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Sample records for clinical epidemiological characteristics

  1. Holoprosencephaly: Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of a California population

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    Croen, L.A.; Shaw, G.M. [California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville, CA (United States); Lammer, E.J. [Children`s Hospital, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1996-08-23

    Holoprosencephaly is a brain defect resulting from incomplete cleavage of the embryonic forebrain. It involves forebrain and facial malformations that can range from mild to severe. The epidemiology of holoprosencephaly is largely unknown. Published prevalence estimates have been derived from clinic-based case series, and suggested risk factors for holoprosencephaly have been identified in case reports, without confirmation from systematically conducted population-based studies. Using data from a population-based birth defects registry in California, we described the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of cytogenetically and phenotypically distinct types of holoprosencephaly. A total of 121 cases was identified among a cohort of 1,035,386 live births and fetal deaths. The prevalence of holoprosencephaly was 1.2 per 10,000 births (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.4 per 10,000). Of all cases, 41% (50/121) had a chromosomal abnormality, most commonly Trisomy 13. Among the 71 cytogenetically apparently normal cases, 18 had recognizable syndromes and the remaining 53 were of unknown cause. Among the cytogenetically abnormal cases, females had a greater risk than males (odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [1.2, 4.4]). Among the cytogenetically normal cases, increased risks were observed among Hispanic whites (OR = 1.8 [0.9, 3.6]) and cases whose mother was born in Mexico (OR = 2.2 [1.0, 4.5]). Approximately 46% of all cases had alobar holoprosencephaly, the most severe form of the forebrain malformation. The facial phenotype did not strongly predict the severity of the brain defect; however, severity was inversely correlated with length of survival. This study is the first to present findings based on such a large population-based series of infants/fetuses affected by holoprosencephaly, and demonstrates the importance of investigating the component subgroups of this rare phenotype. 47 refs., 7 tabs.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infectious keratitis in Paraguay.

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    Nentwich, Martin M; Bordón, M; di Martino, D Sánchez; Campuzano, A Ruiz; Torres, W Martínez; Laspina, F; Lichi, S; Samudio, M; Farina, N; Sanabria, Rosa R; de Kaspar, Herminia Mino

    2015-06-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with severe infectious keratitis in Asunción, Paraguay between April 2009 and September 2011. All patients with the clinical diagnosis of severe keratitis (ulcer ≥2 mm in size and/or central location) were included. Empiric treatment consisted of topical antibiotics and antimycotics; in cases of advanced keratitis, fortified antibiotics were used. After microbiological analysis, treatment was changed if indicated. In total 48 patients (62.5 % males, 25 % farmers) were included in the analysis. A central ulcer was found in 81.3 % (n = 39). The median delay between onset of symptoms and time of first presentation at our institution was 7 days (range 1-30 days). Fungal keratitis was diagnosed in 64.5 % (n = 31) of patients, of which Fusarium sp. (n = 17) was the most common. Twenty-one patients (43.8 %) reported previous trauma to the eye. The globe could be preserved in all cases. While topical therapy only was sufficient in most patients, a conjunctival flap was necessary in six patients suffering from fungal keratitis. The high rate of fungal keratitis in this series is remarkable, and microbiological analysis provided valuable information for the appropriate treatment. In this setting, one has to be highly suspicious of fungal causes of infectious keratitis.

  3. Epidemiological, clinical, and immunological characteristics of neuromyelitis optica: A review.

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    Pereira, Wildéa Lice de Carvalho Jennings; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramón

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to review the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the immunopathological mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage. NMO is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that most commonly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO is thought to be more prevalent among non-Caucasians and where multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence is low. NMO follows a relapsing course in more than 80-90% of cases, which is more commonly in women. It is a complex disease with an interaction between host genetic and environmental factors and the main immunological feature is the presence of anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in a subset of patients. NMO is frequently associated with multiple other autoantibodies and there is a strong association between NMO with other systemic autoimmune diseases. AQP4-IgG can cause antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) when effector cells are present and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) when complement is present. Acute therapies, including corticosteroids and plasma exchange, are designed to minimize injury and accelerate recovery. Several aspects of NMO pathogenesis remain unclear. More advances in the understanding of NMO disease mechanisms are needed in order to identify more specific biomarkers to NMO diagnosis.

  4. Acute Viral Hepatitis A – Clinical, Laboratory and Epidemiological Characteristics

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    Melinda HORVAT

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Infection with hepatitis A virus is still one of the most common causes of hepatitis worldwide. The clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis A (AHA in adults can vary greatly, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe and fulminant hepatitis. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical characteristics, laboratory features and hospital outcome of adult patients with AHA over a consecutive period of 4 years within an area from Eastern European country. Methods: Two hundred and two adult patients diagnosed with AHA were retrospective, observational and analytic analized over a period of 4 years. Based on prothrombin time less than 50, the study group was stratified in medium (79.2% and severe forms (20.8%. We investigated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological features. Statistical analysis were applied to compare the medium and severe forms of AHA. Results: Most patients (72.7% were younger than 40 years. The main symptoms included: dyspepsia (72.07%, jaundice (86.63%, asteno-adynamia (86.72%, and flu-like symptoms (53.46%. The hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (6.93% associated with the severe forms of AHA (OR =12.19, 95%CI -3.59 - 41.3, p =0.001. We found statistically significant differences for PT (p <0.001, INR (p <0.001, TQ (p <0.001, ALAT (p <0.001, ASAT (p <0.001, ALP (p <0.001 and platelets (p =0.009 between severe and medium AHA forms. We found that TQ, INR, ALAT and ASAT have the highest diagnostic values, statistically significant (p <0.05 for severe AHA forms with AUC (0.99, 0.99, 0.72, 0.70 at values of sensitivity (95%, 90.5%, 89%, 95% and specificity (98%, 99%, 88%,94%. Conclusions Medium severity AHA forms were found in most of the study group patients (79.2%. The severe AHA forms were associated with hemorrhagic cutaneous-mucous manifestations (OR =12.19, p =0.001. The univariate analysis proved a negatively statistically significant correlation between IP and ALAT

  5. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of traumatic brain injury in Lebanon

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    Abou-Abbass, Hussein; Bahmad, Hisham; Ghandour, Hiba; Fares, Jawad; Wazzi-Mkahal, Rayyan; Yacoub, Basel; Darwish, Hala; Mondello, Stefania; Harati, Hayat; El Sayed, Mazen J.; Tamim, Hani; Kobeissy, Firas

    2016-01-01

    , epidemiological, clinical and translational research in this field in the future. PMID:27893670

  6. Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii: clinical characteristics, epidemiology and pathogenesis.

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    Dexter, Carina; Murray, Gerald L; Paulsen, Ian T; Peleg, Anton Y

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii (CA-Ab) is a rare but serious cause of community-acquired pneumonia in tropical regions of the world. CA-Ab infections predominantly affect individuals with risk factors, which include excess alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, smoking and chronic lung disease. CA-Ab pneumonia presents as a surprisingly fulminant course and is characterized by a rapid onset of fever, severe respiratory symptoms and multi-organ dysfunction, with a mortality rate reported as high as 64%. It is unclear whether the distinct clinical syndrome caused by CA-Ab is because of host predisposing factors or unique bacterial characteristics, or a combination of both. Deepening our understanding of the drivers of overwhelming CA-Ab infection will provide important insights into preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  7. Clinical and Epidemiological Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Colloid Goiter Patients Undergoing Reoperation for Recurrent Thyroid Disease

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    Gladys Iglesias Díaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: thyroid disease is one of the most prevalent medical conditions and thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm. Thyroid reoperations are more common than it might seem.Objective: to establish the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients operated on for colloid goiter undergoing reoperation for recurrent thyroid disease.Methods: a case-series study was conducted at the León Cuervo Rubio Clinical-Surgical Hospital in Pinar del Rio. The sample included all patients (n = 29 who underwent thyroid operation and were reoperated on for recurrent thyroid disease in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The information was obtained from medical records and the register of histopathological diagnoses.Results: most patients (27.6% were in the 40-49 age group and females (79.3% were most affected. Recurrence was observed 5 to 9 years after surgery. Mixed nodules (55.2% followed by cysts (17.2% were the most frequent ultrasound diagnoses. Recurrent thyroid disease was malignant in 9% of patients.Conclusions: patients reoperated on for thyroid disease were mostly females in the fourth and fifth decade of life. The disease recurred in a period of 10 years after the first surgery in a greater number of cases. Follicular-patterned lesions, colloid goiter and cancer were the most common histologic diagnosis.

  8. Clinical, epidemiological and social characteristics of long-lived persons of the Volga region industrial centre

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    Malinova L.I.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In spite of recent achievements in public health, average lifetime in the Volga region as in whole Russia is rather short. Issues of longevity in the region produce scientific interest by clinical, epidemiological and social characteristics of long-lived persons. Material and methods: In total 167 long-lived persons were examined. Medical, social, psychic, emotional and epidemiological characteristics were assessed. Results: The typical long-lived person of the Volga region was brought out. The high quality of life was revealed. The negative influence of smoking and alcoholism on the longevity was shown. Most of the patients needed communication. Lack of complaints was revealed, patients mentioned only the general weakness. Conclusion: The study has explained new social and demographic features of the Volga region long-livers

  9. Pandemic and Avian Influenza A Viruses in Humans: Epidemiology, Virology, Clinical Characteristics, and Treatment Strategy.

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    Li, Hui; Cao, Bin

    2017-03-01

    The intermittent outbreak of pandemic influenza and emergence of novel avian influenza A virus is worldwide threat. Although most patients present with mild symptoms, some deteriorate to severe pneumonia and even death. Great progress in the understanding of the mechanism of disease pathogenesis and a series of vaccines has been promoted worldwide; however, incidence, morbidity, and mortality remains high. To step up vigilance and improve pandemic preparedness, this article elucidates the virology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and treatment of human infections by influenza A viruses, with an emphasis on the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, H5N1, and H7N9 subtypes.

  10. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Fall Injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Saber Ghaffari-Fam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on Hospital Information System (HIS data for patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We recorded the demographic characteristics and epidemiological patterns of patients who were admitted to our center due to fall injuries. To standardize the reports the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, the International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM was used. Equally, the hospitalization period and number, admission ward, and the final status of victims after discharge from the hospital were extracted from the HIS. Results: Overall we included a total number of 3397 patients with mean age of 39.2±22.7 years. There were 2501 (73.6% men among the patients. Long bone fracture (48.1% and intracranial injury (24.2% were the most frequent injuries among fall injury victims. Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (12.0%, Operations on nose (11.6% were the most common operations being performed in these patients. The survival was significantly lower in patients with age more than 60 years when compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. The survival rate was significantly lower in age group of >60 years, compared to other age groups ( p=0.001. Conclusion: Given the high rate of fall injuries and death among the elderly that increases with age, appropriate measures must be taken to control and prevent injuries while prioritizing the elderly.

  11. Epidemiological, Clinical and Entomological Characteristics of Yellow Fever Outbreak in Darfur 2012

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    Hamdi Abdulwahab Alhakimi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at analyzing the epidemiological, clinical and entomological characteristics of Darfur yellow fever epidemic. It is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. According to operational case definition, suspected yellow fever cases are included in case spread sheet with variables like age, sex, locality, occupation, status of vaccination, onset of symptoms, presenting symptoms, date of blood sampling and confirmation of diagnosis either by laboratory results or epidemiological link. Data about important entomological indices were collected by surveys conducted in 17 localities of 3 Darfur states (Central, West and south Darfur. All Darfur states (especially Central Darfur have been affected by Yellow Fever outbreak. There is a need to review the non-specific case definition of Yellow Fever which seems to overwhelm the system during outbreaks with cases of other endemic diseases. The significant risk factors of this outbreak included male sex, adult age, outdoor occupation and traditional mining. The fatality rate was significantly associated with vaccination status. The highest fatality rate was recorded by children less than 2 years old (42.9%. Generally, increase in certain entomological indices was followed by increase in number of reported cases 7 days later. Central Darfur state was significantly higher in most studied entomological indices.

  12. Clindamycin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: epidemiologic and molecular characteristics and associated clinical factors.

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    Cadena, Jose; Sreeramoju, Pranavi; Nair, Shalini; Henao-Martinez, Andres; Jorgensen, James; Patterson, Jan E

    2012-09-01

    In this prospective, observational study of 618 consecutive adult patients with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the clinical characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and outcome of patients with clindamycin-resistant MRSA (n = 64) and clindamycin-susceptible MRSA (n = 554) were compared (including factors predictive of clindamycin-resistant MRSA SSTI). Patients with clindamycin-resistant MRSA were more likely to have had antibiotic exposure within 3 months (37.5% versus 17%, P < 0.01), surgery (25% versus 8%, P < 0.01), MRSA infection/colonization within 12 months (23% versus 7%, P < 0.01), or intravascular catheters (5% versus 0.5%, P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, previous surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5-6.0), history of MRSA (AOR 3.4; 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and exposure to clindamycin (AOR 8.5; 95% CI 2.3-32) and to macrolides (AOR 7.2, 95% CI 1.6-31.8) were independently associated with presence of clindamycin-resistant MRSA. Clinical resolution was similar between groups (77% versus 68%; P = 0.26). Clindamycin-resistant MRSA was less often USA-300 (82% versus 98%, P = 0.004). Clindamycin resistance did not affect MRSA-SSTI clinical outcomes.

  13. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and its' association with severe immunosuppression

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    Fatt Quek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen associated with bacteraemia especially in immunosuppressed patients. However, there is limited data specifically describing the clinical characteristics and outcome amongst the immunosuppressed patients. Methods A total of 56,707 blood culture samples and 5,450 stool samples were received by the microbiology laboratory at a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia, during a 4-year study period. Out of these samples, 55 non-duplicate NTS isolates were identified from blood and 121 from stool. A retrospective analysis of the 55 patients with NTS bacteraemia was then conducted to determine the predominant NTS serovars causing bacteraemia and its' blood invasive potential, epidemiological data, clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility. Patients were then grouped as immunosuppressed and non-immunosuppressed to determine the association of severe immunosuppression on clinical features. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 15.0 using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test or Chi-squared test. The odds ratio (OR and its 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. The P-value Results Out of 55 NTS bacteraemia cases identified, 81.8% (45/55 were community-acquired. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis had the highest blood invasiveness. An extra-intestinal focus of infection was noted in 30.9% (17/55 of the patients, most commonly involving the lungs and soft tissue. 90.9% (50/55 of the patients had an underlying disease and 65.5% (36/55 of the patients had severe clinical immunosuppressive condition with malignancy and HIV being the most common. Immunosuppressed patients had higher mortality (P = 0.04, presented more commonly with primary bacteraemia (P = 0.023, leukopenia (P = 0.001 and opportunistic infections (P = 0.01. In contrast, atherosclerotic conditions (P = 0

  14. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of marseilles (mediterranean tick-borne) fever in the Crimea Autonomous Republic].

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    Klymchuk, M D; Lezhentsev, B M; Andrukhiv, I Iu

    2002-01-01

    In the paper, new data are submitted on natural focality of Marseilles fever in the territory of the Crimean Peninsula. Identified in the above territory was a high activity of previously unknown natural foci that manifested themselves by an epidemic outbreak (Saki, 1996) and by sporadic diseases in people. A clinical-and-epidemiological characterization is given of rickettsiosis in the Crimea Autonomous Republic.

  15. Acute HIV infection (AHI in a specialized clinical setting: case-finding, description of virological, epidemiological and clinical characteristics

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    Adriana Ammassari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of HIV infection during early stages is mandatory to catch up with the challenge of limiting HIV viral replication and reservoirs formation, as well as decreasing HIV transmissions by immediate cART initiation. Objectives: Aims were to describe (a virological characteristics of AHI identified, (b epidemiological and clinical factors associated with being diagnosed with AHI. Methods: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. All individuals diagnosed with AHI according to Fiebig's staging between Jan 2013 and Mar 2014 at the INMI “L. Spallanzani” were included. Serum samples reactive to a fourth generation HIV-1/2 assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo, Abbott were retested with another fourth generation assay (VIDAS DUO HIV Ultra, Biomérieux and underwent confirmation with HIV-1 WB (New Lav I Bio-Rad and/or with Geenius confirmatory assay (Bio-Rad. WHO criteria (two env products reactivity were used to establish positivity of confirmatory assays. In case of clinically suspected AHI, HIV-1 RNA (Real time, Abbott and p24 assay (VIDAS HIV P24 Bio-Rad were also performed. Avidity test was carried out, on confirmed positive samples lacking p31 reactivity, to discriminate between recent (true Fiebig V phase and late infections; to avoid possible misclassifications, clinical data were also used. Demographic, epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data are routinely, and anonymously recorded in the SENDIH and SIREA studies. Results: During the study period, we observed 483 newly HIV diagnosed individuals, of whom 40 were identified as AHI (8.3%. Fiebig classification showed: 7 stage II/III, 13 stage IV, 20 stage V. Demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of patients are shown in the Table. Overall, the study population had a median S/Co ratio at fourth generation EIA (Architect of 49.50 (IQR, 23.54–98.05: values were significantly lower in Fiebig II-IV than in Fiebig V (38.68 [IQR, 20.08–54.84] vs 75.72 [IQR

  16. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center in Brazil

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    Eduardo Nery Rossi Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with active uveitis admitted between May 2012 and July 2012 to an emergency eye care center. Results: The majority of patients were male (63.2%, with a mean age of 43.2 years; 66.2% patients were of mixed ethnicity, 22.5% were Caucasian, and 11.3% were black. Anterior uveitis was observed in 70.1% patients, posterior uveitis in 26.5%, and panuveitis in 3.4%; no patient was diagnosed with intermediate uveitis. All patients had a sudden and acute presentation. The most frequent symptoms were ocular pain (76.9%, redness (59.8%, and visual blurring (46.2%. The majority of patients had unilateral disease (94.9% with a mean symptom duration of 6.2 days. Diffuse and anterior uveitis were associated with ocular pain (p<0.001. Scotomata and floaters were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.003 and p=0.016, respectively. Patients with anterior uveitis presented with better visual acuity (p=0.025. Granulomatous keratotic precipitates were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.038. An etiological diagnosis based on the evaluation at the emergency center was made in 45 patients (38.5%. Conclusions: Acute anterior uveitis was the most frequent form of uveitis. Initial patient evaluation provided sufficient information for deciding primary therapy and aided in arriving at an etiological diagnosis in a considerable number of patients.

  17. Uncommon and Neglected Venezuelan Viral Diseases: Etiologic Agents, Physiopathological, Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics

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    Juan C. Gabaldon-Figueira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract (english Viral infectious diseases are common in Venezuela, influenza, dengue, yellow fever, HIV infection, viral Hepatitis, chikungunya fever and many others represent public health problems in the country and therefore, have been well documented. However, other rarer and even unique or lethal viral illnesses present in Venezuela are usually poorly understood or even unknown. This review described Venezuelan Hemorrhagic Fever, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis, Hantavirus Infections and Mayaro fever, named as neglected diseases, emphasizing the etiologic agents and their most relevant pathogenic mechanisms, clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Although there is not an official report about the re-emergence of these diseases, falling living standards and unsanitary conditions, together with limited accessibility to hygiene products and medical supplies, put us on alert about the re-emergence of these neglected diseases. Resumen (español Las enfermedades infecciosas virales son comunes en Venezuela, influenza, dengue, fiebre amarilla, infección por VIH, hepatitis viral, fiebre chikungunya y muchas otras representan problemas de salud pública en el país y por lo tanto, han sido bien documentadas. Sin embargo, otras enfermedades virales más raras e incluso únicas y letales presentes en Venezuela son generalmente poco estudiadas y hasta desconocidas. Esta revisión describe alguna de estas enfermedades olvidadas tales como la fiebre hemorrágica venezolana, la encefalitis equina venezolana, las infecciones por hantavirus y la fiebre de Mayaro, haciendo hincapié en los agentes etiológicos y en sus mecanismos patogénicos más relevantes, características clínicas y epidemiológicas. Aunque no hay informes oficiales sobre el resurgimiento de estas enfermedades, la caída de los niveles de vida y las condiciones insalubres, junto con el acceso limitado a los productos de higiene y suministros médicos, debe alertar sobre el

  18. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion stings in children in fez, Morocco

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    S Abourazzak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco, especially among children, who experience the most severe cases. Epidemiological and clinical findings on scorpion stings in Fez, Morocco, were evaluated in this investigation. Of 163 cases that required medical attention, 62.6% were male children. The mean age of patients was 4.8 ± 3.4 years. The mean time between stings and first medical attention was 3.36 ± 2.5 hours. Almost all cases occurred in the summer (94% and extremities represented the most frequent sting sites (86.5%. Local pain, hyperemia, scarification, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, tachycardia and tachypnea were the observed clinical symptoms. Regarding severity, 55.2% of patients belonged to class III, followed by class II (26.4% and class I (18.4%. None of our patients received antivenom; however, all of them were treated symptomatically depending on clinical manifestations.

  19. Some epidemiological and clinical characteristics of solid malignant tumors in children from Las Tunas

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    Silvio Laffita Estévez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: cancer has kept up as the second cause of death in Las Tunas pediatric population.Objective: to characterize clinical and epidemiological variables of the cases diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in children seen and treated in the onco-pediatric consultation of “Mártires de Las Tunas” Pediatric Hospital from 2010 to 2014.Methods: a descriptive and retrospective study was carried out in 62 patients with solid malignant tumors in the pediatric population of Las Tunas province, from January, 2010 to December, 2014. The variables considered were: presumptive diagnosis, age, family history of tumors, clinical signs of alarm related to the tumor at the moment of diagnosis and investigations to confirm the diagnosis.  Results: non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the most frequently diagnosed tumor, with a 19, 35% of the patients. The most affected age group was between 11 and 14 years old, with a 33, 87%. The 16, 13% of the patients had family history of solid malignant tumors. The most frequent form of presentation was the abdominal tumor, with 29, 03 %. Abdominal ultrasound and computerized axial tomography were the most used complementary diagnostic means, both in the 17, 74% of the patients. Biopsy was used to confirm the 96, 77% of the cases.Conclusions: the clinical and epidemiological variables were characterized in pediatric patients diagnosed with solid malignant tumors in Las Tunas. Children between 11 and 14 years old and family history of malignant tumors were the most significant findings.

  20. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks : clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology

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    Velkers, F C; van de Graaf-Bloois, L; Wagenaar, J A; Westendorp, S T; van Bergen, M A P; Dwars, R M; Landman, W J M; Wagenaar, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. OBJECTIVES: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  1. Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis outbreaks in broiler flocks: clinical and pathological characteristics and molecular epidemiology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velkers, F.C.; Graaf-Blois, Van de L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Westendorp, S.T.; Bergen, Van M.A.P.; Dwars, R.M.; Landman, W.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Enterococcus hirae-associated endocarditis, characterized by a peak in mortality during the second week of the grow-out, and occasionally lameness, was diagnosed at Dutch broiler farms. Objectives: Field cases were studied to increase knowledge on clinical and pathological characteristic

  2. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Yersinia infection in the north of the Volga-Vyatka region

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    A. L. Bondarenkо

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective: to describe clinical and epidemiological picture of Yersinia infection in the Kirov region.Materials and methods: the study included 40 patients, ranging in age from 17 to 69 years: 36 patients with a diagnosis of yersiniosis, 4 – pseudotuberculosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by the method of indirect hemagglutination Yersinia and pseudotuberculosis diagnosis.Results of research: Yersinia infection in the Kirov region in all cases was accompanied by intoxication. Catarrhal syndrome and rash was detected in 2/3 of patients. Generalized form of the disease was characterized by liver disease in most patients. Almost half of the patients had lesions of the musculoskeletal system and the effects of gastroenteritis were recorded in 35% of cases. Factor for the development of chronic Yersinia infection is burdened premorbid background.Conclusion: For the prevention of adverse outcomes Yersinia infection requires a comprehensive approach to the treatment of patients with severe premorbid background. Such patients should be allocated to risk group. Subsequent clinical supervision must be exercised within a period of 1 year with doctors of other specialties.

  3. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of childhood pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus infection: an observational cohort study

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    Youn You-Sook

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There was a pandemic influenza around the world in 2009 including South Korea since last pandemic occurred four decades ago. We aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this infection in childhood. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of all the subjects infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus (2,971 patients, ≤ 15 years of age, and the clinical and laboratory findings of the inpatients (217 patients, 80 had pneumonia between 1 September 2009 and 31 January 2010 in a single hospital throughout the epidemic. Results The age distribution of all the subjects was relatively even. Over 90% of cases occurred during a two-month period. Two hundred and five patients (94.5% received oseltamivir within 48 h of fever onset, and 97% of inpatients defervesced within 48 h of medication. The group with pneumonia included more males than females, and had higher leukocytes counts with lower lymphocyte differentials than the group without pneumonia. The white blood cell count and lymphocyte differential were associated with the severity of pneumonia. Corticosteroid treatment for severe pneumonia patients was highly effective in preventing disease progression. Conclusion Children of all ages affected with even rates of infection, but males were predominant in pneumonia patients. Pneumonia patients showed lymphopenia and its severity was associated with the severity of illness. Our results suggest that the mechanism of lung injury in 2009 H1N1 virus infection may be associated with the host immune response.

