (DON) in pore water from the plough layer, and (ii) the plant uptake of organically bound N. Litterbags containing 14C- and 15N-labelled ryegrass or clover roots or leaves were inserted into the sward of a ryegrass......–clover mixture in early spring. The fate of the released 14C and 15N was monitored in harvested biomass, roots, soil, and pore water percolating from the plough layer. No evidence of plant uptake of dual-labelled organic compounds from the dual-labelled residues could be observed. N in pore water from the plough...... water originating from plant residues only constituted 1.5% of the total dissolved N from the plough layer....

  20. Off-label prescriptions in Internal Medicine: difficulties involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gambetti


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Concern about off-label prescriptions, that is to say prescriptions of a drug for therapeutic indications and utilisations not approved in the medicine data sheet, is growing up more and more among hospital clinicians. AIM OF THE STUDY The aim of this work is to increase the consciousness that falling back upon off-label prescriptions has to be applied just in case of a validated therapeutic option missing, and provided that there are clinical evidences supporting the benefits reached by the patient through the assumption of that drug. Furthermore, it requires the patient involvement, in fact he has to be correctly informed and has to declare his acceptance to be treated with that kind of drug. The off-label prescription responsibility belongs to the prescribing clinician. The costs of these prescriptions can not be ascribed to the SSN (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, unless the subjects treated are in-patients in the hospital or in a day-hospital service. METHODS a Understanding where the therapeutic indications arise and how to use medicines, on the basis of what is reported in the Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC following the correspondent declaration for marketing authorization. b Showing some examples of off-label utilisation. c Evaluating the current legislation that regulates and supports the possibility or impossibility to prescribe off-label. CONCLUSIONS It is always better to use offlabel drugs that are authorized: by Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco (AIFA, through the dynamic list of medicines included in the 648/96, by the Local Therapeutic Commission or by the Ethical Committee. The act of prescribing off-label drugs for out-patients has to be shared even with the patient’s general practitioner, who is responsible for the same patient territorially, knows his medical history very well and the potential chronic therapy assumed. This is important for a proper evaluation of possible interactions and incompatibilities

  1. Asymmetric Synthesis of Carbon-11 Labelled alpha-Amino Acids for PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popkov, Alexander; Elsinga, Philip H.


    For PET applications in oncological and neurological diagnostics, amino acids have been studied both clinically and pre-clinically during the last 35 years. Nowadays two applications of labelled amino acids for visualisation of tumours attract the main attention: [C-11] or [F-18]amino acids as subst

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.


    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen;


    Direct plant uptake of organic nitrogen (N) is often studied using the dual-labeling approach (15N + 13C or 15N + 14C). However, the method might be hampered by uptake of labeled inorganic carbon (C) produced by mineralization of labeled organic compounds. Here we report the results from a triple...... glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...... labeling experiment (15N + 13C + 14C) investigating whether root uptake of labeled inorganic C can bias the results obtained in studies of organic N uptake using dual-labeled amino acids (15N, 13C). In a rhizosphere tube experiment we investigated 13C and 14C uptake by maize either supplied with labeled...

  4. A new method for the labelling of proteins with radioactive arsenic isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennewein, M. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Hermanne, A. [VUB Cyclotron, University of Brussels, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mason, R.P. [Department of Radiology, Advanced Radiological Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas (United States); Thorpe, P.E. [Department of Pharmacology and Simmons and Hamon Cancer Centers, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Roesch, F. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Fritz-Strassmann-Weg 2, 55128 Mainz (Germany)]. E-mail:


    Radioarsenic labelled radiopharmaceuticals could be a valuable asset to positron emission tomography. In particular, the long half-lives of {sup 72}As (T{sub 1/2}=26h) and {sup 74}As (T{sub 1/2}=17.8d) allow to investigate slow physiological or metabolical processes, like the enrichment and distribution of monoclonal antibodies (mab) in tumour tissue. In this work, a new method for the labelling of proteins with various radioactive arsenic isotopes was developed. For this purpose, two proteins, namely a chimeric IgG{sub 3} monoclonal antibody, ch3G4, directed against anionic phospholipids, and Rituxan (Rituximab), were labelled as a proof of principle with no-carrier-added radioarsenic isotopes ({sup 74}As and {sup 77}As). The developed labelling chemistry gives high yields (>99.9%), is reliable and could easily be transferred to automated labelling systems in a clinical environment. At least for the mab used in this work, this route of radioarsenic labelling does not affect the immunoreactivity of the product. The arsenic label stays stable for up to 72h at the molecular mass of the monoclonal antibody, which is in particular relevant to follow the pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of the labelled mab for several days.

  5. MRI of magnetically labeled mesenchymal stem cells in hepatic failure model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kyu; Ri; Son; Se; Young; Chung; Hyo-Cheol; Kim; Hoe; Suk; Kim; Seung; Hong; Choi; Jeong; Min; Lee; Woo; Kyung; Moon


    AIM:To track intravascularly transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an experimental rabbit model of hepatic failure.METHODS:Human MSCs labeled with FDA-approved SPIO particles (Feridex) were transplanted via the mes-enteric vein into rabbits (n=16) with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic failure.Magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed with a 3.0 T clinical scanner immediately before and 2 h and 1,...

  6. Preparation and Biological Evaluation of 188Re Labeled Monoclonal Antibody TGLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN; Kai; ZHANG; Jun-li; CHEN; Bao-jun; CUI; Hai-ping


    <正>Monoclonal antibody TGLA is a specific targeting CD20 chimeric antibody. It can kill tumor cells and inhibit tumor cells’ growth effectively, which has been applied to clinical therapy of lymphoma cell B. 188 Re is easy to get, and emits both β and γ rays. 188Re labeled monoclonal antibody TGLA can be used for the study of lymphoma therapy and imaging. This work got the product 188Re-TGLA by direct labeling

  7. sup 99m Tc-labelled anti NCA-95 antibodies in prosthetic heart valve endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, H.J.; Becker, W.; Wolf, F. (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)); Volkholz, H.J. (Dept. of Internal Medicine 1, Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany))


    A 54-y old women with earlier replacement of the mitral and aortic valves and clinical signs of localized endocarditis was studied with {sup 99m}Tc-labelled anti NCA-95 antibody. Whereas echocardiographic findings were negative, increased radionuclide uptake was observed left parasternal over the mitral valve as a sign of prosthetic valve endocarditis. This result could be confirmed by a similar study with leukocytes labelled in vitro with {sup 111}In-oxine. (orig.).

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain ...

  9. Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole



    A Reissert compound of bisbenzimidazole can be formed by first reacting benzimidazole with an aliphatic diacid chloride to form bisbenzimidazole and then reacting the bisbenzimidazole with an aliphatic acid chloride and cyanide to form the Reissert compound thereof.

  10. PET Radiopharmaceuticals for Imaging Integrin Expression: Tracers in Clinical Studies and Recent Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Haubner


    Full Text Available Noninvasive determination of integrin expression has become an interesting approach in nuclear medicine. Since the discovery of the first 18F-labeled cyclic RGD peptide as radiotracer for imaging integrin αvβ3 expression in vivo, there have been carried out enormous efforts to develop RGD peptides for PET imaging. Moreover, in recent years, additional integrins, including α5β1 and αvβ6, came into the focus of pharmaceutical radiochemistry. This review will discuss the tracers already evaluated in clinical trials and summarize the preliminary outcome. It will also give an overview on recent developments to further optimize the first-generation compounds such as [18F]Galacto-RGD. This includes recently developed 18F-labeling strategies and also new approaches in 68Ga-complex chemistry. Furthermore, the approaches to develop radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin α5β1 and αvβ6 will be summarized and discussed.

  11. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna


    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  12. 复方绞股蓝益智颗粒改善记忆作用临床观察%Clinical Observation of Compound Jaogulan Granules on Memory Improvement in Human

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜正彩; 邓家刚


    Objective: To investigate the effect of Compound Jaogulan Yizhi Granules (CJG) on memory improvement in people. Method; One hundred and six participants were randomly assigned to experiment (53 cases) and control (53 cases) groups, and their memory quotients (MQ) were evaluated with clinical memory scales. The test was conducted by following the method of Technical Standards for Testing and Assessment of Health Food in Improving Memory Function (2003). Result; The MQ scales of experiment and control groups were 69. 09 ?16. 90 and 69. 13 ?15. 72 respectively before testing; the MQ scales of experiment and control groups were 90. 13 ?16. 07 and 73. 33 ?14. 85 respectively after testing. Before the experiment, the MQ scales showed that there was no a significant difference among the experiment groups compared with the control groups. After the experiment, the MQ scales of the experiment groups was significantly higher than that in the control groups (P < 0. 05) ; the MQ scales of the experiment groups was significantly higher than before the test of itself ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion; CJG has the effects of memory improvement in our experiment.%目的:观察保健食品复方绞股蓝益智颗粒(CJG)辅助改善记忆的作用.方法:106例试食者随机分为试验组与对照组,各53例,采用临床记忆量表按测试要求测定受试者的记忆商(MQ).试验按照《保健食品检验与评价技术规范》(2003年版)中辅助改善记忆功能的人体试食试验规程进行.结果:试验前,试验组MQ =69.09±16.90,对照组MQ =69.13±15.72;试验后,试验组MQ =90.13±16.07,对照组MQ=73.33±14.85.试验前试验组MQ与对照组比较,差异无显著性;试验后试验组的MQ显著高于对照组(P<0.05);试验后试验组的MQ显著高于试验前(P<0.05).结论:提示复方绞股蓝益智颗粒具有改善人体记忆功能的作用.

  13. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon


    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  14. Preparation of {sup 35}SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} and of some other {sup 35}S labeled mineral compounds; Preparation de {sup 35}SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} et de quelques autres composes mineraux simples marques a {sup 35}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Gueronniere, E.; Henry, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Methods of preparation, from pile irradiated KCI, of the following labeled molecules are described: - carrier free H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} - SCd (100 m curies/milli mole) - solution of SNa{sub 2} (100 m curies/milli mole) - solution of SK{sub 2} (100 m curies/milli mole) - S metalloid (100 m curies/milli mole) - SO{sub 3}Na{sub 2} (90 m curies/milli mole) - S{sub 2}C{sub 3}Na{sub 2} (50 m curies/mammalia). (author) [French] On decrit les methodes de preparation, a partir de KCl irradie dans les piles, des molecules suivantes marquees au {sup 35}S: - SO{sub 4}H{sub 2} (sans entraineur) - SCd (100 mcuries/millimole) - solution de SNa{sub 2} (100 mcuries/millimole) - solution de SK{sub 2} (100 mcuries/millimole) - S metalloide (100 mcuries/millimole) - Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3} (90 mcuries/millimole) - Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}C{sub 3} (50 mcuries/milIimole). (auteur)

  15. Assessment of the quality of sample labelling for clinical research. (United States)

    Pérez-Huertas, Pablo; Tordera-Baviera, María; Martínez-Nieto, Concepción; Benito-Zazo, Natalia; García-Robles, Ana; Poveda-Andrés, José Luis


    Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad de las etiquetas de muestras para ensayos clínicos mediante la normativa vigente y analizar su posible correlación con las características específicas de cada muestra. Método: Estudio transversal multicéntrico en el que se analizaron las muestras de ensayos clínicos de dos hospitales de tercer nivel. Se estudió la presencia de los once ítems de la Directiva 2003/94/CE, el nombre del ensayo y la dosis en la portada de la etiqueta como variables de calidad del etiquetado. Se analizó la influencia de las características propias de la muestra con la calidad del etiquetado. Resultado: Se analizaron un total de 503 muestras de 220 ensayos. La calidad media del etiquetado, entendido como el porcentaje de ítems del Anexo 13, fue del 91,9%. El 6,6% no contenía el nombre de la muestra en la cara externa de la etiqueta, mientras que a un 9,7% les faltaba la dosis. Las muestras con presentación de tipo ensayo clínico presentaron mayor calidad (p ausencia de información esencial, como el código del ensayo clínico y el período de validez, en algunas muestras que pueden ser fuente potencial de errores de dispensación o de administración.

  16. Gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis of the volatile compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, D.; Ruth, van S.M.; Posthumus, M.A.; Istasse, L.


