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Sample records for clinical epidemiological characteristics

  1. Holoprosencephaly: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of a California population

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    Croen, L.A.; Shaw, G.M. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Children`s Hospital, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-08-23

    Holoprosencephaly is a brain defect resulting from incomplete cleavage of the embryonic forebrain. It involves forebrain and facial malformations that can range from mild to severe. The epidemiology of holoprosencephaly is largely unknown. Published prevalence estimates have been derived from clinic-based case series, and suggested risk factors for holoprosencephaly have been identified in case reports, without confirmation from systematically conducted population-based studies. Using data from a population-based birth defects registry in California, we described the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of cytogenetically and phenotypically distinct types of holoprosencephaly. A total of 121 cases was identified among a cohort of 1,035,386 live births and fetal deaths. The prevalence of holoprosencephaly was 1.2 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.4 per 10,000). Of all cases, 41% (50/121) had a chromosomal abnormality, most commonly Trisomy 13. Among the 71 cytogenetically apparently normal cases, 18 had recognizable syndromes and the remaining 53 were of unknown cause. Among the cytogenetically abnormal cases, females had a greater risk than males (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [1.2, 4.4]). Among the cytogenetically normal cases, increased risks were observed among Hispanic whites (OR = 1.8 [0.9, 3.6]) and cases whose mother was born in Mexico (OR = 2.2 [1.0, 4.5]). Approximately 46% of all cases had alobar holoprosencephaly, the most severe form of the forebrain malformation. The facial phenotype did not strongly predict the severity of the brain defect; however, severity was inversely correlated with length of survival. This study is the first to present findings based on such a large population-based series of infants/fetuses affected by holoprosencephaly, and demonstrates the importance of investigating the component subgroups of this rare phenotype. 47 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infectious keratitis in Paraguay.

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    Nentwich, Martin M; Bordón, M; di Martino, D Sánchez; Campuzano, A Ruiz; Torres, W Martínez; Laspina, F; Lichi, S; Samudio, M; Farina, N; Sanabria, Rosa R; de Kaspar, Herminia Mino

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe infectious keratitis in Asunción, Paraguay between April 2009 and September 2011. All patients with the clinical diagnosis of severe keratitis (ulcer ≥2 mm in size and/or central location) were included. Empiric treatment consisted of topical antibiotics and antimycotics; in cases of advanced keratitis, fortified antibiotics were used. After microbiological analysis, treatment was changed if indicated. In total 48 patients (62.5 % males, 25 % farmers) were included in the analysis. A central ulcer was found in 81.3 % (n = 39). The median delay between onset of symptoms and time of first presentation at our institution was 7 days (range 1-30 days). Fungal keratitis was diagnosed in 64.5 % (n = 31) of patients, of which Fusarium sp. (n = 17) was the most common. Twenty-one patients (43.8 %) reported previous trauma to the eye. The globe could be preserved in all cases. While topical therapy only was sufficient in most patients, a conjunctival flap was necessary in six patients suffering from fungal keratitis. The high rate of fungal keratitis in this series is remarkable, and microbiological analysis provided valuable information for the appropriate treatment. In this setting, one has to be highly suspicious of fungal causes of infectious keratitis.

  3. Epidemiological, clinical, and immunological characteristics of neuromyelitis optica: A review.

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    Pereira, Wildéa Lice de Carvalho Jennings; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramón

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the immunopathological mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage. NMO is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that most commonly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is thought to be more prevalent among non-Caucasians and where multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is low. NMO follows a relapsing course in more than 80-90% of cases, which is more commonly in women. It is a complex disease with an interaction between host genetic and environmental factors and the main immunological feature is the presence of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in a subset of patients. NMO is frequently associated with multiple other autoantibodies and there is a strong association between NMO with other systemic autoimmune diseases. AQP4-IgG can cause antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) when effector cells are present and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) when complement is present. Acute therapies, including corticosteroids and plasma exchange, are designed to minimize injury and accelerate recovery. Several aspects of NMO pathogenesis remain unclear. More advances in the understanding of NMO disease mechanisms are needed in order to identify more specific biomarkers to NMO diagnosis.

  4. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Patients with Childhood Psoriazis Seen in Dermatology Clinic

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    Emine Elvan Taşğın; Göknur Kalkan; Hatice Meral Ekşioğlu; Güler Vahaboğlu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of the pediatric patients with psoriazis applied to our outpatients' clinic and compare these data with the literature. Methods: The study population consisted of 37 patients younger than 16 years with the diagnosis of psoriazis in dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2009 and December 2010. The patients were evaluated with regard to age, gender, age of onset of the disease, duration of the disease, the presence of accompanying ...

  5. Acute Viral Hepatitis A – Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiological Characteristics

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    Melinda HORVAT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Infection with hepatitis A virus is still one of the most common causes of hepatitis worldwide. The clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA in adults can vary greatly, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe and fulminant hepatitis. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory features and hospital outcome of adult patients with AHA over a consecutive period of 4 years within an area from Eastern European country. Methods: Two hundred and two adult patients diagnosed with AHA were retrospective, observational and analytic analized over a period of 4 years. Based on prothrombin time less than 50, the study group was stratified in medium (79.2% and severe forms (20.8%. We investigated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features. Statistical analysis were applied to compare the medium and severe forms of AHA. Results: Most patients (72.7% were younger than 40 years. The main symptoms included: dyspepsia (72.07%, jaundice (86.63%, asteno-adynamia (86.72%, and flu-like symptoms (53.46%. The hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (6.93% associated with the severe forms of AHA (OR =12.19, 95%CI -3.59 - 41.3, p =0.001. We found statistically significant differences for PT (p <0.001, INR (p <0.001, TQ (p <0.001, ALAT (p <0.001, ASAT (p <0.001, ALP (p <0.001 and platelets (p =0.009 between severe and medium AHA forms. We found that TQ, INR, ALAT and ASAT have the highest diagnostic values, statistically significant (p <0.05 for severe AHA forms with AUC (0.99, 0.99, 0.72, 0.70 at values of sensitivity (95%, 90.5%, 89%, 95% and specificity (98%, 99%, 88%,94%. Conclusions Medium severity AHA forms were found in most of the study group patients (79.2%. The severe AHA forms were associated with hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (OR =12.19, p =0.001. The univariate analysis proved a negatively statistically significant correlation between IP and ALAT

  6. Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Patients with Childhood Psoriazis Seen in Dermatology Clinic

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    Emine Elvan Taşğın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of the pediatric patients with psoriazis applied to our outpatients' clinic and compare these data with the literature. Methods: The study population consisted of 37 patients younger than 16 years with the diagnosis of psoriazis in dermatology outpatient clinic between May 2009 and December 2010. The patients were evaluated with regard to age, gender, age of onset of the disease, duration of the disease, the presence of accompanying diseases, family history, clinical features, and triggering factors. Results: Of 37 pediatric patients with psoriazis evaluated in this study, 21 were girls and 16 were boys. The ages of the patients ranged between 2 and 15 years. 32.4% of the patients had family history. Plaque (59.45% of the patients, guttate (29.7% of the patients and pustular (10.8% of the patientstypes of psoriazis were determined. The psoriazis lesions involved most frequently the hairy skin (73% and the disease generally originated from this region. Ungual involvement was determined in 27% of the patients. None of the patients had psoriatic arthritis. Conclusion: Our study might contribute to generate epidemiological data's about the pediatric patients with psoriazis in our population.

  7. Hemangioblastomas in the elderly: epidemiology and clinical characteristics.

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    Kassardjian, Charles D; Macdonald, R Loch; Munoz, David G

    2014-07-01

    Intracranial hemangioblastomas are benign vascular tumors. The peak age of incidence is between 20 to 50 years. Hemangioblastomas rarely occur in patients over the age of 65. To our knowledge there is no review of the prevalence and clinical features in an elderly population. We reviewed our 12 year experience with intracranial hemangioblastomas, and characterized the clinical features of hemangioblastomas in patients over the age of 65. We present a 72-year-old man with a cerebellar mass initially thought to be a metastasis as an illustrative case. We reviewed our pathology database and identified all patients with a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of hemangioblastoma over the last 12 years in a large tertiary adult hospital; all patients were over the age of 18. Of all cases of hemangioblastoma in the last 12 years, six of 77 (7.7%) occurred in patients over the age of 65. All were cerebellar in location, and none were associated with von-Hippel Lindau disease. Hemangioblastomas are uncommon, but not rare, in patients over the age of 65, and should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with gait ataxia and a cerebellar lesion in this age group. PMID:24629394

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and social characteristics of long-lived persons of the Volga region industrial centre

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    Malinova L.I.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In spite of recent achievements in public health, average lifetime in the Volga region as in whole Russia is rather short. Issues of longevity in the region produce scientific interest by clinical, epidemiological and social characteristics of long-lived persons. Material and methods: In total 167 long-lived persons were examined. Medical, social, psychic, emotional and epidemiological characteristics were assessed. Results: The typical long-lived person of the Volga region was brought out. The high quality of life was revealed. The negative influence of smoking and alcoholism on the longevity was shown. Most of the patients needed communication. Lack of complaints was revealed, patients mentioned only the general weakness. Conclusion: The study has explained new social and demographic features of the Volga region long-livers

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from hand, foot and mouth disease in Vietnam, 2011

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    Nguyen, Ngoc TB; Pham, Hau V; Hoang, Cuong Q; Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Long T; Phan, Hung C; Phan, Lan T; Vu, Long N; Tran Minh, Nguyen N

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2011, a large outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Vietnam resulted in 113,121 children seeking medical attention, of whom170 died. Understanding the epidemiology of fatal HFMD may improve treatment and help targeting prevention activities for vulnerable populations. We describe epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children who died from HFMD in Vietnam in 2011. Methods Clinical data were obtained through reviewing medical records of the deaths occurring...

  10. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of individuals with very high rapid plasma reagin.

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    Castro, Jose G; Alcaide, Maria L; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with infectious syphilis who presented with a high rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre (≥1: 512) during the year of 2009 at the Miami Dade County Health Department (MDCHD) STD clinic. Potential cases were identified by a search in the electronic database. Among 519 individuals identified with reactive RPR, 190 individuals met criteria for infectious syphilis and 32 of them had at least one RPR titre of ≥1: 512. We found that the majority of individuals with high RPR were men who have sex with men (82%), from ethnic minorities (91%), and HIV infected (75%) but only 3 of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 50% of these patients with very high RPR titres were symptomatic, and the most common symptom was skin rash (93%). PMID:24352133

  11. Epidemiological, Clinical and Entomological Characteristics of Yellow Fever Outbreak in Darfur 2012

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    Hamdi Abdulwahab Alhakimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at analyzing the epidemiological, clinical and entomological characteristics of Darfur yellow fever epidemic. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. According to operational case definition, suspected yellow fever cases are included in case spread sheet with variables like age, sex, locality, occupation, status of vaccination, onset of symptoms, presenting symptoms, date of blood sampling and confirmation of diagnosis either by laboratory results or epidemiological link. Data about important entomological indices were collected by surveys conducted in 17 localities of 3 Darfur states (Central, West and south Darfur. All Darfur states (especially Central Darfur have been affected by Yellow Fever outbreak. There is a need to review the non-specific case definition of Yellow Fever which seems to overwhelm the system during outbreaks with cases of other endemic diseases. The significant risk factors of this outbreak included male sex, adult age, outdoor occupation and traditional mining. The fatality rate was significantly associated with vaccination status. The highest fatality rate was recorded by children less than 2 years old (42.9%. Generally, increase in certain entomological indices was followed by increase in number of reported cases 7 days later. Central Darfur state was significantly higher in most studied entomological indices.

  12. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and its' association with severe immunosuppression

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    Fatt Quek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen associated with bacteraemia especially in immunosuppressed patients. However, there is limited data specifically describing the clinical characteristics and outcome amongst the immunosuppressed patients. Methods A total of 56,707 blood culture samples and 5,450 stool samples were received by the microbiology laboratory at a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia, during a 4-year study period. Out of these samples, 55 non-duplicate NTS isolates were identified from blood and 121 from stool. A retrospective analysis of the 55 patients with NTS bacteraemia was then conducted to determine the predominant NTS serovars causing bacteraemia and its' blood invasive potential, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility. Patients were then grouped as immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed to determine the association of severe immunosuppression on clinical features. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0 using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test or Chi-squared test. The odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The P-value Results Out of 55 NTS bacteraemia cases identified, 81.8% (45/55 were community-acquired. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis had the highest blood invasiveness. An extra-intestinal focus of infection was noted in 30.9% (17/55 of the patients, most commonly involving the lungs and soft tissue. 90.9% (50/55 of the patients had an underlying disease and 65.5% (36/55 of the patients had severe clinical immunosuppressive condition with malignancy and HIV being the most common. Immunosuppressed patients had higher mortality (P = 0.04, presented more commonly with primary bacteraemia (P = 0.023, leukopenia (P = 0.001 and opportunistic infections (P = 0.01. In contrast, atherosclerotic conditions (P = 0

  13. Acute HIV infection (AHI in a specialized clinical setting: case-finding, description of virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics

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    Adriana Ammassari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of HIV infection during early stages is mandatory to catch up with the challenge of limiting HIV viral replication and reservoirs formation, as well as decreasing HIV transmissions by immediate cART initiation. Objectives: Aims were to describe (a virological characteristics of AHI identified, (b epidemiological and clinical factors associated with being diagnosed with AHI. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. All individuals diagnosed with AHI according to Fiebig's staging between Jan 2013 and Mar 2014 at the INMI “L. Spallanzani” were included. Serum samples reactive to a fourth generation HIV-1/2 assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Abbott were retested with another fourth generation assay (VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Biomérieux and underwent confirmation with HIV-1 WB (New Lav I Bio-Rad and/or with Geenius confirmatory assay (Bio-Rad. WHO criteria (two env products reactivity were used to establish positivity of confirmatory assays. In case of clinically suspected AHI, HIV-1 RNA (Real time, Abbott and p24 assay (VIDAS HIV P24 Bio-Rad were also performed. Avidity test was carried out, on confirmed positive samples lacking p31 reactivity, to discriminate between recent (true Fiebig V phase and late infections; to avoid possible misclassifications, clinical data were also used. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are routinely, and anonymously recorded in the SENDIH and SIREA studies. Results: During the study period, we observed 483 newly HIV diagnosed individuals, of whom 40 were identified as AHI (8.3%. Fiebig classification showed: 7 stage II/III, 13 stage IV, 20 stage V. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients are shown in the Table. Overall, the study population had a median S/Co ratio at fourth generation EIA (Architect of 49.50 (IQR, 23.54–98.05: values were significantly lower in Fiebig II-IV than in Fiebig V (38.68 [IQR, 20.08–54.84] vs 75.72 [IQR

  14. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center in Brazil

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    Eduardo Nery Rossi Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with active uveitis admitted between May 2012 and July 2012 to an emergency eye care center. Results: The majority of patients were male (63.2%, with a mean age of 43.2 years; 66.2% patients were of mixed ethnicity, 22.5% were Caucasian, and 11.3% were black. Anterior uveitis was observed in 70.1% patients, posterior uveitis in 26.5%, and panuveitis in 3.4%; no patient was diagnosed with intermediate uveitis. All patients had a sudden and acute presentation. The most frequent symptoms were ocular pain (76.9%, redness (59.8%, and visual blurring (46.2%. The majority of patients had unilateral disease (94.9% with a mean symptom duration of 6.2 days. Diffuse and anterior uveitis were associated with ocular pain (p<0.001. Scotomata and floaters were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.003 and p=0.016, respectively. Patients with anterior uveitis presented with better visual acuity (p=0.025. Granulomatous keratotic precipitates were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.038. An etiological diagnosis based on the evaluation at the emergency center was made in 45 patients (38.5%. Conclusions: Acute anterior uveitis was the most frequent form of uveitis. Initial patient evaluation provided sufficient information for deciding primary therapy and aided in arriving at an etiological diagnosis in a considerable number of patients.

  15. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of malignant melanoma in Southeast Anatolia in Turkey

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    Sula, Bilal; Uçmak, Feyzullah; Kaplan, Mehmet Ali; Urakçi, Zuhat; Arica, Mustafa; Isikdogan, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to establish the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with malignant melanoma (MM). Methods The present study retrospectively analyzed the data of 78 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with MM in Dicle University Medical Faculty, Dermatology and Medical Oncology departments between 2005 and 2014. Results The study included 78 patients in total with 44 (56.4%) male and 34 (43.6%) female. Median age of the patients was 62.50 years (range: 27 - 84 years). Of the patients, 78.2% (n = 61) had cutaneous melanoma, 8.9% had solid organ melanoma, and 2.5% had ocular and mucosal melanoma. The most common tumor localization among the patients was the lower extremities with 29.4% (n = 23). The most common histopathological type was nodular malignant melanoma with 35.8% (n = 28). Based on TNM, Clark and Breslow classifications, 26.9% (n = 21) of the patients were stage 4, 26.9% (n = 21) were Clark stage 4, and 37.1% (n = 29) were Breslow stage 4. Median overall survival in all patients was 14.9 months (95% CI 10.9 - 18.8 months). In the multivariate Cox analysis, only stage statistically significantly affecting survival [odds ratio (OR): 0.54; (95% CI 0.16-1.82, p = 0.02)]. Conclusion Malignant melanoma data are also important for the optimal utilization of effective methods and healthcare resources to prevent the disease. In order to minimize MM mortality and morbidity, not only the society but also physicians from primary and secondary care hospitals should become familiar with melanoma.

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in fez, Morocco

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    S Abourazzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. Epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in Fez, Morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. Of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. The mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. The mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. Almost all cases occurred in the summer (94% and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%. Local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. Regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class III, followed by class II (26.4% and class I (18.4%. None of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.

  17. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics, spirometric parameters and response to budesonide/formoterol in patients attending an asthma clinic: an experience in a developing country

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    Imad, Hassan; Yasir, Ged

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aims at describing the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, severity, reversibility testing and response to treatment using simple spirometry in asthmatic patients attending a model specialized Asthma Care Center. Methods Eligible subjects must have a suggestive clinical picture and confirmed by spirometry to have a 12% plus 200ml absolute increase in FEV1 either by reversibility testing or after a therapeutic trial with inhaled and/or oral steroid therapy. Bu...

  18. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

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    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  19. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

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    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, J A; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M; Wagenaar, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  20. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks: clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Graaf-Blois, Van de L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Westendorp, S.T.; Bergen, Van M.A.P.; Dwars, R.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. Objectives: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  1. [Parasitological characteristics, epidemiological and clinical features, and current control approaches for three major kinds of human schistosomiasis].

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    Xu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang

    2013-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a tropical disease, which could do serious damage to the people's health, and it hinders the development of the social economy but may be neglected. After a positive control, some countries and regions have blocked the spread of schistosomiasis. However, in the past few years, with the development of social economy, due to the global movement of people, schistosomiasis not only poses a threat to control areas, but also may cause new endemic areas. This article reviews the parasitological characteristics, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation, and control approaches of three major kinds of human schistosomiasis, schistosomiasis japonica, schistosomiasis haematobia, and schistosomiasis mansoni. PMID:24024456

  2. Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Danikuu Francis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale, urban northern Ghana. Methods Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT- PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods. Results Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months. Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22% and wasting (19% were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P P = 0.02. Conclusion Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.

  3. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of childhood pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus infection: an observational cohort study

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    Youn You-Sook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There was a pandemic influenza around the world in 2009 including South Korea since last pandemic occurred four decades ago. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this infection in childhood. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of all the subjects infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2,971 patients, ≤ 15 years of age, and the clinical and laboratory findings of the inpatients (217 patients, 80 had pneumonia between 1 September 2009 and 31 January 2010 in a single hospital throughout the epidemic. Results The age distribution of all the subjects was relatively even. Over 90% of cases occurred during a two-month period. Two hundred and five patients (94.5% received oseltamivir within 48 h of fever onset, and 97% of inpatients defervesced within 48 h of medication. The group with pneumonia included more males than females, and had higher leukocytes counts with lower lymphocyte differentials than the group without pneumonia. The white blood cell count and lymphocyte differential were associated with the severity of pneumonia. Corticosteroid treatment for severe pneumonia patients was highly effective in preventing disease progression. Conclusion Children of all ages affected with even rates of infection, but males were predominant in pneumonia patients. Pneumonia patients showed lymphopenia and its severity was associated with the severity of illness. Our results suggest that the mechanism of lung injury in 2009 H1N1 virus infection may be associated with the host immune response.

  4. Pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis

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    M. V. Koroleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: improving the efficiency of pharmacotherapy of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis by clarifying pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features.Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of primary medical records of 250 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, patients «Volgograd Regional Clinical TB Dispensary № 1». We evaluated the dynamics of biochemical parameters characterizing the development of hepatic cytolytic syndrome, examined the impact of gender and age on the incidence of liver damage, we investigated the relationship of clinical tuberculosis and chemotherapy regimen with the incidence of drug-induced liver injury, examined the clinical manifestations of liver disease.Results: Drug-induced liver injury as a complication of a specific anti-TB treatment was diagnosed in 67 patients (26,8%. In 170 patients (68,0% showed increase in alanine aminotransferase and asparaginaminotrasferazy. Hepatotoxicity significantly more common in patients with disseminated tuberculosis with the collapse of the lung tissue, smear, and a high degree of disease severity. Risk factors for drug liver damage were female gender and age older than 50 years. Women develop liver disease at an earlier date, and displays it harder than men. The earliest and most informative routine biochemical tests, reflecting the state of the liver in the dynamics are ALT and AST. It was found that the mode of the standard anti-TB treatment determines the type of liver injury: the first, 2a and 3rd modes prevails cytolytic hepatocellular type, with 2b mode – combined (mixed type 4th – type of cholestatic liver damage. It was found that repeated, after the development of hepatotoxic reactions, the appointment of anti-TB drugs without gepatoprotektsii in 94% of patients leads to repeated drug-induced liver damage. Cancel specific therapy against the background of cytolytic syndrome promotes the formation of

  5. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

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    Kanungo Suman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year. Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.

  6. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of septic arthritis of the hip, 2006 to 2012, a seven-year review

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    Helder de Souza Miyahara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To epidemiologically characterize the population treated at our orthopedic clinic with a diagnosis of septic arthritic of the hip between 2006 and 2012.METHODS:Fifteen patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the hip between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics were surveyed; a sensitivity profile relating to the microorganisms that caused the infections and the complications relating to the patients' treatment and evolution were identified.RESULTS:Septic arthritis was more common among males. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures, after joint drainage was performed using the Smith-Petersen route. Among the comorbidities found, the most prevalent were systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The pathological joint conditions diagnosed prior to joint infection were osteoarthrosis and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The infectious agent most frequently isolated was Staphylococcus aureus. From the clinical and laboratory data investigated, 53.33% of the cases presented with fever, and all except one patient presented with increased measures in inflammation tests. Gram staining was positive in only 26.66% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented with joint complications after treatment was administered.CONCLUSION:S. aureus is the most common pathogen in acute infections of the hip in our setting. Factors such as clinical comorbidities are associated with septic arthritis of the hip. Because of the relatively small number of patients, given that this is a condition of low prevalence, there was no statistically significant correlation in relation to worse prognosis for the disease.

  7. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in China: an integrated data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, C-T; Lu, Q-B; Ding, S-J; Hu, C-Y; Hu, J-G; Wo, Y; Fan, Y-D; Wang, X-J; Qin, S-L; Cui, N; Yang, Z-D; Zhang, X-A; Liu, W; Cao, W-C

    2016-04-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease that was caused by a novel bunyavirus, SFTSV. The study aimed to disclose the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of SFTSV infection in China so far. An integrated clinical database comprising 1920 SFTS patients was constructed by combining first-hand clinical information collected from SFTS sentinel hospitals (n = 1159) and extracted data (n = 761) from published literature. The considered variables comprised clinical manifestations, routine laboratory tests of acute infection, hospitalization duration and disease outcome. SFTSV-IgG data from 19 119 healthy subjects were extracted from the published papers. The key clinical variables, case-fatality rate (CFR) and seroprevalence were estimated by meta-analysis. The most commonly seen clinical manifestations of SFTSV infection were fever, anorexia, myalgia, chill and lymphadenopathy. The major laboratory findings were elevated lactate dehydrogenase, aminotransferase, followed by thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, elevated alanine transaminase and creatine kinase. A CFR of 12·2% was estimated, significantly higher than that obtained from national reporting data, but showing no geographical difference. In our paper, the mortality rate was about 1·9 parts per million. Older age and longer delay to hospitalization were significantly associated with fatal outcome. A pooled seroprevalence of 3·0% was obtained, which increased with age, while comparable for gender. This study represents a clinical characterization on the largest group of SFTS patients up to now. A higher than expected CFR was obtained. A wider spectrum of clinical index was suggested to be used to identify SFTSV infection, while the useful predictor for fatal outcome was found to be restricted. PMID:26542444

  8. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 266 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage in Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-zhen HU; Jian-wen WANG; Ben-yan LUO

    2013-01-01

    Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors can influence disease susceptibility,clinical presentation,and outcome.We investigated the clinical characteristics (age,sex,seasonal variation,lesion site,symptoms,complications,prognosis,and sequelae) and risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 266 cases treated at our hospital in Hangzhou City,China,from January 2011 to December 2011.Risk of ICH increased dramatically with age; only 4.3%of cases were <30 years old,while 44.4% were >60 years of age.Men outnumbered women by 2:1 (67.3% vs.32.7%).Single hemorrhage was most often located in the cerebral lobes (37.2% of cases),basal ganglia (34.2%),thalamus (8.3%),cerebellum (6.8%),ventricle (1.5%),and brainstem (1.1%),while 10.9% of cases exhibited hemorrhages at multiple sites.Hypertension was also a major risk factor for ICH,as 47% of all patients were hypertensive and the percentage increased with age.In hypertensive patients,the most common hemorrhage site was the basal ganglia and ICH was often associated with thrombopenia.In patients with leukemia (all forms),most hemorrhages were lobar.Warfarin-and encephalic operation-associated ICHs were all lobar.Headache was the major symptom of occipital,temporal,and frontal lobe hemorrhage.Dizziness,nausea,and vomiting were the major symptoms of cerebellum hemorrhage.Limb dysfunction was the major symptom of thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage.Disturbed level of consciousness was the major symptom in multisite,ventricular,parietal lobe,and brainstem hemorrhage.Hyperspasmia occurred most often in lobar hemorrhage and blurred vision in occipital lobe hemorrhage.Hospital mortality was 24.4% (n=65) with a mean delay from presentation to death of (10.5±18.5) d.The majority of fatalities were cerebral hernia cases (58.5%) and these patients also had the shortest time to death [(2.9±3.5) d].Mortality was 100%in brainstem ICH and hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarct

  9. " Evaluation Of Some Epidemiologic Parameters, Risk Factors, Clinical And Audiological Characteristics Of 48 Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss "

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    M. Amiridavan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL is an emergency situation, and is one of the most controversial subjects in domain of otolaryngology. In this article, we have analyzed some Epidemiologic Characteristics, clinical features, audiological Characteristics, and other findings in routine serological tests and MRI of 48 cases with SSNHL ,who came or were referred to us in the past 2 years. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: In 48 patients with chief complaint of SSNHL, from June 2003 to Feb. 2005, who were admitted in clinic of otolaryngology- in Kashani Hospital -Isfahan- Iran, physical examination and history taking, audiological evaluation, MRI,and serological tests were performed in a similar way , and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 48 cases(M:28 ,F:20 with mean age of 40.9(+/-15.9 years, left ear was involved in 26 cases (54.1% ,and right ear in 19 cases (39.5% ,and in 3 cases (6.3%,both sides were involved. The severity of hearing loss was “subjectively” HIGH in 78% of patients, and the mean threshold of hearing had been calculated as 69 dB. The most common pattern in pure tone audiometry curves ,was ‘flat pattern’(75% ,and then ,’down sloping pattern’(16%.The most adjunctive clinical symptom was “tinnitus”(in 78.7%, and 40% of patients had “true vertigo”. 44.4% of our patients had some evidences of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs during recent 2 weeks. Positive family history, smoking, alcohol intake ,oral contraceptive and ototoxic drugs consumption were uncommon. 24% of cases (11 of 39 had increased ESR, and 100% of 39 patients had negative VDRL. Diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease (in 6 cases.From 20 patients ,who were succeeded to perform brain and ear MRI, 2 cases had tumor in internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. Conclusion: SSNHL has some limitations in being studied histopathologically or in the form of

  10. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine

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    Lima EJF

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eduardo JF Lima,1,2 Maria JG Mello,1,2 Maria FPM Albuquerque,3 Maria IL Lopes,4 George HC Serra,2 Maria AZ Abreu-Lima,2 Jailson B Correia1 1Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira - IMIP Recife; 2Faculdade, Pernambucana de Saúde - FPS Recife; 3Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, FIOCRUZ; 4Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Background: Pneumonia is an important cause of morbimortality in Brazil, despite the extensive vaccination coverage and the socioeconomic improvement in the past years. Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of severe community-acquired pneumonia in children after the introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10. Methods: A prospective study included children <5 years old hospitalized for pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 in a tertiary hospital. Newborns and children with comorbidities were excluded. Pneumonia classification followed the clinical and radiological criteria established by World Health Organization (WHO. Clinical history, nutritional status, immunizations, diagnosis, disease course, and prognosis were analyzed. Results: Among 452 children, almost 70% were <2 years, with no sex differences, and 10% had weight-for-age z score below than -2.0. Family income was up to one minimum wage in half the households, and 40% of mothers had completed high school. The suitability of both influenza and PCV10 vaccine schedules was ~50%. The first medical care happened later than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms in 42% of cases. Pneumonia was classified as severe or very severe in 83.9% of patients and for 23% as complicated. Global mortality was 1.5%. Hypoxia, diagnosed in 51.5% of children, looked like a better prognosis predictor than the WHO classification. Conclusion: New strategies for health care are necessary, such as the incorporation of peripheral saturometry as the

  11. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICA

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    Ratheesh T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinea versicolor is a chronic, mild, usually asymptomatic infection of the stratum corneum. The lesions are discrete or confluent and appear as discolored or hypo pigmented areas of the skin. The affected areas are located principally on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities and back. The etiologic agent is the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, part of the normal flora of the human skin. This study is undertaken to know “clinical, patterns of the disease with respect to morphology and distribution, associated conditions and epidemiological factors like age, sex distribution and seasonal variation of the disease”. METHODS: Two hundred patients of tinea versicolor were selected. Patients belonging to the age group of above 10 years and below 60 years belonging to both sexes were selected and included in the study group after taking consent. A detailed history was taken with particular reference to onset, duration, symptoms and treatment taken and were recorded. Factors like – seasonal variation, family history and presence of any associated illnesses was also noted. A thorough clinical examination was done with reference to the location, the color, the extent of the lesions, the margins, the type of lesions and the details were recorded. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination and Wood’s lamp examination were done in all the patients before therapy. RESULTS: Out of 200 patients, majority of them belong to 2nd and 3rd decade of life (72%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a family history of 16%. The trunk was the most common site involved. Majority of the patients had exacerbation in summer. The most common associated dermatoses were acne vulgaris, immunosuppression and infections. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Tinea versicolor is a disease of worldwide distribution, although it is significantly more common in humid and tropical climates. The true incidence cannot be estimated precisely because the disease is

  12. Clinical, epidemiological and endoscopic characteristics of the synovial plica in patients with arthroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective study of patients with surgical treatment of the knee through arthroscopy was carried out at the Rheumatology Service, belonging to 'Saturnino Lora' Teaching Clinical Surgical Provincial Hospital from Santiago de Cuba during the years 2000-2009; a decade in which 663 knees were surgically treated and, 208 due to a synovial plica. This last one turned out to be the most frequent disease, with predominance in the female sex and the ages from 16 to 25 years. There was a marked clinicoarthroscopic correspondence. Preoperative diagnosis consisted of lesion of the internal meniscus, chondromalacia patellae and synovitis, reason why they should be kept in mind as differential diagnosis in this syndrome. The way of healing the surgical section of the synovial plica is the cause of symptomatic relapse and surgical reintervention, as it happened in the patients of the case material 54,0 %, mainly attributable to fibrosis in the wound area.(author)

  13. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of traumatic brain injury: Evidences from integrated level 1 trauma center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Agrawal, Deepak; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, disability, and socioeconomic losses in the Indian subcontinent. However, for policymaking and research, there is a lack of reliable and larger data in our settings. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with TBI in a Level 1 Trauma Center in India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients with moderate or severe TBI, based on emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, admitted to neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during May 2010–July 2012 were evaluated to provide detailed information on TBI-related variables and outcomes using descriptive statistics. Results: Among the 1527 patients with moderate or severe TBI patients with mean age 32.15 ± 16.76 years (range: 1–90) and male:female ratio 6.5:1, 1281 (83.89%) had severe TBI. The majority of cases took place in the age group of 21–40 years (50.24%) with the most common mode of injury as road traffic accidents (RTAs) (64.96%). Surgical intervention (craniotomy) was done in 49.12% of patients. About 34.58% (n = 528) patients died in hospital, and 67.21% (n = 701) had unfavorable outcome at 6 months. Conclusions: This is the first study of its kind from the Indian subcontinent that gives data on the admission characteristics, mortality, and 6 months outcome of such patients. Most of the injuries occurred due to RTAs, more common among the economic productive age groups and mostly in males with a high rate of mortality and unfavorable outcome.

  14. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

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    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  15. Epidemiology for the clinical neurologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M E; Ganguli, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is a foundation of all clinical and public health research and practice. Epidemiology serves seven important uses for the advancement of medicine and public health. It enables community diagnosis by quantifying risk factors and diseases in the community; completes the clinical picture of disease by revealing the entire distribution of disease and presenting meaningful population averages from representative samples; identifies risk factors for disease by detecting and quantifying associations between exposures and disease and evaluating causal hypotheses; computes individual risk to identify high-risk groups to whom preventive interventions can be targeted; evaluates historic trends that monitor disease over time and provide clues to etiology; delineates new syndromes and disease subtypes not previously apparent in clinical settings, helping to streamline effective disease management; and investigates the effects of health services on population health to identify effective public health interventions. The clinician with a grasp of epidemiologic principles is in a position to critically evaluate the research literature, to apply it to clinical practice, and to undertake valid clinical epidemiology research with patients in clinical settings. PMID:27637949

  16. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and resource implications of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in intensive care units in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients in Ireland with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, and to provide a dynamic assessment of the burden of such cases on Irish intensive care units.

  17. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with glaucoma: An analysis of hospital data between 2003 and 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhao; Jia-Li Fu; Yu-Li Li; Ping Li; Feng-Lan Lou

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess demographic and clinical characteristics of glaucoma patients in an Ophthalmologic Hospital of Jinan, China from 2003 to 2012. Materials and Methods: Medical charts of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and secondary glaucoma (SG) were reviewed. The main outcome measures of patients with glaucoma included basic demographic data (age at presentation, gender, and residence), clinical characteristics (admission date, intrao...

  18. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

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    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  19. An Analysis of Epidemiological Characteristics and the Clinical Features of 394 Cases of Sporadic Acute Hepatitis E in Southwest China from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Recently, epidemiology studies of hepatitis E in different areas are attracted more attention. Extensive studies of prevalent status and clinical manifestations could help us to broaden our knowledge, so as to excellently prevent and treat hepatitis E. The study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of 394 cases of sporadic acute hepatitis E (AHE) in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010. Methods The clinical data of 394 cases with sporadic AHE in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed. Results In the 394 cases with sporadic AHE, the ratio of male/female was 1.432∶1, and the mean age was (31.53 ± 18.12) years. Totally, 94 (23.86%) patients aged under 18, 271 (68.78%) patients aged between 18 and 60, and 29 (7.36%) patients aged above 60. The incidence rate was signiifcantly increased in summer (P = 0.000), especially in May (14.72%) and July (13.71%). In addition, the characteristics of occupation and ethnic group distribution were migrant laborers (106/394, 26.90%) and Han people (365/394, 92.64%). The length of stay, incidence of jaundice, the peak value of total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in male patients were all higher than those in female patients signiifcantly (P 0.05). Conclusions Four epidemiological characteristics, including aged between 18 and 60, male, summer and migrant laborers, are found to be associated with acute hepatitis E. The prognosis of AHE in the majority of patients was favorable, but aged above 60 years and coexistence with CHB, AFL and NAFLD could be considerede as the factors inducing the infaust prognosis.

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

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    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  1. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  2. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: A report on 20 patients

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    Baymakova Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis E is one of the leading clinical manifestations of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, during the past several years, sporadic “autochthonous” cases of HEV infection have been increased. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of HEV infection among patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods. A retrospective study of 806 cases of acute viral hepatitis was performed at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, between December 2004 and September 2012. The etiological diagnosis was established by ELISA. The statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA and SPSS Statistics 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA. Results. Specific reaction to anti-HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (2.48% of 806 patients. The most observed clinical presentations were jaundice (85%, fatigue (85%, anorexia (65%, abdominal discomfort (55% and fever (40%. The mean values of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were 521 IU/l and 881 IU/l, respectively. The cholestasis was slight, marked with mean values of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, respectively 418 IU/l and 486 IU/l. Conclusion. We report twenty autochthonous sporadic cases of acute infection with HEV. The zoonotic etiology of the virus as well as the foodborne transmission of the infection is discussed. We found that aging and pre-existing underlying diseases are risk factors for a severe course of the HEV infection.

  3. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Liang Woon; Chee Peng Hor; Narwani Hussin; Ariza Zakaria; Pik Pin Goh; Wee Kooi Cheah

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality ...

  4. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Liang Woon; Chee Peng Hor; Narwani Hussin; Ariza Zakaria; Pik Pin Goh; Wee Kooi Cheah

    2016-01-01

    Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia.We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and i...

  5. Epidemiology of psoriasis: clinical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, G G; Duvic, M

    1994-06-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically inherited spectrum of skin diseases characterized by epidermal proliferation and inflammation, which are reversible. Although many have reported that psoriasis is triggered by trauma, infections, stress, drugs, etc., the epidemiology of psoriasis remains poorly understood. Linkage to human leukocyte antigen-(HLA)-Cw6 and DR7 is strong in people with early onset disease, but concordance in monozygotic twins is only 67%, emphasizing the importance of a triggering event. Other factors that have been reported to affect the course of psoriasis include upper respiratory infections, smoking, obesity, alcohol ingestion, regional enteritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. This manuscript reviews the clinical epidemiology of psoriasis and highlights some of the needs for further investigation into specific areas of the disease.

  6. [Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group.

  7. DEMOGRAPHICAL, VIRO-IMMUNOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A “EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY UNEXPLORED” REGION OF ITALY (CALABRIA REGION: THE CALABRHIV COHORT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concetta Postorino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives   HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy.   Methods   The CalabrHIV cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information were recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension were also studied.   Results   548 patients (68% males; 63% aged 50 years-old patients than in <50 years-old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001. Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006.   Conclusion   This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. Despite a small number of officially reported cases, the size of the cohort was substantial. We showed that HIV infected patients with chronic hepatites, were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are eagerly awaited.

  8. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Viet Nam

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    Phan Thanh Tinh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in hospitals in Viet Nam between August 2009 and March 2010.Of 58 fatal cases, 32 (55% were below 30 years of age and 14 (24% were pregnant females. Forty-five (78% patients had at least one underlying medical condition including chronic heart, kidney or lung diseases or pregnancy. Twelve (21% cases sought medical attention on the day of symptom onset. Only 13 (36% of 36 cases for whom treatment data were available had been given antiviral drugs within the recommended two days of symptom onset.The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 are similar to those reported from other countries. To improve preparedness and response to future pandemics, Viet Nam needs to strengthen the surveillance of influenza; increase laboratory capacity to test for influenza viruses; and develop strategies for promoting the timely attendance of at-risk individuals at health facilities and the early administration of antiviral drugs, particularly for persons with underlying medical conditions and pregnant females.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for mortality in patients with candidemia in hospitals from Bogotá, Colombia

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    Jorge Alberto Cortés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Bloodstream infection by Candida species has a high mortality in Latin American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with documented bloodstream infections caused by Candida species in third level hospitals and determine the risk factors for in-hospital-mortality.Methods:Patients from seven tertiary-care hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia, with isolation of a Candida species from a blood culture were followed prospectively from March 2008 to March 2009. Epidemiologic information, risk factors, and mortality were prospectively collected. Isolates were sent to a reference center, and fluconazole susceptibility was tested by agar-based E-test. The results of susceptibility were compared by using 2008 and 2012 breakpoints. A multivariate analysis was used to determinate risk factors for mortality.Results:We identified 131 patients, with a median age of 41.2 years. Isolates were most frequently found in the intensive care unit (ICU. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (66.4% of the isolates, followed by C. parapsilosis (14%. Fluconazole resistance was found in 3.2% and 17.6% of the isolates according to the 2008 and 2012 breakpoints, respectively. Fluconazole was used as empirical antifungal therapy in 68.8% of the cases, and amphotericin B in 22%. Hospital crude mortality rate was 35.9%. Mortality was associated with age and the presence of shock at the time of Candida detection. Fluconazole therapy was a protective factor for mortality.Conclusions:Candidemia is associated with a high mortality rate. Age and shock increase mortality, while the use of fluconazole was shown to be a protective factor. A higher resistance rate with new breakpoints was noted.

  10. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Mucormycosis in Patients with Leukemia; A 21-year Experience from Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene S. Sarvestani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the epidemiological aspect of mucormycosis, the nature of malignancies complicated by mucormycosis, the initial site of involvement and the subsequent outcome. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was performed by reviewing the medical records of 95 patients with leukemia complicated with biopsy-proven mucormycosis admitted to the educational hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences over a 21-year period. We recorded demographic information including age and sex and disease characteristics such as type of leukemia, site of involvement, paraclinical findings at the time of admission and the outcome of the patients. The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia was determined by identifying the number of leukemia patients diagnosed within the last 17 years. Results: The male to female ratio was 2.39:1 in of 95 patients studied. The overall incidence rate of mucormycosis was 4.27 per 100 leukemic patients in last 17 years which showed a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent type of leukemia was acute myelogenous leukemia (AML which was found in 58 patients (61.5%. The most common site of initial tumor involvement was sinonasal (90.16%. The mortality rate was about 54%, compared to the mortality rate of about 43.24% in patients with best prognosis of AML. Conclusion: The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia showed a decreasing trend in our country and its recent incidence is comparable to that of other regions. The best preventive method against this lethal infection is to modify and control the environment which reduces the risk of exposure to air-born fungal spores.

  11. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients with glaucoma: An analysis of hospital data between 2003 and 2012

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    Yang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess demographic and clinical characteristics of glaucoma patients in an Ophthalmologic Hospital of Jinan, China from 2003 to 2012. Materials and Methods: Medical charts of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG, and secondary glaucoma (SG were reviewed. The main outcome measures of patients with glaucoma included basic demographic data (age at presentation, gender, and residence, clinical characteristics (admission date, intraocular pressure, and naked vision, and previous history (injury, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: Data from 1458 glaucoma patients were reviewed, of which PACG and SG patients accounted for 45.40% and 47.19%, respectively. The average age of all patients with glaucoma increased from 56.05 years in 2003 to 57.83 years in 2012, and the proportion of patients from rural areas rose from 46.43% to 59.13% during 10-year period. Female gender, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension were associated with PACG. POAG was related to smoking and alcohol consumption. There was positive correlation between SG and history of injury and diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: PACG and SG are the major types of glaucoma. Gender, injury, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, smoking, and alcohol consumption were associated with different types of glaucoma.

  12. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  13. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Yuan Liang; Hor, Chee Peng; Hussin, Narwani; Zakaria, Ariza; Goh, Pik Pin; Cheah, Wee Kooi

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years), adults (15–59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) to compare their clinical characteristics. Results A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038) being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040). But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018). More than half (54%) suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69%) and severe bleeding (29.7%). Conclusion In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths. Trial Registration

  14. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liang Woon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia.We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years, adults (15-59 years and elderly (≥60 years to compare their clinical characteristics.A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038 being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040. But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018. More than half (54% suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69% and severe bleeding (29.7%.In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths.National Medical Research Registry (NMRR, NMRR-14-1374-23352.

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of salmoneilosis in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Vladimir; Stefanović Slavica; Đurić Predrag

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Salmonella infections are the most common food-born diseases transmitted from animals to humans. Epidemics of salmonellosis occur after eating improperly cooked contaminated foods. Material and methods A descriptive epidemiological method was used to analyze epidemiological characteristics of salmonellosis in Vojvodina in the period 1978-2003. Results During this period there were 26 851 cases of salmonellosis (mean annual incidence of 51.1/100 000 and mean annual mortality of 0....

  16. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

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    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  17. Inflammatory breast cancer in North Africa: Comparison of clinical and molecular epidemiologic characteristics of patients from Egypt, Tunisia, and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Amr S; Kleer, Celina G.; Mrad, Karima; Karkouri, Mehdi; Omar, Sherif; Khaled, Hussein M.; Benider, Abdel-Latif; Ayed, Farhat Ben; Eissa, Saad S.; Eissa, Mohab S.; McSpadden, Erin J.; Lo, An-Chi; Toy, Kathy; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Xiao, Quin

    2011-01-01

    Understanding molecular characteristics that distinguish inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) from non-IBC is crucial for elucidating breast cancer etiology and management. We included 3 sets of patients from Egypt (48 IBC and 64 non-IBC), Tunisia (24 IBC and 40 non-IBC), and Morocco (42 IBC and 41 non-IBC). Egyptian IBC patients had the highest combined erythema, edema, peau d'orange, and metastasis among the 3 IBC groups. Egyptian IBC tumors had the highest RhoC expression than Tunisians and Mo...

  18. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of currently alive HIV-1 infected former blood donors naive to antiretroviral therapy in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; SU Bing; DING Xin-ping; GAO Bing; GU Yong-bin; CAO Xiao-yun; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue; PENG Hong; ZHAO Quan-bi; YUAN Lin; WANG Jian-jun; FENG Yi; ZHANG Gui-yun; MA Li-ying; WU Lan; SHAO Yi-ming; HAN Li-feng; XU Chen; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Zhen-hou; CHEN Xi; LIU Zhen-dong; WANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Unregulated commercial blood/plasma collection among farmers occurred between 1992 and 1995 in central China and caused the second major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection in China. It is important to characterize HIV-1-infected former blood donors and to study characteristics associated with disease progression for future clinical intervention and vaccine development.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1-infected former blood donors (FBDs) and age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents. Demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and key laboratory data were collected from all study participants. Both unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regressions were employed to analyze the association of the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts with other characteristics.Results Two hundred and ninety-four HIV-1-infected FBDs and 59 age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents were enrolled in this study. The unregulated blood/plasma collection occurred more than a decade (10.8- 12.8 years) ago, which caused the rapid spread of HIV-1 infection and the high prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV, 89.5%); hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was observed in only 11 HIV+participants (3.7%). Deterioration in both clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters and increase of viral loads were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts. The decrease of total lymphocyte counts (P<0.001)and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and the appearance of dermatosis (P=0.03) were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts whereas viral loads (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-cell counts (P=0.01) were inversely associated with CD4+ T-cell counts.Conclusions Co-infection with HCV but not HBV is highly prevalent among HIV-1-infected FBDs. CD4+ T-cell counts is a reliable indicator for disease progression among FBDs. Total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin level and appearance of dermatosis were positively

  19. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Patients with Condilomatosis Características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes afectados por condilomatosis

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    Graciela Caridad Cabrera Acea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Condyloma acuminatum is a common condition in our country and the world. It is considered to be a sexually transmitted infection, but it is commonly unreported. Objective: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with condilomatosis. Methods: A case series study was conducted in Health Areas number II, V and VII of Cienfuegos. The sample included 72 patients diagnosed with condyloma acuminatum. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, educational level, residence area, location of lesions, number of sexual partners referred in the past 12 months, personal medical history of sexually transmitted infections and associated infections, sexual preferences and way of disease detection. Results: Genital condilomatosis was the most frequent infection. Females were predominant mostly between 20 and 39 years old (51.4%, while 55.6% (66.7% of patients had achieved a secondary educational level and presented a personal medical history of sexually transmitted infections and associated infections prior to diagnosis. Concomitant infections were found in 23, 6% of patients: 70.6% of the cases presented bacterial vaginosis. Condyloma acuminatum was predominant in heterosexual patients and in those who reported between 2 and 3 sexual partners in the last 12 months. Most cases were diagnosed spontaneously. Conclusions: The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients diagnosed with condilomatosis in the Health Areas number II, V and VII are similar to those reported in other cases studied in the country and the world.Fundamento: el condiloma acuminado es una afección frecuente en nuestro país y en el mundo, considerada una infección de transmisión sexual, pero que no es notificada habitualmente. Objetivo: determinar las principales características cl

  20. Multicentric study of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of persons injured in motor vehicle accidents in Medellín, Colombia, 2009-2010

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    Luz Helena Lugo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Introduction: Traffic accidents (TA cause 1.23 million deaths each year worldwide while between 20 and 50 million persons are injured each year. In 2011 in Medellin, Colombia, there were 307 traffic deaths and 23,835 injured with 411 accidents for each 10,000 vehicles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, as well as the quality of life and disability outcomes for those injured in traffic accidents in Medellin. Methods: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study collected data from 834 patients that were classified with the New Injury Severity Score (NISS , the WHODAS-II (Disability Assessment Scale and the SF-36 Health Survey. Results: Three-fourths (75.8% of the patients were male. Eightyone percent of patients were involved in motorcycle accidents, with 45.6% suffering moderate trauma, and 32.6% experiencing severe trauma. Of the patients with severe trauma, 8.5% were not wearing helmets. Half of the sample (49.7% injured their extremities. The WHODAS-II domains most affected were: Activities outside the home (62.0 %, Housework (54.3% and Moving in one’s environment (45.2 %. Quality of life areas affected were: Physical role (20.3%, Body pain (37.3 % Emotional role (44.1%, Physical functioning (52.6 %. Conclusions: Patients with more severe injuries had higher levels of disability and a worse quality of life. Motorcycles made up a large proportion of traffic accidents in this city and mitigation strategies to reduce this public health problem should particularly focus on this high-risk group. 

  1. Clinical Epidemiology and Molecular Analysis of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Nepal: Characteristics of Sequence Types 131 and 648

    OpenAIRE

    Sherchan, Jatan Bahadur; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Tohru; Ohmagari, Norio; Kirikae, Teruo; Nagamatsu, Maki; Tojo, Masayoshi; Ohara,Hiroshi; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tandukar, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Recently, CTX-M-type extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains have emerged worldwide. In particular, E. coli with O antigen type 25 (O25) and sequence type 131 (ST131), which is often associated with the CTX-M-15 ESBL, has been increasingly reported globally; however, epidemiology reports on ESBL-producing E. coli in Asia are limited. Patients with clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli in the Tribhuvan University teaching hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, were...

  2. Clinical epidemiological characteristics of chronic urticaria: report of 535 cases%535例慢性荨麻疹临床流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婕; 郝飞; 宋志强; 钟华; 尹锐; 黄秀英; 李垚莹; 程良金; 向明明; 王莉

    2011-01-01

    % ), and others 54 (10. 0% ), whereas 263 (49. 2%) of the participants could not identify any trigger. The most common type was chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) , accounting for 294 (55. 0% ), followed by demographic urticaria factitia 120 (22. 4% ). While the rarest type was delayed pressure urticaria, vibratory urticaria and exercise induced urticaria type. An-gioedema in CU accounted for 105 (19.6% ), 70 (21.1% ) were female, and 76 (25.9% ) were CSU with it. Positive autologous serum skin test (ASST) was accounted for 49. 6%. Conclusion The high prevalence of CU is in the young populations, with various clinical manifestations. Coexisting with angioedema is not uncommon. Investigating CU clinical epidemiological characteristics is helpful to guide the therapy strategies.

  3. Epidemiological study of clinical characteristics of patients with PCOS attending infertility clinic and awareness of PCOS in a rural set up

    OpenAIRE

    Shubhada Jajoo; Riju Angik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age group. It is a common diagnosis in women presenting with infertility. All the dimensions of PCOS have not been completely explored. In this study we studied the clinical features of PCOS and comparing with non-PCOS infertility patients and simultaneously studied the prevalence of PCOS in infertility patients and its awareness in a rural set up. Methods: It is a prospect...