  4. Acute childhood diarrhoea in northern Ghana: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics

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    Danikuu Francis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute diarrhoea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Its microbiological causes and clinico-epidemiological aspects were examined during the dry season 2005/6 in Tamale, urban northern Ghana. Methods Stool specimens of 243 children with acute diarrhoea and of 124 control children were collected. Patients were clinically examined, and malaria and anaemia were assessed. Rota-, astro-, noro- and adenoviruses were identified by (RT- PCR assays. Intestinal parasites were diagnosed by microscopy, stool antigen assays and PCR, and bacteria by culturing methods. Results Watery stools, fever, weakness, and sunken eyes were the most common symptoms in patients (mean age, 10 months. Malaria occurred in 15% and anaemia in 91%; underweight (22% and wasting (19% were frequent. Intestinal micro-organisms were isolated from 77% of patients and 53% of controls (P P = 0.02. Conclusion Rotavirus-infection is the predominant cause of acute childhood diarrhoea in urban northern Ghana. The abundance of putative enteropathogens among controls may indicate prolonged excretion or limited pathogenicity. In this population with a high burden of diarrhoeal and other diseases, sanitation, health education, and rotavirus-vaccination can be expected to have substantial impact on childhood morbidity.

  5. Systematic review of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome: virology, epidemiology, and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shelan; Chai, Chengliang; Wang, Chengmin; Amer, Said; Lv, Huakun; He, Hongxuan; Sun, Jimin; Lin, Junfen

    2014-03-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was firstly discovered in China in 2010, followed by several reports from many other countries worldwide. SFTS virus (SFTSV) has been identified as the causative agent of the disease and has been recognized as a public health threat. This novel Bunyavirus belongs to the Phlebovirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae. This review also describes the different aspects of virology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and clinical symptoms on the basis of the published article surveillance data and phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences of large, medium, and small segments retrieved from database using mega 5.05, simplot 3.5.1, network 4.611, and epi information system 3.5.3 software. SFTS presents with fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and considerable changes in several serum biomarkers. The disease has 10~15% mortality rate, commonly because of multiorgan dysfunction. SFTSV is mainly reported in the rural areas of Central and North-Eastern China, with seasonal occurrence from May to September, mainly targeting those of ≥50 years of age. A wide range of domesticated animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, dogs, and chickens have been proven seropositive for SFTSV. Ticks, especially Haemaphysalis longicornis, are suspected to be the potential vector, which have a broad animal host range in the world. More studies are needed to elucidate the vector-animal-human ecological cycle, the pathogenic mechanisms in high level animal models and vaccine development.

  6. Pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory characteristics of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis

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    M. V. Koroleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: improving the efficiency of pharmacotherapy of drug-induced liver injury in tuberculosis by clarifying pharmaco-epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features.Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of primary medical records of 250 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, patients «Volgograd Regional Clinical TB Dispensary № 1». We evaluated the dynamics of biochemical parameters characterizing the development of hepatic cytolytic syndrome, examined the impact of gender and age on the incidence of liver damage, we investigated the relationship of clinical tuberculosis and chemotherapy regimen with the incidence of drug-induced liver injury, examined the clinical manifestations of liver disease.Results: Drug-induced liver injury as a complication of a specific anti-TB treatment was diagnosed in 67 patients (26,8%. In 170 patients (68,0% showed increase in alanine aminotransferase and asparaginaminotrasferazy. Hepatotoxicity significantly more common in patients with disseminated tuberculosis with the collapse of the lung tissue, smear, and a high degree of disease severity. Risk factors for drug liver damage were female gender and age older than 50 years. Women develop liver disease at an earlier date, and displays it harder than men. The earliest and most informative routine biochemical tests, reflecting the state of the liver in the dynamics are ALT and AST. It was found that the mode of the standard anti-TB treatment determines the type of liver injury: the first, 2a and 3rd modes prevails cytolytic hepatocellular type, with 2b mode – combined (mixed type 4th – type of cholestatic liver damage. It was found that repeated, after the development of hepatotoxic reactions, the appointment of anti-TB drugs without gepatoprotektsii in 94% of patients leads to repeated drug-induced liver damage. Cancel specific therapy against the background of cytolytic syndrome promotes the formation of

  7. 410 Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Allergic Conjunctivitis Patients in a Reference Center of Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Contreras, Atzin; Ayala-Balboa, Julio; Alonso-Sánchez, Miguel E.; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Jiménez-Martínez, Maria C.

    2012-01-01

    Background In our country (Mexico) there are few reports about epidemiological characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis patients; despite these studies give us some information about patient profile, in most cases these studies are not always comparable due to the use of different methodologies, that is, Include only a portion of the population (elderly, infants) or there are limited to one region of the city. The purpose of this study was to know the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of allergic conjunctivitis (AC)-patients in the biggest reference center of ocular diseases in Mexico (Institute of Ophthalmology “Conde de Valenciana”) Methods Data were obtained from clinical records. Six hundred fifteen patients with diagnosis of AC were included. Epidemiological characteristics included sex, age, residence; clinical-immunological characteristics included atopy, coexistence of other allergies, total IgE, cutaneous reactivity to skin prick test (SPT), sixty allergens were evaluated. Descriptive statistics were performed to obtain frequencies and t test was used to find significant differences, P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results AC-Patients who received medical consultation at the Institute of Ophthalmology where predominantly from State of Mexico (47.25%), Mexico City (37.5%), and in less frequency Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Michoacan, Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Chiapas and Guanajuato. 88% of AC-patients were positive to SPT (SPT+), while 12% were negative to SPT (SPT-). Age of diagnosis was significant different between SPT-AC-patients and SPT+AC-patients (14.5-years vs 17.9-years, P = 0.02). Male SPT-AC-patients were diagnosed younger than male SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.001). IgE concentration was significant increased in male SPT+AC-patients than female SPT+AC-patients (P = 0.006). The most common skin reactivity was against Dermatophagoides sp (59.1%), Aedes sp(54.55%) and Blatella-Periplaneta sp.(31.14%); we did not

  8. Clinical, epidemiological, and spatial characteristics of Vibrio parahaemolyticus diarrhea and cholera in the urban slums of Kolkata, India

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    Kanungo Suman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not much information on the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of diarrhea due to V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus from non-coastal areas. We investigated the differences in clinical, epidemiological and spatial characteristics of the two Vibrio species in the urban slums of Kolkata, India. Methods The data of a cluster randomized cholera vaccine trial were used. We restricted the analysis to clusters assigned to placebo. Survival analysis of the time to the first episode was used to analyze risk factors for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea or cholera. A spatial scan test was used to identify high risk areas for cholera and for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Results In total, 54,519 people from the placebo clusters were assembled. The incidence of cholera (1.30/1000/year was significantly higher than that of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea (0.63/1000/year. Cholera incidence was inversely related to age, whereas the risk of V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was age-independent. The seasonality of diarrhea due to the two Vibrio species was similar. Cholera was distinguished by a higher frequency of severe dehydration, and V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea was by abdominal pain. Hindus and those who live in household not using boiled or treated water were more likely to have V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Young age, low socioeconomic status, and living closer to a project healthcare facility were associated with an increased risk for cholera. The high risk area for cholera differed from the high risk area for V. parahaemolyticus diarrhea. Conclusion We report coexistence of the two vibrios in the slums of Kolkata. The two etiologies of diarrhea had a similar seasonality but had distinguishing clinical features. The risk factors and the high risk areas for the two diseases differ from one another suggesting different modes of transmission of these two pathogens.

  9. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of septic arthritis of the hip, 2006 to 2012, a seven-year review

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    Helder de Souza Miyahara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To epidemiologically characterize the population treated at our orthopedic clinic with a diagnosis of septic arthritic of the hip between 2006 and 2012.METHODS:Fifteen patients diagnosed with septic arthritis of the hip between 2006 and 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' clinical and epidemiological characteristics were surveyed; a sensitivity profile relating to the microorganisms that caused the infections and the complications relating to the patients' treatment and evolution were identified.RESULTS:Septic arthritis was more common among males. Most diagnoses were made through positive synovial fluid cultures, after joint drainage was performed using the Smith-Petersen route. Among the comorbidities found, the most prevalent were systemic arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The pathological joint conditions diagnosed prior to joint infection were osteoarthrosis and developmental dysplasia of the hip. The infectious agent most frequently isolated was Staphylococcus aureus. From the clinical and laboratory data investigated, 53.33% of the cases presented with fever, and all except one patient presented with increased measures in inflammation tests. Gram staining was positive in only 26.66% of the synovial fluid samples analyzed. Six patients presented with joint complications after treatment was administered.CONCLUSION:S. aureus is the most common pathogen in acute infections of the hip in our setting. Factors such as clinical comorbidities are associated with septic arthritis of the hip. Because of the relatively small number of patients, given that this is a condition of low prevalence, there was no statistically significant correlation in relation to worse prognosis for the disease.

  10. Respiratory viral pathogens among Singapore military servicemen 2009 – 2012: epidemiology and clinical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have comprehensively described tropical respiratory disease surveillance in military populations. There is also a lack of studies comparing clinical characteristics of the non-influenza pathogens with influenza and amongst themselves. Methods From May 2009 through October 2012, 7733 consenting cases of febrile respiratory illness (FRI) (temperature [greater than or equal to]37.5degreesC with cough or sorethroat) and controls in the Singapore military had clinical data and nasal washes collected prospectively. Nasal washes underwent multiplex PCR, and the analysis was limited to viral mono-infections. Results 49% of cases tested positive for at least one virus, of whom 10% had multiple infections. 53% of the FRI cases fulfilled the definition of influenza-like illness (ILI), of whom 52% were positive for at least one virus. The most frequent etiologies for mono-infections among FRI cases were Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (13%), Influenza B (13%) and coxsackevirus (9%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ILI for influenza among FRI cases were 72%, 48%, 40% and 69% respectively. On logistic regression, there were marked differences in the prevalence of different symptoms and signs between viruses with fever more prevalent amongst influenza and adenovirus infections than other viruses. Conclusion There are multiple viral etiologies for FRI and ILI with differing clinical symptoms in the Singapore military. Influenza and coxsackevirus were the most common etiology for FRI, while influenza and adenoviruses displayed the most febrile symptoms. Further studies should explore these differences and possible interventions. PMID:24735158

  11. [Whooping cough: clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 20 confirmed cases of the Paediatric Hospital of Misiones province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Specht, Martha; Grenon, Sandra; Tagliaferri, Paulina; López, Oscar; Regueira, Mabel; Fosatti, Sofía; Weltman, Gabriela; Hozbor, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a respiratory disease that has emerged in recent years in several countries including Argentina. The aim is to retrospectively describe clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 20 patients in the Pediatric Hospital of Misiones with confirmed diagnosis of whooping cough, according to criteria set by WHO and CDC, during the years 2005 and 2006. The median age was 4 months, 13 were male (65%). Fourteen patients (70%) were younger than 6 months and 9 (45%) younger than 3 months. All had cough (average duration of 7.6 days), 5 (25%) paroxysmal cough and 1 (5%) apnea and cyanosis. Two children died. Sixteen (80%) had not the three doses of vaccine quadruple, 7 children (35%) were younger than 3 months and had no dose. The disease remains a public health problem affecting not only children but also adults.

  12. Post-surgical mediastinitis due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae: Clinical, epidemiological and survival characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, C S; Monteiro, J; Stryjewski, M E; Zandonadi, E C; Barbosa, V; Dantas, D; Sousa, E E; Fonseca, M J; Jacobs, D M; Pignatari, A C; Kiffer, C; Rao, G G

    2016-05-01

    Invasive infections due to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), including polymyxin-resistant (PR-CRE) strains, are being increasingly reported. However, there is a lack of clinical data for several life-threatening infections. Here we describe a cohort of patients with post-surgical mediastinitis due to CRE, including PR-CRE. This study was a retrospective cohort design at a single cardiology centre. Patients with mediastinitis due to CRE were identified and were investigated for clinically relevant variables. Infecting isolates were studied using molecular techniques. Patients infected with polymyxin-susceptible CRE (PS-CRE) strains were compared with those infected with PR-CRE strains. In total, 33 patients with CRE mediastinitis were studied, including 15 patients (45%) with PR-CRE. The majority (61%) were previously colonised. All infecting isolates carried blaKPC genes. Baseline characteristics of patients with PR-CRE mediastinitis were comparable with those with PS-CRE mediastinitis. Of the patients studied, 70% received at least one agent considered active in vitro and most patients received at least three concomitant antibiotics. Carbapenem plus polymyxin B was the most common antibiotic combination (73%). Over 90% of patients underwent surgical debridement. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 33% and tended to be higher in patients infected with PR-CRE (17% vs. 53%; P=0.06). In conclusion, mediastinitis due to CRE, including PR-CRE, can become a significant challenge in centres with CRE and a high cardiac surgery volume. Despite complex antibiotic treatments and aggressive surgical procedures, these patients have a high mortality, particularly those infected with PR-CRE.

  13. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of acute non-A-E hepatitis

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    Delić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Acute non-A, non-B, non-C, non-D, non-E hepatitis (non-A-E AH is an acute disease of the liver of unknown etiology for which one or more new, so far undetected, hepatotropic viruses may be responsible. The frequency of non-A-E AH ranges from 3.8% to 33.9%, and therefore it has a significant place within current infectology and hepatology. The aim of our study was to establish the frequency, clinical and biochemical characteristics, natural course and outcome of non-A-E AH and compare them with control groups affected by acute viral hepatitis A, B and C. Methods. This descriptive-analytic prospective study included 31 patients with non-A-E AH treated at the Institute of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from 2003 to 2008. They were followed up during the period not less than 6 months. The controls involved randomly selected patients, treated at the same time with a definite diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis A, B and C. Statistical data analysis used Mann-Whitney Utest, Student's t-test and variance analysis. The value of p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. The frequency of non-A-E AH was 7.6%. Almost no difference was found between sexes (male/female ratio was 1 : 1.07; it was developed in all age groups, with the highest incidence in the middle age (mean age was 38.32 ± 15.3 years. It appeared equally throughout the whole year. Out of risk factors, inoculation risk was predominant (before all, dental interventions, mostly involving urban population living in comfortable conditions. The duration of incubation varied much ranging from 20 to 180 days (median 60 days. By clinical course, moderate and icteric forms were most common, mostly corresponding to acute hepatitis A and C. On the other hand, by duration of the disease (mean duration was 67.1 ± 27.1 and chronic transformation, non-A-E AH resembled to acute hepatitis B. Progression to chronicity was recorded in 9

  14. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 266 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage in Hangzhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-zhen HU; Jian-wen WANG; Ben-yan LUO

    2013-01-01

    Ethnicity and socioeconomic factors can influence disease susceptibility,clinical presentation,and outcome.We investigated the clinical characteristics (age,sex,seasonal variation,lesion site,symptoms,complications,prognosis,and sequelae) and risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in 266 cases treated at our hospital in Hangzhou City,China,from January 2011 to December 2011.Risk of ICH increased dramatically with age; only 4.3%of cases were <30 years old,while 44.4% were >60 years of age.Men outnumbered women by 2:1 (67.3% vs.32.7%).Single hemorrhage was most often located in the cerebral lobes (37.2% of cases),basal ganglia (34.2%),thalamus (8.3%),cerebellum (6.8%),ventricle (1.5%),and brainstem (1.1%),while 10.9% of cases exhibited hemorrhages at multiple sites.Hypertension was also a major risk factor for ICH,as 47% of all patients were hypertensive and the percentage increased with age.In hypertensive patients,the most common hemorrhage site was the basal ganglia and ICH was often associated with thrombopenia.In patients with leukemia (all forms),most hemorrhages were lobar.Warfarin-and encephalic operation-associated ICHs were all lobar.Headache was the major symptom of occipital,temporal,and frontal lobe hemorrhage.Dizziness,nausea,and vomiting were the major symptoms of cerebellum hemorrhage.Limb dysfunction was the major symptom of thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhage.Disturbed level of consciousness was the major symptom in multisite,ventricular,parietal lobe,and brainstem hemorrhage.Hyperspasmia occurred most often in lobar hemorrhage and blurred vision in occipital lobe hemorrhage.Hospital mortality was 24.4% (n=65) with a mean delay from presentation to death of (10.5±18.5) d.The majority of fatalities were cerebral hernia cases (58.5%) and these patients also had the shortest time to death [(2.9±3.5) d].Mortality was 100%in brainstem ICH and hemorrhagic conversion of cerebral infarct

  15. Patients submitted to cardiac surgery: sociodemographic characteristics, clinical epidemiological profile and complications

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    Priscila Rangel Dordetto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mortality due to cardiovascular disease increases progressively with increasing blood pressure of 115/75 mmHg from. For treatments that require surgical procedures, it is noted that the techniques used in cardiac surgery are always advancing, using the new technology. Objectives: To conduct the characterization of patients undergoing cardiac surgery; identify the epidemiological profile and point the complications postoperatively. Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey where the variables were extracted from medical records between April and June 2015. The data underwent descriptive statistical analysis and ethical recommendations were respected. Results: There was a predominance of males (56.0%, the Public Health System (SUS health insurance (85.0% of residents in the city of Sorocaba (62.0%, aged between 50 and 70 years (67.0 %, average of 58.7 (SD=10.5. Previous diseases such as systemic hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia stood out. The most frequently performed surgery was the Myocardial Revascularization (58.0%. Complications of the shock Hypovolemic and cardiogenic and Atrial Fibrillation appeared more often and the number of deaths was 20.0%. Conclusion: Given sociodemographic findings, the prevalent diseases, complications after surgery and frequency of deaths, they see against the literature findings, it is believed that could help to enhance the educational and assistance to prevention health and creating new strategies regarding adherence to treatment and control of cardiovascular disease.

  16. " Evaluation Of Some Epidemiologic Parameters, Risk Factors, Clinical And Audiological Characteristics Of 48 Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss "

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    M. Amiridavan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL is an emergency situation, and is one of the most controversial subjects in domain of otolaryngology. In this article, we have analyzed some Epidemiologic Characteristics, clinical features, audiological Characteristics, and other findings in routine serological tests and MRI of 48 cases with SSNHL ,who came or were referred to us in the past 2 years. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: In 48 patients with chief complaint of SSNHL, from June 2003 to Feb. 2005, who were admitted in clinic of otolaryngology- in Kashani Hospital -Isfahan- Iran, physical examination and history taking, audiological evaluation, MRI,and serological tests were performed in a similar way , and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 48 cases(M:28 ,F:20 with mean age of 40.9(+/-15.9 years, left ear was involved in 26 cases (54.1% ,and right ear in 19 cases (39.5% ,and in 3 cases (6.3%,both sides were involved. The severity of hearing loss was “subjectively” HIGH in 78% of patients, and the mean threshold of hearing had been calculated as 69 dB. The most common pattern in pure tone audiometry curves ,was ‘flat pattern’(75% ,and then ,’down sloping pattern’(16%.The most adjunctive clinical symptom was “tinnitus”(in 78.7%, and 40% of patients had “true vertigo”. 44.4% of our patients had some evidences of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs during recent 2 weeks. Positive family history, smoking, alcohol intake ,oral contraceptive and ototoxic drugs consumption were uncommon. 24% of cases (11 of 39 had increased ESR, and 100% of 39 patients had negative VDRL. Diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease (in 6 cases.From 20 patients ,who were succeeded to perform brain and ear MRI, 2 cases had tumor in internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. Conclusion: SSNHL has some limitations in being studied histopathologically or in the form of

  17. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND MYCOLOGICA

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    Ratheesh T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinea versicolor is a chronic, mild, usually asymptomatic infection of the stratum corneum. The lesions are discrete or confluent and appear as discolored or hypo pigmented areas of the skin. The affected areas are located principally on the chest, abdomen, upper extremities and back. The etiologic agent is the lipophilic yeast Pityrosporum orbiculare, part of the normal flora of the human skin. This study is undertaken to know “clinical, patterns of the disease with respect to morphology and distribution, associated conditions and epidemiological factors like age, sex distribution and seasonal variation of the disease”. METHODS: Two hundred patients of tinea versicolor were selected. Patients belonging to the age group of above 10 years and below 60 years belonging to both sexes were selected and included in the study group after taking consent. A detailed history was taken with particular reference to onset, duration, symptoms and treatment taken and were recorded. Factors like – seasonal variation, family history and presence of any associated illnesses was also noted. A thorough clinical examination was done with reference to the location, the color, the extent of the lesions, the margins, the type of lesions and the details were recorded. Potassium hydroxide (KOH examination and Wood’s lamp examination were done in all the patients before therapy. RESULTS: Out of 200 patients, majority of them belong to 2nd and 3rd decade of life (72%. The Male: Female ratio was 1.5:1. There was a family history of 16%. The trunk was the most common site involved. Majority of the patients had exacerbation in summer. The most common associated dermatoses were acne vulgaris, immunosuppression and infections. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION: Tinea versicolor is a disease of worldwide distribution, although it is significantly more common in humid and tropical climates. The true incidence cannot be estimated precisely because the disease is

  18. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and outcomes of traumatic brain injury: Evidences from integrated level 1 trauma center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Agrawal, Deepak; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality, morbidity, disability, and socioeconomic losses in the Indian subcontinent. However, for policymaking and research, there is a lack of reliable and larger data in our settings. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate and describe the epidemiological, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of patients with TBI in a Level 1 Trauma Center in India. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, all patients with moderate or severe TBI, based on emergency department Glasgow Coma Scale, admitted to neurosurgery Intensive Care Unit (ICU) during May 2010–July 2012 were evaluated to provide detailed information on TBI-related variables and outcomes using descriptive statistics. Results: Among the 1527 patients with moderate or severe TBI patients with mean age 32.15 ± 16.76 years (range: 1–90) and male:female ratio 6.5:1, 1281 (83.89%) had severe TBI. The majority of cases took place in the age group of 21–40 years (50.24%) with the most common mode of injury as road traffic accidents (RTAs) (64.96%). Surgical intervention (craniotomy) was done in 49.12% of patients. About 34.58% (n = 528) patients died in hospital, and 67.21% (n = 701) had unfavorable outcome at 6 months. Conclusions: This is the first study of its kind from the Indian subcontinent that gives data on the admission characteristics, mortality, and 6 months outcome of such patients. Most of the injuries occurred due to RTAs, more common among the economic productive age groups and mostly in males with a high rate of mortality and unfavorable outcome.

  19. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

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    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Šipetić Sandra B.; Tomić-Kundaković Slađana; Vlajinac Hristina D.; Maksimović Nataša; Knežević Anita; Kisić Darija

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consump...

  1. Epidemiology, clinical characteristics and resource implications of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in intensive care units in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, Nathalie

    2010-12-01

    To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients in Ireland with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection, and to provide a dynamic assessment of the burden of such cases on Irish intensive care units.

  2. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

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    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURIES IN RURAL JAIPUR: THE FIRST SINGLE CENTRE EXPERIENCE

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    Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Trauma is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the Indian Population. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with traumatic brain injury and their clinical outcomes following admission to a rural tertiary care teaching hospital in India. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective, cross-sectional, hospital based analysis of 1713 patients of Traumatic Brain Injury [TBI] admitted to the Department of Neurosurgery in a tertiary health centre in Jaipur from January 2014 to August 2015. METHOD The medical records of all eligible patients were reviewed and data collected on age, sex, mechanism of injury, severity of injury Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Outcome (GOS score, Computed Tomography (CT scan results, modality of management and type of surgical intervention and outcome. RESULTS Among the 1713 patients admitted, age of patients varied >1 year to 92 years (mean age 21 years, majority of TBI’s were reported in the age group 20–29 years (34.38%, followed by 30–39 years (26.97%, 40–49 years (16.70%, p value <0.05. Most of the patients were male (63.46%, mostly unmarried. Majority lived in sub-urban areas (51.26% followed by rural (26.85% and urban (21.89%. Patients were mostly from middle class (46.58% and poor socio-economic background (42.62%, upper class only accounted for 10.8% of the cases. In terms of occupation, servicemen and farmers accounted for the majority (54.73%. Patients were brought to the hospital mainly by known persons (68% and rest by bystanders and policemen. The most common mechanism of injury was road traffic accidents (RTA 1199 (69.99%, followed by assault 251 (14.65%, 15.35% accounted for fall from height and fall of object on head. Mean hospital stay was 7.6±9.3 days (range <1 day to 87 days. In our study, patients were classified by GCS as mild TBI in 983(57.38% patients; moderate in 488 (28.48% and severe in 242 (14.12. 1481 (86.46% patients

  4. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pelvic inflammatory disease associated with Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, A; Saikku, P; Jansson, E; Paavonen, J

    1986-01-01

    We studied selected epidemiologic, clinical, serologic, and microbiologic findings and their interrelationships among 57 women with acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Cervical cultures positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae alone and for both N. gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were associated with young age, nulliparity, and use of birth-control pills. Positive serologic findings for C. trachomatis were associated with the isolation of C. trachomatis and/or N. gonorrhoeae from the cervix and predicted the presence of a pelvic mass. High levels of antibody to Mycoplasma hominis were associated with increasing age and parity, and predicted a low concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), a long hospital stay, and a high convalescent-phase erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Women with recurrent PID had higher titers of antibody to C. trachomatis than those with primary PID. The use of an intrauterine contraceptive device predicted high CRP, high acute-phase ESR, long hospital stay, and was frequently associated with positive serologic tests for M. hominis. These results demonstrate that the clinical picture of PID depends not only on the microorganisms involved but also on many epidemiologic factors such as age, contraceptive method, and parity.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of gastric cancer

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    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gastric cancer was the third most common cancer worldwide in 2000, accounting for approximately 876 000 new cases or 9% of the global cancer burden. Epidemiological characteristics As a result of changes in diet, the incidence of gastric cancer has decreased in most countries. Now days, consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits is increasing in regard to canned food. In addition to unhealthy diet, the main risk factors for gastric cancer are H. pylori infection, alcohol consumption, smoking, gastritis, stomach ulcer, gastrectomy, stomach polyposis, positive family history for gastric cancer, pernicious anemia and blood type A. Diet rich in vegetables and fruits, and reduced salt intake can prevent 65-75% of gastric cancer cases among nonsmokers. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection can also reduce the incidence of this malignant disease. .