    The volatile flavour compounds of two commercial Irish beef meats (labelled as conventional and organic) were evaluated by gas chromatography-olfactometry and were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatile compounds were isolated in a model mouth system. Gas chromatography-olf

  17. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment (United States)

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli


    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  18. Peculiarities in aromatization mechanism of low-molecular aliphatic compounds over high-silica zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isagulyants, G.V.; Gitis, K.M.; Dubinskij, Yu.G.; Timokhov, A.G.; Kornyshev, V.N. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Organicheskoj Khimii)


    By means of /sup 14/C labelled compounds, transformations of methanol, lower olefins and piperylene over high-silica zeolites the data on the mechanism of carbon sceleton growth in the course of olefins production from methanol and aromatic piperylene hydrocarbons are obtained. Compound transformations have been studied at the pulse microcatalytic installation with radiochromatographic analysis of products.

  19. Dissipation kinetics of asparagine in soil measured by compound-specific analysis with metabolite tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Weronika; Rasmussen, Jim; Nicolaisen, Mogens;


    labeled glutamic acid were detected in soil. This highlights the fast turnover of amino acid in soil and that the estimation of concentration of the formed compounds is important when evaluating plant available organic N. Efficiency of the compound-specific analysis showed to be a powerful technique...

  20. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand


    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... study modal and thorough refinement, determinization, parallel composition, conjunction, quotient, and logical characterization of label-structured modal transition systems....

  1. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi (Osaka National Hospital (Japan). Dept. of Cardiovascular Medicine and Radiological Science); Kimura, Kazufumi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu (Osaka Univ. (Japan). 1. Dept. of Internal Medicine)


    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using {sup 111}In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10{sup 6} platelets/{mu}l. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 {mu}M ADP but not in 5 {mu}M ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.).

  2. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan


    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  3. Tetrazine-Containing Amino Acid for Peptide Modification and Live Cell Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Ni

    Full Text Available A novel amino acid derivative 3-(4-(1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine-3-yl phenyl-2-aminopropanoic acid was synthesized in this study. The compound possessed better water-solubility and was synthesized more easily compared with the well-known and commercially available 3-(p-benzylamino-1, 2, 4, 5-tetrazine. Tetrazine-containing amino acid showed excellent stability in biological media and might be used for cancer cell labeling. Moreover, the compound remained relatively stable in 50% TFA/DCM with little decomposition after prolonged exposure at room temperature. The compound could be utilized as phenylalanine or tyrosine analogue in peptide modification, and the tetrazine-containing peptide demonstrated more significant biological activity than that of the parent peptide. The combination of tetrazine group and amino acid offered broad development prospects of the bioorthogonal labeling and peptide synthesis.

  4. Optimal design of isotope labeling experiments. (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Mandy, Dominic E; Libourel, Igor G L


    Stable isotope labeling experiments (ILE) constitute a powerful methodology for estimating metabolic fluxes. An optimal label design for such an experiment is necessary to maximize the precision with which fluxes can be determined. But often, precision gained in the determination of one flux comes at the expense of the precision of other fluxes, and an appropriate label design therefore foremost depends on the question the investigator wants to address. One could liken ILE to shadows that metabolism casts on products. Optimal label design is the placement of the lamp; creating clear shadows for some parts of metabolism and obscuring others.An optimal isotope label design is influenced by: (1) the network structure; (2) the true flux values; (3) the available label measurements; and, (4) commercially available substrates. The first two aspects are dictated by nature and constrain any optimal design. The second two aspects are suitable design parameters. To create an optimal label design, an explicit optimization criterion needs to be formulated. This usually is a property of the flux covariance matrix, which can be augmented by weighting label substrate cost. An optimal design is found by using such a criterion as an objective function for an optimizer. This chapter uses a simple elementary metabolite units (EMU) representation of the TCA cycle to illustrate the process of experimental design of isotope labeled substrates.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    ) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload......The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM...

  6. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice. (United States)

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B


    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  7. Synthesis of tritium labelled 24-epibrassinolide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, A.; Marquardt, V.; Adam, G. (Inst. of Plant Biochemistry Halle, Halle/Saale (Germany))


    Deuterium and tritium 5,7,7-tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolide were prepared by base catalyzed exchange reaction using 24-epicastasterone tetraacetate 1 or bis-isopropylidenedioxy-24-epicastasterone 8 and labelled water. Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of the obtained labelled 6-ketones 2 and 3 with CF[sub 3]CO[sub 3]H gave after alkaline deacetylation of the resulting 4 and 5 the desired tris-labelled 24-epibrassinolides 6 and 7, respectively, or starting from 9 under simultaneous oxidation and deprotection in one step the same final products. (author).

  8. Context sensitive labeling of spinal structure in MR images (United States)

    Bhole, Chetan; Kompalli, Suryaprakash; Chaudhary, Vipin


    We present a new method for automatic detection of the lumbar vertebrae and disk structure from MR images. In clinical settings, radiologists utilize several images of the lumbar structure for diagnosis of lumbar disorders. These images are co-registered by technicians and represent orthogonal features of the lumbar region. We combine information from T1W sagittal, T2W sagittal and T2W axial MR images to automatically label disks and vertebral columns. The method couples geometric and tissue property information available from the three types of images with image analysis approaches to achieve 98.8% accuracy for the disk labeling task on a test set of 67 images containing 335 disks.

  9. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [131I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylation using bis(tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [131I]epidepride was stable under 4℃, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exihibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection.All these results suggest that[131I]epidepride may be usedd widely as a useful dopamineD2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT.

  10. Principles of food product labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Krysztofiak


    Full Text Available The purpose of the label of the food product is to provide information on ingredients and additionally on its origin, production method, storage conditions, date tagging, as well as to enable to identify the producer or distributor of this product. Legal regulations precisely give instructions on the range and the way of the presentation of these data, so they could be clear and understandable for the average consumer. Since 25th of November 2005, the information about allergens’ presence must be placed on the label, regardless of their content in the product (Directive 2003/89/WE... 2003 – Off. J. L 308: 15-18. The Regulation (WE No 1924/2006 about placing the nutritional information and medicinal claims concerning foods (Regulation (WE No 1924/2006... 2006 a is valid in all countries of European Union since 1st of July 2007 (Off. J. L 404: 9-25. It coordinates the legislative, executive and administrative regulations connected with this labelling. According to these regulations, “nutritional information” states, suggests or gives to understand that the food product has special properties concerning its ingredients. Those statements are of type: “the source of...”, “no... content”, “high content of...”, “low content of...”, “reduced content of...” with reference to calorie or selected ingredients’ content. “Medicinal claims” state, suggest or give to understand, that there is a connection between the food product or one of its ingredients and the health condition of the consumer. First type of these medicinal claims refers to the influence of the ingredient on the physiology. Such a statement is based on generally accepted scientific conclusions and could be properly understood by the average consumer, e.g. “calcium takes part in the process of building of strong bones”. “Statements about decreasing the risk of a disease” give information, that food product or one of its ingredients efficiently

  11. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.


    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  12. Stable-isotope-labeled carbohydrates and nucleosides: Synthesis and applications in chemistry and biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serianni, A.S. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)


    Carbohydrates play important roles in many key biochemical processes in living cells. For example, they are metabolized to produce energy, mediate cell-cell recognition, and play an indirect role (as constituents of DNA and RNA) in DNA replication, RNA transcription, and protein synthesis. These roles, and others of comparable biochemical significance, have been studied to varying extends with the use of stable isotopically labeled molecules, usually in conjunction with NMR spectroscopy and/or mass spectrometry. For example, carbohydrate metabolism has been monitored in vitro and in vivo with the use of isotopically labeled compounds. Molecular aspects of cell-cell recognition, mediated by cell-surface glycoproteins and glycolipids, have been probed through NMR studies of isotopically labeled oligosaccharides. More recently, the solution behavior of DNA and RNA has been examined through the use of labeled oligonucleotides. In all of these pursuits, the effort and expense to prepare labeled molecules, both of which can be substantial, are more than offset by the wealth of information derived from these studies. This information often cannot be accessed, or can be accessed only with great difficulty, using natural (unlabeled) compounds.

  13. Emotional reaction facilitates the brain and behavioral impact of graphic cigarette warning labels in smokers (United States)

    Wang, An-Li; Lowen, Steven B; Romer, Daniel; Giorno, Mario; Langleben, Daniel D


    Background Warning labels on cigarette packages are an important venue for information about the hazards of smoking. The 2009 US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act mandated replacing the current text-only labels with graphic warning labels. However, labels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were challenged in court by the tobacco companies, who argued successfully that the proposed labels needlessly encroached on their right to free speech, in part because they included images of high emotional salience that indiscriminately frightened rather than informed consumers. Methods We used functional MRI to examine the effects of graphic warning labels' emotional salience on smokers' brain activity and cognition. Twenty-four smokers viewed a random sequence of blocks of graphic warning labels that have been rated high or low on an ‘emotional reaction’ scale in previous research. Results We found that labels rated high on emotional reaction were better remembered, associated with reduction in the urge to smoke, and produced greater brain response in the amygdala, hippocampi, inferior frontal gyri and the insulae. Conclusions Recognition memory and craving are, respectively, correlates of effectiveness of addiction related public health communications and interventions, and amygdala activation facilitates the encoding of emotional memories. Thus, our results suggest that emotional reaction to graphic warning labels contributes to their public health impact and may be an integral part of the neural mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. Given the urgency of the debate about the constitutional risks and public health benefits of graphic warning labels, these preliminary findings warrant consideration while longitudinal clinical studies are underway PMID:25564288

  14. Evaluation of hepatic impairment dosing recommendations in FDA-approved product labels. (United States)

    Chang, Yang; Burckart, Gilbert J; Lesko, Lawrence J; Dowling, Thomas C


    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in patients with liver disease are an important clinical pharmacology component of drug development. In 2003, FDA released the guidance for industry on "Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Impaired Hepatic Function," which provides recommendations to sponsors on study design, data analysis, and impact on dosing and labeling. We evaluated the quality and consistency of hepatic dosing recommendations, and compared contemporary clinical practice of dosing in patients with impaired hepatic function with product labels. All new molecular entities (NME) and labels approved by the FDA during the period of January 2004 to December 2011 were reviewed. The fraction of the dose hepatically eliminated, quality of hepatic impairment PK studies reported, and any dose recommendations provided in the label and in a tertiary clinical reference (Micromedex) were reviewed. Out of 157 NMEs, 67 met the criteria for evaluation of dosing in hepatic disease. Problem areas were identified related to the lack of specific hepatic metabolism information in 90% of FDA-approved labels, inconsistent terminology, and "use with caution in liver disease" in 27% of NME. Updating the FDA guidance on PK studies in patients with impaired hepatic function could provide a standardized approach to improve the clinical usefulness of this dosing information for practitioners.

  15. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email:


    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were

  16. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  17. Synthesis of tritium labelled sparsomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broek, L.A.G.M. van den (Katholieke Univ. Nijmegen (Netherlands)); Willemsen, K.C.M.W.; Schlachter, I.H.G.; Ottenheijm, H.C.J.; Kaspersen, F.M. (Organon International B.V., Oss (Netherlands). Scientific Development Group)


    The synthesis is described of tritiated sparsomycin (5), a broad-spectrum antitumor antibiotic, with high specific activity (31.4 Ci/mmol, 1/16 TBq/mmol). The radiolabel was introduced by reduction of the cysteine methyl ester 1 with lithium borotritide, [sup 3]H NMR analysis of the final product showed the concomitant formation of the mono-and ditritiated compound in a ratio of 2:1. (Author).

  18. 76 FR 46671 - Food Labeling; Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods; Reopening of the Comment Period (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 101 RIN 0910-ZA26 Food Labeling; Gluten-Free... the comment period for the proposed rule on the ``gluten-free'' labeling of foods, published in the... ``gluten- free,'' for voluntary use in the labeling of foods, to mean that the food does not contain...

  19. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.