  4. Síndrome da mama fantasma: características clínicas e epidemiológicas Phantom breast syndrome: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Borges da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome da mama fantasma (SdMF ou com fenômenos fantasmas isoladamente. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo observacional descritivo do tipo transversal, envolvendo 98 pacientes tratadas por câncer de mama no Hospital São Marcos, em Teresina (PI, empregando um questionário padronizado. RESULTADOS: observou-se SdMF em 11,2% das pacientes e sensação fantasma isolada em 30% das pacientes. A média de idade foi 54 anos. Cinqüenta e nove pacientes eram casadas (60% e 79,6% eram analfabetas ou não haviam concluído o ensino médio. Alterações emocionais estavam presentes em 67,4%, embora em 66,7% a libido não tenha mudado após o procedimento cirúrgico. Como fator de melhora da dor fantasma, o repouso foi citado por 90,9% das pacientes, enquanto esforços físicos foram mencionados como fator de exacerbação dos sintomas em 63,6% dos casos. A média da nota atribuída à dor em escala de 0 a 10 foi 3, variando de 1 a 7. Apenas 3% das pacientes sabiam da existência desta síndrome antes da realização das entrevistas. CONCLUSÕES: fenômenos fantasmas são freqüentes em pacientes mastectomizadas, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para que se conheçam melhor suas características e o impacto sobre a qualidade de vida dessas mulheres.PURPOSE: to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with the diagnosis of phantom breast syndrome or with phantom phenomena lonely. METHODS: it was conducted an observational, descriptive and sectional study enrolling 98 patients treated for breast cancer at Hospital São Marcos, Teresina (PI, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: the phantom breast syndrome was observed in 11.2% of the patients and phantom sensation alone was observed in 30% of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 54 years. Fifty-nine patients were married (60% and 79.5% were

  5. Models for discrete epidemiological and clinical data

    OpenAIRE

    McElduff, F. C.

    2012-01-01

    Discrete data, often known as frequency or count data, comprises of observations which can only take certain separate values, resulting in a more restricted numerical measurement than those provided by continuous data and are common in the clinical sciences and epidemiology. The Poisson distribution is the simplest and most common probability model for discrete data with observations assumed to have a constant rate of occurrence amongst individual units with the property of equ...

  6. Analysis of epidemiology and clinical characteristics in 22 case of leishmaniasis%黑热病流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红卫; 李书武; 胡丹; 兰敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To imoprove the diagnosis of leishmaniasis based on the clinical analysis of of leish-maniasis.Methods The data of 22 cases of leishmaniasis patients were retrospectively analyzed, including epi-demiological data, clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, diagnosis, therapeutic procedures and prognosis. Results leishmaniasis has no specific clinical manifestations,The main clinical manifestations were fever, spleen and lymph node enlargement and complete blood cell decrease. All patients were effective treated with sodium pentavalent antimony gluconate (SPAG). Conclusion leishmaniasis is easily misdiagnosed. If leishmaniais is sus-pected, bone marrow biopsy, rk-39 strip test for visceral leishmaniasis pathogen should be done to improve the outcome. SPAG is the first choice for leishmaniasis chemotherapy.%目的:分析22例黑热病患者临床资料,提高黑热病诊断水平。方法:回顾性分析22例黑热病的流行情况、临床表现、实验室检查、诊治及转归。结果:黑热病无特异的临床表现,发热、肝脾淋巴结肿大、全血细胞减少为黑热病的主要临床表现。葡萄糖酸锑治疗有效。结论:黑热病误诊率较高。骨髓涂片或活检,查找立什曼原虫,结合39ku蛋白重组抗原(rk39)检测,能正确作出诊断。葡萄糖酸锑治疗有效。

  7. Clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rusheng; Chen, Tianmu; Ou, Xinhua; Liu, Ruchun; Yang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Sun, Biancheng; Zhang, Xixing; Zhou, Jianxiang; Sun, Yan; Chen, Faming; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A human infection with novel avian influenza A H5N6 virus emerged in Changsha city, China in February, 2014. This is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. We obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. Complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. A girl aged five and half years developed fever and mild respiratory symptoms on Feb. 16, 2014 and visited hospital on Feb. 17. Throat swab specimens were obtained from the patient and a novel reassortant avian influenza A H5N6 virus was detected. All eight viral gene segments were of avian origin. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments were closely related to A/duck/Sichuan/NCXN11/2014(H5N1) and A/chicken/Jiangxi/12782/2014(H10N6) viruses, respectively. The six internal genes were homologous to avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses isolated in duck from Jiangxi in China. This H5N6 virus has not gained genetic mutations necessary for human infection and was suggested to be sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but resistant to adamantanes. Epidemiological investigation of the exposure history of the patient found that a live poultry market could be the source place of infection and the incubation period was 2-5days. This novel reassortant Avian influenza A(H5N6) virus could be low pathogenic in humans. The prevalence and genetic evolution of this virus should be closely monitored. PMID:26973295

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rusheng; Chen, Tianmu; Ou, Xinhua; Liu, Ruchun; Yang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Sun, Biancheng; Zhang, Xixing; Zhou, Jianxiang; Sun, Yan; Chen, Faming; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A human infection with novel avian influenza A H5N6 virus emerged in Changsha city, China in February, 2014. This is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. We obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. Complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. A girl aged five and half years developed fever and mild respiratory symptoms on Feb. 16, 2014 and visited hospital on Feb. 17. Throat swab specimens were obtained from the patient and a novel reassortant avian influenza A H5N6 virus was detected. All eight viral gene segments were of avian origin. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments were closely related to A/duck/Sichuan/NCXN11/2014(H5N1) and A/chicken/Jiangxi/12782/2014(H10N6) viruses, respectively. The six internal genes were homologous to avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses isolated in duck from Jiangxi in China. This H5N6 virus has not gained genetic mutations necessary for human infection and was suggested to be sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but resistant to adamantanes. Epidemiological investigation of the exposure history of the patient found that a live poultry market could be the source place of infection and the incubation period was 2–5 days. This novel reassortant Avian influenza A(H5N6) virus could be low pathogenic in humans. The prevalence and genetic evolution of this virus should be closely monitored. PMID:26973295

  9. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an “Epidemiologically Unexplored” Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). Methods The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. Results 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged 50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). Conclusion This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population. PMID:26543523

  10. A Comparison of Work-Exacerbated Asthma Cases from Clinical and Epidemiological Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberger, Paul K; Xiaoming Liang; Catherine Lemière

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical and epidemiological studies commonly use different case definitions in different settings when investigating work-exacerbated asthma (WEA). These differences are likely to impact characteristics of the resulting WEA cases.OBJECTIVES: To investigate this issue by comparing two groups of WEA cases, one identified using an intensive clinical evaluation and another that fulfilled epidemiological criteria.METHODS: A total of 53 clinical WEA cases had been referred for suspecte...

  11. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  12. Main clinical epidemiological features of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 95 patients with lung cancer, discharged from Neumology Service at 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, was carried out from January, 2008 to December, 2008 in order to identify the main clinical epidemiological features of the aforementioned disease. A malignancy predominance among men aged between 56 and 65 years old, belonging to urban areas and being heavy smoker (out of 30 cigarettes per day over 30 years ), was found. Those affected without a confirmed histological type and IV clinical stage epidermoid carcinoma were predominant. Most of them had the opportunity to be treated. Increasing and intensifying health promotion and disease prevention campaigns were recommended so as to achieve the population to avoid or quit the smoking habit. (author)

  13. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  14. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease. PMID:27005530

  15. Epidemiological characteristics of human prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cao; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Human prion diseases are a group of transmissible, progressive, and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorders, which include Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia. Human prion diseases affect approximately 1-2 persons per million worldwide annually, occurring in sporadic, inherited, and acquired forms. These diseases have attracted both scientific and public attention not only because of their mysterious pathogen, but also due to their considerable threat to public health since the emergence of the variant CJD.There are still no specific therapeutic and prophylactic interventions available for prion diseases, thus active surveillance of human prion diseases is critical for disease control and prevention. Since 1993, CJD surveillance systems have been established in many countries and regions, and several long-term multinational cooperative projects have been conducted.In this paper, the epidemiological characteristics of various human prion diseases and the active surveillance systems pertaining to them in different countries and regions are summarized and reviewed. PMID:27251305

  16. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ana Carolina; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin, characterized by irregular brown macules symmetrically distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly on the face. It is a common cause of demand for dermatological care that affects mainly women (especially during the menacme), and more pigmented phenotypes (Fitzpatrick skin types III-V). Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Its pathogeny is not yet completely understood, although there are some known triggering factors such as sun exposure, pregnancy, sexual hormones, inflammatory processes of the skin, use of cosmetics, steroids, and photosensitizing drugs. There is also a clear genetic predisposition, since over 40% of patients reported having relatives affected with the disease. In this manuscript, the authors discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of melasma.

  17. Ebola outbreak in Conakry, Guinea: Epidemiological, clinical, and outcome features

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, M; Traoré, F A; Sako, F B; Kpamy, D O; Bah, E I; Poncin, M; S. Keita; Cisse, M; Touré, A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors studied the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome features of the Ebola virus disease in patients hospitalized at the Ebola treatment center (ETC) in Conakry to identify clinical factors associated with death.

  18. Papilledema: epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigi M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Rigi,1 Sumayya J Almarzouqi,2 Michael L Morgan,2 Andrew G Lee2–4 1Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, University of Texas, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Blanton Eye Institute, 3Baylor College of Medicine, 4Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, UTMB Galveston, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydrocephalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. Irrespective of the cause, visual loss is the feared morbidity of papilledema, and the main mechanism of optic nerve damage is intraneuronal ischemia secondary to axoplasmic flow stasis. Treatment is directed at correcting the underlying cause. In cases where there is no other identifiable cause for intracranial hypertension (ie, IIH the available options include both medical and surgical modalities. Weight loss and diuretics remain the mainstays for treatment of IIH, and surgery is typically reserved for patients who fail, are intolerant to, or non-compliant with maximum medical therapy. Keywords: papilledema, intracranial hypertension, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, epidemiology, papilledema management, papilledema etiology, acetazolamide, optic nerve sheath fenestration, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, lumboperitoneal shunt, venous sinus stenting

  19. Research progress of epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pertussis%百日咳临床特点及流行病学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红梅; 郑佳佳

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is an severe infectious respiratory disease that continues to be a serious public health problem,which is caused by Bordetella Pertussis.Because it's highly infectivity,it is still an important etiological factor associated with persistent cough in adults and adolescents.With the introduction of mass vaccination in 1974,there has been a dramatic decrease in the morbidity and mortality.However,in recent years,increasing numbers of pertussis are reported in adolescents and adults in many countries where with high vaccination coverage.The thesis summarize and discuss the progress of pertussis cpidemiology and clinical characteristics.%百日咳(pertussis,whooping cough)是由百日咳鲍特菌引起的一种可预防的严重急性呼吸道传染病,传染性较强,人群普遍易感,是严重威胁人类健康的主要传染病之一,是导致年长儿及成人长期咳嗽的常见病因.1974年全球实施扩大免疫计划以来,世界范围内的百日咳得到有效控制,发病率和病死率大幅下降.近年来,百日咳发病率有所上升,甚至发生局部暴发,从而对公共健康产生了巨大冲击.现就百日咳的临床特点、流行病学等方面进行综述.

  20. Clinical mastitis in ewes; bacteriology, epidemiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitle Bjørg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical mastitis is an important disease in sheep. The objective of this work was to identify causal bacteria and study certain epidemiological and clinical features of clinical mastitis in ewes kept for meat and wool production. Methods The study included 509 ewes with clinical mastitis from 353 flocks located in 14 of the 19 counties in Norway. Clinical examination and collection of udder secretions were carried out by veterinarians. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was performed on 92 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 64 ewes. Results and conclusion S. aureus was recovered from 65.3% of 547 clinically affected mammary glands, coagulase-negative staphylococci from 2.9%, enterobacteria, mainly Escherichia coli, from 7.3%, Streptococcus spp. from 4.6%, Mannheimia haemolytica from 1.8% and various other bacteria from 4.9%, while no bacteria were cultured from 13.2% of the samples. Forty percent of the ewes with unilateral clinical S. aureus mastitis also had a subclinical S. aureus infection in the other mammary gland. Twenty-four of 28 (86% pairs of S. aureus isolates obtained from clinically and subclinically affected mammary glands of the same ewe were indistinguishable by PFGE. The number of identical pairs was significantly greater than expected, based on the distribution of different S. aureus types within the flocks. One-third of the cases occurred during the first week after lambing, while a second peak was observed in the third week of lactation. Gangrene was present in 8.8% of the clinically affected glands; S. aureus was recovered from 72.9%, Clostridium perfringens from 6.3% and E. coli from 6.3% of the secretions from such glands. This study shows that S. aureus predominates as a cause of clinical ovine mastitis in Norway, also in very severe cases. Results also indicate that S. aureus is frequently spread between udder halves of infected ewes.

  1. History, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Zika: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Florisneide; da Glória Teixeira, Maria; da Conceição N. Costa, Maria; Rodrigues, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. Results. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. Conclusions. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was “strongly suspected.” However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge. PMID:26959260

  2. Analysis of the Epidemiologic & Clinical Characteristics of 88 Cases of Brucellosis%88例布鲁氏菌病例流行病学特征及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张志宇; 刘祥宁; 刘洪艳

    2014-01-01

    对沈阳市第六人民医院2009年1月至2011年12月收治的88例布鲁氏菌病(简称布病)患者的流行病学特征和临床表现特点进行了回顾性分析。分析结果表明:在88例布病病例中,男性与女性比例为4.9:1;21~60岁为布病的高发年龄段;5~9月份是布病的高发季节;牧民是主要的易感者;牛羊是布病的主要转染源。患者最共同的临床表现为发热,常见的临床表现有发汗、乏力、关节痛、腰痛及肝脾肿大等。布病仍然是我国重要的公共卫生问题,充分了解布病患者的流行病学特征和临床表现特点,将会为布病防治措施的制定和疫情的控制提供科学合理的依据。%The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics concerning 88 cases of brucellosis patients admitted for treat-ment from January 2009 to December 2011 in the six peoples Hospital of Shenyang were analyzed retrospectively. The results showed that in a total of 88 cases of brucellosis,ratio of male and female were 4. 9:1. The high incidence a-ges were between 21 ~ 60 years old;and the high incidence season was between May and September;herdsmen were among the main susceptible. Cattle,goats and sheep were the main transmission sources of brucellosis. The most common clinical manifestations of brucellosis are fever,sweating,fatigue,arthralgia,lumbago,and hepatosplenomeg-aly etc. Brucellosis is still an important public health problem in China. Full understanding the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of brucellosis will provide a scientific,reasonable basis for the constitution of the controlling measures,and keep the epidemic brucellosis under control.

  3. Epidemiologic Characteristics of Occupational Burns in Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed Jalil Mirmohammadi; Amir Houshang Mehrparvar; Kazem Kazemeini; Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Occupational burns are among the important causes of work-related fatalities and absenteeism. Epidemiologic assessment of these injuries is important to define high-risk jobs. We designed this study to evaluate the epidemiology of occupational burns in Yazd, an industrial province in Iran. Methods: This is a prospective study on work-related burns in a 1-year period (2008-2009). A questionnaire was completed for them about the characteristics of the burn injury. Results: Th...

  4. Analysis on epidemiology and clinical characteristics of 35 cases of impor-ted malaria%35例输入性疟疾流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱其荣; 梅小平

    2015-01-01

    目的::分析南充地区输入性疟疾的流行病学及临床特征,为提高早期诊断和改善预后提供理论依据。方法:对我院2010年1月至2013年8月收治的35例输入性疟疾患者的流行病学、临床表现、实验室检查、临床转归进行回顾性分析。结果:输入性疟疾患者主要为外出务工男性,临床表现各异,大多患者除畏寒、发热、热退后出汗外,伴随有乏力、纳差、寒战、头痛、肌肉酸痛,部分患者伴随咳嗽、咳痰、腹痛、腹泻、身黄、尿黄。实验室检测主要为白细胞、中性粒细胞百分比升高、血红蛋白、血小板下降,肝肾功、电解质异常。蒿甲醚治疗效果佳,蒿甲醚联合伯氨喹治疗复发病例有效。脑型疟疾预后差。结论:输入性疟疾临床表现复杂多样,详细询问流行病学史能提高早期诊断率,及时抗疟原虫治疗、有效的综合治疗能有效提高治愈率,改善预后。%Objective:To analyze the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of imported malaria in Nanchong area and to pro-vide a theoretical basis for early diagnosis and prognosis improvement. Methods:35 cases of imported malaria were enrolled from Janu-ary 2010 to August 2013 in our hospital. Retrospective method was used to analyze epidemiology,clinical manifestations,laboratory in-dexes,clinical outcome. Results:Imported malaria patients were mainly migrant male workers. Clinical manifestations varied,most pa-tients with chilly, fever, heat back sweating, accompanied by fatigue, anorexia, shiver, headache, muscle aches, part of patients with cough,expectoration,abdominal pain,diarrhea,yellow,yellow urine. Laboratory testing showed that leukocyte count and the percentage of neutrophile granulocyte were increased,while hemoglobin and platelet count were decreased,with liver and kidney dysfunction,and e-lectrolyte abnormality. Therapeutic effect of artemether was good. Artemether combined with

  5. Gamma Knife radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations in children/adolescents and adults. Part I: Differences in epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics, permanent complications, and bleeding in the latency period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare the epidemiologic, morphologic, and clinical characteristics of 92 children/adolescents (Group A) and 362 adults (Group B) with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) considered suitable for radiosurgery; to correlate radiosurgery-related permanent complication and post-radiosurgery bleeding rates in the 75 children/adolescents and 297 adults available for follow-up. Methods and Materials: Radiosurgery was performed with a model C 201-source Co6 Leksell Gamma Unit (Elekta Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden). Fisher exact two-tailed, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and two-sample binomial exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were significant differences between the two populations in sex (p = 0.015), clinical presentation (p = 0.001), and location (p = 0.008). The permanent complication rate was lower in younger (1.3%) than in older patients (5.4%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.213). The postradiosurgery bleeding rate was lower in Group A (1.3%) than in Group B (2.7%) (p = 0.694), with global actuarial bleeding rates of 0.56% per year and 1.15% per year, respectively. Conclusions: The different characteristics of child/adolescent and adult cAVMs suggest that they should be considered two distinct vascular disorders. The similar rates of radiosurgery-related complications and latency period bleeding in the two populations show that gamma knife radiosurgery does not expose young patients to a higher risk of sequelae than that for older patients

  6. The analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 patients with adult measles%成人麻疹99例流行病学和临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult measles,and to search methods for preventing and controlling measles epidemic. Methods The clinical data of 99 patients with adult measles were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of adult measles showed increasing trend. The patients with adult measles had the typical clinical manifestations including severe systemic toxic responses, high fever(79/99,79.80%),diarrhea(60/99,60.60%)and liver dysfunction(54/99,54.54%). Measles was easily misdiagnosed in earlier period(58/99,58.58%). But the incidence of complicationg was less(12/99,12.12%). Conclusions The key to prevent and control measles is diagnosing ,segregating and treating patients with measles in earlier period and vaccination in susceptible population.%目的 探讨本次成人麻疹流行病学和临床特点,以期更好的预防和控制麻疹.方法 对住院的99例麻疹患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 成人麻疹发病有增加趋势,临床症状典型,中毒症状重,多高热(79/99,79.80%)腹泻者多见(60/99,60.60%),易损害肝脏(54/99,54.54%),并发症不多(12/99,12.12%),早期容易误诊(58/99,58.58%).结论 对麻疹患者早诊断、早隔离、早治疗,对易感者加强麻疹疫苗接种是预防和控制麻疹的关键.

  7. Epidemiologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguinaldo C. Nardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In Brazil, National data regarding the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics of RCC diagnosed and treated by members of the SBU - Brazilian Society of Urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data were collected through an on line questionnaire available to the members of the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU. Between May 2007 and May 2008, voluntary participant urologists collected data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics from patients diagnosed with RCC in their practice. RESULTS: Fifty SBU affiliated institutions contributed with patient information to the study. Of the 508 patients, 58.9% were male, 78.9% were white, and the mean age was 59.8 years. Smoking history, high blood pressure and a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 were present in 14.8%, 46.1% and 17.9% of the patients, respectively. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography were the main diagnostic methods. The majority of the cases were localized tumors and metastasis were presented in 9.5% of the patients; 98.4% underwent nephrectomy. Clear cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. In comparison with private institutions, stage IV disease was less frequent among patients treated at public health services (P = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: RCC in Brazil is more common in white men in their sixth decade of life. Ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma and we found that localized disease was predominant. A national registry of RCC is feasible and may provide valuable information.

  8. Kinetics methods for clinical epidemiology problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlan, Alexandru Dan; Ross, John

    2015-11-17

    Calculating the probability of each possible outcome for a patient at any time in the future is currently possible only in the simplest cases: short-term prediction in acute diseases of otherwise healthy persons. This problem is to some extent analogous to predicting the concentrations of species in a reactor when knowing initial concentrations and after examining reaction rates at the individual molecule level. The existing theoretical framework behind predicting contagion and the immediate outcome of acute diseases in previously healthy individuals is largely analogous to deterministic kinetics of chemical systems consisting of one or a few reactions. We show that current statistical models commonly used in chronic disease epidemiology correspond to simple stochastic treatment of single reaction systems. The general problem corresponds to stochastic kinetics of complex reaction systems. We attempt to formulate epidemiologic problems related to chronic diseases in chemical kinetics terms. We review methods that may be adapted for use in epidemiology. We show that some reactions cannot fit into the mass-action law paradigm and solutions to these systems would frequently exhibit an antiportfolio effect. We provide a complete example application of stochastic kinetics modeling for a deductive meta-analysis of two papers on atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and mortality.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological features of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Song Alice Tung Wan; Schout Denise; Novaes Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Goldbaum Moisés

    2003-01-01

    Considering the relevance of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity worldwide, especially in Brazil, this study was developed to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the comorbid cases identified from 1989 to 1997 by the epidemiology service of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Databases containing information on all identified AIDS/tuberculosis cases cared for at the hospital were used to gather information on comorbid cases. RESULTS: During the per...

  10. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of pulmonary pseudallescheriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some members of the Pseudallescheria (anamorph Scedosporium) have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in humans. These fungi may reach the lungs and bronchial tree causing a wide range of manifestations, from colonization of airways to deep pulmonary infections.

  11. Analysis Clinical Characteristics and Epidemiological of 400 Patients With Cirrhosis After Hepatitis%400例肝炎后肝硬化患者的流行病学和临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠连合; 王秀华; 付景洲; 夏艳丽

    2015-01-01

    目的 分析肝炎后肝硬化患者的流行病学和临床特点,寻找最佳的肝炎转肝硬化排查方式.方法 选取400例肝炎后肝硬化患者的住院治疗病例,回顾其流行病学与临床特点.结果 肝炎肝硬化的高发年龄层在30~60岁,男性肝炎肝硬化发病率更高;单纯乙肝后肝硬化在各类型肝炎后肝硬化中所占比例最高;肝炎肝硬化患者中,伴随食管胃静脉曲张的患者占据了85%.结论 B超和胃镜检查可以有效的排查肝炎肝硬化病变;乙肝后肝硬化在我国肝炎肝硬化病变中的发生率最高;门脉高压与肝损伤有可能引起患者门脉高压胃病.%Objective Analysis the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with cirrhosis after hepatitis, finding the best hepatitis cirrhosis screening method.Methods Selected 400 patients with cirrhosis after hepatitis, review clinical characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis. Results The high rates of hepatitis cirrhosis ages between 30 to 60 years old, male incidence of hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver was higher, pure liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B in each type of the highest proportion of posthepatitic cirrhosis, patients with hepatitis cirrhosis with esophageal gastric varices of patients account for 85%.Conclusion Ultrasound and gastroscopy can effectively troubleshoot hepatitis cirrhosis of the liver disease, liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B in the highest incidence of hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver disease in our country, portal hypertension with liver damage may be caused by portal hypertension gastropathy patients.

  12. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future. PMID:26346900

  13. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Chronic Adenoiditis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reyes Concepción

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic adenoiditis, which causes the greater number of elective major surgeries in children, is a common disease in Cuba. Objectives to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic adenoiditis in children. Methods: a descriptive study with non-probability sampling was conducted in 98 children with chronic adenoiditis treated at the University Pediatric Hospital of Central Havana, between September 2009 and July 2011. The variables analyzed were age, sex, symptoms, signs and main clinical manifestations, personal medical history, family history, and major environmental and social risk factors. A survey was conducted to identify risk factors. Statistical analysis such as: the mean, relative frequency and frequency tables were performed. Results: highest morbidity was observed in children aged 1 to 9 years. The main features of the disease were nasal obstruction, dental malocclusion, mouth breathing and respiratory infection. The most common risk factors were attendance to day-care centers and exposure to cigarette smoke. Personal and family history of asthma and respiratory allergies was the most frequently found. Conclusion: chronic adenoiditis in pediatric patients is multifactorial in origin, and tends to decrease in the child population older than nine years.

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood migraine syndrome in Serbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marija Kne(z)evi(c)-Pogan(c)ev; Neboj(s)a Jovi(c); Vesna Iveti(c); Danka Filipovi(c); Dragan Katani(c)

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood migraine, examining the clinical characteristics of different childhood migraine types, predisposing factors, and possible medical treatments in a sample of children in Serbia. This was the first epidemiological study in Serbia using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society. The present study examined 30 636 children between 1988 and 2006, including 15 434 (50.38%) males and 15 202 (49.62%) females, in nine towns in Vojvodina, a northern province in Serbia. Migraine was reported in 2 644 (8.63%) children aged 3 to 7 years, consisting of 1 189 (8.0%) males and 1 455 (9.6%) females. Migraine with aura accounted for 25.55%, migraine without aura for 67.21% and other migraine syndromes for 7.23% of reported migraine sufferers. The mean age of first migraine attack across groups was 5 years and 1.8 months. Migraine with aura was associated with an earlier onset than migraine without aura.Migraine was more frequent among younger groups of children who were breastfed for a shorter period of time. Child healthcare in Vojvodina has a high level of specialization, with more than half of the children reporting migraine diagnosed and treated by neuropediatricians. Socioeconomic status,duration of breastfeeding, birth order, and age of entering full-day nursery care were found to be important factors for childhood migraine. These findings suggest that healthcare providers should educate parents about these predisposing factors, so they can be identified and avoided early.

  15. Zika virus : epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, S.; Pompon, J.; Diop, F.; Talignani, L.; Thomas, F; Desprès, P; Yssel, H; Missé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

  16. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome in Adolescents: treatment, clinical features and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, S.L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the treatment, epidemiology and clinical features of the adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Fatigue is a common complaint among adolescents, with a reported incidence of up to 20% in girls. This fatigue however is not chronic, does not debilitate and has an identifiable

  17. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months. PMID:27531538

  18. Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesconi VA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Valeska Albuquerque Francesconi,1 Ana Paula Klein,2 Ana Paula Botelho Gualda Santos,2 Rajendranath Ramasawmy,3 Fábio Francesconi4 1Department of Dermatology, Tropical Medicine Foundation Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Amazon Federal University, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 3Department of Immunogenetics, 4Department of Dermatology, Tropical Medicine Foundation Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Abstract: Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. Keywords: infection, Lacazia loboi, lobomycosis, lacaziosis, mycosis 

  19. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infecti

  20. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiodt, Morten; Larsson Wexell, Cecilia; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad;

    2015-01-01

    established a network for reporting incident cases to each country's research database directly or through a member of the Scandinavian ONJ task force as a liaison. The task force includes a Scandinavian coordinator and three national coordinators collaborating directly with the clinics. A uniform ONJ...... the process of establishing a Scandinavian ONJ Cohort enrolling all ONJ cases related to antiresorptive treatment arising in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden between 2011 and 2019. The initial purpose of the cohort is to support an ongoing pharmacovigilance study of denosumab and zoledronic acid in Denmark, Norway......, and Sweden. The three countries, with their 199 clinics, departments, and units of oral and maxillofacial surgery, both hospital-based and freestanding, differ somewhat in referral practices of the ONJ patients. By directly contacting all providers of care to ONJ patients in the three countries, we...

  1. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con cólera en la ciudad de México Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cholera patients in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Elena Vilchis-Guizar

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de enfermos de cólera (casos con las de pacientes con diarrea por otra causa (no casos, atendidos en las unidades médicas de la Delegación 2 Noreste del Distrito Federal, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico y se utilizaron datos de 4 952 notificaciones reunidas entre 1995 y 1998 a través del formato oficial "Hoja de notificación inmediata de casos de cólera", que cada unidad médica envía a la Coordinación de Salud Comunitaria del IMSS. Mediante estadística analítica se compararon medias y proporciones para ambos grupos. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 588 pacientes con cólera y 4 364 con diarrea por otra causa. En el primer grupo, la edad promedio varió entre los 39 y los 51 años, y predominó el sexo femenino (54%. Durante 1995 y 1997 (años en los que se presentó un número más elevado de casos, los pacientes de cólera, en relación con el grupo de comparación, presentaron una mayor frecuencia de evacuaciones líquidas (97 vs. 73%, con aspecto de "agua de arroz" (31 vs. 13%, vómitos (72 vs. 63%, espasmos musculares (49 vs. 26%, deshidratación (83 vs. 71%, choque hipovolémico (10 vs. 1% y defunciones (0.85% vs. 0.25%, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. CONCLUSIONES: El cólera muestra un comportamiento cíclico bianual; a mayor frecuencia mayor gravedad de la enfermedad. Se requiere incrementar la vigilancia epidemiológica y el esfuerzo médico para un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno.OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cholera patients and patients with diarrhea of different etiology (controls, treated at Mexican Institute of Social Security medical units in Northeast Mexico City, from 1995 to 1998. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study design. Data were collected using the official form "Immediate Notification

  2. 丙型肝炎125例临床与流行病学特征分析%Analysis of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 125 cases of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范琦丽; 陈泽军; 李秋贞; 许春梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in Jinchang City.Methods:We analyzed the data of 125 cases with hepatitis C cases in Jinchang city used the method of descriptive epidemiology.Results:In the 125 cases,103 cases with the blood and blood products transfusion history(82.4%),5 cases with operation history(4%),2 cases with compensation blood donation history(1.6% ),5 cases with tooth,teeth,dental history(4% ),3 cases with tattoo,tattooed,pierced ears(2.4%),7 cases with unknown cause(5.6%).In 125 cases,108 cases had no obvious symptoms and signs(86.4%),67 cases with normal liver function(53.6% ).125 cases of HCV-RNA virus load classification statistics,from 105~106 copies/ml the largest percentage(48% ).102 cases were genotyped,1b in 46 cases (45.1% ),45 cases of 2a type(44.12% ),non 1b,non type 2a in 11 cases(10.78%).Conclusion:Patients with hepatitis C in Jinchang city mainly infection via blood transfusion and blood products. Hepatitis C patients usually have no obvious symptoms and signs.Liver function are normal.The common HCV genotypes are 1b and 2a.%目的:探讨金昌市丙型肝炎临床与流行病学特征。方法:采用描述性流行病学方法对金昌市125例丙型肝炎病例资料进行分析。结果:125例患者中,有输血及血制品应用史103例(82.4%),手术史5例(4%),献血史2例(1.6%),拔牙、洗牙、补牙史5例(4%),纹眉、纹眼线、穿耳孔3例(2.4%),原因不明7例(5.6%);125例患者中,108例(86.4%)无明显症状和体征;67例(53.6%)肝功能正常;125例病例HCV-RNA病毒载量分级统计,以105~106拷贝/ml所占百分比最大(48%);102例患者进行基因分型,1b型46例(45.1%),2a型45例(44.12%),非1b、2a型11例(10.78%)。结论:金昌市丙型肝炎患者主要感染途径为输血及应用血制品途径;丙型肝炎患者大多无明显症状和体征;肝功能大多正常;HCV常见的基因型为1b和2a型。

  3. 120例流行性乙型脑炎的流行病学及临床特征分析%Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of 120 Cases of Japanese Encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段晓艳; 朱其荣; 黄波; 董嘉懿; 段远芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong area.To provide a theoretical basis for effective prevention and treatment of cases.Method:120 cases of Japanese encephalitis were enrolled from 2010 to 2013 in the Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College.Retrospective method was used to analyze epidemiology,clinical characteristics.Result:Of the 120 cases Japanese encephalitis mainly concentrated in the age of 1-8 years old.All of the patients were from the countryside.The attacking time was between July and September,and 26 cases were in July,85 cases were in August,9 cases were in September.13 cases(10.83%) were light,78 cases(65.00%) were mild,24 cases(20.00%) were moderate and 5 cases(4.17%) were severe.The main clinical manifestation included fever(100%),headache(84.17%),vomiting(90.83%),convulsion(87.50%),consciousness disorders(85.00%),respiratory failure(15.83%),circulatory failure(8.33%).Positive rate of Japanese encephalitis Virus-IgM in serum was 62.50%.The 85.83%of the cases accompanied with different levels complications when they were in hospital.110 cases(91.67%) got better when they discharged from hospital,and 6 cases(5.00%) died.Conclusion:Most cases are reported from August in Nanchong area.All the cases are from rural and most cases with unvaccination histroy.Mild Japanese encephalitis is the majarity.Their symptoms mainly include fever,headache,vomiting,convulsion and consciousness disorders,the prognosis of most patients is good.%目的:分析南充地区流行性乙型脑炎的流行病学及临床特征,为有效预防和治疗疾病提供理论依据。方法:收集2010-2013年在川北医学院附属医院住院治疗的120例流行性乙型脑炎患儿的临床资料,对其流行病学及临床特征进行回顾性分析。结果:120例流行性乙型脑炎患儿发病年龄主要集中在1~8岁,所有患儿均来自农村。发病时间为7-9月,7、8、9

  4. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesdottir, Sigrun Alba; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Ehrenstein, Vera;

    2012-01-01

    ", "nervous system", and "respiratory system". Individuals are identified by the unique central personal registration (CPR) number assigned to all persons born in or immigrating to Denmark. The new database fully complies with Denmark's Act on Processing of Personal Data, while avoiding additional...... restrictions imposed on data use at the Danish National Prescription Registry, administered by Statistics Denmark. Most importantly, CPR numbers are reversibly encrypted, which allows re-identification of drug users; furthermore, the data access is possible outside the servers of Statistics Denmark....... These features open additional opportunities for international collaboration, validation studies, studies on adverse drug effects requiring review of medical records, studies involving contact to general practitioners, and linkage of prescription data to other clinical and research databases. The DNDRP thus...

  5. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical phenotype of sporadic retinitis pigmentosa%散发性视网膜色素变性的流行病学及临床表型特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏芳; 徐海伟; 孟晓红; 阴正勤

    2012-01-01

    背景 视网膜色素变性(RP)是一种累及视网膜光感受器细胞及色素上皮细胞的单基因遗传性致盲性眼病,发病机制及临床特征复杂,目前对其临床表型特征及流行病学调查的研究较少,尤其是散发性RP患者.目的 了解散发性RP的流行病学及临床表型特征,为临床诊疗提供可靠的依据.方法 采用前瞻性队列研究设计.纳入2010年7月1日至2011年11月10日在第三军医大学西南眼科医院确诊为散发性RP的患者130例,对其进行问卷调查和临床检查,包括检眼镜下眼底检查、验光检查、最佳矫正视力(BCVA)、视野、视网膜电图(ERG)和彩色眼底照相检查,对各种类型的RP临床特征进行分型. 结果 共收集散发性RP患者130例,其中男66例,女64例;平均年龄(36.9±14.4)岁,平均发病年龄(21.2±18.4)岁;有家族近亲结婚史者7例,占5.38%;合并全身疾病者13例,占10.00%;RP病例中从事户外工作者44例,占33.85%;从事户内工作者86例,占66.15%;眼底分型中最常见的是典型型RP 89例,占68.5%,其次是中心性RP 16例,占12.3%,无色素性RP 16例,占12.3%;全视野ERG检查五项反应均记录不到波形99例,占76.15%.发现典型型RP患者夜盲史最长,中心性RP患者BCVA最差.结论 本研究结果发现散发性RP发病年龄以≤10岁组最高,其主要临床表型变异大、分型多、诊断特异性差,但全视野ERG结果有一定的规律可循.%Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of progressive monogenic inheritance disease.Seldom epidemiology is performed to summarize the varied clinical phenotypes,especially some sporadic cases with untypical genetic history. Objective The aim of this survey was to investigate the clinical epidemiological characteristics and phenotype of sporadic RP. Methods A prospective cohort study was designed.A survey of a series of clinically diagnosed sporadic primary RP patients was conducted at the

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and immunological aspects of neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-10-01

    %) of cases. Heterogeneity of clinical NMO manifestations including optic neuritis, longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and brain lesions were observed. In the clinical immunogenetic study we observed that NMO patients had frequent co-existence of autoimmune disease and family occurrence of NMO and MS. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*0402 allele was increased in NMO and a significantly increased frequency of the PD-1.3A allele in the NMO patients was observed. The data suggest a possible genetic autoimmune dependency of NMO. In the experimental part a novel animal model for NMO was established, utilizing the minimally invasive intrathecal route for antibody administration that does not involve blood brain barrier disruption or pre-existing CNS inflammation. Human IgG from AQP-4 antibody-positive NMO patients (from the clinical study) were injected together with human complement to study the effects on CNS. NMO-like histological lesions were observed at topographically restricted sites at the ependyma and in the parenchyma of the brainstem, cerebellum and periventricular areas. The lesions were characterized by deposition of immunoglobulin and complement, loss of AQP-4 expression and loss of reactive astrocytes co-localizing with inflammatory cell infiltration. This pattern is similar to the characteristic histological and radiologic features of human NMO lesions. Taken together this PhD combined clinical, epidemiological, neuroimaging, genetic and immunological data, which contribute to the characterization of the natural course of the disease and understanding of the pathogenesis of NMO. Practical consequences may be earlier diagnosis of NMO and better distinction of NMO from MS and other IDDs, important due to differences in prognosis and therapy. PMID:24083534

  7. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 231 cases with spinal infections%231例脊柱感染患者的流行病学和临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖二辉; 宁会彬; 康谊; 曹永革; 魏君锋; 尚佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of spinal infections to assist the clinical diagnosis and treatment .Methods Clinical data of all cases with spinal infections at He′nan Provincial People′s Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively . The demographic characteristics , risk factors , clinical characteristics and outcomes were evaluated . Variables were compared by t‐test ,chi‐square test or Fisher exact test when appropriate .Results Totally 231 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were reviewed ,of which 179 (77 .5% ) were pyogenic spinal infection (PSI) and 52 (22 .5% ) were tuberculous spinal infection (TSI) .The most common risk factor for infection was history of previous spinal surgery or procedure (43 .3% ) ,followed by diabetes mellitus (14 .7% ) .The infection site of lumbosacral spine was prominent with 114 cases (63 .7% ) in PSI and 38 cases (73 .1% ) in TSI .At initial presentation ,white cell blood count ([10 .8 ± 4 .5] × 109/L vs [7 .3 ± 3 .2]× 109/L ,t=2 .685) and C‐reactive protein levels ([79 ± 33] vs [37 ± 21] mg/L ,t=6 .241) in PSI were higher compared to TSI (both P<0 .05) .The positive rate of blood culture was significant higher than tissue culture in PSI (47 .9% vs 21 .8% ,χ2 = 6 .782 , P< 0 .05 ) .But the positive rate of blood culture was significantly lower than tissue culture in TSI (0 vs 39 .4% ,χ2 =8 .312 , P<0 .05) .Surgical treatment was performed in 30 .2% of PSI and 25 .0% of TSI .Conclusions History of spinal surgery or procedure is the most common risk factor for spinal infections , followed by diabetes mellitus . The lumbosacral spine is the common involved site in both PSI and TSI .The incidence of PSI is higher among spinal infections in our hospital .And Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogenic bacteria in PSI .%目的:了解脊柱感染的流行病学和临床特点,为临床正确诊治提供参考。方法回

  8. Clinical characteristics analysis of adult human adenovirus type 7 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乃春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients infected with human adenovirus type 7 and to provide guidance for early diagnosis and timely control of the outbreak.Methods A total of 301 patients infected with the human adenoviruses who were quarantined in hospital from December 2012 to February 2013 were observed.Epidemiological questionnaires were used to collect data of clinical features of the disease including

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths in Beijing 2010%北京市2010年手足口病死亡病例流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘白薇; 王全意; 李锡太; 贾蕾; 张奕; 黎新宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过描述2010年北京市手足口病死亡病例的流行病学特点和临床特点,分析手足口病重症病例发生死亡的危险因素,为防制手足口病,减少手足口病的死亡提供科学依据.方法:采用现况描述及病例对照研究的方法,对2010年北京市手足口病死亡病例的特点进行分析.结果:2010年北京市共报告18例手足口病死亡病例,88.9%分布在5-8月份;死亡病例的男女比例为3.5∶1;年龄均小于4岁;流动人口聚集区的死亡病例较多;散居儿童及外地户籍儿童比例高,分别为83.3%和94.4%.死亡病例均出现出疹、发热及神经精神系统症状,整体精神状况,呼吸功能指标以及循环系统受累明显.与重症痊愈病例相比,感染EV71型病毒是发生死亡的危险因素(x2=4.774,P=0.029).结论:手足口病死亡病例分布与重症病例分布基本一致.应对流动人口聚集地区的4岁以下婴幼儿重症病例进行重点防控.%Objective: To exmine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case in Beijing 2010, to explore the risk factors of intensive case development of deaths case, to provide the treasures data for preventing and control hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case. Methods: Use monitoring data of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case and case-control study,was analyze the characteristic of deaths case. Results: There were 18 reportrd hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case in Beijing 2010. 88.9% deaths case was from May to August; male female ratio of deaths case was 3.5:1; age of patients was less than 4 years old for all of the case;most case were reported in floating of urban-rural population community;more deaths case were seen in scattered children and nonlocal census register children,and the rate was 83.3% and 94.4%. All of deaths case were suffered from rash, fever and mentally psychiatric symptoms;overall mental status, respiratory function, and circulatory

  10. Clinical, Epidemiologic, Histopathologic and Molecular Features of an Unexplained Dermopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Michele L.; Selby, Joseph V.; Katz, Kenneth A; Cantrell, Virginia; Braden, Christopher R.; Parise, Monica E.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Michael R Lewin-Smith; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Hightower, Allen W.; Papier, Arthur; Lewis, Brian; Motipara, Sarita; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. Methods A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) during 2006–2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers...

  11. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatoses in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, M. (Minna)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract A population-based study to investigate the epidemiological, genetic and clinical features of neurofibromatoses (NF) in Northern Finland was carried out between 1989–1996. The area concerned was that served by Oulu University Hospital, with a total population of 733 037. A total of 197 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), five with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and eight with segmental neurofibromatosis (NF5) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were identified among s...

  12. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological features of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Alice Tung Wan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the relevance of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity worldwide, especially in Brazil, this study was developed to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the comorbid cases identified from 1989 to 1997 by the epidemiology service of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Databases containing information on all identified AIDS/tuberculosis cases cared for at the hospital were used to gather information on comorbid cases. RESULTS: During the period, 559 patients were identified as presenting with AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity. Risk behavior for AIDS was primarily heterosexual contact (38.9%, followed by intravenous drug use (29.3% and homosexual/bisexual contact (23.2%. Regarding clinical features, there were higher rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis when compared to tuberculosis without comorbidity. There was an increase in reporting of AIDS by ambulatory units during the period. Epidemiologically, there was a decrease in the male/female ratio, a predominance in the 20 to 39 year-old age group, and a majority of individuals who had less than 8 years of schooling and had low professional qualifications. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of AIDS/tuberculosis cases at our hospital indicate the need for better attention towards early detection of tuberculosis, especially in its extrapulmonary form. Since the population that attends this hospital tends to be of a lower socioeconomic status, better management of AIDS and tuberculosis is required to increase the rates of treatment adherence and thus lower the social costs.

  14. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

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    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  15. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LI; LING FANG; LI RONG ZOU; CHANG WEN KE; PING HUANG; JI CHENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong. During October 2003 and December 2004, fecal and anal swabs specimens collected from 13 outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis were tested for norovirus. Specimens were detected by RT-PCR and sequenced. The descriptive data were also collected. Eight in 13 outbreaks of gastroenteritis were positive for norovirus. All of 8 virus strains were identified as genogroup Ⅱ but belonged to 3 genotypes. Six strains were G Ⅱ-4 genotype. Norovirus is a major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Guangdong province and has a wide distribution. The illness happended from late autumn to winter. The prevalent strains were genogroup Ⅱ virus.

  16. [Historical evolution of some clinical and epidemiological knowledge of coccidioidomycosis in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R

    2008-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic endemic mycosis caused by two dimorphic fungi of the Coccidioides genus: Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. This fungal infection is only endemic in the American Continent. The majority of the epidemiological, pathogenic, clinical, mycological and therapeutical findings were obtained in the U.S.A. Coccidioidomycosis was discovered in Argentina, at the end of the XIXth century by Alejandro Posadas. In the last two decades, a new endemic zone was found in the northeast of Brazil. Several countries of the region such as Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Venezuela and Argentina have performed epidemiological studies which allowed a better knowledge of the endemic areas and of the clinical characteristics of this mycosis.

  17. Clinical epidemiological and echographic characterization of patients with confirmed dengue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 902 patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue and admitted at the 'Dr. Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' General Hospital was carried out in Santiago de Cuba, from April to October, 2006, in order to characterize them from the clinical, epidemiological and echographic point of view. Women belonging to the 36-45 year-old group were the most affected and the abdominal pain constituted the main clinical symptom of alarm in all those affected. The echographic findings took place between the fourth and sixth days of clinical course, mainly in men, and the onset of the perivesicular edema was very early in this stage, with primacy in women. The patients with cholecystectomy presented fluid infiltration in the vesicular channel, while the loops of bowel were observed loosened and their walls were edematous

  18. Tularemia in Arkhangelsk region: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze epidemiological and clinical features of tularemia cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with complications.Methods: We conducted retrospective cohort study including all patients hospitalized with tularemia between 2010 and 2014.Results: Most of tularemia cases were diagnosed in July (20,8% and August (57,1% among adult females (63,6%. The most common forms were bubonic and ulcer-bubonic (89,6%. Buboes were commonly found in the upper femoral and groin regions (92,2%. Diagnostic errors were revealed in 54,1% of cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were lymphadenitis and fever of unknown origin. Delay in effective antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased rate of complications.Conclusion: Tularemia has a diversity of clinical presentations. Doctors need to memorize the most common clinical signs of tularemia (fever and lymphadenitis to make timely diagnosis.

  19. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  20. Suicide during Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini, Laura; Valchera, Alessandro; Vecchiotti, Roberta; Tomasetti, Carmine; Iasevoli, Felice; Fornaro, Michele; De Berardis, Domenico; Perna, Giampaolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Bellantuono, Cesario

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide has been considered a relatively rare event during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e., postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc.) have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers' mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors, and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk factors, and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behavior during the pregnancy and postpartum period. Practical recommendations have been provided as well. PMID:27570512

  1. Atopic dermatitis in adults: clinical and epidemiological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leão Orfali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory disease causing intense pruritus, and with typical clinical features. There are few epidemiological studies concerning AD in adults, as well as little information about its prognostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological course of adults with AD. METHODS: 80 patients aged above 18 years (mean age = 29 years were selected (30 males and 50 females and interviewed about hospitalization, systemic corticoid usage, age of AD onset, and personal and/or familial history of atopy. Disease severity was evaluated through the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD tool. Laboratory examination included IgE serum levels and eosinophil blood count. RESULTS: 71 out of 80 patients referred association with respiratory symptoms (18 had asthma, 17 had rhinitis, and 36 had both conditions; nine out of 80 patients denied any respiratory disease. AD patients were divided in mild (n = 25, moderate (n = 30, and severe (n = 25; 56% had one or more hospitalizations due to AD. A positive association was found between IgE serum levels, eosinophil blood count, and disease severity. CONCLUSION: Adult AD represents a clinical challenge that needs to be better characterized, since it can be misdiagnosed and interferes with the patient's social and personal life. The association of skin and respiratory atopic disease is frequent, and laboratory parameters such as circulating IgE levels and eosinophil blood count may be helpful to assess disease severity.

  2. Epidemiological, clinical and sleep laboratory evaluations of insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, E. O.; Kales, A.; Kales, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have contributed to the understanding of the total scope of the insomnia problem, both in terms of the incidence of sleep difficulties, and the extent and frequency of hypnotic drug use. Clinical studies - at the Sleep Research and Treatment Center - have been used to evaluate the medical, psychological, pharmacological and situational factors contributing to insomnia, and to evaluate the psychotherapy and chemotherapy best suited to treatment of insomnia. The sleep laboratory studies were of two types: (1) the study of sleep induction, sleep maintenance, and sleep stages, and (2) the use of hypnotic drugs, emphasizing their effectiveness in inducing and maintaining sleep, and the duration of this effectiveness.

  3. Clinical characteristics of Caroli's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Caroli's syndrome is characterized by multiple segmental cystic or saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical features of this syndrome reflect both the characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis such as portal hypertension and that of Caroli's disease named as recurrent cholangitis and cholelithiasis. The diagnosis depends on both histology and imaging methods which can show the communication between the sacculi and the bile ducts. Treatment consists of symptomatic treatment of cholangitis attacks by antibiotics, some endoscopic,radiological and surgical drainage procedures and surgery. Liver transplantation seems the ultimate treatment for this disease. Prognosis is fairly good unless recurrent cholangitis and renal failure develops.

  4. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

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    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  5. Epidemiology and transmission characteristics of human adenovirus type 7 caused acute respiratory disease outbreak in military trainees in East China

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jun; Qi, Xiaoping; Chen, Dawei; Xu, Xujian; Wang, Guozheng; Dai, Yuzhu; Cui, Dawei; Chen, Qingyong; Fan, Ping; Ni, Liuda; Liu, Miao; Zhu, Feiyan; Yang, Mei; Wang, Changjun; Li, Yuexi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human adenovirus type 7 (HAdV7) is globally attracting great concern as its high morbidity and severity in respiratory diseases, especially in Asia. Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of HAdV7 infection outbreak in East China. Methods: The clinical samples were collected from the patients of an ARD outbreak in East Chinafor the detection of causative pathogens by multiplex PCR. The molecular type of human adenovirus isolates were identified by...

  6. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  7. [The epidemiological and clinical features of 208 patients with trichinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Cui, J; Jin, X

    1996-06-01

    In order to know the epidemiological and clinical features of trichinosis, the data of 208 patients with trichinosis from 1992 to 1994 were analysed. The results showed that these patients came from 11 districts, and acquired the infection mainly by tasting the raw pork filling for dumplings or ingesting instant-boiled pork or mutton. The incidence of trichinosis is high in winter. Young and middle-aged workers and cadres constituted the majority of the patients and the infection was more common in the males than in females. The main clinical manifestations of trichinosis were prolonged fever, general myalgia, muscle weekness and eosinophilia. Most of the patients had no gastrointestinal symptoms and skin eruption. Eyelid edema was only seen in the early stage. Serological tests were significant value in the diagnosis of trichinosis. The key measures to prevent trichinosis were that meat inspection should be strictly carried out and bad eating habit changed.