  6. An Analysis of Epidemiological Characteristics and the Clinical Features of 394 Cases of Sporadic Acute Hepatitis E in Southwest China from 2008 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Recently, epidemiology studies of hepatitis E in different areas are attracted more attention. Extensive studies of prevalent status and clinical manifestations could help us to broaden our knowledge, so as to excellently prevent and treat hepatitis E. The study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of 394 cases of sporadic acute hepatitis E (AHE) in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010. Methods The clinical data of 394 cases with sporadic AHE in Southwest of China from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed. Results In the 394 cases with sporadic AHE, the ratio of male/female was 1.432∶1, and the mean age was (31.53 ± 18.12) years. Totally, 94 (23.86%) patients aged under 18, 271 (68.78%) patients aged between 18 and 60, and 29 (7.36%) patients aged above 60. The incidence rate was signiifcantly increased in summer (P = 0.000), especially in May (14.72%) and July (13.71%). In addition, the characteristics of occupation and ethnic group distribution were migrant laborers (106/394, 26.90%) and Han people (365/394, 92.64%). The length of stay, incidence of jaundice, the peak value of total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase in male patients were all higher than those in female patients signiifcantly (P 0.05). Conclusions Four epidemiological characteristics, including aged between 18 and 60, male, summer and migrant laborers, are found to be associated with acute hepatitis E. The prognosis of AHE in the majority of patients was favorable, but aged above 60 years and coexistence with CHB, AFL and NAFLD could be considerede as the factors inducing the infaust prognosis.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of hepatitis E virus infection in Bulgaria: A report on 20 patients

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    Baymakova Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hepatitis E is one of the leading clinical manifestations of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, during the past several years, sporadic “autochthonous” cases of HEV infection have been increased. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory features of HEV infection among patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria. Methods. A retrospective study of 806 cases of acute viral hepatitis was performed at the Department of Infectious Diseases in Military Medical Academy, Sofia, Bulgaria, between December 2004 and September 2012. The etiological diagnosis was established by ELISA. The statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2007 (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA and SPSS Statistics 19.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, New York, USA. Results. Specific reaction to anti-HEV-IgM and anti-HEV-IgG antibodies were detected in 20 (2.48% of 806 patients. The most observed clinical presentations were jaundice (85%, fatigue (85%, anorexia (65%, abdominal discomfort (55% and fever (40%. The mean values of aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase were 521 IU/l and 881 IU/l, respectively. The cholestasis was slight, marked with mean values of gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase, respectively 418 IU/l and 486 IU/l. Conclusion. We report twenty autochthonous sporadic cases of acute infection with HEV. The zoonotic etiology of the virus as well as the foodborne transmission of the infection is discussed. We found that aging and pre-existing underlying diseases are risk factors for a severe course of the HEV infection.

  8. DEMOGRAPHICAL, VIRO-IMMUNOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND THERAPEUTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN A “EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY UNEXPLORED” REGION OF ITALY (CALABRIA REGION: THE CALABRHIV COHORT.

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    Maria Concetta Postorino

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives   HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy.   Methods   The CalabrHIV cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information were recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension were also studied.   Results   548 patients (68% males; 63% aged 50 years-old patients than in <50 years-old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001. Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006.   Conclusion   This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients’ characteristics in the Calabria Region. Despite a small number of officially reported cases, the size of the cohort was substantial. We showed that HIV infected patients with chronic hepatites, were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are eagerly awaited.

  9. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from Influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Viet Nam

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    Phan Thanh Tinh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in hospitals in Viet Nam between August 2009 and March 2010.Of 58 fatal cases, 32 (55% were below 30 years of age and 14 (24% were pregnant females. Forty-five (78% patients had at least one underlying medical condition including chronic heart, kidney or lung diseases or pregnancy. Twelve (21% cases sought medical attention on the day of symptom onset. Only 13 (36% of 36 cases for whom treatment data were available had been given antiviral drugs within the recommended two days of symptom onset.The clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of the patients who died from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 are similar to those reported from other countries. To improve preparedness and response to future pandemics, Viet Nam needs to strengthen the surveillance of influenza; increase laboratory capacity to test for influenza viruses; and develop strategies for promoting the timely attendance of at-risk individuals at health facilities and the early administration of antiviral drugs, particularly for persons with underlying medical conditions and pregnant females.

  10. [Severe malnutrition: epidemiological and clinical characteristics of children hospitalized in the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco (IMIP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra

    2002-01-01

    Ninety-nine children admitted to the Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco with severe malnutrition from May 1999 to May 2000 were investigated in a cross-sectional study focusing on key epidemiological and clinical variables. The majority of the children (88.9%) were less than 6 months of age, 42.4% had a history of low birth weight, and 36.4% were premature. Some 19.2% had never been breastfed, and 49.5% had been breastfed for less than 2 months. Some 15.2% of the mothers were illiterate. Most of the families (86.1%) had incomes less than twice the minimum wage (approximately US$150/month), and 51.5% had migrated from rural areas. Only 26.3% of the homes had running water, and 40.4% lacked sewage disposal facilities. Diarrhea was the reason for hospital admission in 55.6% of the cases. Hospital mortality was 34.3% in this group.

  11. Epidemiologic and Clinical Characteristics of Migraine and Tension-Type Headaches among Hospitals Staffs of Shiraz (Iran

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    Ayatollahi Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Headache is a common symptom that constitutes a major health problem to all countries in the world. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of migraine and tension -type headaches(TTH, its associated occupational risk factors among Shiraz hospitals staffs, and to report on clinical characteristics of migraine and TTH with using the International Headache Society (IHS diagnosis criteria. A random sample of 1023 staffs constituting a 20% sample of the hospitals staff population was selected. Sampling method was categorical random sampling. Within each group sampling was carried out systematically. Data were collected by screening questionnaire followed by clinical interviews, general physical and neurological examination, and diagnostic criteria of IHS. Prevalence of migraine, TTH and coexisting migraine and TTH were estimated as 11.2% (115 cases, 19.5% (199 subjects and 3.2% (33 subjects respectively. In this study , clinical characteristics of headache including type, site, number , intensity ,concomitant symptom of headaches had been surveyed. TTH and migraine headaches were significantly associated with self reported abnormal sleep pattern and female gender (P < 0.001. Also TTH was negatively associated with total 24hr duration of sleep and history of involvement in second job significantly (P<0.026. The average of prevalence of migraine and TTH were lower than their counter parts in western countries but higher than previous studies conducted in other Asian countries. Clinical characteristics were almost parallel with IHS criteria, headache- related missed work rates were higher for subjects with migraine headache, and also TTH and migraine were separate disorders and were not as a part of a continuum of headache disorders. Headache disorders deserve more attention, especially concerning strategies leading to adequate primary prevention, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Mucormycosis in Patients with Leukemia; A 21-year Experience from Southern Iran

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    Amene S. Sarvestani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the epidemiological aspect of mucormycosis, the nature of malignancies complicated by mucormycosis, the initial site of involvement and the subsequent outcome. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was performed by reviewing the medical records of 95 patients with leukemia complicated with biopsy-proven mucormycosis admitted to the educational hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences over a 21-year period. We recorded demographic information including age and sex and disease characteristics such as type of leukemia, site of involvement, paraclinical findings at the time of admission and the outcome of the patients. The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia was determined by identifying the number of leukemia patients diagnosed within the last 17 years. Results: The male to female ratio was 2.39:1 in of 95 patients studied. The overall incidence rate of mucormycosis was 4.27 per 100 leukemic patients in last 17 years which showed a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent type of leukemia was acute myelogenous leukemia (AML which was found in 58 patients (61.5%. The most common site of initial tumor involvement was sinonasal (90.16%. The mortality rate was about 54%, compared to the mortality rate of about 43.24% in patients with best prognosis of AML. Conclusion: The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia showed a decreasing trend in our country and its recent incidence is comparable to that of other regions. The best preventive method against this lethal infection is to modify and control the environment which reduces the risk of exposure to air-born fungal spores.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for mortality in patients with candidemia in hospitals from Bogotá, Colombia

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    Jorge Alberto Cortés

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background:Bloodstream infection by Candida species has a high mortality in Latin American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with documented bloodstream infections caused by Candida species in third level hospitals and determine the risk factors for in-hospital-mortality.Methods:Patients from seven tertiary-care hospitals in Bogotá, Colombia, with isolation of a Candida species from a blood culture were followed prospectively from March 2008 to March 2009. Epidemiologic information, risk factors, and mortality were prospectively collected. Isolates were sent to a reference center, and fluconazole susceptibility was tested by agar-based E-test. The results of susceptibility were compared by using 2008 and 2012 breakpoints. A multivariate analysis was used to determinate risk factors for mortality.Results:We identified 131 patients, with a median age of 41.2 years. Isolates were most frequently found in the intensive care unit (ICU. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species (66.4% of the isolates, followed by C. parapsilosis (14%. Fluconazole resistance was found in 3.2% and 17.6% of the isolates according to the 2008 and 2012 breakpoints, respectively. Fluconazole was used as empirical antifungal therapy in 68.8% of the cases, and amphotericin B in 22%. Hospital crude mortality rate was 35.9%. Mortality was associated with age and the presence of shock at the time of Candida detection. Fluconazole therapy was a protective factor for mortality.Conclusions:Candidemia is associated with a high mortality rate. Age and shock increase mortality, while the use of fluconazole was shown to be a protective factor. A higher resistance rate with new breakpoints was noted.

  14. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Yuan Liang; Hor, Chee Peng; Hussin, Narwani; Zakaria, Ariza; Goh, Pik Pin; Cheah, Wee Kooi

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia. Methods We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years), adults (15–59 years) and elderly (≥60 years) to compare their clinical characteristics. Results A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038) being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040). But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018). More than half (54%) suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS) contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69%) and severe bleeding (29.7%). Conclusion In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths. Trial Registration

  15. A Two-Year Review on Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Dengue Deaths in Malaysia, 2013-2014.

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    Yuan Liang Woon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease, which affects people living in the tropical and subtropical countries. Malaysia had large dengue outbreaks in recent years. We aimed to study the demographics and clinical characteristics associated with dengue deaths in Malaysia.We conducted a retrospective review on all dengue deaths that occurred nationwide between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2014. Relevant data were extracted from mortality review reports and investigational forms. These cases were categorized into children (<15 years, adults (15-59 years and elderly (≥60 years to compare their clinical characteristics.A total of 322 dengue deaths were reviewed. Their mean age was 40.7±19.30 years, half were females and 72.5% were adults. The median durations of first medical contact, and hospitalization were 1 and 3 days, respectively. Diabetes and hypertension were common co-morbidities among adults and elderly. The most common warning signs reported were lethargy and vomiting, with lethargy (p = 0.038 being more common in children, while abdominal pain was observed more often in the adults (p = 0.040. But 22.4% did not have any warning signs. Only 34% were suspected of dengue illness at their initial presentation. More adults developed severe plasma leakage (p = 0.018. More than half (54% suffered from multi-organ involvement, and 20.2% were free from any organ involvement. Dengue deaths occurred at the median of 3 days post-admission. Dengue shock syndrome (DSS contributed to more than 70% of dengue deaths, followed by severe organ involvement (69% and severe bleeding (29.7%.In Malaysia, dengue deaths occurred primarily in adult patients. DSS was the leading cause of death, regardless of age groups. The atypical presentation and dynamic progression of severe dengue in this cohort prompts early recognition and aggressive intervention to prevent deaths.National Medical Research Registry (NMRR, NMRR-14-1374-23352.

  16. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

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    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  17. Epidemiological and Clinical Baseline Characteristics as Predictive Biomarkers of Response to Anti-VEGF Treatment in Patients with Neovascular AMD

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    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the current literature investigating patient response to antivascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF therapy in the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD and to identify baseline characteristics that might predict response. Method. A literature search of the PubMed database was performed, using the keywords: AMD, anti-VEGF, biomarker, optical coherence tomography, treatment outcome, and predictor. The search was limited to articles published from 2006 to date. Exclusion criteria included phase 1 trials, case reports, studies focusing on indications other than nAMD, and oncology. Results. A total of 1467 articles were identified, of which 845 were excluded. Of the 622 remaining references, 47 met all the search criteria and were included in this review. Conclusion. Several baseline characteristics correlated with anti-VEGF treatment response, including best-corrected visual acuity, age, lesion size, and retinal thickness. The majority of factors were associated with disease duration, suggesting that longer disease duration before treatment results in worse treatment outcomes. This highlights the need for early treatment for patients with nAMD to gain optimal treatment outcomes. Many of the identified baseline characteristics are interconnected and cannot be evaluated in isolation; therefore multivariate analyses will be required to determine any specific relationship with treatment response.

  18. Epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics of currently alive HIV-1 infected former blood donors naive to antiretroviral therapy in Anhui Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; SU Bing; DING Xin-ping; GAO Bing; GU Yong-bin; CAO Xiao-yun; XING Hui; HONG Kun-xue; PENG Hong; ZHAO Quan-bi; YUAN Lin; WANG Jian-jun; FENG Yi; ZHANG Gui-yun; MA Li-ying; WU Lan; SHAO Yi-ming; HAN Li-feng; XU Chen; RUAN Yu-hua; XU Zhen-hou; CHEN Xi; LIU Zhen-dong; WANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Background Unregulated commercial blood/plasma collection among farmers occurred between 1992 and 1995 in central China and caused the second major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)infection in China. It is important to characterize HIV-1-infected former blood donors and to study characteristics associated with disease progression for future clinical intervention and vaccine development.Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1-infected former blood donors (FBDs) and age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents. Demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and key laboratory data were collected from all study participants. Both unadjusted and adjusted multivariate linear regressions were employed to analyze the association of the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts with other characteristics.Results Two hundred and ninety-four HIV-1-infected FBDs and 59 age-matched HIV-seronegative local residents were enrolled in this study. The unregulated blood/plasma collection occurred more than a decade (10.8- 12.8 years) ago, which caused the rapid spread of HIV-1 infection and the high prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV, 89.5%); hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection was observed in only 11 HIV+participants (3.7%). Deterioration in both clinical manifestation and laboratory parameters and increase of viral loads were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts. The decrease of total lymphocyte counts (P<0.001)and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and the appearance of dermatosis (P=0.03) were observed in parallel with the decrease of CD4+ T-cell counts whereas viral loads (P<0.001) and CD8+ T-cell counts (P=0.01) were inversely associated with CD4+ T-cell counts.Conclusions Co-infection with HCV but not HBV is highly prevalent among HIV-1-infected FBDs. CD4+ T-cell counts is a reliable indicator for disease progression among FBDs. Total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin level and appearance of dermatosis were positively

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood urolithiasis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Due to the increase observed in the incidence of pediatric urolithiasis in the world, and the scarcity of studies of this pathology in Morocco, we assessed whether epidemiological characteristics of pediatric urolithiasis have a similar profile like in developed countries further we tried to assess the prevalence of this pathology among children in Hassan II University-Hospital of Fez. Subjects and methods: Between January 2003 to November 2013, 104 pediatric patients with urol...

  20. Multicentric study of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of persons injured in motor vehicle accidents in Medellín, Colombia, 2009-2010

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    Luz Helena Lugo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Introduction: Traffic accidents (TA cause 1.23 million deaths each year worldwide while between 20 and 50 million persons are injured each year. In 2011 in Medellin, Colombia, there were 307 traffic deaths and 23,835 injured with 411 accidents for each 10,000 vehicles. Objective: The purpose of the study was to describe the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, as well as the quality of life and disability outcomes for those injured in traffic accidents in Medellin. Methods: This prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study collected data from 834 patients that were classified with the New Injury Severity Score (NISS , the WHODAS-II (Disability Assessment Scale and the SF-36 Health Survey. Results: Three-fourths (75.8% of the patients were male. Eightyone percent of patients were involved in motorcycle accidents, with 45.6% suffering moderate trauma, and 32.6% experiencing severe trauma. Of the patients with severe trauma, 8.5% were not wearing helmets. Half of the sample (49.7% injured their extremities. The WHODAS-II domains most affected were: Activities outside the home (62.0 %, Housework (54.3% and Moving in one’s environment (45.2 %. Quality of life areas affected were: Physical role (20.3%, Body pain (37.3 % Emotional role (44.1%, Physical functioning (52.6 %. Conclusions: Patients with more severe injuries had higher levels of disability and a worse quality of life. Motorcycles made up a large proportion of traffic accidents in this city and mitigation strategies to reduce this public health problem should particularly focus on this high-risk group. 

  1. Vitiligo na infância: características clínicas e epidemiológicas Childhood vitiligo: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

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    Cláudia Márcia de Resende Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS - O vitiligo atinge de 0,5 a 4% da população mundial, e 25% dos casos se iniciam antes dos 10 anos. Embora prevalente, estudos epidemiológicos de vitiligo na infância são raros na literatura brasileira. OBJETIVO - Avaliar características clínicas e epidemiológicas do vitiligo na infância. MÉTODO - Realizado estudo descritivo em 73 crianças com vitiligo, atendidas no Ambulatório de Dermatologia Pediátrica do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Variáveis como sexo, idades ao início da doença e tratamento, superfície corporal acometida, forma clínica, localização, associação com doenças auto-imunes, história familiar de vitiligo e tratamento inicial foram avaliadas. A análise estatística foi realizada usando freqüências simples e comparação de médias pela análise de variância. RESULTADOS - 60,3% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. A média de idade ao início da doença foi 5,7, e a do início do tratamento, sete anos. A superfície corporal acometida foi inferior a 1% em 71,8%, e a forma localizada foi detectada em 76,7% dos casos. A localização mais comum foi o segmento cefálico. O vitiligo em familiares foi observado em 30,1% dos casos. O hipotireoidismo foi detectado em um paciente, e 11% deles relataram a presença de doença auto-imune em familiares. O corticóide tópico foi o tratamento inicial na maioria dos pacientes. CONCLUSÕES - Os achados deste estudo ambulatorial são basicamente semelhantes aos encontrados em estudos realizados em outros países.BACKGROUND: vitiligo affects 0.5 to 4% of the world population. Twenty-five per cent of cases have their onset before the age of 10 years. Although the condition is prevalent in childhood, there are few epidemiological reports in children in the Brazilian literature. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of vitiligo in childhood. METHODS: a descriptive study was performed in 73 children

  2. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult mumps patients%成人流行性腮腺炎流行病学及临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涛; 吴兵

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析沈阳地区97例住院成人流行性腮腺炎患者的流行病学及临床特征,以利于更好地防治成人流行性腮腺炎. 方法 回顾性分析沈阳市第六人民医院2009年1-6月收治的97例住院患者的临床资料. 结果 成人流行性腮腺炎患者以男性为主,占全部病例的77.32%;发病年龄主要为18~30岁,占全部病例的78.35%;沈阳周边地区及外来流动人口(主要为农村到城市务工者)发病率高,占全部病例的71.13%.所有病例均出现腮腺肿大,但程度相对较轻,并发症多见. 结论 加强流动人口的管理,对成人采取以疫苗接种为主的综合措施有利于控制流行性腮腺炎的流行.%Objective To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 97 adult mumps inpatients in Shenyang and to search Methods of the disease prevention and treatment. Methods The clinical data of 97 adult mumps inpatients from January 2009 to June 2009 in the Sixth People' s Hospital of Shenyang were analyzed retrospectively.Results Most cases occurred on males, accounted for 77.32%. The major cases were at the age from 18 to 30,accounted for 78.35%. Patients from the countryside of Shenyang and floating population accounted for 71.13 %. All patients presented parotid swelling, but the symptoms were not severe. The complications were common. Conclusions It is favorable to control the mumps epidemic through strengthening the management of floating population and take the proper vaccination for adults.

  3. [Scientific, practical and educational aspects of clinical epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briko, N I

    2012-01-01

    This article defines clinical epidemiology and describes its goal and objectives. The author claims that clinical epidemiology is a section of epidemiology which underlies the development of evidence-based standards for diagnostics, treatment and prevention and helps to select the appropriate algorithm for each clinical case. The study provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship between clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine. Epidemiological research is shown to be methodological basis of clinical epidemiology and evidence-based medicine with randomized controlled trials being the "gold standard" for obtaining reliable data. The key stages in the history of clinical epidemiology are discussed and further development of clinical epidemiology and the integration of courses on clinical epidemiology in education is outlined for progress in medical research and health care practice.

  4. Catamenial migraine: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Gromova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the literature, the authors consider the pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, and clinical features of catamenial migraine. The view that catamenial migraine attacks are severest receives more and more support. The criteria that may be used to predict a severer course of catamenial migraine attacks in a specific patient are to be further defined.

  5. Clinical epidemiological characteristics of chronic urticaria: report of 535 cases%535例慢性荨麻疹临床流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗婕; 郝飞; 宋志强; 钟华; 尹锐; 黄秀英; 李垚莹; 程良金; 向明明; 王莉

    2011-01-01

    % ), and others 54 (10. 0% ), whereas 263 (49. 2%) of the participants could not identify any trigger. The most common type was chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) , accounting for 294 (55. 0% ), followed by demographic urticaria factitia 120 (22. 4% ). While the rarest type was delayed pressure urticaria, vibratory urticaria and exercise induced urticaria type. An-gioedema in CU accounted for 105 (19.6% ), 70 (21.1% ) were female, and 76 (25.9% ) were CSU with it. Positive autologous serum skin test (ASST) was accounted for 49. 6%. Conclusion The high prevalence of CU is in the young populations, with various clinical manifestations. Coexisting with angioedema is not uncommon. Investigating CU clinical epidemiological characteristics is helpful to guide the therapy strategies.

  6. Listeriosis in Mexico: Clinical and epidemiological importance

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    Gloria Castañeda-Ruelas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Listeriosis is caused by Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne disease due to its clinical forms, high mortality rate, and the economic impact in both clinical and food production industries. In Mexico, the lack of epidemiological surveillance systems leads to the need of accurate data on the incidence of listeriosis and its association with food-borne disease. In this paper, we present data about the presence of this bacterium in food, reports related to clinical cases of listeriosis, and information of diseases in which L. monocytogenes may be involved. However, in most of these cases the etiology was not established. Given this, there´s a need to inform and warn the appropriate entities, to define strategies for the mandatory search of L. monocytogenes through the whole food production chain and clinical suspects, for the epidemiological importance and control of listeriosis in Mexico.

  7. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti; Márcio Cavalcante Salmito; Juliana Antoniolli Duarte; Karina Cavalcanti Sumi; Juliana Caminha Simões; Fernando Freitas Ganança

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients h...

  8. Síndrome da mama fantasma: características clínicas e epidemiológicas Phantom breast syndrome: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Borges da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com o diagnóstico de síndrome da mama fantasma (SdMF ou com fenômenos fantasmas isoladamente. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo observacional descritivo do tipo transversal, envolvendo 98 pacientes tratadas por câncer de mama no Hospital São Marcos, em Teresina (PI, empregando um questionário padronizado. RESULTADOS: observou-se SdMF em 11,2% das pacientes e sensação fantasma isolada em 30% das pacientes. A média de idade foi 54 anos. Cinqüenta e nove pacientes eram casadas (60% e 79,6% eram analfabetas ou não haviam concluído o ensino médio. Alterações emocionais estavam presentes em 67,4%, embora em 66,7% a libido não tenha mudado após o procedimento cirúrgico. Como fator de melhora da dor fantasma, o repouso foi citado por 90,9% das pacientes, enquanto esforços físicos foram mencionados como fator de exacerbação dos sintomas em 63,6% dos casos. A média da nota atribuída à dor em escala de 0 a 10 foi 3, variando de 1 a 7. Apenas 3% das pacientes sabiam da existência desta síndrome antes da realização das entrevistas. CONCLUSÕES: fenômenos fantasmas são freqüentes em pacientes mastectomizadas, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para que se conheçam melhor suas características e o impacto sobre a qualidade de vida dessas mulheres.PURPOSE: to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with the diagnosis of phantom breast syndrome or with phantom phenomena lonely. METHODS: it was conducted an observational, descriptive and sectional study enrolling 98 patients treated for breast cancer at Hospital São Marcos, Teresina (PI, Brazil. A standardized questionnaire was applied. RESULTS: the phantom breast syndrome was observed in 11.2% of the patients and phantom sensation alone was observed in 30% of the patients. The mean age of the patients was 54 years. Fifty-nine patients were married (60% and 79.5% were

  9. Analysis of epidemiology and clinical characteristics in 22 case of leishmaniasis%黑热病流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红卫; 李书武; 胡丹; 兰敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To imoprove the diagnosis of leishmaniasis based on the clinical analysis of of leish-maniasis.Methods The data of 22 cases of leishmaniasis patients were retrospectively analyzed, including epi-demiological data, clinical manifestation, laboratory examination, diagnosis, therapeutic procedures and prognosis. Results leishmaniasis has no specific clinical manifestations,The main clinical manifestations were fever, spleen and lymph node enlargement and complete blood cell decrease. All patients were effective treated with sodium pentavalent antimony gluconate (SPAG). Conclusion leishmaniasis is easily misdiagnosed. If leishmaniais is sus-pected, bone marrow biopsy, rk-39 strip test for visceral leishmaniasis pathogen should be done to improve the outcome. SPAG is the first choice for leishmaniasis chemotherapy.%目的:分析22例黑热病患者临床资料,提高黑热病诊断水平。方法:回顾性分析22例黑热病的流行情况、临床表现、实验室检查、诊治及转归。结果:黑热病无特异的临床表现,发热、肝脾淋巴结肿大、全血细胞减少为黑热病的主要临床表现。葡萄糖酸锑治疗有效。结论:黑热病误诊率较高。骨髓涂片或活检,查找立什曼原虫,结合39ku蛋白重组抗原(rk39)检测,能正确作出诊断。葡萄糖酸锑治疗有效。

  10. Epidemiology and reporting characteristics of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Moher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs have become increasingly popular to a wide range of stakeholders. We set out to capture a representative cross-sectional sample of published SRs and examine them in terms of a broad range of epidemiological, descriptive, and reporting characteristics, including emerging aspects not previously examined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched Medline for SRs indexed during November 2004 and written in English. Citations were screened and those meeting our inclusion criteria were retained. Data were collected using a 51-item data collection form designed to assess the epidemiological and reporting details and the bias-related aspects of the reviews. The data were analyzed descriptively. In total 300 SRs were identified, suggesting a current annual publication rate of about 2,500, involving more than 33,700 separate studies including one-third of a million participants. The majority (272 [90.7%] of SRs were reported in specialty journals. Most reviews (213 [71.0%] were categorized as therapeutic, and included a median of 16 studies involving 1,112 participants. Funding sources were not reported in more than one-third (122 [40.7%] of the reviews. Reviews typically searched a median of three electronic databases and two other sources, although only about two-thirds (208 [69.3%] of them reported the years searched. Most (197/295 [66.8%] reviews reported information about quality assessment, while few (68/294 [23.1%] reported assessing for publication bias. A little over half (161/300 [53.7%] of the SRs reported combining their results statistically, of which most (147/161 [91.3%] assessed for consistency across studies. Few (53 [17.7%] SRs reported being updates of previously completed reviews. No review had a registration number. Only half (150 [50.0%] of the reviews used the term "systematic review" or "meta-analysis" in the title or abstract. There were large differences between Cochrane reviews and non

  11. [Epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiandong; Li, Dexin

    2016-03-01

    Zika virus disease is an emerging mosquito-borne acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus, so far there have been no available vaccine or specific treatment. Currently, the outbreaks of Zika virus disease mainly occurs in the Americas, but the regional distribution of the disease is in rapid expansion, 34 countries and territories have reported autochthonous transmission of the virus. The illness is usually mild with very rarely death, but increased reports of birth defects and neurologic disorders in the areas affected by Zika virus has caused extensive concern worldwide. In China, the competent vectors for Zika virus are widely distributed, imported viraemic cases may become a source of local transmission of the virus. However, Zika virus disease is preventable, the spread of virus could be stopped when the effective prevention measures are taken. This paper summarizes the retrieval results from Medline database and the information from the reports of the governments of countries affected or health organizations about the epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus disease.