    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  20. Specificity of synthesis and analysis of molecules labelled with stable isotopes; Specificite des syntheses et analyses des molecules marquees avec les isotopes stables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, J.P. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire


    The various specificities of synthesis with stable isotopes are: unusual raw materials and use of precursors, possibility of producing several isotopomers corresponding to the same chemical compound, involvement of a reaction mechanism in labelling. As a matter of fact, isotopic synthesis are generally more complex than synthesis of non-labelled products. When preparing labelled molecules, it is of importance to avoid any isotopic dilution. Chemical purity for labelled molecules is controlled by various chromatographic techniques and isotopic analysis are carried out by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Novel 99mTc labeled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN; Caiyun


    [1]Quirion,R.,Bowen,W.D.,Itzhak, al.,A proposal for the classification of sigma binding sites,Trends Pharmacol.Sci.,1992,13:85-86.[2]Su,T.P.,Sigma receptors:Putative links between nervous,endocrine and immune systems,Eur.J.Biochem.,1991,200:633-642.[3]Guitart,X.,Codony,X.,Monroy,X.,Sigma receptors:Biology and therapeutic potential,Psychopharmacology,2004,174:301-319.[4]Vilner,B.J.,John,C.S.,Bowen,W.D.,Sigma-1 and sigma-2 receptors are expressed in a wide variety of human and rodent tumor cell lines,Cancer Res.,1995,55:408-413.[5]Mach,R.H.,Smith,C.R.,al-Nabulsi, al.,σ2 receptors as potential biomarkers of proliferation in breast cancer,Cancer Res.,1997,57:156-161.[6]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Zhang, al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of σ receptors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:671-676.[7]Dence,C.S.,John,C.S.,Bowen, al.,Synthesis and evaluation of [18F] labeled benzamides:High affinity sigma receptor ligands for PET imaging,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1997,24:333-340.[8]Shiue,C.Y.,Shiue,G.G.,Benard, al.,N-(N-benzylpi-peridin-4-yl)-2-[18F]fluorobenzamide:A potential ligand for PET imaging of breast cancer,Nucl.Med.Biol.,2000,27:763-767.[9]Rowland,D.J.,Tu,Z.,Mach, al.,Investigation of a new sigma-2 receptor ligand for detection of breast cancer,J.Labelled Cpd.Radiopharm.,2003,46:S6.[10]Everaert,H.,Flamen,P.,Franken, al.,Sigma receptor imaging by means of 123-IDAB scintigraphy;clinical application in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer,Anticancer Res.,1997,17:1577-1582.[11]John,C.S.,Gulden,M.E.,Li, al.,Synthesis,in vitro binding,and tissue distribution of radioiodinated 2-[125I]N-(N-benzylpip-eridin-4-yl)-2-iodobenzamide,2-[125I]BP:A potential σ receptor marker for human prostate tumors,Nucl.Med.Biol.,1998,25:189-194.[12]Staelens,L.,Oltenfreiter,R.,Dumont, al.,In vivo evaluation of [123I]-4-iodo-N-(4-(4-(2-me-thoxyphenyl)-piperazin-1-yl)butyl)-benzamide:A potential sigma receptor ligand

  2. Synthesis of carbon-13 and carbon-14 labelled triazolo-1,4-benzodiazepines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.R.; Hawi, A.A.; Digenis, G.A. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA). College of Pharmacy)


    An efficient two-step synthesis of 8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (alprazolam) and 8-chloro-6-(2-chlorophenyl)-1-methyl-(3H)-S-triazolo-(4,3-a)(1,4)-benzodiazepine (triazolam) labelled with carbon-13 or carbon-14 from their corresponding hydrazines is reported. The method involved acylation of the appropriate hydrazine using the mixed carbonic anhydride of sodium ({sup 13}C) or ({sup 14}C) acetate and isobutylchloroformate under mild conditions. Thermolysis of the resulting acetylhydrazides gave the target carbon-14 and carbon-13 labelled compounds in good yields. (author).

  3. 40 CFR 1042.830 - Labeling. (United States)


    ... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.830 Labeling. (a) At the time of remanufacture, affix a permanent and...) Written in English. (b) The label must— (1) Include the heading “EMISSION CONTROL INFORMATION”....

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  5. 9 CFR 112.3 - Diluent labels. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diluent labels. 112.3 Section 112.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PACKAGING AND LABELING § 112.3...

  6. Influence of Food Labels on Adolescent Diet. (United States)

    Misra, Ranjita


    Provides information on food nutrition labels and discusses the benefits of adolescents' using them to plan healthy diets. Suggests that teachers and educators should encourage appropriate label reading education for adolescents to promote healthy eating practices. Provides definitions of nutrient content claims. (SG)

  7. 7 CFR 65.400 - Labeling. (United States)


    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... country of origin of a product may be in the form of a statement such as “Product of USA,” “Produce of the..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Country of Origin Notification § 65.400 Labeling. (a) Country......

  8. 78 FR 18272 - Energy Labeling Rule (United States)


    ... CFR Part 305 Energy Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission''). ACTION... in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section below. Write ``Energy Label Ranges, Matter No. R611004'' on... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) until April 1, 2013. In the NPRM, the Commission proposed to amend the...

  9. 9 CFR 116.3 - Label records. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label records. 116.3 Section 116.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES... labeling a product. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013)...

  10. 78 FR 2200 - Energy Labeling Rule (United States)


    ... ensure consumers can view the labels when they are shopping online. In particular, it will provide retail... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16..., clarifying testing requirements and enforcement provisions, improving online energy label disclosures,...

  11. China Cotton label to be generalized

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    "China Cotton"authorization press conference was held in Beijing on October 11. China Cotton Association granted authorization to the first four enterprises, allowing them to use the label of China Cotton on their qualified products. Shandong Lanyan Group, Beijing Miantian Textile Co., Ltd are among the fi rst companies authorized to use China Cotton label.

  12. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández


    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  13. 9 CFR 101.4 - Labeling terminology. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling terminology. 101.4 Section 101.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Labeling terminology. Terms pertaining to identification and packaging of biological products shall...

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling. (United States)


    ... this section). (e) The term very low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended.... (f) The term low sodium may be used in the labeling of OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion... the term sodium. (h) The terms sodium free, very low sodium, and low sodium shall be in print size...

  15. On the Complexity of Labeled Oriented Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stephan Rosebrock


    We define a notion of complexity for labeled oriented trees (LOTs) related to the bridge number in knot theory and prove that LOTs of complexity 2 are aspherical. We also present a class of LOTs of higher complexity which is aspherical, give an upper bound for the complexity of labeled oriented intervals and study the complexity of torus knots.

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1- to 2-Year-Old How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > For Parents > How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print A A A en español Cómo leer las etiquetas ...

  17. Synthesis of deuterium labeled plant ethylene precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, K.C. [Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemistry; Rapoport, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry


    Synthetic methods for the preparation of {beta}-deuterium labeled 2-keto-4-methylbutyric acid were investigated. Vinyl chloride was first reacted with the ethyl oxalyl chloride moiety using aluminum chloride as condensing agent and the addition of methyl mercaptan followed. Deuterium labeling was achieved by using NaBD{sub 4} reduction in pyridine. (author).

  18. The anatomy of a laser label (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  19. Alternatives to radioimmunoassay: labels and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schall, R.F. Jr.; Tenoso, H.J.


    The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.

  20. Applications of arterial spin labeled MRI in the brain. (United States)

    Detre, John A; Rao, Hengyi; Wang, Danny J J; Chen, Yu Fen; Wang, Ze


    Perfusion provides oxygen and nutrients to tissues and is closely tied to tissue function while disorders of perfusion are major sources of medical morbidity and mortality. It has been almost two decades since the use of arterial spin labeling (ASL) for noninvasive perfusion imaging was first reported. While initial ASL magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies focused primarily on technological development and validation, a number of robust ASL implementations have emerged, and ASL MRI is now also available commercially on several platforms. As a result, basic science and clinical applications of ASL MRI have begun to proliferate. Although ASL MRI can be carried out in any organ, most studies to date have focused on the brain. This review covers selected research and clinical applications of ASL MRI in the brain to illustrate its potential in both neuroscience research and clinical care.

  1. Cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex as a fluorescent label of surface membranes in living ciliates. (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Bottiroli, G; Giordano, P


    Labelling of surface membrane of living ciliates: Paramecium aurelia and Tetrahymena pyriformis with fluorescent compound--cycloheptaamylose-dansyl chloride complex (CDC) has been achieved. Fluorescence micrographs of the dried samples showed specific localization of CDC on the cell membrane without any intracellular penetration. On the contrary the ciliates which have been dead during labelling revealed a non-specific fluorescence of their whole bodies. Microspectrofluorimetric analysis of labelled Paramecium cells was performed with Leitz microspectrograph. Spectrum of fluorescence emission measured over the cell membrane level had maximum at 450 nm. Strikingly, the emission maximum of the cells dead at the moment of labelling was shifted 10 nm to a longer wavelength. The rate of photofading measured in this case was almost 3-fold higher than for the ciliates labelled as living ones. Fluorescence excitation spectra did not show any difference in the peak position. Thus CDC staining appears to be an useful method of supravital labelling of cell surface enabling also to distinguish--on the basis of spectral characteristics--the ciliates being alive from those dead at the moment of fluorochrome binding.

  2. Advances in various biomaterials for hemostasis and clinical application of compound materials for hemostasis%不同生物止血材料研究进展及复合型止血材料的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学军; 孙园园


    背景:随着生物医用高分子材料如纤维素、甲壳素等天然高分子材料以及聚乙烯醇、胶原等合成高分子材料的研发,止血材料的运用和发展获得了飞跃.目的:文章综述了近年来不同种类高分子止血敷料的研究进展,评价了不同种类复合止血敷料的临床应用价值.方法:应用计算机检索万方和PubMed数据库中1996-01/2010-12关于医用高分子止血敷料研究应用的文章,在标题和摘要中以"止血材料;纤维蛋白;高分子材料;胶原蛋白;明胶海绵"或"biological;occlude the flow of blood;gelatin sponge; fibrae sanguis"为检索词进行检索.选择医用高分子止血敷料领域发表在近期文献或权威杂志上的文章.初检得到126篇文献,根据纳入标准选择28篇文章进行综述.结果与结论:近年来国内外主要应用的可吸收止血材料包括壳聚糖、纤维蛋白胶、吸收性明胶海绵、微纤维胶原等以及常用的按材质和用途分类的藻酸盐类和水胶体类,不同的止血材料其止血机制和止血效果均不相同.文章通过对多种复合止血材料的效果进行比较观察,说明了各种止血材料止血途径和止血机制还有待进一步的研究,以便于开发出更卓越、更有效的止血材料.%BACKGROUND: With development of biomedical polymers, such as cellulose, chitin, polyvinyl alcohol and collagen, the application of materials for hemostasis has advanced.OBJECTIVE: To summarize advances in dressing materials for hemostasis and evaluate their clinical values.METHODS: A computer-based online search of Wanfang and PubMed database was performed for articles regarding medical polymer dressing materials for hemostasis published between January 1996 and December 2010 with key words “materials for hemostasis, fibrin, polymers, collagen, gelatin sponge” in Chinese or “biological; occlude the flow of blood; gelatin sponge; fibrae sanguis”. Articles published recently in

  3. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds. (United States)

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S


    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.

  4. Labeling human embryonic stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes for tracking with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda, Rosalinda T.; Daldrup-Link, Heike [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford School of Medicine, Pediatric Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Boddington, Sophie; Wendland, Mike; Mandrussow, Lydia [University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Henning, Tobias D. [University Hospital of Cologne, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Cologne (Germany); Liu, Siyuan [National Institutes of Health, Language Section, Voice, Speech and Language Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) can generate cardiomyocytes (CM), which offer promising treatments for cardiomyopathies in children. However, challenges for clinical translation result from loss of transplanted cell from target sites and high cell death. An imaging technique that noninvasively and repetitively monitors transplanted hESC-CM could guide improvements in transplantation techniques and advance therapies. To develop a clinically applicable labeling technique for hESC-CM with FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) by examining labeling before and after CM differentiation. Triplicates of hESC were labeled by simple incubation with 50 {mu}g/ml of ferumoxides before or after differentiation into CM, then imaged on a 7T MR scanner using a T2-weighted multi-echo spin-echo sequence. Viability, iron uptake and T2-relaxation times were compared between groups using t-tests. hESC-CM labeled before differentiation demonstrated significant MR effects, iron uptake and preserved function. hESC-CM labeled after differentiation showed no significant iron uptake or change in MR signal (P < 0.05). Morphology, differentiation and viability were consistent between experimental groups. hESC-CM should be labeled prior to CM differentiation to achieve a significant MR signal. This technique permits monitoring delivery and engraftment of hESC-CM for potential advancements of stem cell-based therapies in the reconstitution of damaged myocardium. (orig.)