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and evolution of severe nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care unit

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    Abel Arroyo- Sanchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, evolution and to identify mortality factors associated in patients with SNP. Material and Methods: Descriptive study of a serie of cases of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a General Hospital. Medical records of patients which received medical attention and who meet the selection criteria were reviewed Results: Forty-one clinical records were evaluated. The average age was 69 old, predominantly male (68,3%. SNP was the reason of admission in 60.9% and 95.1% required mechanical ventilation. Hospital stay prior to diagnosis was 10 days, 65% of patients had some risk factor for multi resistence organisms, CPIS of entry was 9.3, cultures were positive in 39% of the cases and of these, 48.8% received proper antibiotic according to culture results. The days of stay in ICU were 20.6 days and 20 of the 41 medical records were for death patients. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics were similar between death and alive patients. An analysis of factors that could be associated with mortality SNP was made and it was found that for an age ≥ 70 years, the presence of any risk factor for multidrug resistence organism and control CPIS ≥ 6 were associated with higher mortality; while acquisition of the ICU was associated to lower mortality. Conclusions: The clinical, epidemiological characteristics and evolution of patients with SNP in our ICU were similar to those describe in the literature. Three factors associated with mortality in the ICU were identified.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with clonorchiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xia Wang; Rong-Bo Zhang; Yu-Bao Cui; Ye Tian; Ru Cai; Chao-Pin Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with clonorchiasis so as to provide scientific evidences for the diagnosis and prevention of clonorchiasis.METHODS: Stools from 282 subjects suspected of having clonorchiasis were examined for helminth eggs with modified Kato's thick smear and sedimentation methods, and their Sera Were tested for HAV-DNA, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA, HDV-RNA and HEV-RNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Clinical symptoms of patients with clonorchiasis only were analyzed, and their blood samples were tested for cireulating antigen (CAg) with Dot-ELISA, esoinophilic granulocyte count,and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Meanwhile, they were asked to provide data of occupation, eating habit, hygienic habit and knowledge of clonorchiasis. In addition, the ecosystem of the environment in epidemic areas was surveyed.RESULTS: Among the 282 patients, 61 (21.43%) were infected with clonorchis sinensis only, 97 (34.64%) were co-infected with clonorchis sinensis and other pathogens,92 (32.86%) were infected with hepatitis virus only and 31 (11.07%) neither with clonorchis sinensis nor hepatitis virus.Among the 61 patients with clonorchiasis only, there were 14 (22.95%) subjects with discomfort over hepatic region or epigasfrium, 12 (19.67%) with general malaise or discomfort and inertia in total body, 6 (9.84%) with anorexia, indigestion and nausea, 4 (6.56%) with fever, dizziness and headache (6.56%), and 25 (40.98%) without any symptoms; sixty one (100%) with CAg (+), 98.33% (59/60) with eosinophilic granulocytes increased and 65.00% (39/60) with ALT increased. B-mode ultrasonography revealed 61 cases with dilated and thickened walls of intrahepatic bile duct, and blurred patchy echo acoustic image in liver. Twenty-six cases had stones in the bile duct, 39 cases had slightly enlarged liver with diffuse coarse spots in liver parenchyma. Twenty cases had enlarged gallbladder with thickened coarse wall and image of floating plagues, 9

  10. Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Malcolm; Hundi, Ganesh Kamath; Bhat, Ramesh Marne; Bala, Nanda Kishore; Dandekeri, Sukumar; Martis, Jacintha; Kambil, Srinath M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad. Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections Methods: A total of 75 patients presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis, erythrasma and trichobacteriosis to our hospital were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on epidemiological features and the various clinical findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram's stain, Wood's light examination, 10% KOH scrapings, were done in selected cases to ascertain the diagnosis. Results: Pitted keratolysis was more common in the age group of 31-40 years (40%) with a male preponderance (76.7%), most commonly affecting pressure bearing areas of the soles with malodour (86.7%) and frequent contact with water (58.3%) constituting the most important presenting symptom and provocating factor respectively. Erythrasma affected both male and female patients equally and was more commonly detected in patients with a BMI > 23kg/m2 (62.5%) and in diabetics (50%). All patients with trichobacteriosis presented with yellow coloured concretions in the axillae. Bromhidrosis (71.4%) and failure to regularly use an axillary deodorant (71.4%) were the most common presenting symptom and predisposing factor respectively. Conclusion: Coryneform skin infections are common dermatological conditions, though epidemiological data are fragmentary. Hyperhidrosis is a common predisposing factor to all three coryneform skin infections. Asymmetrical distribution of pits has been reported in our study. Diabetic status needs to be evaluated in all patients with erythrasma. Woods lamp examination forms an indispensible tool to diagnose erythrasma and trichobacteriosis. PMID

  11. Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad. Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections Methods: A total of 75 patients presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis, erythrasma and trichobacteriosis to our hospital were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on epidemiological features and the various clinical findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram's stain, Wood's light examination, 10% KOH scrapings, were done in selected cases to ascertain the diagnosis. Results: Pitted keratolysis was more common in the age group of 31-40 years (40% with a male preponderance (76.7%, most commonly affecting pressure bearing areas of the soles with malodour (86.7% and frequent contact with water (58.3% constituting the most important presenting symptom and provocating factor respectively. Erythrasma affected both male and female patients equally and was more commonly detected in patients with a BMI > 23kg/m2 (62.5% and in diabetics (50%. All patients with trichobacteriosis presented with yellow coloured concretions in the axillae. Bromhidrosis (71.4% and failure to regularly use an axillary deodorant (71.4% were the most common presenting symptom and predisposing factor respectively. Conclusion: Coryneform skin infections are common dermatological conditions, though epidemiological data are fragmentary. Hyperhidrosis is a common predisposing factor to all three coryneform skin infections. Asymmetrical distribution of pits has been reported in our study. Diabetic status needs to be evaluated in all patients with erythrasma. Woods lamp examination forms an indispensible tool to diagnose erythrasma and trichobacteriosis.

  12. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  13. Epidemiological Characteristics of Hypertension in the Elderly in Beijing, China.

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    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of hypertension increases significantly with the aging society, and hypertension is obviously becoming a major health care concern in China. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in the elderly and to provide a basis for the prevention of hypertension.3-cross sectional studies in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Beijing, China.A group of 2,832, 1,828, and 2,277 elderly residents aged ≥60 years were included this study in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.None.Statistical sampling techniques included cluster, stratification, and random selection. Trained staff used a comprehensive geriatric assessment questionnaire and a standard survey instrument to complete the assessments. During the person-to-person interviews, the participants' demographic characteristics, living conditions, and health status were collected, and their blood pressure was measured.The prevalence rates (69.2%, 61.9%, and 56.0% of hypertension and the control rates (22.6%, 16.7%, and 21.5% lowered annually, while the awareness rates (43.7%, 55.8%, and 57.6% of the treatment elevated annually in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively. There was no increase in the control rates for males (26.2%, 16.7%, and 20.8%, younger participants (28.0%, 18.4%, and 21.0%, and rural residents (19.5%, 9.6%, and 13.4% in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Our study findings indicated that the prevalence of hypertension is high in rural elderly participants, while the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were low. This suggests that effective public measures need to be developed to improve the prevention and control of hypertension.

  14. [EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH AEROBIC VAGINITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermendjiev, T; Pehlivanov, B; Hadjieva, K; Stanev, S

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is an alterarion of the normal lactobacillic flora accompanied by signs of inflammation, presence of mainly aerobic microorganisms from intestinal commensals or other aerobic pathogens. Clinical symptoms may vary by type and intensity and are marked by a high tendency for recurrence and chronification. Inflammation and ulcerations in AV could increase the risk of contracting HIV or other sexually transmitted infections. The aim is to study some epidemiological, clinical and microbiological features of the aerobic vaginitis in patients of the specialized Obstetric and Gynecological Clinic in Plovdiv, Bulgaria. In a retrospective research 4687 vaginal smears have been gathered in Microbiological laboratory at "St. George" Hospital - Plovdiv. We used clinical, microbiological and statistical methods. Information processing is performed by variation, alternative, correlation and graphical analysis using specialized package SPSS v13.0. The overall prevalence rate of AV in the studied population is 11.77%. The levels of prevalence of AV in pregnant and non-pregnant women are respectively 13.08% and 4.34%. The highest frequency of AV is in the age group 21-30 years (32.3%). The results show a marked association between Escherichia coli and the cases of AV (p vaginal symptoms in patients of specialized ambulatory outpatient. One in ten women with vaginal complaints suffers from AV Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli are most often isolated aerobic microorganisms. PMID:26863788

  15. Clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Zeinali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Malassezia contains an expanding list of lipophilic yeasts involve in the etiology of various superficial fungal infections. Pityriasis versicolor (PV is the most prevalent Malassezia-related infection distributed worldwide. In the present study, clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia are discussed with special focus on PV in Iran.During June 2012 to April 2013, among 713 confirmed cases of fungal infections, 68 (9.5% were diagnosed as PV by positive direct microscopy results in 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation of skin scrapings. All the specimens were cultured on modified Dixon agar and incubated at 32°C for 10 days. Identification of the isolated yeasts was carried out based on macro- and microscopic morphology, catalase test, utilization of Tweens, polyethoxylated castor oil (EL slant, and hydrolysis of esculin and utilization of Tween-60 (TE slant.Out of 68 skin scrapings, 55 (80.9% yielded yeast colonies on mDixon's agar which were finally identified as M. globosa (36.36%, M. pachydermatis (29.08%, M. furfur (23.65%, M. slooffiae (7.28% and M. obtusa (3.64%.Results of the present study further indicate clinico-epidemiological importance of the genus Malassezia with growing importance of M. pachydermatis as a major species involve in the etiology of pityriasis versicolor. These findings are of major concern in management of Malassezia-related diseases.

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 199 cases of HIV/AIDS patients%199例HIV感染者及艾滋病患者流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧宏杰; 王娟娟; 刘家俊

    2013-01-01

    During the period of January 2006 to December 2012 at our department,retrospective analyses of epidemiological and clinical data were performed for 199 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS inpatients and outpatients.The male-to-female ratio was 3.78∶ 1.Their age range was 20-40 years.Migrant workers accounted for a large proportion of infection.Sexual contact was a major route of transmission and it accounted for 88.4%.Most of them had non-marital sexual contact.And all infected marital sexual contacts were women.Asymptomatic patients accounted for 55.8%.Pulmonary infection was the most common clinical manifestation.There were more males than females locally.Most of them were young and middleaged.Sexual contact was a major route of transmission.Out-of-town migrant population was important for transmission.%回顾性分析2006年1月至2012年12月于我科门诊及住院治疗的199例HIV感染者及艾滋病初治患者的流行病学特征及临床资料.HIV感染者及艾滋病初治患者中男∶女为3.7∶1,20 ~ 40岁为主;新增病例中民工占较大比例;感染途径以性传播为主,占88.4%,其中以非婚性接触为主,婚内性接触感染者均为女性;无症状就诊者占55.8%,肺部感染为最常见临床表现.本地区HIV感染者及艾滋病初治病例男性多于女性,以青壮年为主,感染途径以性传播为主,外来流动人口成为感染的主要人群及重要的传播者.

  17. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Zoe Alina González Otero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease, it has varied clinical manifestations and cause different degrees of discomfort and disability. Objective: to conduct a clinical and epidemiological characterization of all rheumatoid arthritis patients admitted to the clinical services of the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinical services of the Arnaldo Milián Castro University Hospital from 2009 through 2013. The universe consisted of 280 patients hospitalized due to rheumatoid arthritis. The following variables were studied: age, sex, skin color, past medical history, clinical manifestations, complications, affected organs, time of diagnosis and treatment. Chi square and prevalence ratio with a 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results: arthritis was found in 2 men every 5 women. White middle-aged patients predominated. Hypertension was the major illness described in the past medical history. Arthralgia and movement limitations prevailed. No family history of rheumatic disease was found. The time of diagnosis was less than six months and infection was among the most frequent complications. The most common treatment was the combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids, especially in seropositive patients. Conclusions: rheumatoid arthritis was more common in females and white middle-aged patients. Hypertension was the major illness found in the past medical history. Patients with two target organs affected predominated. Arthralgia and movement limitations prevailed in the clinical picture. The most common treatment was the combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids.

  18. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of gastric and duodenum ulcer].

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    Larichev, A B; Maĭorov, M I; Favstov, S V; Shalop'ev, A G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.

  19. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Laboratory-Confirmed Autochthonous Cases of Zika Virus Disease in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez Corona, Maria Eugenia; De la Garza Barroso, Ana Lucía; Rodriguez Martínez, Jose Cruz; Luna Guzmán, Norma Irene; Ruiz Matus, Cuitláhuac; Díaz Quiñonez, José Alberto; Lopez Martinez, Irma; Kuri Morales, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Since 2014, autochthonous circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas was detected (Easter Island, Chile). In May 2015, Brazil confirmed autochthonous ­­transmission and in October of that year Colombia reported their first  cases. Now more than 52 countries have reported cases, including Mexico. To deal with this contingency in Mexico, several surveillance systems, in addition to systems for vector-borne diseases were strengthened with the participation of all health institutions. Also, the Ministry of Health defined an Action Plan against ZIKV for the whole country. Methods: We analyzed 93 autochthonous cases of ZIKV disease identified by Epidemiological Surveillance System for Zika Virus in Mexico. All autochthonous cases confirmed by laboratory since November 25, 2015 to February 19, 2016 were included. A description of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 93 cases of ZIKV disease are presenting and, we describe the Action Plan against this public health emergency.  Results: The distribution of cases by sex was 61 men and 32 women; mean age was 35 years old (S.D. 15, range 6-90). The main clinical features in the 93 cases were fever (96.6%), rash (93.3%), non-purulent conjunctivitis (88.8%), headache (85.4%), and myalgia (84.3%). No deaths were reported. Conclusion: The ZIKV epidemic poses new challenges to public health systems. The information provided for basic, clinical, and epidemiological research, in addition to the data derived from epidemiological surveillance is essential. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding mechanisms of transmission, complications, and impact of this virus. PMID:27158557

  20. Clinical-epidemiological behaviour of patients after cataract surgery

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    Leydi E. Jacomino Hernández

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cataract is the leading cause of blindness in the world. Its only effective treatment is surgery, with a high rate of efficiency, but it is not always practiced due to several reasons that limit access to health services.Objective: To identify clinical and epidemiological behaviour of patients after cataract surgery. Methods: An observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted in the "José Joaquín Palma" Ophthalmology Center in the town of San Cristóbal, Guatemala. We included all patients over 18 years old meeting the inclusion criteria who had had a cataract surgery between July and December 2007. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, skin color, place of origin, ocular and systemic personal medical history, etiologic type of cataract and intra and immediate postoperative complications. Results: 63.3% of the patients are in the 60 years on age group, with a slight predominance of females (51.89% and most of them come from the rural areas (66.66%. Among personal medical histories myopia was detected (14.17% and among systemic medical histories there were arterial hypertension (25.98% and diabetes mellitus (22.04%. Senile cataract was more frequent (52.75%. The most frequent intraoperative complications were posterior capsule ruptures with or without vitreous loss (29.548% and 3.37% respectively and corneal edema in the immediate postoperative (5.48%. Conclusions: The results of clinical and epidemiological characterization of patients after cataract surgery included in this series do not differ from those of similar studies, except for the personal glaucoma history.

  1. Epidemiologic and Clinical Impact of Acinetobacter baumannii Colonization and Infection

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    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E.; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence. PMID:25181313

  2. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

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    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小纲; 马岳峰; 江观玉; 干建新; 黄欣建

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases in Zhejiang Province.Methods: The data of 2 040 cases of expressway traffic trauma taken from Zhejiang Provincial Expressway Traffic Bureau were analyzed with computer techniques.Results: A total of 2 040 persons were injured in 7 963 expressway traffic accidents in Zhejiang Province from January 1999 to December 2001. Among them, 435persons died (mortality, 21.3 %) and 1 605 were injured.The economic losses were over 170 million yuan RMB. The accidents caused by human factors accounted for 84.9%(vehicle drivers accounting for 79.2% ), which mainly included improper measures (20.4%), steering failure (17.7%), insufficient longitudinal space (15.9%), overspeed drive (12.5%), fatigue drive (6.4%), loading violation (5.9 %) and careless drive (6.3 %). Mechanical troubles and other factors took up 15.1%. There existed obvious uneven distribution among various regions. Jiaxing and Shaoxing were the sections with high incidence of accidents. The accidents mostly happened at 12:00-18:00,but the causing-dead ones most concentrated at 0:00-6:00.The main victims were young and middle-aged people (accounting for 72.3 %), but accident-stricken children and elderly persons (over 70 years old) took up higher mortalities (30.2 % and 40.7 %, respectively).Conclusions: The number of expressway traffic accidents and the economic losses are increasing year by year, with obvious uneven distribution at different places,different time and under different weather conditions. To reduce the accident frequency, it is important to strengthen the enforcement of traffic regulation, to balance the system of "person-vehicle-road", and to improve the safety consciousness of people.

  4. Epidemiological characteristics and preventive strategies for fall injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics and to define some preventive strategies for fall injury (FI). Methods: The medical records of patients admitted following a fall from a certain height between August 1996and July 1997 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 138 patients were assessed, with a mortality of 31.2%. The male-to-female ratio was 3.5: 1.The persons between 20 and 59 years old were the main victims (81.8%), of which 52.2% were related with their work altitude. The remaining adults fall because of,accidents in daily life, suicide attempts, drug abuse,alcohol, or criminal behavior. There were significant differences between the death group and the survival group in the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) value (P <0.05 and P <0.01, respectively).Six children fall from balconies, open windows or roofs.There were significant differences for the height of fall and RTS value in aged group than those in children,adolescents, and adults (P <0.001, 0.005, 0.05; and P <0.05, 0.01, 0.05, respectively). The mortality of FI was significantiy correlated to the height of fall (r = 0.897, P <0.005). Conclusions: Male adults are the main victims,especially the workers at high altitudes. The mortality of FI is significantly correlated to the height of fall. The preventive strategies developed through analyzing the risk factors of fall in different age groups might reduce the injuries and deaths following fall.

  5. Descriptive-epidemiological characteristics of lung cancer in Serbia

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    Maksimović Nataša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lung cancer represents the most common malignant tumour among men, and appears more and more frequently among women in many countries worldwide. The aims of this descriptive epidemiological study were to evaluate the mortality trends of all malignant tumours and lung cancer in Central Serbia from 1990 to 1999, and to estimate the incidence, mortality and the basic demographic characteristics of lung cancer in Central Serbia in 1999. Material and methods. The source of data concerning cancer cases in 1999 was the Cancer Registry of Central Serbia, while data of the Republic Statistics Institute were used for the analysis of mortality trends for the period 1990-1999. All rates were standardized by the direct method, to the world standard population. Confidence intervals for mortality rates were assessed with 95% level of probability. Linear regression coefficient was determined by Fisher's test. Results. The mortality rates showed rising tendencies for both lung cancer (y=-1876.26+0.96x, p=0.028 for men; y=654.78U.33x, p-0.001 for women and all malignant tumours (y=-4139.88+2.15x, p=0.163 for men; y=3649.68 + 1.88x, p=0.016 for women, with statistically significant increase being observed for all trends, except all malignant tumours among men. In the year 1999, lung cancer ranked first among men and third among women, with 29.2% and 10.3% of cancer mortality respectively. The age-specific mortality rates were much higher in men in all age groups. Mortality increased with age and the highest rates were found in the age group 70-74 for both sexes. The highest incidence and mortality rates were reported in Belgrade, Moravicki and Sumadijski district. .

  6. Clinical features and therapeutic management of patients admitted to Italian acute hospital psychiatric units: the PERSEO (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology) survey

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    Russo Federico; Righi Roberto; Minervini Lina; Margari Francesco; Casacchia Massimo; Boncompagni Giancarlo; Boccalon Roberto M; Ballerini Andrea; Salteri Andrea; Frediani Sonia; Rossi Andrea; Scatigna Marco

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The PERSEO study (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology) is a naturalistic, observational clinical survey in Italian acute hospital psychiatric units, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura; in English, the psychiatric service for diagnosis and management). The aims of this paper are: (i) to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, including sociodemographic features, risk factors, life habits and psychiatric diagnoses; and...

  7. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

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    Michele L Pearson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. RESULTS: We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40 cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113. Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93 and were primarily female (77% and Caucasian (77%. Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9 and 35.45 (SD = 12.89, respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies; skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. CONCLUSIONS: This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of classical scrapie outbreaks in 30 sheep flocks in the United Kingdom.

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    K Marie McIntyre

    Full Text Available Most previous analyses of scrapie outbreaks have focused on flocks run by research institutes, which may not reflect the field situation. Within this study, we attempt to rectify this deficit by describing the epidemiological characteristics of 30 sheep flocks naturally-infected with classical scrapie, and by exploring possible underlying causes of variation in the characteristics between flocks, including flock-level prion protein (PrP genotype profile. In total, the study involved PrP genotype data for nearly 8600 animals and over 400 scrapie cases.We found that most scrapie cases were restricted to just two PrP genotypes (ARQ/VRQ and VRQ/VRQ, though two flocks had markedly different affected genotypes, despite having similar underlying genotype profiles to other flocks of the same breed; we identified differences amongst flocks in the age of cases of certain PrP genotypes; we found that the age-at-onset of clinical signs depended on peak incidence and flock type; we found evidence that purchasing infected animals is an important means of introducing scrapie to a flock; we found some evidence that flock-level PrP genotype profile and flock size account for variation in outbreak characteristics; identified seasonality in cases associated with lambing time in certain flocks; and we identified one case that was homozygous for phenylalanine at codon 141, a polymorphism associated with a very high risk of atypical scrapie, and 28 cases that were heterozygous at this codon.This paper presents the largest study to date on commercially-run sheep flocks naturally-infected with classical scrapie, involving 30 study flocks, more than 400 scrapie cases and over 8500 PrP genotypes. We show that some of the observed variation in epidemiological characteristics between farms is related to differences in their PrP genotype profile; although much remains unexplained and may instead be attributed to the stochastic nature of scrapie dynamics.

  9. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Affected by Dermatophytosis Características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes en edad pediátrica afectados por dermatofitosis

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    Yoan Bernardez Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although few fungal species are considered to be pathogenic to humans and even when they are commonly less relevant than bacteria or viruses, they are not insignificant as a cause of disease. From a practical point of view, it was found that the mycosis fungoides they cause is one of the first reasons for consultation in our country and the world. Objective: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological features and laboratory findings of pediatric patients affected by ringworm. Methods: A descriptive, case series study was conducted. It included 102 patients with dermatophytosis. The information about these patients was collected from medical records and laboratory results of scraping and cultures of the lesions. Results: We obtained more positives in the test by culture (70.59%, compared to a 66, 7% in the examination by scraping, being Trichophyton rubrum the most common causative agent in the nails and body. The age group from 15 years old on predominated, as well as white skinned and female patients. Most patients were infected through contact with dogs. Conclusions: The percentage of pediatric patients with dermatophytosis is not low. This remains a frequent cause of medical consultation

    Fundamento: a pesar de que pocas especies de hongos son patógenos para los humanos y aun cuando su importancia  es menor que las de las bacterias o los virus, no son insignificantes como causa de enfermedades. Desde el punto de vista práctico se ha comprobado que las micosis que estos causan representan uno de los primeros motivos de consulta dermatológica en nuestro país y el mundo. Objetivo: determinar las principales características clínico-epidemiológicas y de laboratorio de pacientes en edad pediátrica afectados por dermatofitosis. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, de serie de casos

  10. EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashakidze, E; Mikadze, I

    2015-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks or by direct contact with the blood of infected humans or domestic animals. The most common clinical signs of CCHF are fever, nausea, headache, diarrhea, myalgia, petechial rash, and bleeding. CCHF is a severe disease in humans with a fatality rate up to 15-85%. This study was undertaken to determine the predictors of fatality among patients with CCHF based on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings. 34 patients were enrolled in the study, aged 4 to 77; 17 - male and 17 female. 3 of them were fatal cases. All of them were from Shua Kartli: Khashuri, Gori and Kaspi districts, involved in farming/handling livestock and the history of tick bite was present in most of patients. Evaluation of the epidemiological characteristics of this cases showed that the female to male ratio was nearly similar. The disease is common in the rural areas of the region, mostly in the actively working age group and almost all patients were farmers. The results of our study show that the most cardinal clinical and laboratory features of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever are - acute beginning of disease, high fever, intoxication and hemorrhagic symptoms, thrombocytopenia, high level of aminotransferases and creatine. Predictors of fatality are: an altered mental status, in early stage of disease dramatic decreased thrombocytes count and significantly high level of aspartate aminotransferase, also longer the mean prothrombin time and INR. PMID:26483375

  11. Características clínico-epidemiológicas no carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe Clinic and epidemiologic characteristics in the with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx

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    Rogério A. Dedivitis

    2004-01-01

    ós radioterapia e 4% a cirurgia exclusiva e 8% tiveram segundo primário. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre o estadiamento e os hábitos de tabagismo, etilismo e uso de prótese. Tais hábitos, a faixa etária e o grau histológico não tiveram relação significativa com o sítio do tumor. Estavam vivos e livres de doença 69,7% dos pacientes com tumor de boca e 22% de orofaringe. CONCLUSÃO: O médico ou dentista que dá o atendimento inicial é fundamental no reconhecimento das lesões, para que se possa estabelecer o diagnóstico precoce.Cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx is aggressive. It is one of the commonest cancers in Brazil and may be considered as the commonest in the head and neck. AIM: The objective of this paper is to evaluate clinical and epidemiological factors and the outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a descriptive retrospective study, the charts of 43 cases of oral and 25 of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in the period 1997-2000 have been reviewed from the Departments of Head and Neck Surgery of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santos and Hospital Ana Costa. This was analyzed with emphasis on age, gender, profession, ethnic aspects, tobacco and alcohol use, dental prosthesis, referement origin, site of the lesion, clinical staging, histologic grade, treatment methods, survival and second cancer presence in the study group. The data were analysed by Exact Test of Fischer. RESULTS: In the oral cavity cancer patients, a male female ratio of 3.35:1 was observed, the median age was 62 years (ranging 46 to 91 years, 90.7% were Caucasian, 81% were referred from medical professionals, tobacco use was identified in 76.8%, alcohol intake in 74%, 79% were not dental prosthesis users, tongue was the commonest site identified (51.1%, 53% were staged as III and IV clinical stages, 72.1% were moderately differentiated SCC, combined modality of treatment (surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy was

  12. 老年功能性便秘中医病机规律临床流行病学调查%Clinical Epidemiological Investigation on Characteristics of TCM Pathogenesis Regularity of ElderFunctional Constipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪红兵; 陈剑明; 张声生

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对老年功能性便秘群体进行流行病学调查,探讨本病的中医病机.方法 根据临床流行病学调查获得的老年功能性便秘病例四诊资料,建立Epidata2.0资料数据库,运用SPSS17.0软件对本病症状及其证候出现的频次、频率进行统计分析,阐述本病的中医病机特点.结果 症状以干硬便、排使间隔时间延长、排便困难为主.另外,在38种全身症状中,出现频率≥50%的症状有:腹胀、口干、神疲、乏力、少气懒言、纳呆、畏寒.其他症状如腹痛、嗳气、气短、胃脘胀满、面色(挄)白、四肢不温、小便清长、胸胁胀满、口臭、腰膝酸软、心烦易怒、口苦、太息、两颧潮红、心悸、小便短黄、眩晕的出现频率> 10%.出现频率≥30%的证候为肠道气滞、脾气虚弱和脾肾阳虚证,其中肠道气滞41.32%、脾气虚弱40.30%.结论老年功能性便秘的临床表现多样、病机复杂,与心、肺、脾、胃、肝、肾等脏腑功能失衡有关,症状及证候分布特点符合中医学理论对本病的认识.%Objective To sum up the characteristics of TCM pathogenesis regularity of elder functional constipation by a clinical investigation. Methods By investigating the elder functional constipation patients, and a literature database was established. TCM symptoms and syndromes were analyzed by SPSS17.0 software, and the characteristics of TCM pathogenesis regularity was described. Results The main symptoms of cacation were dry bowels, defecate time interval extension, difficult defecate. Among 38 kinds of general symptoms, the symptoms whose occurrence frequency more than or equal to 50% were abdominal distension, thirst, fatigue, lassitude, chills, disinclination to talk, inappetence, intolerance of cold. Occurrence frequency of symptoms such as abdominal pain, belching, short of breath, stomach bloating, face pale, cold limbs, clear and abundant urine, chest bloating, bad

  13. A CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENINGEAL TUMORS

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    Channappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The meninges surround and protect the central nervous system. They are composed of connective tissue proper and comprise three membranes the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. These membranes are composed of collagen fibres, a small number of elastic fires and endothelial cells. The incidence of intracranial tumors depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim is to study the most common signs that the patient presents in the clinic and to study the epidemiology of the disease. The material used in this study was obtained from 100 cases of intracranial tumours in various colleges of South of India, which I have worked. The sample was obtained over a period of 5 years from May 2007 to May 2012. The most common symptoms that were found in the present study was consistent headache and projectile vomiting. There were 9 grade 1 meningiomas, out of which 5 were meningothelial, microscopically composed of meningothelial cells with ovoid large pale nuclei with vacuoles of cytoplasmic invagination and inconspicuous cytoplasmic borders, the cells are arranged concentrically around calcified blood vessels or connective tissue.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  15. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  16. Clinical Epidemiology and Paraclinical Findings in Tuberculosis Patients in North of Iran

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    Farhang Babamahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB causes a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. The prevalence of TB is different in various parts of Iran and throughout the world. The present study aimed to determine the clinical epidemiology and paraclinical findings of TB. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Patient demographic, clinical, and radiologic characteristics, picked up from the TB patient’s files, were collected using a standard questionnaire format. Data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 16 statistical software and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Out of 212 patients enrolled in this study 62% were male and the mean age was about 50 years old. 98.6% were Iranian, and 46.2% were rural. Prevalence of smear-positive TB was 66.4%. Prevalence of positive PPD was 50.7% with no significant difference between HIV-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 17%. 36% of the patients had history of smoking and about 29.3% were addicted to narcotics. Cough was the most common symptom (94.5% and 84% had sputum. 15 cases (7% had extrapulmonary TB. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and admission was 46.5 days. The delay for admission between urban and rural populations was not significantly different (P = 0.68; but for those who were in prison, the delay was significant (P = 0.02. About 46% of the patients had cavitary lesions in CXRs. Conclusion. Timely diagnosis of TB especially in prisoners by understanding its most important epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features can help to make an early treatment and prevent spread of mycobacteria and their complications.

  17. 浙江省发热伴血小板减少综合征病例临床与流行病学特征分析%Analysis on clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴程良; 孙继民; 林君芬; 施旭光; 张严峻; 张磊; 侯娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and to provide clues for further study. Methods A descriptive epidemiological method combined with individual case investigation was to analyze the data on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment collected from clinically diagnosed as well as suspicious patients with severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome. Results Out of 6 topography, 3 were found to be endemic with SFTS. Most cases were 50 and over residing in hilly regions (87. 50%) and 65. 00% of patients were reported from June to July. They all experienced fever with the body temperature ranging from 37. 6'C to 40. 6'C, which was the major onset symptom. Meanwhile, most patients also experienced chill, fatigue, anorexia and other non-specific symptoms. The major clinical symptoms were fever, thrombocytopenia and leucocytopenia which could last 14 or 15 days or even longer for thrombocytopenia. Person to person transmission was not found. Conclusions There are differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang compared with other provinces. Further study needs to be done.%目的 分析发热伴血小板减少综合征病例临床与流行病学特征,为进一步研究提供线索.方法 采用流行病学个案调查与描述性分析方法,收集发热伴血小板减少综合征确诊与疑似病例发病、诊治、检测与流行病学史等资料,分析病例临床与流行病学特征.结果 浙江省6类地形中有3类存在发热伴血小板减少综合征疫情,病例以丘陵山区50岁以上人群为主(87.50%),6~7月为发病高峰(65.00%).所有病例均有发热,体温最低37.6℃,最高40.6℃,平均39.2℃,且发热为主要首发症状.大部分病例有畏寒(67.50%)、乏力(67.50%)、食欲减退(52.50%)等非特异性症状.病例临床表现为发热伴白细胞和血小板减少,

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of road traffic injuries in AP Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Miladinov-Mikov Marica

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Traffic accidents are one of the leading epidemiological problems in developed countries as well as in developing ones. It is estimated that every day in the world 1308 person die in car accidents. Causes of traffic accidents are factors of road, vehicle and human factors, the latter one being the cause of more than 90% car accidents, isolated or linked with other factors. Material and methods .Data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs - Department in Novi Sad were collected fo...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF OCULAR MELANOMA IN UNIVERSITY CLINIC CENTER IN TUZLA, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodencarevic, Amra Nadarevic; Jusufovic, Vahid; Terzic, Svjetlana; Burgic, Musfaha; Halibasic, Meliha; Sinanovic, Mersiha

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Melanoma represents a malignant tumour arising from melanocytes. Uveal melanoma is the most common primary ocular malignancy among the adult population. The aim of the study was to examine epidemiological characteristics of ocular melanoma in University Clinic Centre in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina from January 2001 till November 2015. Methods and Materials: In this retrospective study we used all available medical documentation to investigate the clinical findings which included age, gender, tumour size, histopathological features and the precise anatomic origin of the ocular melanoma. Results: Over the 14 year period of this study, there were 32 patients with microscopically confirmed ocular melanoma at the Department of Pathology. All malignant melanoma were uveal origin. Discussion and conclusion: For early detection of the disease, regular checkups are necessary, especially in older population. As there is a limited number of reports on the epidemiology of malignant tumors of eye and ocular adnex in our region, this is very important study. We conclude that this is a first study in Bosnia and Herzegovina that document the number of uveal melanomas.

  20. Thymus involvement in myasthenia gravis: Epidemiological and clinical impacts of different self-tolerance breakdown mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karni, Arnon; Asmail, Ali; Drory, Vivian E; Kolb, Hadar; Kesler, Anat

    2016-09-15

    The reasons for the abrogation of self-immunological tolerance in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) may be different between those with concomitant thymic hyperplasia or thymoma, and those with no evidence of thymic involvement. We conducted a retrospective observational case series study to investigate the epidemiology as well as the clinical, serologic, and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of individuals diagnosed as having MG. We found that the average age at MG onset of patients with either thymic hyperplasia or thymoma was much younger (by ~20years) than that of MG patients without thymic involvement. Thymic hyperplasia was more common in females than males. There were no differences in the rates of ocular MG vs. generalized MG among those three study groups. There were also no group differences in the rates of neuromuscular junction disfunction, as observed on EMG or by the results of serology tests for acetyl choline receptor antibody. Interestingly, only patients without thymic involvement had other autoimmune diseases, and most of them were females. The patients with other coexisting autoimmune disease had a similar age at MG onset as the other patients with no thymic involvement. These results shed light on the impact of epidemiological and clinical factors that result from different mechanisms of self-immunological tolerance breakdown that occurs in MG. PMID:27609276

  1. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations, additio

  2. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  3. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

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    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  4. Epidemiological Characteristics and Overall Burden of Accidental Injuries in Navarra, Spain: Epidemiology of Injuries in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-Torres, Marta; Belzunegui-Otano, Tomás; Martínez-García, Oscar; Iriarte-Cerdán, Laura; Salgado-Reguero, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Injuries caused by accidents or violent situations in pediatric patients are a serious social problem where prevention plays a key role. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological situation of pediatric injuries in Spain. A prospective study of pediatric patients receiving care in the Emergency Service of the Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra due to for reasons of accidental injury was conducted. The study covered a period of 1 year and assessed a total of 16 variables. There were a total of 8,876 patients, of whom 56.4% were males. Traumatic injuries such as fractures and craniocerebral trauma were identified as the most frequent injuries, occurring as a result of injuries mainly in the home. In females, there was a decrease in the incidence of injuries related to age. There was a greater incidence at the end of the day, during the weekend, and in the months of March to October. The epidemiological profile of pediatric patients who met with accidents in Navarra, Spain, is described. The knowledge of the main areas and factors related to injuries allows us to improve preventive measures, which would contribute to better control in this region of Spain. PMID:27414146

  5. Itch in psoriasis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment options

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    F Prignano

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available F Prignano, F Ricceri, L Pescitelli, T LottiDepartment of Dermatological Sciences, University of Florence,Florence, ItalyBackground: Pruritus is an important symptom in psoriasis vulgaris, may be severe and seriously affect the quality of life of patients, but published data on its frequency and characteristics are limited.Objective: The study objective was to characterize the prevalence of itch in psoriatic patients and the effect of treatment modalities by using a comprehensive itch questionnaire of our own design.Methods: A structured itch questionnaire was given to 90 patients with moderate to severe chronic-plaque psoriasis selected consecutively from the patients visiting the Department of Dermatology of the University of Florence. The questionnaire concerned the areas involved in psoriasis and pruritus, the pruritus characteristics, the worsening and relieving factors and treatment modalities. Itch intensity was reflected by a 10 point visual analog scale (VAS and the degree of symptoms discriminated between mild (1–3, moderate (4–7 and severe (8–10.Results: Almost 85% of psoriatic patients suffered from itching; the frequency of pruritus was daily and mean intensity by VAS scale was moderate. Presence and intensity of pruritus and body mass index (BMI were correlated. 40% of patients with pruritus were overweight (BMI > 25 < 30 and 10% obese (BMI > 30. Almost all patients appeared unsatisfied with the available treatment modalities for pruritus in psoriasis. Emollients, topical steroids and calcipotriol cream could relieve pruritus but their effect was temporary. Among the antipsoriatic therapies, phototherapy with narrow band ultraviolet B (nb-UVB was the most effective treatment in reducing pruritus. Biological therapies, mainly etanercept and efalizumab, proved useful in its control.Conclusions: The questionnaire was a useful tool to characterize itch, and the results might help us to better understand pruritus in psoriasis

  6. From cell culture to population enquiry: Experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies on restenosis post coronary intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Violaris (Andonis)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractPercutaneous coronary intervention is widely used in the treatment of coronaty artery disease but currently limited by restenosis in a proportion of cases. We investigated the restenosis problem using complimentary experimental, clinical and epidemiological approaches.

  7. 北京市1399例宫颈癌的流行现状及临床特点%Present epidemiological status and clinical characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing: a report of 1399 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章静菲; 王彤; 武明辉; 张为远

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with cervical cancer over the last two decades in Beijing so as to provide scientific rationales for the management of cervical cancer.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was employed to analyze a total of 1399 invasive cervical cancer cases from different class hospitals in Beijing during the period of 1990 -2009.Results ( 1 ) The number of cervical cancer cases had been rising over the last 2 decades.(2) The age of onset ranged from 17 to 88 years old; the number of patients with stages Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ was 772 (57.1% ),380 ( 28.1% ),182 ( 13.5% ) and 18 ( 1.3% ) respectively; 1135 ( 83.1% ) patients were of squamous cell carcinoma while 182 ( 13.3% ) adenocarcinoma.The last two decades was divided into 4 groups of 5 years each.The average age gradually decreased from 58.2 to 46.0 years old( P < 0.01 ).The proportion of patients with stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ also increased from 69.6% (16/23) to 89.4% (530/856) ; There was no significant change in histopathologic type of cervical cancer.And squamous cell carcinoma of cervix remained the predominant type(P >0.05).(3) About 26.0% (364/1399) of cases received no vagino-recto-abdominal examination while 3.4% (48/1399) of cases were not staged.Conclusion Over the last two decades,the number of newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases has showed a rising trend in Beijing.And the proportions of young patients and patients with early disease have both increased.Some irregularities still exist in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.So we should pay more attention to the screening program and standardize the diagnosis,therapy and follow-up of cervical cancer.%目的 分析北京市宫颈癌的发病趋势和临床特点,了解各级医院宫颈癌的诊断状况,完善北京市宫颈癌登记资料,为逐步规范宫颈癌临床诊治提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽

  8. Epidemiological characteristics and relative factor of hospital death cases with road traffic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yadong; Hou Shuxun; Yao Yongming; Sheng Zhiyong; Wang Fu; Wang Yubin; Zheng Weijia

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and relative factor about hospital death in patients with road traffic trauma. Methods: The age, sex, road-use category, sites of injury, injury severity scale of 159 hospital death cases in 2436 cases with road traffic trauma were observed, and the relation between the causes of death and time elapsed after injury was also studied with likelihood ratio Chi-square test. Results: More hospital deaths happen more likely in the elderly patients and peasants with road traffic trauma. Motor vehicle was the most common culprit, and the majority of victims were pedestrians. The causes of death were related with the time elapsed after injury, and according to which the clinical course of the wounded patients could be divided into cerebral injury / shock phase, transitional phase, infection phase and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) phase.Conclusion: There is a significant relation between the hospital deaths and types of the injury and medical care in road traffic accidents. It should be emphasized that strategy of prevention of hospital deaths during hospital care should vary in different phases of the clinical course.

  9. Dengue em criança: aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, no período de 2006 e 2007 Dengue in children: clinical and epidemiological characteristics, Manaus, State of Amazonas, 2006 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Alves da Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar os aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos das crianças acometidas por dengue, em Manaus, AM, no período de 2006 a 2007. Foram analisados 482 casos de dengue confirmados laboratorialmente, em 2006, sendo 46,9% nos menores de 15 anos, e 1.538 casos, em 2007, sendo 57,7% nos menores de 15 anos. Os dados foram obtidos do Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN de Manaus. As variáveis analisadas foram: idade, gênero, bairro de residência, mês do inicio dos sintomas, sorotipo e forma clínica da doença. Verificou-se um aumento estatisticamente significativo da proporção de casos em menores de 15 anos, bem como das formas graves entre 2006 e 2007. Apesar de a forma hemorrágica ter sido quase três vezes mais freqüente em 2007, houve uma redução do coeficiente de letalidade. Os sorotipos identificados foram DEN-3 em 2006 e DEN-1, DEN-2 e DEN-3 em 2007. Em 2007, houve registro de casos em todos os meses do ano.This study presents the clinical and epidemiological aspects of children affected with dengue, in Manaus, AM, in 2006 and 2007. There were 482 The aim of this study was to present the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children affected by dengue, in Manaus, State of Amazonas, in 2006 and 2007. Analysis was conducted on 482 dengue cases with confirmation from laboratory tests, in 2006 (46.9% in children under 15 years of age, and 1,538 cases in 2007 (57.7% in children under 15 years of age. The data were obtained from the National System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação; SINAN in Manaus. The variables analyzed were: age, gender, district where subject lived, month when symptoms started, serotypes and clinical form of the disease. Statistically significant increases in the proportion of cases in children under 15 years of age and in the proportion of severe forms were found between 2006 and 2007. Although the hemorrhagic form was almost

  10. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in North-Eastern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the clinical and epidemiological data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients of NorthEastern Poland.METHODS: A total of 248 IBD patients diagnosed and hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases in Bialystok between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. We analyzed age, sex, education, characteristics of job, type of the environment, discontinuation of employment due to IBD, colitis extent, need of surgical treatment, and coexistence of other diseases.RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three IBD patients (94%) were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC), and only 15 (6%) were diagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with CD were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis and male predominance was observed. The mean age of the patients at the time UC diagnosis was 44.9±1.1 years. Histogram of the age of patients showed the characteristic biphasic distribution with two peaks between 20 and 40 years and between 60 and 70 years. The predominant form of UC was left sided colitis, which affected almost 80% of the studied population. The most extensive form - pancolitis was present in 34 patients (15%). Only 6% of UC patients required surgery, whereas 36% of CD patients underwent surgery (P<0.005). Among coexisting disorders, cholelithiasis was the most prevalent and demonstrated in 35 patients (14%), pulmonary disorders were diagnosed in 2%, and psoriasis in 1.4%.Since 1998, the number of admitted IBD patients has slightly increased.CONCLUSION: Occurrence of UC in Poland is much higher than that of CD. The majority of UC cases are diagnosed in young people (20-40 years) with the predominance of male patients. The most common clinical form of UC is left sided colitis.

  12. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associat...

  13. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

    OpenAIRE

    Alkatout I; Schubert M; Garbrecht N; Weigel MT; Jonat W; Mundhenke C; Günther V

    2015-01-01

    Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated a...

  14. Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Morovatdar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disease. Early diagnosis is a important public health intervention to prevent neurological impairment .This study was designed to describe characteristics of phenylketonouria patients in Khorasan ,Northeast of Iran. Methods: We included all  patients suffering from PKU in khorasan until September 2013. We gathered the variables like diagnosis age , sib of parents, cause of asking physician and screening based diagnosis or clinical based diagnosis. We use descriptive statistics for analysis. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 19 months .80% pku patients had a positive history of consanguineous marriage in their parents. Incidence of new cases that identified by screening in 2012-2013 was 57 per 1000000 live birth. 10% patients identified with screening in first week of birth. Conclusion: Nearly all of our patients (90% had been diagnosed without screening in the first days of their life only due to clinical manifestations in the first year of their life . According to efficacy of early diagnosis and dietary treatment, enforcement of public health policy for screening is a critical public health preventive intervention.

  15. Analysis on Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 63 Cases of Nontuberculous mycobacterial(NTM)Lung Disease%63例非结核分枝杆菌肺病的流行病学及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 黄瑞霞; 邓虹; 何庆秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨非结核分枝杆菌肺病的临床特点及防治对策.方法 对2009-2011年7月广州市结核病防治所二分所经过实验室检查确诊的63例非结核分枝杆菌肺病患者进行分析.结果 非结核分枝杆菌肺病波及两肺叶为多(58%),双侧同时患病较多(51%),空洞仅占25%.涂阴培阳44%,涂阳培阳56%,菌型鉴定以龟分枝杆菌为多占44%.耐药以耐多药比例最大(占77%),耐药顺位为耐多药>耐二药>单药.仅有3例是对一二线抗结核药全敏感.其中47例为初治病例(75%),16例复治病例(25%).结论 由于生活环境的变迁可能导致了非结核分枝杆菌的习性发生了变化,以至于目前非结核分枝杆菌肺病的临床特点也发生了不同程度的改变.%Objective To investigate the nontuberculcxus mycobacterial(NTM) lung disease prevention and treatment of clinical features and treatment response. Methods Sixty - three cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease confirmed by the laboratory testing in the Second Clinic of Guangzhou Tuberculosis Dispensary from 2009 to July 2011 were analyzed. Results The case of both lung lobe were affected by nontuberculous mycobacterial accounted for 58%, while the case of both sides of lung were affected accounted for 51 %, and the cavityaccounted for only 25%. The bacteria - based . Identification of M. Chelonei accounted for more than 44% for the. Multiple drug resistance tuberculosis accounted for the largest proportion (77%) of drug - resistance. Conclusions As the environment changes may result in a nontuberculous mycobacteria habits change, so the current nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease also occurred in the clinical features of varying degrees of change. In order to have a better control of multidrug- resistant tuberculosis, MDR-TB. And prevent the spread and infection of both multiple drug resistance tubercle bacillus and NTM with the property of MDR, therefore nontuberculous

  16. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  17. Development of a Computer Program for Teaching Periodontal Diagnosis Based on Clinical Epidemiological Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Kelvin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Development of an inexpensive but powerful computer program to teach clinical periodontal diagnosis using epidemiological principles is described. Using probabilistic thinking, the student is guided from application of raw research data to derivation of likelihood ratios and how they affect clinical decision making. Student response was found to…

  18. The clinical profile and pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation: relationships among clinical features, epidemiology, and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jason; Khairy, Paul; Dobrev, Dobromir; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-04-25

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia (estimated lifetime risk, 22%-26%). The aim of this article is to review the clinical epidemiological features of AF and to relate them to underlying mechanisms. Long-established risk factors for AF include aging, male sex, hypertension, valve disease, left ventricular dysfunction, obesity, and alcohol consumption. Emerging risk factors include prehypertension, increased pulse pressure, obstructive sleep apnea, high-level physical training, diastolic dysfunction, predisposing gene variants, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease. Potential risk factors are coronary artery disease, kidney disease, systemic inflammation, pericardial fat, and tobacco use. AF has substantial population health consequences, including impaired quality of life, increased hospitalization rates, stroke occurrence, and increased medical costs. The pathophysiology of AF centers around 4 general types of disturbances that promote ectopic firing and reentrant mechanisms, and include the following: (1) ion channel dysfunction, (2) Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities, (3) structural remodeling, and (4) autonomic neural dysregulation. Aging, hypertension, valve disease, heart failure, myocardial infarction, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, and endurance exercise training all cause structural remodeling. Heart failure and prior atrial infarction also cause Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities that lead to focal ectopic firing via delayed afterdepolarizations/triggered activity. Neural dysregulation is central to atrial arrhythmogenesis associated with endurance exercise training and occlusive coronary artery disease. Monogenic causes of AF typically promote the arrhythmia via ion channel dysfunction, but the mechanisms of the more common polygenic risk factors are still poorly understood and under intense investigation. Better recognition of the clinical epidemiology of AF, as well as an improved appreciation of

  19. Confirmed by Serology for Measles and Rubella Epidemiological Characteristics and Clinical Analysis%经血清学证实的麻疹和风疹流行特征及临床表现分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史云菊; 张红艳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the basis for identification of rubella and measles .Methods The serological con-firmed rubella and measles patients′clinical data were retrospectively analyzed .Results ( 1 ) measles and rubella epi-demic season (2-6 months) did not change , age of onset of age and is showing a small increase in the phenomenon of high incidence age group , rubella more apparent .( 2 ) general fever , respiratory catarrhal symptoms , symptoms of con-junctivitis, skin rash of measles is relatively heavy;Koplik spots, time of visits, ear and occipital lymph nodes is an im-portant basis for identification .Conclusions In the course of 1 to 2 days without Koplik spots visits were most likely to rubella.%目的:探求风疹与麻疹的鉴别依据。方法对经血清学证实的风疹和麻疹病人的临床资料进行分析。结果(1)麻疹和风疹的流行季节(2~6月)没有发生改变,发病年龄则呈现小月龄和高年龄组发病增多现象,风疹更为明显。(2)一般发热、呼吸道卡他症状、眼结膜炎症状、皮疹等麻疹相对较重;Koplik斑、出诊时间、耳后及枕部淋巴结肿大是重要的鉴别依据。结论在病程的1~2天出诊无Koplik斑者为风疹的可能性最大。

  20. Epidemiology and characteristics of childhood glaucoma: results from the Dallas Glaucoma Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Fung DS; Roensch MA; Kooner KS; Cavanagh HD; Whitson JT

    2013-01-01

    Derrick S Fung, M Allison Roensch, Karanjit S Kooner, H Dwight Cavanagh, Jess T WhitsonDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USAPurpose: Few studies have provided epidemiological characteristics of childhood glaucoma in a large, multiethnic population. This information is important if we are to better screen for and characterize this specific type of glaucoma. In this study, we evaluate the characteristics of patients with childhood glaucoma...

  1. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; H.L. Phuong; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; N.V. Nam; T.Q. Binh; C. Simmons; J. Farrar; T.T. Hien; H.R. van Doorn; M.D. de Jong; P.J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from 200

  2. Características clinicoepidemiológicas de um grupo de mulheres com HIV/AIDS em Salvador-Bahia Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of a group of HIV/AIDS infected women in Salvador-Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci de Lima Xavier Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS entre as mulheres e os mais pobres, são importantes características da epidemia no Brasil e no mundo. Estudo descritivo delineou-se com objetivo de descrever um grupo de 82 mulheres com HIV/AIDS de Salvador - Bahia. A idade média é 32 ± 7,2 anos; 75% têm filhos, 82,5% estão desempregadas e o grau de instrução situa-se entre analfabeto e primeiro grau em 77,8%. O número de parceiros sexuais foi igual ou inferior a cinco na vida em 71% dos casos e 25% relatavam um único parceiro. Quarenta e seis (55,4% mulheres apresentaram 77 episódios de infecções oportunistas. A maioria das pacientes tem baixo grau de instrução, baixa renda e poucos parceiros sexuais. A forma de transmissão foi predominantemente sexual, muitas mulheres adquiriram o vírus com o próprio companheiro/ marido.The increasing number of HIV/AIDS infected women is one of the main characteristics of the AIDS epidemic, besides the wide expansion of the disease among the poor. This study focused on a group of 82 women with AIDS from Salvador - Bahia. The mean age was 32 ± 7.2 years, 75% had children, 82.5% were jobless, and 77.8% were illiterate or only had basic education. The number of sexual partners was five or fewer in 71% of cases and 25% had only one sexual partner. Forty-six (55.4% women reported up to 77 episodes of opportunist infections. The majority of the patients were from the lower classes, with no good education, a low income and few sexual partners. The main via of transmission was heterosexual, and many of the women were infected by their steady partner/husband.

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Payam Peymani; Ali Foroutan; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B Lankarani; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Najmeh Maharlouei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011.The data were from the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry.In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities,971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents.The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2)years,ranging from 6 months to 103 years old.Males accounted for 69.8% of all deaths.Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads.Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases.Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age,interval between injury and death.Besides,the type of roads played an important role in mortality.Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade,decreasing the burden of injuries needs coordination among trauma system organizations.

  4. Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Paley, Richard; Alegria-Moran, Raul; Oidtmann, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid species, including the main salmonid species produced in aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We reviewed the scientific literature on IHNV on a range of topics, including geographic distribution; host range; conditions required for infection and clinical disease; minimum infectious dose; subclinical infection; shedding of virus by infected fish; transmission via eggs; diagnostic tests; pathogen load and survival of IHNV in host tissues. This information is required for a range of purposes including import risk assessments; parameterisation of disease models; for surveillance planning; and evaluation of the chances of eradication of the pathogen to name just a few. The review focuses on issues that are of relevance for the European context, but many of the data summarised have relevance to IHN globally. Examples for application of the information is presented and data gaps highlighted. PMID:27287024

  5. Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, H; Dendana, F; Sellami, A; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Neji, S; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2012-12-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in soil and water. Small number of them was implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Some of the infections were opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitis) while others are non opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis and some cases of Balamuthia encephalitis). Although, the number of infections caused by these amoebae is low, their diagnosis was still difficult to confirm and so there was a higher mortality, particularly, associated with encephalitis. In this review, we present some information about epidemiology, ecology and the types of diseases caused by these pathogens amoebae.