  12. Chinese health care system and clinical epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuelian; Gregersen, Hans; Yuan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    China has gone through a comprehensive health care insurance reform since 2003 and achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011. The new health care insurance system provides China with a huge opportunity for the development of health care and medical research when its rich medical resources are fully unfolded. In this study, we review the Chinese health care system and its implication for medical research, especially within clinical epidemiology. First, we briefly review the population register system, the distribution of the urban and rural population in China, and the development of the Chinese health care system after 1949. In the following sections, we describe the current Chinese health care delivery system and the current health insurance system. We then focus on the construction of the Chinese health information system as well as several existing registers and research projects on health data. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges of the health care system in regard to clinical epidemiology research. China now has three main insurance schemes. The Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance (UEBMI) covers urban employees and retired employees. The Urban Residence Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) covers urban residents, including children, students, elderly people without previous employment, and unemployed people. The New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS) covers rural residents. The Chinese Government has made efforts to build up health information data, including electronic medical records. The establishment of universal health care insurance with linkage to medical records will provide potentially huge research opportunities in the future. However, constructing a complete register system at a nationwide level is challenging. In the future, China will demand increased capacity of researchers and data managers, in particular within clinical epidemiology, to explore the rich resources. PMID:28356772

  13. Epidemiological, Clinical and Virological Characteristics of Influenza B Virus from Patients at the Hospital Tertiary Care Units in Bangkok during 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horthongkham, Navin; Athipanyasilp, Niracha; Pattama, Archiraya; Kaewnapan, Bualan; Sornprasert, Suthatta; Srisurapanont, Surangrat; Kantakamalakul, Wannee; Amaranond, Palanee; Sutthent, Ruengpung

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B virus, which causes acute respiratory infections, has increased in prevalence in recent years. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene, influenza B virus can be divided into two lineages, Victoria and Yamagata, that co-circulate during the influenza season. However, analysis of the potential association between the clinical and virological characteristic and the lineage of influenza B viruses isolated in Thailand was lacking. To investigate influenza B virus genetically and determine its neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor susceptibility phenotype, a total of 6920 nasopharyngeal-wash samples were collected from patients with influenza-like illness between the years 2011 and 2014 and were screened for influenza B virus by real-time PCR. Of these samples, 3.1% (216/6920) were confirmed to contain influenza B viruses, and 110 of these influenza viruses were randomly selected for nucleotide sequence analysis of the HA and NA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the HA sequences showed clustering into various clades: Yamagata clade 3 (11/110, 10%), Yamagata clade 2 (71/110, 64.5%), and Victoria clade 1 (28/110, 25.5%). The analysis of clinical characteristic demonstrated that the Victoria lineage was significantly associated with the duration of hospitalization, number of deceased cases, pneumonia, secondary bacterial infection and underlying disease. When combined with phylogenetic analysis of the NA sequences, four samples showed viruses with reassortant sequences between the Victoria and Yamagata lineages. Statistical analysis of the clinical outcomes and demographic data for the reassortant strains did not differ from those of the other strains in circulation. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza B viruses were not detected. Our findings indicated the co-circulation of the Victoria and Yamagata lineages over the past four cold seasons in Bangkok. We also demonstrated differences in the clinical symptoms between these lineages.

  14. Ambulatório de foniatria infantil: características clínicas e epidemiológicas Pediatric phoniatry outpatient ward: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lopes Fávero

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Crianças com alteração de linguagem ou aprendizagem e audição normal necessitam uma avaliação foniátrica para analisar os vários aspectos da comunicação e do desenvolvimento visando o diagnóstico diferencial e as indicações terapêuticas. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar clínica e epidemiologicamente uma população pediátrica atendida em ambulatório foniátrico. MÉTODO: Forma de Estudo: coorte histórica com corte transversal. Sessenta e oito pacientes submetidos à consulta foniátrica. As medidas de desfecho foram idade, sexo, origem do encaminhamento para a consulta foniátrica, diagnóstico, idade média dos indivíduos em cada diagnóstico, riscos neonatais, antecedentes familiares para distúrbios da comunicação e encaminhamentos realizados. RESULTADOS: 70,58% do sexo masculino e 29,42% do feminino com idade média de 6,85 ± 2,49 anos. 63,23% oriundos de serviços externos e 45,59% sem diagnóstico auditivo. Foram realizados 14 diagnósticos diferentes. 50% receberam diagnóstico de Paralisia Cerebral, Distúrbio Específico de Linguagem e Transtorno Invasivo do Desenvolvimento. A diferença entre as idades médias foi estatisticamente significativa (F = 4,369 p = 0,00. 50% apre-sentaram história familiar para distúrbios da comunicação e 51,47% de risco neonatal. 51,47% foram encaminhados para uma consulta neurológica e 79,41% para terapias. CONCLUSÃO: A população atendida é predominantemente masculina, com alterações mais complexas de desenvolvimento de linguagem por provável etiologia multifatorial, muitos sem diagnóstico auditivo.Children with language or learning impairment and normal hearing need phoniatric assessment to analyse various communication and development aspects targeting the differential diagnosis and therapeutic indications. OBJECTIVE: Characterize clinical and epidemiological features of a pediatric population treated in a phoniatric outpatient clinic. METHOD: A cross-sectional historical cohort

  15. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ana Carolina; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin, characterized by irregular brown macules symmetrically distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly on the face. It is a common cause of demand for dermatological care that affects mainly women (especially during the menacme), and more pigmented phenotypes (Fitzpatrick skin types III-V). Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Its pathogeny is not yet completely understood, although there are some known triggering factors such as sun exposure, pregnancy, sexual hormones, inflammatory processes of the skin, use of cosmetics, steroids, and photosensitizing drugs. There is also a clear genetic predisposition, since over 40% of patients reported having relatives affected with the disease. In this manuscript, the authors discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of melasma.

  16. Hypertensive crisis: clinical-epidemiological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela-Martin, José Fernando; Vaz-de-Melo, Renan Oliveira; Kuniyoshi, Cristina Hiromi; Abdo, André Neder Ramires; Yugar-Toledo, Juan Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Hypertensive crisis (HC) stands out as one type of acute elevation in blood pressure (BP) and can manifest as hypertensive emergency (HE-with target-organ damage (TOD)) or hypertensive urgency (HU-without TOD), usually accompanied by levels of diastolic BP ≥120 mmHg. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical-epidemiological profile of HC over the course of 1 year in a university reference hospital and perform a review of the literature. The study was a cross-sectional study, conducted over a period of 1 year (2006) in 362 patients who presented for treatment at the emergency hospital with HC, as described above. Among all patients examined, 231 individuals met the criteria for HE and 131 met the criteria for HU. Patients with HE were older (Phypertension.

  17. Melasma: a clinical and epidemiological review*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Ana Carolina; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2014-01-01

    Melasma is a chronic acquired hypermelanosis of the skin, characterized by irregular brown macules symmetrically distributed on sun-exposed areas of the body, particularly on the face. It is a common cause of demand for dermatological care that affects mainly women (especially during the menacme), and more pigmented phenotypes (Fitzpatrick skin types III-V). Due to its frequent facial involvement, the disease has an impact on the quality of life of patients. Its pathogeny is not yet completely understood, although there are some known triggering factors such as sun exposure, pregnancy, sexual hormones, inflammatory processes of the skin, use of cosmetics, steroids, and photosensitizing drugs. There is also a clear genetic predisposition, since over 40% of patients reported having relatives affected with the disease. In this manuscript, the authors discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of melasma. PMID:25184917

  18. Papilledema: epidemiology, etiology, and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigi M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Rigi,1 Sumayya J Almarzouqi,2 Michael L Morgan,2 Andrew G Lee2–4 1Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, University of Texas, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Blanton Eye Institute, 3Baylor College of Medicine, 4Departments of Ophthalmology, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, UTMB Galveston, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA Abstract: Papilledema is optic disc swelling due to high intracranial pressure. Possible conditions causing high intracranial pressure and papilledema include intracerebral mass lesions, cerebral hemorrhage, head trauma, meningitis, hydrocephalus, spinal cord lesions, impairment of cerebral sinus drainage, anomalies of the cranium, and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH. Irrespective of the cause, visual loss is the feared morbidity of papilledema, and the main mechanism of optic nerve damage is intraneuronal ischemia secondary to axoplasmic flow stasis. Treatment is directed at correcting the underlying cause. In cases where there is no other identifiable cause for intracranial hypertension (ie, IIH the available options include both medical and surgical modalities. Weight loss and diuretics remain the mainstays for treatment of IIH, and surgery is typically reserved for patients who fail, are intolerant to, or non-compliant with maximum medical therapy. Keywords: papilledema, intracranial hypertension, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, epidemiology, papilledema management, papilledema etiology, acetazolamide, optic nerve sheath fenestration, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, lumboperitoneal shunt, venous sinus stenting

  19. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients had had headache for a longer period than dizziness. A correlation was detected between VM symptoms and the menstrual period. 61.53% of patients had auditory symptoms, with tinnitus the most common, although tonal audiometry was normal in 68.51%. Vectoelectronystagmography was normal in 67.34%, 10.20% had hyporeflexia, and 22.44% had vestibular hyperreflexia. Electrophysiological assessment showed no abnormalities in most patients. Fasting plasma glucose and glycemic curve were normal in most patients, while the insulin curve was abnormal in 75%. 82% of individuals with MV showed abnormalities on the metabolism of carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: VM affects predominantly middle-aged women, with migraine headache representing the first symptom, several years before vertigo. Physical, auditory, and vestibular evaluations are usually normal. The most frequent vestibular abnormality was hyperreflexia. Most individuals showed abnormality related to carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Research progress of epidemiology and clinical characteristics of pertussis%百日咳临床特点及流行病学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红梅; 郑佳佳

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis is an severe infectious respiratory disease that continues to be a serious public health problem,which is caused by Bordetella Pertussis.Because it's highly infectivity,it is still an important etiological factor associated with persistent cough in adults and adolescents.With the introduction of mass vaccination in 1974,there has been a dramatic decrease in the morbidity and mortality.However,in recent years,increasing numbers of pertussis are reported in adolescents and adults in many countries where with high vaccination coverage.The thesis summarize and discuss the progress of pertussis cpidemiology and clinical characteristics.%百日咳(pertussis,whooping cough)是由百日咳鲍特菌引起的一种可预防的严重急性呼吸道传染病,传染性较强,人群普遍易感,是严重威胁人类健康的主要传染病之一,是导致年长儿及成人长期咳嗽的常见病因.1974年全球实施扩大免疫计划以来,世界范围内的百日咳得到有效控制,发病率和病死率大幅下降.近年来,百日咳发病率有所上升,甚至发生局部暴发,从而对公共健康产生了巨大冲击.现就百日咳的临床特点、流行病学等方面进行综述.

  1. Analysis of the Epidemiologic & Clinical Characteristics of 88 Cases of Brucellosis%88例布鲁氏菌病例流行病学特征及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 张志宇; 刘祥宁; 刘洪艳

    2014-01-01

    对沈阳市第六人民医院2009年1月至2011年12月收治的88例布鲁氏菌病(简称布病)患者的流行病学特征和临床表现特点进行了回顾性分析。分析结果表明:在88例布病病例中,男性与女性比例为4.9:1;21~60岁为布病的高发年龄段;5~9月份是布病的高发季节;牧民是主要的易感者;牛羊是布病的主要转染源。患者最共同的临床表现为发热,常见的临床表现有发汗、乏力、关节痛、腰痛及肝脾肿大等。布病仍然是我国重要的公共卫生问题,充分了解布病患者的流行病学特征和临床表现特点,将会为布病防治措施的制定和疫情的控制提供科学合理的依据。%The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics concerning 88 cases of brucellosis patients admitted for treat-ment from January 2009 to December 2011 in the six peoples Hospital of Shenyang were analyzed retrospectively. The results showed that in a total of 88 cases of brucellosis,ratio of male and female were 4. 9:1. The high incidence a-ges were between 21 ~ 60 years old;and the high incidence season was between May and September;herdsmen were among the main susceptible. Cattle,goats and sheep were the main transmission sources of brucellosis. The most common clinical manifestations of brucellosis are fever,sweating,fatigue,arthralgia,lumbago,and hepatosplenomeg-aly etc. Brucellosis is still an important public health problem in China. Full understanding the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of brucellosis will provide a scientific,reasonable basis for the constitution of the controlling measures,and keep the epidemic brucellosis under control.

  2. 汕头市2005~2010年儿童结核病流行病学与临床分析%The clinical epidemiological characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis in Shantou from 2005 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓少宏; 杨仪; 伍成峰; 何端满; 陈伟生; 马兴灶; 詹世广

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively investigate the epidemiology and incidence of tuberculosis of children in a tuberculosis specialist hospital in Shantou,and to further study the characteristics of tuberculosis on epidemiology ,clinical manifestation in children. Methods Clinical data of 123 children with tuberculosis were reviewed by 6 years. Results The incidence was highest in patients aged between 0~6 years (8.53% ),36.58% had contact with patients with active tuberculosis,most of them were the children younger than 6 years. The sources of the infection were the parents and relatives. PPD test was negative in 35.78% of the severely infected patients,such as miliary tuberculosis,tuberculous meningitis. Only half of the patients developed fever and cough. Conclusion The prevalence of tuberculosis in children is still high, and their clinical manifestations could be atypical. Diagnosis of tuberculosis requires methods with higher specificity and sensitivity.%目的 调查分析儿童结核病在汕头市的流行、临床表现与治疗情况.方法 收集近6年收住的出院诊断为结核病的患者病史,并进行重新评估,对符合诊断的123例患儿的临床资料作回顾性分析.结果 结核病诊断率增加,以0~6岁年龄段发病率较高,占58.53%; 36.58%有明显的结核病接触史,主要集中在6岁以下的儿童,传染源多为日常密切接触的家人;35.78%患儿结核菌素试验阴性,其结核类型主要为粟粒型肺结核、结核性脑膜炎等,中、重症结核病表现多见;结核病患儿中出现发热、咳嗽等症状者为50%左右.结论 儿童结核病流行趋势严峻,结核病患儿的临床表现多样化,临床诊断手段匮乏,需要进一步加强研究.

  3. Epidemiologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in Brazil

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    Aguinaldo C. Nardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In Brazil, National data regarding the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics of RCC diagnosed and treated by members of the SBU - Brazilian Society of Urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data were collected through an on line questionnaire available to the members of the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU. Between May 2007 and May 2008, voluntary participant urologists collected data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics from patients diagnosed with RCC in their practice. RESULTS: Fifty SBU affiliated institutions contributed with patient information to the study. Of the 508 patients, 58.9% were male, 78.9% were white, and the mean age was 59.8 years. Smoking history, high blood pressure and a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 were present in 14.8%, 46.1% and 17.9% of the patients, respectively. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography were the main diagnostic methods. The majority of the cases were localized tumors and metastasis were presented in 9.5% of the patients; 98.4% underwent nephrectomy. Clear cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. In comparison with private institutions, stage IV disease was less frequent among patients treated at public health services (P = 0.033. CONCLUSIONS: RCC in Brazil is more common in white men in their sixth decade of life. Ultrasound is the main diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma and we found that localized disease was predominant. A national registry of RCC is feasible and may provide valuable information.

  4. The analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 patients with adult measles%成人麻疹99例流行病学和临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of adult measles,and to search methods for preventing and controlling measles epidemic. Methods The clinical data of 99 patients with adult measles were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Results The incidence of adult measles showed increasing trend. The patients with adult measles had the typical clinical manifestations including severe systemic toxic responses, high fever(79/99,79.80%),diarrhea(60/99,60.60%)and liver dysfunction(54/99,54.54%). Measles was easily misdiagnosed in earlier period(58/99,58.58%). But the incidence of complicationg was less(12/99,12.12%). Conclusions The key to prevent and control measles is diagnosing ,segregating and treating patients with measles in earlier period and vaccination in susceptible population.%目的 探讨本次成人麻疹流行病学和临床特点,以期更好的预防和控制麻疹.方法 对住院的99例麻疹患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 成人麻疹发病有增加趋势,临床症状典型,中毒症状重,多高热(79/99,79.80%)腹泻者多见(60/99,60.60%),易损害肝脏(54/99,54.54%),并发症不多(12/99,12.12%),早期容易误诊(58/99,58.58%).结论 对麻疹患者早诊断、早隔离、早治疗,对易感者加强麻疹疫苗接种是预防和控制麻疹的关键.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis C in China,1997—2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦倩倩

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics and changing trend as well as the related affecting factors of hepatitis C in China.Methods Data analysis was performed based on the case-reporting data of hepatitis C from 1997 to 2011,using SPSS 19.0.Results The

  6. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics Analysis of 412 Patients With Hepatitis C%412例丙型肝炎患者流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤瑞玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析我院收治的412例丙型肝炎患者的流行病学及临床特征。方法回顾性分析我院2009年11月~2014年9月丙型肝炎患者的流行病学特征及临床特征。结果412例患者中有输血史的占16.50%,有手术史的占23.30%,未发现任何丙型肝炎相关病史的占49.51%; HEV、HIV等合并感染比例占23.06%;其中39.81%患者表现为临床乏力,24.5%的患者表现为纳差,26.2%患者患有腹胀,23.9%患者有黄疸表现;B超、CT或MRI影像学检查异常患者占59.4%;低病毒载量组血清中AST、ALT水平低于其它HCV RNA载量组(P 0.05)。结论对丙型肝炎高危人群进行筛查时,需要对阳性患者进行HEV、HIV等检测,防止漏诊,及早进行干预治疗,减少疾病传染。%Objective To analyze epidemiology and clinical characteristics of 412 cases of patients with hepatitis c in our hospital .Methods Retrospective analysis of the epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of patients with hepatitis C from November 2009 to September 2014.ResultsIn these patients , 16.50% of them had a history of blood transfusion. 23.30% of them had a history of surgery, while 49.51% of them found no medical history related to hepatitis C. 23.06% of the patients had a co-infection with HEV、HIV and so on .39.81% of the patients suffered clinical manifestations of fatigue.24.5% characterized show a poor appetite. 26.2% presented a abdominal distention, and 23.9% suffered from abdominal distension. Ultrasound, CT or MRI imaging examination in patients were abnormal (59.4%). Low viral load group serum AST, ALT level was significantly lower than other HCV RNA loads group (P 0.05).Conclusion On hepatitis C screening, it is need to test HEV, HIV, syphilis and other testing.Which can prevent misdiagnosis, and early intervention and treatment can reduce the disease transmission.

  7. Kinetics methods for clinical epidemiology problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlan, Alexandru Dan; Ross, John

    2015-11-17

    Calculating the probability of each possible outcome for a patient at any time in the future is currently possible only in the simplest cases: short-term prediction in acute diseases of otherwise healthy persons. This problem is to some extent analogous to predicting the concentrations of species in a reactor when knowing initial concentrations and after examining reaction rates at the individual molecule level. The existing theoretical framework behind predicting contagion and the immediate outcome of acute diseases in previously healthy individuals is largely analogous to deterministic kinetics of chemical systems consisting of one or a few reactions. We show that current statistical models commonly used in chronic disease epidemiology correspond to simple stochastic treatment of single reaction systems. The general problem corresponds to stochastic kinetics of complex reaction systems. We attempt to formulate epidemiologic problems related to chronic diseases in chemical kinetics terms. We review methods that may be adapted for use in epidemiology. We show that some reactions cannot fit into the mass-action law paradigm and solutions to these systems would frequently exhibit an antiportfolio effect. We provide a complete example application of stochastic kinetics modeling for a deductive meta-analysis of two papers on atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and mortality.

  8. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology of pulmonary pseudallescheriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantarcioglu, A.S.; de Hoog, G.S.; Guarro, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Some members of the Pseudallescheria (anamorph Scedosporium) have emerged as an important cause of life-threatening infections in humans. These fungi may reach the lungs and bronchial tree causing a wide range of manifestations, from colonization of airways to deep pulmonary infections.

  9. Survey on clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 6 cases with SFTSV infection%6例人感染新型布尼亚病毒病的临床特征和流行病学调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈爱华; 鲍昌俊; 胡建利; 李陆逊; 羊海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:分析溧水县2011年确诊的6例人感染新型布尼亚病毒病的临床特征和流行病学特征,为制定预防控制措施提供参考.方法:采用卫生部统一的诊断标准和流行病学个案调查表对病例进行调查.结果:发病率为1.42/10万,死亡率0.24/10万,病死率为16.67%.临床表现主要为发热(6例)、乏力(6例)、食欲减退(6例)、全身酸痛(5例)、腹泻(5例)、恶心(4例);临床实验室检查有血小板计数减少和白细胞计数减少(6例),门冬氨酸氨基转移酶(6例)、磷酸肌酸激酶(6例)、乳酸脱氢酶(6例)、α-羟丁酸脱氢酶(5例)、肌酸激酶同工酶(5例)、胱抑素C(5例)水平升高.病例均来自丘陵村镇,为中老年农民,发病时间集中于4~7月份,部分病例发病前有明确的蜱叮咬史.结论:新型布尼亚病毒感染病例发病初期临床症状不典型,发病有地域特征,高度散发,在丘陵地区生活、生产的居民有较高的感染风险.%Objective: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 6 cases with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus( SFTSV ) infection of Lishui County in 2011 , so as to provide reference for making prevention and control measures. Methods: Investigating cases by uniform diagnostic criteria and epidemiological questionnaire of the ministry of health. Results: The incidence rate of disease was 1.42 per 100 thousand, the mortality rate was 0. 24 per 100 thousand. The clinical manifestations including fever ( 6 cases ), fatigue ( 6 cases ), loss of appetite ( 6 cases ), muscular stiffness ( 5 cases ) and diarrhea ( 5 cases ), and nausea ( 4 cases ). Laboratory results including thrombocytopenia and leucopenia ( 6 cases ), elevated AST ( 6 cases ), CPK ( 6 cases ), LDH ( 6 cases ), a- HBDH ( 5 cases ), CK- MB( 5 cases ) and Cystatin ( 5 cases ). All cases were elderly people from Qiuling Town, and occurred between April to July. There was premorbid history of tick bites in some

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of childhood migraine syndrome in Serbia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marija Kne(z)evi(c)-Pogan(c)ev; Neboj(s)a Jovi(c); Vesna Iveti(c); Danka Filipovi(c); Dragan Katani(c)

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood migraine, examining the clinical characteristics of different childhood migraine types, predisposing factors, and possible medical treatments in a sample of children in Serbia. This was the first epidemiological study in Serbia using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headache Society. The present study examined 30 636 children between 1988 and 2006, including 15 434 (50.38%) males and 15 202 (49.62%) females, in nine towns in Vojvodina, a northern province in Serbia. Migraine was reported in 2 644 (8.63%) children aged 3 to 7 years, consisting of 1 189 (8.0%) males and 1 455 (9.6%) females. Migraine with aura accounted for 25.55%, migraine without aura for 67.21% and other migraine syndromes for 7.23% of reported migraine sufferers. The mean age of first migraine attack across groups was 5 years and 1.8 months. Migraine with aura was associated with an earlier onset than migraine without aura.Migraine was more frequent among younger groups of children who were breastfed for a shorter period of time. Child healthcare in Vojvodina has a high level of specialization, with more than half of the children reporting migraine diagnosed and treated by neuropediatricians. Socioeconomic status,duration of breastfeeding, birth order, and age of entering full-day nursery care were found to be important factors for childhood migraine. These findings suggest that healthcare providers should educate parents about these predisposing factors, so they can be identified and avoided early.