  5. The design characteristics of a new femoral compound interlocking intramedullary nail and its clinical outcome%股骨复合型带锁髓内钉的设计及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永清; 夏仁云; 吴家民; 徐占敏; 郝玉彬; 冯雪峰


    Objective The design characteristics and clinical outcome of a femoral compound interlocking intramedullary nail(FCIIN)were investigated.Methods According to morphological characteristics of the femoral medullary canal,a radius of radian of intramedullary nail and a oblique interlocking angle were designed to 1250 mm and 135°.Interlocking holes with three 6.5 mm diameter were located in proximal end of FCIIN.Two locking holes and a recess,which was 4.5 mm in diameter,were located at the distal end of FCIIN.At the tip of the proximl interlocking screws whose root diameter rose from 3.5 mm to 6.5 mm gradually,the self-tapping cancellous screw thread was designed.There were two types of distal interlocking screws.One was fine thread screw and the other was bolt screw.Under the biomechanical destructive test,the proximal interlocking screw device had satisfactory strength and reasonable structure.A total of 47 patients with fractures of femur were assessed in this study.There are 31 males and 16 females,with average age of 39.83 years (range 18-74 years).Among them 14 patients were diagnosed as intertrochanteric fracture,7 cases as subtrochanteric fracture,18 cases as femoral shaft fractures,and 8 cases as snpraeondylar fracture.All patients were treated by FCIIN.Results All patients have been followed up for 21-36 months with an average of 25.9 months.The fracture healing time was 6-18 months with an average of 8.4 months.of all 47 patients,anatomic reduction were achieved in 34 cases,good reduction in 11 cases,and force line reduction in 2 cases.The excellent or good rate was in 95.74%.The removal time of FCIIN was 12 to 21 months (average,16.9 months).One patient with intertrochanteric fracture who had a fixation failur combined with non-union had achieved healing by external fixator in 18 months.Failure to insert distal interlocking screws during procedure oecurred in 5 patients which did not influence the fracture healing.Conclusion The FCIIN is a useful device

  6. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and...

  7. A Note on Prime and Sequential Labelings of Finite Graphs


    Mathew Varkey T.K; Sunoj. B.S


    A labeling or valuation of a graph G is an assignment f of labels to the vertices of G that induces for each edge xy a label depending on the vertex labels f(x) and f(y). In this paper, we study some classes of graphs and their corresponding labelings.

  8. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))


    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  9. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment. (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L


    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  10. Update on medical and regulatory issues pertaining to compounded and FDA-approved drugs, including hormone therapy


    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Pickar, James H.


    Abstract Objective: We review the historical regulation of drug compounding, concerns about widespread use of non-Food and Drug Admiistration (FDA)-approved compounded bioidentical hormone therapies (CBHTs), which do not have proper labeling and warnings, and anticipated impact of the 2013 Drug Quality and Security Act (DQSA) on compounding. Methods: US government websites were searched for documents concerning drug compounding regulation and oversight from 1938 (passage of Federal Food, Drug...

  11. Synthesis of ¹⁸O-labeled photosynthetically active chlorophylls at the 3- or 7-carbonyl group with high regioselectivity. (United States)

    Morishita, Hidetada; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi


    The 3- and 7-formyl groups of chlorophyll-d (Chl-d) and bacteriochlorophyll-e (BChl-e), respectively, were regioselectively labeled with an isotopically stable oxygen-18 (¹⁸O) atom to give 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled Chl-d and 7¹-¹⁸O-labeled BChl-e (ca. 90% ¹⁸O) by exchanging the carbonyl oxygen atoms in the presence of acidic H₂ ¹⁸O (ca. 95% ¹⁸O). Another photosynthetically active chlorophyll, BChl-a possessing the 3-acetyl group was treated under similar acidic conditions to afford a trace amount of 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled BChl-a and further demetallated compound, the corresponding 3¹-¹⁸O-labeled bacteriopheophytin-a as the major product with 55% ¹⁸O-degree. The FT-IR spectra of ¹⁸O-(un)labeled chlorophylls in the solution and the solid states showed that the 3- and 7-carbonyl stretching vibration modes moved to about a 30-cm⁻¹ lower wavenumber by ¹⁸O-labeling at the 3¹- and 7¹-oxo moieties. In artificial chlorosome-like self-aggregates of BChl-e, the ¹⁸O-labeled 7-carbonyl stretching mode was completely resolved from the specially hydrogen-bonded 13-C=O stretching mode, evidently indicating no interaction of the 7-CHO with other functional groups in the supramolecules.

  12. 复方环丙酮胺治疗浅部真菌病的疗效观察%Clinical observation of compound ciclopirox olamin spray in the treatment of superficial mycosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆琪; 赵广; 刘雯; 那爱华; 成玉


    Objective To investigate the efficacy of compound ciclopirox olamin spray in the treatment of superficial mycosis. Method Compound ciclopirox olamin spray was applied in stage Ⅰ once daily for 4 weeks. In stage Ⅱ , double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted. Compound ciclopiroxolamin spray and compound ciclopirox olamin with triamcinolone acetonide spray were applied in the group A and B respectively for 4 weeks (once daily). Results The total effective rate in group I was 80% by the end of the treatment. The total effective rates in group ⅡA and group ⅡB were 75% versus 82. 35% , 94.74% versus 100% at week 2 and week 4, respectively. The efficacy of compound ciclopirox olamin spray in the treatment of superficial mycosis was similar to that of compound ciclopirox olamin with triamcinolone acetonide spray ( P >0.05). Conclusions Compound ciclopirox olamin spray is effective and safe in the treatment of superficial mycosis, with obvious pruritus relieving and fewer local irritation.%观察复方环丙酮胺喷剂治疗浅部真菌病的疗效.第Ⅰ批给予复方环丙酮胺喷剂,1次/d喷于患处,用药4周后观察疗效;第Ⅱ批随机入A、B组,A组给予复方环丙酮胺喷剂+曲安奈德喷剂,B组给予复方环丙酮胺喷剂,均1次/d喷于患处,用药2周、4周后观察疗效.第Ⅰ批治疗4周总有效率为80%;第Ⅱ批A、B组治疗2周总有效率分别为75%及82.35%,治疗4周总有效率分别为94.74%及100%.复方环丙酮胺喷剂和复方环丙酮胺喷剂+曲安奈德喷剂治疗浅部真菌病的疗效相似(P>0.05),且疗效显著、局部刺激小、瘙痒缓解明显、安全性较高.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  14. Technetium-99m-labeled nanofibrillar cellulose hydrogel for in vivo drug release. (United States)

    Laurén, Patrick; Lou, Yan-Ru; Raki, Mari; Urtti, Arto; Bergström, Kim; Yliperttula, Marjo


    Nanoscale celluloses have recently gained an increasing interest in modern medicine. In this study, we investigated the properties of plant derived nanofibrillar cellulose (NFC) as an injectable drug releasing hydrogel in vivo. We demonstrated a reliable and efficient method of technetium-99m-NFC labeling, which enables us to trace the in vivo localization of the hydrogel. The release and distribution of study compounds from the NFC hydrogel after subcutaneous injection in the pelvic region of BALB/c mice were examined with a multimodality imaging device SPECT/CT. The drug release profiles were simulated by 1-compartmental models of Phoenix® WinNonlin®. The NFC hydrogel remained intact at the injection site during the study. The study compounds are more concentrated at the injection site when administered with the NFC hydrogel compared with saline solutions. In addition, the NFC hydrogel reduced the elimination rate of a large compound, technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin by 2 folds, but did not alter the release rate of a small compound (123)I-β-CIT (a cocaine analogue). In conclusion, the NFC hydrogels is easily prepared and readily injected, and it has potential use as a matrix for controlled release or local delivery of large compounds. The interactions between NFC and specific therapeutic compounds are possible and should be investigated further.

  15. Polyelectrolyte coating of ferumoxytol nanoparticles for labeling of dendritic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celikkin, Nehar; Jakubcová, Lucie; Zenke, Martin [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hoss, Mareike [Institute of Pathology, Electron Microscopy Facility, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Wong, John Erik, E-mail: [Chemical Process Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Turmstrasse 46, 52056 Aachen (Germany); DWI – Leibniz Institute for Interactive Materials Research, Forckenbeckstrasse 50, Aachen (Germany); Hieronymus, Thomas, E-mail: [Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Cell Biology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Helmholtz Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Pauwelsstrasse 20, 52074 Aachen (Germany)


    Engineered magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are emerging to be used as cell tracers, drug delivery vehicles, and contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for enhanced theragnostic applications in biomedicine. In vitro labeling of target cell populations with MNPs and their implantation into animal models and patients shows promising outcomes in monitoring successful cell engraftment, differentiation and migration by using MRI. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that initiate adaptive immune responses. Thus, DCs have been the focus of cellular immunotherapy and are increasingly applied in clinical trials. Here, we addressed the coating of different polyelectrolytes (PE) around ferumoxytol particles using the layer-by-layer technique. The impact of PE-coated ferumoxytol particles for labeling of DCs and Flt3{sup +} DC progenitors was then investigated. The results from our studies revealed that PE-coated ferumoxytol particles can be readily employed for labeling of DC and DC progenitors and thus are potentially suitable as contrast agents for MRI tracking.

  16. Feasibility and availability of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decristoforo, Clemens [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France); Pickett, Roger D. [GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont (United Kingdom); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France); Verbruggen, Alfons [University of Leuven, Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Leuven (Belgium); European Directorate of Quality of Medicines, Group 14, Radioactive Compounds, The European Pharmacopeia, Strasbourg (France)


    {sup 68}Ga has attracted tremendous interest as a radionuclide for PET based on its suitable half-life of 68 min, high positron emission yield and ready availability from {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators, making it independent of cyclotron production. {sup 68}Ga-labelled DOTA-conjugated somatostatin analogues, including DOTA-TOC, DOTA-TATE and DOTA-NOC, have driven the development of technologies to provide such radiopharmaceuticals for clinical applications mainly in the diagnosis of somatostatin receptor-expressing tumours. We summarize the issues determining the feasibility and availability of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides, including generator technology, {sup 68}Ga generator eluate postprocessing methods, radiolabelling, automation and peptide developments, and also quality assurance and regulatory aspects. {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga generators based on SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} or organic matrices are today routinely supplied to nuclear medicine departments, and a variety of automated systems for postprocessing and radiolabelling have been developed. New developments include improved chelators for {sup 68}Ga that could open new ways to utilize this technology. Challenges and limitations in the on-site preparation and use of {sup 68}Ga-labelled peptides outside the marketing authorization track are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. A microfluidics-based technique for automated and rapid labeling of cells for flow cytometry (United States)

    Patibandla, Phani K.; Estrada, Rosendo; Kannan, Manasaa; Sethu, Palaniappan


    Flow cytometry is a powerful technique capable of simultaneous multi-parametric analysis of heterogeneous cell populations for research and clinical applications. In recent years, the flow cytometer has been miniaturized and made portable for application in clinical- and resource-limited settings. The sample preparation procedure, i.e. labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to fluorescent labels, is a time consuming (˜45 min) and labor-intensive procedure. Microfluidics provides enabling technologies to accomplish rapid and automated sample preparation. Using an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a labeling and washing module, we demonstrate a new protocol that can eliminate sample handling and accomplish sample and reagent metering, high-efficiency mixing, labeling and washing in rapid automated fashion. The labeling module consists of a long microfluidic channel with an integrated chaotic mixer. Samples and reagents are precisely metered into this device to accomplish rapid and high-efficiency mixing. The mixed sample and reagents are collected in a holding syringe and held for up to 8 min following which the mixture is introduced into an inertial washing module to obtain ‘analysis-ready’ samples. The washing module consists of a high aspect ratio channel capable of focusing cells to equilibrium positions close to the channel walls. By introducing the cells and labeling reagents in a narrow stream at the center of the channel flanked on both sides by a wash buffer, the elution of cells into the wash buffer away from the free unbound antibodies is accomplished. After initial calibration experiments to determine appropriate ‘holding time’ to allow antibody binding, both modules were used in conjunction to label MOLT-3 cells (T lymphoblast cell line) with three different antibodies simultaneously. Results confirm no significant difference in mean fluorescence intensity values for all three antibodies labels (p < 0.01) between the

  18. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.