  6. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients admitted diagnosed with acute ischemic cerebrovascular event in internal medicine services and neurology of the Hospital Mexico in March 2013 to March 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Records of 100 patients were revised with diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular event in the neurology and internal medicine at the Hospital Mexico since March 2013 to March 2014. A total of 46 patients were men and 54 were women. The overall mean age was 69 years, for men have been 66 years and for women from 71. Patients of all provinces were entered main of San Jose with 56% followed by 19% Alajuela. The hospital management by specialty was distributed 60% to internal medicine and 40% neurology. The risk factors most frequently found were: hypertension 85%, diabetes mellitus 40%, smoking 35%, and dyslipidemia 35%. Overweight was observed in 23% of patients and 22% obese. As for the initial clinical manifestations documented in the first physical examination, the 6 most frequently found have been: faciobrachiocrural hemiparesis 60%, delirium 22%, dysarthria 22%, headache 20%, nausea and/or vomiting 17% and aphasia 15%. A total of 13% of patients have altered the consciousness and 5% have required ventilatory support for first 24 hours of evolution. 27% of patients have arrived within the first 3 hours of onset of symptoms, 11% between 3 to 4.5 hours and the remaining 62% beyond 4.5 hours of duration. 70% of patients have had 1 or more comorbidities prior to the event, the top 5 have been: ischemic heart disease 31%, 29% atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular disease 19%, 16% chronic kidney disease and congestive heart failure by 12%. Regarding the topographic classification of stokes, 16% were TACI, PACI 46%, 27% LACI and POCI only 11%. The average NIHSS scale has been 9 points to admission, 10 to 48 hours and 6 points at the time of discharge. Regarding brain scan on admission to 98% of the patients were performed while that between 48-72 hours alone to 74%. The most common initial tomographic CT findings have been: 49% lucency of more than 1/3 of middle cerebral artery territory, without alteration 46%, 8% cerebral edema data and 8% midline deviation. Hemorrhagic

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic fatigue- syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis in Australian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Samantha C Johnston1,2 Donald R Staines1 Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik1,2 1National Centre for Neuroimmunology and Emerging Diseases, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, 2School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Parklands, QLD, Australia Background: No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME. The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME.Methods: A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria.Results: A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0; the majority were female (78.61%, Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients. Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified.Conclusion: This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and

  8. Spill pleural: Clinical and cytological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spill pleural is a frequent entity in congestive heart failure. The congestive heart failure, is probable that the cause more common of pleural spill, an analysis of the spill causes is made, the pathology is revised from the clinical point of view, highlighting the most excellent characteristics in each entity and an cytological analysis is made

  9. Clinical and epidemiological predictors of transmission in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Hoe

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only a minority of probable SARS cases caused transmission. We assess if any epidemiological or clinical factors in SARS index patients were associated with increased probability of transmission. Methods We used epidemiological and clinical data on probable SARS patients admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital. Using a case-control approach, index patients who had probable SARS who subsequently transmitted the disease to at least one other patient were analysed as "cases" against patients with no transmission as "controls", using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results 98 index patients were available for analysis (22 with transmission, 76 with no transmission. Covariates positively associated with transmission in univariate analysis at p 650 IU/L (OR 6.4, 23.8 and 4.7 respectively. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological factors can help us to explain why transmission was observed in some instances but not in others.

  10. Intracranial Infections: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologist plays a crucial role in identifying and narrowing the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections. A thorough understanding of the intracranial compartment anatomy and characteristic imaging findings of specific pathogens, as well incorporation of the clinical information, is essential to establish correct diagnosis. Specific types of infections have certain propensities for different anatomical regions within the brain. In addition, the imaging findings must be placed in the context of the clinical setting, particularly in immunocompromised and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This paper describes and depicts infections within the different compartments of the brain. Pathology-proven infectious cases are presented in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, with a discussion of the characteristic findings of each pathogen. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characteristics for several infections are also discussed

  11. Epidemiological and molecular characteristics of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Turkey: A multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Devrim; Willke, Ayse; Sayan, Murat; Koc, Meliha Meric; Akan, Ozay Arıkan; Sumerkan, Bulent; Saltoglu, Nese; Yaman, Akgun; Ayaz, Celal; Koksal, Iftihar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological and molecular features of clinical meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in Turkey. MRSA isolates were collected from six regions of Turkey. The mecA and nuc genes were detected by PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were determined by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing were performed by the sequencing method for 270 randomly selected MRSA isolates. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition was used for epidemiological diagnosis of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA). Resistance rates of MRSA to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, clindamycin, erythromycin, rifampicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were 93.4%, 81.2%, 38.5%, 57.8%, 93.9%, 1.1% and 93.1%, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec type was SCCmec III (91.1%). SCCmec type IV was found in 5.2% of the isolates. The most frequent spa type was t030 (81.1%). Five isolates were CA-MRSA if only the epidemiological definition was used (5/725; 0.7%). Two isolates were defined as CA-MRSA both by epidemiological features and SCCmec typing (2/270; 0.7%). Of 14 SCCmec type IV isolates, 12 were not defined as CA-MRSA by epidemiological features. In conclusion, this is the most comprehensive multicentre study in Turkey investigating MRSA using both epidemiological and genotypic features. The CA-MRSA rate is low in Turkey. Combined use of epidemiological and genotypic methods is the most accurate approach for the diagnosis of CA-MRSA. PMID:27530838

  12. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Ha, Ngo; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Horby, Peter; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Zhu, Xiaotong; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Hien, Tran Tinh; Zamora, Javier; Schultsz, Constance; Wertheim, Heiman Frank Louis; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

  13. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in dogs in Brazil: epidemiology, co-infection, and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Albuquerque, G R; Munhoz, A D; Gross, E; Carneiro, P L S; Oliveira, H C; Rocha, J M; Santos, I A; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease present in 98 countries. In Brazil, the northeast region accounts for approximately half of the cases in humans, and has experienced an increased number of positive cases in dogs. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, using serological and molecular techniques and evaluated the possible environmental risk factors and associated clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from 560 dogs in urban and peri-urban areas in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted from the selected animals and subjected to molecular analysis using Leishmania species-specific primers and diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 54.72% of dogs were positive for Leishmania braziliensis, and animals positive for both Leishmania infantum and T. cruzi were not identified. Hematologic variables were not statistically associated with cases of L. braziliensis. However, the positive animal group showed lower red blood cell and platelet counts and higher levels of urea and serum creatinine. Few dogs presented clinical signs compatible with the presence of Leishmania. Age of more than 2 years and specific hair colors were associated with positive results for L. braziliensis. The geoclimatic characteristics of the region may improve parasite survival, reproduction, and vectors. This may explain the higher rate of dogs identified as positive in this study. PMID:26505353

  14. Epidemiological characteristics of lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon flood.

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    Pei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The flood after a typhoon may lead to increase in patients with cellulitis of lower limbs. However, the microbiological features of these cases are rarely reported. We conducted a study of patients with lower extremity cellulitis after a typhoon followed in southern Taiwan to study the risk factors of cellulitis and the bacteriological features of the patients. METHODS: We reviewed all the medical records of cellulitis at emergency departments of two teaching hospitals in southern Taiwan 30 days before and after the landing of Typhoon Morakot and collected data on the demographic and bacteriological characteristics. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the daily number of patients and the rainfall in the Tainan area. RESULTS: The number of cellulitis patients increased from 183 to 344 during the 30-day period after the typhoon. The number peaked in the third and fourth days and lasted for 3 weeks. The proportion of patients with water immersion of the affected limb was higher after the typhoon (6% vs. 37%, odds ratio [OR]: 9.0, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 4.7-17.2. We found cultures from the infected limbs with immersion had more polymicrobial (73% vs. 26%, OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.2-19.2 and Gram-negative bacilli infection (86% vs. 34%, OR: 11.8, 95% CI: 4.1-34.5. CONCLUSIONS: Flood arose from Typhoon Morakot caused increases in cellulitis patients, which lasted for 3 weeks. Antibiotic treatment that were effective to both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli are recommended for patients with limbs emerged in the water.

  15. epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 cases of Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The data of 35 246 patients with intestinal diseases were retrospectively analyzed, 28 cases of cholera patients were screened in 17 years, of which 23 cases had suspicious unclean food history, 10 cases were migrant workers, 8 cases had history of coastal city tour in one week. All of the 28 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae culture, 19 cases were identiifed as O1 serotype Ogawa and 6 were identiifed as O1 serotype Inaba, 3 were identified as O139. Twenty-three patients were mild, five cases were moderate, patients with severe diseases were not found. It was found in this study that O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae was still dominant, 82%of cholera patients were mild cases. Tourists who had a incompletely heated seafood intake history and migrant people are susceptible to cholera.

  16. Pars Planitis: Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, Management and Visual Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdal, Pinar Cakar; Berker, Nilufer; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

    2015-01-01

    Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease. PMID:27051493

  17. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI. To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs, patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=4755 were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5% patients’ clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Results Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7% were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1% samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2% for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4% for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2% for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9% HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more “hoarseness” (p=0.015, “abnormal pulmonary breathing sound” (p Conclusions HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  18. The clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of the radiation pneumonia, sum the experience and the basis of the radiation pneumonia for its prevention and treatment. Method: Twenty three cases with radiation pneumonia from 1991 to 1998 were retrospectively analysed. Its clinical manifestation, chest X-ray, thoracic CT and blood routine were evaluated. Result: The acute manifestation was fever, cough, dyspnea, and the chronic manifestation was cough and insufficiency of pulmonary function. Conclusion: The prevention of radiation pneumonia is more important, high dose cortical steroids and antibiotics were prescribed during the acute stage and the chronic radiation pneumonia is irreversible

  19. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    OpenAIRE

    Thai, Khoa T. D.; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Thanh Nga, Tran Thi; Giao, Phan Trong; Hung, Le Quoc; Van Nam, Nguyen; Binh, Tran Quang; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Thinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Menno D. de Jong; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from 2001 to 2006 to study the aetiology in AUF patients. Demographic and clinical information was obtained, and dengue polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serology were performed on a random sele...

  20. 广州地区92例成人水痘患者流行病学、临床及实验室特征分析%Epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of 92 adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周颖; 林思炜; 廖宝林; 熊红品

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area. Methods We retrospectively enrolled 92 adult patients with chickenpox, collected and analyzed their epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory data. We also chose 30 child patients with chickenpox from same period for comparison. Results Adult patients with chickenpox in Guangzhou area were mostly found in seasons of autumn and winter (61.9%), and in Baiyun district (40.2%). They were mainly consisted of students (42.4%). Patients in adult group (n = 84) had significantly longer fever (P = 0.033), as well as higher frequencies of throat pain, blister with infection and involved in oral mucosa than those in child group (P = 0.001, 0.005, 0.041), and most of their rash were not centrally distribution (P = 0.006). Patients in adult group had higher frequency of hepatitis than those in childe group (54.8% vs 10.0%, P < 0.001). Conclusion Clinical symptoms in adult patients with chickenpox are not typical and more severe, attentions must be paid to prevent and treat their complications.%目的:了解广州地区成人水痘患者流行病学、临床和实验室检查特征。方法回顾性分析92例成人水痘患者的流行病学、临床和实验室资料,选取同期30例儿童水痘患者作为对照。结果广州成人水痘患者多发生于秋冬季节(61.9%),白云区例数最多(40.2%),以学生为主(42.4%)。成人组(n =84)热程较长(P =0.033),咽痛、水泡伴发感染与累及口腔黏膜发生率均较儿童组明显升高(P =0.001、0.005、0.041),且皮疹以非向心性分布为主(P =0.006)。成人组合并肝炎发生率较儿童组高(54.8% vs 10.0%,P <0.001)。结论成人水痘患者临床表现不典型且病情较重,需注意并发症的防治。

  1. Primary gout in Shantou: a clinical and epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆馀; 王庆文; 陈韧; 肖征宇; 黄少弼; 许敬才

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of primary gout in the Shantou area, China, and to understand its clinical features. Methods Samples from three surveys of the Chenghai across ten years were studied. Clinical, laboratory and radiology data of 419 cases of primary gout were collected and analyzed. Conclusions The prevalence of primary gout in Shantou area has been increasing in the last ten years. Changes in diet and lifestyle may be responsible for this rapid increase.

  2. Nocardiosis: Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Alavi Darazam, Ilad; Shamaei, Masoud; Mobarhan, Mandana; Ghasemi, Shahin; Tabarsi, Payam; Motavasseli, Masoud; Mansouri, Davood

    2013-01-01

    Nocardiosis has been reported increasingly in recent two decades, probably due to improvement in isolation of the organism and increased burden of immune compromised patients. Nocardia occasionally has been reported in healthy people. A case series of definitive Nocardiosis (2002 to 2010), clinical characteristics, underlying diseases, immune status and in-patient outcome were studied in a tertiary referral center. Twenty one patients with definite diagnosis of Nocardiosis were studied. 17 ca...

  3. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  4. Global Fluoroquinolone Resistance Epidemiology and Implictions for Clinical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Dalhoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriaceae causing community acquired or healthcare associated urinary tract infections and intraabdominal infections, exceeding 50% in some parts of the world, particularly in Asia. One to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum -lactamases were fluoroquinolone resistant too. Furthermore, fluoroquinolones select for methicillin resistance in Staphylococci. Neisseria gonorrhoeae acquired fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly; actual resistance rates are highly variable and can be as high as almost 100%, particularly in Asia, whereas resistance rates in Europe and North America range from 30% in established sexual networks. In general, the continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patient management and necessitates changes in some guidelines, for example, treatment of urinary tract, intra-abdominal, skin and skin structure infections, and traveller’s diarrhea, or even precludes the use in indications like sexually transmitted diseases and enteric fever.

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics and Functional Disability of Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Zeqiraj, Kamber; Kruja, Jera; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic recurrent neurological disease that affects the Central Nervous System. This study aims to determine epidemiological factors that affect the appearance of MS, such as: incidence, prevalence, mortality, case appearance in accordance with the disease phase RRMS, SPMS, PPMS, gender, age, age group, and EDSS. Materials and methods: Deals with analyzing diagnosed and treated patients in the Clinic of Neurology in Prishtina during the ...

  6. An Update on the Epidemiology of Schizophrenia with a Special Reference to Clinically Important Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Missiry, Ahmed; Aboraya, Ahmed Sayed; Manseur, Hader; Manchester, Johnna; France, Cheryl; Border, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental illness which poses a tremendous burden on the families, caregivers and the society. The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated review of the epidemiology of schizophrenia with a special attention to the clinically important risk factors such as drug abuse, hormonal factors and the new advances in genetic…

  7. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology...

  8. CLINICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ACQUIRED CHILD METHEMOGLOBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letiția-Doina DUCEAC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, intoxication with nitrates continues to represent an important aspect in child pathology. Methemoglobinemia symptoms appear when the human body is exposed to high amounts of toxic compounds.The aim of this work was to evaluate the main clinical, biological and development issues of affected patients hospitalized in a specialized clinic. Acquired methemoglobinemia cases of the ”blue child syndrome” type are more frequent than in born ones. The factors considered for the study were the environment from which patients came, a thorough clinical inspection, data on age, nutrition, methemoglobinemia values, other treatments followed, associated diseases and evolution prognosis. The conclusion of the investigation was that a low living standard, a poor health education, the climate, the presence of ground fertilizers and the type of nourishment determined a significant increase of methemoglobinemia patients.

  9. Epidemiological, Clinical and Paraclinical Study of Hydatid Cysts in Three Educational Medical Centers in 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Shoaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus, is an important public health problem in many areas of the world  and  Iran is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis In the present study, we evaluated epidemiological, complications and clinical characteristics of hydatidosis at three University Medical Centers in Tehran over a 10-year period.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed in patients with hydatid cysts. Information about age, gender, number of cysts, organ involvement, morbidity and mortality and relapse were collected from medical records of hydatid patients. Paraclinic information such as CT Scan, MRI, ultrasound, complete blood count, pathological diagnosis and complication of disease were collected.Results: Overall, 81 patients, 35 (43.2% male and 46 (56.8% female, who were diagnosed as having hydatid cyst by clinical and radiological findings, with pathologic documentation were studied in three university medical center registries over a 10-year period (2003- 2012 in Tehran. Fourteen patients (17% of cases had complications resulting from this disease. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 86 years, and the peak prevalence of the disease was between 20 and 40 (34% of cases.Conclusion: Iran  is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis. Prevalence rate of hydatidosis in Iran was reported to be 0.61-2 in 100000 populations. The highest  rate of infection and complications were in patients of 20-40 years age. Clinical examination revealed that abdominal pain was the most common complaint and was present in 51.7% of the cases. Other most common complain were cough, abdominal mass, dyspnea, icterus, chest pain, dyspepsia, back pain and seizure; and it was result of occupying effect of cysts in organs. This is similar with previous studies in Iran

  10. Epidemiological, Clinical and Prognostic Profile of Acute Bacterial Meningitis among Children in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farag HF

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To address the epidemiological characteristics and clinical indices that may predict the prognostic profile of meningitis among children. Methods: Children admitted to Alexandria fever hospital with clinical diagnosis of meningitis/meningoencephalitis during the period 2002-2003 were recruited for the study. They were subjected to clinical examination as well as CSF bacteriological and serological investigations Results: Three hundred and ten patients (195 males and 115 females were included. About 65.2% of them were infected with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM and 34.8% were infected with aseptic meningitis. In this study, ABM was caused by Haemophilus influenzae (21%, Streptococcus pneumoniae (13.9%, Neisseria meningitidis (14.2% and other undetermined bacteria (16.1%. ABM showed significant association with age group 1-9 years (66.3%, low socio-economic class (96%, working mother (83.2%, more than two smokers in the family (62.9% and cold seasons(fall 35.1% and winter 48.5%. Aseptic meningitis showed significant association with age group 3-15 months (100% and previous immunization(81.5%. The overall case fatality rate was 10.3%; 13.9% for ABM and 3.4% for aseptic meningitis. 7.1% of all survivors developed epileptic attacks. Predictors for death or epilepsy events were high WHO meningitis score (> 9, decreased CSF glucose level (Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of several predictors of the outcome of meningitis in children. It is concluded that quick and simple scoring scales, such as the WHO scale, are not only applicable but valuable prognostic tools for meningitis in children.

  11. Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson KC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelly C Pearson1, April W Armstrong21Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder, which has been reported to be associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV risks. CV comorbidities, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity appear to be increased in psoriasis patients compared with the general population. Psoriasis may contribute independently to adverse cardiac outcomes after accounting for traditional CV risk factors. In this article, it was aimed to summarize large population studies that examine the relationship between psoriasis and CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes, and highlight proposed mechanisms for the observed epidemiologic link. Specifically, large population-based studies with over 1000 total subjects from 1975 to September 2008 in the English literature are highlighted. The relevant search terms in the Ovid Medline database were applied. The majority of the studies presented evidence for an increased incidence of CV risk factors and an increased risk for major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with severe psoriasis. The increased risk in severe psoriasis necessitates regular screening for other comorbidities. Current guidelines for screening CV risk factors among psoriasis patients are discussed. Also reviewed is the scarce literature in therapeutic strategies to reduce CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes in psoriasis patients. Specifically, an emerging area of research on the effects of biologic agents on CV risk factors and CV adverse outcomes in psoriasis is discussed.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events, MACE, hypertension

  12. Clinical epidemiology of comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, J; Eames, S E

    1997-01-01

    The authors sought to determine the 1-year-period prevalence and demographic characteristics of comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia, as well as the demographic characteristics of SRD-dysthymia patients as compared with SRD-only patients. Patients being treated at two university medical centers and abstinent less than 2 years were followed prospectively for 6 months to establish the diagnosis of dysthymia. A total of 642 patients were assessed, of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire and assessment of DSM Axis I psychiatric diagnoses. The 1-year prevalence rate was lower than noted in previous studies where there were less stringent criteria for dysthymia. The rate of dysthymia among these SRD patients closely resembled that observed in a general population study. SRD-dysthymia patients and SRD-only patients did not differ on most demographic characteristics. SRD-dysthymia is not easily detected among recovering SRD patients because of the need for lengthy observation and the absence of special demographic characteristics.

  13. Epidemiologic characteristics of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China from 2006 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design effective prevention and control strategies for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Mainland China, we evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics and trends of HFRS cases reported between 2006 and 2010.Methods: HFRS data from 1970 to 2010 were obtained from the China Notifiable Disease Reporting System (CNDRS. The cases analysed included clinical cases and laboratory-confirmed cases. Data was extracted for statistical analysis by time, region and profession; the incidence rate was obtained directly from CNDRS. In this study, we analysed the morbidity and mortality data of HFRS from 2006 to 2010.Results: HFRS cases trended downward from 2006 (15 098 to 2009 (8745, but exhibited a slight increase in 2010 (9526. Twenty-nine of 31 provinces reported HFRS cases between 2006 and 2010. Five provinces, namely, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning in the North-east, Shandong in the east, and Shaanxi in the central part of China, were characterized as high-endemic areas. Seasonal case distribution was bimodal, with peaks of cases in spring and winter. Young male farmers were the most susceptible population to HFRS. Early- to middle-aged adults (20–50 years old represented the largest groups of HFRS cases.Conclusion: The overall number of cases of HFRS in China has trended downward possibly due to national vaccine and rodent vector control programmes implemented in the past 25 years. However, this trend slowed down in the last five years. High-endemic regions and at-risk population groups still exist and will benefit from further targeted prevention strategies.

  14. Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing; Walter Loesche

    2011-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that causes social restraint. Studies worldwide indicate a high prevalence of moderate halitosis, whereas severe cases are restricted to around 5% of the populations. The etiological chain of halitosis relates to the presence of odoriferous substances in exhaled air, especially the volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) produced by bacteria. The organoleptic diagnosis is the gold standard and clinical management includes oral approaches, especially periodontal t...

  15. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Epidemiology, Clinical Features, Prognosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Joseph P; Huynh, Richard H; Fishbein, Michael C; Saggar, Rajan; Belperio, John A; Weigt, S Sam

    2016-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a specific form of chronic interstitial lung pneumonia associated with the histologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Although UIP is a distinct histologic lesion, this histologic pattern is not specific for IPF and can also be found in other diseases (e.g., connective tissue disease and asbestosis). Clinical features of IPF include progressive cough, dyspnea, restrictive ventilatory defect, and progressive fibrosis and destruction of the lung parenchyma. IPF is rare (13-42 cases/100,000), and primarily affects older adults (>50 years of age). The diagnosis of IPF often requires surgical lung biopsy, but the diagnosis can be affirmed with confidence in some patients provided the results of computed tomographic (CT) scans and clinical features are consistent. The clinical course is variable, but inexorable progression (typically over months to years) is typical. Mean survival from the onset of symptoms approximates 3 to 5 years. Medical treatment is only modestly effective, primarily by slowing the rate of disease progression. Lung transplantation is the best therapeutic option. PMID:27231859

  16. Epidemiological and clinical analysis of hepatitis virus A infections during three successive outbreaks in Sfax (Tunisia) between 2007 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, S; Fki Berrajah, L; Ayadi, I; Messedi, E; Jallouli, H; Hammami, A; Karray-Hakim, H

    2016-05-01

    to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of HAV infection during three successive outbreaks occurring between 2007 and 2010 in the governorate of Sfax. epidemiological and clinical characteristics were retrospectively analyzed from the outbreak investigations. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis A was confirmed by ELISA detection of immunoglobulin M serum antibodies to HAV. 443 patients were identified and 159 of them investigated. Their mean age was 12.2 years and the M/F ratio was 0.9. The most affected age groups were 6-10 years (35%) and 11-15 years (33%). The most likely sources of contamination were drinking water from wells or tanks and direct transmission. The most frequent symptoms included asthenia, digestive disorders, and jaundice. Two cases of fulminant hepatitis were reported, one lethal. our results show that HAV endemicity in the governorate of Sfax has dropped from high to intermediate as demonstrated by the increasing age at primary HAV infection. Strengthening health education and improving access to drinking water would reduce the transmission risk of HAV in our regions. PMID:27412977

  17. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of congenital cataract: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital cataract (CC) is the primary cause of treatable childhood blindness worldwide. The establishment of reliable, epidemiological estimates is an essential first step towards management strategies. We undertook an initial systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence and other epidemiological characteristics of CC. PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched before January 2015. A meta-analysis with random-effects model based on a proportions approach was performed to determine the population-based prevalence of CC and to describe the data regarding the laterality, morphology, associated comorbidities and etiology. Heterogeneity was analyzed using the meta-regression method, and subgroup analyses were performed. 27 studies were selected from 2,610 references. The pooled prevalence estimate was 4.24 per 10,000 people, making it a rare disease based on WHO standards. Subgroup analyses revealed the highest CC prevalence in Asia, and an increasing prevalence trend through 2000. Other epidemiological characteristics showed CC tended to be bilateral, isolated, hereditary and in total/nuclear morphology. Huge heterogeneity was identified across most estimates (I(2) > 75%). Most of the variations could be explained by sample size, research period and age at diagnosis. The findings provide suggestions for etiology of CC, improvements in screening techniques and development of public health strategies. PMID:27334676

  18. Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that causes social restraint. Studies worldwide indicate a high prevalence of moderate halitosis, whereas severe cases are restricted to around 5% of the populations. The etiological chain of halitosis relates to the presence of odoriferous substances in exhaled air, especially the volatile sulphur compounds (VSC produced by bacteria. The organoleptic diagnosis is the gold standard and clinical management includes oral approaches, especially periodontal treatment and oral hygiene instructions, including the tongue. When oral strategies are not successful, referral to physicians is warranted.

  19. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  20. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome. PMID:26585365

  1. [Refsum's disease. Epidemiologic, clinical and biological correlation. 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, H; Leys, D; Skjeldal, O H; Caron, J C; Lambert, P; Lehembre, P; Hache, J C

    1986-01-01

    Nine patients with symptoms and signs of Refsum's disease are reported. In 6 a systemic accumulation of phytanic acid was demonstrated, together with low phytanic acid oxidase activity in skin fibroblasts in 5 of them. In 3, no disorder of phytanic acid metabolism was demonstrated. In 3, the diagnosis was made during the pre-clinical period. The disease seems more frequent in Northern France, which agrees with the hypothesis of a genetic mutation which would have taken place in Scandinavia some centuries ago and was subsequently spread by the Vikings. The effects of a dietary treatment on serum phytanic acid levels and clinical disorders are reported. The general condition of the patients improved remarkably but only partially. The diet is unpalatable and in some patients the level of serum phytanic acid increased, due to the mobilization of body fat. Patients with very high levels of phytanic acid might be initially treated by plasmapheresis. For the same reason, the diet should supply enough calories to keep body weight unchanged, and body weight loss whatever its cause should be avoided.

  2. Nasopharyngeal Tuberculosis: Epidemiology, Mechanism of Infection, Clinical Manifestations, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonticha Srivanitchapoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal tuberculosis (NPTB is a noteworthy disease especially in its worldwide spread of the Mycobacterium infection. Although NPTB has been identified in less than one percent of TB cases, recent multiple case reports indicate an either increased awareness or incidence of this disease. The most helpful diagnostic tool is an uncomplicated nasopharyngeal biopsy. However, NPTB is usually ignored because it has varied clinical manifestations and similar presentations with other more common head and neck diseases. Furthermore, the most common presenting symptom is cervical lymphadenopathy mimicking nasopharyngeal carcinoma, a more common and serious disease. Treatment outcomes of NPTB are good in both HIV-positive or HIV-negative patients. In addition, pulmonary tuberculosis association was reported in wide range between 8.3% and 82% which should be considered in a treatment program. In conclusion, early diagnosis and management in NPTB can be achieved by (1 increased awareness of this disease, (2 improvement in knowledge regarding clinical manifestations, and (3 improvement of diagnostic techniques.

  3. Epidemiological and clinical features of hepatitis B virus related liver failure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Liu; Yu-Ming Wang; Ke Fan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver failure in patients in China. METHODS: This study was conducted with a retrospective design to examine 1066 patients with HBVrelated liver failure in the southwest of China. RESULTS: There were more male than female patients. Young and middle-aged people comprised most of the patients. Farmers and laborers comprised the largest proportion (63.09%). Han Chinese accounted for 98.12%, while minority ethnic groups only accounted for 0.88% of patients. A total of 43.47% patients had a family history of HBV-related liver failure and 56.66% patients had a history of drinking alcohol. A total of 42.59% patients with HBV-related liver failure had definite causes. With regard to the clinical manifestation of HBV-related liver failure, the symptoms were: hypodynamia, anorexia and abdominal distension. Total bilirubin (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were altered in 46.23% of patients with evident damage of the liver. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patients' prognoses were correlated with ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, TBIL, prothrombin activity (PTA), and alpha-fetoprotein levels, and drinking alcohol, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, infection and ≥ 2 complications. Multifactor logistic regression analysis showed that the activity of thrombinogen and the number of complications were related to the prognosis. CONCLUSION: Alcohol influences the patients' prognosis and condition. PTA and complications are independent factors that can be used for estimating the prognosis of HBV-related liver failure.

  4. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: epidemiology and clinical features at Tarapoto Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, J; Rodriguez, J; Romero, D

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the clinical records of 41 patients discharged from a hospital in Tarapoto, Peru, between August 1992 and June 1996 following treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 65 years; 25 were male. The cases were uniformly distributed throughout the year. The duration of illness averaged 11 days. At admission, 40 patients had fever, 36 had shaking chills, 29 had headache, 21 had nausea and vomiting, 21 had hyporexia, 15 had pallor, and 13 had splenomegaly. 3 of the 16 women were pregnant. 7 patients reported a history of malaria. The admission diagnosis was malaria in 33 cases. 31 patients were treated with chloroquine; 18 were subsequently treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxin and 1 received doxycycline. No cases of grave illness or death occurred. The increasing presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian lowlands should promote review of the adequacy of control programs.

  5. Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Martin A; Lavie, Carl J; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul B; Kumar, Senthil A

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) in both men and women. The mortality risk of overweight and class I and II obese adults with HF is lower than that of normal weight or underweight adults with HF of comparable severity, a phenomenon referred to as the obesity paradox. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function, which may lead to the development of HF. The presence of systemic hypertension, sleep apnea, and hypoventilation, comorbidities that occur commonly with severe obesity, may contribute to HF in such patients. The resultant syndrome is known as obesity cardiomyopathy. Substantial weight loss in severely obese persons is capable of reversing most obesity-related abnormalities of cardiac performance and morphology and improving the clinical manifestations of obesity cardiomyopathy.

  6. Epidemiological and clinical pattern of dermatomycoses in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lakshmanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial fungal infections are most common in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study, 297 suspected superficial fungal infection cases were identified among 15,950 patients screened. The collected samples (skin, nail, and hair were subjected to direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabourauds dextrose agar to identify the fungal species. The prevalence of superficial fungal infection was 27.6% (82/297, dermatophytosis was 75.6% (62/82, and non-dermatophytosis was 24.4% (20/82. Among the isolated dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest species (79% and Candida (60% the commonest non-dermatophytic species. Tinea corporis was the commonest (78% clinical presentation.

  7. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  8. Clinic Characteristics of Varicella Zoster Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinic characteristics of varicella zoster myocarditis and to determine the diagnostic value of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI ) on the disease. Methods Information of 58 hospitalized patients with varicella zoster was collected, and the incidence of varicella zoster myocarditis and clinic characteristics (ECG, cTnI, age and sex distribution, etc. ) were analyzed respectively. Results It was found that 36.2% of the patients developed myocarditis. The old and female persons were much more susceptible to varicella zoster myocarditis. All patients had responsive ECG manifestations, and the abnormal ST-T changes were more common than other ECG abnormalities. CTnI remained higher than normal and had significant diagnostic value. Most of the patients had good prognosis, only a few patients lasted a long time and even progressed into cardiomyopathy. Nearly all the patients came to see dermatologists when they felt ill initially. That would lead to more misdiagnosis. Conclusion Infection of varicella zoster can complicate myocarditis, we must pay more attention to the patients who suffer from varicella zoster especially in the aged and female; cTnI is an important and effective index for diagnosis of varicella zoster myocarditis.

  9. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  10. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  11. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  12. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of neonatal leukemia in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Suellen Valadares; Andrade, Francianne; Magalhães, Isis Q; Costa, Imaruí; Silva, Denise Bousfield; D'Andrea, Maria Lydia; Pinheiro, Vitória P; Lee, Maria Lucia M; Werneck, Fernando; Emerenciano, Mariana; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2015-04-01

    The clinical and molecular findings of 77 cases of neonatal leukemia (NL) and 380 of infant leukemia (IL) were selected to distinguish features between NL and IL. Somatic gene mutations associated with acute leukemia including FLT3, RAS and PTPN11 were revisited. There were 42 cases of congenital leukemia associated with Down syndrome (DS) and 39 of these cases presented features of acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M7. Twenty-seven of the DS cases underwent spontaneous remission and were reclassified as a transient myeloproliferative disorder. GATA1 mutations were found in 70% of these cases. In non-DS, frequent abnormalities were MLL rearrangements, mainly MLL-AFF1 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL-MLLT3 in AML. The FLT3 mutation was not found, while RAS (n = 4) and PTPN11 (n = 2) mutations were identified and reported for the first time in NL. There was substantial evidence to support that somatic abnormalities occur in utero. Thus, congenital leukemia is a good model for understanding leukemogenesis.

  13. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  14. Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Martha; Black, Donald W

    2008-01-01

    Internet addiction is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding computer use and internet access that lead to impairment or distress. The condition has attracted increasing attention in the popular media and among researchers, and this attention has paralleled the growth in computer (and Internet) access. Prevalence estimates vary widely, although a recent random telephone survey of the general US population reported an estimate of 0.3-0.7%. The disorder occurs worldwide, but mainly in countries where computer access and technology are widespread. Clinical samples and a majority of relevant surveys report a male preponderance. Onset is reported to occur in the late 20s or early 30s age group, and there is often a lag of a decade or more from initial to problematic computer usage. Internet addiction has been associated with dimensionally measured depression and indicators of social isolation. Psychiatric co-morbidity is common, particularly mood, anxiety, impulse control and substance use disorders. Aetiology is unknown, but probably involves psychological, neurobiological and cultural factors. There are no evidence-based treatments for internet addiction. Cognitive behavioural approaches may be helpful. There is no proven role for psychotropic medication. Marital and family therapy may help in selected cases, and online self-help books and tapes are available. Lastly, a self-imposed ban on computer use and Internet access may be necessary in some cases.

  15. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period of profound immunologic, endocr ine, metabolic and vascular changes which are tolerated by the body for a relatively short time. Almost all pregnant women (90% may develop both physiologic and pathologic changes in the skin, nails, and hair which should be recognized and appropriately m anaged 1 . Moreover, pregnancy modifies the course of a number of pre - existing dermatological conditions. AIMS: To find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women i.e. physiological skin changes, dermatoses modified by pregnancy and spec ific dermatoses of pregnancy . DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted in wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at tertiary care centre between June 20 11 and November 2012 were studied. Patients not willing to give informed consent were only excluded. . Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: In our study age distribution of pregnancy, was in range of 16 - 30 years. Most of the cases belonged to 2 nd and 3 rd trimester (93%. Pigmentary changes were the most common non specific pregnancy dermatosis, seen in almost all cases. Of these linea nigra (87% being the commonest. Overall 54 cases showed specific dermatos es of pregnancy. Of these the most common was prurigo of pregnancy (12% followed by pruritus of pregnancy (4%, PUPPP (2%. Among the other dermatological conditions, scabies (16% was the commonest. Fungal infections were seen in 14%, viral infections in 8% and bacterial infections in 5%. CONCLUSION: Majority of the dermatoses associated with pregnancy were observed in third trimester and among multigravidas. Pigmentary changes was the commonest physiological change observed. Prurigo of pregnancy was the commonest specific dermatosis of pregnancy. There were no cases of dermatoses modified during pregnancy

  16. Diagnostic incidence of the presence of positive HBsAg: epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics Incidencia diagnóstica de AgHBs positivo: Características epidemiológicas, clínicas y virológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Poves Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with active hepatitis B virus (HBV infection based on the presence of positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg in the digestive diseases department of a district hospital. Patients and methods: we performed a 3-year prospective study in patients newly diagnosed with HBV infection. We analyzed epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics, complete HBV markers, quantification of HBV DNA, and infection by hepatitis delta virus. We performed genotyping and resistance testing in patients with a high viral load. Results were obtained for patients who required liver biopsy. Results: we diagnosed 213 patients (18.8/10,000 inhabitants/year. Men accounted for 61%, and 59% were aged 20 to 40 years. Immigrants accounted for 53% of the population: 46% were from Rumania and 37% from Sub-Saharan African countries. At diagnosis, 2.3% had acute hepatitis (all with jaundice and 3.3% had cirrhosis with portal hypertension. With the exception of cases of acute hepatitis, positive HBeAg was observed in 9%. Serum transaminase levels were normal in 62.2% of patients, HBV DNA was > 2,000 IU/mL in 33.8%, and delta virus was present in 3.3%. Genotyping and resistance testing were performed in 70 patients: the most common genotype was D, followed by A. Resistance was detected at baseline in only 2 cases: to adefovir in one case and to entecavir in another. Among the 36 biopsies performed, 32.4% showed inflammatory activity ≥ 2, and 23.5% had fibrosis ≥ 2 according to the METAVIR scoring system. According to clinical practice, specific treatment for HBV infection was necessary (any reason in 17.4% of those diagnosed (3 patients per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Conclusions: despite prevention and vaccination, HBV infection is a health problem that most commonly affects the immigrant population and men. Serum transaminase levels are normal in 62

  17. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian ac-cidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymani Payam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the epidemio-logical characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011. The data were from the Fars Forensic Medi-cine Registry. In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities, 971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents. The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS ver-sion 11.5. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 103 years old. Males ac-counted for 69.8% of all deaths. Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads. Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases. Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age, interval between injury and death. Besides, the type of roads played an important role in mortality. Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries needs co-ordination among trauma system organizations. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiologic studies; Mortality; Iran

  18. 2009-2013年麻疹住院患儿的免疫状态、流行病学及临床特点%Immunization status,epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles in hospitalized children in 2009-2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈必全; 夏春琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To realize the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of measles,and explore effective measures to control measles epidemic.Methods Clinical data of 554 hospitalized measles children between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results All children had fever,cough,and skin rash,507 (91.52% )had typical clinical manifestations of measles,47(8.48% )had mild manifestations;the major population were children aged≤6 months(n= 176,31.77% )and 7-8 months (n= 346,62.45% );132 (23.83% )children had contact history of confirmed measles,19(3.43% )measles children’s mothers also developed measles (all were cases of 2013),227 (40.97% )children had history of repeated infusion or hospitalization in large medical institutes dur-ing the measles incubation period (all were cases of 2013,there were measles children who had infusion or hospitali-zation in the same hospital during the same period). The peak incidence of measles usually occurs in January-May. Conclusion Intensive immunization of measles for young women of reproductive age and vaccination with“pre-mea-sles vaccine”for early infancy,and strengthening the medical management of fever outpatients are important meas-ures to prevent measles epidemic.%目的:了解麻疹的临床及流行病学特点,探讨控制麻疹疫情流行的有效措施。方法回顾性分析2009年1月-2013年12月收治的554例麻疹住院患儿临床资料。结果554例麻疹住院患儿均有发热、咳嗽、皮疹,临床表现为典型麻疹者507例(91.52%),轻型麻疹47例(8.48%);以≤6月龄(176例,31.77%)和7~8月龄(346例,62.45%)患儿为主;有明确麻疹疾病接触史者132例(23.83%),患儿母亲同时患有麻疹19例(均为2013年病例,占3.43%),在麻疹潜伏期内有反复在大型医疗机构就诊输液史或住院史(均为2013年病例,同期该机构有麻疹患儿就诊输液或住院史)者227

  19. Clinical and epidemiological study of low vision in Sancti Spíritus. 2005-2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Caridad Díaz Guzmán; Miriam Rodríguez Rodríguez; José Alejandro Concepción Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with low vision in the opthalmology service in Sancti Spíritus province made possible a descriptive retroprospective research based on 703 patients of low vision office, from January 1st, 2005 to December 31, 2010, the clinical and epidemiological behavior was studied and 561 patients were visual disability. The frequency distribution was carried out according to selected variables age, sex, color of the skin, residence municipality, general and ocular diseas...

  20. Survey instruments used in clinical and epidemiological research on waterpipe tobacco smoking: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gunukula Sameer K; Aleem Sohaib; Akl Elie A; Honeine Roland; Abou Jaoude Philippe; Irani Jihad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The primary objective was to systematically review the medical literature for instruments validated for use in epidemiological and clinical research on waterpipe smoking. Methods We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ISI the Web of Science. We selected studies using a two-stage duplicate and independent screening process. We included papers reporting on the development and/or validation of survey instruments to measure waterpipe tobacco consumption or r...

  1. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Cesaretli; O. Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake enveno...

  2. Severe reactions to foods in childhood : clinical perspectives, epidemiology and risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Vetander, Mirja

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy is a public health issue, particularly among children, and seems to be increasing worldwide. Allergic reactions to foods vary in terms of symptoms and severity. Anaphylaxis, the most severe allergic reaction, can be fatal. Food allergy has significant negative impact in the daily lives of allergic children and their families. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain knowledge about severe reactions to foods among Swedish children with regard to epidemiology, clinical per...

  3. [Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of carcinogenic pollution in the wood-processing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, E V; Dymova, E G; Gurvich, E B; Antonova, O N; Gutnikova, O V; Saprykova, V V; Prosina, I I

    1993-01-01

    Hygienic, clinical, epidemiologic studies in primary woodworking and chipboard production workers showed that exposure to occupational hazards (wooden dust, formaldehyde and other chemicals of wooden origin) results in frequent allergy and irritation of upper respiratory tract and skin. High oncologic risk among woodworking production employees assigns the industry to a group with oncologic jeopardy. MAC for wooden dust should be corrected taking into account the chemicals (phenol, formaldehyde, furans et al.) content.

  4. Maternal near miss in the intensive care unit: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leonam Costa; da Costa, Aurélio Antônio Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological clinical profile of women with maternal near miss according to the new World Health Organization criteria. Methods A descriptive crosssectional study was conducted, in which the records of patients admitted to the obstetric intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Recife (Brazil) over a period of four years were analyzed. Women who presented at least one near miss criterion were included. The variables studied were age, race/color, civil status, e...

  5. GLAUCOMA FOLLOWING BLUNT TRAUMA : AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the demographic profile, clinical picture, treatment modalities and long term follow up of patients suffering from glaucoma developing after blunt trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study over one year in which 75 eyes, newly diagnosed or referred with post traumatic glaucoma to M & J Institute of Ophthalmology were studied. All cases underwent thorough eye examination. Treatment was individualized and instituted. RESULTS: Patients ranged from 1 - 70 years with 32 patients (42.66% below 30 years of age. 61 patients (81.33% were males. 66.65% were students, laborers or housewives, with laborers topping the charts in vulnerability. In 46 cases (61.33%, left eye was affected, while in 29 pts. (38.66% right eye was affected. In 54.66% of cases, trauma was caused by stone, wooden stick or ball. Others included fist, firecracker, iron rod, handle, belt.16% patients presented with IOP in the normal range, 38 (50.66% patients had IOP in the range of 21-30 mm Hg, whereas 16 (21.33% patients had IOP more than 40 mm Hg. Within 1 week of instituting treatment, 41 (54.66% had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg and only 3 patients had IOP more than 30 mm Hg. However, 70 (93.33% patients had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg by the end of 6 months and all the patients were in this range after 6 months. On slit lamp examination, corneal edema, traumatic mydriasis and sphincter tears were seen in 32 patients each. 12 patients had hyphema and 19 patients had lens dislocated either into vitreous or into the anterior chamber. Iridodialysis was seen in 5 patients. Other findings included cataract, posterior synechiae, subluxation of lens and tobacco dusting. 57 (76% patients had vision less than 6/60, however after an interval of more than 6 months, 28 (37% patients had vision less than 3/60. The number of patients having vision ≥ 6/12 rose from 5 at initial presentation to 15 in follow-up more than 6 months. Disc changes could be assessed by ophthalmoscopy in 37

  6. Epidemiology and clinical features of vivax malaria imported to Europe: Sentinel surveillance data from TropNetEurop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvy DJM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the second most common species among malaria patients diagnosed in Europe, but epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria are limited. The TropNetEurop surveillance network has monitored the importation of vivax malaria into Europe since 1999. Objectives To present epidemiological and clinical data on imported P. vivax malaria collected at European level. Material and methods Data of primary cases of P. vivax malaria reported between January 1999 and September 2003 were analysed, focusing on disease frequency, patient characteristics, place of infection, course of disease, treatment and differences between network-member countries. Results Within the surveillance period 4,801 cases of imported malaria were reported. 618 (12.9% were attributed to P. vivax. European travellers and immigrants were the largest patient groups, but their proportion varied among the reporting countries. The main regions of infection in descending order were the Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, South America and Western and Eastern Africa, as a group accounting for more than 60% of the cases. Regular use of malaria chemoprophylaxis was reported by 118 patients. With 86 (inter-quartile range 41–158 versus 31 days (inter-quartile range 4–133 the median symptom onset was significantly delayed in patients with chemoprophylaxis (p Conclusions TropNetEurop data can contribute to the harmonization of European treatment policies.

  7. Epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of gastric cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Elmajjaoui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gastric cancer is a relatively frequent cancer and has poor prognosis. The present study is the first Moroccan study to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, therapeutic characteristics, and outcomes of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including 154 cases of gastric cancer treated at the National Institute of Oncology between January 2007 and December 2007. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (18-87 years and the sex ratio was 2.14. Risk factors were dominated by tobacco use (30.5% and gastric ulcer (4.5%. The average interval between symptom presentation and consultation was 8.7 months (1-48 months. The clinical symptoms were dominated by epigastric pain (88.7%, vomiting (62.3%, and weight loss (80.5%. Oeso-gastric fibroscopy was performed in all patients and showed an ulcerated aspect in 77.9% of the cases. The location of the tumor was antropyloric in 42.2% of the cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (72.8%, followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22%, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST; 3.2%, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET; 2%. Tumor stage was metastatic in 62% of the cases, locally advanced in 18.5% of the cases, and localized in only 8% of the cases; however, 11.5% of patients were not staged. Also, 46% of the patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 111 were not treated, 6.4% received chemotherapy first (non-resectable (one patient was operated, 20.6% received surgery first followed by adjuvant treatment, 4.5% received chemo-radiotherapy, 5.4% received chemotherapy only, and 27% received palliative chemotherapy. In the sub-group of patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 48.5% received chemotherapy based on Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP regimen. In the sub-group diagnosed with GIST (n = 5 histology, all cases received surgery first and 2 cases received adjuvant chemotherapy based on doxorubicin. Finally

  8. Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  9. Clinical characteristics and pathogenesis of cerebellar glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshinobu; Makino, Keishi; Nakamura, Hideo; Hide, Takuichiro; Yano, Shigetoshi; Kamada, Hajime; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi

    2014-11-01

    Cerebellar glioblastomas (GBMs) are rare, with neither their pathogenesis nor prognosis being completely understood. The present study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of cerebellar GBMs by comparison with supratentorial GBMs, focusing particularly on the pathogenesis. The clinical factors between cerebellar (n=10) and supratentorial (n=216) GBMs were compared. Additionally, p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels were investigated in six patients by immunostaining as well as the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) status of five patients by direct sequencing. Eight males and two females participated in the present study, the mean age at diagnosis was 56.6 years and the range 37-75 years. Four patients presented with hydrocephalus and one with brainstem involvement, and two patients were diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1. Two patients had previously received radiotherapy, eight patients received postoperative radiotherapy and seven chemotherapy. The mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score was lower in patients with cerebellar GBMs compared to those with supratentorial GBM; however, the survival times did not differ between the two groups. All of the cases of six cerebellar GBMs were p53‑positive and EGFR‑negative, as detected by immunostaining, consistent with secondary GBM. However, no IDH1 mutations were detected in any of the five cases of cerebellar GBMs analyzed, indicating that these tumors were not of the secondary type. The KPS score with cerebellar GBMs may be lower due to hydrocephalus, which was ameliorated by surgery but may have impacted the survival rate. It was confirmed that cerebellar GBMs were identical to supratentorial GBMs with respect to its clinical features, with the possible exception of the KPS score. The present study's genetic analyses indicated that cerebellar GBMs may develop via a pathway different from that of either primary or secondary GBM. PMID:25199771

  10. 肠道病毒71型和柯萨奇病毒A组16型感染的手足口病患儿的相关特征对比研究%Comparisons of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease caused by Enterovirus 71 and Coxackievirus A16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蕾; 赵成松; 张莉; 李爽; 张代涛; 刘白薇; 王全意; 黎新宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ). Methods The samples of vesicle fluid and throat swabs of 108 children with HFMD were collected and detected for enterovirus by RTPCR. The clinical data of children with EV71 and CA16 infection were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Results The total positive rate of enterovirus was 97.2% ( 105/108 ). Of the 105 cases, 56 cases were positive for EV71 (51.9%), 39 cases were positive for CA16 (36.1% ), 2 cases were positive for other enterovirus ( 1.9% ), and 8 cases were co-infected by EV71 and CA16 (7.4%). There were no significant differences in age and sex between EV71 and CV16 infected cases. The univariate analysis showed that the incidences of herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running in children infected by CA16 were higher than in those infected by EV71. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HFMD children who had erythra of knees had higher probability of CA16 infection. Conclusions EV71 should be considered as the pathogen in children with HFMD who have no herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running.%目的 比较由肠道病毒71型(EV71)和柯萨奇病毒A组16型(CA16)感染的手足口病(HFMD)患儿流行病学情况及临床特征的差异.方法 采集108名临床诊断HFMD患儿疱疹液和咽拭子标本,使用RT-PCR进行肠道病毒检测,对EV71和CA16感染患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析并比较.结果 108名患儿的肠道病毒总阳性率为97.2%(105/108),其中EV71、CA16、其他肠道病毒及EV71和CA16混合感染分别占51.9%(56/108),36.1%(39/108),1.9%(2/108),7.4%(8/108).EV71感染患儿和CA16感染患儿两组间年龄、性别差异无统计学意义.单因素分析显示,CA16感染患儿口腔疱疹、膝部皮疹、流涕的发生比率高于EV71感染患儿.进一步

  11. Why a new online open access journal in the field of clinical and epidemiological research in mental health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health will encompass all aspects of clinical and epidemiological research in psychiatry and mental health, and will aim to build a bridge between clinical and epidemiological research. There are several outstanding mental heath journals covering all aspects of this dynamic field, but none of these journals is devoted to bridging clinical and epidemiological research. The Open Access online distribution of the journal and its inclusion in the leading data bases (such as PubMed Central will ensure widespread and ready visibility, which are indispensable given the demand for immediate debate and comparison of scientific findings. This launch Editorial provides an overview of the field, and highlights some of the journal policies.

  12. Multicentre study highlighting clinical relevance of new high-throughput methodologies in molecular epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, F; de Sousa, B; Calderón, E J; Huang, L; Badura, R; Maltez, F; Bassat, Q; de Armas, Y; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2016-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe interstitial pneumonia (PcP) in immunosuppressed patients. This multicentre study assessed the distribution frequencies of epidemiologically relevant genetic markers of P. jirovecii in different geographic populations from Portugal, the USA, Spain, Cuba and Mozambique, and the relationship between the molecular data and the geographical and clinical information, based on a multifactorial approach. The high-throughput typing strategy for P. jirovecii characterization consisted of DNA pooling using quantitative real-time PCR followed by multiplex-PCR/single base extension. The frequencies of relevant P. jirovecii single nucleotide polymorphisms (mt85, SOD110, SOD215, DHFR312, DHPS165 and DHPS171) encoded at four loci were estimated in ten DNA pooled samples representing a total of 182 individual samples. Putative multilocus genotypes of P. jirovecii were shown to be clustered due to geographic differences but were also dependent on clinical characteristics of the populations studied. The haplotype DHFR312T/SOD110C/SOD215T was associated with severe AIDS-related PcP and high P. jirovecii burdens. The frequencies of this genetic variant of P. jirovecii were significantly higher in patients with AIDS-related PcP from Portugal and the USA than in the colonized patients from Portugal, and Spain, and children infected with P. jirovecii from Cuba or Mozambique, highlighting the importance of this haplotype, apparently associated with the severity of the disease and specific clinical groups. Patients from the USA and Mozambique showed higher rates of DHPS mutants, which may suggest the circulation of P. jirovecii organisms potentially related with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in those geographical regions. This report assessed the worldwide distribution of P. jirovecii haplotypes and their epidemiological impact in distinct geographic and clinical populations.