  11. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Chronic Adenoiditis in Children

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    Daniel Reyes Concepción

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic adenoiditis, which causes the greater number of elective major surgeries in children, is a common disease in Cuba. Objectives to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of chronic adenoiditis in children. Methods: a descriptive study with non-probability sampling was conducted in 98 children with chronic adenoiditis treated at the University Pediatric Hospital of Central Havana, between September 2009 and July 2011. The variables analyzed were age, sex, symptoms, signs and main clinical manifestations, personal medical history, family history, and major environmental and social risk factors. A survey was conducted to identify risk factors. Statistical analysis such as: the mean, relative frequency and frequency tables were performed. Results: highest morbidity was observed in children aged 1 to 9 years. The main features of the disease were nasal obstruction, dental malocclusion, mouth breathing and respiratory infection. The most common risk factors were attendance to day-care centers and exposure to cigarette smoke. Personal and family history of asthma and respiratory allergies was the most frequently found. Conclusion: chronic adenoiditis in pediatric patients is multifactorial in origin, and tends to decrease in the child population older than nine years.

  12. Measles Outbreak in Macedonia: Epidemiological, Clinical and Laboratory Findings and Identification of Susceptible Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Irena T Kondova; Zvonko Milenkovic; Sanja P Marinkovic; Golubinka Bosevska; Gordana Kuzmanovska; Goran Kondov; Sonja Alabakovska; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases) and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected...

  13. Sexually transmitted diseases: epidemiological and clinical aspects in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusano, Salvatore; Silvestri, Tommaso; Casotto, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are the first 10 causes of unpleased diseases in young adult women in the world. The concept of STDs includes a series of syndromes caused by pathogens that can be acquired by sexual intercourse or sexual activity.Adolescents and young adults are responsible for only 25% of the sexually active population and they represent almost 50% of all newly acquired STDs.In this way, we evaluated the epidemiological and clinical aspects of most relevant pathogens as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus Ducreyi, Trichomonas vaginalis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus (HPV) with the exception of hepatitis, and HIV infections for which we suggest specific guidelines.To attain this objective, we analyzed the results of epidemiological and clinical aspects of STDs through a review of the literature using MEDLINE and PubMed database for original articles published using the terms "sexual transmitted disease, epidemiology, diagnosis and therapy" from 2005 to 2014.

  14. Molecular and Genetic Research in Tuberculosis Clinical Practice and Epidemiology

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    Bahytkul Zhakipbayeva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB remains a global public health problem. In order for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB to be more effectively managed, there is a need for better tools for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. The decline of TB incidence and mortality in Kazakhstan during last decade was accompanied with consistent growth of MDR-TB. This study aimed to investigate genotype characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT isolated from TB patients from different regions of the country and its clinical and epidemiological significance.Methods. Over 500 clinical MT isolates from pulmonary TB patients between 2003-2008 were genotyped using spoligotyping, MIRU-VNTR, IS6110 RFLP, and hybridization on an oligonucleotide biochip “TB–biochip.”Results. Out of  250 isolates with interpretable results, 31 different spoligopatterns were detected. The Beijing genotype was the most predominant lineage detected (71.6%, characterized by heterogenicity on ETR A, B, C, D, and E markers, and 56.6% of them had an allelic profile 42435. The Beijing genotype and dominating variant strains have a high transmission rate, a high rate of primary MDR (associated with infiltrating lung TB and complications, and a high level resistance to rifampicin and izoniazid due to mutation of rpoB531TTG and katG315ACC. MIRU-VNTR–typing by 15 loci of 33 isolates from 13 family TB foci revealed that strains from supposed sources and contact persons completely coincide in only 5 foci in the genomic structure.Conclusion. There is a heterogeneous pool of genotypes that circulate in Kazakhstan, with the Beijing lineage being the most predominant. It appears that at the present stage of circulation , MT Beijing genotype has an endemic character. However, clonal spreading of epidemiologically and clinically significant MDR strains of this genotype is also a serious threat to the population. To increase TB control efficiency and prevent further transmission

  15. Zika virus : epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, S.; Pompon, J.; Diop, F.; Talignani, L.; Thomas, F; Desprès, P; Yssel, H; Missé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

  16. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes con cólera en la ciudad de México Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cholera patients in Mexico City

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    Agustina Elena Vilchis-Guizar

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar las características clínico-epidemiológicas de enfermos de cólera (casos con las de pacientes con diarrea por otra causa (no casos, atendidos en las unidades médicas de la Delegación 2 Noreste del Distrito Federal, del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal analítico y se utilizaron datos de 4 952 notificaciones reunidas entre 1995 y 1998 a través del formato oficial "Hoja de notificación inmediata de casos de cólera", que cada unidad médica envía a la Coordinación de Salud Comunitaria del IMSS. Mediante estadística analítica se compararon medias y proporciones para ambos grupos. RESULTADOS: Se identificaron 588 pacientes con cólera y 4 364 con diarrea por otra causa. En el primer grupo, la edad promedio varió entre los 39 y los 51 años, y predominó el sexo femenino (54%. Durante 1995 y 1997 (años en los que se presentó un número más elevado de casos, los pacientes de cólera, en relación con el grupo de comparación, presentaron una mayor frecuencia de evacuaciones líquidas (97 vs. 73%, con aspecto de "agua de arroz" (31 vs. 13%, vómitos (72 vs. 63%, espasmos musculares (49 vs. 26%, deshidratación (83 vs. 71%, choque hipovolémico (10 vs. 1% y defunciones (0.85% vs. 0.25%, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. CONCLUSIONES: El cólera muestra un comportamiento cíclico bianual; a mayor frecuencia mayor gravedad de la enfermedad. Se requiere incrementar la vigilancia epidemiológica y el esfuerzo médico para un diagnóstico y tratamiento oportuno.OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cholera patients and patients with diarrhea of different etiology (controls, treated at Mexican Institute of Social Security medical units in Northeast Mexico City, from 1995 to 1998. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional analytical study design. Data were collected using the official form "Immediate Notification

  17. Lobomycosis: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

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    Francesconi VA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Valeska Albuquerque Francesconi,1 Ana Paula Klein,2 Ana Paula Botelho Gualda Santos,2 Rajendranath Ramasawmy,3 Fábio Francesconi4 1Department of Dermatology, Tropical Medicine Foundation Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 2Amazon Federal University, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil; 3Department of Immunogenetics, 4Department of Dermatology, Tropical Medicine Foundation Heitor Vieira Dourado, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Abstract: Lobomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis of chronic evolution caused by the Lacazia loboi fungus. Its distribution is almost exclusive in the Americas, and it has a particularly high prevalence in the Amazon basin. Cases of lobomycosis have been reported only in dolphins and humans. Its prevalence is higher among men who are active in the forest, such as rubber tappers, bushmen, miners, and Indian men. It is recognized that the traumatic implantation of the fungus on the skin is the route by which humans acquire this infection. The lesions affect mainly exposed areas such as the auricles and upper and lower limbs and are typically presented as keloid-like lesions. Currently, surgical removal is the therapeutic procedure of choice in initial cases. Despite the existing data and studies to date, the active immune mechanisms in this infection and its involvement in the control or development of lacaziosis have not been fully clarified. In recent years, little progress has been made in the appraisal of the epidemiologic aspects of the disease. So far, we have neither a population-based study nor any evaluation directed to the forest workers. Keywords: infection, Lacazia loboi, lobomycosis, lacaziosis, mycosis 

  18. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  19. Epidemiology and clinical management of tuberculosis in children in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Shaun K Morris; Demers, Anne-Marie; Lam, Ray; Pell, Lisa G; Giroux, Ryan JP; Kitai, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Although often regarded as a foreign disease, latent tuberculosis or tuberculosis disease will be encountered in many clinical situations by the Canadian child health practitioner. There are key differences between tuberculosis in children and adults. In the present article, the changing epidemiology of tuberculosis in children in Canada and around the world, the pathogenesis of infection, diagnostic tests, and clinical management of childhood latent tuberculosis and tuberculosis disease are ...

  20. POLYNEOPLASMS IN OPHTHALMIC ONCOLOGY: CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ye. Panova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the clinical and epidemiological aspects of polyneoplasms of the organ of vision, shows the incidence rate of this abnormality in the pattern of neoplasms of the eye, and determines the specific features of the age-sex composition of patients and the clinical course characterized by a predominance of the metachronic type of a tumor process and by the most common concurrence with malignant skin tumors or breast cancer.

  1. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infecti

  2. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis in Fujian province%福建地区真菌性角膜炎的流行病学和临床特点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昭升; 吴护平; 许芬芳; 谢素贞; 闫蕾

    2009-01-01

    目的 研究福建地区真菌性角膜炎(fungal keratitis,FK)的流行病学和临床表现特点.方法 回顾性分析2006年7月至2008年7月住院确诊的FK患者176例,分析其流行病学和临床表现方面的特点.结果 10~12月发病率最高,农村居民106例(60.2%),男女患病率比为1.5:1,41~60岁为发病集中年龄,仅39.8%有明确外伤史,在153例先于外院就诊的患者中,仅有28例(18.3%)接受过角膜刮片和(或)真菌培养检查;菌丝苔被、伪足、前房积脓发生率分别为94%、65%和55%;菌属鉴定结果:前两位分别为:镰刀菌属(60.4%)和曲霉菌属(25.4%);保守治疗治愈率80.9%,眼球保存率为97.5%;镰刀菌属菌丝在角膜中的生长方式表现为水平、斜行和垂直生长,曲霉菌属全部表现为斜行和垂直生长.结论 福建地区FK在10~12月为高发期,多发于中老年的农村居民,多数无明显诱因发病,菌丝苔被、伪足和前房积脓依次为前三位临床体征,致病菌属以镰刀菌属和曲霉菌属为主,它们在角膜内地生长方式有所不同,大多数药物保守治疗有效,加上手术治疗绝大多数能保住眼球.基层医院对本病的诊治有待加强.%Objective To study the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of fungal keratitis(FK)in Fujian province.Methods A total of 176 hospitalized cases of fungal keratitis from July 2006 to July 2008 were retrospectively reviewed for epidemiology and clinical characteristics.Results The peak of FK occurred in Oct.to Dec.One hundred and six(60.2%)patients were rural resident.The ratio between the male and female patients was 1.5:1.Most patients were 41~60 years old.The history of trauma was present in 70 patients(39.8%).Only 28 patients(18.3%)received etiological examination in the 153 patients hospitalized in other hospital first.The incidence rate of mycelium lawn,pseudopodium and hypopyon was 94%,65% and 55% respectively.Fusarium species were isolated the most frequently(60

  3. Epidemiological characteristics and clinical phenotype of sporadic retinitis pigmentosa%散发性视网膜色素变性的流行病学及临床表型特征调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏芳; 徐海伟; 孟晓红; 阴正勤

    2012-01-01

    背景 视网膜色素变性(RP)是一种累及视网膜光感受器细胞及色素上皮细胞的单基因遗传性致盲性眼病,发病机制及临床特征复杂,目前对其临床表型特征及流行病学调查的研究较少,尤其是散发性RP患者.目的 了解散发性RP的流行病学及临床表型特征,为临床诊疗提供可靠的依据.方法 采用前瞻性队列研究设计.纳入2010年7月1日至2011年11月10日在第三军医大学西南眼科医院确诊为散发性RP的患者130例,对其进行问卷调查和临床检查,包括检眼镜下眼底检查、验光检查、最佳矫正视力(BCVA)、视野、视网膜电图(ERG)和彩色眼底照相检查,对各种类型的RP临床特征进行分型. 结果 共收集散发性RP患者130例,其中男66例,女64例;平均年龄(36.9±14.4)岁,平均发病年龄(21.2±18.4)岁;有家族近亲结婚史者7例,占5.38%;合并全身疾病者13例,占10.00%;RP病例中从事户外工作者44例,占33.85%;从事户内工作者86例,占66.15%;眼底分型中最常见的是典型型RP 89例,占68.5%,其次是中心性RP 16例,占12.3%,无色素性RP 16例,占12.3%;全视野ERG检查五项反应均记录不到波形99例,占76.15%.发现典型型RP患者夜盲史最长,中心性RP患者BCVA最差.结论 本研究结果发现散发性RP发病年龄以≤10岁组最高,其主要临床表型变异大、分型多、诊断特异性差,但全视野ERG结果有一定的规律可循.%Background Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of progressive monogenic inheritance disease.Seldom epidemiology is performed to summarize the varied clinical phenotypes,especially some sporadic cases with untypical genetic history. Objective The aim of this survey was to investigate the clinical epidemiological characteristics and phenotype of sporadic RP. Methods A prospective cohort study was designed.A survey of a series of clinically diagnosed sporadic primary RP patients was conducted at the

  4. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of feline leishmaniasis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz da Silveira Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis are severe and unfortunately common parasitic diseases in Brazil. Among domestic animals, dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the protozoan parasites, however, there is evidence that infected cats can also contribute towards the disease pool. The number of cats diagnosed with leishmaniasis has greatly increased in the last few years, highlighting the importance of thorough investigations on the role of the cat in the epidemiological cycle of the disease and in public health related issues. The main clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis suffered by cats, even when infected with Leishmania chagasi, a viscerotropic species, are skin abnormalities, which can be confounded with multiple other diseases. Indirect ELISA should be used as a screening test in epidemiological investigations for being a sensitive technique, followed by more specific laboratory tests. The standardization and validation of rapid, economical and reproducible diagnostic methods, to be employed in epidemiological surveillance, are still required

  5. Clinical and epidemiological round: journal club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hincapié-Osorno, Carolina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this new edition of Ronda Clínica y Epidemiológica, four studies that we consider important for clinical practice are analyzed. The SOME study, in which Carrier et al., evaluated the efficacy of a screening strategy for occult cancer in patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism. The study by Freedman et al., shows that the use of apple juice is not inferior to oral electrolyte maintenance solution in children with mild gastroenteritis. Gágyor et al., investigated about the use of ibuprofen versus fosfomycin for treating symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Finally, the meta-analysis of Martindale et al., provided valuable information about the tests that should be done in the diagnosis of acute heart failure.

  6. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiodt, Morten; Larsson Wexell, Cecilia; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad

    2015-01-01

    established a network for reporting incident cases to each country's research database directly or through a member of the Scandinavian ONJ task force as a liaison. The task force includes a Scandinavian coordinator and three national coordinators collaborating directly with the clinics. A uniform ONJ...... registration form has been developed, and the relevant medical community has been informed either directly or through presentations at professional meetings. A website with study information is published in each country, and data entry is ongoing. This large-scale systematic uniform registration of ONJ cases...... as a whole and its component national ONJ research databases may offer the potential for large-scale multinational intervention and safety studies in the future....

  7. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths in Beijing 2010%北京市2010年手足口病死亡病例流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘白薇; 王全意; 李锡太; 贾蕾; 张奕; 黎新宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过描述2010年北京市手足口病死亡病例的流行病学特点和临床特点,分析手足口病重症病例发生死亡的危险因素,为防制手足口病,减少手足口病的死亡提供科学依据.方法:采用现况描述及病例对照研究的方法,对2010年北京市手足口病死亡病例的特点进行分析.结果:2010年北京市共报告18例手足口病死亡病例,88.9%分布在5-8月份;死亡病例的男女比例为3.5∶1;年龄均小于4岁;流动人口聚集区的死亡病例较多;散居儿童及外地户籍儿童比例高,分别为83.3%和94.4%.死亡病例均出现出疹、发热及神经精神系统症状,整体精神状况,呼吸功能指标以及循环系统受累明显.与重症痊愈病例相比,感染EV71型病毒是发生死亡的危险因素(x2=4.774,P=0.029).结论:手足口病死亡病例分布与重症病例分布基本一致.应对流动人口聚集地区的4岁以下婴幼儿重症病例进行重点防控.%Objective: To exmine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case in Beijing 2010, to explore the risk factors of intensive case development of deaths case, to provide the treasures data for preventing and control hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case. Methods: Use monitoring data of hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case and case-control study,was analyze the characteristic of deaths case. Results: There were 18 reportrd hand-foot-mouth disease deaths case in Beijing 2010. 88.9% deaths case was from May to August; male female ratio of deaths case was 3.5:1; age of patients was less than 4 years old for all of the case;most case were reported in floating of urban-rural population community;more deaths case were seen in scattered children and nonlocal census register children,and the rate was 83.3% and 94.4%. All of deaths case were suffered from rash, fever and mentally psychiatric symptoms;overall mental status, respiratory function, and circulatory

  8. Urolithiasis in pregnancy: survey in clinical epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqing; Wang, Jianfeng; Li, Jierong; Zheng, Jintao; Huang, Zhenqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the association of pregnancy with urolithiasis and provided new insights into urolithiasis in pregnancy. A total of 462 subjects were studied from January 2004 to December 2009 in Foshan Maternal and Child Health Hospital, China. Among the 462 subjects, 162 cases of urolithiasis during pregnancy (UPG) were selected as the observation group, 150 cases of no urolithiasis during pregnancy (NUPG) served as pregnancy control group, and 150 cases of no pregnancy (NPG) at reproductive age who took part in physical examination were randomly assigned into non-pregnant control group. At the same time, the patients in observation group were divided into the following sub-groups: no symptomatic urinary calculus (NSUC) and symptomatic urinary calculus (SUC) groups; SUC group was further divided into surgical intervention (SI) and conservative management (CM) groups. The general information and the data of blood and urine were collected and compared among the groups. The results showed that the incidence of urinary calculi in pregnant women was lower than that in non-pregnant women, the formation of urinary stone was associated with the change of metabolism of protein and sugar in pregnant women, and the surgical intervention was a practicable alternative to treat the clinical intractable symptomatic urinary calculi in pregnancy.

  9. Feline sporotrichosis: epidemiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremião, Isabella D F; Menezes, Rodrigo C; Schubach, Tânia M P; Figueiredo, Anna B F; Cavalcanti, Maíra C H; Pereira, Sandro A

    2015-01-01

    Feline sporotrichosis, which is caused by species of the Sporothrix schenckii complex, is endemic to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. More than 4000 cases of the disease were diagnosed at Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil, between 1998 and 2012. Sporotrichosis in cats has been reported in several countries, but nowhere has an outbreak of animal sporotrichosis been as large as that seen in Brazil. The clinical manifestations of the disease range from an isolated skin lesion that can progress to multiple skin lesions and even fatal systemic involvement. Nodules and ulcers are the most common types of lesions, and respiratory signs and mucosa involvement are frequent. The definitive diagnosis depends on isolation of the etiologic agent in culture. Cytology, histopathology, and serology are useful tools for preliminary diagnosis. Severe pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate, high fungal load, and extension of lesions to mucosa, cartilage, and bone in the nose of cats are indicative of an agent of high virulence in this endemic region. Itraconazole is the drug of choice, while, in refractory cases, amphotericin B or potassium iodide might be alternative treatments; however, recurrence after discharge may occur. Sporotrichosis persists as a neglected disease in Rio de Janeiro, and the treatment of cats remains a challenging and long-term endeavor.

  10. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of complicated malaria in Colombia, 2007-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaparro-Narváez, Pablo E; Lopez-Perez, Mary; Rengifo, Lina Marcela;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During the last decade, Colombia presented a significant decrease in malaria clinical cases and associated mortality. However, there is a lack of reliable information about the prevalence and characteristics of complicated malaria cases as well as its association with different...... Plasmodium species. A description of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of complicated malaria in Colombia is presented here. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted using data collected between 2007 and 2013 by the Public Health Surveillance System (SIVIGILA). Demographic and clinical features were...

  11. [EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER; ETIOLOGY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, AND CLINICAL SYMPTOMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, K W; Zakharenko, S M; Kovalenko, A N; Semenov, A V; Fusin, A Ya

    2015-01-01

    The data on the prevalence of disease caused by Ebola virus, biological features of its pathogen, character of the epidemiological process, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms are presented. The disease is characterized by suppression of protective immunological mechanisms and systemic inflammatory reaction accounting for the lesions of vascular endothelium, hemostatic and immune systems. It eventually leads to polyorgan insufficiency and severe shock. Lethality amounts to 50%.

  12. Epidemiological and clinical correlates of chlamydial infection of the cervix.

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, O P; Mallinson, H; Goddard, A D

    1981-01-01

    Of 474 women studied to identify epidemiological and clinical correlates of chlamydial infection of the cervix, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 158 (33.3%) of all women, from 48.3% of those infected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, from 43% of the sexual consorts of men with nongonococcal urethritis, and from 74% of those whose consorts were also infected with C trachomatis. C trachomatis was the sole pathogen found in 58 women. Age, marital state, occupation, past history of gonorrhoea, m...

  13. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  14. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUI LI; LING FANG; LI RONG ZOU; CHANG WEN KE; PING HUANG; JI CHENG HUANG

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of norovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks in Guangdong. During October 2003 and December 2004, fecal and anal swabs specimens collected from 13 outbreaks of non-bacterial gastroenteritis were tested for norovirus. Specimens were detected by RT-PCR and sequenced. The descriptive data were also collected. Eight in 13 outbreaks of gastroenteritis were positive for norovirus. All of 8 virus strains were identified as genogroup Ⅱ but belonged to 3 genotypes. Six strains were G Ⅱ-4 genotype. Norovirus is a major cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Guangdong province and has a wide distribution. The illness happended from late autumn to winter. The prevalent strains were genogroup Ⅱ virus.

  15. The Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 123 Initiated Antiretroviral AIDS Patients in Zhuhai%珠海市HIV/AIDS初治病人123例流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦; 丁立; 黄珊凤; 夏瑾瑜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore ihe characteristics of epidemiology and clinical manifestation of HIV/AIDS infective patients in Zhuhai, and to provide evidence for AIDS preventing and controlling. Methods One hundred and twenty-three cases of HIV/AIDS infective patients, who initialed antiretroviral therapy in our hospital from Januar 2005 to December 2011 , were analyzed. Results The male; female ratio was 1.93: 1 in these AIDS patients. 91.05% of patients were between twenty and fifty. Sexual contact was the major route of transmission, heterosexual activity (47. 97% ) and homosexual activity (11. 38% ). The common symptoms were fever, diarrhea and lymphadenopathy. The common opportunistic infections were thrush, pneumocystis jirocevi pneumonia, tuberculosis, herpes zoster. CD4+ lymphocyte counts less than 100/mm3 was 47. 15% , between 100/mm3 and 200/mm3 was 28. 46% , between 200/mm3 and 350/mm3 was 23. 58% , more than 350/mm3 was 0. 81% . Conclusion The persons affected with HIV/AIDS in this region are mainly young a-dults, more men than women; sexual contact was the major route of transmission. Clinicians should be to strengthen AIDS screening, propaganda and education, for early detection and treatment, so as to curb the spread of AIDS.%目的 观察珠海市HIV/AIDS初治病例的流行病学和临床特征,为本地区艾滋病防治提供依据.方法 回顾性分析2005年1月-2011年12月本院收治的123例HIV/AIDS初治病例的临床资料.结果 HIV/AIDS初治病例中男:女1.93:1,20 ~50岁年龄组占91.05%;感染途径以性传播为主,其中异性间性传播47.97%,同性间性传播11.38%;常见临床症状为发热、腹泻和淋巴结肿大等,常见机会性感染有口腔真菌感染、肺孢子菌肺炎、结核病和带状疱疹等;CD4+淋巴细胞<100个/μL占47.15%,100~ 200个/μL占28.46%,200~ 350个/μL占23.58%,>350个/μL占0.81%.结论 珠海市HIV/AIDS初治病例男性多于女性,以青壮年为主,感染途径

  16. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 323 chronic hepatitis C patients%323例慢性丙型肝炎患者流行病学及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志霞; 谢青; 项晓刚; 王晖; 周惠娟; 庄焱; 徐玉敏

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解慢性丙型肝炎患者的流行病学及临床特点.方法 对323例确诊为慢性丙型肝炎患者的临床资料进行系统分析,研究该组人群感染HCV的传播途径,临床表现及病毒学特征,并分析39例行肝组织活检患者的肝脏组织学改变.两组之间比较采用t检验.结果 323例慢性丙型肝炎患者经输血或使用血制品感染者135例,占41.8%;有手术等有创操作史者67例,占20.7%,其中接受过针灸治疗者19例,占5.9%,有血液透析史者18例,占5.6%;母婴传播2例,占0.6%;有静脉注射毒品史者21例,占6.5%;性传播者2例,占0.6%;其他不明原因者78例,占24.1%;合并HBV感染者14例,占4.3%.222例患者中,HCV基因型1b型和2a型分别为145例和21例,分别占65.3%和9.5%,283例患者血清HCV RNA病毒载量为1×105和1×106IU/mL者分别为74例和103例,分别占26.1%和36.4%.临床表现有明显肝炎症状和体征者23例,占7.1%.行肝组织活检的39例慢性丙型肝炎患者中,肝脏炎症活动指数(HAI)≥4有14例,占35.9%;纤维化评分(F)≥3的患者6例,占15.4%;HAI≥4同时 F≥3的患者4例,占10.3%.结论 我国慢性丙型肝炎患者感染途径多为输血或使用血制品,经手术等有创操作感染也不容忽视,而除输血外,静脉注射毒品、血液透析及针灸疗法等感染途径亦增加.感染HCV常见的病毒基因型为1b和2a型,病毒复制水平较高,大多数患者发病隐匿,无明显肝炎症状和体征,但肝组织活检显示多数患者肝脏有组织学改变.%Objective To analyze epidemiological and clinical characteristics of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. Methods The clinical data of 323 CHC patients were collected. The transmission modes, clinical manifestations and virological features were recorded. The liver histological change was also analyzed in 39 cases whose liver biopsy samples were available. The comparison between two groups was performed by t test. Results Among the 323 CHC patients

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Labyrinthine Concussion

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Mi Suk; Shin, See-Ok; Yeon, Je Yeob; Choi, Young Seok; Kim, Jisung; Park, Soo Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Inner ear symptoms like hearing loss, dizziness or tinnitus are often developed after head trauma, even in cases without inner ear destruction. This is also known as labyrinthine concussion. The purpose of this study is to determine the clinical manifestations, characteristics of audiometry and prognostic factors of these patients. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of the 40 patients that had been diagnosed as labyrinthine concussion from 1996 to ...