    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov


    Full Text Available Polyacetylenes (polyynes are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically active compounds, and present in fungi, microorganisms, marine invertebrates and other organisms except for plants. Acetylenes form distinct specialized group of chemically active natural compounds, which are biosynthesized in plants of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to widespread aliphatic polyacetylenes thiophenes dithiacyclohexadienes (thiarubrines, thioethers, sulphoxides, sulphones, alkamides, chlorohydrins, lactones, spiroacetal enol ethers, furans, pyrans, tetrahydropyrans, isocoumarins, aromatic acetylenes were also found in plant species. Polyacetylenes are localized in different plant organs, and can be found both individually and as a compound with carbohydrates, terpene, phenolic and other compounds. Many polyacetylenes are found in the composition of the essential oils of plants and it confirms their strongly marked ecological functions. From biological point of view these compounds are often synthesized by plants as toxic or bitter antifeedants, allelopathic compounds, phytoalexins or broadly antibiotic components. Polyynes are strong photosensitizers. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, antituberculosis, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective and neurotoxic activity. Immunostimulatory influence associated with certain allergenicity of some of these substances was established. Therefore, without a doubt polyacetylenes are of interest for the modern pharmacy and medicine.

  20. An improved technique for isolating codominant compound microsatellite markers. (United States)

    Lian, Chunlan L; Abdul Wadud, Md; Geng, Qifang; Shimatani, Kenichiro; Hogetsu, Taizo


    An approach for developing codominant polymorphic markers (compound microsatellite (SSR) markers), with substantial time and cost savings, is introduced in this paper. In this technique, fragments flanked by a compound SSR sequence at one end were amplified from the constructed DNA library using compound SSR primer (AC)6(AG)5 or (TC)6(AC)5 and an adaptor primer for the suppression-PCR. A locus-specific primer was designed from the sequence flanking the compound SSR. The primer pairs of the locus-specific and compound SSR primers were used as a compound SSR marker. Because only one locus-specific primer was needed for design of each marker and only a common compound SSR primer was needed as the fluorescence-labeled primer for analyzing all the compound SSR markers, this approach substantially reduced the cost of developing codominant markers and analyzing their polymorphism. We have demonstrated this technique for Dendropanax trifidus and easily developed 11 codominant markers with high polymorphism for D. trifidus. Use of the technique for successful isolation of codominant compound SSR markers for several other plant species is currently in progress.

  1. Records and record-keeping for the hospital compounding pharmacist. (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F


    The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., is recognized by federal law and by most state boards of pharmacy as the official group for setting the standards for pharmaceuticals and pharmacy practice, including compounding. The standards of United States Pharmacopeia Chapter 795 require that a pharmacy maintain records on a compounded preparation, including the formulation record, and a Material Safety Data Sheets file. The American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacists' guidelines require that hospital pharmacy departments maintain at least four sets of records in the compounding area: (1) compounding formulas and procedures, (2) compounding logs of all compounded preparations, including batch records and sample batch labels, (3) equipment maintenance records, and (4) a record of ingredients purchased, including cerificates of analysis and Material Saftey Data Sheets. Hospital compounding records may be inspected by any of several outside organizations, including state boards of pharmacy, third-party payers, the Joint Commission on Accreditaion of Healthcare Organizations, the Drug Enforcement Agency, and attorneys. With the existing standards and guidelines in place and the importance of documentation unquestionable, a record of pharmacy activites should be maintained in a compounding pharmacy so that preparations can be replicated consistently, the history of each ingredient traced, equipment maintenance and calibration verified, and compounding procedures evaluated easily.

  2. 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金赫; 徐海峰; 邵秋菊; 袁梦晖; 周润锁; 周亮飞


    Objective: To explore the method of 99Tcm direct labeling of angiostatin (AS) and investigate the stability and bioactivity of the 99Tcm-labeled AS in vitro. Methods: AS was extracted, validated, and then labeled with 99Tcm after having been reduced by 2-ME or SnCl2. The best labeling condition was screened by cross design. The labeling efficiency was measured by TLC and column chromatography. The stability of 99Tcm-AS was observed and compared when BSA, saline and different molar ratios of Cys∶AS were separately added. The bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS was observed in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (CEV304). Results: The labeling efficiency can reach (97±1.5)% for the 2-ME-reducing approach. Its best experimental condition was as follows: AS 100 μg,PB(0.5 mol/L, pH 7.3)1 ml, 2-ME 100 μg, MDP (dissolved in 1 ml saline) 10 μl, and 99TcmO4- 185 MBq. The labeling efficiency using SnCl2-reducing method can reach (90±3.0)%. The best experimental procedure was as follows: AS 100 μg,boric acid buffer(0.1 mol/L, pH 9.0)1 ml, 2%SnCl2 (dissolved in 1 mol/L hydrochloric acid) 20 μl, was added into MDP, which was diluted with 1 ml deoxygenized water, and then 20 μl, 99TcmO4- 185 MBq was added. The product of 99Tcm labeled AS was stable in vitro and had the same bioactivity as AS. Conclusion: 99Tcm direct labeling of AS is simple and efficient. And the bioactivity of 99Tcm-AS has no significant change compared with AS.

  3. 27 CFR 16.21 - Mandatory label information. (United States)


    ... the brand label or separate front label, or on a back or side label, separate and apart from all other... of alcoholic beverages impairs your ability to drive a car or operate machinery, and may cause...

  4. 21 CFR 1230.13 - Labeling of “poison”. (United States)


    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Labeling § 1230.13 Labeling of “poison”. The following are styles of...-point size are required on a label in stating the word “poison” they must not be smaller than...

  5. 7 CFR 205.306 - Labeling of livestock feed. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and Market Information § 205.306 Labeling of...

  6. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.


    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.


    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.


    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  9. Sublinear distance labeling for sparse graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Dahlgaard, Søren; Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs;


    between pairs of nodes that are at distance at least $D$ from each other. In this paper we consider distance labeling schemes for the classical case of unweighted and undirected graphs. We present the first distance labeling scheme of size $o(n)$ for sparse graphs (and hence bounded degree graphs......). This addresses an open problem by Gavoille et. al. [J. Algo. 2004], hereby separating the complexity from general graphs which require $\\Omega(n)$ size Moon [Proc. of Glasgow Math. Association 1965]. As an intermediate result we give a $O(\\frac{n}{D}\\log^2 D)$ $D$-preserving distance labeling scheme, improving...

  10. A general method for tritium labelling of benzimidazole carbamates by catalytic exchange in dioxane solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacey, E. (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Glebe, NSW (Australia). Div. of Animal Health, McMaster Lab.); Dawson, M. (Sydney Univ. (Australia). Dept. of Pharmacy); Long, M.A.; Than, C. (New South Wales Univ., Kensington (Australia). School of Chemistry)


    Benzimidazole carbamates (BZCs) act as inhibitors of the tubulin-microtubule equilibria in eukaryotic organisms. Recently drug resistance to this class of compounds in helminth parasites has been shown to be due to a reduced ability of resistant tubulin to bind BZCs. In order to quantitate the nature of the tubulin-BZC interaction a general method for the specific tritium labelling of BZCs has been developed. The BZCs: mebendazole, oxfendazole, parbendazole, oxibendazole, albendazole and fenbendazole were labelled by catalytic exchange using palladium on calcium carbonate in pure dioxane at 60{sup 0}C under tritium gas. The position of label incorporation for tritiated albendazole was determined by tritium-NMR as the 4-position of benzimadazole nucleus. The yields for individual BZCs varied from 8 to 68% for a range of specific activity of 0.44 to 13.4 Ci/mmole. (author).

  11. Polarographic immunoassay coupled with catalysis of non-radioactive multiple iodine label

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋俊峰; 白亚丽; 过玮; 贾晓琳


    A now polarographic immunoassay was developed In this assay,human serum albumin (HSA) as the model antigen was covalently labeled with organic compound erythrosin B(EB) containing four non-radioactive iodides through Ⅰ step chemical reaction The labeling procedure is simple and the conditions needed are moderate.The molar labeling ratio of KB HSA was 12 Ⅰ The content of iodine in the conjugate obtained by the proposed procedure is ninth higher than that by the other existing methods.A heterogeneous competitive immunoassay was established by compling the catalysis of the conjugate to substrate As(Ⅲ)-Ce(Ⅳ) reaction with the linear-sweep polarographic detec-tion of As(Ⅲ) amount HSA can be determined in the HSA concentration range from 1 to 200μg/mL,with the de-tection hum of 0 66μg/ml.

  12. Independent valine and leucine isotope labeling in Escherichia coli protein overexpression systems. (United States)

    Lichtenecker, Roman J; Weinhäupl, Katharina; Reuther, Lukas; Schörghuber, Julia; Schmid, Walther; Konrat, Robert


    The addition of labeled α-ketoisovalerate to the growth medium of a protein-expressing host organism has evolved into a versatile tool to achieve concomitant incorporation of specific isotopes into valine- and leucine- residues. The resulting target proteins represent excellent probes for protein NMR analysis. However, as the sidechain resonances of these residues emerge in a narrow spectral range, signal overlap represents a severe limitation in the case of high-molecular-weight NMR probes. We present a protocol to eliminate leucine labeling by supplying the medium with unlabeled α-ketoisocaproate. The resulting spectra of a model protein exclusively feature valine signals of increased intensity, confirming the method to be a first example of independent valine and leucine labeling employing α-ketoacid precursor compounds.

  13. Independent valine and leucine isotope labeling in Escherichia coli protein overexpression systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenecker, Roman J., E-mail: [University of Vienna, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Austria); Weinhäupl, Katharina; Reuther, Lukas [University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories (Austria); Schörghuber, Julia; Schmid, Walther [University of Vienna, Institute of Organic Chemistry (Austria); Konrat, Robert [University of Vienna, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Max F. Perutz Laboratories (Austria)


    The addition of labeled α-ketoisovalerate to the growth medium of a protein-expressing host organism has evolved into a versatile tool to achieve concomitant incorporation of specific isotopes into valine- and leucine-residues. The resulting target proteins represent excellent probes for protein NMR analysis. However, as the side-chain resonances of these residues emerge in a narrow spectral range, signal overlap represents a severe limitation in the case of high-molecular-weight NMR probes. We present a protocol to eliminate leucine labeling by supplying the medium with unlabeled α-ketoisocaproate. The resulting spectra of a model protein exclusively feature valine signals of increased intensity, confirming the method to be a first example of independent valine and leucine labeling employing α-ketoacid precursor compounds.

  14. Synthesis of carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13 labeled radiotracers for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.


    A number of reviews, many of them recent, have appeared on various aspects of /sup 11/C, /sup 18/F and /sup 13/N-labeled radiotracers. This monograph treats the topic principally from the standpoint of synthetic organic chemistry while keeping in perspective the necessity of integrating the organic chemistry with the design and ultimate application of the radiotracer. Where possible, recent examples from the literature of organic synthesis are introduced to suggest potentially new routes which may be applied to problems in labeling organic molecules with the short-lived positron emitters, carbon-11, fluorine-18, and nitrogen-13. The literature survey of carbon-11, fluorine-18 and nitrogen-13 labeled compounds presented are of particular value to scientists working in this field. Two appendices are also included to provide supplementary general references. A subject index concludes this volume.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorine-18 labeled glyburide analogs as {beta}-cell imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, A.; Shiue, C.-Y. E-mail:; Feng, Q.; Shiue, G.G.; Deng, S.; Pourdehnad, M.T.; Schirrmacher, R.; Vatamaniuk, M.; Doliba, N.; Matschinsky, F.; Wolf, B.; Roesch, F.; Naji, A.; Alavi, A.A


    Glyburide is a prescribed hypoglycemic drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. We have synthesized two of its analogs, namely N-{l_brace}4-[{beta}-(2-(2'-fluoroethoxy)-5-chlorobenzenecarboxamido)ethyl] benzenesulfonyl{r_brace}-N'-cyclohexylurea (2-fluoroethoxyglyburide, 8b) and N-{l_brace}4-[{beta}-(2-(2'-fluoroethoxy)-5-iodobenzenecarboxamido)ethyl]benzenesulfonyl {r_brace}-N'-cyclohexylurea (2-fluoroethoxy-5-deschloro-5-iodoglyburide, 8a), and their fluorine-18 labeled analogs as {beta}-cell imaging agents. Both F-18 labeled compound 8a and compound 8b were synthesized by alkylation of the corresponding multistep synthesized hydroxy precursor 4a and 4b with 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl tosylate in DMSO at 120 degree sign C for 20 minutes followed by HPLC purification in an overall radiochemical yield of 5-10% with a synthesis time of 100 minutes from EOB. The octanol/water partition coefficients of compounds 8a and 8b were 141.21 {+-} 27.77 (n = 8) and 124.33 {+-} 21.61 (n = 8), respectively. Insulin secretion experiments of compounds 8a and 8b on rat islets showed that both compounds have a similar stimulating effect on insulin secretion as that of glyburide. In vitro binding studies showed that {approx}2% of compounds 8a and 8b bound to {beta}TC3 and Min6 cells and that the binding was saturable. Preliminary biodistribution studies in mice showed that the uptake of both compounds 8a and 8b in liver and small intestine were high, whereas the uptake in other organs studied including pancreas were low. Additionally, the uptake of compound 8b in vivo was nonsaturable. These results tend to suggest that compounds 8a and 8b may not be the ideal {beta}-cell imaging agents.