  13. Multicentre study highlighting clinical relevance of new high-throughput methodologies in molecular epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, F; de Sousa, B; Calderón, E J; Huang, L; Badura, R; Maltez, F; Bassat, Q; de Armas, Y; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2016-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe interstitial pneumonia (PcP) in immunosuppressed patients. This multicentre study assessed the distribution frequencies of epidemiologically relevant genetic markers of P. jirovecii in different geographic populations from Portugal, the USA, Spain, Cuba and Mozambique, and the relationship between the molecular data and the geographical and clinical information, based on a multifactorial approach. The high-throughput typing strategy for P. jirovecii characterization consisted of DNA pooling using quantitative real-time PCR followed by multiplex-PCR/single base extension. The frequencies of relevant P. jirovecii single nucleotide polymorphisms (mt85, SOD110, SOD215, DHFR312, DHPS165 and DHPS171) encoded at four loci were estimated in ten DNA pooled samples representing a total of 182 individual samples. Putative multilocus genotypes of P. jirovecii were shown to be clustered due to geographic differences but were also dependent on clinical characteristics of the populations studied. The haplotype DHFR312T/SOD110C/SOD215T was associated with severe AIDS-related PcP and high P. jirovecii burdens. The frequencies of this genetic variant of P. jirovecii were significantly higher in patients with AIDS-related PcP from Portugal and the USA than in the colonized patients from Portugal, and Spain, and children infected with P. jirovecii from Cuba or Mozambique, highlighting the importance of this haplotype, apparently associated with the severity of the disease and specific clinical groups. Patients from the USA and Mozambique showed higher rates of DHPS mutants, which may suggest the circulation of P. jirovecii organisms potentially related with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in those geographical regions. This report assessed the worldwide distribution of P. jirovecii haplotypes and their epidemiological impact in distinct geographic and clinical populations. PMID:27021425

  14. Melanoma cutâneo: características clínicas, epidemiológicas e histopatológicas no Hospital Universitário de Brasília entre janeiro de 1994 e abril de 1999 Cutaneous Melanoma: clinical, epidemiological and histopathological characteristics at the University Hospital of Brasília between January 1994 and April 1999

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    Ana Maria Costa Pinheiro

    2003-04-01

    characteristics of primary cutaneous melanoma, at the University Hospital of Brasília, during a period of five years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review was conducted of the data registry concerning primary cutaneous melanoma cases, in the University Hospital of Brasília, diagnosed and treated between January 1994 and April 1999, with a total of 32 cases. The patients were analyzed, characterizing the tumor distribution according to gender, age, skin color, topography, symptomatology, histopathological type, Clark level, Breslow index and presence of metastasis. Data was analyzed by simple statistics and by Chi-square (chi2. RESULTS: A predominance was observed of lesions in the limbs, corresponding to sixteen patients (50.0%. There was the primary nodular form in nine (45% patients, and seventeen (58.6% patients did not have any complaint. According to the presence or absence of metastasis and Clark level, it was found that the patients with a level of invasion up to the subcutaneous layer (Clark V presented a relative risk of 2.94 (1.24clinical, epidemiological and histopathological profile of the patients with primary cutaneous melanoma at the University Hospital of Brasília, between January 1994 and April 1999, comprised of elderly females (from 61 to 80 years old, Caucasians, whose tumor was located predominantly in the limbs, the nodular type was the most frequent, and the patients did not present symptoms at the time of diagnosis.

  15. 1999年-2008年上海儿科医院住院流感患儿的流行病学和临床特征%Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of influenza-associated respiratory infection in children hospitalized in Shanghai Children's Hospital during 1999-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚玮蕾; 曾玫; 王晓红; 俞蕙; 朱启镕

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解住院儿童流感病毒感染的流行病学和临床特征.方法 回顾性分析1999年-2008年期间复旦大学附属儿科医院253例流感病毒检测阳性的急性呼吸道感染住院儿童的流行病学和临床特征.实验室确诊流感病毒感染是通过直接免疫荧光法检测鼻咽吸取物中甲型和乙型流感病毒抗原.各组间年龄中位数、住院天数的比较采用秩和检验,各组间发热和咳嗽症状的比较采用卡方检验.结果 253例流感病毒检测阳性的住院儿童中,男182例,女71例,年龄最小5 d,最大10岁7个月,年龄中位数18个月.<6个月53例,≥6个月~<2岁95例,≥2岁~<5岁85例,≥5岁20例.肺炎190例,支气管炎49例,上呼吸道感染14例,其中11例合并高热惊厥,6例合并支气管哮喘急性发作,3例合并病毒性脑炎.29例有基础疾病.最常见的症状为咳嗽238例和发热209例,140例为高热,平均发热天数为(5.0士2.9)d.6个月以上儿童发热和咳嗽症状较6个月以下婴儿更常见(X2=22.895、16.992,均P<0.01).高热惊厥都发生于2岁以上儿童.251例行外周血常规检查发现,39例wBC减少.结论 5岁以下婴幼儿和托幼儿童是流感的高危人群,应重视对6个月~5岁健康儿童以及易患流感的高危儿童的流感疫苗接种.%Objective To study the clinical and the epidemiological features of hospitalized children with influenza virus infection. Methods Two hundred and fifty-three inpatients with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection from 1999 to 2008 were reviewed for analyzing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Type A and B influenza viruses in the nasopharyngeal aspirates were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Mann-Whitney U test were performed for comparing the median age and the length of hospitalization. Chi-square test was performed for comparing the proportion of patients with fever and cough. Results Among 253 hospitalized children aged between 5 days and

  16. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS DETERMINING PROPAGATION AND CLINIC OF UROGENITAL TRICHOMONIASIS IN WOMEN

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urogenital trichomoniasis (UGT is relevant not only due to its high prevalence and multiple organ lesions, but also to the ability to have a negative impact on reproductive health. In Kazakhstan, UGT is one of the leading infections in the structure of sexually transmitted infections: in 2011 51.5%; 2012 — 43.5%; 2013 — 42.0% with the prevalence of co-infection with other STIs, in which the rate of complications is increased by 2 times and are more profound with the involvement of inflammation in the upper urogenital tract. The recorded incidence of trichomoniasis in the RK is characterized by annual rate decrease (since 2011 a 1.5 times decrease due to small fluctuations of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia morbidity which indicates a large reservoir of latent infection, and low level of diagnostics. Most clearly demonstrates this situation an incidence of UGT in 2 cities: so in Astana in 2013, the recorded incidence decreased by 2.8 times compared to 2011; in Almaty — 6 times in 2012 and 4.3 times in 2013. Conducted clinical and epidemiological analysis of UGT morbidity in women allowed to identify the following: in recent years the tendency of UGT to growth with a significant proportion of latent asymptomatic forms (for more than one quarter of patients with UGT, UGT is most common in young adults, average age 30.5±2.5 years; in half of the cases recorded, mixed trichomonas infection, mostly in combination with Chlamydia, which causes a high incidence of complications of the upper urogenital tract; there is a high frequency of trichomonas infection combination with infections caused by Candida, mycoplasma, which determines the prospects of the combination therapy UGT in combination with drugs, correcting immunodeficiency. There is quite a high incidence of gynecological pathology, the severity of which depends on the frequency of the spectrum of pathogens that are associated with T. vaginalis. The data

  17. Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in Border Collie dogs in Japan: clinical and molecular epidemiological study (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Keijiro; Kawamichi, Takuji; Koie, Hiroshi; Tamura, Shinji; Matsunaga, Satoru; Imamoto, Shigeki; Saito, Miyoko; Hasegawa, Daisuke; Matsuki, Naoaki; Tamahara, Satoshi; Sato, Shigenobu; Yabuki, Akira; Chang, Hye-Sook; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%). The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan. PMID:22919312

  18. Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis in Border Collie Dogs in Japan: Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Study (2000–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keijiro Mizukami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL is an inherited, neurodegenerative lysosomal disease that causes premature death. The present study describes the clinical and molecular epidemiologic findings of NCL in Border Collies in Japan for 12 years, between 2000 and 2011. The number of affected dogs was surveyed, and their clinical characteristics were analyzed. In 4 kennels with affected dogs, the dogs were genotyped. The genetic relationships of all affected dogs and carriers identified were analyzed. The survey revealed 27 affected dogs, but there was a decreasing trend at the end of the study period. The clinical characteristics of these affected dogs were updated in detail. The genotyping survey demonstrated a high mutant allele frequency in examined kennels (34.8%. The pedigree analysis demonstrated that all affected dogs and carriers in Japan are related to some presumptive carriers imported from Oceania and having a common ancestor. The current high prevalence in Japan might be due to an overuse of these carriers by breeders without any knowledge of the disease. For NCL control and prevention, it is necessary to examine all breeding dogs, especially in kennels with a high prevalence. Such endeavors will reduce NCL prevalence and may already be contributing to the recent decreasing trend in Japan.

  19. Clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis

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    Balci O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Balci Ophthalmology Department, Kolan Hospitalium Group, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh. Methods and materials: This retrospective study enrolled 30 subjects diagnosed with conjunctivochalasis. Complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, dilated funduscopy, tear break-up time, Schirmer 1 test, and fluorescein staining were performed in all patients. Age, sex, laterality, ocular history, symptoms, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The study included 50 eyes from 30 cases. Ages ranged from 45 to 80 years, with a mean age of 65±10 years. CChs grading were as follows: 30 (60% eyes with grade 1 CCh; 15 (30% eyes with grade 2 CCh; and five (10% eyes with grade 3 CCh. CCh was located in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in 45 (90% eyes, and in the remaining five (10% CCh was located in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. Ten (33.3% patients had no symptoms. Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, tired eye feeling, and epiphora were the symptoms encountered in the remaining twenty (63.6% patients. Altered tear meniscus was noted in all cases. The mean tear break-up time was 7.6 seconds. The mean Schirmer 1 test score was 7 mm. Pinguecula was found in ten patients. Conclusion: Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, and epiphora were the main symptoms in patients with CCh. Dryness, eye pain, and blurry vision were worsened during downgaze and blinking. So CCh should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of chronic ocular irritation and epiphora. Keywords: ocular irritation, epiphora, dryness, eye pain, blurry vision

  20. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26254550

  1. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease.

  2. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  3. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

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    Rune Erichsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rune Erichsen1, Timothy L Lash1, Stephen J Hamilton-Dutoit2, Beth Bjerregaard3, Mogens Vyberg2,4, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Institute of Pathology, 4Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Pathology and the Pathology Data Bank, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB. The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens.Keywords: cohort profile, epidemiology, paraffin blocks, pathology

  4. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The Western Denmark Heart Registry

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    Morten Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Morten Schmidt1, Michael Maeng2, Carl-Johan Jakobsen3, Morten Madsen1, Leif Thuesen2, Per Hostrup Nielsen4, Hans Erik Bøtker2, Henrik Toft Sørensen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, 4Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital-Skejby, DenmarkBackground: The Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR has not previously been described as a research tool in clinical epidemiology.Objectives: We examined the setting, organization, content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR.Method: We collected information from members of the WDHR organization, including the committee of representatives, the board, the data management group, and physicians reporting to the database. We retrieved 2008 data from the WDHR to illustrate database variables.Results: The WDHR is a clinical database within a population-based health care system. It was launched on 1 January 1999 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac intervention in Western Denmark (population: 3.3 million and to allow for clinical and health-service research. More than 200,000 interventions, with 50–150 variables each, have been registered. The data quality is ensured by automatic validation rules at data entry combined with systematic validation procedures and random spot-checks after entry.Conclusions: The WDHR is a valuable research tool because it provides ongoing longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedural data. The Danish national health care system enables this research because it allows complete follow-up for medical events after cardiac intervention by linkage with multiple medical databases.Keywords: cardiac surgical procedures, catheterization, coronary angiography, database, epidemiology, registries

  5. [Clinical characteristics of pancreatitis after cardiovascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, H; Sumiyoshi, T; Ishizuka, N; Ueda, M; Inaba, T; Hosoda, S; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1995-10-01

    Increases in pancreatic enzyme levels after cardiovascular surgery were studied, and their clinical characteristics evaluated. The subjects were 128 patients who had undergone cardiovascular surgery (65 patients after valve replacement, 32 after coronary bypass surgery and 31 after aortic artificial graft replacement). The pancreatic enzyme (serum amylase and lypase) levels were monitored serially before and after operation, and amylase fractions were measured at their peaks. The relationships of the peak lypase level with underlying cardiac diseases, background factors, factors related to surgery, factors related to the extracorporeal circulation, presence or absence of symptoms, and treatments were examined. The amylase level exhibited biphasic changes consisting of a peak in which salivary glands amylase (S type) was dominant and a peak in which pancreatic amylase (P type) was dominant. The second peak coincided with the peak lypase and occurred mostly 3 to 10 days after operation. The peak lypase level exceeded the normal range in 78% of all the patients. It exceeded 564 U/l, 4 times the normal value in 28% of the patients, many of whom were symptomatic. So, we recommended that these cases should be treated as "postoperative pancreatitis". A high peak lypase level showed a significant correlation with the history of gallbladder and pancreatic diseases and diabetes mellitus among the background factors and emergency operation and the use of IABP among the surgery-related factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The "PIP problem": clinical and histologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia-Sá, Inês; Rodrigues-Pereira, Pedro; Marques, Marisa

    2013-10-01

    Implants from Poly Implant Prothése (PIP), the French manufacturer, showed increased risk of implant rupture and silicone leakage through the shell. Concerns also exist about the potential irritant behavior of silicone gel filler in these implants. This report presents the clinical, histologic, and microbiologic characteristics of a capsule and a siliconoma from a patient with a ruptured PIP implant. A 41-year-old woman submitted to breast augmentation in 2005 with PIP silicone gel implants presented with a recent history of progressive asymmetric breast enlargement and an enlarged lymph node on her right axilla. No capsular contracture was observed. A breast ultrasonography showed intra- and extracapsular ruptures of the right implant. The woman underwent explantation. Histologic analysis of the breast capsules showed a thin capsule with a chronic, mild inflammatory response. Microbiologic analysis showed no bacterial agent. The irritant behavior of the PIP silicone gel previously described was not able to produce capsular contracture or an exuberant inflammatory reaction. Studies to evaluate the potential risks of the silicone gel and to define the hazards for women implanted with those prostheses are urgently needed. PMID:23943050

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of thyroid nodules and risk factors for malignant nodules: a retrospective study from 6 304 surgical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Qin; Wang Kun; Lou Fuchen; Zhang Li; Huang Qingxian; Han Yunfeng; Sun Hancheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) is increasing rapidly.This study analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of TN in surgically treated patients and identified the risk factors for malignant nodules (MN) to provide more understanding of the differential diagnosis of TN.Methods A total of 6 304 TN cases who underwent thyroid surgery were included in this retrospective study.The clinical data were collected to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors for MN.The nature of TN (benign nodules (BN) or MN),medical records,laboratory data,and imaging data were analyzed.The risk factors for MN were screened using Spearman's rank correlation analysis and nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The number of surgically treated TN cases increased yearly.A total of 34.33% of cases were MN and 65.67% were BN.Up to 56.74% of these cases underwent unnecessary surgery.Among the MN cases,papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 94%,in which 46.71% coexisted with benign thyroid disease and 32.28% with multiple foci.Single-related factor analysis showed that age,employment,disease duration,history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb),and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPoAb),and ultrasound features of TN were related to MN.Stepwise nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis showed that 13 factors may be the independent risk factors for MN,including <40 years old,previous history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,disease duration <1 month,employment,hypoechoic nodule,irregular nodules,nodule calcification,solid echo nodule,fuzzy boundary,rich blood flow within nodules,abnormal lymph nodes around the neck,nodule diameter <1 cm,and abnormally high TgAb.Conclusions Our results demonstrate a rapid increase in surgically treated TN cases and ratio of MN and indicate unnecessary

  8. 59例经网络征集的"自疑HIV感染者"流行病学特征与临床表现的分析%Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 59 persons suspecting of being infected by the HIV virus despite having repeated negative laboratory findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴迎新; 李兴旺; 张智清; 施国庆; 郭建强; 申涛; 曾光

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of 59 persons recruited via an intemet chat group who complained of AIDS-like symptoms, so as to formulate effective intervention strategies and measures. Methods Case was defined as onset of any three of the following self-reported AIDS-like symptoms in a member of relevant "intemet chat groups": persistent low grade fever, rash, swollen lymph node, fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss and low CD4+T count. We administered an internet-based questionnaire, and invited 59 of the 88 casepersons for voluntary physical examination and laboratory testing. Results The 59 case-persons came from 22 provinces; 54 (91.5 %)were men; the median age was 34 (range: 22-53)years; 84.7% of them had high-risk sexual behaviors before the onset of self-reported symptoms. The median time interval from exposure to onset was 15 d (range: 1-365 d). Blood specimens for all the 59 case-persons were tested negative for HIV and syphilis antibodies. There was also no evidence of Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection. One case-person was tested positive for hepatitis C virus antibody. The average CD4'T lymphocyte count was 707/μl. Of the 59 case-persons,57 (96.6%) sought medical care from multiple providers; 40 were diagnosed to have no physical disorders. Conclusion None of the 59 case-persons had any evidence of infection with HIV or any other infectious agents that could explain their self-reported symptoms.%目的 了解网络征集的59例"自疑HIV感染者"流行病学特征和临床表现.方法 "自疑HIV感染者"定义为网络聊天室中自诉具有至少3项类似艾滋病症状者:持续低热、皮疹、淋巴结肿大、乏力、腹泻、体重下降或CD4+T淋巴细胞计数低于正常.通过网络问卷调查,在88例报名者中选择59例做志愿临床检查与实验室检测.结果 59例"自疑HIV感染者"来自22个省(市),男性54例(91.5%),平均年龄34岁(22~53

  9. Residential mobility impacts exposure assessment and community socioeconomic characteristics in longitudinal epidemiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokamp, Cole; LeMasters, Grace K; Ryan, Patrick H

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies commonly use residential locations to estimate environmental exposures or community-level characteristics. The impact of residential mobility on these characteristics, however, is rarely considered. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effect of residential mobility on estimates of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP), greenspace, and community-level characteristics. All residential addresses were reported from birth through age seven for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Exposure to TRAP at each address was estimated using a land use model. Greenspace was estimated using satellite imagery. Indices of neighborhood deprivation and race were created based on socioeconomic-census tract measures. Exposure estimates using the birth record address, the last known address, and the annual address history were used to determine exposure estimation error and bias in the association with asthma at age seven. Overall, 54% of the cohort moved at least once prior to age seven. Each move was separated by a median of 4 miles and associated with a median decrease of 4.4% in TRAP exposure, a 5.3% increase in greenspace, an improved deprivation index, and no change in the race index. Using the birth record address or the last known address instead of the annual address history resulted in exposure misclassification leading to a bias toward the null when associating the exposures with asthma. Using a single address to estimate environmental exposures and community-level characteristics over a time period may result in differential assessment error. PMID:26956935

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of varicella from 2000 to 2008 and the impact of nationwide immunization in Taiwan

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    Chang Luan-Yin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Varicella has an important impact on public health. Starting in 2004 in Taiwan, nationwide free varicella vaccinations were given to 1-year-old children. Methods Our study investigated the epidemiological characteristics of varicella from 2000 to 2008, and assessed the change of varicella epidemiology after the mass varicella immunization. ICD-9-CM codes related to varicella or chickenpox (052, 052.1, 052.2, 052.7, 052.8, 052.9 were analyzed for all young people under 20 years of age through the National Health Insurance database of Taiwan from 2000 to 2008. Results Case numbers of varicella or chickenpox significantly declined after the nationwide immunization in 2004. Winter, particularly January, was the epidemic season of varicella. We found a significant post-vaccination decrease in incidence among preschool children, especially 3 to 6 year-old children-- the peak incidence was 66 per thousand for 4 and 5 year-old children before the nationwide immunization (2000 to 2003, and the peak incidence was 23 per thousand for 6 year-old children in 2008 (p Conclusion The varicella annual incidence and varicella-related hospitalization markedly declined in preschool children after nationwide varicella immunization in 2004.

  11. New Epidemiological and Clinical Signatures of 18 Pathogens from Respiratory Tract Infections Based on a 5-Year Study.

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    Xiaohong Liao

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections (RTIs are a heavy burden on society. However, due to the complex etiology of RTIs, the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections remain challenging, especially in developing countries.To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 18 respiratory pathogens, we analyzed 12,502 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR on patient pharyngeal swabs.Samples positive for at least 1 pathogen were obtained from 48.42% of the total patients. Of these pathogen-positive patients, 17.99% were infected with more than 1 pathogen. Of the 18 pathogens analyzed, four were detected with a positive detection rate (PDR > 5%: influenza A virus (IAV > respiratory syncytial virus (RSV >Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP > human coronavirus (HCoV. The pathogens with the 4 highest co-infection rates (CIRs were as follows: HCoV > human bocavirus (HBoV > enterovirus (EV > parainfluenza virus (PIV. The overall positive detection rate (PDR varied significantly according to patient age, the season and year of detection, and the disease subgroup, but not according to patient sex. The individual PDRs of the pathogens followed 3 types of distributions for patient sex, 4 types of distributions for patient age, 4 types of seasonal distributions, 2 types of seasonal epidemic trends, 4 types of yearly epidemic trends, and different susceptibility distributions in the disease subgroups. Additionally, the overall CIR showed significantly different distributions according to patient sex, patient age, and the disease subgroup, whereas the CIRs of individual pathogens suggested significant preference characteristics.IAV remains the most common pathogen among the pathogens analyzed. More effort should be directed toward the prevention and control of pathogens that show a trend of increasing incidence such as HCoV, human adenovirus (ADV, and RSV. Although clinically

  12. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of ≤ 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  13. Molecular and Clinical Characteristics of Hospital and Community Onset Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Associated with Bloodstream Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shu-Hua; Hines, Lisa; van Balen, Joany; José R Mediavilla; Pan, Xueliang; Hoet, Armando E; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Pancholi, Preeti; Stevenson, Kurt B.

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections (BSI) are classified epidemiologically as health care-associated hospital onset (HAHO)-, health care-associated community onset (HACO)-, or community-associated (CA)-MRSA. Clinical and molecular differences between HAHO- and HACO-MRSA BSI are not well known. Thus, we evaluated clinical and molecular characteristics of MRSA BSI to determine if distinct features are associated with HAHO- or HACO-MRSA strains. Molecular ge...

  14. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms concurrently diagnosed: clinical and biological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todisco, Gabriele; Manshouri, Taghi; Verstovsek, Srdan; Masarova, Lucia; Pierce, Sherry A; Keating, Michael J; Estrov, Zeev

    2016-05-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) may occur concomitantly. However, little is known about the pathobiological characteristics and interaction between the neoplastic clones in these rare cases of coinciding malignancies. We retrospectively examined the clinical and biological characteristics of 13 patients with concomitant CLL and MPN--eight primary myelofibrosis (PMF), three essential thrombocytosis (ET), and two polycythemia vera (PV)--who presented to our institution between 1998 and 2014, and tested all patients for MPN-specific aberrations, such as JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations. Along with epidemiological and molecular characterization of this rare condition, we found that JAK2 mutation can be detected 9 years prior to PMF diagnosis, suggesting that PMF clinical phenotype may require several years to develop and CLL/MPN clinical co-occurrence might be sustained by common molecular events. Some features of these patients suggest that pathobiologies of these diseases might be intertwined. PMID:26402369

  15. Integration of gene expression, clinical, and epidemiologic data to characterize Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Suzanne D

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has no diagnostic clinical signs or diagnostic laboratory abnormalities and it is unclear if it represents a single illness. The CFS research case definition recommends stratifying subjects by co-morbid conditions, fatigue level and duration, or functional impairment. But to date, this analysis approach has not yielded any further insight into CFS pathogenesis. This study used the integration of peripheral blood gene expression results with epidemiologic and clinical data to determine whether CFS is a single or heterogeneous illness. Results CFS subjects were grouped by several clinical and epidemiological variables thought to be important in defining the illness. Statistical tests and cluster analysis were used to distinguish CFS subjects and identify differentially expressed genes. These genes were identified only when CFS subjects were grouped according to illness onset and the majority of genes were involved in pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and glucose metabolism. Conclusion These results provide a physiologic basis that suggests CFS is a heterogeneous illness. The differentially expressed genes imply fundamental metabolic perturbations that will be further investigated and illustrates the power of microarray technology for furthering our understanding CFS.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological profile of female blood donors with positive serology for viral hepatitis B

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    Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTINTRODUCTION:Since women are frequently the minority among blood donors worldwide, studies evaluating this population usually reflect male features. We assessed the features of female blood donors with positive serology for HBV and compared them with those of men.METHODS The study comprised consecutive blood donors referred to a specialized liver disease center to be evaluated due to HBsAg- and/or anti-HBc-positive tests.RESULTS: The study encompassed 1,273 individuals, 219 (17.2% of whom were referred due to positive HBsAg test and 1,054 (82.8% due to reactive anti-HBc test. Subjects' mean age was 36.8±10.9 years, and 28.7% were women. Female blood donors referred for positive HBsAg screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of healthcare workers (9.3% vs 2.5% and lower prevalence of sexual risk behaviors (15.1% vs 41.1% and alcohol abuse (1.9% vs 19.8% compared to men. Women had lower ALT (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN, AST (0.6 vs 0.8×ULN, direct bilirubin (0.2 vs 0.3mg/dL, and alkaline phosphatase (0.5 vs 0.6×ULN levels and higher platelet count (223,380±50,293 vs 195,020±53,060/mm3. Women also had a higher prevalence of false-positive results (29.6% vs 17.0%. No differences were observed with respect to liver biopsies. Female blood donors referenced for reactive anti-HBc screening tests presented similar clinical, epidemiological, and biochemical characteristics to those reported for positive HBsAg screening tests and similarly had a higher prevalence of false-reactive results.CONCLUSIONS: Compared to men, female blood donors with positive HBsAg and/or anti-HBc screening tests demonstrated higher prevalence of professional risk and false-positive results and reduced alteration of liver chemistry.

  17. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  18. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Malignant Granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjin Feng; Junbing Guo; Yong Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the clinical characteristics of malignant granuloma(MG) and evaluate its treatment.METHODS From March 1985 to May 1998, 101 cases of malignant granuloma were treated with radiation (RT) alone or radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. For chemotherapy, a CCNU, COMP (CTX, VCR, MTX, PDN) or CHOP (CTX,ADM, VCR, PDN) regimen was given. Radiation was directed through the anterior field of the nose mainly for nasal and paranasal sinus malignant granuloma, and through the faciocervical field for malignant granuloma of Walderyer's ring or for patients with cervical lymphadenectasis. Total dose was 45-65 Gy over 5-6 weeks.RESULTS The overall 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 78.2%, 56.1% and 39.7% respectively. The 5-year survival rate was: RT group 60.3%, RT + CHOP or CHOP + RT group 64.7% (P >0.05), RT +CCNU group 40%, and RT + COMP group 33.3%. The 5-year survival rates of patients with one involved focus and more than 2 involved foci were 75.6%(34/45) and 39.3% (22/56) (P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of patients with or without body symptoms were 39.6% (18/48) and 67.9%(36/53) (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate of the 50-60 Gy group and the <50Gy group were 60.1% (40/66) and 20% (1/5)(P <0.05). The local and regional recurrence rate was 20.8 % (21/101 ).CONCLUSION Radiotherapy alone should be the treatment of choice for patients with one site involvement and without body symptoms. Radiation fields should be large enough to include the potentially involved sites. The recommended dose is 50-60 Gy over 5-6 weeks. It is suggested that patients with more than 2 foci involvement and those with body symptoms should receive the combination therapy.

  19. Lobular breast cancer: Clinical, molecular and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Matthias; Steinemann, Doris; Kühnle, Elna; Länger, Florian; Gluz, Oleg; Harbeck, Nadia; Kreipe, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC) is the most common special breast cancer subtype. This review provides a comprehensive description of ILBC characteristics, including epidemiology, clinical features, molecular genetics and histomorphology. Twenty detailed supplemental data tables guide through primary data of more than 200 original studies. Meta-analyses indicate that ILBC is at least twice as common in the Western world as it is in other geographic regions. ILBC is over-represented in so-called interval carcinomas and in primary metastatic breast cancer. ILBC is also associated higher age, higher pT stage and hormone receptor (ER/PR) positivity. Pathological complete response rates after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are low, ranging between 0% and 11%. Positive resection margins after breast-conserving surgery are comparatively frequent and 17% to 65% of patients undergo a second surgical intervention. Depending on the morphological stringency in the diagnosis of ILBC, lack of E-cadherin expression is observed in 55% to 100% of cases. CDH1/E-cadherin mutation detection rates vary between 12% and 83%. Various additional molecular factors, including PIK3CA, TP53, FOXA1, FGFR1, ZNF703 and BCAR4, have been implicated in ILBC or progression of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive cancer and are discussed in detail. Eight instructive figure plates recapitulate the histomorphology of ILBC and its variants. Furthermore, we draw attention to rarely addressed histological details, such as two-sided nuclear compression and fat-avoiding growth at the invasion front. Last but not least, we discuss future translational research directions and emphasize the concept of synthetic lethality, which promises new options for targeted ILBC therapy.

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis in Mexico: clinical and epidemiological data from 93 new cases (1972-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Arenas, Roberto; Padilla-Desgarennes, María Del Carmen; Estrada, Roberto; Chávez, Guadalupe

    2014-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic infection in several countries of Latin America. The few registered cases in Mexico most likely do not reflect the real frequency. Disseminate the epidemiological and clinical data of unreported cases of PCM in Mexico from 1972 until 2012 is the aim of this work. Epidemiological and clinical information of non-published cases of PCM was requested from the principal mycological diagnosis centres in Mexico. A total of 93 cases were received. The infection was found predominantly in men (95.7%), peasants (88.5%) and individual between 31 and 60 years of age. Most of the cases were found in tropical areas of the Gulf of Mexico (54.84%) and the Pacific littoral (20.3%). The main sites of dissemination were the oral mucosa (39.38%) and skin (34.05%). The most effective treatments were itraconazole alone and the combination of itraconazole with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. PCM is a subdiagnosed pathology in Mexico. Therefore, adequate training is necessary to determine the current status of this mycosis.

  1. Characteristics and Roles of Literacy Clinic Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Pearce, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    A literacy clinic is an ideal setting where research and exploration often lead to breakthroughs in reading remediation; that information can then be transferred to classroom instruction (Morris, 2003). Although it is clear that literacy clinics should be structured around what works for their student populations, there remains ambiguity…

  2. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

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    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  3. Athletic Training Students' Perception of Significant Clinical Instructor Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Carlen; Martin, Malissa

    2010-01-01

    Context: Characteristics of a model clinical instructor (CI) continue to be defined. However, certain characteristics are still unknown. Objective: To more fully define and describe quality clinical instruction by examining the impact of employment status, years of experience as a certified athletic trainer (AT), and employment setting on athletic…

  4. [Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of infantile visceral leishmaniasis at Kairouan hospital (Tunisia): about 240 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissi, W; Ben Hellel, K; Habboul, Z; Ben Sghaier, I; Harrat, Z; Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important health problem in Tunisia. It is most common in children under five years of age. The governorate of Kairouan (central Tunisia) is one of the most affected foci. The aim of this study was to update the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of the disease. The study concerned all VL cases admitted in the pediatric department of Kairouan hospital during 10 years (from 2004 to 2013). For every patient included in this study and when available, data such as sex, age, geographical origin and the condition of the patient at admission (clinical and biological findings) were collected. The myelogram results were also exploited as well as results of serology, culture, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isoenzymatic typing of Leishmania isolates. Two hundred and forty cases were recorded. Rural cases (87.1%) were more prevalent than urban ones (12.9%). Age ranged from 2 months to 13 years (median, 18 months). The female/male sex ratio was 1.03. The diagnosis delays ranged from 1 day to 8 months (median, 15 days). The most common clinical symptoms at admission were splenomegaly (97.9%), fever (79.9%) and hepatomegaly (47.3%). The principal biological disturbances were anemia (91.7%), thrombocytopenia (83.9%) and leucopenia (56.1%). Among the different biological tools used for diagnosis confirmation, PCR was the most sensitive (100%). All 43 typed stocks corresponded to Leishmania (L.) infantum species. Although zymodeme MON-1 was predictably the most frequent (27 cases), L. infantum MON-24 and MON-80 were responsible of no negligible numbers of cases (11 and 5 cases respectively). The present study gave an updated epidemiological, clinical and biological profile of infantile VL in Tunisia. The diagnosis delays were considerably shortened compared to previous reports. However, an even earlier diagnosis of cases is needed to improve the disease prognosis. Real-Time PCR showed to be helpful in VL management.

  5. Clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy patients attended at Ceará, 2007-2011*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Maria Iranilda; Ramos Júnior, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Sena, Amanda Lima; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Background Leprosy is an infectious chronic condition associated with potentially serious physical, social and psychological impacts. Objectives To characterize the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy patients treated from 2007 to 2011 in the University Hospital of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Methods This is a retrospective and descriptive study. The study population consisted of residents in the state of Ceará treated in a dermatology clinic between 2007-2011. Clinical and epidemiological data analyzed were obtained from medical records and from the database of national Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Results 475 cases were analyzed, mostly women (51.8%), aged 45-59 years (35.0%) - mean of 45.2 years at diagnosis - with 6.3% of children under 15 , with low education (73.7%), white color (68.8%), residency in the city of Fortaleza (82.3%), and no defined work occupation (59.6%). At diagnosis, most patients were multibacillary (MB) (65.5%), had borderline clinical form (48.0%), and 22.7% had physical disability (8.0% with grade 2), predominantly in MB cases (p <0.001). We observe worsening of disability in 5.1% of cases post-MDT. The proportion of cases with reactional episodes was 42.7%, mainly during MDT (51.2%). Conclusion This is the first study conducted in this hospital context, revealing late diagnosis, high burden of disease, hidden endemicity, and high social vulnerability in the state of Ceará. This study reinforces the need to strengthen health care network for timely diagnosis and treatment, aiming at longitudinality of assistance. PMID:27438198

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  7. Childhood burns in Ghana: epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forjuoh, S N; Guyer, B; Smith, G S

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the epidemiological characteristics and home-based treatment of childhood burns in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Children aged 0-5 years with a burn history were identified through a community-based, multisite survey. A standard questionnaire was administered to mothers of 630 of these children to elicit information on their sociodemographic characteristics and the circumstances of the burn event. Ninety-two per cent of the burns occurred in the home, particularly in the kitchen (51 per cent) and the house yard (36 per cent), with most of them happening in the late morning and around the evening meal. The main causes of the burns were scalds (45 per cent), contact with a hot object (34 per cent) and flame (20 per cent). 'Cool' water was applied to the burned area in 30 per cent of cases. Otherwise, treatment with a traditional preparation was the most popular first-aid choice. Since a considerable proportion of burns happened between meals when children 'play with fire' in the house yard, the provision of alternative play activities and community play areas may reduce the incidence of burns to these children. Secondly, we recommend that education on first-aid management of burns be intensified, with special emphasis on alternatives to the use of traditional preparations. PMID:7718113

  8. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (IBD) What is IBD? Addressing IBD Epidemiology Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  9. Clinical characteristics of cutaneous lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Szczęch, Justyna; Rutka, Maja; Samotij, Dominik; Zalewska, Agnieszka; Reich, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lupus erythematosus (LE) shows a wide variety of clinical manifestations, skin involvement being one of the most important. Aim To analyze the clinical presentation of cutaneous variants of lupus erythematosus in terms of skin lesion spectrum and extracutaneous involvement. Material and methods A total of 64 patients with cutaneous LE (CLE) were included. The study was based on the “Core Set Questionnaire” developed by the European Society of Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus (EUSCLE...

  10. Analysis on the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 190 cases with A(H1N1)influenza in Lhasa%拉萨190例甲型H1N1流感的流行病学特点及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚学红; 王毅; 张小林; 索朗卓玛

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨2009年拉萨甲型H1N1流感的流行病学特征及临床特点.方法 对2009年9-12月我院收治的190例甲型H1N1流感确诊病例的流行病学、临床表现及实验室检查等资料进行回顾性分析.结果本次拉萨地区暴发的甲型H1N1流感主要发生在秋冬季,9、10月为高峰.190例病例中,男性106例(55.79%),女性84例(44.21%),患者的平均年龄(16.66±9.78)岁,以7~17岁为主,学生139例(73.16%),藏族144例(75.79%).临床表现以发热、咳嗽、咽痛、咽充血和扁桃体肿大为主,172例有发热(90.53%).所有病例均未接种过甲型H1N1流感疫苗,入院时甲型H1N1流感病毒核酸检测均为阳性,176例(92.63%)病毒快速检测阳性.174例(91.58%)使用利巴韦林等抗病毒治疗取得较好疗效,184例痊愈出院,无死亡病例.结论 本组患者均为易感人群,因此流行期间接种甲型流感疫苗,提高人群免疫力势在必行.%Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of 190 A(H1N1)influenza cases in 2009 Lhasa.Methods 1he clinical data of 190 hospitalized cases with A(H1N1)influenza in our hospital from September to December 2009 were collected and retrospectively analyzed in epidemiology,clinical features and laboratory test.Results This outbreak of A(H1N1)influenza in Lhasa occurred during autumn and winter with the peak period in September and October.Of the 190 cases,there were 106(55.79%)males,84(44.21%)females.The average age was(16.66±9.78)years old,most of the cases were 7-17 years old.139(73.16%)cases were students.144(75.79%)cases were Tibetan people.The main clinical manifestations were fever,cough,pharyngalgia,pharyngitis,tonsillitis,and172(90.53%)cases had fever.No vaccination was implemented in all the patients before,all of them were positive for the A(H1N1)influenza virus nucleic acid testing on admission,176(92.63%)cases were positive for rapid detection of A influenza virus,174(91.58%)cases accepted ribavirin and

  11. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  12. Epidemiology and characteristics of the dengue outbreak in Guangdong, Southern China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Luo, X; Shao, J; Yan, H; Qiu, Y; Ke, P; Zheng, W; Xu, B; Li, W; Sun, D; Cao, D; Chen, C; Zhuo, F; Lin, X; Tang, F; Bao, B; Zhou, Y; Zhang, X; Li, H; Li, J; Wan, D; Yang, L; Chen, Y; Zhong, Q; Gu, X; Liu, J; Huang, L; Xie, R; Li, X; Xu, Y; Luo, Z; Liao, M; Wang, H; Sun, L; Li, H; Lau, G W; Duan, C

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere.

  13. Epidemiology and characteristics of the dengue outbreak in Guangdong, Southern China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Luo, X; Shao, J; Yan, H; Qiu, Y; Ke, P; Zheng, W; Xu, B; Li, W; Sun, D; Cao, D; Chen, C; Zhuo, F; Lin, X; Tang, F; Bao, B; Zhou, Y; Zhang, X; Li, H; Li, J; Wan, D; Yang, L; Chen, Y; Zhong, Q; Gu, X; Liu, J; Huang, L; Xie, R; Li, X; Xu, Y; Luo, Z; Liao, M; Wang, H; Sun, L; Li, H; Lau, G W; Duan, C

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere. PMID:26700953

  14. Impact of HFE genetic testing on clinical presentation of hereditary hemochromatosis: new epidemiological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Chandran

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH is a common inherited disorder of iron metabolism in Northern European populations. The discovery of a candidate gene in 1996 (HFE, and of its main mutation (C282Y, has radically altered the way to diagnose this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the HFE gene discovery on the clinical presentation and epidemiology of HH. Methods We studied our cohort of 415 patients homozygous for the C282Y allele and included in a phlebotomy program in a blood centre in western Brittany, France. Results In this cohort, 56.9% of the patients were male and 21.9% began their phlebotomy program before the implementation of the genetic test. A significant decrease in the sex ratio was noticed following implementation of this DNA test, from 3.79 to 1.03 (p -5, meaning that the proportion of diagnosed females relatives to males greatly increased. The profile of HH patients at diagnosis changed after the DNA test became available. Serum ferritin and iron values were lower and there was a reduced frequency of clinical signs displayed at diagnosis, particularly skin pigmentation (20.1 vs. 40.4%, OR = 0.37, p Conclusion This study highlights the importance of the HFE gene discovery, which has simplified the diagnosis of HH and modified its clinical presentation and epidemiology. This study precisely measures these changes. Enhanced diagnosis of HFE-related HH at an early stage and implementation of phlebotomy treatment are anticipated to maintain normal life expectancy for these patients.

  15. Somnambulism. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Kales, J D; Humphrey, F J; Charney, D S; Schweitzer, P K

    1980-12-01

    Fifty adults with either a present or past complaint of somnambulism were evaluated to determine the development and clinical course of their disorder as well as their personality patterns. Generally, when sleepwalking was outgrown, its onset was before age 10 years and its termination before age 15 years. Current sleepwalkers, compared with past sleepwalkers, started sleepwalking at a later age, had a higher frequency of events, and had episodes earlier in the night. Their episodes were also characterized by more intense clinical manifestations. Furthermore, current sleepwalkers demonstrated high levels of psychopathology, whereas past sleepwalkers had essentially normal psychological patterns. Specifically, the current sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, suggestive of difficulties in handling aggression. The clinical application of these findings is discussed and practical recommendations are given for the evaluation and management of sleepwalking. PMID:7447621

  16. Clinical characteristics of idiopathic portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozgur Harmanci; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic portal hypertension is one of the interesting causes of portal hypertension. Even in very developed medical centers, this disorder is still one of the most important misdiagnoses of clinical practice. To inexperienced physicians, presenting esophageal varices and upper gastrointestinal bleeding usually prompt an unfortunate diagnosis of cirrhosis. A heterogenous clinical presentation and progression of this disorder should be recognized by physicians, and management should be directed towards some specific problems confined to this disorder. Although a genetic basis and other factors are implicated in its pathogenesis, exact underlying mechanism(s) is (are) unknown. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of idiopathic portal hypertension, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and management issues. With the expectation of an excellent prognosis, a practicing gastroenterologist should be aware that "not all varices mean cirrhosis".

  17. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. A...

  18. Epidemiological Investigation of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Hangzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Hangzhou area. Methods Male subjects (n=375) aged 18-70 years,attending the STD clinic were recruited. Urethral swabs were assessed for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with the consensus primers MY09/11. HPV genotypes of positive PCR products were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequence analysis. Results Of the 375 swabs collected, 305 (81.3%) yielded sufficient DNA for the subsequent HPV analysis. Among the 305 subjects, the prevalence of HPV was 13.8%. Nononcogenic HPV types were found in 8.5% (26/305) of subjects, oncogenic types in 4.3% (13/305), and multiple types in 1.0% (3/305). The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in subjects from urban area than in those from rural area (P<0.05). The prevalence was also higher in those who received fewer years of education (P<0.05) and those who had more sex partners (P<0.05). Conclusions HPV infection among men at high risk is not uncommon. The detection rate of HPV DNA is significantly related to some sociodemographic factors, such as residence, educational level and the number of sex partners.

  19. New antimicrobial drug resistance and epidemiological typing patterns of Staphylococci from clinical isolates and raw meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Do Kyung; Hwang, Jae Ung; Baek, Eun Hye; Lee, Kang Oh; Kim, Kyung Jae; Ha, Nam Joo

    2008-08-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Staphylococcus isolated from clinical isolates and raw meats were tested for six different antimicrobial agents that are in widespread clinical use in Korea and four new antimicrobials, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin, and tigecycline. And this study analyzed the mecA genes and genetic patterns of MRSA by performing epidemiological studies using the PCR method. 46%, 51%, and 79% of clinical isolates were identified as MRSA in 1998, 1999, and 2005, respectively, and the mecA gene was detected in 82% of these isolates. Of the 133 staphylococci isolated from raw meats, 18% of the isolates were found to be resistant to methicillin, but none of these isolates showed the presence of the mecA gene. New antimicrobials, which have rarely or not yet been used in Korean hospitals, showed high activity against all staphylococcal isolates including methicillin-resistant isolates. The randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of MRSA isolates differed significantly between clinical isolates and raw meat isolates. PMID:18787791

  20. Mastitis in Ettawa Crossbred Goat (Pe) Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus: Epidemiology, Clinical Signs, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Widodo Suwito; Indarjulianto S

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat is commonly found and caused economic loss. Staphylococcus aureus is one of bacteria caused clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of clinical and subclinical mastitis in the Ettawa crossbred goat caused by S. aureus from epidemiological aspect, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Mastitis should be eliminated because it lead to death for ...

  1. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish Patient Compensation Association database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilma J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jens Tilma,1 Mette Nørgaard,1 Kim Lyngby Mikkelsen,2 Søren Paaske Johnsen1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Danish Patient Compensation Association, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Any patient in the Danish health care system who experiences a treatment injury can make a compensation claim to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA free of charge. The aim of this paper is to describe the DPCA database as a source of data for epidemiological research. Data to DPCA are collected prospectively on all claims and include information on patient factors and health records, system factors, and administrative data. Approval of claims is based on injury due to the principle of treatment below experienced specialist standard or intolerable, unexpected extensiveness of injury. Average processing time of a compensation claim is 6–8 months. Data collection is nationwide and started in 1992. The patient's central registration system number, a unique personal identifier, allows for data linkage to other registries such as the Danish National Patient Registry. The DPCA data are accessible for research following data usage permission and make it possible to analyze all claims or specific subgroups to identify predictors, outcomes, etc. DPCA data have until now been used only in few studies but could be a useful data source in future studies of health care-related injuries. Keywords: public health care, treatment injuries, no-fault compensation, registries, research, Denmark

  2. A clinical review of recent findings in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponder A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexis Ponder, Millie D LongDepartment of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are disorders of chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract marked by episodes of relapse and remission. Over the past several decades, advances have been made in understanding the epidemiology of IBD. The incidence and prevalence of both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have been increasing worldwide across pediatric and adult populations. As IBD is thought to be related to a combination of individual genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, and alterations in the gut microbiome that stimulate an inflammatory response, understanding the potentially modifiable environmental risk factors associated with the development or the course of IBD could impact disease rates or management in the future. Current hypotheses as to the development of IBD are reviewed, as are a host of environmental cofactors that have been investigated as both protective and inciting factors for IBD onset. Such environmental factors include breast feeding, gastrointestinal infections, urban versus rural lifestyle, medication exposures, stress, smoking, and diet. The role of these factors in disease course is also reviewed. Looking forward, there is still much to be learned about the etiology of IBD and how specific environmental exposures intimately impact the development of disease and also the potential for relapse.Keywords: clinical epidemiology, inflammatory bowel disease, environmental risk factors

  3. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions:a review on epidemiology,etiology,clinical manifestation and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomy Martin; LI Hui

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To review the current progress in epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions(SCADRs). Data sources Data were acquired by using Blackwell-Synergy, PubMed, original articles published in the main Chinese journals and related medical textbooks materials. Study-selection and date extraction Throughout the literature review 49 articles were selected. Results SCADRs cases are rare, however, the implication is life threatening with significant mortatity rates. Epidemiology studies have shown various incidences from different regions, gender, age, race and concurrent illness. There are typical signs and symptoms for each type of SCADRs, but this is not always so. Drugs associated with inducing SCADRs are anticonvulsants, antibiotics, NSAIDs and antirheumatic drugs. In some countries, especially in Asia, traditional drugs are offen the cause of SCADRs. Genetic polymorphisms and viral infections are predisposition factors of SCADRs. Patients with certain genetic alleles and underlying diseases are vulnerable to SCADRs. The exact pathogenesis of SCADRs is not well defined. Nonetheless, recent study showed that reactive metabolites and immunological processes have a significant role in SCADRs. Conclusions The different SCADRs reactions are attributed by different intrinsic factors, such as genetic polymorphisms, gender, age and race as well as extrinsic factors, such as underlying diseases. Different regions and culprit drugs also play a role in the various types of SCADRs.

  4. University student’s dental and maxillofacial fractures characteristics and epidemiology in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Onone Gialain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the characteristics and epidemiology of oral and nasal fractures and knowledge degree regarding the use of a mouthguard by an amateur university handball team inBrazil.  A cross-sectional study comprised 138 students who practiced the sport. They were interviewed on dental and nasal fractures and on the need of mouthguards in games such as amateur handball. Data were processed by descriptive analysis. Results showed that 19.6% had suffered some type of dental injury during the practice of sports, namely 40 fractured teeth; 12% had fractured nasal bones; 57% underwent head and neck injuries; 32% were unaware of the need to use a mouthguard during sports; 68% had heard of mouthguards, but only 4.5% of the interviewees made use of this protection device. There was a high prevalence of nasal and dental fractures in the group under analysis. The upper central incisors were most susceptible to fracture. Even though most athletes knew a mouthguard was needed during sports activities, only 4.5% actually used one.

  5. Adolescent homicide victimization in Johannesburg, South Africa: incidence and epidemiological characteristics (2001-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Lu-Anne; Seedat, Mohamed; Nel, Juan

    2016-09-01

    This study describes the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of adolescent homicides (15-19 years) in Johannesburg, South Africa. A retrospective population-based study was conducted on cases drawn from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. A total of 590 adolescent homicides were registered for 2001-2009 corresponding to an average annual homicide rate of 23.4/100,000. The average annual rate was 39.8/100,000 for males and 7.9/100,000 for females. Black and coloured adolescents had the highest homicide rates. There was a considerable decline in the firearm homicide rates over the study period. In contrast, sharp instrument and blunt force homicides increased. Public places were the predominant scenes for male deaths, while female homicides occurred primarily in residential locations. Most male homicides took place over weekend nights. Alcohol was a prominent feature of homicides. The high homicide rates reported in this study underscore the need to develop interventions directed specifically at adolescents. Prevention efforts are required to pay particular attention to black and coloured adolescent males, and to address the availability of weapons and alcohol use among adolescents. PMID:26076731

  6. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subgroups A and B Detected with Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenkuan; Chen, Dehui; Tan, Weiping; Xu, Duo; Qiu, Shuyan; Zeng, Zhiqi; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn. RSV-B was dominant in 2013 and RSV-A in 2015, whereas RSV-A and RSV-B cocirculated in 2014. The clinical presentations of 645 RSV-positive patients were analyzed. Bronchiolitis, dyspnea, coryza, vomiting, poor appetite, and diarrhea occurred more frequently in RSV-A-positive than RSV-B-positive patients, whereas chill, headache, myalgia, debility, and rash etc. were more frequent in RSV-B-positive than RSV-A-positive patients, suggesting specific clinical characteristics for RSV-A and RSV-B. Coinfectons with other pathogens were common and diverse. Bronchiolitis, fever (≥ 38°C), and poor appetite were more frequent in patients with single RSV infections than in coinfected patients, suggesting the key pathogenic activity of RSV. Analysis of the relationships between the comparative viral load and clinical presentations showed significant differences in bronchiolitis, fever (≥ 38°C), and rash etc. among patients with different viral loads. This study provides a novel rapid method for detecting RSV subgroups, and provides new insights into the epidemiology and clinical implications of RSV. PMID:27764220

  7. Ebola virus disease: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurier, Marlie; Moyer, Katherine; Wallihan, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe multisystem disease. Prehospital personnel, hospitals, and clinicians must be prepared to provide care for patients with EVD, with special attention to rigorous infection control in order to limit the spread of infection. Children with EVD are an especially challenging population, as the initial symptoms are nonspecific and difficult to differentiate from several common infections. For children presenting with a syndrome consistent with EVD, it is extremely important that healthcare workers identify epidemiologic risk factors, such as recent travel to an affected country or exposure to a patient with suspected or known EVD. Given the high morbidity and mortality of this disease, clinical efforts should focus on early diagnosis, appropriate infection control, and supportive care. PMID:27328168

  8. The outbreak of tularemia in Khanty-Mansiysk in 2013: clinical and epidemiological features in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Girina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonotic disease. The pathogen (Francisella tularensis is а gram negative bacteria virulent to humans and animals (rodents, hares, rabbits. The outbreak of tularemia had happened in 2013, in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District, during which 1005 people became ill, including 157 children, of whom 152 people were treated at the Hospital District of Khanty-Mansiysk. The histories of inpatients and outpatients affected children had been analysed (n=152. Specialists have identified epidemiological and clinical features of children tularemia. There was ulceroglandular form of tularemia in 98.7% of cases. Purulent lymphadenitis has appeared in 5.9% of cases. 21,2% of affected children have been vaccinated and revaccinated against tularemia for 1–11 years before the disease.