  18. Clinical and epidemiological features of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Alice Tung Wan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the relevance of AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity worldwide, especially in Brazil, this study was developed to describe the clinical and epidemiological features of the comorbid cases identified from 1989 to 1997 by the epidemiology service of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Databases containing information on all identified AIDS/tuberculosis cases cared for at the hospital were used to gather information on comorbid cases. RESULTS: During the period, 559 patients were identified as presenting with AIDS/tuberculosis comorbidity. Risk behavior for AIDS was primarily heterosexual contact (38.9%, followed by intravenous drug use (29.3% and homosexual/bisexual contact (23.2%. Regarding clinical features, there were higher rates of extrapulmonary tuberculosis when compared to tuberculosis without comorbidity. There was an increase in reporting of AIDS by ambulatory units during the period. Epidemiologically, there was a decrease in the male/female ratio, a predominance in the 20 to 39 year-old age group, and a majority of individuals who had less than 8 years of schooling and had low professional qualifications. CONCLUSIONS: High rates of AIDS/tuberculosis cases at our hospital indicate the need for better attention towards early detection of tuberculosis, especially in its extrapulmonary form. Since the population that attends this hospital tends to be of a lower socioeconomic status, better management of AIDS and tuberculosis is required to increase the rates of treatment adherence and thus lower the social costs.

  19. Hemodialysis versus peritoneal dialysis: epidemiologic and demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmat R

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: The preferred modality of dialysis is a controversial issue in nephrology. In this study we compare some demographic and epidemiological characteristics of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in an attempt to analyze this issue."n"n Methods: The results of the research protocol "A survey of the epidemiological characteristics of chronic dialyzed patients in Khorassan province", was used to compare some demographic and epidemiological aspects of chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients in search of any statistically significant difference."n"n Results: A total of 836 chronic dialysis patients entered this study, 802 (95.9% of which were under chronic hemodialysis, and 34 (4.1% patients were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, with 339 (42.3% and 12 (35.3% being female, respectively. The mean age for each group was 47.57 and 46.75 years, respectively. The causes of end-stage renal disease in hemodialzed patients were most commonly hypertension (32.2%, followed by diabetes mellitus (22.3%, unknown causes (19.6% and chronic glomeru-lonephritis (10.2%. In the peritoneal dialysis group, chronic glomerulonephritis (32.4% was the most common reason for dialysis, followed by diabetes mellitus (26

  20. Epidemiology, etiology and study of clinical findings of headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffarpoor M

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional epidemiological study of headache disorders in neurology clinic of Fatemieh hospital of Semnan (August 22-November 20.1996, information on types of headaches, quality, severity, location, duration, frequency, precipitating factors, age of onset, influence of menstruation and pregnancy, positive familial history, use of oral contraceptive pills and other epidemiological factors including socioeconomic and age/sex composition was collected. The presence of any types of headaches was ascertained by a clinical interview and examination using the operational diagnostic criteria of the International Headaches Society. The prevalence of migraine and tension type headache was also analysed in relation to variables of life style (physical activity and sleep pattern and associated signs and symptoms (nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. In this study migraine and tension headache were also compared in variable aspects with each other. 1 Headache was more prevalent in women than men (F/M=3/1. 2 The most common types of headache included: tension type headache (41.4%, migraine (31.2% and unclassified headaches (17.2%. 3 Migraine and T.T.H were more prevalent in early adult life and middle ages. 4 In both migraine and tension type headache the time profiles (duration, frequency, age of onset, quality and location were like that noted in textbook and previous studies. 5 In both migraine and tension type headache the most conspicuous precipitating factor was stress and mental tension and frequent headaches were accompanied with psychiatric problems (e.g depression and or anxiety. 6 Nausea, vomiting, phonophobia and photophobia were the most common associated symptoms in both of them. 7 Positive familial history and aggravation of headache in perimenstual period were more commonly seen in patients with migraine than tension type headache. In conclusion using the operational diagnostic criteria of International Headache Society in

  1. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

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    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  2. [Historical evolution of some clinical and epidemiological knowledge of coccidioidomycosis in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negroni, R

    2008-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic endemic mycosis caused by two dimorphic fungi of the Coccidioides genus: Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. This fungal infection is only endemic in the American Continent. The majority of the epidemiological, pathogenic, clinical, mycological and therapeutical findings were obtained in the U.S.A. Coccidioidomycosis was discovered in Argentina, at the end of the XIXth century by Alejandro Posadas. In the last two decades, a new endemic zone was found in the northeast of Brazil. Several countries of the region such as Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Venezuela and Argentina have performed epidemiological studies which allowed a better knowledge of the endemic areas and of the clinical characteristics of this mycosis.

  3. Analysis of epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 177 patients with acute hepatitis B%177例急性乙型肝炎流行病学及临床特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付成涛; 刘佳; 陈晓红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute hepatitis B, and provide basis for better diagnosis, treatment and prevention of acute hepatitis B. Methods The clinical materials of 177 a-cute hepatitis B patients hospitalized in the Fist Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University from Jan. 2005 to Feb. 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Acute hepatitis B occurred mostly in male, worker and farmer, aging from 20 to 49 years old without significant seasonal incidence. The main route of transmission remained unknown. Acute hepatitis B was characterized by abrupt onset, 76. 84 % of which with jaundice. Fatigue and symptom of digestive tract appeared in majority of patients, mild and moderate fever appeared in part of patients, rash and arthralgia appeared in few patients, and unusal extrahepatic manifestations appeared in individual patient, such as renal failure. The vast majority of acute hepatitis B patients could be diagnosed correctly, individual patients were misdiagnosed as chronic hepatitis B, fever of unknown causation, diabetic ketosis and polymyositis. 93. 78% of the patients healed or improved, 5. 08 % of them developed fulminant hepatitis, and 7. 56% of them turned to chronic hepatitis B. There were 92. 44% HBsAg conversion, and 95. 80% HBV DNA conversion patients in half a year follow up. For fulminant hepatitis,3 cases were improved by antiviral therapy of nucleoside, while 3 cases without receiving nucleoside died and 2 cases gave up therapy. Conclusion The age of morbidity and the route of transmission have changed greatly in acute hepatitis B, and a few patients developed rare extrahepatic manifestations. A small number of patients were misdiagnosed. Most of acute hepatitis B prognosis were good, only few of them turned into chronic hepatitis B, and a small number of them developed fulminant hepatitis and even death.%目的 探讨近年来急性乙型肝炎的流行病学及临床特点,为更好地

  4. Clinical characteristics of Caroli's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozlem Yonem; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Caroli's syndrome is characterized by multiple segmental cystic or saccular dilatations of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with congenital hepatic fibrosis. The clinical features of this syndrome reflect both the characteristics of congenital hepatic fibrosis such as portal hypertension and that of Caroli's disease named as recurrent cholangitis and cholelithiasis. The diagnosis depends on both histology and imaging methods which can show the communication between the sacculi and the bile ducts. Treatment consists of symptomatic treatment of cholangitis attacks by antibiotics, some endoscopic,radiological and surgical drainage procedures and surgery. Liver transplantation seems the ultimate treatment for this disease. Prognosis is fairly good unless recurrent cholangitis and renal failure develops.

  5. CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF DENGUE IN JUSCIMEIRA - MT

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    Aguilar Marcos Moreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: dengue presents itself as a serious public health problem in Brazil and worldwide. Increased morbidity and mortality care managers, civil society and health professionals. To characterize the clinical and epidemiology of dengue in the city of Juscimeira - MT between the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: Retrospective quantitative-descriptive study was conducted from the secondary analysis of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases. Results: 391 cases were registered, with a predominance of males (51.4%, the largest number of cases in 2010 (28.14%, the classic dengue was the most prevalent type. The most affected age group was between 20-34 years. Regarding socioeconomic and geographic variables, the most affected were those living in urban areas and high school. The prevalent diagnostic method was the laboratory. The serotype of DENV-I was the most common in the city and 100% of the sample were autochthonous. Conclusion: Dengue is endemic in Juscimeira - MT. The data come from the epidemiological meeting of the current literature, reflecting the upward condition of this disease not only in the state of Mato Grosso and Brazil. It is recommended that further studies be carried forward to this subject, so that they can contribute to the process of monitoring of this disease in the city, working with the technical teams, health professionals and local managers in planning activities to be undertaken in the medium and long term to reduce the prevalence of this disease. KEYWORDS: Public Health. Epidemiological surveillance. Primary prevention.

  6. Tularemia in Arkhangelsk region: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    L. V. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze epidemiological and clinical features of tularemia cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with complications.Methods: We conducted retrospective cohort study including all patients hospitalized with tularemia between 2010 and 2014.Results: Most of tularemia cases were diagnosed in July (20,8% and August (57,1% among adult females (63,6%. The most common forms were bubonic and ulcer-bubonic (89,6%. Buboes were commonly found in the upper femoral and groin regions (92,2%. Diagnostic errors were revealed in 54,1% of cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were lymphadenitis and fever of unknown origin. Delay in effective antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased rate of complications.Conclusion: Tularemia has a diversity of clinical presentations. Doctors need to memorize the most common clinical signs of tularemia (fever and lymphadenitis to make timely diagnosis.

  7. Suicide During Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Clinical Correlates

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    Laura Orsolini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal period may pose a great challenge for the clinical management and treatment of psychiatric disorders in women. In fact, several mental illnesses can arise during pregnancy and/or following childbirth. Suicide and infanticide have been considered relatively rare events during the perinatal period. However, in some mental disorders (i.e. postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, postpartum psychosis, etc. have been reported a higher risk of suicidal ideation, suicide attempt or suicide. Therefore, a complete screening of mothers’ mental health should also take into account thoughts of suicide and thoughts about harming infants as well. Clinicians should carefully monitor and early identify related clinical manifestations, potential risk factors and alarm symptoms related to suicide. The present paper aims at providing a focused review about epidemiological data, risk and protective factors and an overview about the main clinical correlates associated with the suicidal behaviour during the pregnancy and postpartum period.

  8. Atopic dermatitis in adults: clinical and epidemiological considerations

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    Raquel Leão Orfali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic inflammatory disease causing intense pruritus, and with typical clinical features. There are few epidemiological studies concerning AD in adults, as well as little information about its prognostic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological course of adults with AD. METHODS: 80 patients aged above 18 years (mean age = 29 years were selected (30 males and 50 females and interviewed about hospitalization, systemic corticoid usage, age of AD onset, and personal and/or familial history of atopy. Disease severity was evaluated through the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD tool. Laboratory examination included IgE serum levels and eosinophil blood count. RESULTS: 71 out of 80 patients referred association with respiratory symptoms (18 had asthma, 17 had rhinitis, and 36 had both conditions; nine out of 80 patients denied any respiratory disease. AD patients were divided in mild (n = 25, moderate (n = 30, and severe (n = 25; 56% had one or more hospitalizations due to AD. A positive association was found between IgE serum levels, eosinophil blood count, and disease severity. CONCLUSION: Adult AD represents a clinical challenge that needs to be better characterized, since it can be misdiagnosed and interferes with the patient's social and personal life. The association of skin and respiratory atopic disease is frequent, and laboratory parameters such as circulating IgE levels and eosinophil blood count may be helpful to assess disease severity.

  9. Evaluating clinical periodontal measures as surrogates for bacterial exposure: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs David R; Papapanou Panos N; Demmer Ryan T; Desvarieux Moïse

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are currently no methodological studies evaluating which clinical periodontal measures best reflect the levels of subgingival bacterial colonization in population-based settings. We investigated the characteristics of clinical periodontal definitions that were most represen...

  10. Epidemiological Characteristics of Hypertension in the Elderly in Beijing, China.

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    Lina Ma

    Full Text Available The prevalence rate of hypertension increases significantly with the aging society, and hypertension is obviously becoming a major health care concern in China. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiological characteristics of hypertension in the elderly and to provide a basis for the prevention of hypertension.3-cross sectional studies in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Beijing, China.A group of 2,832, 1,828, and 2,277 elderly residents aged ≥60 years were included this study in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.None.Statistical sampling techniques included cluster, stratification, and random selection. Trained staff used a comprehensive geriatric assessment questionnaire and a standard survey instrument to complete the assessments. During the person-to-person interviews, the participants' demographic characteristics, living conditions, and health status were collected, and their blood pressure was measured.The prevalence rates (69.2%, 61.9%, and 56.0% of hypertension and the control rates (22.6%, 16.7%, and 21.5% lowered annually, while the awareness rates (43.7%, 55.8%, and 57.6% of the treatment elevated annually in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively. There was no increase in the control rates for males (26.2%, 16.7%, and 20.8%, younger participants (28.0%, 18.4%, and 21.0%, and rural residents (19.5%, 9.6%, and 13.4% in 2000, 2004, and 2007, respectively.Our study findings indicated that the prevalence of hypertension is high in rural elderly participants, while the rates of awareness, treatment, and control were low. This suggests that effective public measures need to be developed to improve the prevention and control of hypertension.

  11. Clinical, epidemiological and evolution of severe nosocomial pneumonia in intensive care unit

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    Abel Arroyo- Sanchez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics, evolution and to identify mortality factors associated in patients with SNP. Material and Methods: Descriptive study of a serie of cases of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a General Hospital. Medical records of patients which received medical attention and who meet the selection criteria were reviewed Results: Forty-one clinical records were evaluated. The average age was 69 old, predominantly male (68,3%. SNP was the reason of admission in 60.9% and 95.1% required mechanical ventilation. Hospital stay prior to diagnosis was 10 days, 65% of patients had some risk factor for multi resistence organisms, CPIS of entry was 9.3, cultures were positive in 39% of the cases and of these, 48.8% received proper antibiotic according to culture results. The days of stay in ICU were 20.6 days and 20 of the 41 medical records were for death patients. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics were similar between death and alive patients. An analysis of factors that could be associated with mortality SNP was made and it was found that for an age ≥ 70 years, the presence of any risk factor for multidrug resistence organism and control CPIS ≥ 6 were associated with higher mortality; while acquisition of the ICU was associated to lower mortality. Conclusions: The clinical, epidemiological characteristics and evolution of patients with SNP in our ICU were similar to those describe in the literature. Three factors associated with mortality in the ICU were identified.

  12. The genetic epidemiology of prostate cancer and its clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeles, Rosalind; Goh, Chee; Castro, Elena; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Guy, Michelle; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Douglas; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, familial and epidemiological studies have generated considerable evidence of an inherited component to prostate cancer. Indeed, rare highly penetrant genetic mutations have been implicated. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have also identified 76 susceptibility loci associated with prostate cancer risk, which occur commonly but are of low penetrance. However, these mutations interact multiplicatively, which can result in substantially increased risk. Currently, approximately 30% of the familial risk is due to such variants. Evaluating the functional aspects of these variants would contribute to our understanding of prostate cancer aetiology and would enable population risk stratification for screening. Furthermore, understanding the genetic risks of prostate cancer might inform predictions of treatment responses and toxicities, with the goal of personalized therapy. However, risk modelling and clinical translational research are needed before we can translate risk profiles generated from these variants into use in the clinical setting for targeted screening and treatment.

  13. Molecular approaches to epidemiology and clinical aspects of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G V; Beck, H P; Molyneux, M; Marsh, K

    2000-10-01

    Malaria is a problem of global importance, responsible for 1-2 million deaths per year, mainly in African children, as well as considerable morbidity manifested as severe anaemia and encephalopathy in young children. Fundamental to the development of new tools for malaria control in humans is an increased understanding of key features of malaria infection, such as the diversity of outcome in different individuals, the understanding of different manifestations of the disease and of the mechanisms of immunity that allow clinical protection in the face of ongoing low-grade infection (concomitant immunity or premunition). Here, Graham Brown and colleagues review some of the ways in which molecular approaches might be used to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and clinical manifestations of malaria, as discussed at the Molecular Approaches to Malaria conference (MAM2000), Lorne, Australia, 2-5 February 2000.

  14. [The epidemiological and clinical features of 208 patients with trichinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Cui, J; Jin, X

    1996-06-01

    In order to know the epidemiological and clinical features of trichinosis, the data of 208 patients with trichinosis from 1992 to 1994 were analysed. The results showed that these patients came from 11 districts, and acquired the infection mainly by tasting the raw pork filling for dumplings or ingesting instant-boiled pork or mutton. The incidence of trichinosis is high in winter. Young and middle-aged workers and cadres constituted the majority of the patients and the infection was more common in the males than in females. The main clinical manifestations of trichinosis were prolonged fever, general myalgia, muscle weekness and eosinophilia. Most of the patients had no gastrointestinal symptoms and skin eruption. Eyelid edema was only seen in the early stage. Serological tests were significant value in the diagnosis of trichinosis. The key measures to prevent trichinosis were that meat inspection should be strictly carried out and bad eating habit changed.

  15. [Travel diarrhea: attempt at a clinical-epidemiologic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollaritsch, H; Kremsner, P G; Tobisch, P; Ambrosch, F; Stemberger, H

    1987-06-30

    Traveller's diarrhea is the most common tourist's disease in the tropics. Therefore epidemiological data for the evaluation of factors influencing the attack rates and the severity of the disease are being required. This paper deals with the data of 1058 Austrian tourists travelling to warm climate countries. 47.3% of all travellers suffered from an episode of traveller's diarrhea during their stay. However, it could be evaluated that besides the destination seasonal influences were very important. Factors like individual hygiene and accommodation did not influence the attack rates. Age and environmental conditions, however, did partially influence the frequency of diarrhea. Furthermore, additional symptoms were interpreted and it could be seen that suspected heterogenicity of etiology leads to a similar pattern of clinical symptoms. Clinical evaluation proves that traveller's diarrhea is commonly not severe, but due to the incidence and duration of the disease it is a major health problem in modern tourism.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Malcolm; Hundi, Ganesh Kamath; Bhat, Ramesh Marne; Bala, Nanda Kishore; Dandekeri, Sukumar; Martis, Jacintha; Kambil, Srinath M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad. Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections Methods: A total of 75 patients presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis, erythrasma and trichobacteriosis to our hospital were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on epidemiological features and the various clinical findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram's stain, Wood's light examination, 10% KOH scrapings, were done in selected cases to ascertain the diagnosis. Results: Pitted keratolysis was more common in the age group of 31-40 years (40%) with a male preponderance (76.7%), most commonly affecting pressure bearing areas of the soles with malodour (86.7%) and frequent contact with water (58.3%) constituting the most important presenting symptom and provocating factor respectively. Erythrasma affected both male and female patients equally and was more commonly detected in patients with a BMI > 23kg/m2 (62.5%) and in diabetics (50%). All patients with trichobacteriosis presented with yellow coloured concretions in the axillae. Bromhidrosis (71.4%) and failure to regularly use an axillary deodorant (71.4%) were the most common presenting symptom and predisposing factor respectively. Conclusion: Coryneform skin infections are common dermatological conditions, though epidemiological data are fragmentary. Hyperhidrosis is a common predisposing factor to all three coryneform skin infections. Asymmetrical distribution of pits has been reported in our study. Diabetic status needs to be evaluated in all patients with erythrasma. Woods lamp examination forms an indispensible tool to diagnose erythrasma and trichobacteriosis. PMID

  17. Clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections at a tertiary hospital

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    Malcolm Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin infections caused by coryneform bacteria are common dermatological conditions. However, to the best of our knowledge, no studies are available on the clinical characteristics and epidemiological features of this group of disorders as one entity from India and abroad. Aims: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of coryneform skin infections Methods: A total of 75 patients presenting with clinically distinctive lesions of pitted keratolysis, erythrasma and trichobacteriosis to our hospital were included in the study. Cases were interviewed with particular emphasis on epidemiological features and the various clinical findings were recorded. Investigations like Gram's stain, Wood's light examination, 10% KOH scrapings, were done in selected cases to ascertain the diagnosis. Results: Pitted keratolysis was more common in the age group of 31-40 years (40% with a male preponderance (76.7%, most commonly affecting pressure bearing areas of the soles with malodour (86.7% and frequent contact with water (58.3% constituting the most important presenting symptom and provocating factor respectively. Erythrasma affected both male and female patients equally and was more commonly detected in patients with a BMI > 23kg/m2 (62.5% and in diabetics (50%. All patients with trichobacteriosis presented with yellow coloured concretions in the axillae. Bromhidrosis (71.4% and failure to regularly use an axillary deodorant (71.4% were the most common presenting symptom and predisposing factor respectively. Conclusion: Coryneform skin infections are common dermatological conditions, though epidemiological data are fragmentary. Hyperhidrosis is a common predisposing factor to all three coryneform skin infections. Asymmetrical distribution of pits has been reported in our study. Diabetic status needs to be evaluated in all patients with erythrasma. Woods lamp examination forms an indispensible tool to diagnose erythrasma and trichobacteriosis.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with clonorchiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Xia Wang; Rong-Bo Zhang; Yu-Bao Cui; Ye Tian; Ru Cai; Chao-Pin Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with clonorchiasis so as to provide scientific evidences for the diagnosis and prevention of clonorchiasis.METHODS: Stools from 282 subjects suspected of having clonorchiasis were examined for helminth eggs with modified Kato's thick smear and sedimentation methods, and their Sera Were tested for HAV-DNA, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA, HDV-RNA and HEV-RNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Clinical symptoms of patients with clonorchiasis only were analyzed, and their blood samples were tested for cireulating antigen (CAg) with Dot-ELISA, esoinophilic granulocyte count,and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Meanwhile, they were asked to provide data of occupation, eating habit, hygienic habit and knowledge of clonorchiasis. In addition, the ecosystem of the environment in epidemic areas was surveyed.RESULTS: Among the 282 patients, 61 (21.43%) were infected with clonorchis sinensis only, 97 (34.64%) were co-infected with clonorchis sinensis and other pathogens,92 (32.86%) were infected with hepatitis virus only and 31 (11.07%) neither with clonorchis sinensis nor hepatitis virus.Among the 61 patients with clonorchiasis only, there were 14 (22.95%) subjects with discomfort over hepatic region or epigasfrium, 12 (19.67%) with general malaise or discomfort and inertia in total body, 6 (9.84%) with anorexia, indigestion and nausea, 4 (6.56%) with fever, dizziness and headache (6.56%), and 25 (40.98%) without any symptoms; sixty one (100%) with CAg (+), 98.33% (59/60) with eosinophilic granulocytes increased and 65.00% (39/60) with ALT increased. B-mode ultrasonography revealed 61 cases with dilated and thickened walls of intrahepatic bile duct, and blurred patchy echo acoustic image in liver. Twenty-six cases had stones in the bile duct, 39 cases had slightly enlarged liver with diffuse coarse spots in liver parenchyma. Twenty cases had enlarged gallbladder with thickened coarse wall and image of floating plagues, 9

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小纲; 马岳峰; 江观玉; 干建新; 黄欣建

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of expressway traffic trauma in 2 040 cases in Zhejiang Province.Methods: The data of 2 040 cases of expressway traffic trauma taken from Zhejiang Provincial Expressway Traffic Bureau were analyzed with computer techniques.Results: A total of 2 040 persons were injured in 7 963 expressway traffic accidents in Zhejiang Province from January 1999 to December 2001. Among them, 435persons died (mortality, 21.3 %) and 1 605 were injured.The economic losses were over 170 million yuan RMB. The accidents caused by human factors accounted for 84.9%(vehicle drivers accounting for 79.2% ), which mainly included improper measures (20.4%), steering failure (17.7%), insufficient longitudinal space (15.9%), overspeed drive (12.5%), fatigue drive (6.4%), loading violation (5.9 %) and careless drive (6.3 %). Mechanical troubles and other factors took up 15.1%. There existed obvious uneven distribution among various regions. Jiaxing and Shaoxing were the sections with high incidence of accidents. The accidents mostly happened at 12:00-18:00,but the causing-dead ones most concentrated at 0:00-6:00.The main victims were young and middle-aged people (accounting for 72.3 %), but accident-stricken children and elderly persons (over 70 years old) took up higher mortalities (30.2 % and 40.7 %, respectively).Conclusions: The number of expressway traffic accidents and the economic losses are increasing year by year, with obvious uneven distribution at different places,different time and under different weather conditions. To reduce the accident frequency, it is important to strengthen the enforcement of traffic regulation, to balance the system of "person-vehicle-road", and to improve the safety consciousness of people.