  16. Nitrogen-13-labeled ammonia for myocardial imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, W.F.; Fill, H.R.; Harper, P.V.


    Cyclotron-produced nitrogen-13 (half-life 10 min), as labeled ammonia (/sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/), has been evaluated as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent. The regional myocardial uptake of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ has been shown to be proportional to regional tissue perfusion in animal studies. Intravenously administered /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ is rapidly cleared from the circulation, being extracted by the liver (15 percent), lungs, myocardium (2 percent--4 percent), brain, kidney, and bladder. Myocardial ammonia is metabolized mainly to glutamine via the glutamine synthetase pathway. Pulmonary uptake is substantial, but usually transient, except in smokers where clearance may be delayed. The positron annihilation irradiation (511 keV) of /sup 13/N may be imaged with a scintillation camera, using either a specially designed tungsten collimator or a pinhole collimator. After early technical problems with collimation and the production method of /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ were overcome, reproducible high quality myocardial images were consistently obtained. The normal myocardial image was established to be of a homogeneous ''doughnut'' configuration. Imaging studies performed in patients with varying manifestations of ischemic and valvular heart disease showed a high incidence of localized perfusion defects, especially in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Sequential studies at short intervals in patients with acute infarction showed correlation between alterations in regional perfusion and the clinical course of the patient. It is concluded that myocardial imaging with /sup 13/NH/sub 4//sup +/ and a scintillation camera provides a valid and noninvasive means of assessing regional myocardial perfusion. This method is especially suitable for sequential studies of acute cardiac patients at short intervals. Coincidence imaging of the 511 keV annihilation irradiation provides a tomographic and potentially quantitative assessment of the

  17. 复方丹参滴丸干预氯吡格雷抵抗的临床研究%Interference of compound danshen drop pill with clopidogrel resistance: a clinical research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖绍斌; 梁维基; 伍锦旋; 邓碧池; 赵崇毅; 梁雅


    目的 探讨复方丹参滴丸对氯比格雷抵抗患者的干预效果.方法 采用比浊法测定血小板聚集率,将氯比格雷抵抗患者58例随机分为两组,氯比格雷+复方丹参滴丸组及单服氯吡格雷组,每组29例.干预2周后分别复查血小板聚集率.结果 干预后氯吡格雷+复方丹参滴丸组二磷酸腺甘(ADP)诱导的血小板聚集率为28.25%,较干预前的37.78%下降9.53%(P0.05).结论 复方丹参滴丸可以增强患者对氯比格雷的敏感性,减轻氯比格雷抵抗,两药有协同抗血小板作用.%Objectives To investigate the effects of compound danshen drop pill on clopidogrel resistance. Methods Fifty eight patients with clopidogrel resistance were selected according to platelet aggregation from 232 inpatients who had taken clopidogrel75mg for 24 hours.They were randomized to two groups: compound danshen drop pill plus clopidogrel,clopidogrel only. Platelet aggregation was evaluated later two weeks after interference(P> 0.05 ). Results Adenosine diphosphate(ADP) induced platelet aggregation of the grop compound danshen drop pill plus clopidogrel decreased 9.53%(P<0.01 ),while there was no significant change in clopidogrel only group. Conclusion Compound danshen drop pill improve platelet sensitivity to clopidogrel,and has synergistic anti-platelet effects,thus could be administered to interfere clopidogrel resistance effectively.

  18. Self injection of Dichlorvos, an Organophosphorus Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet Raina


    Full Text Available We report two patients who injected themselves a strong organophosphate compound, dichlorvas, and showed the typical clinical picture of organophosphate intoxication. There are very few case reports of parenteral organophosphorous poisoning. With the appropriate therapy, their symptoms disappeared in a few days. The cases are reported because of unusual and interesting way of intoxication.

  19. 复方黄连滴耳液治疗中耳炎临床疗效观察%Clinical efficacy of Compound Ear Drops Berberine Treatment of Otitis Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To observe the curative Effect of compound Coptis eardrops for otitis media. Methods 25 cases of 50 patients in our hospitallwere randomly divided into controllgroup were treated with antibiotic treatment; the observation group was treated with compound Coptis eardrops for. Result Compared with the controllgroup, the totallef iciency of 73.32%, the totallEffective rate was 96.8% in the observation group. Conclusion compound Coptis eardrops has good ef icacy in the treatment of otitis media.%目的:观察复方黄连滴耳液治疗中耳炎的疗效。方法本院50例患者随机分对照组的25例患者采用抗生素治疗;观察组采用复方黄连滴耳液治疗。结果与对照组的总有效率73.32%,观察组总有效率为96.8%。结论复方黄连滴耳液在中耳炎的治疗中具有良好的疗效。

  20. 复方甘草酸苷片联合米诺地尔溶液治疗斑秃疗效观察%Compound glycyrrhizic acid joint of minoxidil topical solution treatment bald spot observe clinical curative effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞莺; 袁波


    Objective To observe the compound glycyrrhizic acid joint of minoxidil with those minoxidil treatment bald spot curative effect controls. Methods 104 patients were randomly divided into the bald spot with the control group, the control group use minoxidil, based on the experimental group in the control group add compound glycyrrhizic acid piece of treatment. Results the recovery rate and efficient were significantly higher than those in control group (P< 0.01). Conclusion Compound glycyrrhizic acid treatment bald spot effective and safe.%目的:观察复方甘草酸苷片联合米诺地尔与单用米诺地尔治疗斑秃的疗效.方法:将104例斑秃患者随机分为治疗组与对照组:对照组单用米诺地尔,治疗组在对照组基础上加用复方甘草酸苷片治疗.结果:治疗组痊愈率与有效率均显著高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:复方甘草酸苷片联合米诺地尔治疗斑秃安全、有效,可推广应用.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Although intensely colored, even the largest colloidal gold particles are not, on their own, sufficiently colored for routine use as a light microscopy stain: only with very abundant antigens or with specialized illumination methods can bound gold be seen. Colloidal gold probes were developed primarily as markers for electron microscopy, for which their very high electron density and selectivity for narrow size distributions when prepared in different ways rendered them highly suited. The widespread use of gold labeling for light microscopy was made possible by the introduction of autometallographic enhancement methods. In these processes, the bound gold particles are exposed to a solution containing metal ions and a reducing agent; they catalyze the reduction of the ions, resulting in the deposition of additional metal selectively onto the particles. On the molecular level, the gold particles are enlarged up to 30-100 nm in diameter; on the macroscale level, this results in the formation of a dark stain in regions containing bound gold particles, greatly increasing visibility and contrast. The applications of colloidal gold have been described elsewhere in this chapter, we will focus on the use of covalently linked cluster complexes of gold and other metals. A gold cluster complex is a discrete molecular coordination compound comprising a central core, or ''cluster'' of electron-dense metal atoms, ligated by a shell of small organic molecules (ligands), which are linked to the metal atoms on the surface of the core. This structure gives clusters several important advantages as labels. The capping of the metal surface by ligands prevents non-specific binding to cell and tissue components, which can occur with colloidal gold. Cluster compounds are more stable and may be used under a wider range of conditions. Unlike colloidal gold, clusters do not require additional macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin or polyethylene glycol for

  2. A Study on Standards System of Chinese Environmental Labeling Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Implementing Outlines for the Chinese Environmental Labeling Program By awarding certificates and labels to related manufacturers in accordance with certain environmental labeling standards, environmental labeling,also called "Green Label"or "Eco-label", certifies via governmental departments or public and private organizations that the whole process of producing,using, recalling and disposing of manufacturers'products is in compliance with certain environmental requirements. Many countries are establishing and promoting environmental labeling plans. Environmental labeling, as an important promotion means for prevention and control of pollution in a market-oriented manner, is being extended and developed constantly across the world.

  3. Effects of clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paoli, Severo de; Giani, Tania Santos; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail:; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica


    Clove (Caryophyllus aromaticus L.) has been used for clinical procedures. Blood constituents labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) are used in nuclear medicine. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of clove extract on the labeling blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells. Blood samples were incubated with clove, stannous chloride and 99mTc. Plasma, blood cells, insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells were separated. The radioactivity was counted and percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) to each blood fraction was calculated. The shape and morphometric parameter (perimeter/area ratio) were evaluated. Clove extract altered significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI of blood constituents and the shape of red blood cells without modifying the perimeter/area ratio. The results indicate that clove extract presents chemical compounds that interfere with the radiolabeling of blood constituents and alter the morphology of red blood cells by oxidative/chelating actions or interacting with the cellular membrane structure. (author)

  4. One-pot synthesis of quantum dot-labeled hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles for direct optosensing of folic acid in real, undiluted biological samples. (United States)

    Yang, Yaqiong; Wang, Zhengzheng; Niu, Hui; Zhang, Huiqi


    A facile and efficient one-pot approach for the synthesis of quantum dot (QD)-labeled hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) nanoparticles for direct optosensing of folic acid (FA) in the undiluted bovine and porcine serums is described. Hydrophilic macromolecular chain transfer agent-mediated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) precipitation polymerization was used to implement the molecular imprinting of FA in the presence of CdTe quantum dots (QDs). The resulting FA-imprinted polymer nanoparticles with surface-grafted hydrophilic poly(glyceryl monomethacrylate) brushes and QDs labeling not only showed outstanding specific molecular recognition toward FA in biological samples, but also exhibited good photostability, rapid binding kinetics, and obvious template binding-induced fluorescence quenching. These characteristics make them a useful fluorescent chemosensor for directly and selectively optosensing FA in the undiluted bovine and porcine serums, with its limit of detection being 0.025μM and average recoveries ranging from 98% to 102%, even in the presence of several interfering compounds. This advanced fluorescent MIP chemosensor is highly promising for rapid quantification of FA in such applications as clinical diagnostics and food analysis.

  5. 复方丹参注射液治疗早发型重度子痫前期患者临床疗效评价%Clinical Effectiveness Assessment of Compound Danshen Injection on Early Onset Severe Preeclampsia Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童重新; 邢小芬; 乔书花; 刘琳


    Objective To analyze the clinical effectiveness of Compound Danshen Injection (CDI) in treating patients with early onset severe preeclampsia. Methods One hundred and twenty patients with early onset severe pre-eclampsia were recruited and their gestational age ranged between 26 and 34 weeks. Sixty patients who volunteered to receive CDI were recruited as the treatment group, while 60 inpatients were recruited as the control group at the same time period. The routine therapy was given to those in the control group. CDI was intravenously dripped to those in the treatment group additionally by adding in 250 mL 5% glucose injection, once daily. The treatment for all lasted for 7 successive days. The D-dimer (DD), fibrinogen (Fg), hematocrit (HCT), tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), plas-minogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mean arterial pressure (MAP), 24 h urine volume (UV), 24 h urine protein (24 hUP), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A (apoA,), apolipoprotein B (apoB), umbilical arterial S/D ratio (S/D), and am-niotic fluid index (AFI) were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. The placenta weight (PW), neonatal weight (NW), 1 min Apgar scoring were compared between the two groups before and after treatment. Results There was no difference in DD, Fg, HCT, t-PA, PAI-1, MAP, UV, 24 hUP, TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoA,, apoB, S/D, or AFI between the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). In the treatment group PAI-1, Fg, and 24 hUP de- creased more after treatment, and they were lower than those of the control group after treatment. The UV and AFI increased and they were higher than those of the control group after treatment with statistical difference shown (P0.05). The PW, NW,and 1 min Apgar score≥7 were all higher in the treatment group than in the control group, showing statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusion CDI was

  6. 9 CFR 317.4 - Labeling approval. (United States)


    ... is a printer's proof or equivalent which clearly shows all labeling features, size, location, and... carcass ink brands and meat food product ink and burning brands, which comply with parts 312 and 316...