  9. HLA-B27-ASSOCIATED UVEITIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL PICTURE, AND COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Dubinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior uveitis is the most common form of intraocular inflammation. Among them, HLA-B27-associated uveitis occupies one of the leading places, which may be an independent disease or one of the manifestations of spondy- loarthritis (SA. The paper considers the general issues of the nomenclature and classification of uveitis, by using the classification criteria of the International Uveitis Study Group and the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Workshop. The epidemiological aspects of uveitis are described. Emphasis is laid on a difference in the detection rate of uveitis in different countries, in men and women, as well as in different forms of SA. The clinical features of SA- associated uveitis and its complications are discussed. 

  10. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  11. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiol...... uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens.......Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective...... of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...

  12. Clinical characteristics of anxiety disordered youth

    OpenAIRE

    KENDALL, Philip C.; Compton, Scott N.; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Sherrill, Joel; Ginsburg, Golda; Rynn, Moira; McCracken, James; Gosch, Elizabeth; Keeton, Courtney; Bergman, Lindsey; Sakolsky, Dara; Suveg, Cindy; Iyengar, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Reports the characteristics of a large, representative sample of treatment seeking anxious youth (N =488). Participants, aged 7–17 years (mean 10.7 yrs), had a principal DSM-IV diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder (SAD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), or social phobia (SP). Although youth with a co-primary diagnosis for which a different disorder-specific treatment would be indicated (e.g., major depressive disorder, substance abuse) were not included, there were few other exclusion ...

  13. Epidemiologic and clinical impact of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p < 0.001). The number of non-nosocomial health care-associated cases increased from 1.2% to 14.2%, respectively (p < 0.001). Previous exposure to carbapenems increased in 2010 (16.9% in 2000 vs 27.3% in 2010, p = 0.03). The drugs most frequently used for definitive treatment of patients with infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence. PMID:25181313

  14. Endodontic Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials.

  15. [Specific clinical, epidemiological patterns and laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infection in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bogush, Z F; Kazinets, O N; Germanovich, F A; Fisenko, E G; Titov, L P; Kvacheva, Z B; Bezruchko, A A; Scheslenok, E P

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological patterns as well as the results of the laboratory verification of the outbreak of enterovirus infection (EVI) in Minsk during the period of summer-autumn, 2000, are presented. During this outbreak a variety of clinical forms were observed, the serous meningitis being prevalent (57.5%). Practically simultaneous occurrence of infection on the territory of all administrative districts of the city, the predominant involvement of children aged up to 14 years into the outbreak, a high proportion of simultaneous casualities in the multiple foci. A number of circulating enteroviruses (EV)--ECHO 30, ECHO 6 of three serotypes and Coxsackie B5--were simultaneously isolated from clinical material. EV of the same serotypes were isolated from tap drinking water, and neutralizing antibodies to these serotypes were often detected in the patients blood sera. Infectious EV were also present in samples of bottled water and in water reservoirs used for bathing. The routes of EV transmission and the improvement of EVI control are discussed.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2016-08-15

    The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate. PMID:27374911

  17. Neonatal peripheral hypotonia: clinical and electromyographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parano, E; Lovelace, R E

    1993-06-01

    Hypotonia is a common occurrence in pediatrics, especially in the neonatal period. The hypotonic neonate represents a diagnostic challenge for the general pediatrician because hypotonia may be caused by a lesion at any level in the neuraxis: (1) central nervous system (CNS), (2) peripheral nerves (PN), (3) neuromuscular junction, or (4) muscles. Distinguishing among these pathologies is a particularly arduous task. This review will discuss the clinical approach to neonatal hypotonia with emphasis on disorders of the peripheral nervous system and muscle, and the importance of the electrophysiological study as a diagnostic test.

  18. Clinic-epidemiological evaluation of ulcers in patients with leprosy sequelae and the effect of low level laser therapy on wound healing: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Josafá G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium leprae is the only pathogenic bacteria able to infect peripheral nerves. Neural impairment results in a set of sensitive, motor and autonomic disturbances, with ulcers originating primarily on the hands and feet. The study objectives were to analyze the clinic-epidemiological characteristics of patients attended at one specialized dressing service from a leprosy-endemic region of the Brazilian Amazon and to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on wound healing of these patients. Methods Clinic-epidemiological evaluation of patients with leprosy sequelae was performed at the reference unit in sanitary dermatology of the state of Pará in Brazil. We conducted anamnesis, identification of the regions affected by the lesions and measurement of ulcer depth and surface area. After that, we performed a randomized clinical trial. Fifty-one patients with ulcers related to leprosy were evaluated, twenty-five of them were randomly assigned to a low level laser therapy group or a control group. Patients were treated 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were ulcer surface area, ulcer depth and the pressure ulcer scale for healing score (PUSH. Results Ninety-seven ulcers were identified, with a mean (SD duration of 97.6 (111.7 months, surface area of 7.3 (11.5 cm2, and depth of 6.0 (6.2 mm. Statistical analysis of the data determined that there were no significant differences in the variables analyzed before and after treatment with low level laser therapy. Conclusions Ulcers in patients with leprosy remain a major source of economic and social losses, even many years after they have been cured of M. leprae infection. Our results indicate that it is necessary to develop new and more effective therapeutic tools, as low level laser therapy did not demonstrate any additional benefits to ulcer healing with the parameters used in this study. Trial Registration The trial was registered at Clinical

  19. Corticosteroid responsiveness and clinical characteristics in childhood difficult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bossley, C.J.; Saglani, S; Kavanagh, C.; Payne, D.N.R.; Wilson, N; Tsartsali, L.; Rosenthal, M; Balfour-Lynn, I M; Nicholson, A.G.; Bush, A

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the clinical characteristics and corticosteroid responsiveness of children with difficult asthma (DA). We hypothesised that complete corticosteroid responsiveness (defined as improved symptoms, normal spirometry, normal exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) and no bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR

  20. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis: Clinical characteristics and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farag Elhassanien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ADEM, although relatively uncommon, is probably under-recognized. Objectives: To spotlight the clinical profile and therapeutic outcome of children with ADEM. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of patients with ADEM who were admitted to the Pediatric Departments in Aladan and Alfarawanya Hospitals in Kuwait, from January 2009 to January 2011. Clinical, microbiological and radiological data were analyzed. Results: Of 48 patients presented with acute neurological symptoms and signs, 21 patients fulfilled criteria for ADEM. 80.95% of cases were presenting in winter and spring, 57% of patients had a history of upper respiratory tract illness. The commonest presentations were motor deficits, convulsions and altered consciousness. CSF virology studies showed herpes simplex virus (HSV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (3 patients whereas nasal and nasopharyngeal swab showed evidence of influenza H1N1 virus (1 patient. Brain MRI was performed in all patients and revealed multiple hyperintense supratentorial brain lesions on T2/FLAIR images. 85.7% of patients had cortical and/or subcortical white matter lesions which were bilateral and asymmetric in location and size. Conclusion: ADEM although rare must be considered in children with acute onset of neurological signs and symptoms and must be distinguished from any acute neurological insult.

  1. Nationwide study of haemolytic uraemic syndrome : clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, EJ; Robins-Browne, RM; O'Loughlin, EV; Bennett-Wood, [No Value; Bourke, J; Henning, P; Hogg, GG; Knight, J; Powell, H; Redmond, D

    2001-01-01

    Aims-To establish the incidence and aetiology of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in Australia and compare clinical and microbial characteristics of sporadic and outbreak cases. Methods-National active surveillance through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit with monthly case notification f

  2. Clinical, pathological and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-huan WANG; Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma (UGC). Methods: Of 5424 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy from December 2006 to October 2013, 54 patients with primary gallbladder carcinomas confirmed by pathological diagnosis were identified. The patients were divided into two groups: diagnosed before operation (n=34) and UGC groups (n=20), of whom the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics we...

  3. Night terrors. Clinical characteristics and personality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kales, J D; Kales, A; Soldatos, C R; Caldwell, A B; Charney, D S; Martin, E D

    1980-12-01

    The development and clinical course of night terrors and the personality patterns of patients with this disorder were evaluated in 40 adults who had a current complaint of night terrors. Compared with a group of adult sleepwalkers, the patients with night terrors had a later age of onset for their disorder, a higher frequency of events, and an earlier time of night for the occurrence of episodes. Both groups had high levels of psychopathology, with higher values for the night terror group. This sleepwalkers showed active, outwardly directed behavioral patterns, whereas the night terror patients showed an inhibition of outward expressions of aggression and a predominance of anxiety, depression, tendencies obsessive-compulsive/, and phobicness. Although night terrors and sleepwalking in childhood seem to be related primarily to genetic and developmental factors, their persistence and especially their onset in adulthood are found to be related more to psychological factors. PMID:7447622

  4. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  5. [Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of scimitar syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Játiva-Chávez, Silvio; Muñoz-Castellanos, Luis; Zamora-González, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Seven patients with scimitar syndrome underwent retrospective clinical and echocardiographic examination. The findings were: respiratory infection with dyspnea on moderate exercise in 90%, scimitar sign in four (57%), dextrocardia in five (71%), and interatrial septal defect in five (71%), one of whom had patent ductus arteriosus. Overall, two patients had patent ductus arteriosus: one also had aortic coarctation and the other, a bicuspid aortic valve. Dilation of the right cavities was found in five (71%) and blunt edge in five (71%). In two patients, anomalous drainage was into the right atrium; in another two, into the inferior vena cava; and in three, towards the junction of the right atrium and the inferior vena cava. In three patients, drainage was obstructed. Six patients with cardiac abnormalities proceeded to surgery. Scimitar syndrome is a rare entity. In the large majority of patients (86%), diagnosis and follow-up can be performed echocardiographically.

  6. Pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease: evasive after half a century of clinical, epidemiological, and laboratory investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, E. L.

    2005-01-01

    Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease continue to be a problem for medical and public health communities—the fact that penicillin has failed to eradicate this disease process is irrefutable proof of the need for more laboratory, epidemiological, and clinical research

  7. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  8. Changes in seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and epidemiologic characteristics in the Republic of Korea, 1998-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyerin; Lee, Hyungmin; Cho, Yumi; Oh, Kyungwon; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated changes in hepatitis B seroprevalence from 1998 to 2013, and to identify differences in epidemiologic characteristics between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive and HBsAg-negative people. METHODS: HBsAg seropositive rates were compared by year, sex, and age using the blood test data from the periods I to VI (1998-2013) of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Interviews and self-administered surveys were conducted to collect ...

  9. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar; Eliane Maria Dias von Söhsten Lins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 pati...

  10. Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Traumatic Accidents in Babol, Iran: A Hospital-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Modarres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traumatic accidents in patients referred to a hospital in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during a 1-year period including all the dead trauma patients referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Babol. We included all those patients who were transferred to our center to trauma and injuries and passed away during the hospital stay. Those who died due to electrical shock, drowning and suffocation caused by hanging sand poisoning were excluded from the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, education, employment, the type, location, and time of injury, injured parts of body and treatment methods, the cause, location and time of death were recorded. Results: From the 92 dead patients, 76 were men (82.6% and 16 were women (17.4%. The cause of death in 53 cases (57.6% was head injury. Regarding the location,30patients (32.6% died at the scene of the accident, 62(67.4% died in the hospital. The maximum rate of trauma occurred in the afternoon shift between the hours of 13:30 to 19:30.The head and face were the most damaged organs. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury related mortality recorded in 81 patients (88.0%. Most of the accidents occurred in intercity roads in 27 people (33.3% and the others in rural-urban roads. Pedestrians were the most common victims of road traffic accidents mortality being reported in 29 people (35.8%. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are among the most common cause of injury related mortality in our region. Increasing the public knowledge and improve the traffic law enforcement measures should be considered for decreasing the morbidity and mortality.

  11. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Cesaretli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3% while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%. Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2% and systemic effects (24.7%. Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2% of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents.

  12. Epidemiology, clinical impacts and current clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Hazel; Katelaris, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. More than 50% of the global population is estimated to be infected. Differences in prevalence exist within and between countries, with higher prevalence seen among people with lower socio-economic status. Most transmission of infection occurs early in life, predominantly from person to person in the family setting. H. pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and causes symptoms in a subset of patients with functional dyspepsia. Choice of diagnostic test depends on the clinical context; urea breath tests and endoscopy with biopsy are the major diagnostic tools. Evidence-based indications for eradication of H. pylori infection are well documented. The most widely used and recommended eradication therapy in Australia is triple therapy comprising a proton pump inhibitor, amoxycillin and clarithromycin, usually for 1 week. Effective alternative regimens are available for patients with proven allergy to penicillin. Antimicrobial resistance is the major determinant of the outcome of eradication therapy. Trends in antibiotic resistance need to be monitored locally, but individual patient susceptibility testing is not usually necessary as it rarely guides the choice of therapy. The outcome of treatment should be assessed not less than 4 weeks after therapy. This is usually done with a urea breath test if follow-up endoscopy is not required. When first-line therapy fails, several proven second-line therapies may be used. Repeat first-line therapy and ad hoc regimens should be avoided. Overall cumulative eradication rates should approach 99%. PMID:27256648

  13. Existing data sources in clinical epidemiology: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensvoll H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilde Jensvoll,1,2 Marianne T Severinsen,3,4 Jens Hammerstrøm,5 Sigrid K Brækkan,1,2 Søren R Kristensen,4,6 Suzanne C Cannegieter,7 Kristine Blix,1,2 Anne Tjønneland,8 Frits R Rosendaal,1,7,9 Olga Dziewiecka,1 Kim Overvad,10,11 Inger Anne Næss,12 John-Bjarne Hansen1,21Department of Clinical Medicine, KG Jebsen – Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, 2Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 8Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 9Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 10Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 11Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 12Department of Hematology, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE is a known common complication in cancer patients, there is limited knowledge on patient-related and cancer-specific risk factors in the general population. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC Cohort was established by merging individual data from three large Scandinavian cohorts (The Tromsø Study, the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Here, we present the profile of the STAC cohort and provide age-specific incidence rates of VTE and cancerMethods: The STAC cohort includes 144,952 subjects aged 19–101 years

  14. A Data Base Management System for Clinical and Epidemiologic Studies In Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Design and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmides, Victoria S.; Hochberg, Marc C.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the development, design specifications, features and implementation of a data base management system (DBMS) for clinical and epidemiologic studies in SLE. The DBMS is multidimensional with arrays formulated across patients, studies and variables. The major impact of this DBMS has been to increase the efficiency of managing and analyzing vast amounts of clinical and laboratory data and, as a result, to allow for continued growth in research productivity in areas related t...

  15. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  16. Myasthenia gravis in Ceará, Brazil: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective chart review was performed on patients diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis in Ceará State, Brazil and who were followed from October 1981 to June 2009. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects were evaluated. In this work, 122 patients were studied, of whom 85 (69.7% were females and 37 (30.3% were males. The disease duration ranged from five months to 50 years (8.9±8.1 years. Age at the first symptoms varied from 0 to 74 years (31.9±14.4 years. The first main symptoms and signs were ptosis, diplopia and limb weakness. Generalized myasthenia was the most common clinical presentation, but 5.1% (n=6 persisted as ocular myasthenia. Thymectomy was performed in 42.6% (n=52 of myasthenic patients. A thymoma was present in 10 patients. Serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR antibodies were present in 80% (n=20 of specimens tested. The data presented are similar to those of studies performed in other countries.

  17. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission. PMID:25946155

  18. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Miranda Caroline Smith,1 Jeremy P Wrobel2 1Respiratory Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Advanced Lung Disease Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Comorbidities are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and significantly impact on patients' quality of life, exacerbation frequency, and survival. There is increasing evidence that certain diseases occur in greater frequency amongst patients with COPD than in the general population, and that these comorbidities significantly impact on patient outcomes. Although the mechanisms are yet to be defined, many comorbidities likely result from the chronic inflammatory state that is present in COPD. Common problems in the clinical management of COPD include recognizing new comorbidities, determining the impact of comorbidities on patient symptoms, the concurrent treatment of COPD and comorbidities, and accurate prognostication. The majority of comorbidities in COPD should be treated according to usual practice, and specific COPD management is infrequently altered by the presence of comorbidities. Unfortunately, comorbidities are often under-recognized and under-treated. This review focuses on the epidemiology of ten major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Further, we emphasize the clinical impact upon prognosis and management considerations. This review will highlight the importance of comorbidity identification and management in the practice of caring for patients with COPD. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, prevalence, mortality, chronic bronchitis, emphysema

  19. Identifying the biting species in snakebite by clinical features: an epidemiological tool for community surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmeswaran, A; Kasturiratne, A; Fonseka, M; Nandasena, S; Lalloo, D G; de Silva, H J

    2006-09-01

    The outcome of snakebite is related to the biting species but it is often difficult to identify the biting snake, particularly in community settings. We have developed a clinical scoring system suitable for use in epidemiological surveys, with the main aim of identifying the presumed biting species in those with systemic envenoming who require treatment. The score took into account ten features relating to bites of the five medically important snakes in Sri Lanka, and an algorithm was developed applying different weightings for each feature for different species. A systematically developed artificial data set was used to fine tune the score and to develop criteria for definitive identification. The score was prospectively validated using 134 species-confirmed snakebites. It correctly differentiated the bites caused by the three snakes that commonly cause major clinical problems (Russell's viper (RV), kraits and cobra) from other snakes (hump-nosed viper (HNV) and saw-scaled viper (SSV)) with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. For individual species, sensitivity and specificity were, respectively: cobra 76%, 99%; kraits 85%, 99%; and RV 70%, 99%. As anticipated, the score was insensitive in the identification of bites due to HNV and SSV. PMID:16412486

  20. Clinical characteristics and outcomes in biclonal gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullikin, Trey C; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Dispenzieri, Angela; Buadi, Francis K; Lacy, Martha Q; Lin, Yi; Dingli, David; Go, Ronald S; Hayman, Suzanne R; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Russell, Stephen J; Lust, John A; Leung, Nelson; Kapoor, Prashant; Kyle, Robert A; Gertz, Morie A; Kumar, Shaji K

    2016-05-01

    A single monoclonal protein typically characterizes monoclonal gammopathies, but a small proportion may have more than one M protein identifiable. In the setting of symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), the development of a new monoclonal protein following therapy is associated with better outcomes. As for the precursor conditions, monoclonal gammopathy undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), there is limited information on the impact of a second monoclonal protein on the disease course, including progression and response to treatment. The outcomes of patients with MGUS and SMM with more than one monoclonal protein, after identifying 539 patients with biclonal proteins on electrophoresis and/or immunofixation, were reported. About 22 of 393 patients with MGUS/biclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (BGUS) progressed to SMM (6), MM (11), AL (3), or WM (2), and 5 of 16 patients with biclonal SMM progressed to MM. The rate of progression for BGUS was approximately 1% per year, which is similar to MGUS with one monoclonal protein. The median estimated time of progression of biclonal SMM was 2.6 years; similar to monoclonal SMM. For patients with biclonal MM, both M spikes responded to treatment and, upon relapse, the original dominant M protein remained dominant as the disease progressed. In conclusion, the presence of a second monoclonal protein does not appear to affect the progression of precursor states and suggests multiple monoclonal proteins do not clinically impact one another in the course of the disease. Am. J. Hematol. 91:473-475, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26840395

  1. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    emphasis. The emergence of ZIKV as a new pathogen for Brazil in 2015 underscores the need for clinical vigilance and strong epidemiological and laboratory surveillance.

  2. Patient, provider, and clinic characteristics associated with public STD clinic patient satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, S; Zenilman, J; Erbelding, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: There is a lack of information describing levels of patient satisfaction among patients seeking sexually transmitted diseases (STD) care in a public clinic setting. We sought to identify patient, provider, and clinic characteristics associated with patient satisfaction within public STD clinics.

  3. Hereditary ataxias and paraplegias in Cantabria, Spain. An epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, J M; Calleja, J; Combarros, O; Berciano, J

    1991-04-01

    A clinical, genetic and epidemiological study of hereditary ataxias and paraplegias was conducted within a defined area (Cantabria) in Northern Spain from 1974 to 1986. The series comprised 48 index cases and 65 affected relatives. On prevalence day, 103 patients were alive, giving a prevalence of 20.2 cases per 100,000. There were 24 patients (18 families) with Friedreich's ataxia (FA), 12 (6 families) with early onset cerebellar ataxia (EOCA) differing from FA, 6 (3 families) with dominantly transmitted late onset cerebellar ataxia (LOCA), 11 with 'idiopathic' LOCA, 49 (9 families) with 'pure' hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), and 1 patient with congenital cerebellar ataxia. The prevalence found here is comparable with the highest figures described in previous surveys. This may in part be due to the great number of secondary cases in our series. A high frequency of parental consanguinity occurred in FA patients, 'pseudodominant' inheritance being observed in 1 family. The clinical features were those of classical FA except for later onset and slower course in 1 family, and retained tendon reflexes in the lower limbs in 2 cases. Such data indicate the need for modification of the essential criteria for the disease. EOCA included 4 patients with normoreflexic ataxia and 1 patient with ataxia and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone deficiency. In addition, there were 7 patients from 2 unrelated families with a homogeneous syndrome characterized by autosomal recessive inheritance, cerebellar ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa and sensory neuropathy. This syndrome is therefore a well defined nosological entity to be added to the list of autosomal recessive mendelian phenotypes. The clinical picture of patients with LOCA was either a 'pure' cerebellar or a 'cerebellar-plus' syndrome. Genetic subgroups of 'pure' HSP were autosomal dominant type I in 5 families and type II in 2, and autosomal recessive in 2 families. PMID:2043954

  4. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  5. Clinic Characteristics of Varicella Zoster Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Wu-wang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kokstein Z, Balatka J, Horacek J. ECG changes in children with acute myocarditis[J]. Sb Ved Pr Lek Fak Karlovy Univerzity Hradci Kralove Suppl, 1990, 33(4): 373-379.[2]Rich R, McErlean M. Complete heart block in a child with varicella[J]. Am J Emerg M, 1993, 11(6): 602-605.[3]Sobrino MJM, Lopez PF, Cisneros JM, et al. Thoracic pain as early clinical manifestation of myocarditis caused by varicella [J]. Med Clin Barc,1992, 99(6): 236-237.[4]Teravanichpong S, Chuangsuwanich T. Fatal varicella in a healthy girl[J]. J Med Assoc Thai, 1990, 73(11): 648-651.[5]Amral FT, Bestetti RB, Araujo RC, et al. Transient atroventricular conduction disordor: a potential cause of sudden death in myocarditis due to varicella[J]. Arq Bras Cardiol, 1989, 53(2): 129-131.[6]Lorber A, Zonis Z, Maisuls E, et al. The scale of myocardial involvement in varicella myocarditis[J]. Int J Cardiol,1988, 20(2): 257-262.[7]Ettedgui JA, Ladusans E, Bamford M. Complete heart block as a complication of varicella[J]. Int J Cardiol, 1987, 14(3): 362-365.[8]Waagner DC, Murphy TV. Varicella myocarditis[J]. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 1990, 9(5): 360-363.[9]Rivera CF, Omar M, Aliaga ML, et al. Varicella complicated by pericarditis and pneumonia [J]. An Med Interna, 1996, 13(3): 130-132.[10]Civico RF, Omar M, Martinez LA, et al. Varicella complicated by pericarditis and pneumonia [J]. An Med Interna, 1996, 13(3): 130-132.[11]Bachli E, Kagi MK, Krause M. Visceral and neurological complications in varicella infections of adults [J]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 1996, 126(11): 440-446.[12]Senellart F, Bozio A, Sassolas F, et al. Varicella myocarditis and junctional ectopic tachycardia [J]. Pediatrie Bucur, 1991, 46(3): 267-270.[13]Straus S, Ostrove J, Inchauspe G, et al. Varicella- zoster virus infections[J]. Ann Intern Med,1988, 108: 221-237.[14]Tsintsof A, Delprado WJ, Keogh AM. Varicella zoster myocarditis progressing to cardiomyopathy and cardiac

  6. Dengue 1 diversity and microevolution, French Polynesia 2001-2006: connection with epidemiology and clinics.

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    Elodie Descloux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is an emerging infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. Determinants of DF epidemiology and factors involved in severe cases-dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS-remain imperfectly characterized. Since 2000, serotype 1 (DENV-1 has predominated in the South Pacific. The aim of this study was (i to determine the origin and (ii to study the evolutionary relationships of DENV-1 viruses that have circulated in French Polynesia (FP from the severe 2001 outbreak to the recent 2006 epidemic, and (iii to analyse the viral intra-host genetic diversity according to clinical presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequences of 181 envelope gene and 12 complete polyproteins of DENV-1 viruses obtained from human sera in FP during the 2001-2006 period were generated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DENV-1 FP strains belonged to genotype IV-"South Pacific" and derived from a single introduction event from South-East Asia followed by a 6-year in situ evolution. Although the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions per site indicated strong negative selection, a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (S222T appeared in 2002 and was subsequently fixed. It was noted that genetic diversification was very significant during the 2002-2005 period of endemic DENV-1 circulation. For nine DF sera and eight DHF/DSS sera, approximately 40 clones/serum of partial envelope gene were sequenced. Importantly, analysis revealed that the intra-host genetic diversity was significantly lower in severe cases than in classical DF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, this study showed that DENV-1 epidemiology in FP was different from that described in other South-Pacific islands, characterized by a long sustained viral circulation and the absence of new viral introduction over a 6-year period. Second, a significant part of DENV-1 evolution was observed during the endemic period characterized by the rapid

  7. Epidemiological and clinical profile of triple negative breast cancer at a cancer hospital in North India

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    P Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recent concept and the burning topic of research today. Various studies have been reported in western literature on TNBCs or the similar group of basal like cancers, all highlighting the poor prognostic features of this molecular subtype in comparison to the other types of breast cancers. However extensive data from India is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical profile of TNBcs at our institute. Materials and Methods: Data on 171 patients of TNBCs registered at this hospital between 2005 and 2008 and followed up until December 2010 was collected and reviewed for epidemiological and clinical features. Results: The median age at presentation was 49 years (22-75 years. Sixty eight patients (40% had lump in the breast of less than 1 month duration. Fourteen (8% were nulliparous and 10 (7% patients had crossed the age of 30 years at first full-term pregnancy, 89 (52% were pre or peri-menopausal at presentation. Only 8 (5% patients had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. One hundred and six (62% patients were stage II, 26 (15% stage III, 21 (12% stage I and 18 (10% stage IV at presentation. One hundred and twenty eight patients (75% had early breast cancer eligible for surgery at presentation, 25 (15% were locally advanced and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and 18 (10% were found to be metastatic. Modified radical mastectomy was the preferred surgical option by most patients (76% who underwent upfront surgery in our study. The pathological overall response rates (complete and partial response after NACT was 75% with complete response rate of 25% and there were no relapses in the complete responders. The median follow-up was 30 months (9-70 months. One hundred and twenty two patients (71% were alive at last follow-up, 34 (22% had relapsed, 18 (11% had died due to progressive disease. Thirty one patients (18% were lost to follow-up. Most of

  8. Demographic, epidemiologic and clinical profile of snake bite cases, presented to Emergency Medicine department, Ahmedabad, Gujarat

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    Bhavesh Jarwani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Snake bite is a common medical emergency faced mainly by the rural populations in tropical and subtropical countries with heavy rainfall and humid climate. Although India is a single largest contributor of snake bite cases, reporting is very poor. There is hardly any publication of the same from Gujarat state that is developing at a good pace. Hence, we aimed to study the snake bite cases with particular attention to demography, epidemiology, and clinical profile. Settings and Design: The present descriptive, observational study was carried out at the Emergency Medicine Department of a tertiary care center in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. This department is one if the firsts to get recognized by the Medical Council of India. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional single-center study. Cases were entered into the prescribed form, and detailed information regarding demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters was entered. Statistical Method: Data were analyzed using Epi2000. Means and frequencies for each variable were calculated. Results: Majority (67.4% of the snake bite victims were in the age group between 15 and 45 years. Majority were male victims (74.2%. 71% victims of snake bite lived in rural areas. Farmers and laborers were the main victims. 61.2% incidents took place at night time or early morning (before 6 a.m.. 64% patients had bite mark on the lower limb. 40% victims had seen the snake. Eight patients had snake bite, but were asymptomatic. 52% had neuroparalytic manifestation, 34% were asymptomatic, and 9.6% had hemorrhagic manifestation. 14% cases received treatment within 1 h of the bite and 64.84% within 1-6 h after the bite. First aid given was in the form of application of tourniquet (16.2%, local application of lime, chillies, herbal medicine, etc., (1%. 2.20% cases were sensitive to anti-snake venom. Only three patients died. Conclusion: In this region (Gujarat, neuroparalytic manifestation of snake bite is more

  9. Clinical and epidemiological features of the 2014 large-scale dengue outbreak in Guangzhou city, China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yong Ping; Luo, Yasha; Chen, Yuan; Lamers, Mart Matthias; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Xiao Han; Sanyal, Sumana; Mok, Chris Ka Pun; Liu, Zhong Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus is transmitted by mosquito around the tropical and sub-tropical regions. There was a large-scale dengue epidemic in Guangdong province, China during 2014 and around fifty thousands dengue fever cases, including six deaths, have been reported. In this study, we aimed to understand the clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection and determined the origin of the virus from the outbreak. Methods We have summariz...

  10. Characteristics of student preparedness for clinical learning: clinical educator perspectives using the Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipchase Lucinda S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During clinical placements, clinical educators facilitate student learning. Previous research has defined the skills, attitudes and practices that pertain to an ideal clinical educator. However, less attention has been paid to the role of student readiness in terms of foundational knowledge and attitudes at the commencement of practice education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain clinical educators’ views on the characteristics that they perceive demonstrate that a student is well prepared for clinical learning. Methods A two round on-line Delphi study was conducted. The first questionnaire was emailed to a total of 636 expert clinical educators from the disciplines of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology. Expert clinical educators were asked to describe the key characteristics that indicate a student is prepared for a clinical placement and ready to learn. Open-ended responses received from the first round were subject to a thematic analysis and resulted in six themes with 62 characteristics. In the second round, participants were asked to rate each characteristic on a 7 point Likert Scale. Results A total of 258 (40.56% responded to the first round of the Delphi survey while 161 clinical educators completed the second (62.40% retention rate. Consensus was reached on 57 characteristics (six themes using a cut off of greater than 70% positive respondents and an interquartile deviation IQD of equal or less than 1. Conclusions This study identified 57 characteristics (six themes perceived by clinical educators as indicators of a student who is prepared and ready for clinical learning. A list of characteristics relating to behaviours has been compiled and could be provided to students to aid their preparation for clinical learning and to universities to incorporate within curricula. In addition, the list provides a platform for discussions by professional bodies about the role of placement

  11. [Clinic-epidemiological significance of drug hepatotoxicity in liver disease consultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jmelnitzky, A C; Guidi, M; Bologna, A; Viola, M; Soccini, C; Barbero, R; Belloni, P; Apraiz, M

    2000-01-01

    To assess epidemiological and clinical significance of drug hepatotoxicity in the setting of liver diseases consultation, ten thousand and three hundred forty two prospectively designed clinical records from patient cared for in our Liver Unit in the period 1988-1998 were incorporated into the study; 58 out of 10,342 (prevalence = 5.6%) fulfilled at least the first three of the following causality requirements: 1.--Liver injury associated in time to drug exposition; 2.--Negative evaluation of more common other etiologies; (alcohol, viruses, immunologic, metabolic, etc) 3.--Favourable response to drug withdrawal (ALT 75%), moderate (presence of clinical complications, bilirubin > 5 mg/dl and prothrombin concentration between 50-75%), and severe (major clinical complications with bilirubin > 5 mg/dl and prothrombin concentration hypersensibility (fever, adenomegalies, rush, mononucleosis like syndrome, eosinophilia) in 29.3%. Acute injury represented 91.4% of the cases: 41.4% acute hepatitis, 15.5% "pure" cholestasis, 24.1% cholestatic hepatitis, and 10.3% indeterminate type. Four patients (4.5% of acute injury cases) were presented as severe acute liver failure, leading to liver transplant in one of them, drug association (INH-rifampicin and carbamazepine-phenobarbital) and inadverted challenge (sulphonamides and pemoline) were associated to clinical severity. Chronic injury were found in five patient (8.6%), four of them associated to chronic hepatitis and the other one to a ductopenic syndrome. Six drugs represented 53.4% of our cases; oral contraceptives (7 cases), INH alone or combined with rifampicin (6 cases), sulfonamides and clorpropamida (5 cases each), carbamazepine and amiodarone (4 cases each). Normalization of liver enzymes after drug suppression took 2 to 8 weeks in acute hepatitis type (X = 4 weeks), 4 to 20 in "pure" cholestasis (X = 12 weeks) and 8 to 24 weeks in cholestatic hepatitis or mixed type (X = 16 weeks). Two cases of chronic hepatitis

  12. Clinical and epidemiological features of 123 cases of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Andrea de Siqueira Campos; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Paniago, Anamaria Melo Miranda; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Moncada, Paula Maria Frank; Bonfim, Gisele Facholi; Nogueira, Susie Andries; Wanke, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis diagnosed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, medical records of 123 patients admitted from January 1995 to December 2005 were analyzed. One hundred and four cases (84.5%) had HIV infection, six (4.9%) had other predisposing conditions and 13 (10.6%) were immunocompetent. Male patients predominated (68.3%) and their age ranged from 19 to 69 years (mean: 35.9). Most patients (73.2%) were born and lived lifelong in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Involvement of the central nervous system occurred in 103 patients (83.7%) and headache and vomiting were the most frequent symptoms. In 77 cases it was possible to identify the Cryptococcus species: 69 (89.6%) C. neoformans and eight (10.4%) C. gattii. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment (106/123), followed by fluconazole in 60% of cases. The overall lethality rate was 49.6%, being 51% among the HIV infected patients and 41.2% among the non-HIV infected (p > 0.05). Although cryptococcosis exhibited in our region a similar behavior to that described in the literature, the detection of an important rate of immunocompetent individuals and five C. gattii cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients is noteworthy.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological study of low vision in Sancti Spíritus. 2005-2010.

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    Esther Caridad Díaz Guzmán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of patients with low vision in the opthalmology service in Sancti Spíritus province made possible a descriptive retroprospective research based on 703 patients of low vision office, from January 1st, 2005 to December 31, 2010, the clinical and epidemiological behavior was studied and 561 patients were visual disability. The frequency distribution was carried out according to selected variables age, sex, color of the skin, residence municipality, general and ocular disease. The results were showed in tables and graphs, concluding that there was a high prevalence rate in the province. The affected sex was males of the province; white skin was the one that predominate. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus were the most frequent sickness. In the ocular diseases the one that predominate was glaucoma, being the municipality of Sancti Spíritus the one that has more cases. The data were taken from the medical histories and processed by means of a database made in Epi-Info v6.0. They were analyzed using the Statcalc Module.

  15. Epidemiological and clinical features of idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshikazu; Nakata, Koh; Arai, Toru; Tazawa, Ryushi; Hamano, Emi; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Kudo, Koichiro; Keicho, Naoto; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Etsuro; Eda, Ryosuke; Oishi, Kazunori; Maeda, Yuuka; Koreeda, Yukiko; Kodo, Naohiko; Sakatani, Mitsunori

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (IPAP) is a rare disease characterized by excessive amounts of lipoproteinaceous material in the alveolus. This report presents an interim analysis of nationwide epidemiological data from Japanese patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and the roles of serum markers for IPAP. (i) The nationwide demographic data from 166 Japanese patients with IPAP are shown. The female to male ratio was 1:2, and the average age was 51 +/- 14 years old (age range: 15-79 years) at registration or diagnosis. A total of 30% of patients with IPAP have a poor clinical course. In total, 30% of patients were treated with whole lung lavage therapy (WLL). Under WLL, the patients significantly improved in the short term, but 40% of the patients who underwent WLL worsened again. A new strategy such as granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) therapy for intractable PAP is required. (ii) The correlation of serum KL-6, carcinoembryonic antigen, surfactant proteins D and A, and LDH with disease severity suggests their potential as disease markers. In contrast, serum anti-GM-CSF antibody did not correlate with disease severity, but is a specific marker for the diagnosis of IPAP. The combined measurements of the serum markers may well prove very useful for both the diagnosis and the management of IPAP patients. PMID:16423273

  16. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  17. The global threat of Zika virus to pregnancy: epidemiology, clinical perspectives, mechanisms, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Phillipe; Drummer, Heidi E; Richards, Jack S; Scoullar, Michelle J L; Beeson, James G

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has newly emerged as a significant global threat, especially to pregnancy. Recent major outbreaks in the Pacific and in Central and South America have been associated with an increased incidence of microcephaly and other abnormalities of the central nervous system in neonates. The causal link between ZIKV infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is now strongly supported. Over 2 billion people live in regions conducive to ZIKV transmission, with ~4 million infections in the Americas predicted for 2016. Given the scale of the current pandemic and the serious and long-term consequences of infection during pregnancy, the impact of ZIKV on health services and affected communities could be enormous. This further highlights the need for a rapid global public health and research response to ZIKV to limit and prevent its impact through the development of therapeutics, vaccines, and improved diagnostics. Here we review the epidemiology of ZIKV; the threat to pregnancy; the clinical consequences and broader impact of ZIKV infections; and the virus biology underpinning new interventions, diagnostics, and insights into the mechanisms of disease. PMID:27487767

  18. Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Azócar-Aedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The genus includes a large number of serovars that may be sheed in the urine of infected animals creating a highly infectious source of transmission. Numerous species of wild and domestic mammals act as maintenance hosts and form reservoirs of the bacteria, with other species being incidental hosts that may develop the disease. In dogs and cats, the disease is caused by different serovars and while dogs act as maintenance host for some serovars, both species are incidental host for others. Dogs and cats may have frequent contact with wild and domestic farm animals, therefore they are an important link in the transmission route. Leptospira may survive in the environment which increases the complexity of the epidemiology. The presentation of the disease can be highly variable and, particularly for feline leptospirosis, not well described. Laboratory testing is essential for the diagnosis, however, it is complicated due to the need to discriminate between Leptospira infection in animals with clinical disease from leptospiral specific antibody responses in maintenance hosts, or in animals with subclinical infection. Infection in pets may have important economic and public health implications and because of the risk of transmission from pets to their owners and to other animals, preventive measures need to be applied and an increased awareness is adviced.

  19. Clinical and epidemiological features Of Hepatitis C In Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil

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    Thatiana Lameira Maciel Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C (HCV is a severe public health problem due to the large number of people infected and its various complications. A cross-sectional study was conducted to describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of individuals with HCV. Individuals reported by SINAN in 2006 and 2007 to be carriers of HCV were interviewed in 2010. The results show that most individuals were male (65%, aged between 40 and 59 years old (74%, heterosexual (98%, married (47%, with a low educational level (42%, and monthly family income below two times the minimum wage (46%. The genotypes were 1 (74%, 3 (24%, and 4 (2%. The main transmission routes reported were: blood transfusion (33%, the use of injectable Gluconergan (28%, and sexual intercourse (14%. Abdominal pain was reported by 63%. In regard to treatment, those with genotype 1 presented resistance to drugs and half of the individuals who had received a biopsy had a high degree of fibrosis (F3/F4 and esophageal varices. The degree of fibrosis influenced the results of laboratory exams. A total of 5% of the individuals were awaiting transplantation. Measures to control transmission, to reach an early diagnosis, and to improve the quality of information provided in report forms should be made a priority in the Brazilian public health system.

  20. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis

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    Heloisa da Silveira Paro Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more resistant to TB drugs compared to other individuals (p < 0.05. Approximately half of the individuals received supervised treatment, but most drug-resistant cases were positive for pulmonary TB and exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli smears, which are complicating factors for TB control programs. Primary healthcare is the ideal level for early disease detection, but tertiary healthcare is the most common entry point for patients into the system. These factors require special attention from healthcare managers and professionals to effectively control and monitor the spread of TB drug-resistant cases.

  1. Clinical and epidemiological evolution of modern therapy and measles in children

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    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological research on the evolution of measles in children in Leningrad – St. Petersburg from 1927–2014 with an analysis of the effectiveness of treatment of this infection. Divided into three periods of fighting «child plague». First period – to use in the practice of specific therapies and antibacterial drugs, characterized by high morbidity, severe weight, high rates of mortality. In the second period the use of donor serum syvotrotki convalescents and sulfa drugs significantly lowered the mortality rate due to the effective treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The use of penicillin and broad-spectrum antibiotics led to a further reduction in the severity of measles, a sharp decline in mortality – to tenths and hundredths of a percent. The third period is due to the mass of active immunization against measles, characterized by a significant decline in incidence rates up to her absence in some years. Combined therapy of children with measles in modern conditions with the inclusion etiotropic drugs (Viferon causes rapid regression of the symptoms of measles, warns layering respiratory viral infection contributes to the smooth course of the disease. 

  2. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  3. Epidemiology of acute coronary syndromes in a Mediterranean country; aims, design and baseline characteristics of the Greek study of acute coronary syndromes (GREECS

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    Stravopodis Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study GREECS was conducted in order to evaluate the annual incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS and to delineate the role of clinical, biochemical, lifestyle and behavioral characteristics on the severity of disease. In this work we present the design, methodology of the study and various baseline characteristics of people with ACS. Methods/Design A sample of 6 hospitals located in Greek urban and rural regions was selected. In these hospitals we recorded almost all admissions due to ACS, from October 2003 to September 2004. Socio-demographic, clinical, dietary, psychological and other lifestyle characteristics were recorded. 2172 patients were included in the study (76% were men and 24% women. The crude annual incidence rate was 22.6 per 10,000 people and the highest frequency of events was observed in winter. The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.3%. The most common discharged diagnosis for men was Q-wave MI, while for women it was unstable angina. Discussion This study aims to demonstrate current information about the epidemiology of patients who suffer from ACS, in Greece.

  4. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Khoa T.D.; Phuong, Hoang Lan; Thanh Nga, Tran Thi; Giao, Phan Trong; Hung, Le Quoc; Van Nam, Nguyen; Binh, Tran Quang; Simmons, Cameron; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Thinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; de Jong, Menno D.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Objectives To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods A prospective observational study was conducted from 2001 to 2006 to study the aetiology in AUF patients. Demographic and clinical information was obtained, and dengue polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serology were performed on a random selection of patients. Results Three hundred fifty-one serologically confirmed dengue patients including 68 primary and 283 secondary infections were included in this study. In 25% (86/351) dengue virus (DENV) was detected by RT-PCR among which 32 DENV-1, 16 DENV-2, 1 DENV-3 and 37 DENV-4 were identified. The predominant dengue serotype varied by year with seasonal fluctuation: DENV-4 in 2001–2002, DENV-1 and DENV-2 from 2003 to 2006. Primary dengue was more common in children. Higher viraemia levels (P = 0.010) were found in primary infections compared to secondary infections. DENV-1 infected patients had higher viraemia levels than DENV-2 (P = 0.003) and DENV-4 (P < 0.001) infected patients. Clinical symptoms were often seen in adults. Few differences in clinical symptoms were found between primary and secondary infection and no significant differences in clinical symptoms between the serotypes were observed. Conclusions Our data provide insight in the epidemiology, clinical profile and virological features of mild symptomatic dengue patients who presented to PHC with AUF in Vietnam. PMID:20080126

  5. Guillain-Barré syndrome in Cantabria, Spain. An epidemiological and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, M J; Calleja, J; Canga, E; Berciano, J

    1994-04-01

    Seventy-one patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) were retrospectively selected from within a defined area (Cantabria) in northern Spain, from 1975 to 1988. Excluding two non-resident cases, epidemiological analysis was based on 69 cases. The annual incidence rates were stable during the 14-year period of study with an average incidence of 0.95 (age-adjusted, 0.86) cases per 100,000 population. No significant difference was found for sex, urban or rural residence and there was no significant seasonal clustering. Antecedent event were recorded in 57% of patients, the most frequent events being upper respiratory infection and gastroenteritis. No association between use of gangliosides and the syndrome was found. Eight patients had variant syndromes including Fisher's syndrome (2 cases), and axonal (4 cases) and sensory (2 cases) GBS. Recurrences occurred in 3 cases. Excluding nine patients with incomplete follow-up and two with Fisher's syndrome, clinical analysis was based on 60 cases. Patients were divided into three groups as a function of their peak weakness. Significant features of the severe group were a requirement for ventilation, presence of bulbar palsy or dysautonomia and a longer duration of the plateau phase. However, it was not possible at an early stage of the clinical course to predict future motor deficit. Four (6.7%) patients belonging to the severe group died during the acute phase of the disease. No specific treatment for GBS was given. Outcome was assessed by means of serial examination up to 24 months after the onset of symptoms using a functional scale. At 3, 6 and 24 months 70%, 46% and 12% of patients, respectively, had a poor outcome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8042448

  6. Clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, French Guiana, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Bertrand, Xavier; Moreau, Brigitte; Hommel, Didier; Couppie, Pierre; Simonnet, Christine; Kallel, Hatem; Demar, Magalie; Djossou, Felix; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii and characterised the clonal diversity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) during an ICU-associated outbreak at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana. All non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates from 2008 to 2014 were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion. Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterisation of carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed on CRAB. Of the 441 A. baumannii isolates, most were from males (54.0%) and were detected mainly from the ICU (30.8%) and medicine wards (21.8%). In the ICU, strains were mainly isolated from the respiratory tract (44.1%) and bloodstream (14.0%), whereas in medicine wards they mainly were from wound/drainage (36.5%) and bloodstream (25.0%). A. baumannii showed the greatest susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam (92.7%), imipenem (92.5%), colistin (95.6%) and amikacin (97.2%), being lower in the ICU and medicine wards compared with other wards. An outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB occurred in the 13-bed ICU in 2010. CRAB strains were more co-resistant to other antimicrobials compared with non-CRAB. Molecular genetics analysis revealed five sequence types [ST78, ST107 and ST642 and two new STs (ST830 and ST831)]. Analysis of PFGE profiles indicated cross-transmissions of CRAB within the ICU, between the ICU and one medicine ward during transfer of patients, and within that medicine ward. This study provides the first clinical and molecular data of A. baumannii from French Guiana and the Amazon basin. The ICU was the highest risk unit of this nosocomial outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB, which could subsequently disseminate within the hospital.

  7. Evolution of the clinical and epidemiological knowledge about Chagas disease 90 years after its discovery

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    Prata Aluízio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different periods may be considered in the evolution of knowledge about the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease since its discovery: (a early period concerning the studies carried out by Carlos Chagas in Lassance with the collaboration of other investigators of the Manguinhos School. At that time the disease was described and the parasite, transmitters and reservoirs were studied. The coexistence of endemic goiter in the same region generated some confusion about the clinical forms of the disease; (b second period involving uncertainty and the description of isolated cases, which lasted until the 1940 decade. Many acute cases were described during this period and the disease was recognized in many Latin American countries. Particularly important were the studies of the Argentine Mission of Regional Pathology Studies, which culminated with the description of the Romaña sign in the 1930 decade, facilitating the diagnosis of the early phase of the disease. However, the chronic phase, which was the most important, continued to be difficult to recognize; (c period of consolidation of knowledge and recognition of the importance of Chagas disease. Studies conducted by Laranja, Dias and Nóbrega in Bambuí updated the description of Chagas heart disease made by Carlos Chagas and Eurico Villela. From then on, the disease was more easily recognized, especially with the emphasis on the use of a serologic diagnosis; (d period of enlargement of knowledges on the disease. The studies on denervation conducted in Ribeirão Preto by Fritz Köberle starting in the 1950 decade led to a better understanding of the relations between Chagas disease and megaesophagus and other visceral megas detected in endemic areas.

  8. Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan.

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    Asad Mustafa Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Military conflict has been a major challenge in the detection and control of emerging infectious diseases such as malaria. It poses issues associated with enhancing emergence and transmission of infectious diseases by destroying infrastructure and collapsing healthcare systems. The Orakzai agency in Pakistan has witnessed a series of intense violence and destruction. Military conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the area and possible introduction of many infectious disease epidemics. Due to the ongoing violence and Talibanization, it has been a challenge to conduct an epidemiological study.All patients were sampled within the transmission season. After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, data were recorded. Baseline venous blood samples were taken for microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR analysis. Plasmodium species were detected using nested PCR (nPCR and amplification of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA genes using the primer pairs. We report a clinical assessment of the epidemic situation of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (86.5% and Plasmodium falciparum (11.79% infections with analysis of complications in patients such as decompensated shock (41%, anemia (8.98%, hypoglycaemia (7.3%, multiple convulsions (6.7%, hyperpyrexia (6.17%, jaundice (5%, and hyperparasitaemia (4.49%.This overlooked distribution of P. vivax should be considered by malaria control strategy makers in the world and by the Government of Pakistan. In our study, children were the most susceptible population to malaria infection while they were the least expected to use satisfactory prevention strategies in such a war-torn deprived region. Local health authorities should initiate malaria awareness programs in schools and malaria-related education should be further promoted at the local level reaching out to both children and parents.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

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    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  10. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cardiomyopathies: a critical review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Mario

    2003-02-01

    unknown origin, familial forms of a genetic origin, depending on alterations of contractile or regulating functional proteins, when myocardial injury is the sole manifestation (idiopathic) of clinical picture. The most modern etiopathogenetic, pathophysiological, and clinical features of each form of CM are briefly described in order to suggest a complete definition of the disease and to state a clinical-epidemiological setting that encompasses the current knowledge. PMID:12554005

  11. Intra-His bundle block: clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Eduardo M.; Atié Jacob; Maciel Washington A.; Oliveira Jr Nilson A. de; Camanho Luiz Eduardo; Belo Luís Gustavo; Carvalho Hecio Affonso de; Siqueira Leonardo; Saad Eduardo; Venancio Ana Claudia

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical, electrocardiographic, and electrophysiologic characteristics of patients (pt) with intra-His bundle block undergoing an electrophysiologic study (EPS). METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics of 16 pt with second-degree atrioventricular block and symptoms of syncope or dyspnea, or both, undergoing conventional EPS. RESULTS: Intra-His bundle block was documented in 16 pt during an EPS. In 15 (94%) pt, the atrioventricular block was recorded in sinus rhythm; ...

  12. Patient characteristics affecting attendance at general outpatient clinics.

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, R J; Newell, S J; Edwards, S

    1996-01-01

    A study was carried out to identify the characteristics of children who do not attend appointments at general outpatient clinics. Over six months, 359 children who had an appointment at a general clinic were studied using a questionnaire given to parents (74% response rate) and by inspection of case notes. Based on their first appointment in the study period, children were divided into 'attenders' (n = 262) and 'non-attenders' (n = 97) for analysis. Non-attenders were significantly more likel...

  13. Clinical characteristics of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Ahmed; Patompong Ungprasert; Supawat Ratanapo; Tanveer Hussain; Riesenfeld, Erik P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities extending beyond a single epicardial vessel in the absence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Aim: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics of TC in North America. Materials and Methods: We identified 10 patients who met the Mayo Clinic criteria for TC using our Electronic Medical Re...

  14. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the global influenza B study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Sue Huang, Q.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.P.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kasjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Hereaud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, L.T.Q.; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. Methods Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5)

  15. Epidemiological characteristics and societal burden of varicella zoster virus in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, Jorien G. J.; Gumbs, Pearl D.; Fortanier, Sander A. C.; Van Steenwijk, Pauline C. E.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Varicella and herpes zoster are both caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection or reactivation and may lead to complications associated with a (severe) societal burden. Because the epidemiology of VZV-related diseases in the Netherlands remains largely unknown or incomplete, the m

  16. Risk factors and epidemiological characteristics of new neonatal porcine diarrhoea syndrome in four Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Hanne; Toft, Nils; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: The epidemiology of New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhoea Syndrome (NNPDS) was studied in four selected herds. A total of 941 new born piglets in 86 litters were evaluated for five consecutive days. NNPDS is a newly emerged syndrome, characterized by diarrhoea within the first week of life, ...

  17. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5

  18. The Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: an organizational model for clinical research in a school of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Brian L; Kelly, Thomas O; Landis, J Richard; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-01-01

    A new model for the conduct of clinical research was established at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) School of Medicine, now the Perelman School of Medicine, through the development of the interdepartmental Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics in 1993 and the basic science Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology in 1994. The authors describe the development and evolution of these novel structures.Five key objectives were achieved with these structures' creation: (1) Clinical faculty have the opportunity to be identified as both clinicians and epidemiologists, (2) nonclinical faculty have an academic "home," (3) clinical trainees are now educated in population medicine, which promotes its incorporation into their clinical practice, (4) population medicine and clinical medicine have become fully integrated, and (5) better epidemiologic research is conducted, informed by clinical insights.Today's center is the primary home for epidemiology and biostatistics at Penn, linking epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical medicine, and the health sciences. The center's core faculty manage their own research programs, conduct primary research in epidemiology and biostatistics, serve as members of collaborative research teams, manage cores and service centers that support research projects, and lead graduate training programs in epidemiology and biostatistics. The department provides an academic home and structure for faculty, provides primary research in epidemiology and biostatistics, supports the center's mission, and provides training in biostatistics. This organizational approach has wide applicability across schools of medicine in the United States and abroad and has been a model for many.