  20. [The modern epidemiological characteristics of oto- and rhinosinusogenic intracranial complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanov, Yu K; Krivopalov, A A; Korneenkov, A A; Shcherbuk, Yu A; Artyushkin, S A; Vakhrushev, S G; Piskunov, V S; Tuzikov, N A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to survey epidemiology of oto- and rhinosinusogenic intracranial complications that are currently diagnosed at the territory of the Russian Federation. The work was based on the analysis of the official statistical reports together with the data obtained from the chief specialists responsible for the otorhinolaryngological services in 32 subjects of the Russian Federation during the period from 2009 to 2014. It was shown that the state of the otorhinolaryngological service in the period covered by the study was characterized by the reduction in the number of beds available for the patients presenting with ENT pathology by 14.0% and the lowering of the hospitalization rate for the general population by 6.3%. The frequency of oto- and rhinosinusogenic intracranial complications among the patients hospitalized to occupy the beds intended for the care of the patients suffering from ENT diseases was estimated at 0.03% and intrahospital lethality at 21.2%. The prevalence of pyogenic intracranial complications associated with the inflammatyory pathology affecting ENT was 0.61 per 100.000 population per year, with the mortality rate amounting to 0.17 fatal outcomes per 100.000 population per year. The study revealed significant correlation of the principal medico-statistical characteristics of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV)---?? between themselves and with the parameters of ENT morbidity and activities of the otorhinolaryngological services at the territory of a given administrative territory. It is concluded that the improvement of the quality of healthcare for the population presenting with intracranial complications and inflammatory ENT diseases is possible only on the baseis of the combined and interdisciplinary approach to the solution of the problem.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics and preventive strategies for fall injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics and to define some preventive strategies for fall injury (FI). Methods: The medical records of patients admitted following a fall from a certain height between August 1996and July 1997 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 138 patients were assessed, with a mortality of 31.2%. The male-to-female ratio was 3.5: 1.The persons between 20 and 59 years old were the main victims (81.8%), of which 52.2% were related with their work altitude. The remaining adults fall because of,accidents in daily life, suicide attempts, drug abuse,alcohol, or criminal behavior. There were significant differences between the death group and the survival group in the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) value (P <0.05 and P <0.01, respectively).Six children fall from balconies, open windows or roofs.There were significant differences for the height of fall and RTS value in aged group than those in children,adolescents, and adults (P <0.001, 0.005, 0.05; and P <0.05, 0.01, 0.05, respectively). The mortality of FI was significantiy correlated to the height of fall (r = 0.897, P <0.005). Conclusions: Male adults are the main victims,especially the workers at high altitudes. The mortality of FI is significantly correlated to the height of fall. The preventive strategies developed through analyzing the risk factors of fall in different age groups might reduce the injuries and deaths following fall.

  2. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

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    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia in Iran.

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    Elham Zeinali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Malassezia contains an expanding list of lipophilic yeasts involve in the etiology of various superficial fungal infections. Pityriasis versicolor (PV is the most prevalent Malassezia-related infection distributed worldwide. In the present study, clinical and epidemiological features of the genus Malassezia are discussed with special focus on PV in Iran.During June 2012 to April 2013, among 713 confirmed cases of fungal infections, 68 (9.5% were diagnosed as PV by positive direct microscopy results in 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH preparation of skin scrapings. All the specimens were cultured on modified Dixon agar and incubated at 32°C for 10 days. Identification of the isolated yeasts was carried out based on macro- and microscopic morphology, catalase test, utilization of Tweens, polyethoxylated castor oil (EL slant, and hydrolysis of esculin and utilization of Tween-60 (TE slant.Out of 68 skin scrapings, 55 (80.9% yielded yeast colonies on mDixon's agar which were finally identified as M. globosa (36.36%, M. pachydermatis (29.08%, M. furfur (23.65%, M. slooffiae (7.28% and M. obtusa (3.64%.Results of the present study further indicate clinico-epidemiological importance of the genus Malassezia with growing importance of M. pachydermatis as a major species involve in the etiology of pityriasis versicolor. These findings are of major concern in management of Malassezia-related diseases.

  4. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of gastric and duodenum ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larichev, A B; Maĭorov, M I; Favstov, S V; Shalop'ev, A G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.

  5. Clinical and Epidemiological Characterization of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

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    Zoe Alina González Otero

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease, it has varied clinical manifestations and cause different degrees of discomfort and disability. Objective: to conduct a clinical and epidemiological characterization of all rheumatoid arthritis patients admitted to the clinical services of the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in the clinical services of the Arnaldo Milián Castro University Hospital from 2009 through 2013. The universe consisted of 280 patients hospitalized due to rheumatoid arthritis. The following variables were studied: age, sex, skin color, past medical history, clinical manifestations, complications, affected organs, time of diagnosis and treatment. Chi square and prevalence ratio with a 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results: arthritis was found in 2 men every 5 women. White middle-aged patients predominated. Hypertension was the major illness described in the past medical history. Arthralgia and movement limitations prevailed. No family history of rheumatic disease was found. The time of diagnosis was less than six months and infection was among the most frequent complications. The most common treatment was the combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids, especially in seropositive patients. Conclusions: rheumatoid arthritis was more common in females and white middle-aged patients. Hypertension was the major illness found in the past medical history. Patients with two target organs affected predominated. Arthralgia and movement limitations prevailed in the clinical picture. The most common treatment was the combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids.

  6. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

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    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  7. Genetic epidemiology, hematological and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    There is large variation in the molecular genetics and clinical features of hemoglobinopathies in Iran. Studying structural variants of hemoglobin demonstrated that the β-chain variants of hemoglobin S and D-Punjab are more prevalent in the Fars (southwestern Iran) and Kermanshah (western Iran) provinces, respectively. Also, α-chain variants of Hb Q-Iran and Hb Setif are prevalent in western Iran. The molecular basis and clinical severity of thalassemias are extremely heterogenous among Iranians due to the presence of multiethnic groups in the country. β-Thalassemia is more prevalent in northern and southern Iran. Among 52 different β-thalassemia mutations that have been identified among Iranian populations, IVSII-1 G:A is the most frequent mutation in most parts of the country. The presence of IVS I-5 G:C mutation with high frequency in southeastern Iran might reflect gene flow from neighboring countries. A wide spectrum of α-thalassemia alleles has been detected among Iranians with -α(3.7 kb) as the most prevalent α-thalassemia mutation. The prevention program of thalassemia birth in Iran has reduced the birth rate of homozygous β-thalassemia since the implementation of the program in 1997. In this review genetic epidemiology, clinical and hematological aspects of hemoglobinopathies, and the prevention programs of β-thalassemia in Iran will be discussed.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of classical scrapie outbreaks in 30 sheep flocks in the United Kingdom.

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    K Marie McIntyre

    Full Text Available Most previous analyses of scrapie outbreaks have focused on flocks run by research institutes, which may not reflect the field situation. Within this study, we attempt to rectify this deficit by describing the epidemiological characteristics of 30 sheep flocks naturally-infected with classical scrapie, and by exploring possible underlying causes of variation in the characteristics between flocks, including flock-level prion protein (PrP genotype profile. In total, the study involved PrP genotype data for nearly 8600 animals and over 400 scrapie cases.We found that most scrapie cases were restricted to just two PrP genotypes (ARQ/VRQ and VRQ/VRQ, though two flocks had markedly different affected genotypes, despite having similar underlying genotype profiles to other flocks of the same breed; we identified differences amongst flocks in the age of cases of certain PrP genotypes; we found that the age-at-onset of clinical signs depended on peak incidence and flock type; we found evidence that purchasing infected animals is an important means of introducing scrapie to a flock; we found some evidence that flock-level PrP genotype profile and flock size account for variation in outbreak characteristics; identified seasonality in cases associated with lambing time in certain flocks; and we identified one case that was homozygous for phenylalanine at codon 141, a polymorphism associated with a very high risk of atypical scrapie, and 28 cases that were heterozygous at this codon.This paper presents the largest study to date on commercially-run sheep flocks naturally-infected with classical scrapie, involving 30 study flocks, more than 400 scrapie cases and over 8500 PrP genotypes. We show that some of the observed variation in epidemiological characteristics between farms is related to differences in their PrP genotype profile; although much remains unexplained and may instead be attributed to the stochastic nature of scrapie dynamics.

  9. Clinical, epidemiologic, histopathologic and molecular features of an unexplained dermopathy.

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    Michele L Pearson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Morgellons is a poorly characterized constellation of symptoms, with the primary manifestations involving the skin. We conducted an investigation of this unexplained dermopathy to characterize the clinical and epidemiologic features and explore potential etiologies. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among persons at least 13 years of age and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC during 2006-2008. A case was defined as the self-reported emergence of fibers or materials from the skin accompanied by skin lesions and/or disturbing skin sensations. We collected detailed epidemiologic data, performed clinical evaluations and geospatial analyses and analyzed materials collected from participants' skin. RESULTS: We identified 115 case-patients. The prevalence was 3.65 (95% CI = 2.98, 4.40 cases per 100,000 enrollees. There was no clustering of cases within the 13-county KPNC catchment area (p = .113. Case-patients had a median age of 52 years (range: 17-93 and were primarily female (77% and Caucasian (77%. Multi-system complaints were common; 70% reported chronic fatigue and 54% rated their overall health as fair or poor with mean Physical Component Scores and Mental Component Scores of 36.63 (SD = 12.9 and 35.45 (SD = 12.89, respectively. Cognitive deficits were detected in 59% of case-patients and 63% had evidence of clinically significant somatic complaints; 50% had drugs detected in hair samples and 78% reported exposure to solvents. Solar elastosis was the most common histopathologic abnormality (51% of biopsies; skin lesions were most consistent with arthropod bites or chronic excoriations. No parasites or mycobacteria were detected. Most materials collected from participants' skin were composed of cellulose, likely of cotton origin. CONCLUSIONS: This unexplained dermopathy was rare among this population of Northern California residents, but associated with significantly reduced health

  10. Chikungunya fever: epidemiology, clinical syndrome, pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Moyen, Nanikaly; Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Nougairede, Antoine; Gould, Ernest A; Roques, Pierre; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the aetiological agent of the mosquito-borne disease chikungunya fever, a debilitating arthritic disease that, during the past 7years, has caused immeasurable morbidity and some mortality in humans, including newborn babies, following its emergence and dispersal out of Africa to the Indian Ocean islands and Asia. Since the first reports of its existence in Africa in the 1950s, more than 1500 scientific publications on the different aspects of the disease and its causative agent have been produced. Analysis of these publications shows that, following a number of studies in the 1960s and 1970s, and in the absence of autochthonous cases in developed countries, the interest of the scientific community remained low. However, in 2005 chikungunya fever unexpectedly re-emerged in the form of devastating epidemics in and around the Indian Ocean. These outbreaks were associated with mutations in the viral genome that facilitated the replication of the virus in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Since then, nearly 1000 publications on chikungunya fever have been referenced in the PubMed database. This article provides a comprehensive review of chikungunya fever and CHIKV, including clinical data, epidemiological reports, therapeutic aspects and data relating to animal models for in vivo laboratory studies. It includes Supplementary Tables of all WHO outbreak bulletins, ProMED Mail alerts, viral sequences available on GenBank, and PubMed reports of clinical cases and seroprevalence studies.

  11. The changing clinical picture and epidemiology of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, major progress has been made in the recognition, classification and treatment of spondyloarthritis (SpA). Classification criteria have been developed for axial and peripheral SpA by the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) as a response to new insight into the clinical picture and unmet needs. The ASAS criteria have contributed to a better understanding of the full spectrum of axial and peripheral SpA and of the potential for treatment. However, whether all patients fulfilling these criteria should be considered as having true SpA is a matter of debate. Furthermore, the implementation of the ASAS criteria might lead to an increase in the reported prevalence of SpA, as patients who were previously unidentified could now be classified as having the disease, which might have consequences for healthcare budgets. In this Review, the changes in the clinical picture and epidemiology of SpA are discussed in light of the ASAS classification criteria for SpA.

  12. Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics of Pediatric Patients Affected by Dermatophytosis Características clínico-epidemiológicas de pacientes en edad pediátrica afectados por dermatofitosis

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    Yoan Bernardez Cruz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although few fungal species are considered to be pathogenic to humans and even when they are commonly less relevant than bacteria or viruses, they are not insignificant as a cause of disease. From a practical point of view, it was found that the mycosis fungoides they cause is one of the first reasons for consultation in our country and the world. Objective: To determine the main clinical and epidemiological features and laboratory findings of pediatric patients affected by ringworm. Methods: A descriptive, case series study was conducted. It included 102 patients with dermatophytosis. The information about these patients was collected from medical records and laboratory results of scraping and cultures of the lesions. Results: We obtained more positives in the test by culture (70.59%, compared to a 66, 7% in the examination by scraping, being Trichophyton rubrum the most common causative agent in the nails and body. The age group from 15 years old on predominated, as well as white skinned and female patients. Most patients were infected through contact with dogs. Conclusions: The percentage of pediatric patients with dermatophytosis is not low. This remains a frequent cause of medical consultation

    Fundamento: a pesar de que pocas especies de hongos son patógenos para los humanos y aun cuando su importancia  es menor que las de las bacterias o los virus, no son insignificantes como causa de enfermedades. Desde el punto de vista práctico se ha comprobado que las micosis que estos causan representan uno de los primeros motivos de consulta dermatológica en nuestro país y el mundo. Objetivo: determinar las principales características clínico-epidemiológicas y de laboratorio de pacientes en edad pediátrica afectados por dermatofitosis. Métodos: estudio descriptivo, de serie de casos

  13. Parainfluenza virus infections in a tropical city: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Mariana Mota Moura Fé

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV infections, especially in children from tropical countries, has been published. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of HPIV infections in children attended at a large hospital in Fortaleza in Northeast Brazil, and describe seasonal patterns, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of these infections. From January 2001 to December 2006, a total of 3070 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from children were screened by indirect immunofluorescence for human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3 (HPIV-1, 2 and 3 and other respiratory viruses. Viral antigens were identified in 933 samples and HPIV in 117. The frequency of HPIV-3, HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 was of 83.76%, 11.96% and 4.27%, respectively. Only HPIV-3 showed a seasonal occurrence, with most cases observed from September to November, and with an inverse relationship to the rainy season. Most HPIV-3 infections seen in outpatients were diagnosed as upper respiratory tract infections.

  14. Características clínico-epidemiológicas no carcinoma espinocelular de boca e orofaringe Clinic and epidemiologic characteristics in the with squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and oropharynx

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    Rogério A. Dedivitis

    2004-01-01

    ós radioterapia e 4% a cirurgia exclusiva e 8% tiveram segundo primário. Não houve relação estatisticamente significativa entre o estadiamento e os hábitos de tabagismo, etilismo e uso de prótese. Tais hábitos, a faixa etária e o grau histológico não tiveram relação significativa com o sítio do tumor. Estavam vivos e livres de doença 69,7% dos pacientes com tumor de boca e 22% de orofaringe. CONCLUSÃO: O médico ou dentista que dá o atendimento inicial é fundamental no reconhecimento das lesões, para que se possa estabelecer o diagnóstico precoce.Cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx is aggressive. It is one of the commonest cancers in Brazil and may be considered as the commonest in the head and neck. AIM: The objective of this paper is to evaluate clinical and epidemiological factors and the outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical retrospective. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a descriptive retrospective study, the charts of 43 cases of oral and 25 of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in the period 1997-2000 have been reviewed from the Departments of Head and Neck Surgery of Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Santos and Hospital Ana Costa. This was analyzed with emphasis on age, gender, profession, ethnic aspects, tobacco and alcohol use, dental prosthesis, referement origin, site of the lesion, clinical staging, histologic grade, treatment methods, survival and second cancer presence in the study group. The data were analysed by Exact Test of Fischer. RESULTS: In the oral cavity cancer patients, a male female ratio of 3.35:1 was observed, the median age was 62 years (ranging 46 to 91 years, 90.7% were Caucasian, 81% were referred from medical professionals, tobacco use was identified in 76.8%, alcohol intake in 74%, 79% were not dental prosthesis users, tongue was the commonest site identified (51.1%, 53% were staged as III and IV clinical stages, 72.1% were moderately differentiated SCC, combined modality of treatment (surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy was

  15. Human rhinovirus infections in hospitalized children: clinical, epidemiological and virological features.

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    Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Pham, T M H; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Shimizu, H; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of human rhinovirus (HRV) are not well documented in tropical regions. This study compared the clinical characteristics of HRV to other common viral infections and investigated the molecular epidemiology of HRV in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Vietnam. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1082 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for respiratory viruses by PCR. VP4/VP2 sequences of HRV were further characterized. HRV was the most commonly detected virus (30%), in which 70% were diagnosed as either pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Children with single HRV infections presented with significantly higher rate of hypoxia than those infected with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (12·4% vs. 3·8% and 0%, respectively, P < 0·05), higher rate of chest retraction than PIV-1 (57·3% vs. 34·5%, P = 0·028), higher rate of wheezing than influenza A (63·2% vs. 42·3%, P = 0·038). HRV-C did not differ to HRV-A clinically. The genetic diversity and changes of types over time were observed and may explain the year-round circulation of HRV. One novel HRV-A type was discovered which circulated locally for several years. In conclusion, HRV showed high genetic diversity and was associated with significant morbidity and severe ARIs in hospitalized children.

  16. Epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of fungal keratitis%单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂与视神经病变预后的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮百木; 齐坤英; 穆红梅; 张千帆

    2013-01-01

    目的评估单唾液酸四己糖神经节苷脂(Monosialotetera-hexosyl ganglioside GM1)与视神经病变预后的相关性。方法采用回顾性病例对照研究,收集首次发病的视神经病变患者143例196眼的临床资料,将可能影响研究对象视力预后的因素:性别、年龄、疾病类别、治疗前(矫正)视力、治疗前发病时间、是否接受GM1治疗为协变量;疗效、首次视力提高的时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力为因变量,用多元Logistic回归分析探讨GM 1对视神经病变视力预后的影响。结果单因素分析:GM1与视神经病变的疗效、首次视力提高时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力关联有统计学意义,其 P 值、OR、95% CI 分别为(P =00.00,OR =03.13,95% CI :01.70-05.78;P =00.01, OR =03.91,95% CI :02.19-06.98;P =00.00,OR =03.50,95% CI :01.96-06.25)。多因素分析:调整其他混杂因素后,GM1与视神经病变的疗效、首次视力提高时间、治疗2周后(矫正)视力显示有明显的促进作用。其调整OR 值,95% CI 分别为(OR =03.11,95% CI :01.59-06.06;OR =04.24,95% CI :02.24,08.05;OR =03.08,95% CI :01.41-06.71)。结论 GM1对视神经疾病的视力恢复有明显促进作用,有助于获得较好的视力预后。%Objective To explore the features of clinic-epidemiological and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis . Methods Three hundred and fifteen patients of different ages having provisional diagnosis of suppurative corneal ulceration were registered for the study . Data were collected through history and slit lamp xamination . Corneal scraping was performed . A portion of each scraping were examined by direct microscopy . Another portion were inoculated directly on to solid culture media . Results Among corneal scraping from 315 patients , the fungus grew in 116 (36 .8% ) . The

  17. Clinical characteristics and management of melanoma families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhee, Jasper Immanuel van der

    2013-01-01

    Being a member of a melanoma family is a major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. In this thesis clinical characteristics and management of melanoma families are discussed. In the first part of the thesis clinical and histological characteristics of melanoma (patients) from families with

  18. Clostridium difficile in Crete, Greece: epidemiology, microbiology and clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonis, G; Vardakas, K Z; Tansarli, G S; Dimopoulou, D; Papadimitriou, G; Kofteridis, D P; Maraki, S; Karanika, M; Falagas, M E

    2016-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology and microbiology of Clostridium difficile and the characteristics of patients with C. difficile infection (CDI) in Crete in three groups of hospitalized patients with diarrhoea: group 1 [positive culture and positive toxin by enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]; group 2 (positive culture, negative toxin); group 3 (negative culture, negative toxin). Patients in group 1 were designated as those with definitive CDI (20 patients for whom data was available) and matched with cases in group 2 (40 patients) and group 3 (40 patients). C. difficile grew from 6% (263/4379) of stool specimens; 14·4% of these had positive EIA, of which 3% were resistant to metronidazole. Three isolates had decreased vancomycin susceptibility. Patients in groups 1 and 2 received more antibiotics (P = 0·03) and had more infectious episodes (P = 0·03) than patients in group 3 prior to diarrhoea. Antibiotic administration for C. difficile did not differ between groups 1 and 2. Mortality was similar in all three groups (10%, 12·5% and 5%, P = 0·49). CDI frequency was low in the University Hospital of Crete and isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin.

  19. 浙江省发热伴血小板减少综合征病例临床与流行病学特征分析%Analysis on clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴程良; 孙继民; 林君芬; 施旭光; 张严峻; 张磊; 侯娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) and to provide clues for further study. Methods A descriptive epidemiological method combined with individual case investigation was to analyze the data on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment collected from clinically diagnosed as well as suspicious patients with severe fever and thrombocytopenia syndrome. Results Out of 6 topography, 3 were found to be endemic with SFTS. Most cases were 50 and over residing in hilly regions (87. 50%) and 65. 00% of patients were reported from June to July. They all experienced fever with the body temperature ranging from 37. 6'C to 40. 6'C, which was the major onset symptom. Meanwhile, most patients also experienced chill, fatigue, anorexia and other non-specific symptoms. The major clinical symptoms were fever, thrombocytopenia and leucocytopenia which could last 14 or 15 days or even longer for thrombocytopenia. Person to person transmission was not found. Conclusions There are differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in Zhejiang compared with other provinces. Further study needs to be done.%目的 分析发热伴血小板减少综合征病例临床与流行病学特征,为进一步研究提供线索.方法 采用流行病学个案调查与描述性分析方法,收集发热伴血小板减少综合征确诊与疑似病例发病、诊治、检测与流行病学史等资料,分析病例临床与流行病学特征.结果 浙江省6类地形中有3类存在发热伴血小板减少综合征疫情,病例以丘陵山区50岁以上人群为主(87.50%),6~7月为发病高峰(65.00%).所有病例均有发热,体温最低37.6℃,最高40.6℃,平均39.2℃,且发热为主要首发症状.大部分病例有畏寒(67.50%)、乏力(67.50%)、食欲减退(52.50%)等非特异性症状.病例临床表现为发热伴白细胞和血小板减少,

  20. Updates on chikungunya epidemiology, clinical disease, and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, I-Ching; Kümmerer, Beate M; Chan, Yoke-Fun; Roques, Pierre; Drosten, Christian; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes-borne alphavirus, historically found in Africa and Asia, where it caused sporadic outbreaks. In 2004, CHIKV reemerged in East Africa and spread globally to cause epidemics, including, for the first time, autochthonous transmission in Europe, the Middle East, and Oceania. The epidemic strains were of the East/Central/South African genotype. Strains of the Asian genotype of CHIKV continued to cause outbreaks in Asia and spread to Oceania and, in 2013, to the Americas. Acute disease, mainly comprising fever, rash, and arthralgia, was previously regarded as self-limiting; however, there is growing evidence of severe but rare manifestations, such as neurological disease. Furthermore, CHIKV appears to cause a significant burden of long-term morbidity due to persistent arthralgia. Diagnostic assays have advanced greatly in recent years, although there remains a need for simple, accurate, and affordable tests for the developing countries where CHIKV is most prevalent. This review focuses on recent important work on the epidemiology, clinical disease and diagnostics of CHIKV.

  1. A CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MENINGEAL TUMORS

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    Channappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The meninges surround and protect the central nervous system. They are composed of connective tissue proper and comprise three membranes the dura mater, the arachnoid and the pia mater. These membranes are composed of collagen fibres, a small number of elastic fires and endothelial cells. The incidence of intracranial tumors depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim is to study the most common signs that the patient presents in the clinic and to study the epidemiology of the disease. The material used in this study was obtained from 100 cases of intracranial tumours in various colleges of South of India, which I have worked. The sample was obtained over a period of 5 years from May 2007 to May 2012. The most common symptoms that were found in the present study was consistent headache and projectile vomiting. There were 9 grade 1 meningiomas, out of which 5 were meningothelial, microscopically composed of meningothelial cells with ovoid large pale nuclei with vacuoles of cytoplasmic invagination and inconspicuous cytoplasmic borders, the cells are arranged concentrically around calcified blood vessels or connective tissue.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  3. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  4. Clinical and epidemiologic variations of esophageal cancer in Tanzania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaime V Gabel; Robert M Chamberlain; Twalib Ngoma; Julius Mwaiselage; Kendra K Schmid; Crispin Kahesa; Amr S Soliman

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the incidence of esophageal cancer(EC) in Kilimanjaro in comparison to other regions in Tanzania. METHODS: We also examined the clinical, epidemiologic, and geographic distribution of the 1332 EC patients diagnosed and/or treated at Ocean Road Cancer Institute(ORCI) during the period 2006-2013. Medical records were used to abstract patient information on age, sex, residence, smoking status, alcohol consumption, tumor site, histopathologic type of tumor, date and place of diagnosis, and type and date of treatment at ORCI. Regional variation of EC patients was investigated at the level of the 26 administrative regions of Tanzania. Total, age- and sex-specific incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: Male patients 55 years and older had higher incidence of EC than female and younger patients. Of histopathologically-confirmed cases, squamous-cell carcinoma represented 90.9% of histopathologic types of tumors. The administrative regions in the central andeastern parts of Tanzania had higher incidence rates than western regions, specifically administrative regions of Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, and Tanga had the highest rates. CONCLUSION: Further research should focus on investigating possible etiologic factors for EC in regions with high incidence in Tanzania.