  7. Vertex-antimagic Labelings of Regular Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali AHMAD; Kashif ALI; Martin BA(C)A; Petr KOV(A)(R); Andrea SEMANI(C)OV(A)-FE(N)OV(C)(I)KOV(A)


    Let G =(V,E) be a finite,simple and undirected graph with p vertices and q edges.An (a,d)-vertex-antimagic total labeling of G is a bijection f from V(G).∪E(G) onto the set of consecutive integers 1,2,...,p + q,such that the vertex-weights form an arithmetic progression with the initial term a and difference d,where the vertex-weight of x is the sum of the value f(x) assigned to the vertex x together with all values f(xy) assigned to edges xy incident to x.Such labeling is called super if the smallest possible labels appear on the vertices.In this paper,we study the properties of such labelings and examine their existence for 2r-regular graphs when the difference d is 0,1,...,r + 1.

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  9. Generating Realistic Labelled, Weighted Random Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Michael Charles; Liu, Weiru; Miller, Paul; Hunter, Ruth; Kee, Frank


    Generative algorithms for random graphs have yielded insights into the structure and evolution of real-world networks. Most networks exhibit a well-known set of properties, such as heavy-tailed degree distributions, clustering and community formation. Usually, random graph models consider only structural information, but many real-world networks also have labelled vertices and weighted edges. In this paper, we present a generative model for random graphs with discrete vertex labels and numeric edge weights. The weights are represented as a set of Beta Mixture Models (BMMs) with an arbitrary number of mixtures, which are learned from real-world networks. We propose a Bayesian Variational Inference (VI) approach, which yields an accurate estimation while keeping computation times tractable. We compare our approach to state-of-the-art random labelled graph generators and an earlier approach based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). Our results allow us to draw conclusions about the contribution of vertex labels a...

  10. Synthesis of exemestane labelled with (13)C. (United States)

    Fontana, Erminia; Pignatti, Alberto; Giribone, Danilo; Di Salle, Enrico


    The synthesis of exemestane Aromasin, an irreversible steroidal aromatase inhibitor, specifically labelled with (13)C is reported. The preparation of [(13)C(3)]exemestane was achieved according to an eight-step procedure starting from the commercially available testosterone.

  11. Enantiomer labelling, a method for the quantitative analysis of amino acids. (United States)

    Frank, H; Nicholson, G J; Bayer, E


    Enantiomer labelling a method for the quntitative analysis of optically active natural compounds by gas chromatography, involves the use of the unnatural enantiomer as an internal standard. With Chirasil-Val, a chiral stationary phase that is thermally stable up to up to 240 degrees, the enantiomers of amino acids and a variety of other compounds can be separated and quantitated. Incomplete recovery from the sample, incomplete derivatization, hydrolysis and thermal decomposition of the derivative and shifting response factors can be compensated for by adding the unnatural enantiomer. The accuracy of amino acid analysis by enantiomer labelling is equal or superior to that of hitherto known methods. The procedure affords a complete analysis of peptides with respect to both amino acid composition and the optical purity of each amino acid.

  12. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot


    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade; Larissa Santos França; Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo; Marcelo Araújo


    Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Su...

  13. Internal labelling problem: an algorithmic procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, Rutwig, E-mail: [Departamento GeometrIa y TopologIa, Fac. CC. Matematicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Combining the decomposition of Casimir operators induced by the embedding of a subalgebra into a semisimple Lie algebra with the properties of commutators of subgroup scalars, an analytical algorithm for the computation of missing label operators with the commutativity requirement is proposed. Two new criteria for subgroups scalars to commute are given. The algorithm is completed with a recursive method to construct orthonormal bases of states. As examples to illustrate the procedure, four labelling problems are explicitly studied.

  14. Quantum dot labeling of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascio Wayne E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent cells with the potential to differentiate into bone, cartilage, fat and muscle cells and are being investigated for their utility in cell-based transplantation therapy. Yet, adequate methods to track transplanted MSCs in vivo are limited, precluding functional studies. Quantum Dots (QDs offer an alternative to organic dyes and fluorescent proteins to label and track cells in vitro and in vivo. These nanoparticles are resistant to chemical and metabolic degradation, demonstrating long term photostability. Here, we investigate the cytotoxic effects of in vitro QD labeling on MSC proliferation and differentiation and use as a cell label in a cardiomyocyte co-culture. Results A dose-response to QDs in rat bone marrow MSCs was assessed in Control (no-QDs, Low concentration (LC, 5 nmol/L and High concentration (HC, 20 nmol/L groups. QD yield and retention, MSC survival, proinflammatory cytokines, proliferation and DNA damage were evaluated in MSCs, 24 -120 hrs post QD labeling. In addition, functional integration of QD labeled MSCs in an in vitro cardiomyocyte co-culture was assessed. A dose-dependent effect was measured with increased yield in HC vs. LC labeled MSCs (93 ± 3% vs. 50% ± 15%, p 90% of QD labeled cells were viable in all groups, however, at 120 hrs increased apoptosis was measured in HC vs. Control MSCs (7.2% ± 2.7% vs. 0.5% ± 0.4%, p Conclusion Fluorescent QDs label MSC effectively in an in vitro co-culture model. QDs are easy to use, show a high yield and survival rate with minimal cytotoxic effects. Dose-dependent effects suggest limiting MSC QD exposure.

  15. A Chemical Probe that Labels Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Hirata


    Full Text Available A small-molecule fluorescent probe specific for human pluripotent stem cells would serve as a useful tool for basic cell biology research and stem cell therapy. Screening of fluorescent chemical libraries with human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and subsequent evaluation of hit molecules identified a fluorescent compound (Kyoto probe 1 [KP-1] that selectively labels human pluripotent stem cells. Our analyses indicated that the selectivity results primarily from a distinct expression pattern of ABC transporters in human pluripotent stem cells and from the transporter selectivity of KP-1. Expression of ABCB1 (MDR1 and ABCG2 (BCRP, both of which cause the efflux of KP-1, is repressed in human pluripotent stem cells. Although KP-1, like other pluripotent markers, is not absolutely specific for pluripotent stem cells, the identified chemical probe may be used in conjunction with other reagents.

  16. Pharmaceutical preparation of oxygen-15 labelled molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide gasses in a hospital setting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luurtsema, Geert; Boellaard, Ronald; Greuter, Henri; Rijbroek, Abraham; Takkenkamp, Kevin; de Geest, Frank; Buijs, Fred; Hendrikse, NH; Franssen, Eric; van Lingen, Arthur; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.


    BACKGROUND: Clinical positron emission tomography (PET) requires safe and effective PET radiopharmaceuticals. Tracers used for measuring oxygen consumption and blood volume are [(15)O]O(2) and [(15)O]CO, respectively. In general, these oxygen-15 labelled tracers are produced using a cyclotron that a

  17. Affective Prosody Labeling in Youths with Bipolar Disorder or Severe Mood Dysregulation (United States)

    Deveney, Christen M.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Decker, Ann Marie; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen


    Background: Accurate identification of nonverbal emotional cues is essential to successful social interactions, yet most research is limited to emotional face expression labeling. Little research focuses on the processing of emotional prosody, or tone of verbal speech, in clinical populations. Methods: Using the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal…

  18. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa


    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  19. Labelling of electricity; Kennzeichnung von Elektrizitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettli, R. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Markard, J. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)


    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed.

  20. Factors influencing medication label viewing in Malaysia. (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Chong, Yen Wan


    The misuse of medicine is a serious public health issue worldwide. An important factor that contributes to the misuse of medicine is the lack of medication label viewing by consumers. The objective of the present study is to examine the socio-economic, demographic and lifestyle factors associated with medication label viewing among Malaysian adults. The empirical analysis is based on a nationally representative data set of 30,992 respondents. An ordered probit model is used to examine different types of medication label viewers. The results of this study suggest that socio-economic (i.e. age, income level, education level, location of residence), demographic (i.e. gender, ethnicity, marital status) and lifestyle factors (i.e. physical activity, smoking) have significant effects on medication label viewing. It is found that age, low-income and low-education level reduce the likelihood of viewing medication label. Based on these findings, several policy implications are suggested. The present study provides policy makers with baseline information regarding which cohorts of individuals to focus on in efforts to increase the frequency of medication label viewing.

  1. Pharmacogenetic information for patients on drug labels. (United States)

    Haga, Susanne B; Mills, Rachel; Moaddeb, Jivan


    Advances in pharmacogenetic research have improved our understanding of adverse drug responses and have led to the development of pharmacogenetic tests and targeted drugs. However, the extent of the communication process and provision of information to patients about pharmacogenetics is unclear. Pharmacogenetic information may be included in sections of a drug's package insert intended for patients, which is provided directly to patients or communicated via the health provider. To determine what pharmacogenetic information, if any, is included in patient-targeted sections of the drug label, we reviewed the labels listed in the US Food and Drug Administration's Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels. To date, 140 drugs include pharmacogenetic-related information in the approved label. Our analysis revealed that pharmacogenetic information is included in patient-targeted sections for a minority (n=29; 21%) of drug labels, with no obvious pattern associated with the inclusion of pharmacogenetic information. Therefore, patients are unlikely to learn about pharmacogenetics through written materials dispensed with the drug. Given that there are also inconsistencies with regard to inclusion of pharmacogenetic information in the patient counseling information section, it is also unlikely that patients are receiving adequate pharmacogenetic information from their provider. The inconsistent presence of pharmacogenetic information in patient-targeted sections of drug labels suggests a need to review the criteria for inclusion of information in patient-targeted sections in order to increase consistency and patient knowledge of pharmacogenetic information.

  2. CEST theranostics: label-free MR imaging of anticancer drugs (United States)

    Xu, Jiadi; Yadav, Nirbhay N.; Chan, Kannie W. Y.; Luo, Liangping; McMahon, Michael T.; Vogelstein, Bert; van Zijl, Peter C.M.; Zhou, Shibin; Liu, Guanshu


    Image-guided drug delivery is of great clinical interest. Here, we explored a direct way, namely CEST theranostics, to detect diamagnetic anticancer drugs simply through their inherent Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) MRI signal, and demonstrated its application in image-guided drug delivery of nanoparticulate chemotherapeutics. We first screened 22 chemotherapeutic agents and characterized the CEST properties of representative agents and natural analogs in three major categories, i.e., pyrimidine analogs, purine analogs, and antifolates, with respect to chemical structures. Utilizing the inherent CEST MRI signal of gemcitabine, a widely used anticancer drug, the tumor uptake of the i.v.-injected, drug-loaded liposomes was successfully detected in CT26 mouse tumors. Such label-free CEST MRI theranostics provides a new imaging means, potentially with an immediate clinical impact, to monitor the drug delivery in cancer. PMID:26837220

  3. Sentinel lymph node imaging by a fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedron. (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Lee, Yong-Deok; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kim, Sehoon; Ahn, Dae-Ro


    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes which cancer cells reach after traveling through lymphatic vessels from the primary tumor. Evaluating the nodal status is crucial in accurate staging of human cancers and accordingly determines prognosis and the most appropriate treatment. The commonly used methods for SLN identification in clinics are based on employment of a colloid of radionuclide or injection of a small dye. Although these methods have certainly contributed to improve surgical practice, new imaging materials are still required to overcome drawbacks of the techniques such as inconvenience of handling radioactive materials and short retention time of small dyes in SLNs. Here, we prepare a fluorescence-labeled DNA tetrahedron and perform SLN imaging by using the DNA nanoconstruct. With a successful identification of SLNs by the DNA nanoconstruct, we suggest that DNA tetrahedron hold great promises for clinical applications.