  19. Linfoma não-Hodgkin na infância: características clínico-epidemiológicas e avaliação de sobrevida em um único centro no Nordeste do Brasil Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood: clinical and epidemiological characteristics and survival analysis at a single center in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ferreira Pedrosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de linfoma não-Hodgkin diagnosticados no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica do Instituto Materno-Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira em um período de 9 anos, bem como descrever sobrevida e possíveis associações prognósticas com as variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas estudadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de corte transversal, realizado através da análise dos prontuários de 110 pacientes com linfoma não-Hodgkin admitidos na instituição no período de maio de 1994 a maio de 2003. As sobrevidas global e livre de doença foram analisadas através da técnica de Kaplan-Meier, e o teste de log rank foi utilizado para avaliar diferenças entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 6,1 anos, e a relação masculino-feminino, 2,4:1. O subtipo histológico mais freqüente foi o linfoma de Burkitt. A maioria dos pacientes foi diagnosticada em estádio III e IV da classificação de Murphy e provinha da zona rural. Renda familiar per capita inferior a 1/2 salário mínimo foi observada em 36,4%, e analfabetismo materno, em 12,7% dos casos. A probabilidade de sobrevida global e livre de doença aos 5 anos foi de 70±4% e 68±4%, respectivamente. Nenhuma das variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas analisadas mostrou associação estatística significante com a probabilidade de sobrevida dos pacientes (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos incidência mais elevada do subtipo Burkitt e de crianças acometidas em idade mais jovem quando comparada à descrita em literatura estrangeira. A sobrevida observada aproximou-se dos resultados descritos pelos principais grupos cooperativos de tratamento de câncer infantil. As variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas analisadas não apresentaram associação prognóstica estatística significante.OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit

  20. Lessons from epidemiologic studies in clinical trials of traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farin, A; Marshall, L F

    2004-01-01

    Lessions from epidemiological studies. The Clinical Trial Group for Neurosurgery of the University of California San Diego (UCSD) is involved in epidemiological studies and trials of new pharmacological agents in traumatic brain injury. A great number (> 10,000) of patients has been prospectively analyzed forming an integrated database for further purposes. The development of these databases is based on earlier work by the European Neurosurgeons Jennett and Braakmann and the US-Traumatic Coma Data Bank Study. These studies allowed for the development of sophisticated data collection instruments which were used in the international Tirilizad Trials which enrolled over 1,100 patients. A major observation from that trial was that pretreatment hypotension or hypoxia could be unbalanced even in a large two arm blinded study. Another issue of the tirilazad trial was the influence of gender affecting not only outcome but also drug metabolism. Similar experiences were gathered with the phase-III trial on the competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist selfotel, which interferes with the excitotoxic amino acid glutamate as mediator of secondary brain damage, as ischemia-induced neuronal degeneration. Unfortunately, the trial, already underway, had to be prematurely aborted, since concurrent stroke studies with enrollment of nonintubated patients on low-dose selfotel revealed an increased number of deaths and other adverse events. A retrospective analysis did not confirm that Selfotel was associated with an increased mortality in TBI, but there was also no evidence that the drug was efficacious. A problem here was that a major portion of patients did not have intracranial mass lesions (contusion, subdural haematoma) on CT, questioning whether these had a treatment responsive brain injury. Both studies on tirilazad or selfotel underscore the significance of well designed and conducted phase-I and -II trials to characterize the pharmacokinetics of the agent, to confirm availability

  1. Epidemiologic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection in previously healthy infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somech, Raz; Tal, Guy; Gilad, Eli; Mandelberg, Avigdor; Tal, Asher; Dalal, Ilan

    2006-09-01

    We prospectively quantified disease severity associated with epidemiologic and socioeconomic parameters as well as the clinical factors in 195 previously healthy infants with confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Infants were enrolled into three subgroups according to disease severity: outpatients (82 patients), inpatients (100 patients), and intensive care unit patients (13 patients). Epidemiologic parameters such as gestational age, birth weight, chronologic age at presentation, and gender as well as socioeconomic factors such as ethnic origin, family history of asthma, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of family members, presence of pets at home, breast-feeding, and day-care attendance were not found to predict the severity of RSV illness in previously healthy infants. Our results emphasize the complexity of predicting disease severity in previously healthy infants with RSV infection and suggest that other parameters such as host genetic background might explain the clinical variability. PMID:16928839

  2. Paranasal sinuses malignancies: A 12-year review of clinical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz, Alireza; Chamani, Mojtaba; Derakhshandeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate epidemiologic investigations of the paranasal sinuses malignancies prompted this retrospective study with special emphasis on a major group of 111 tumors. Material and Methods Clinical records of 111 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were investigated retrospectively from April 2000 to January 2012. Collection of data included demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment plans, and histopathology of the tumor. Results There were 69 (62.16%) male and 42 (37.83%) female patients (male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1), with a median age of 49±12.2 years (range 21 to 88 years). A high level of occurrence was noticed in the fifth (26.3%) decade of life. The most frequent histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (43.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (19%). Among clinical manifestations, nasal obstruction was the most frequent followed by diplopia, and facial swelling. Fifty three patients (47.74%) were treated with combined approach of surgery and radiation therapy. Conclusions Paranasal sinuses malignancies are rare conditions with nonspecific symptoms which make early diagnosis of the lesions more challenging. The optimal therapeutic protocol for patients suffering from these tumors is still a somewhat controversial entity and requires further studies. Key words:Paranasal sinuses, malignancy, surgery,radiotherapy. PMID:27475693

  3. The Epidemiology, Virology and Clinical Findings of Dengue Virus Infections in a Cohort of Indonesian Adults in Western Java

    OpenAIRE

    Herman Kosasih; Bachti Alisjahbana; Nurhayati,; Quirijn de Mast; Irani F Rudiman; Susana Widjaja; Ungke Antonjaya; Harli Novriani; Susanto, Nugroho H.; Hadi Jusuf; Andre van der Ven; Beckett, Charmagne G.; Blair, Patrick J; Burgess, Timothy H.; Maya Williams

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue has emerged as one of the most important infectious diseases in the last five decades. Evidence indicates the expansion of dengue virus endemic areas and consequently the exponential increase of dengue virus infections across the subtropics. The clinical manifestations of dengue virus infection include sudden fever, rash, headache, myalgia and in more serious cases, spontaneous bleeding. These manifestations occur in children as well as in adults. Defining the epidemiology o...

  4. Clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period%深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌感染特征及其克隆变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟元; 金晓菲; 吴诗品; 吴劲松; 卢月梅; 吴文苑; 陆坚; 刘映霞

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌(CRAB)感染临床特征、耐药机制及其克隆变迁.方法 收集2002至2009年深圳市人民医院院内感染患者分离鲍曼不动杆菌;琼脂稀释法检测亚胺培南等抗菌药对鲍曼不动杆菌最低抑菌浓度(MICs);聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA测序分析CRAB碳青霉烯酶基因型;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分析菌株同源性;依据中国鲍曼不动杆菌感染诊治与防控专家共识,回顾性调查CRAB感染患者病历资料.结果 2002至2009年共收集到87例CRAB院内感染患者,以呼吸道感染最常见,占69.0%(60/87),其次为血流感染占8.0%(7/87)、伤口感染占8.0% (7/87)和腹腔感染占6.9% (6/87).80.5% (70/87) CRAB来源于重症监护病房(ICu).2009年CRAB感染迅速增多,占48.3%(42/87),以呼吸道感染为主(34/42).87株CRAB共获8种PFGE型别.2002至2006年,CRAB感染主要流行携带blaOXA-58-like基因的CRAB克隆A;2007至2008年主要流行CRAB克隆A和携带blaOXA-23-like基因的CRAB克隆C;2009年携带blaOXA-23-like基因对碳青霉烯高度耐药的CRAB克隆D取代克隆A和C,成为深圳市人民医院CRAB病原菌的主要克隆.结论 携带blaOXA-23-1ike基因的CRAB高耐药克隆D造成深圳市人民医院2009年CRAB感染迅速流行.%Objective To investigate the clinical features,mechanism of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period.Methods A.baumannii isolates were recovered from nosocomial infections patients at this hospital from 2002 to 2009.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents against A.baumannii isolates were detected by agar dilution method.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used to examine the carbapenemase genotype among CRAB.All isolates were typed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Clinical cases of CRAB

  5. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; McEntegart, Margaret; Claggett, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the association of sex with clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) in the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4570 women and 10 133 men with heart failure (HF), left ventr...

  6. Characteristics and Clinical Practices of Rural Marriage and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a subset of data collected from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Practice Research Network project conducted in 2002. A sample of 47 clinical members of AAMFT who indicated they practiced in a rural community provided descriptive information on demographic characteristics, training, clinical…

  7. [Hereditary optic neuropathies: clinical and molecular genetic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanakova, N A; Sheremet, N L; Loginova, A N; Chukhrova, A L; Poliakov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a review of literature on hereditary optic neuropathies: Leber mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathy, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive optic neuropathies, X-linked optic atrophy. Clinical and molecular genetic characteristics are covered. Isolated optic neuropathies, as well as hereditary optic disorders, being a part of a complex syndromic disease are described.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological differences between septic arthritis of the knee and hip caused by oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant s. aureus

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    Camilo Partezani Helito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the risk factors for joint infection by oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using clinical and epidemiological data. METHODS: All septic arthritis cases of the knee and hip diagnosed and treated in our institution from 2006 to 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Only patients with cultures identified as microbial agents were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients were analyzed, seeking the differences between populations affected by MRSA and oxacillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. RESULTS: S. aureus was isolated in thirty-five patients (46.0% in our total sample, 25 in the knee and 10 in the hip. Of these 35 patients, 22 presented with MSSA and 13 presented with MRSA. Provenance from a health service-related environment, as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was the only variable associated with oxacillin-resistant strains of this bacterium (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Provenance from a health service-related environment was associated with a higher incidence of MRSA-related septic arthritis, suggesting that this agent should be considered in the initial choice of antibiotic treatment. Previous surgeries of the knee or affected limb and the absence of leukocytes might also be related to infection with this agent.

  9. Epidemiological criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with one of so-called „new criminologies“ - specific amalgam composed by criminological and epidemiological experiences. First of all, the author points the main characteristics of these two sciences and their connections. After such explanations, he give examples of famous research in the field of ‘epidemiological criminology’. They show how many important issues in criminology has been neglected until the end of the twentieth century (evaluati...

  10. Endodontic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  11. Clinical Response, Outbreak Investigation, and Epidemiology of the Fungal Meningitis Epidemic in the United States: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Kaja M; Dorratoltaj, Nargesalsadat; O'Dell, Margaret L; Bordwine, Paige; Kerkering, Thomas M; Redican, Kerry J

    2016-02-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the 2012-2013 multistate fungal meningitis epidemic in the United States from the perspectives of clinical response, outbreak investigation, and epidemiology. Articles focused on clinical response, outbreak investigation, and epidemiology were included, whereas articles focused on compounding pharmacies, legislation and litigation, diagnostics, microbiology, and pathogenesis were excluded. We reviewed 19 articles by use of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) framework. The source of the fungal meningitis outbreak was traced to the New England Compounding Center in Massachusetts, where injectable methylprednisolone acetate products were contaminated with the predominant pathogen, Exserohilum rostratum. As of October 23, 2013, the final case count stood at 751 patients and 64 deaths, and no additional cases are anticipated. The multisectoral public health response to the fungal meningitis epidemic from the hospitals, clinics, pharmacies, and the public health system at the local, state, and federal levels led to an efficient epidemiological investigation to trace the outbreak source and rapid implementation of multiple response plans. This systematic review reaffirms the effective execution of a multisectoral public health response and efficient delivery of the core functions of public health assessment, policy development, and service assurances to improve population health. PMID:26681583

  12. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) at a tertiary care centre in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH), Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. Methodology: Clinical and laboratory profile and outcome of children less than 15 years of age attending the Paediatric Rheumatology Clinic of the Aga Khan University, Karachi with the diagnosis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis according to International League against Rheumatism were studied. These children were classified into different types of JIA; their clinical and laboratory characteristics, response to therapy and outcome was evaluated. Results: Sixty eight patients satisfying the criteria of International League against Rheumatism (ILAR) for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis were enrolled during the study period of four consecutive years, their age ranged from 9 months to 15 years. Mean age at onset was 6.45 +- 4.03 years while mean age at diagnosis was 7.60 +- 3.93 years. Polyarticular was the most predominant subtype with 37 (54%) patients, out of these, 9 (24%) were rheumatoid factor positive. An almost equal gender predisposition was observed. Fever and arthritis were the most common presenting symptoms, with only 2 patients presenting with uveitis. Conclusion: The clinico-biochemical characteristics of JIA at the study centre showed a pattern distinct with early onset of disease, high frequency of polyarticular type and a higher rheumatoid factor (QRA) and ANA positivity in girls. (author)

  13. Suicidal behavior and suicide among children and adolescents-risk factors and epidemiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig-Curković, Katarina; Curković, Mario; Radić, Josipa; Degmecić, Dunja; Fileković, Pavo

    2010-06-01

    In last decade suicide attempts and suicides among youngsters are increasing greatly and are one of the leading causes of mortality in this age group. Epidemiological data are pointing on more frequent trend of self-destructive behavior among youngsters in the world as well as in our country. Risk factors which influence on increasing number of suicide attempts and suicides in this age are different in etiology: interference of genetic influences, family dynamics and external environment (school, friends, social environment, peers, television, video, and internet). Croatia as a country in transition is also following trends in the world according to epidemiological data, what is for sure great challenge for all who participate in dealing with youngsters, especially psychiatric services. In the planning of treatment is very important to include family with intention to accomplish optimal therapeutic effect. Also, it is very important to warn parents on their part of responsibility in upbringing and developing of their adolescent. PMID:20698169

  14. Epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of clinical isolates about hospital infection from patients with hematological diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓崎

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiology and anti-biotic resistance of isolates from hospitalized patients with hematological disease from 2005 to 2011. Methods A total of 1 453 bacterial strains were isolated from patients

  15. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  16. Differences in clinical and epidemiological features between tuberculosis cases notified in primary and tertiary health care

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    Pâmela Curbani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare, on the basis of clinical, radiological and epidemiological aspects, all cases of tuberculosis (TB diagnosed in the tertiary healthcare services to those diagnosed at the primary healthcare providers in the municipality of Vitória-ES. Methods: Cross- sectional, retrospective study, with analysis of the SINAN’s database, to identify all cases among residents of the municipality of Vitória-ES and diagnosed with TB in 2006 and 2007. Patients were divided into two groups: cases diagnosed in Primary Health Care (PHC and those diagnosed in Tertiary Health Care (THC. For statistical analysis, it was used the software STATA CORP 9.0. Results: 338 patients were identified; 207 (61.24% of these were diagnosed in PHC and 131 (38.76% in THC. The pulmonary form was predominant in both groups. However, the extrapulmonary form presented higher frequency in the THC group. When analyzing the results of sputum smear, the positivity was found in 114 (55.07% patients of the PHC and in 57 (43.51% of THC. Regarding the positive cultures, 119 (57.48% patients diagnosed in PHC and only 38 (29% in THC tested positive. Conclusion: There is evidence of high proportion of patients with TB communicated as “new cases” in THC in the city and it was observed a predominance of the pulmonary form in both groups - PHC and THC, although the extrapulmonary form was more frequent in the latter. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p251

  17. The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of melioidosis: 540 cases from the 20 year Darwin prospective study.

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    Bart J Currie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over 20 years, from October 1989, the Darwin prospective melioidosis study has documented 540 cases from tropical Australia, providing new insights into epidemiology and the clinical spectrum. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The principal presentation was pneumonia in 278 (51%, genitourinary infection in 76 (14%, skin infection in 68 (13%, bacteremia without evident focus in 59 (11%, septic arthritis/osteomyelitis in 20 (4% and neurological melioidosis in 14 (3%. 298 (55% were bacteremic and 116 (21% developed septic shock (58 fatal. Internal organ abscesses and secondary foci in lungs and/or joints were common. Prostatic abscesses occurred in 76 (20% of 372 males. 96 (18% had occupational exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei. 118 (22% had a specific recreational or occupational incident considered the likely infecting event. 436 (81% presented during the monsoonal wet season. The higher proportion with pneumonia in December to February supports the hypothesis of infection by inhalation during severe weather events. Recurrent melioidosis occurred in 29, mostly attributed to poor adherence to therapy. Mortality decreased from 30% in the first 5 years to 9% in the last five years (p<0.001. Risk factors for melioidosis included diabetes (39%, hazardous alcohol use (39%, chronic lung disease (26% and chronic renal disease (12%. There was no identifiable risk factor in 20%. Of the 77 fatal cases (14%, 75 had at least one risk factor; the other 2 were elderly. On multivariate analysis of risk factors, age, location and season, the only independent predictors of mortality were the presence of at least one risk factor (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.3-39 and age ≥ 50 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-2.3. CONCLUSIONS: Melioidosis should be seen as an opportunistic infection that is unlikely to kill a healthy person, provided infection is diagnosed early and resources are available to provide appropriate antibiotics and critical care.

  18. Epidemiology and characteristics of Guillain-Barre syndrome in the northwest of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little is known about the incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) in Iran. We determined the incidence and evaluated prognostic factors for GBS in a prospective, population-based study. We evaluated and followed all patients with a diagnosis of GBS admitted to three referral neurology centers in East Azerbaijan province over a 1-year period (2003). Clinical and electrophysiological characteristics of cases were reviewed and analyzed. A total of 76 patients were found, corresponding to a crude annual incidence rate of 2.11/100 000 population. Six patients (7.9%) died acutely within 21 days from the onset of the disease. Acute mortality was due to respiratory involvement, sepsis and acute autonomic system dysfunction. The persistence of disability after the acute phase was related to axonal involvement (OR=3.19, 95%Cl, 1.65 to 6.16). There was a significant correlation between a history of diarrhea and further need for mechanical ventilation (P<0.05). Mechanically ventilated patients had low GBS disability score on discharge compared with patients not mechanically ventilated (P=0.05). The incidence rate of GBS in our province is similar to that in other countries. Acute mortality in GBS was mostly due to poor respiratory care of patients and infective complications, but disability and probably late mortality were due to axonal nerve injury. (author)

  19. Clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of the novel influenza A (H1N1) infection in children in Shanghai%上海地区儿童新型甲型H1N1流感的临床和分子流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相诗; 蔡洁皓; 姚玮蕾; 葛艳玲; 朱启镕; 曾玫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological features,genetic drift in the epitopes of hemagglutinin (HA) of the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus and oseltamivir-resistant variants characterized by H275Y and N295S mutations in children in Shanghai since the outbreak.Method Between June 2009and May 2012,a prospective surveillance study was carried out in Shanghainese children who attended the outpatient clinic of Children's Hospital of Fudan University for influenza-like illness.One-step real-time fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect seasonal influenza A and influenza B virus and the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus in the respiratory samples.Genetic drift from the vaccine strain in HA epitopes of the novel influenza H1 N1 virus and the molecular markers associated with oseltamivir resistance in neuraminidase (NA) were analyzed.Result Out of 3475 enrolled cases,the novel influenza A (H1N1)virus was confirmed virologically in 222 (6.4%) otherwise healthy children with 133 (59.9%) being boys and 89(40.1%) girls.The median ages of children with the novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection during the first wave from August 2009 to February 2010 and the second wave from December 2010 to February 2011 were 53.5 months and 32.0 months,respectively (Z =-4.601,P =0.000) ; 119(46.9%) had the close contact with persons suffering from fever or respiratory infection,of whom,68 (57.1%) contacts were family members and 47 (39.5%) contacts were classmates.During the outbreak in 2009-2010 season,66 (40.9%) were exposed to primary index cases,school students were the major exposure subjects,accounting for 50.0%.The nucleotide sequences of HAI gene were highly homologous between the vaccine strain A/California/07/2009 and Shanghai circulating novel influenza A (H1N1)strains and only S83P mutation in epitope E of HA was detected inclusively in the circulating strains.The H275Y and N295S amino acid mutations associated with oseltamivir resistance were not

  20. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

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    Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horses naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5% have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8% were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25% followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20% and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%. Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion

  1. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  2. Changing Pattern of Clinical Epidemiology on Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Southwest China

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    Zehui Yan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The changing pattern of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection could have a significant impact on future medical prevention practices and therapies.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the changing pattern of HCV infection in southwest China using clinical epidemiology, and to assess the association between the genotypes distribution and certain potential risk factors.Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis which included 1 208 subjects with chronic HCV registered at the Southwest Hospital (Chongqing, Southwest China was performed. The information was reviewed and the data collected from clinical records and short telephone interviews when necessary. HCV genotypes were determined by nucleotide sequencing of the CE1 regions followed by phylogenic analysis with the published HCV genotype. HCV genotype distribution was analyzed according to the patients' age, gender, risk exposure, and the initial risk exposure.Results: Among the 1 208 patients, the HCV subtype 1b was the most prevalent (32.9%, followed by subtype 3b (18.9%, 6a (18.0%, 3a (12.8% and 2a (10.4%, while subtypes 1a and 6k accounted for cases of HCV infection in only 9 and 3 cases respectively. Individuals older than 40 years were mainly infected with subtypes 1b and 2a, whereas younger patients were predominantly infected with genotypes 3 and 6. Subtypes 1b and 2a were observed more frequently among 44.4% and 16.0% patients respectively, with a history of invasive operations. Subtypes 3b and 6a constituted the majority of HCV infections among intravenous drug users (IDUs (28.7% and 34.9%, respectively. A significant difference (P < 0.001 was observed between the HCV genotype distributions, according to the potential route of infection.Conclusion: In southwest China, the most common remaining subtype is the 1b genotype, but this has declined significantly among young patients. This is followed by subtype 3b and 6a which has increased significantly

  3. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening

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    Langagergaard V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vivian Langagergaard,1 Jens P Garne,2 Ilse Vejborg,3 Walter Schwartz,4 Martin Bak,5 Anders Lernevall,1 Nikolaj B Mogensen,6 Heidi Larsson,7 Berit Andersen,1 Ellen M Mikkelsen7 1Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Hospital, Randers, Denmark; 2Department of Breast Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Diagnostic Imaging Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Center of Mammography, 5Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark; 6Department of Radiology, Ringsted Hospital, Ringsted, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: The Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening (DKMS was established in 2007, when screening was implemented on a nationwide basis and offered biennially to all Danish women aged 50–69 years. The primary aims of the database are to monitor and evaluate the quality of the screening program and – after years of follow-up – to evaluate the effect of nationwide screening on breast cancer-specific mortality. Here, we describe the database and present results for quality assurance from the first round of national screening. The steering committee for the DKMS defined eleven organizational and clinical quality indicators and standards to monitor the Danish breast cancer screening program. We calculated the relevant proportions and ratios with 95% confidence intervals for each quality indicator. All indicators were assessed on a national and regional level. Of 670,039 women invited for mammography, 518,823 (77.4% participated. Seventy-one percent of the women received the result of their mammography examination within 10 days of screening, and 3% of the participants were recalled for further investigation. Among all detected cancers, 86% were invasive cancers, and the proportion of women with node negative cancer was 67%. There were 36% women with small cancers, and the ratio of surgery for

  4. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  5. Genetic characteristics of Japanese clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

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    Satoko Miya

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne illnesses through consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Although 135-201annual listeriosis cases have been estimated in Japan, the details regarding the clinical isolates such as infection source, virulence level, and other genetic characteristics, are not known. In order to uncover the trends of listeriosis in Japan and use the knowledge for prevention measures to be taken, the genetic characteristics of the past human clinical isolates needs to be elucidated. For this purpose, multilocus tandem-repeat sequence analysis (MLTSA and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST were used in this study. The clinical isolates showed a variety of genetically distant genotypes, indicating they were from sporadic cases. However, the MVLST profiles of 7 clinical isolates were identical to those of epidemic clone (EC I isolates, which have caused several serious outbreaks in other countries, suggesting the possibility that they have strong virulence potential and originated from a single outbreak. Moreover, 6 Japanese food isolates shared their genotypes with ECI isolates, indicating that there may be risks for listeriosis outbreak in Japan. This is the first investigational study on genetic characteristics of Japanese listeriosis isolates. The listeriosis cases happened in the past are presumably sporadic, but it is still possible that some isolates with strong virulence potential have caused listeriosis outbreaks, and future listeriosis risks also exist.

  6. Epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic survey in 505 cases with Brucellosis

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    Haj Abdolbaghi M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran with variety of clinical manifestation. Special characteristics of clinical diagnosis and treatment issues may cause some problems in manegement of patients. In this descriptive study 505 patients with Brucellosis retrospectively were evaluated from clinical point of view, Lab exams and therapeutic issues for 10 years (1990 to 1999. From 505 patients, 321 cases were male and 184 were female. 42.7 percent of cases were in age group of 10 to 30 years. Ingestion of un-pasteurized dairy products was detected in (66.7 percent and 31.86 percent of cases were sheep herders. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (65 percent, sweating (61 percent, arthritis (30.09 percent, sacroilitis (21.5 percent, orchitis (8.2 percent, spondylitis (2-3 percent and endocarditis (1.18. In this survery blood culture for Brucella melitensis became positive in 48.5 percent and bone marrow in 61 percent. Standard tube agglutination was positive in 96 percent (?1.80. Doxycyclin plus Rifampin was the most common regimen we used (37.8 percent. 4 patients died, but just one of those was directly because of Brucella Endocarditis. In this article we have discussed about some interesting cases as well.

  7. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  8. Clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torad, Faisal A; Hassan, Elham A

    2013-01-01

    Salivary mucocele is one of the causes of submandibular swelling in dogs and is due to a collection of mucoid saliva that has leaked from a damaged salivary gland. The purpose of this case series report was to describe the clinical and ultrasonographic characteristics of confirmed salivary mucoceles in 13 dogs admitted to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Cairo University. The final diagnosis of salivary mucocele was based on aspirate cytology for all dogs and additional surgical excision for seven dogs. For dogs admitted from 2 weeks to 1 month from the onset of clinical signs, the cervical mucocele appeared as a round echogenic structure with a large volume of central anechoic content. The wall was a clearly identified hyperechoic structure surrounding the gland. For dogs admitted between 1 to 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the volume of anechoic material appeared less than that seen in the acute cases. The overall appearance of the salivary mucocele was heterogenous. For dogs admitted after 2 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele appeared grainy or mottled, with a heterogenous appearance and a further decrease in anechoic content. For one dog that presented after 3 months from the onset of clinical signs, the salivary mucocele was hard on palpation and appeared hyperechoic with distal acoustic shadowing. Findings from this study indicated that ultrasonographic characteristics of salivary mucoceles in dogs vary depending on the chronological stage of the disease. PMID:23442204

  9. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

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    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. All the patients and the controls had undergone physical examinations. Laboratory investigations were done for the newly operated patients and their controls. The most important characteristics of breast cancer patients were breast mass as the main presenting symptom (92.1% and treated by modified radical mastectomy (77.2%. Low means level of serum vitamin D and high levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride were found more among the patients. Age at first full term pregnancy 30 years, age at menopause 45 years, pregnancy termination and/or abortion and never married were important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors (OR=4.44, 3.14, 2.84 and 2.67, respectively. Also, exposure to radiation and/or environmental factors, history of benign breast disease and alcohol use were important associated risk factors (OR=5.05, 4.63 and 4.10, respectively. Moreover, the sister as the nearest female relative with breast cancer, total number of female relatives with breast cancer 2 and relative(s age at diagnosis <50 years were important family history risk factors (OR=9.19, 8.84 and 7.91, respectively. Lastly, high consumption of canned foods, fat rich foods and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables were important dietary risk factors (OR=3.39, 1.76 and 1.51, respectively.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs based on a community cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Z; Li, D; Wang, A; Su, H; Shao, Z; Zhang, J; Ji, Z; Gao, J; Choi, B C K; Yan, Y

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is an atypical serological pattern in HBV infection. There is no epidemiological characteristics of this serological pattern in the community and there is controversy over the molecular mechanisms underlying this pattern. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with HBsAg and anti-HBs in a longitudinal community cohort study. The prevalence of this atypical serological pattern was 2.93% (122/4169) in HBsAg-positive populations. The prevalence progressively increased with age from 40 to 70 years old. The rate of HBeAg positive and detectable HBV DNA were both significantly higher in carriers with this pattern than in carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (26/122 verse 598/4047, P = 0.046; 86/122 verse 275/529,P < 0.001). After 1 year of follow-up, 85.19% of the carriers still had coexistence HBsAg and anti-HBs, 14.81% of the carriers lost their anti-HBs. Viral sequencing showed that carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs had higher numbers of residue changes within the S gene than carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (2.42 verse 1.33 changes per 100 residues, P < 0.05). Hence, the coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is a unique serological pattern which may be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcome and may be related to HBsAg immune variants which have genotypic heterogeneity.

  11. Estudo clínico e epidemiológico de fissuras orofaciais Clinical and epidemiological study of orofacial clefts

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    Josiane Souza

    2013-04-01

    tratamento de FO, por exemplo.OBJECTIVE: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P or cleft palate (CP are groups of malformations named orofacial clefts (OC, which are the second leading cause of birth defects. This study aimed to analyze clinical and epidemiological features of Brazilian patients with OC, studying cases treated in the reference center of the state of Paraná (PR. METHODS: 2,356 charts were reviewed and 1,838 were evaluated by the same clinical geneticist. Data were collected in the reference center, and compared with those of the Health Department of the state of Paraná. Clinical characteristics, presence of other anomalies, and birth prevalence were evaluated. RESULTS: 389 (21.2% patients had CP, 437 (23.8% had cleft lip (CL, and 1,012 (55% had cleft lip and palate (CLP. Syndromic OC were identified in 15.3% of patients, 10.4% of patients with CL±P, and 33.9% of patients with CP. Common additional anomalies were: central nervous system, limbs, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal defects. The number of syndromic cases was lower when clinical evaluation was performed by other medical specialists when compared to that of the clinical geneticist. Birth prevalence was 1/1,010 live births. Lack of notification with the national birth registry was observed in 49.9% of CL±P. The present data suggests a decrease of 18.52% in the prevalence of non-syndromic OC after folic acid fortification in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of clinical and epidemiological aspects of OC is crucial to improve the understanding of pathogenesis, promote preventive strategies, and guide clinical care, including the presence of clinical geneticists in the multidisciplinary team for OC treatment.

  12. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  13. Clinical characteristics, prognosis and treatment for pelvic cryptorchid seminoma

    OpenAIRE

    Li; Coucke, Philippe; Qian,, S.J..; Huang, Yi-Rong; Gu, Da-Zhong; Mirimanoff, René-Olivier; Yu, Zi-Hao

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the clinical characteristics, prognosis, and treatment outcome of pelvic cryptorchid seminoma (PCS), and to determine whether whole abdominal-pelvic irradiation for Stage I disease is necessary. Methods and Materials: From 1958 to 1991,60 patients with PCS were treated at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing. They presented with a lower abdominal mass and showed a predominance for the right side. A high proportion of patients with...

  14. Clinical characteristics of sarcoidosis patients diagnosed in a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Abakay; Abdurrahman Abakay; Abdullah Çetin Tanrıkulu; Fatih Meteroğlu; Cengizhan Sezgi; Hadice Selimoğlu Şen; Ayşe Dallı; Mehmet Kabak

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical characteristics and treatment resultsof patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis was investigatedin Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital.Materials and methods: A total of 39 patients were includeddiagnosed with sarcoidosis between 01 January2008 and31 December 2011.Demographic data, laboratoryfindings, spirometric test data, diagnostic methodsand treatment regimens for the study were recorded form.According to pulmonary function test results of patients,61.5% were nor...

  15. Investigation of Tinnitus Patients in Italy: Clinical and Audiological Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Martines; Daniela Bentivegna; Fabiola Di Piazza; Enrico Martines; Vincenzo Sciacca; Gioacchino Martinciglio

    2010-01-01

    Objective. 312 tinnitus sufferers were studied in order to analyze: the clinical characteristics of tinnitus; the presence of tinnitus-age correlation and tinnitus-hearing loss correlation; the impact of tinnitus on subjects' life and where possible the etiological/predisposing factors of tinnitus. Results. There is a slight predominance of males. The highest percentage of tinnitus results in the decades 61–70. Of the tinnitus sufferers, 197 (63.14%) have a hearing deficit (light hearing loss...

  16. Clinical Characteristics and Awareness of Skin Cancer in Hispanic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Syed A; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer in darker skin is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We sought to assess the clinical characteristics of cutaneous malignancy amongst Hispanic skin cancer patients and compare them to age-matched non-Hispanic Caucasians.  In this retrospective study, 150 Hispanic skin cancer patients were identified from electronic medical records and age-matched to 150 non-Hispanic Caucasian controls with skin cancer.  The incidence of actinic keratoses (AKs) in Hispanic skin c...

  17. Clinical Characteristics and Remedies in 45 Iranians with Carotid Body Tumors

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    Javad Salimi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carotid body tumors (CBTs are rare, slow-growing tumors that should be considered in evaluating every lateral neck mass. This single center study was performed to define demographic features, clinical characteristics and remedies of Iranian patients with CBT. A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was done on 45 patients with 50 CBTs who have been referred to Sina Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during a 10-year period, were investigated in this study. The demographic characteristics, clinical and pathologic features, imagings, preoperative treatments, surgical approach and complications were analyzed. The study group predominantly consisted of females (82%. Age of diagnosis was 18 to 75 years old. Five patients had bilateral CBT. Family history of CBT was positive in seven patients. Most of CBTs were ≤ 3cm in size. All of the patients presented with a neck mass, mostly without pain (84%. Other symptoms included vertigo 4%, dysphasia 4% and tinnitus 2%. There was no patient with cranial nerve involvement at presentation. The most common imaging helping the diagnosis was color Doppler sonography. Three patients had preoperative embolization. All patients underwent surgery and seven patients had post-operative cranial nerve injury. Nine cases underwent external carotid artery ligation and four ones had external carotid repair. Post operative mortality rate was one patient. This study provides epidemiological data on patients with CBT in Iran, which could be useful for health care workers in prompt diagnosis and appropriate work ups for patient's families in bilateral CBTs.

  18. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

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    Susilawathi Ni M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7, most were male (56.7%, and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92% cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG. The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2. The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6. Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%. The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2% and confusion (83.3%. Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%, hypersalivation (88.2%, and dyspnea (74.4%. On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6% showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4% showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5% with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge

  19. PEDro or Cochrane to Assess the Quality of Clinical Trials? A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

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    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    Full Text Available There is debate on how the methodological quality of clinical trials should be assessed. We compared trials of physical therapy (PT judged to be of adequate quality based on summary scores from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale with trials judged to be of adequate quality by Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria.Meta-epidemiological study within Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.Meta-analyses of PT trials were identified in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each trial PeDro and Cochrane assessments were extracted from the PeDro and Cochrane databases. Adequate quality was defined as adequate generation of random sequence, concealment of allocation, and blinding of outcome assessors (Cochrane criteria or as trials with a PEDro summary score ≥5 or ≥6 points. We combined trials of adequate quality using random-effects meta-analysis.Forty-one Cochrane reviews and 353 PT trials were included. All meta-analyses included trials with PEDro scores ≥5, 37 (90.2% included trials with PEDro scores ≥6 and only 22 (53.7% meta-analyses included trials of adequate quality according to the Cochrane criteria. Agreement between PeDro and Cochrane was poor for PeDro scores of ≥5 points (kappa = 0.12; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16 and slight for ≥6 points (kappa 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.32. When combining effect sizes of trials deemed to be of adequate quality according to PEDro or Cochrane criteria, we found that a substantial difference in the combined effect size (≥0.15 was evident in 9 (22% out of the 41 meta-analyses for PEDro cutoff ≥5 and 10 (24% for cutoff ≥6.The PeDro and Cochrane approaches lead to different sets of trials of adequate quality, and different combined treatment estimates from meta-analyses of these trials. A consistent approach to assessing RoB in trials of physical therapy should be adopted.

  20. DNA damage in non-communicable diseases: A clinical and epidemiological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milic, Mirta; Frustaci, Alessandra; Del Bufalo, Alessandra; Sánchez-Alarcón, Juana; Valencia-Quintana, Rafael; Russo, Patrizia; Bonassi, Stefano

    2015-06-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are a leading cause of death and disability, representing 63% of the total death number worldwide. A characteristic phenotype of these diseases is the accelerated aging, which is the result of phenomena such as accumulated DNA damage, telomere capping loss and subcellular irreversible/nonrepaired oxidative damage. DNA damage, mostly oxidative, plays a key role in the development of most common NCDs. The present review will gather some of the most relevant knowledge concerning the presence of DNA damage in NCDs focusing on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and neurodegenerative disorders, and discussing a selection of papers from the most informative literature. The challenge of comorbidity and the potential offered by new systems approaches for introducing these biomarkers into the clinical decision process will be discussed. Systems Medicine platforms represent the most suitable approach to personalized medicine, enabling to identify new patterns in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis of chronic diseases. PMID:26255943

  1. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2003-09-01

    With the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. In seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. Brazilian patient with NCC presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal CSF, CT showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of NCC), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical CSF syndrome of NCC or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC). Although two localities from the state of S o Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  2. Does Gender Matter in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma? Differences in Epidemiology, Clinical Behavior, and Therapy

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    Nurit Horesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is one of the most common hematologic malignancies worldwide. The incidence of NHL has been rising for several decades; however, in the last 20 years, it reached a plateau. NHL incidence among males is significantly higher than in females. In addition to gender itself, gravidity has a protective role against NHL occurrence. Gender also matters in terms of NHL clinical characteristics. For example, female predominance was found in three extra-nodal sites (the breast, thyroid, and the respiratory system occasionally involved in NHL. The diagnosis of NHL during pregnancy is associated with a unique clinical behavior. It is usually diagnosed in the second or third trimester and in advanced stage. Furthermore, the histological subtype is highly aggressive, and reproductive organ involvement is common. The reduced rate of NHL among females may be explained by direct effects of estrogens on lymphoma cell proliferation or by its effect on anti-tumor immune response. Gender has an important role in responsiveness to standard B cell NHL treatment. Among older adults, women benefited more from the addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to standard chemotherapy regimens. This phenomenon can be explained by the difference in clearance rate of rituximab that was found to be significantly lower among older females than older males. In mantle cell lymphoma, women receiving lenalidomide have higher rates of response. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for gender-associated NHL differences will ultimately improve the clinical approach, allowing for a more accurate assessment of prognosis and patient-tailored treatment.

  3. A demographic and epidemiological study of a Mexican chiropractic college public clinic

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    Ndetan Harrison T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descriptive studies of chiropractic patients are not new, several have been performed in the U.S., Australia, Canada, and Europe. None have been performed in a Latin American country. The purpose of this study is to describe the patients who visited a Mexican chiropractic college public clinic with respect to demographics and clinical characteristics. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the IRB of Parker College of Chiropractic and the Universidad Estatal del Valle de Ecatepec (UNEVE. Five hundred patient files from the UNEVE public clinic from May 2005 to May 2007 were selected from an approximate total number of 3,700. Information was collected for demographics, chief complaints, associated complaints, and previous care sought. Results The sample comprised 306 (61.2% female. Most files (44.2% were in the age range of 40–59 years (mean of 43.4 years. The most frequent complaints were lumbar pain (29.2% and extremity pain (28.0%, most commonly the knee. Most (62.0% described their complaints as greater than one year. Trauma (46.6% was indicated as the initial cause. Mean VAS score was 6.26/10 with 20% rated at 8/10. Conclusion Demographic results compared closer to studies conducted with private clinicians (females within the ages of 40–59. The primary complaint and duration was similar to previous studies (low back pain and chronic, except in this population the cause was usually initiated by trauma. The most striking features were the higher number of extremity complaints and the marked increased level of VAS score (20% rated as 8/10.

  4. Characteristics of non-AIDS-defining malignancies in the HAART era: a clinico-epidemiological study

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    Dauby Nicolas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADM are becoming a major cause of mortality in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. We wished to investigate the incidence, risks factors and outcome of NADM in an urban cohort. Methods We carried out an observational cohort of HIV patients with 12,746 patient-years of follow up between January 2002 and March 2009. Socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with NADM were retrospectively compared with the rest of the cohort. Causes of death and risk factors associated with NADM were assessed using logistic regression. Survival analyses were performed with Kaplan-Meier estimates. Cancer incidences were compared with those of the general population of the Brussels-Capital Region using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR. Results Forty-five NADM were diagnosed. At inclusion in the study, patients with NADM were older than patients without NADM (47 years vs. 38 years, p 3 vs. 224 cells/mm3, p 3 (OR 3.10; 95% CI 1.40-6.87 were associated with NADM. NADM were independently associated with higher mortality in the cohort (OR 14.79; 95% CI 6.95-31.49. Women with cancer, the majority of whom were of sub-Saharan African origin, had poorer survival compared with men. The SIR for both sexes were higher than expected for Hodgkin's lymphoma (17.78; 95% CI 6.49-38.71, liver cancers (8.73; 95% CI 2.35-22.34, anal cancers (22.67; 95% CI 8.28-49.34 and bladder cancers (3.79; 95% CI 1.02-9.70. The SIR for breast cancer was lower in women (SIR 0.29; 95% CI 0.06-0.85. Conclusions Age over 45 and a nadir CD4 count of less than 200 cells/mm3 were predictive of NADM in our cohort. Mortality was high, especially in sub-Saharan African women. Cancers with increased incidences were Hodgkin's lymphoma and anal, bladder and liver cancers in both sexes; women had a lower incidence of breast cancer.

  5. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation and public health importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Parvaneh Farajifard; Elnaz Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate as a descriptive and cross sectional study on epidemiology, the laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestation ofCutaneousLeishmaniasis(CL) inShushtar County.Methods:The investigation was carried out on referrals from different districts of ShushtarCounty and was diagnosed based on their ulcer clinical manifestations withCL using laboratory method.This study was actively developed over the period of2008 to2010.Surface of a clean slide was pressed on to the scraped part of the lesions and moved along to produce a smear on the slide.The slides were fixed with methanol, stained with standardGiemsa, and examined carefully under high magnification for an hour or more to look for amastigotes by a trained person.Two smears were prepared and examined from each patient and data were collected using different correlative patients characteristics to analyze information.The essential records including residential area, type and location of lesion, age, sex, the number of ulcers, season, and the history of traveling to endemic areas for this disease were carefully gathered. Results:Parasites presumed to beLeishmania major (L. major) based on the existence of a large vacuole in the cytoplasm.Totally206 patients were referred to the central laboratory and their manifestation lesions were clinically examined.Of these,64 cases(31.1%) were female and142 cases(68.9%) were male.The findings documented that the rate of incidence ofCL was in fall61 cases(29/6%) and winter80 cases(38/8%), which is one of the most important characteristics of zoonoticCL.Sixty-eight cases(33%) had ulcers on hands,63 cases(30.6%) on feet and30 cases (14.6%) on hands and feet.A total of120 patients(58.3%) had only one ulcer.But70 cases(34%) had2 ulcers.The highest incidence was found among patients with two age groups of20-29 years old(43.2%) and10-19 years old(18%).The most cases resided in rural areas with164 cases(79.6%). Conclusions:Analyzing of the composed results revealed

  6. The epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients in China: surveillance data from 2006 to 2010.

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    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare, rapidly progressive fatal central nervous system disorder, which consists of three main catalogues: sporadic, familial, and iatrogenic CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In China, the surveillance for CJD started in 2006, covering 12 provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCs and 15 hospitals. From 2006 to 2010, 624 suspected patients were referred to China CJD surveillance. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of sporadic CJD (sCJD were analysed. Both groups of probable and possible sCJD showed highest incidences in the population of 60 to 69 year-olds. The most common presenting symptoms were progressive dementia and mental-related symptoms (neurological symptoms including sleeping turbulence, depression, anxiety and stress. Among the four main clinical manifestations, myoclonus was more frequently observed in the probable sCJD patients. About 2/3 of probable sCJD cases showed positive 14-3-3 in CSF and/or periodic sharp wave complexes (PSWC in electroencephalography (EEG. The presence of myoclonus was significantly closely related with the appearance of PSWC in EEG. Polymorphisms of codon 129 in PRNP of the notified cases revealed a highly predominant M129M genotype in Han Chinese. Among 23 genetic human prion diseases, ten were D178N/M129M Fatal familial insomnia (FFI and five were T188K genetic CJD (gCJD, possibly indicating a special distribution of gCJD-related mutations in Han Chinese. CONCLUSION: From the period of 2006 to 2010, 261 patients were diagnosed as sCJD and 23 patients were diagnosed as genetic human prion diseases in China. The epidemiological, clinical and laboratory analysis data were consistent with the characteristics of sporadic CJD, which provide insight into the features of CJD in China.

  7. Clinical features and therapeutic management of patients admitted to Italian acute hospital psychiatric units: the PERSEO (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology survey

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    Russo Federico

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PERSEO study (psychiatric emergency study and epidemiology is a naturalistic, observational clinical survey in Italian acute hospital psychiatric units, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura; in English, the psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. The aims of this paper are: (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients, including sociodemographic features, risk factors, life habits and psychiatric diagnoses; and (ii to assess the clinical management, subjective wellbeing and attitudes toward medications. Methods A total of 62 SPDCs distributed throughout Italy participated in the study and 2521 patients were enrolled over the 5-month study period. Results Almost half of patients (46% showed an aggressive behaviour at admission to ward, but they engaged more commonly in verbal aggression (38%, than in aggression toward other people (20%. A total of 78% of patients had a psychiatric diagnosis at admission, most frequently schizophrenia (36%, followed by depression (16% and personality disorders (14%, and no relevant changes in the diagnoses pattern were observed during hospital stay. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly prescribed drugs, regardless of diagnosis, at all time points. Overall, up to 83% of patients were treated with neuroleptic drugs and up to 27% received more than one neuroleptic either during hospital stay or at discharge. Atypical and conventional antipsychotics were equally prescribed for schizophrenia (59 vs 65% during stay and 59 vs 60% at discharge, while atypical drugs were preferred in schizoaffective psychoses (72 vs 49% during stay and 70 vs 46% at discharge and depression (41 vs 32% during stay and 44 vs 25% at discharge. Atypical neuroleptics were slightly preferred to conventional ones at hospital discharge (52 vs 44%. Polypharmacy was in general widely used. Patient attitudes toward medications were on average positive and self

  8. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in Denmark during 2003 and 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luca-Harari, B.; Linden, M. van der; Staum-Kattoft, M.;

    2008-01-01

    Active surveillance of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infections was conducted in Denmark during 2003 and 2004 as a part of the Strep-EURO initiative. The main objective was to improve understanding of the epidemiology of invasive GAS disease in Denmark. During the 2 years, 278 cases were r...

  9. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type...

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of nosocomial diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile in a tertiary level hospital in Serbia

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    Šuljagić Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Among the most important causes of diarrhea in modern hospitals is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile. A wide spectrum of diseases caused by this bacterium is now known as C. difficile associated disease (CDAD. The development of CDAD is usually preceded by the administration of antimicrobial therapy and fecal-oral infections with C. difficile. Over the last years epidemiology of CDAD has significantly changed. Recently, a hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain, the cause of severe epidemics in North America and Western Europe, has been identified. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for CDAD in patients operated on at the Military Medical Academy (MMA. Methods. The study included all patients who underwent surgery at the MMA during 2010. Nested case-control study design was used. The subjects were divided into groups of operated patients with and without CDAD. The patients were under prospective follow-up, while their data were collected using a questionnaire during a routine epidemiological control. Results. During 2010 the incidence rate of CDAD was 3.3 per 10,000 hospital days. Univariate regression analysis showed that the length of administration of one or two antibiotics, as well as concurrent administration of two antibiotics, were far more frequently observed in the patients with than in the patients without CDAD. Independent risk factor for the development of CDAD was the length of the administration of one antibiotic. Conclusion Reduction in the incidence rate of CDAD can be achieved by using reliable measures of prevention and control; the rational use of antibiotics, early diagnosis and therapy of infected patients, contact isolation of infected persons, proper disinfection, and continued education of medical and non-medical personnel.

  11. Epidemiological characteristics of the 2005 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Singapore - similarities and distinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the epidemiological features of the 2007 dengue outbreak to determine the factors that could have triggered it two years after the previous large outbreak in 2005.Methods: All laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue reported during the year, as well as entomological and virological data, were analysed.Results: A total of 8826 cases including 24 deaths were reported in 2007, giving an incidence of 192.3 cases per 100 000 residents and a case-fatality rate of 0.27%. The median age of the cases was 37 years (interquartile range 25 to 50, with an age range from two days to 101 years, which was higher than the median age of 31 years (interquartile range 20 to 42, with a range from four days to 98 years, in 2005. The overall Aedes premises index in 2007 was 0.68%, lower than the 1.15% observed in 2005. The predominant dengue serotype in 2007 was dengue virus DENV-2 which re-emerged with a clade replacement in early 2007, and overtook the predominant serotype (DENV-1 of 2005. Seroprevalence studies conducted in the three largest outbreak clusters revealed that 73.2% of residents with recent infection were asymptomatic.Discussion: With the exception of an increase in the median age of the cases, and a change in the predominant dengue serotype, the epidemiological features of the 2007 epidemic were largely similar to those of 2005. Singapore remains vulnerable to major outbreaks of dengue, despite sustained vector control measures to maintain a consistently low Aedes premises index.

  12. Mastitis in Ettawa Crossbred Goat (Pe Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus: Epidemiology, Clinical Signs, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control

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    Widodo Suwito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat is commonly found and caused economic loss. Staphylococcus aureus is one of bacteria caused clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of clinical and subclinical mastitis in the Ettawa crossbred goat caused by S. aureus from epidemiological aspect, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Mastitis should be eliminated because it lead to death for the goats and lambs. In addition, S. aureus has greater risk for contamination in milk because it produces heat-stable toxin. Isolation and identification bacteria with total of somatic cell counts are important as a reference to determine the actions to decrease the occurrence of mastitis. Some preventive measures for mastitis include clean milking, dipping the teats with a disinfectant and antibiotic treatment during dry lactation.

  13. Estudo das características epidemiológicas e clínicas de pacientes portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana em Pronto Atendimento do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Study on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with human immunodeficiency virus at the walk-in service of the teaching hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gómez Ravetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva a análise prospectiva das características clínicas e epidemiológicas que levam os pacientes adultos com HIV/AIDS a procurarem atendimento clínico de urgência em Pronto Atendimento do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Noventa e nove pacientes perfizeram 118 internações. A idade foi em média 39,4 anos. A relação homem e mulher foi de 1,35:1. O tempo desde o diagnóstico até a admissão situou-se de forma mais freqüente entre 0-5 anos em 40,4% dos casos. A terapêutica anti-retroviral era usada regularmente em 56,8% das admissões. A contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ foi inferior a 200 células/mm³ em 45,7% dos pacientes. As queixas mais freqüentes foram aumento da temperatura corpórea, diarréia, tosse e dispnéia. O aparelho respiratório foi o mais acometido. As doenças oportunistas mais freqüentes foram pneumocistose, pneumonia comunitária, síndrome diarréica, e candidiase oral. A demanda de internações de pacientes com HIV representou 2,8% das admissões, com tempo médio de permanência hospitalar de 4,6 dias. Os pacientes possuíam, em sua maioria, contagem de linfócitos TCD4+ baixa, quase metade não usava a terapia anti-retroviral altamente eficaz. Houve tendência à feminização. As doenças relacionadas à AIDS continuam sendo as mais freqüentes no nosso meio.This study had the aim of prospectively analyzing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics that lead adult patients with HIV/AIDS to seek urgent medical care in the walk-in service of the teaching hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Over a one-year period, all admissions of adult patients with HIV were evaluated. There were 118 admissions involving 99 patients. Their mean age was 39.4 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.35:1. The length of time from diagnosis to admission was most frequently 0-5 years (40.4% of the cases. Antiretroviral therapy was being regularly used among 56

  14. Epidemiologia clínica: nova ideologia médica? Clinical epidemiology: a new medical ideology?

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a emergência da epidemiologia clínica e seu caráter duplamente ideológico. Inicialmente são apresentadas diferentes conotações do conceito de ideologia optando-se por trabalhar com dois desses sentidos. O primeiro é a noção positivista de ideologia enquanto idéias de um dado tempo histórico; e o segundo é a noção marxista de ideologia como ocultamento das relações de dominação. Sob o primeiro sentido, a epidemiologia clínica é discutida com relação às idéias vigentes na década de 80, o que lhe conferiria um caráter eminentemente pós-moderno, com toda a carga de individualismo que o termo carrega. Finalmente são apontados os mitos de que se alimenta a epidemiologia clínica, tomada agora no segundo sentido da noção de ideologia.In this work we discuss the emergence of Clinical Epidemiology with its doubly ideological nature. We begin by presenting different connotations of ideology, two of which are chosen to be discussed here. The first is the positivistic concept of ideology as the set of ideas of a given historical time; the second is the Marxist concept of ideology, as concealing relations of dominance. Under the first meaning, Clinical Epidemiology is discussed vis-à-vis ideas in force in the 1980's, giving it a predominantly post-modern character along with the load of individualism born by this word. Finally, we present the myths underlying Clinical Epidemiology, seen now according to the second meaning of ideology.

  15. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  16. The Spanish flu in Uppsala, clinical and epidemiological impact of the influenza pandemic 1918–1919 on a Swedish county

    OpenAIRE

    Holtenius, Jonas; Gillman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and aim: The Spanish flu reached Sweden in June 1918, and at least one-third of the population (then 5.8 million) became infected. Some 34,500 persons (5.9 per 1,000 people) died from influenza during the first year of the pandemic (when acute pneumonia is included, the number of deaths rose to 7.1 per 1,000 people). In this historical look back at the pandemic, our aim was to review the epidemiological impact on the Swedish county of Uppsala, the clinical outcomes and the econom...

  17. The clinical epidemiological characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis in Beijing Children′s Hospital from 2002 to 2010%北京儿童医院2002至2010年结核病住院患儿临床流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴喜蓉; 申阿东; 徐保平; 焦安夏; 胡英慧; 尹青琴; 刘芳; 申丹; 冯卫星; 焦伟伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical epidemic-logical characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis ( TB ) patients. Methods A retrospective, descriptive study was undertaken among pediatric TB patients admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital from January 2002 to December 2010. Clinical data including age, manifestation, type of TB and treatment were collected. Patients were classified into 3 group based on their history of BBC vaccination. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the risk factors to the efficacy of TB treatment. Results ① Overall, 1 212 hospitalized TB children were enrolled. Distribution of types of TB in 9 years was similar. Main types of TB were pulmonary TB ( 45. 5% , 552/1 212), extra-pulmonary TB ( 23. 5% , 285/1 212 and hematogenous disseminated pulmonary TB( 15. 8% , 191/1 212 ). 57. 2% ( 163/285 ) extra-pulmonary TB was mainly meningitis. ② The age of onset for all forms of TB showed a bimodal distribution, under 4 years old and 7-12 years old, accounting for 42. 0% ( 509/1 212 ) and 30. 5% ( 370/1 212 ) of the total cases respectively. Severe TB ( hematogenous disseminated pulmonary TB or tubercular meningitis ) were mainly observed in infants, and the proportion gradually decreased with increasing age. ③ The proportion of severe TB in BCG-vaccinated patients was lower than that in non-vaccinated patients, 26. 9% and 34. 6% respectively(P = 0. 004 ). ④ TB treatment rate of success was related to sex and types of TB in children. Treatment rate of success was lower in females (77. 8% ) than in males (83. 8% ), P =0.015. Treatment rate of success was the highest in patients with Pulmonary TB ( 84. 2% ) and was the lowest in patients with hematogenous disseminated pulmonary TB ( 73. 8% ), P=0. 006. Conclusions Pediatric TB was mainly observed in children under 4 years old. Compared with adults TB, children were more susceptible to extra-pulmonary TB and severe TB. Treatment outcome of pediatric TB was poor in severe TB patients

  18. Clinical Presentation and Microbial Analyses of Contact Lens Keratitis; an Epidemiologic Study

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    Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual impairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and microbiological characteristic of CLK in patients referred to the emergency department (ED of teaching hospitals, Babol, Iran. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all patients with contact lens induced corneal ulcers admitted to the teaching hospitals of Babol, Iran, from 2011- 2013. An ophthalmologist examined patients with the slit-lamp and clinical features of them were noted (including pain, redness, foreign body sensation, chemosis, epiphora, blurred vision, discomfort, photophobia, discharge, ocular redness and swelling. All suspected infectious corneal ulcers were scraped for microbial culture and two slides were prepared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Results: A total of 14 patients (17 eyes were recruited into the study (100% female. The patients’ age ranged from 16-37 years old (mean age 21.58±7.23 years. The most prevalent observed clinical signs were pain and redness. Three samples reported as sterile. The most common isolated causative organism was pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.6%, Staphylococcus aureus 14.3%, and enterobacter 7.1%, respectively. Treatment outcome was excellent in 23.5%, good in 47.1%, and poor in 29.4% of cases. Conclusion: Improper lens wear and care as well as the lack of awareness about the importance of aftercare visits have been identified as potential risk factors for the corneal ulcer among contact lens wearers. Training and increasing the awareness of adequate lens care and disinfection practices, consulting with an ophthalmologist, and frequent replacement of contact lens storage cases would greatly help reducing the risk of microbial keratitis.

  19. Epidemiological, clinical and pharmacological aspects of headache in a university undergraduate population in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, W M; Sawalha, A F; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F B; Khalaf, H S

    2010-04-01

    Headache is one of the most common complaints in clinical practice. Few studies regarding headache in university students have been conducted in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, clinical characteristics, triggering factors and treatment options of headaches in university undergraduate students in Palestine/Middle East. Data were collected by interviewing a sample of 1900 students. The Headache Assessment Quiz was used to measure quality and severity of headache and to collect data on triggering factors and symptom management. A total of 1808 (95.2%) reported having at least one headache episode in the previous year. A positive family history of headache was found in 40% of students. The prevalence rate of frequent headache (tow or more episodes/month) was found in 1096 (60.9%) students; 613 women (55.9%). Of those having frequent headaches, 228 (20.8%) experienced moderate to severe episodes, 341 (31.2%) had pulsating, throbbing and pounding pain, and 274 (25%) had unilateral pain. The most common triggering factors among students with frequent headaches were: tension/stress (78.2%) and sleep deprivation (75.4%). Less than 5% of students sought medical assistance during headache episodes. Most students (79.1%) reported self-therapy with a single analgesic (53.4%), herbs (10.2%) or combination (15.5%), while 20.9% reported using no medication of any type to decrease pain. Paracetamol (48.5%) followed by ibuprofen (4.9%) were the most commonly used non-prescription analgesic drugs. Headache is a prevalent symptom in the college age population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of specific types of headaches. Healthcare providers are required to educate this population as well as to assist students in properly diagnosing and treating headache types. PMID:19673913

  20. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J;

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type...... of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...... analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively...

  1. Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: a study of radiology and clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a......Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors...... or by the accumulation of tear and wear. Overweight occurs prior to knee joint degeneration, not as a result of diminished activity due to joint degeneration. Weight control seems to be an influential tool in the prophylaxis of overweight-specific joint degeneration....

  2. Pediatric Tuberculosis in Italian Children: Epidemiological and Clinical Data from the Italian Register of Pediatric Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Galli; Laura Lancella; Chiara Tersigni; Elisabetta Venturini; Elena Chiappini; Barbara Maria Bergamini; Margherita Codifava; Cristina Venturelli; Giulia Tosetti; Caterina Marabotto; Laura Cursi; Elena Boccuzzi; Silvia Garazzino; Pier Angelo Tovo; Michele Pinon

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Over the last decades, TB has also emerged in the pediatric population. Epidemiologic data of childhood TB are still limited and there is an urgent need of more data on very large cohorts. A multicenter study was conducted in 27 pediatric hospitals, pediatric wards, and public health centers in Italy using a standardized form, covering the period of time between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Children with active TB, lat...

  3. Foot Lesions in Farmed Mink (Neovison vison): Pathologic and Epidemiologic Characteristics on 4 Danish Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, A; Hammer, A S; Jensen, H E; Bonde-Jensen, N; Lassus, M M; Agger, J F; Larsen, P F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gross and histologic lesions and epidemiologic factors of foot lesions in farmed mink. The feet of 1159 mink from 4 Danish farms were examined and lesions described. Swabs from the lesions were taken from 27 mink for microbiology, and tissue samples from a representative spectrum of feet with and without lesions (n= 22) were examined histologically. Feet were grouped according to gross inspection: no lesions (55.1%), hair loss (7.1%), hyperkeratosis (35.8%), and crusting (5.3%). Lesions were predominantly located in plantar metatarsal skin (98.1%). Staphylococci were the most prevalent microorganisms cultured from the lesions. There was a significant association between presence of lesions and sex (P< .0001), age (P< .0001), and color type (P= .023). Lesion size was significantly different between hair loss and crusts and between hyperkeratosis and crusts (P< .0001). Histologically, lesions included varying degrees of orthokeratotic to parakeratotic hyperkeratosis and granulomatous to pyogranulomatous dermatitis with trichogranulomas as a dominant feature in all mink. The gross and microscopic lesions were comparable to physically induced changes in other species that develop as a response to repetitive friction or pressure. The condition may have an impact on animal welfare in mink production. PMID:26333293

  4. Site Characteristics Influencing the Translation of Clinical Research Into Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    , although both academic and independent sites generate the same level of knowledge, academic sites share more of this knowledge with sponsor companies. This study suggests new strategies that sponsors can leverage to drive greater transfer of clinical research knowledge into clinical practice and ultimately...... on to sponsor companies and may ultimately assist in positioning new products and driving commercialization success. This study evaluates site characteristics that influence the acquisition and sharing of knowledge gained through clinical trial experience. The impact of 2 central site characteristics...... on the process of translating drug experience is assessed: site location (North America/rest of the world) and site type or setting (academic/independent). The results show that investigative sites located outside North America generate and share more knowledge than those within North America. Furthermore...

  5. Characteristics of liver cancer stem cells and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with liver cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and thus miss the opportunity for surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, which target tumor bulk, have exhibited limited therapeutic efficacy to date. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of undifferentiated cells existed in liver cancer, which are considered to be responsible for liver cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance. Elucidating liver CSC characteristics and disclosing their regulatory mechanism might not only deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer but also facilitate the development of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the clinical management of liver cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in liver CSC research in terms of the origin, identification, regulation and clinical correlation.

  6. Characteristics of liver cancer stem cells and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with liver cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and thus miss the opportunity for surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, which target tumor bulk, have exhibited limited therapeutic efficacy to date. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of undifferentiated cells existed in liver cancer, which are considered to be responsible for liver cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance. Elucidating liver CSC characteristics and disclosing their regulatory mechanism might not only deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer but also facilitate the development of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the clinical management of liver cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in liver CSC research in terms of the origin, identification, regulation and clinical correlation. PMID:26272183

  7. Epidemiology, clinical, immune, and molecular profiles of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wumba R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger Wumba,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Jean Menotti,3,4 Madone Mandina,5 Fabien Kintoki,5 Nani Hippolyte Situakibanza,1,5 Marie Kapepela Kakicha,6 Josue Zanga,1 Kennedy Mbanzulu-Makola,1 Tommy Nseka,1 Jean Pierre Mukendi,1 Eric Kendjo,7 Jean Sala,1 Marc Thellier7,81Department of Tropical Medicine, Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Department of Parasitology, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Public Assistance-Hospitals of Paris, Paris, France; 4Faculty of Medicine, Lariboisière-Saint-Louis, University of Paris VII, Paris, France; 5Department of Internal Medicine, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 6Department of Pediatrics, University Clinic of Kinshasa, Faculty of Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Congo; 7National Center for Malaria Research, AP-HP, CHU Pitie Salpêtrière, Paris, France; 8Laboratory of Parasitology and Mycology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, Public Assistance-Hospitals of Paris, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, FranceBackground: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites, with special emphasis on microsporidia and Cryptosporidium, as well as their association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV symptoms, risk factors, and other digestive parasites. We also wish to determine the molecular biology definitions of the species and genotypes of microsporidia and Cryptosporidium in HIV patients.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, carried out in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, stool samples were collected from 242 HIV patients (87 men and 155 women with referred symptoms and risk factors for opportunistic intestinal parasites. The analysis of feces specimen were performed using Ziehl

  8. Clinical characteristics of 41 patients with intractable asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Li; Zhang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Bin; Xiao-ming CHENG; Zhang, Qiao; Hua-ping CHEN; Ma, Qian-li; Zou, Li-Guang; Wang, Chang-Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of intractable asthma,and to provide new knowledge for diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods Forty one patients with intractable asthma,admitted to the Institute of Respiratory Disease,Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University from Jan.2009 to Dec.2010,were included in present study.Spirometry tests were performed for all the 41 patients.Cell classification and counting were done in the induced sputum of 37 patients,and 34...

  9. Clinical and the demographic characteristics of patients with alopecia areata

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Arıca; Roza Zelal Abdioğlu; Ruken Azizoğlu Anlı; Sibel Yorgancılar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Design: In this study, our aim was to determine clinical and the demographical characteristics of the patients with alopecia areata in our region.Materials and Metods: In the study, 100 patients who received alopecia areata diagnosis with ages raging from 2 to 52 and who applied to the polyclinic of ………… Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between October and November 2009 were evaluated.Results: Of 100 patients included into the study 44 (44%) were female and 56 (56%) male....

  10. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 patients, average age: 50.06 ± 12.16 years; female/male ratio: 5.7/1; main reasons for dizziness: visual stimuli (74%, body movements (52%, and sleep deprivation (38%. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypercholesterolemia (31%, migraine headaches (26%, carbohydrate metabolism disorders (22% and cervical syndrome (21%. DHI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory - Trait, Beck Depression Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaires were statistically different (p < 0.05 when compared to controls. 68% demonstrated clinical improvement after treatment with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness affects more women than men, with a high associated prevalence of metabolic disorders and migraine. Questionnaires help to identify the predisposition to persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. The prognosis is good with adequate treatment.

  11. Characteristics of demand and psychological treatments in a university clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Labrador

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to describe the most common characteristics of patients receiving psychological treatment and the treatments administered. We analyzed a sample of 856 patients at the University Psychology Clinic of the Complutense University of Madrid. Five diagnostic categories accounted for 78.4% of demand: anxiety disorders (31.9%, no diagnosis (15.4%, other problems requiring clinical attention (14.2%, mood disorders (9.5% and adaptive disorders (7.4%. A total of 17.7% presented a comorbid diagnosis and 49.3% had received treatment previously. The mean of assessment and treatment sessions was 3.5 and 12.7, respectively. The most commonly applied techniques included psychoeducation (95.1%, cognitive restructuring (74.8%, relaxation (74.4%, and control of internal dialogue (68.1%.Of the patients that had finished contact with the clinic, 68.3% were a therapeutic success. We discuss the generalization of the results and the implications for the profession and clinical practice.

  12. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anıl Gülsel Bahalı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The purpose of this study was to obtain data that may provide an insight into the etiopathogenesis of recurrent aphtous stomatitis (RAS by the way of analysing the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients who had been diagnosed with RAS. Materials and Metods: The patients, who were diagnosed with RAS in the dermatology outpatient clinic, between May 2007 and May 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. The data including sociodemografic and clinical characteristics, and treatment options were recorded. Results: A hundred patients (68 women, 32 men were included in this study. The average age was 40±13.6 years. RAS was more common in patients with middle-income and low education. The most common type of RAS was minor aphtous ulcers (88%. The lesions were most frequently seen on the lateral side of the tongue (34% and cheek (34%. Sixty percent of patients had a positive family history. Some factors such as biting (12%, tooth brushing (18%, dental disease presence (82%, food (39%, menstruation (10.3%, stress (76%, iron deficiency (16.7%, vitamin B12 deficiency (22.4%, low serum ferritin levels (18%, and seasonal variability (32% showed positive correlation with RAS. A negative correlation was found between RAS and smoking. Forty-nine percent of patients had used alternative therapies in addition to drug therapy. The most frequently used alternative method was consumption of sumac (26.5%. Conlucions: In contrast to the literature, our study found that RAS is started in the third decade of life and, approximately 50% of patients prefered alternative treatment methods, particularly sumac. Nowadays, discussions about the etiopathogenesis of RAS continue. In this study, we found that different sociodemographic and clinical factors may be associated with the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Our study will be followed by further studies using prospective design to identify the the etiopathogenesis of RAS.

  13. Competency in health care management: a training model in epidemiologic methods for assessing and improving the quality of clinical practice through evidence-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Jacoby, I; Meyer, G S; Potter, A L; Hooper, T I; Krakauer, H

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a training model that focuses on health care management by applying epidemiologic methods to assess and improve the quality of clinical practice. The model's uniqueness is its focus on integrating clinical evidence-based decision making with fundamental principles of resource management to achieve attainable, cost-effective, high-quality health outcomes. The target students are current and prospective clinical and administrative executives who must optimize decision making at the clinical and managerial levels of health care organizations.

  14. Early clinical characteristics according to developmental stage in children with definite moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ok; Joo, Sung-Pil; Seo, Bo-Ra; Rho, Young Il; Yoon, Woong; Woo, Young Jong

    2013-06-01

    The objective is to clarify the early clinical characteristics in childhood moyamoya disease (MD). Epidemiologic characteristics, symptoms and diagnostic rates were assessed in 64 children (0-18 years) with definite MD according to developmental stage: infancy (5; 0-1 years); toddlerhood/preschool age (22; 2-5 years); school age (29; 6-10 years); and adolescence (8; 11-18 years). The median ages at onset was 6.25 years and the female to male ratio was 1.9 (~2.5 in toddlerhood/preschool age and in adolescence, P=0.71). Previous headache was observed in 23% (14/64): frequently in school age (38%, P=0.02) and within 6 months before main symptoms (6/11). As an initial symptom, weakness was observed in 78% (50/64) mainly as transient ischemic attack (TIA, 61%) in limbs (90%) and unilaterally (82%). TIA was less frequent in infancy (40%, P=0.04). Seizure was observed in 27% (17/64): frequently in infancy (100%, Pchildren ~5 years (P<0.01). Severe headache associated with MD was observed in 14% (9/64). Provoking events were positive in 42% (27/64): in school age, frequently during eating (28%); and in toddlerhood/preschool age, during crying (27%). The diagnostic rates at 3 and 12 months from symptom-onset were 39% (80% during infancy vs. 28% in school age, P=0.14) and 67%, respectively. Symptomatic progression at diagnosis was observed in 38% (24/64). Initial clinical characteristics in childhood definite MD differed according to developmental stage and from at diagnosis.

  15. Clinical-epidemiological study of leptospirosis in humans and reservoirs in Yucatán, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vado-Solís, Ignacio; Cárdenas-Marrufo, María F; Jiménez-Delgadillo, Bertha; Alzina-López, Alejandro; Laviada-Molina, Hugo; Suarez-Solís, Víctor; Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge E

    2002-01-01

    A leptospirosis clinical-epidemiological study was made in humans and reservoirs in the state of Yucatán, México. Interviews and serological analyses were made on 400 persons from an open population, 439 probable cases of leptospirosis and 1060 animal reservoirs (cows, pigs, dogs, rats and opossums). IgM Leptospira Dipstick and Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT) was used to detect human antibodies to leptospiras and serovar respectively. Leptospirosis incidence in humans was 2.2/100,000 inhab. in 1998, 0.7/100,000 in 1999 and 0.9/100,000 in 2000. Overall seroprevalence was 14.2%, relatively unchanged from seroprevalences observed 20 years ago. Highest seropositivity was found in people over 56 years of age, predominating males over females. Predominant serovars in the open population were tarassovi, hardjo, pomona and panama. Leptospirosis cases were most frequent in rural areas, and the anicteric course predominated over the icteric. The panama, icterohaemorrhagiae and pomona serovars predominated in both anicteric and icteric courses. Dogs, pigs and rodents had the highest seropositivity among the reservoirs. Contact with rodents and natural water sources were significant factors (p leptospirosis is still a serious illness with important clinical and epidemiological implications in the state of Yucatán, Mexico. PMID:12532218

  16. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  17. Epidemiological and ecological characteristics of past dengue virus infection in Santa Clara, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Baisley, K J; Calampa, C; Sharp, T W; Watts, D M; Wilson, M L

    2001-03-01

    To determine risk factors associated with dengue (DEN) virus infection among residents of Santa Clara, Peru, a rural Amazonian village near Iquitos, a cross-sectional serological, epidemiological and environmental survey was conducted. Demographic, social and behavioural information was obtained by standardized questionnaire from 1225 Santa Clara residents (61.3%) aged 5 years or older. Additional data were obtained on the environmental variables and immature mosquito species and abundance surrounding each household (n = 248). Sera that had been collected previously by the Peruvian Ministry of Health from residents were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for DEN virus IgG antibody. Antibody identity was verified as DEN by plaque reduction neutralization test. Data on individuals were analysed by univariate and multivariable methods, and independent sample t-tests. Spatial clustering was evaluated by comparing distances among DEN positive households. Overall, antibody prevalence was 29.4 % and more than doubled from the youngest to the oldest age groups, but did not differ by sex. Curiously, length of residence in Santa Clara was negatively associated with DEN virus antibodies. More frequent travel to Iquitos was positively associated with seroprevalence. Residents who obtained water from a river source rather than a local well also had significantly higher antibody prevalence. None of the environmental variables measured at each household corresponded to the patterns of antibody distribution. Of the larval mosquitoes found around residences, all were determined to be species other than Aedes. No evidence of spatial autocorrelation among antibody-positive households was detected. These results strongly suggested that recent DEN virus transmission did not occur in the village and that most infections of residents of this rural village were acquired while visiting the city of Iquitos.

  18. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snAkebite in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil

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    Waleska Teixeira CAIAFFA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of 310 hospitalized snakebite patients and 310 matched controls were described, over a seven years period, from an emergency hospital in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. The diagnosis was based upon clinical picture or actual snake identification. Fifty six percent of victims were bitten by the snakes of genus Bothrops, 32.0% by Crotalus, 1.0% by Lachesis and 10.0% undetermined. During the study period, stable number of cases and marked seasonal variation were noted. In comparing cases of snakebite and controls, those from a rural area or who were involved in agricultural labor activity were identified as a high risk group, with an odds ratio (OR of 14.7 and 6.7, respectively, in favor of being bitten. Upon treatment, snakebite patients were 13.5 times more likely to have had early anaphylactic reactions than their controls, with a higher association in the age group ³ 20 years (OR = 30.3. Increased risks were also detected for pyrexia (OR = 11.7, with a marked association in the group under 19 years old (OR = 16.6. Severe cases of snakebite are an important treatable cause of morbidity in Brazil but therapy may be potentially life threatening. The higher case-fatality ratio encountered, compared to national statistics may be due the representativeness of the more severe cases who sought hospitalization. Preventing snakebite and early referral of those who are bitten is proposedAspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos de acidentes ofídicos atendidos em hospital referência em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil (1980-1986 Um estudo clínico-epidemiológico, comparando 310 pacientes hospitalizados por acidentes ofídicos (casos e 310 pacientes hospitalizados por outras causas (controles, pareados por idade e sexo, durante um período de sete anos, foi conduzido em um hospital de emergências em Belo Horizonte, MG. O diagnóstico dos casos foi baseado no quadro clínico ou na identificação do ofídio. Destes

  19. Characteristics of a French African Caribbean Epidemiological Psychiatric Sample with a History of Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, Frederic; Dehurtevent, Benedicte; Even, Jean-Daniel; Charles-Nicolas, Aime; Ballon, Nicolas; Slama, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Research on vulnerability factors among ethnic groups, independent of primary psychiatric diagnosis, may help to identify groups at risk of suicidal behavior. French African Caribbean general psychiatric patients (N = 362) were recruited consecutively and independently of the primary psychiatric diagnosis. Demographic and clinical characteristics…

  20. Clinical, angiographic and procedural characteristics of longitudinal stent deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, A; Guler, Y; Acar, E; Aung, S M; Efe, S C; Kilicgedik, A; Karabay, C Y; Barutcu, S; Tigen, M K; Pala, S; İzgi, A; Esen, A M; Kirma, C

    2016-08-01

    Recently, longitudinal stent deformation (LSD) has been reported increasingly. Even though the reported cases included almost all stent designs, most cases were seen in the Element™ stent design (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA). It is considered that stent design, lesion and procedural characteristics play a role in the etiology of LSD. Yet, the effect of LSD on long-term clinical outcomes has not been studied well. Element stents implanted between January 2013 and April 2015 in our hospital were examined retrospectively. Patients were grouped into two according to the presence of LSD, and their clinical, lesion and procedural characteristics were studied. Twenty-four LSD's were detected in 1812 Element stents deployed in 1314 patients (1.83 % of PCI cases and 1.32 % of all Element stents). LMCA lesions (16.7 % vs 1.6 %, p LSD than in cases without it. In addition, the number of stents, stent inflation pressure and the use of post-dilatation were significantly different between the two groups. Two patients had an adverse event during the follow-up period. LSD is a rarely encountered complication, and is more common in complex lesions such as ostial, bifurcation and LMCA lesions. The use of extra-support guiding catheter, extra-support guidewires and low stent inflation pressure increases the occurrence of LSD. Nevertheless, with increased awareness of LSD and proper treatment, unwanted long-term outcomes can be successfully prevented. PMID:27198891

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Cases with Spinal Muscular Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Canpolat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is was to evaluate the clinical features of cases with diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight pediatric patients were evaluated retrospectively. All patients were followed in the Pediatric Neurology Department of Erciyes University Faculty of Medicine. The diagnosis of patients had been confirmed by genetic analysis of homozygous deletions of survival motor neuron 1 gene. Detailed history, newborn symptoms, nutritional characteristics, initial complaints, physical examination, concomitant pathologies, genetic characteristics, and treatment modalities were investigated in all patients. Results: The study population consisted of 19 boys (50% and 19 girls (50%. The mean age of patients was 26.9±25.7 months (range: 3-96 months. The mean follow-up period was 12.2±13.3 months (range: 2-48 months. According to SMA classification, 22 patients (57.8% were type 1, 8 patients (21.1% were type 2, and 8 patients were (21.1% type 3. Neonatal respiratory distress, age at early diagnosis, nutritional problems, and recurrent lung diseases were detected as poor prognostic factors. Conclusions: SMA is a neuromuscular disease that requires multidisciplinary approach to medical care. There is a wide range of clinical severity. Identification of poor prognostic factors will help in terms of guiding close monitoring and timely treatments of children with SMA.

  2. Theoretical and educational aspects of the paradigm of modern epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Briko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article presents the stages of development of epidemiology, given their brief characteristics . We discuss the key issues related to the definition of the object, the subject area and methods of epidemiology at every stage. The definition of the characteristics and epidemiological approaches to the study of human diseases is given. We consider the structure and content of modern epidemiology as a basic medical science related to the field of preventive medicine, and the subject area which includes all of the pathology of the individual – and the infectious and non-infectious. The paradigm of modern epidemiology examined from theoretical, practical and educational positions. Emphasizes the importance of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine in addressing the problems of medicine at the organism and population levels

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Epidermoid Cysts of the External Auditory Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Go-Woon; Park, Jang-Hee; Kwon, Oh-Joon; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The epidermoid cyst is a common benign disease of the skin caused by inflammation of hair cortex follicles and proliferation of epidermal cells within the dermis or superficial subcutaneous tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of epidermoid cysts of the external auditory canal (EAC) by analyzing the clinical and radiologic features. Subjects and Methods The clinical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients diagnosed with epidermoid cyst of the EAC from March 2004 to December 2013. The epidermoid cysts were diagnosed clinically by endoscopy and microscopy examinations and by temporal bone CT images, and were confirmed by histopathologic examination. Characteristics of epidermoid cysts in bony EAC and cartilaginous EAC were compared. Results Eight patients had an epidermoid cyst in the bony EAC and nine patients had one in the cartilaginous EAC. Swelling and otalgia were common symptoms, but 47% of cysts were found incidentally. The mean age of patients was 49.6 years (age range, 26-67 years) in the bony EAC cases and 26.1 years (age range, 6-57 years) in the cartilaginous EAC cases. The mean size of the epidermoid cyst was 3.50 mm (size range, 2-7 mm) in the bony EAC cases and 9.55 mm (size range, 2-20 mm) in the cartilaginous EAC cases. Conclusions Comparison of epidermoid cysts of the bony EAC and the cartilaginous EAC revealed that epidermoid cysts of the bony EAC is usually found incidentally, arose in older patients and had smaller size. PMID:27144232

  4. Clinical characteristics, diagnostic evaluation, and antibiotic prescribing patterns for skin infections in nursing homes

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    Norihiro Yogo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The epidemiology and management of skin infections in nursing homes has not been adequately described. We reviewed the characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of skin infections among residents of nursing homes to identify opportunities to improve antibiotic use. Methods: A retrospective study involving 12 nursing homes in the Denver metropolitan area. For residents at participating nursing homes diagnosed with a skin infection between July 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014, clinical and demographic information was collected through manual chart review.Results: Of 100 cases included in the study, the most common infections were non-purulent cellulitis (n=55, wound infection (n=27, infected ulcer (n=8, and cutaneous abscess (n=7. In 26 cases, previously published minimum clinical criteria for initiating antibiotics (Loeb criteria were not met. Most antibiotics (n=52 were initiated as a telephone order following a call from a nurse, and 41 patients were not evaluated by a provider within 48 hours after initiation of antibiotics. Nearly all patients (n=95 were treated with oral antibiotics alone. The median treatment duration was 7 days (interquartile range [IQR] 7-10; 43 patients received treatment courses of ≥ 10 days.Conclusions: Most newly diagnosed skin infections in nursing homes were non-purulent infections treated with oral antibiotics. Antibiotics were initiated by telephone in over half of cases, and lack of a clinical evaluation within 48 hours after starting antibiotics was common. Improved diagnosis through more timely clinical evaluations and decreasing length of therapy are important opportunities for antibiotic stewardship in nursing homes.

  5. An Epidemiological and Clinical Survey of Infertility Problems in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立法; 王敏峥; 杨文秀; 钱伟; 王一鑫

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of fertility was carried out in two cities and five counties of Henan province in China. 1.96% of couples were found to have primary infertility (2.01% if 12 women with recurrent rrdscarraiges were included ). The etiology, was analysed in 321 couples with primary infertility selected from the sample, In these 321 couples there were malefactors implicated in 26.8% of couples, female factors in 49% and both female and malefactors in 24%. The most commonly identified factors were: Varicocele ( 10.9% ) and ovulations disorders ( 32.08% ) in male and female respectively.

  6. Changing epidemiology and clinical issues arising in an ageing cystic fibrosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Parkins, Vicky M; Rendall, Jackie C; Elborn, Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Improvements in the quality and implementation of medical care for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have resulted in a dramatic improvement in survival. Many of these strategies have focused on the effective management of pulmonary disease which has delayed its manifestations into later years. With an increasing number of patients surviving to later years the impact of chronic inflammation and nutritional compromise on other organ systems over a lifetime are increasingly manifest. This review highlights the changing epidemiology of the ageing CF population and the complications that may ensue.

  7. The molecular epidemiological characteristics of streptococci isolated from primary school children in Vietnam

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    A. G. Nosik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The goal of the study was to isolate group A, С, and G streptococci from children and characterize them by the methods of molecular epidemiology.Materials and methods. Group A, С, and G streptococci were isolated from tonsils and back wall of pharynx of Vietnamese children during 2012–2014. сpn60 gene based PCR approach and rnpB gene sequencing were used to identify streptococcal species belonging to group С and G streptococci. The presence of scpA, lmb, nga, slo virulence genes was analyzed in S. anginosus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strainS. emm-typing of S. pyogenes was done as published (http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/biotech/strep/MProteinGene_typing.htm. Antibiotic resistance of the strains was tested by the disk diffusion method.Results. A total of 1359 children were examined. Group A streptococci (S. pyogenes were isolated from 49 children, group C streptococci – from 8 children (4 stains – S. anginosus, 1 strain – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 1 strain – S. parasanguinis, 1 strain – S. gordonii, 1 strain – S. constellatus, and group G streptococci – from 75 children (55 stains – S. anginosus, 8 stains – S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, 4 stains – S. sanguinis, 3 stains – S. parasanguinis, 2 stains – S. australis, 2 stains – S. constellatus, 1 stain – S. mitis. emm-typing of 47 S. pyogenes strains revealed 15 different emm-subtypes belonging to 11 different emm-typeS. The subtypes emm104.0 and emm109.1 were found to be predominant. S. anginosus strains under study were genetically heterogeneous for the presence of virulence genes. All tested strains were susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin, and resistant to amikacine. A total of 70% and 52,5% of S. pyogenes were resistant to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively.

  8. Clinical and demographic trends in a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Mumbai (1994-2006: An epidemiologic analysis

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    Setia Maninder

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: People presenting to sexually transmitted infections (STIs clinics represent an important risk group for HIV infection; prevention strategies will depend on the clinical attendance. Aims: The demographic and clinical changes in clinic attendees in Mumbai, as well as the factors associated with HIV infection in this clinic over a 13-year period, were assessed. Methods: STI clinic data in 3417 individuals (1994 to 2006 were analyzed: clinical presentation, types of STIs, and serology over the 13-year period. We used a logistic regression model to assess socio-demographic and clinical associations with HIV infection. Results: The clinic evaluated 689 patients in 1994 and the number had dropped to 97 in 2006. In 1994, the majority of STIs seen in the clinic were bacterial (53%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 50% to 57%; however, this proportion had dropped in 2006 (28%, 95% CI: 19% to 38%. There was a proportional increase in viral STIs during the same time period. Although women attending the clinic were younger than men, they were more likely to be married. The overall seropositivity for HIV was 28%. Viral STIs were more likely to be associated with HIV than bacterial infections (odds ratio: 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2 to 1.9. Conclusions: Viral infections were the most common STIs in recent years in a tertiary care center in Mumbai. HIV prevalence was high in this population. Thus, these clinical data suggest that STI patients were and continue to be an important group for HIV prevention in the country.

  9. The Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Nasal Polyps that Require Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Meymane Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to obtain epidemiological data from the charts of 297 patients with nasal polyposis who were operated on in a referral hospital in Mashhad and to determine the frequency of the presenting symptoms of nasal polyps.  Materials and Methods: The variables recorded included age, gender, the presence of asthma or allergic rhinitis, family history, and previous treatments. We studied the main symptoms of nasal polyposis (nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, anosmia, headache, epistaxis, snoring, and so on, as well as ear problems and facial deformity.  Results: Nasal polyposis affects men (60.3% more frequently, at a mean age of 39.5 years. The most frequent symptom was nasal blockage (81.1 % followed by rhinorrhea (37.7%. A total of 11.1% of the patients had a history of epistaxis. Asthma was found in 10.4% of patients with nasal polyposis and the ears were affected in 5.1% of patients. In all, 7.4% of patients had first-degree relatives who suffered from asthma or allergic rhinitis.  Conclusion: This study highlights the need for large-scale epidemiologic research exploring the prevalence and incidence of nasal polyposis in Iran.

  10. Clinical and genetic characteristics of craniosynostosis in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenyei, Beáta; Nagy, Andrea; Szakszon, Katalin; Mokánszki, Attila; Balogh, Erzsébet; Ujfalusi, Anikó; Tihanyi, Mariann; Novák, László; Bognár, László; Oláh, Éva

    2015-12-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial sutures, is a common craniofacial disorder with heterogeneous etiology and appearance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of craniosynostoses in Hungary, including the classification of patients and the genetic analysis of the syndromic forms. Between 2006 and 2012, 200 patients with craniosynostosis were studied. Classification was based on the suture(s) involved and the associated clinical features. In syndromic cases, genetic analyses, including mutational screening of the hotspot regions of the FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and TWIST1 genes, karyotyping and FISH study of TWIST1, were performed. The majority (88%) of all patients with craniosynostosis were nonsyndromic. The sagittal suture was most commonly involved, followed by the coronal, metopic, and lambdoid sutures. Male, twin gestation, and very low birth weight were risk factors for craniosynostosis. Syndromic craniosynostosis was detected in 24 patients. In 17 of these patients, Apert, Crouzon, Pfeiffer, Muenke, or Saethre-Chotzen syndromes were identified. In one patient, multiple-suture craniosynostosis was associated with achondroplasia. Clinical signs were not typical for any particular syndrome in six patients. Genetic abnormalities were detected in 18 syndromic patients and in 8 relatives. In addition to 10 different, known mutations in FGFR1,FGFR2 or FGFR3, one novel missense mutation, c.528C>G(p.Ser176Arg), was detected in the TWIST1 gene of a patient with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. Our results indicate that detailed clinical assessment is of paramount importance in the classification of patients and allows indication of targeted molecular testing with the highest possible diagnostic yield. PMID:26289989

  11. Clinical epidemiological profile of leprosy in children under 15 years in the city of Juazeiro-BA

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    Igara Cavalcanti Feitosa Luna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of new cases of leprosy in people aged under 15 years, reported to the Municipal Department of Health (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde - SMS of Juazeiro-BA, in the period from 2001 to 2010. Methods: This is a quantitative study, of exploratory and descriptive nature, performed through the analysis of data contained in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN, in municipal level. Results: The results showed that 145 (7.94% new cases of leprosy affected people under 15 years. High detection rates were verified for this age group, with predominance in females (n=81; 55.86% and greater occurrence in the age group from 10 to 14 years (n=85; 58.62%. The paucibacillary forms (n=107; 74.48% have predominated over the multibacillary forms of the disease (n=37; 25.52%, being the tuberculoid clinical form (n=80; 55.17% the most prevalent one. The disabilities reached 18 (12.41% of the surveyed patients at the diagnosis time and 15 (10.34% at the hospital discharge time. Many of the cases (n=58; 40.07% were not assessed or were ignored. Conclusion: The clinical and epidemiological profile of the occurrence of new cases of leprosy in Juazeiro-BA showed that both the overall detection coefficients of leprosy as those for people aged under 15 years remained at hyperendemic levels during the surveyed period. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p208

  12. [Epidemiological characteristics of minors' exposure to experiences of violence in Greece: the BECAN study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroulaki, K; Tsirigoti, A; Zarokosta, F; Nikolaidis, G

    2013-01-01

    In this study preliminary results are presented by the Hellenic part (n=10,451, children's response rate: 71.87%) of the BECAN study. This study, funded by EU's FP7 (ID: 223478), was an international epidemiological field research in a representative randomly selected sample of school children ageing 11, 13 and 16 years old in 9 Balkan countries, conducted via self completed questionnaires ICAST-C and ICAST-P by the children and their parents. In virtue of the research's design, anonymity of responders could be preserved via a unique code resulting in pairs of child-parent questionnaires. ICAST tools inquiring exposure to various forms of violence are structured in sub-scales. In Greek part's results, incidence and prevalence were respectfully found to be 47.38% and 76.37% for physical violence, 70.02% and 83.16% for psychological violence, 9.54% and 15.84% for sexual violence, 4.45% and 7.60% for the part of the later including some short of physical contact and 26.41% and 37.20% for self-reported subjective feelings of neglect. In contrast with the rather disappointing findings regarding exposure of Greek children to violence, most of the participant subjects reported also at least one recollection of positive, non violence parental behaviors in percentages reaching 96.21% and 98.18% for the last year or during childhood respectfully. Further analysis of results documented that statistically significant differences regarding increased figures of females' prevalence rates for exposure to physical and sexual violence (p-value sexual violence both overall and the part of it including physical contact. Moreover, females reported more often than boys experiences of positive parental practices (p-value minor diversities were found in regards to venue of residence with some mild differences (p-value violence and decreased prevalence rates of exposure to physiological and overall sexual violence of children living in rural areas. A constant statistically significant

  13. Clinical manifestation, imageological and pathological characteristics of Wernicke encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shunchang Han; Chuanqiang Pu; Qiuping Gui; Xusheng Huang; Senyang Lang; Weiping Wu; Peifu Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical manifestations of Wernicke encephalopathy(WE) are atypical and short of effective auxiliary examination means. The effects of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of WE have been reported suecessively. But its imageological detection needs to be further investigated.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the eharacteristics of clinical manifestations, skull MRI examination and pathological results in patients with WE.DESTGN: Retrospective analysis.SETTTNG: The General Hospital of Chinese PLA.PARTTCTPANTS: Ten patients of WE admitted to the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Chinese PLA were recruited. Among them, five patients were diagnosed pathologically after death. Their pathological changes accorded with the pathological characteristics of WE. The other 5 patients were diagnosed clinically before death. Their pathological changes accorded with clinical and imageological manifestations and had definite reaction to the treatment of thiamine. Ten patients, 7 males and 3 females, were aged (47±13) years ranging from 33 to 73 years. Their disease courses averaged 6 weeks ranging from 3 to 10 weeks. They all were non-alcoholics. Four patients developed WE after acute pancreatitis, two patients after the recurrence of gastric cancer, two patients after cholecystectomy, one patient after hepatitis medicamentosa, one patient after Alzheimer disease. Informed consents were obtained from all the patients and their relatives.METHODS: After admission, clinical manifestations of patients were observed and recorded. Five patients underwent skull MRI examination and their detected results were recorded. Five dead patients underwent autopsy and brain pathological examinations. Neuropathological examination involved cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical manifestations, MRI examination results, pathological analysis results and prognosis of all the patients.RESULTS: Ten patients with WE were involved in the final

  14. HIV感染病例流行特征研究%Epidemiological Characteristics of HIV/AIDS Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊; 张美; 计云霞; 宋映雪; 吴昊; 焦艳梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemic characteristics of HIV/AIDS cases.Methods The epidemiological data,including HIV transmission routes, HIV-1 co-infection with HBV/HCV/syphilis and the percentage of AIDS among HIV/AIDS cases diagnosed from Jan.2003 to Dec.2007 in AIDS clinic of Beijing You'an Hospital, Capital Medical University, were analyzed retrospectively.Results ① Data of randomly selected 330 HIV/AIDS cases from AIDS Clinic of Beijing were used.Among the cases,the rates of infection via sexual transmission and via blood transmission from 2003 to 2007 were 30% vs 60%, 24.8% vs 75%, 26.9%vs 70%, 67.9% vs 20%, 84.9% vs 10%, respectively.② The percentage of HIV-1 co-infection with HBV were increasing from year2003 to 2007 were 4%, 10%, 14%, 21%, 22%, respectively; while co-infection with syphilis were 15%, 5%, 16%, 23%,30%, respectively; the percentage of HIV-1 co-infection with HCV were 60%, 62%, 51%, 18%, 8%, respectively.③ The percentage of AIDS among HIV/AIDS cases tended to be increasing year by year, It increased from 6.5% ( year 2003 ) to 9.5% ( year 2004) and 20% ( year 2005), 25% (year 2006), 26.3% (year 2007).Conclusion ① Among the cases, there had been an alarming increase in the rates of infection via sexual transmission and co-infection with HBV/syphilis, while the rates of infection via blood transmission and co-infection with HCV had a rapid drop.Infection via sexual transmission tended to replace the blood transmission and is becoming the major route of transmission.② The percentage of AIDS among HIV/AIDS cases tended to be increasing year by year.%目的 研究人类免疫缺陷病毒(human immunodeficiency virus,HIV)感染病例流行特征.方法 抽取330例首都医科大学附属北京佑安医院性病艾滋病临床诊疗中心收治的2003年1月至2007年12月确诊的获得性免疫缺陷综合征(acquired immuno deficiency syndrome,AIDS)患者为调查对象,回顾

  15. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Post-Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy provides incomplete protection from colorectal cancer (CRC), but determinants of post-colonoscopy CRC are not well understood. We compared clinical features and molecular characteristics of CRCs diagnosed at different time intervals after a previous colonoscopy....... METHODS: We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study of incident CRC cases in Denmark (2007-2011), categorized as post-colonoscopy or detected during diagnostic colonoscopy (in patients with no prior colonoscopy). We compared prevalence of proximal location and DNA mismatch repair deficiency (d......MMR) in CRC tumors, relative to time since previous colonoscopy, using logistic regression and cubic splines to assess temporal variation. RESULTS: Of 10,365 incident CRCs, 725 occurred after colonoscopy examinations (7.0%). These were more often located in the proximal colon (odds ratio [OR], 2.34; 95% CI, 1...

  16. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: Danish Cancer in Primary Care cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Henry Jensen,1,2 Marie Louise Tørring,1 Mette Bach Larsen,3 Peter Vedsted11Research Unit for General Practice, Research Centre for Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care, 2Section for General Medical Practice, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, 3Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Regional Hospital, Randers NOE, Denmark Background: In this paper, we describe the settings, content, and possibilities of the Danish Cancer in Primary Care (CaP cohort as well as some of the key findings so far. Further, we describe the future potential of the cohort as an international resource for epidemiological and health services research studies. Methods: The CaP cohort comprises information from three Danish subcohorts set up in 2004–2005, 2007–2008, and 2010 on newly diagnosed cancer patients aged 18 years or older. General practitioner (GP-reported and patient-reported data from six questionnaires generated information on causes and consequences of delayed diagnosis of cancer, and these data were supplemented with complete information on, eg, death, migration, health care utilization, medication use, and socioeconomic data from Denmark's comprehensive health and administrative registers. The cohort is followed up in terms of emigration, death, hospitalization, medication, and socioeconomics, and data are updated regularly. Results: In total, we identified 22,169 verified incident cancer cases. Completed GP questionnaires were returned for 17,566 (79% of the verified cases, and patient questionnaires were completed by 8,937 (40% respondents. Patients with participating GPs did not differ from patients with nonparticipating GPs in regard to one-year survival, comorbidity, or educational level. However, compared with nonparticipating GPs, patients listed with participating GPs were more likely to be women, younger, to have a higher disposable income, to have more regional or distant spread of tumors, were also more likely to have

  17. 早产儿临床流行病学研究现状%The clinical epidemiology of preterm infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 刘丽红

    2016-01-01

    早产是当今新生儿学及围生医学研究的核心问题,近年来,早产儿发生率呈上升趋势.虽然随着现代医疗技术水平的提高,早产儿存活率亦有所提高,但众多并发症使其预后状况不佳.早产儿临床流行病学研究对临床医生提高早产儿诊疗水平有指导性意义,该文就早产发生原因、主要并发症及预防等方面的临床流行病学研究进展进行综述.%Preterm birth is the core issue of neonatology and perinatology researches,and the incidence of preterm birth increasing overall in recent years.With the development of modem health care,preterm birth survival rate has been increasing to some extent,while the prognosis is poor because of serious complications.Epidemiological studies of preterm birth is essential for improving the diagnosis and treatment of premature infants,and this summary introduces the clinical epidemiology of preterm birth through the definition,incidence,related factors,major complication and so on.

  18. [The present state of the clinical and epidemiologic research on chemical and carcinogenic risks in the metalworking industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piolatto, Pier Giorgio; Catalani, Simona

    2011-01-01

    In this report several publications on clinical-epidemiologic patterns are presented regarding chemical and oncogenic risk in the metalworking industry. Sources of information were mainly PubMed and TOXNET. As far as cancer is concerned the body of the epidemiological data is difficult to interpret, mainly due to the fact that even the most recent papers and reviews refer to past exposure to MWF. Moreover, the great number of cancer sites are hardly explainable as to the biological plausibility. However, it is likely that current problems might be overcome by the almost total elimination of PAH and some additives. Moreover, cancer risk for welders and painters should be considered according to the different techniques used. Several studies reported repeated outbreaks of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, especially in US, most probably caused by mycobacterial antigens present in water-based oils. In Italy this disease is probably misdiagnosed or underreported. Some cross-sectional studies on respiratory disease and hearing loss, caused by the interaction of noise and chemical agent (mainly solvents), provided limited information because of the nature itself of this type of studies. Dermal pathologies still affect MWF exposed workers. Some antigens present in compounds, which are now gradually substituted, have been identified for allergic dermatitis (ADC). PMID:22073667

  19. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  20. The Master of Science in clinical epidemiology degree program of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: a model for clinical research training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Brian L; Kelly, Thomas O; Norman, Sandra A; Farrar, John T; Kimmel, Stephen E; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-01-01

    An innovative training program to provide clinical research training for clinicians was created in 1979 at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, now the Perelman School of Medicine. The program's principal and continuing aim is to provide trainees mentored experiences and the training needed to become skilled independent investigators able to conduct clinical research and develop academic careers as independent clinical investigators.The authors identify the vision that led to the creation of the master of science in clinical epidemiology (MSCE) degree program and describe today's training program, including administration, oversight, participating faculty, and trainees. They also describe the program's core curriculum, elective options, seminars on ongoing research, training in the responsible conduct of research, professional development activities, and the development and completion of a closely mentored clinical research project.Approximately 35 new trainees enter the two- to three-year program annually. Funding is provided primarily by National Institutes of Health-funded training programs and supplemented by private industry, private foundations, and employee-based benefits. More than 500 individuals have received or are currently receiving training through the MSCE program. A large percentage of former trainees maintain full-time positions in academic medicine today.The authors identify some challenges that have been met and insights regarding funding, faculty, trainees, and curriculum. Ongoing challenges include recruiting trainees from some selected highly paid, procedure-oriented specialties, maintaining sufficient mentors for the continually increasing numbers of trainees, and distinguishing applicants who truly desire a primary research career from others.

  1. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  2. Clinical characteristics of 41 patients with intractable asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li BAI

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the clinical characteristics of intractable asthma,and to provide new knowledge for diagnosis and treatment of the disease.Methods Forty one patients with intractable asthma,admitted to the Institute of Respiratory Disease,Xinqiao Hospital of Third Military Medical University from Jan.2009 to Dec.2010,were included in present study.Spirometry tests were performed for all the 41 patients.Cell classification and counting were done in the induced sputum of 37 patients,and 34 patients underwent high-resolution chest computed tomography(HRCT.Results Incomplete reversibility of airflow obstruction(FEV1/FVC 0.03 of the total cells,13(35.1% and increased neutrophils( > 0.61 of total cells,6(16.2% showed increased both eosinophils and neutrophils,and only that of one patient showed normal percentage of the eosinophils and neutrophils.Chest HRCT of 34 patients showed thickening of bronchial wall in visible segment in 28 cases(82.3%,and in 22 cases(64.7% thickening of bronchial wall in secondary segments was accompanied with narrowed bronchus lumen,cylindrical bronchiectasis was predominant in 7 patients,and centrilobular emphysema was seen in 5 patients.Conclusion Airway remodeling,incomplete reversibility of airflow obstruction,airway inflammation appear to be the major clinical characteristics of intractable asthma.Combined use of chest HRCT,spirometry test,and cellular analysis of induced sputum may be helpful for identifying intractable asthma,and they provide the basis for individualized strategies to manage the disease.

  3. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients in the persistent vegetative state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresch, D D; Sims, F H; Duthie, E H; Goldstein, M D; Lane, P S

    1991-05-01

    Little is known concerning the specific clinical characteristics of patients in persistent vegetative states (PVS). Fifty-one patients from four nursing homes, approximately 3% of the total patients, were identified as being in a PVS. The mean age of the patients was 64.8 +/- 3.2 years (range, 19 to 96 years) and the mean duration of the PVS was 3.3 +/- 5.0 years (range, 1 to 16.8 years), with 13 patients' PVS being longer than 5 years. Cerebrovascular accidents and dementia were the most common causes of the PVS, accounting for 32 of the cases (63%). In the younger patients cerebral trauma secondary to motor vehicle accidents was the most common cause. All 51 patients were fed via tube feeding and 35 patients had urinary catheters (75%). All patients were receiving daily medications, with greater than 50% taking daily vitamins. Over 30% were taking digitalis and/or diuretics and over 32% were taking H2 blockers. Transfer of patients to an acute care hospital was not uncommon, with 31 patients (61%) requiring 63 acute care hospitalizations during their stay in the nursing home. As expected, infections were the most common reason for acute care hospitalization, although 15 of the patients were hospitalized for surgical procedures. Another common problem encountered by the patients was pressure sores, with 78% of patients requiring specific therapy for at least one pressure sore. Surprisingly, only 27 (53%) of 51 patients had a specific resuscitation status designation in the medical chart, and neither presence of a chart designation nor specific resuscitation order was related to the patient's age or the cause or duration of PVS. From these data it would appear that clinical characteristics of patients in PVS are variable. Some patients are young, others are old. The cause varies from cerebrovascular accidents to cerebral trauma. Survival may be prolonged; complications are not uncommon, with some patients requiring acute care hospitalization. PMID:2025140

  5. Cli