  4. Patient reported outcomes: looking beyond the label claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doward Lynda C


    Full Text Available Abstract The use of patient reported outcome scales in clinical trials conducted by the pharmaceutical industry has become more widespread in recent years. The use of such outcomes is particularly common for products developed to treat chronic, disabling conditions where the intention is not to cure but to ameliorate symptoms, facilitate functioning or, ultimately, to improve quality of life. In such cases, patient reported evidence is increasingly viewed as an essential complement to traditional clinical evidence for establishing a product's competitive advantage in the marketplace. In a commercial setting, the value of patient reported outcomes is viewed largely in terms of their potential for securing a labelling claim in the USA or inclusion in the summary of product characteristics in Europe. Although, the publication of the recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance makes it difficult for companies to make claims in the USA beyond symptom improvements, the value of these outcomes goes beyond satisfying requirements for a label claim. The European regulatory authorities, payers both in the US and Europe, clinicians and patients all play a part in determining both the availability and the pricing of medicinal products and all have an interest in patient-reported data that go beyond just symptoms. The purpose of the current paper is to highlight the potential added value of patient reported outcome data currently collected and held by the industry for these groups.

  5. Biomolecules and Natural Medicine Preparations: Analysis of New Sources of Bioactive Compounds from Ribes and Rubus spp. Buds. (United States)

    Donno, Dario; Mellano, Maria Gabriella; Cerutti, Alessandro Kim; Beccaro, Gabriele Loris


    It is well known that plants are important sources for the preparation of natural remedies as they contain many biologically active compounds. In particular, polyphenols, terpenic compounds, organic acids, and vitamins are the most widely occurring groups of phytochemicals. Some endemic species may be used for the production of herbal preparations containing phytochemicals with significant bioactivity, as antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory capacities, and health benefits. Blackberry sprouts and blackcurrant buds are known to contain appreciable levels of bioactive compounds, including flavonols, phenolic acids, monoterpenes, vitamin C, and catechins, with several clinical effects. The aim of this research was to perform an analytical study of blackcurrant and blackberry bud-preparations, in order to identify and quantify the main biomarkers, obtaining a specific phytochemical fingerprint to evaluate the single botanical class contribution to total phytocomplex and relative bioactivity, using a High Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Diode Array Detector; the same analyses were performed both on the University laboratory and commercial preparations. Different chromatographic methods were used to determine concentrations of biomolecules in the preparations, allowing for quantification of statistically significant differences in their bioactive compound content both in the case of Ribes nigrum and Rubus cultivated varieties at different harvest stages. In blackcurrant bud-extracts the most important class was organic acids (50.98%) followed by monoterpenes (14.05%), while in blackberry preparations the main bioactive classes were catechins (50.06%) and organic acids (27.34%). Chemical, pharmaceutical and agronomic-environmental knowledge could be important for obtaining label certifications for the valorization of specific genotypes, with high clinical and pharmaceutical value: this study allowed to develop an effective tool for the natural preparation quality

  6. Synthesis of Se-75 labeled catecholamine derivatives: adrenal medulla tumor specific radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basmadjian, G.P.; Sadek, S.; Ice, R.D. (Oklahoma Univ., Oklahoma City (USA). Health Sciences Center)

    Three classes of /sup 75/Se-labelled catecholamines have been synthesised. In class I the /sup 75/Se replaces the amine function of dopamine, using Na/sup 75/SeH. In class II the selenomethyl group replaces the -OH function in epinephrine. In class III /sup 75/Se replaces the ..beta..-carbon in catecholamine. NMR and mass spectroscopy were used to characterise the compounds.

  7. Preparation of 1-Anthroyl Nitrile as a strong Fluorophore for pre-column labeling of Hydroxysteroids


    Shamsa F; Amini H


    The preparation of 1-anthroyl nitrile as a useful labeling reagent for derivatization of hydroxysteroids is reported. This compound was prepared by some modifications in the literature procedure including the usage of copper cyanide instead of the expensive trimethylsilyl cyanide for conversion of 1-anthroyl chloride to 1-anthroyl nitrile and conducting the conversion of anthracene-1-carboxylic acid to 1-anthroyl chloride at 40°C instead of 110°C to avoid the formation of impurities. Derivati...

  8. Heart testing compound (United States)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.


    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan


    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  10. Preparation of 1-Anthroyl Nitrile as a strong Fluorophore for pre-column labeling of Hydroxysteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa F


    Full Text Available The preparation of 1-anthroyl nitrile as a useful labeling reagent for derivatization of hydroxysteroids is reported. This compound was prepared by some modifications in the literature procedure including the usage of copper cyanide instead of the expensive trimethylsilyl cyanide for conversion of 1-anthroyl chloride to 1-anthroyl nitrile and conducting the conversion of anthracene-1-carboxylic acid to 1-anthroyl chloride at 40°C instead of 110°C to avoid the formation of impurities. Derivatization of cortisol and prednisolone by 1-anthroyl nitrile resulted in effective separation of these compounds by HPLC with a detection limit of about 20 pg.

  11. Siloxane Nanoprobes for Labeling and Dual Modality Functional Imaging of Neural Stem Cells. (United States)

    Addington, Caroline P; Cusick, Alex; Shankar, Rohini Vidya; Agarwal, Shubhangi; Stabenfeldt, Sarah E; Kodibagkar, Vikram D


    Cell therapy represents a promising therapeutic for a myriad of medical conditions, including cancer, traumatic brain injury, and cardiovascular disease among others. A thorough understanding of the efficacy and cellular dynamics of these therapies necessitates the ability to non-invasively track cells in vivo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a platform to track cells as a non-invasive modality with superior resolution and soft tissue contrast. We recently reported a new nanoprobe platform for cell labeling and imaging using fluorophore doped siloxane core nanoemulsions as dual modality ((1)H MRI/Fluorescence), dual-functional (oximetry/detection) nanoprobes. Here, we successfully demonstrate the labeling, dual-modality imaging, and oximetry of neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs) in vitro using this platform. Labeling at a concentration of 10 μL/10(4) cells with a 40%v/v polydimethylsiloxane core nanoemulsion, doped with rhodamine, had minimal effect on viability, no effect on migration, proliferation and differentiation of NPSCs and allowed for unambiguous visualization of labeled NPSCs by (1)H MR and fluorescence and local pO2 reporting by labeled NPSCs. This new approach for cell labeling with a positive contrast (1)H MR probe has the potential to improve mechanistic knowledge of current therapies, and guide the design of future cell therapies due to its clinical translatability.

  12. Dynamic Proteomics: In Vivo Proteome-Wide Measurement of Protein Kinetics Using Metabolic Labeling. (United States)

    Holmes, W E; Angel, T E; Li, K W; Hellerstein, M K


    Control of biosynthetic and catabolic rates of polymers, including proteins, stands at the center of phenotype, physiologic adaptation, and disease pathogenesis. Advances in stable isotope-labeling concepts and mass spectrometric instrumentation now allow accurate in vivo measurement of protein synthesis and turnover rates, both for targeted proteins and for unbiased screening across the proteome. We describe here the underlying principles and operational protocols for measuring protein dynamics, focusing on metabolic labeling with (2)H2O (heavy water) combined with tandem mass spectrometric analysis of mass isotopomer abundances in trypsin-generated peptides. The core principles of combinatorial analysis (mass isotopomer distribution analysis or MIDA) are reviewed in detail, including practical advantages, limitations, and technical procedures to ensure optimal kinetic results. Technical factors include heavy water labeling protocols, optimal duration of labeling, clean up and simplification of sample matrices, accurate quantitation of mass isotopomer abundances in peptides, criteria for adequacy of mass spectrometric abundance measurements, and calculation algorithms. Some applications are described, including the noninvasive "virtual biopsy" strategy for measuring molecular flux rates in tissues through measurements in body fluids. In addition, application of heavy water labeling to measure flux lipidomics is noted. In summary, the combination of stable isotope labeling, particularly from (2)H2O, with tandem mass spectrometric analysis of mass isotopomer abundances in peptides, provides a powerful approach for characterizing the dynamics of proteins across the global proteome. Many applications in research and clinical medicine have been achieved and many others can be envisioned.

  13. Feasibility of Active Machine Learning for Multiclass Compound Classification. (United States)

    Lang, Tobias; Flachsenberg, Florian; von Luxburg, Ulrike; Rarey, Matthias


    A common task in the hit-to-lead process is classifying sets of compounds into multiple, usually structural classes, which build the groundwork for subsequent SAR studies. Machine learning techniques can be used to automate this process by learning classification models from training compounds of each class. Gathering class information for compounds can be cost-intensive as the required data needs to be provided by human experts or experiments. This paper studies whether active machine learning can be used to reduce the required number of training compounds. Active learning is a machine learning method which processes class label data in an iterative fashion. It has gained much attention in a broad range of application areas. In this paper, an active learning method for multiclass compound classification is proposed. This method selects informative training compounds so as to optimally support the learning progress. The combination with human feedback leads to a semiautomated interactive multiclass classification procedure. This method was investigated empirically on 15 compound classification tasks containing 86-2870 compounds in 3-38 classes. The empirical results show that active learning can solve these classification tasks using 10-80% of the data which would be necessary for standard learning techniques.

  14. Compound composite odontoma. (United States)

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N


    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  15. Compound composite odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Girish


    Full Text Available The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  16. Chemistry of peroxide compounds (United States)

    Volnov, I. I.


    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  17. The synthesis of Org 3770 labelled with sup 3 H, sup 13 C and sup 14 C. [Antidepressant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Rooij, F.A.M. van; Sperling, E.G.M.; Wieringa, J.H. (Organon International BV, Oss (Netherlands))


    The syntheses of 1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2-methylpyrazino(2,1-a)pyrido(2,3-c)(2)benazepine (Org 3770) labelled with {sup 3}H (and {sup 2}H), {sup 13}C and {sup 14}C are described. Tritiated Org 3770 was prepared either by exchange under alkaline conditions with tritiated water or catalytic reductive dehalogenation of a chloro analogue with {sup 3}H{sub 2}. {sup 13}C-labelled material was obtained in a seven-step synthesis starting from {sup 13}C-labelled benzene whereas {sup 14}C-Org 3770 was prepared in a three-step synthesis starting with {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. All labelled compounds were analyzed by TLC, HPLC, MS and NMR. (author).

  18. The Effect of Diagnostic Labels on the Affective Responses of College Students towards Peers with "Asperger's Syndrome" and "Autism Spectrum Disorder" (United States)

    Brosnan, Mark; Mills, Elizabeth


    Given the removal of Asperger's Syndrome label in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition," the impact of clinical labels upon the affective responses of college students was explored. A total of 120 college students read two vignettes depicting social interactions typical of a person with autism spectrum…

  19. Phenolic Molding Compounds (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  20. 18F-Labeled Silicon-Based Fluoride Acceptors: Potential Opportunities for Novel Positron Emitting Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Bernard-Gauthier


    Full Text Available Background. Over the recent years, radiopharmaceutical chemistry has experienced a wide variety of innovative pushes towards finding both novel and unconventional radiochemical methods to introduce fluorine-18 into radiotracers for positron emission tomography (PET. These “nonclassical” labeling methodologies based on silicon-, boron-, and aluminium-18F chemistry deviate from commonplace bonding of an [18F]fluorine atom (18F to either an aliphatic or aromatic carbon atom. One method in particular, the silicon-fluoride-acceptor isotopic exchange (SiFA-IE approach, invalidates a dogma in radiochemistry that has been widely accepted for many years: the inability to obtain radiopharmaceuticals of high specific activity (SA via simple IE. Methodology. The most advantageous feature of IE labeling in general is that labeling precursor and labeled radiotracer are chemically identical, eliminating the need to separate the radiotracer from its precursor. SiFA-IE chemistry proceeds in dipolar aprotic solvents at room temperature and below, entirely avoiding the formation of radioactive side products during the IE. Scope of Review. A great plethora of different SiFA species have been reported in the literature ranging from small prosthetic groups and other compounds of low molecular weight to labeled peptides and most recently affibody molecules. Conclusions. The literature over the last years (from 2006 to 2014 shows unambiguously that SiFA-IE and other silicon-based fluoride acceptor strategies relying on 18F− leaving group substitutions have the potential to become a valuable addition to radiochemistry.