  5. Clinical Epidemiology and Paraclinical Findings in Tuberculosis Patients in North of Iran

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    Farhang Babamahmoodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.TB causes a wide spectrum of clinical diseases. The prevalence of TB is different in various parts of Iran and throughout the world. The present study aimed to determine the clinical epidemiology and paraclinical findings of TB. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted from 2008 to 2013. Patient demographic, clinical, and radiologic characteristics, picked up from the TB patient’s files, were collected using a standard questionnaire format. Data was entered and analyzed using the SPSS version 16 statistical software and P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Out of 212 patients enrolled in this study 62% were male and the mean age was about 50 years old. 98.6% were Iranian, and 46.2% were rural. Prevalence of smear-positive TB was 66.4%. Prevalence of positive PPD was 50.7% with no significant difference between HIV-positive and -negative patients (P = 0.8. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 17%. 36% of the patients had history of smoking and about 29.3% were addicted to narcotics. Cough was the most common symptom (94.5% and 84% had sputum. 15 cases (7% had extrapulmonary TB. The mean time between the onset of symptoms and admission was 46.5 days. The delay for admission between urban and rural populations was not significantly different (P = 0.68; but for those who were in prison, the delay was significant (P = 0.02. About 46% of the patients had cavitary lesions in CXRs. Conclusion. Timely diagnosis of TB especially in prisoners by understanding its most important epidemiologic characteristics and clinical features can help to make an early treatment and prevent spread of mycobacteria and their complications.

  6. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

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    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  7. Blood stream infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii group in Japan - Epidemiological and clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Yuji; Yuki, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Takaaki; Kawana, Akihiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2016-06-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex, especially A. baumannii, Acinetobacter pittii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, constitutes an important group of nosocomial pathogens; however, epidemiological or clinical characteristics and prognosis is limited in Japan. From 2009 to 2013, 47 blood stream infection cases resulting from A. baumannii group were reviewed at the National Defense Medical College, an 800-bed tertiary hospital. To determine the genospecies, further comparative nucleotide sequence analyses of the RNA polymerase b-subunit (rpoB) gene were performed. Sequence analysis of rpoB gene showed that 25 (49.0%), 17 (33.3%) and 5 (9.8%) cases were caused by A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis, respectively. The 30-day and in-hospital mortality rates of A. baumannii were 8.5% and 25.5%, respectively, and there were no significant differences between Acinetobacter species. Clinical characteristics were statistically insignificant. Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter species were detected in 3 cases (5.9%) with same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern and A. baumannii was less susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. In this study, the mortality and clinical characteristics were similar among A. baumannii group isolate cases despite some showing drug resistance. However, identification of Acinetobacter species helps to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy in earlier treatment phase, because A. baumannii shows some drug resistance.

  8. Clinical and demographic characteristics of 165 patients with lichen planus

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    Bilge Bülbül Şen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lichen planus (LP, is a papulosquamous inflammatory disease, which involves the skin, mucous membranes, nails and scalp. The incidence varies according to geographical regions. In this study, it was aimed to detect the clinical and demographic characteristics of the patients with LP who have been under follow-up at our clinic. Methods: One hundred sixty five patients, who were diagnosed as LP in our clinic between 2010 and 2013, were enrolled to the study. The age, gender, disease duration, time of onset of disease, characteristics of involvement, associated systemic diseases, laboratory findings and treatment were recorded retrospectively. Results: In our study, 0.6% of all patients admitted to our clinic were diagnosed as LP. A total of 165 patients included in the study, 92 women (56% and 73 men (44%, respectively. Patients’ ages ranged 8-78 (mean 44.7±16.7. Disease duration ranged from 1 month to 20 years (mean 15.6±29.7. One hundred thirty four patients (81.2% had skin involvement, 51 (31% had oral mucosal involvement, and 15 (9% had genital involvement. Five (4.5% of 111 patients with viral hepatitis tests were positive for hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus positivity was seen in 4 (4% patients. Conclusion: There is a need for further studies with more patients to better understand the epidemiological, clinical and pathological characteristics of LP. We believe that our study will contribute to the determination of our country’s data.

  9. Tuberculosis activa en una cohorte de reclusos infectados por VIH en una cárcel de la Ciudad de México: características clínicas y epidemiológicas Active tuberculosis in a cohort of HIV-infected inmates in a prison in Mexico City: clinical and epidemiological characteristics

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    Christian Hernández-León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de los casos con tuberculosis (TB activa en población de cárceles con VIH, que se ve especialmente afectada por ambas epidemias. La infección por VIH incrementa significativamente la probabilidad del desarrollo de TB. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio de cohorte en sujetos infectados por VIH e internados en un reclusorio de la Ciudad de México. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 172 pacientes con VIH, 28 con TB activa (16.3% - 21 (12.2% con afección pulmonar - con una tasa de incidencia de 7.7 por 100 sujetos/año para TB activa y de 4.7 por 100 sujetos/ año para TB pulmonar. No se encontró drogorresistencia. Dieciocho aislados fueron tipificados por RFLP, con una tasa de transmisión calculada de 11%. CONCLUSIÓN: Se encontró una prevalencia de TB en esta población mil veces superior a la observada en la población general y datos sugerentes de transmisión al interior de la cárcel.OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of prison inmates with active tuberculosis in HIV-positive prison populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study in HIV-infected subjects in a prison in Mexico City, with the aim of determining clinical and epidemiological characteristics of cases with active TB. RESULTS: We detected 172 HIV infected inmates and TB in 28 of them (16.3% - 21 (12.2 with pulmonary TB - with an incidence rate of 7.7/100 persons/year for active TB and 4.7/100 persons/year for pulmonary TB. No drug resistance was found. Two clusters (4 and 2 subjects were observed after RFLP-typing of 18 isolates, with a transmission rate of 11% by molecular and clinical analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of active TB was found to be a thousand times greater than in the general population. Evidence of transmission inside the prison was also found

  10. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Brucellosis in the Country of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhvlediani, Tamar; Bautista, Christian T.; Garuchava, Natalia; Sanodze, Lia; Kokaia, Nora; Malania, Lile; Chitadze, Nazibrola; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Rivard, Robert G.; Hepburn, Matthew J.; Nikolich, Mikeljon P.; Imnadze, Paata; Trapaidze, Nino

    2017-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the country of Georgia. According to the National Center for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC), the average annual number of brucellosis cases was 161 during 2008–2012. However, the true number of cases is thought to be higher due to underreporting. The aim of this study was to provide current epidemiological and clinical information and evaluate diagnostic methods used for brucellosis in Georgia. Methodology Adult patients were eligible for participation if they met the suspected or probable case definition for brucellosis. After consent participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, epidemiology, history of present illness, and clinical manifestation. For the diagnosis of brucellosis, culture and serological tests were used. Results A total of 81 participants were enrolled, of which 70 (86%) were from rural areas. Seventy-four percent of participants reported consuming unpasteurized milk products and 62% consuming undercooked meat products before symptom onset. Forty-one participants were positive by the Wright test and 33 (41%) were positive by blood culture. There was perfect agreement between the Huddelston and Wright tests (k = 1.0). Compared with blood culture (the diagnostic gold standard), ELISA IgG and total ELISA (IgG + IgM), the Wright test had fair (k = 0.12), fair (k = 0.24), and moderate (k = 0.52) agreement, respectively. Conclusions Consumption of unpasteurized milk products and undercooked meat were among the most common risk factors in brucellosis cases. We found poor agreement between ELISA tests and culture results. This report also serves as an initial indication that the suspected case definition for brucellosis surveillance purposes needs revision. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology and evaluate the performance of the diagnostic methods for brucellosis in Georgia. PMID

  11. Molecular detection of intestinal parasites for clinical diagnosis and epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Robert Jan ten

    2009-01-01

    The detection of intestinal parasitic infections for routine diagnosis and for epidemiological research still depends mainly on microscopical examination of stool samples for the identification of helminth eggs and protozoan trophozoites and cysts. Because microscopy has several limitations, additio

  12. Vulvar cancer: epidemiology, clinical presentation, and management options

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    Alkatout I

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ibrahim Alkatout,1 Melanie Schubert,1 Nele Garbrecht,2 Marion Tina Weigel,1 Walter Jonat,1 Christoph Mundhenke,1 Veronika Günther1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Institute for Pathology, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany Epidemiology: Vulvar cancer can be classified into two groups according to predisposing factors: the first type correlates with a HPV infection and occurs mostly in younger patients. The second group is not HPV associated and occurs often in elderly women without neoplastic epithelial disorders. Histology: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the vulva (95%. Clinical features: Pruritus is the most common and long-lasting reported symptom of vulvar cancer, followed by vulvar bleeding, discharge, dysuria, and pain. Therapy: The gold standard for even a small invasive carcinoma of the vulva was historically radical vulvectomy with removal of the tumor with a wide margin followed by an en bloc resection of the inguinal and often the pelvic lymph nodes. Currently, a more individualized and less radical treatment is suggested: a radical wide local excision is possible in the case of localized lesions (T1. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy may be performed to reduce wound complications and lymphedema. Prognosis: The survival of patients with vulvar cancer is good when convenient therapy is arranged quickly after initial diagnosis. Inguinal and/or femoral node involvement is the most significant prognostic factor for survival. Keywords: vulvar cancer, HPV infection, radical vulvectomy, groin dissection, sentinel lymph node biopsy, overall survival

  13. Epidemiological characteristics and relative factor of hospital death cases with road traffic trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yadong; Hou Shuxun; Yao Yongming; Sheng Zhiyong; Wang Fu; Wang Yubin; Zheng Weijia

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristics and relative factor about hospital death in patients with road traffic trauma. Methods: The age, sex, road-use category, sites of injury, injury severity scale of 159 hospital death cases in 2436 cases with road traffic trauma were observed, and the relation between the causes of death and time elapsed after injury was also studied with likelihood ratio Chi-square test. Results: More hospital deaths happen more likely in the elderly patients and peasants with road traffic trauma. Motor vehicle was the most common culprit, and the majority of victims were pedestrians. The causes of death were related with the time elapsed after injury, and according to which the clinical course of the wounded patients could be divided into cerebral injury / shock phase, transitional phase, infection phase and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) phase.Conclusion: There is a significant relation between the hospital deaths and types of the injury and medical care in road traffic accidents. It should be emphasized that strategy of prevention of hospital deaths during hospital care should vary in different phases of the clinical course.

  14. First Chikungunya Outbreak in Suriname; Clinical and Epidemiological Features.

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    Farah T van Genderen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In June 2014, Suriname faced the first Chikungunya outbreak. Since international reports mostly focus on hospitalized patients, the least affected group, a study was conducted to describe clinical characteristics of mainly outpatients including children. In addition, the cumulative incidence of this first epidemic was investigated.During August and September 2014, clinically suspected Chikungunya cases were included in a prospective follow-up study. Blood specimens were collected and tested for viral RNA presence. Detailed clinical information was gathered through multiple telephone surveys until day 180. In addition, a three stage household-based cluster with a cross-sectional design was conducted in October, December 2014 and March 2015 to assess the cumulative incidence.Sixty-eight percent of symptomatic patients tested positive for Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. Arthralgia and pain in the fingers were distinctive for viremic CHIKV infected patients. Viremic CHIKV infected children (≤12 years characteristically displayed headache and vomiting, while arthralgia was less common at onset. The disease was cleared within seven days by 20% of the patients, while 22% of the viremic CHIKV infected patients, mostly women and elderly reported persistent arthralgia at day 180. The extrapolated cumulative CHIKV incidence in Paramaribo was 249 cases per 1000 persons, based on CHIKV self-reported cases in 53.1% of the households and 90.4% IgG detected in a subset of self-reported CHIKV+ persons. CHIKV peaked in the dry season and a drastic decrease in CHIKV patients coincided with a governmental campaign to reduce mosquito breeding sites.This study revealed that persistent arthralgia was a concern, but occurred less frequently in an outpatient setting. The data support a less severe pathological outcome for Caribbean CHIKV infections. This study augments incidence data available for first outbreaks in the region and showed that actions undertaken at the

  15. 北京市1399例宫颈癌的流行现状及临床特点%Present epidemiological status and clinical characteristics of cervical cancer in Beijing: a report of 1399 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章静菲; 王彤; 武明辉; 张为远

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with cervical cancer over the last two decades in Beijing so as to provide scientific rationales for the management of cervical cancer.Methods Stratified cluster sampling was employed to analyze a total of 1399 invasive cervical cancer cases from different class hospitals in Beijing during the period of 1990 -2009.Results ( 1 ) The number of cervical cancer cases had been rising over the last 2 decades.(2) The age of onset ranged from 17 to 88 years old; the number of patients with stages Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ and Ⅳ was 772 (57.1% ),380 ( 28.1% ),182 ( 13.5% ) and 18 ( 1.3% ) respectively; 1135 ( 83.1% ) patients were of squamous cell carcinoma while 182 ( 13.3% ) adenocarcinoma.The last two decades was divided into 4 groups of 5 years each.The average age gradually decreased from 58.2 to 46.0 years old( P < 0.01 ).The proportion of patients with stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ also increased from 69.6% (16/23) to 89.4% (530/856) ; There was no significant change in histopathologic type of cervical cancer.And squamous cell carcinoma of cervix remained the predominant type(P >0.05).(3) About 26.0% (364/1399) of cases received no vagino-recto-abdominal examination while 3.4% (48/1399) of cases were not staged.Conclusion Over the last two decades,the number of newly diagnosed cervical cancer cases has showed a rising trend in Beijing.And the proportions of young patients and patients with early disease have both increased.Some irregularities still exist in the diagnosis of cervical cancer.So we should pay more attention to the screening program and standardize the diagnosis,therapy and follow-up of cervical cancer.%目的 分析北京市宫颈癌的发病趋势和临床特点,了解各级医院宫颈癌的诊断状况,完善北京市宫颈癌登记资料,为逐步规范宫颈癌临床诊治提供科学依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,抽

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants

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    Aqel Kamal F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis method. Results A total of 61/492 (12.4% infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%, particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%, each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9% and C. parapsilosis (3.8%. A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test. The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram

  17. Clinical epidemiology and treatment findings of acute tuberculosis patients in Babol City (2009-2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Ali Nikbakht; Seyed Reza Hosseini; Heidar Sharifi-fathabad; Rahmat Habibzade; Amin Daemi; Saber Ghaffari-fam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the clinical epidemiology and treatment findings of tuberculosis in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on medical records of tuberculosis registry pertaining to health center of Babol City, Mazandaran, Iran. The investigated vari-ables included demographic characteristics and some clinical patterns of patients. To present the findings, the descriptive statistics such as mean (and SD) and frequency (%) was used. Analytical statistics was applied by using Chi-square test and independent samples t-test. Results: The average age of 200 patients infected with tuberculosis was 47.51 years (SD=21.36), and 58.5%of the cases were male. In both genders, the highest number of tuberculosis patient was found in 18–38 age group. During the 5-year study period, 95%of the patients received treatment protocol 1 (including new cases with positive smear, negative smear, extra-pulmonary) and in the end of treatment given to patients, 90.5%were improved or treatment period completed. The most important clinical symptoms for referring the patients to the therapeutic centers were cough (75.1%) and fever (60.9%). Conclusions: Education and giving information to general population about the most important clinical symptoms of tuberculosis such as fever and cough might be effective in early detection and prevention of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Then treatment might be effective in decreasing the burden of the disease.

  18. Epidemiological characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease in North-Eastern Poland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Robert Flisiak; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To provide the clinical and epidemiological data of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients of NorthEastern Poland.METHODS: A total of 248 IBD patients diagnosed and hospitalized in the Department of Infectious Diseases in Bialystok between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. We analyzed age, sex, education, characteristics of job, type of the environment, discontinuation of employment due to IBD, colitis extent, need of surgical treatment, and coexistence of other diseases.RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-three IBD patients (94%) were diagnosed as ulcerative colitis (UC), and only 15 (6%) were diagnosed as Crohn's disease (CD). Patients with CD were significantly younger at the time of diagnosis and male predominance was observed. The mean age of the patients at the time UC diagnosis was 44.9±1.1 years. Histogram of the age of patients showed the characteristic biphasic distribution with two peaks between 20 and 40 years and between 60 and 70 years. The predominant form of UC was left sided colitis, which affected almost 80% of the studied population. The most extensive form - pancolitis was present in 34 patients (15%). Only 6% of UC patients required surgery, whereas 36% of CD patients underwent surgery (P<0.005). Among coexisting disorders, cholelithiasis was the most prevalent and demonstrated in 35 patients (14%), pulmonary disorders were diagnosed in 2%, and psoriasis in 1.4%.Since 1998, the number of admitted IBD patients has slightly increased.CONCLUSION: Occurrence of UC in Poland is much higher than that of CD. The majority of UC cases are diagnosed in young people (20-40 years) with the predominance of male patients. The most common clinical form of UC is left sided colitis.

  19. Epidemiologic Characteristics and Trends of Fatal Suicides among the Elderly in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Li

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world, especially among its elderly. The epidemiologic characteristics and trends of the surging elderly suicide rates from 1993 to 2003 are described, with a special emphasis on the risk groups, the methods used in suicide, and their geographical variations. Data on annual mortality for persons…

  20. Clinical epidemiology of acute hepatitis C in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirchwolf, Melisa; Marciano, Sebastián; Mauro, Ezequiel; Ruf, Andrés Eduardo; Rezzonico, Lucrecia; Anders, Margarita; Chiodi, Daniela; Petta, Néstor Gill; Borzi, Silvia; Tanno, Federico; Ridruejo, Ezequiel; Barreyro, Fernando; Shulman, Carolina; Plaza, Pablo; Carbonetti, Rodolfo; Tadey, Luciana; Schroder, Teresa; Fainboim, Hugo

    2017-02-01

    There is scarce data pertaining to acute hepatitis C (aHC) infection in South America. We aimed to describe clinical characteristics and evolution of aHC in a South American cohort. A retrospective survey was conducted at 13 hepatology units. All patients ≥16 years old with aHC diagnosis were included. Demographic, clinical and outcome information were registered in a standardized ad hoc questionnaire. Sixty-four patients were included. The majority were middle-aged (median age: 46 years) and female (65.6%); most of them were symptomatic at diagnosis (79.6%). HCV-1 was the most prevalent genotype (69.2%). Five patients had liver failure: three cases of severe acute hepatitis, one case of fulminant hepatitis and one case of acute-on-chronic liver failure. Nosocomial exposure was the most prevalent risk factor. Evolution was assessed in 46 patients. In the untreated cohort, spontaneous resolution occurred in 45.8% and was associated with higher values of AST/ALT and with the absence of intermittent HCV RNA viremia (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively). In the treated cohort, sustained virological response was associated with nosocomial transmission and early treatment initiation (P = 0.04 each). The prevalence of nosocomial transmission in this South-American cohort of aHC stresses the importance of following universal precautions to prevent HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 89:276-283, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Payam Peymani; Ali Foroutan; Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi; Fariborz Ghaffarpasand; Hassan Joulaei; Kamran B Lankarani; Seyed Taghi Heydari; Amin Hoseinzadeh; Yaser Sarikhani; Arya Hedjazi; Mohammad Zarenezhad; Ghasem Moafian; Mohammad Reza Aghabeigi; Najmeh Maharlouei

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011.The data were from the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry.In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities,971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents.The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS version 11.5.P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2)years,ranging from 6 months to 103 years old.Males accounted for 69.8% of all deaths.Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads.Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases.Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age,interval between injury and death.Besides,the type of roads played an important role in mortality.Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade,decreasing the burden of injuries needs coordination among trauma system organizations.

  2. Analysis on Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 63 Cases of Nontuberculous mycobacterial(NTM)Lung Disease%63例非结核分枝杆菌肺病的流行病学及临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冰; 黄瑞霞; 邓虹; 何庆秋

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨非结核分枝杆菌肺病的临床特点及防治对策.方法 对2009-2011年7月广州市结核病防治所二分所经过实验室检查确诊的63例非结核分枝杆菌肺病患者进行分析.结果 非结核分枝杆菌肺病波及两肺叶为多(58%),双侧同时患病较多(51%),空洞仅占25%.涂阴培阳44%,涂阳培阳56%,菌型鉴定以龟分枝杆菌为多占44%.耐药以耐多药比例最大(占77%),耐药顺位为耐多药>耐二药>单药.仅有3例是对一二线抗结核药全敏感.其中47例为初治病例(75%),16例复治病例(25%).结论 由于生活环境的变迁可能导致了非结核分枝杆菌的习性发生了变化,以至于目前非结核分枝杆菌肺病的临床特点也发生了不同程度的改变.%Objective To investigate the nontuberculcxus mycobacterial(NTM) lung disease prevention and treatment of clinical features and treatment response. Methods Sixty - three cases of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease confirmed by the laboratory testing in the Second Clinic of Guangzhou Tuberculosis Dispensary from 2009 to July 2011 were analyzed. Results The case of both lung lobe were affected by nontuberculous mycobacterial accounted for 58%, while the case of both sides of lung were affected accounted for 51 %, and the cavityaccounted for only 25%. The bacteria - based . Identification of M. Chelonei accounted for more than 44% for the. Multiple drug resistance tuberculosis accounted for the largest proportion (77%) of drug - resistance. Conclusions As the environment changes may result in a nontuberculous mycobacteria habits change, so the current nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease also occurred in the clinical features of varying degrees of change. In order to have a better control of multidrug- resistant tuberculosis, MDR-TB. And prevent the spread and infection of both multiple drug resistance tubercle bacillus and NTM with the property of MDR, therefore nontuberculous

  3. Comorbidity of epilepsy and migraines epidemiological and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujisic Slavica

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients with migraines, epilepsy occurs in 5.9% (1-17% of cases compared to a prevalence of 0.5-1% in the general population. Comorbidity of migraines and epilepsy can be explained by neuronal hyperexcitability, while cortical spreading depression is considered to be a pathophysiological mechanism that lies in the basis of the migraine aura. The study included 259 patients with epilepsy and 40 patients with both epilepsy and migraines. The aim of the investigation was to determine the prevalence of migraines, the existence of a temporal association between epileptic and migraine attacks, to determine the clinical characteristics of joint epileptic and migraine attacks, the existence of a significant connection between a certain type of epileptic seizure and type of headache, and finally to determine heredity for epilepsy and migraines in patients who have these conditions associated. Patients were diagnosed clinically, neurophysiologically and neuroradiologically. The research results show that the frequency of associated epilepsy and migraines occurred in 15.44%. The results of this investigation point to a significantly higher frequency of epilepsy and migraines in female patients (ratio 5 : 1, which is different from the data we found in existing studies. Temporally connected attacks of epilepsy and migraines were observed in 48% of patients. Preictal headaches appeared in 20% of patients, postictal in 28% of patients. There was no significant association between migraines and the particular type of epileptic attack. Heredity for migraines was present in 35% of patients with both epilepsy and migraines. This data is significantly lower than the data found in other studies.

  4. Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran

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    Negar Morovatdar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disease. Early diagnosis is a important public health intervention to prevent neurological impairment .This study was designed to describe characteristics of phenylketonouria patients in Khorasan ,Northeast of Iran. Methods: We included all  patients suffering from PKU in khorasan until September 2013. We gathered the variables like diagnosis age , sib of parents, cause of asking physician and screening based diagnosis or clinical based diagnosis. We use descriptive statistics for analysis. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 19 months .80% pku patients had a positive history of consanguineous marriage in their parents. Incidence of new cases that identified by screening in 2012-2013 was 57 per 1000000 live birth. 10% patients identified with screening in first week of birth. Conclusion: Nearly all of our patients (90% had been diagnosed without screening in the first days of their life only due to clinical manifestations in the first year of their life . According to efficacy of early diagnosis and dietary treatment, enforcement of public health policy for screening is a critical public health preventive intervention.

  5. Características clinicoepidemiológicas de um grupo de mulheres com HIV/AIDS em Salvador-Bahia Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of a group of HIV/AIDS infected women in Salvador-Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceuci de Lima Xavier Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS entre as mulheres e os mais pobres, são importantes características da epidemia no Brasil e no mundo. Estudo descritivo delineou-se com objetivo de descrever um grupo de 82 mulheres com HIV/AIDS de Salvador - Bahia. A idade média é 32 ± 7,2 anos; 75% têm filhos, 82,5% estão desempregadas e o grau de instrução situa-se entre analfabeto e primeiro grau em 77,8%. O número de parceiros sexuais foi igual ou inferior a cinco na vida em 71% dos casos e 25% relatavam um único parceiro. Quarenta e seis (55,4% mulheres apresentaram 77 episódios de infecções oportunistas. A maioria das pacientes tem baixo grau de instrução, baixa renda e poucos parceiros sexuais. A forma de transmissão foi predominantemente sexual, muitas mulheres adquiriram o vírus com o próprio companheiro/ marido.The increasing number of HIV/AIDS infected women is one of the main characteristics of the AIDS epidemic, besides the wide expansion of the disease among the poor. This study focused on a group of 82 women with AIDS from Salvador - Bahia. The mean age was 32 ± 7.2 years, 75% had children, 82.5% were jobless, and 77.8% were illiterate or only had basic education. The number of sexual partners was five or fewer in 71% of cases and 25% had only one sexual partner. Forty-six (55.4% women reported up to 77 episodes of opportunist infections. The majority of the patients were from the lower classes, with no good education, a low income and few sexual partners. The main via of transmission was heterosexual, and many of the women were infected by their steady partner/husband.

  6. Clinical, epidemiological and virological features of dengue virus infections in vietnamese patients presenting to primary care facilities with acute undifferentiated fever

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.T.D. Thai; H.L. Phuong; T.T.T. Nga; P.T. Giao; L.Q. Hung; N.V. Nam; T.Q. Binh; C. Simmons; J. Farrar; T.T. Hien; H.R. van Doorn; M.D. de Jong; P.J. de Vries

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To explore clinical and virological characteristics and describe the epidemiology of dengue in patients who presented with acute undifferentiated fever (AUF) at primary health centers (PHC) in Binh Thuan Province, Vietnam. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from 200

  7. Differences in the clinical-epidemiological profile between new cases of tuberculosis and retreatment cases after default

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    Aylana de Souza Belchior

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify the socioeconomic and clinical-epidemiological factors related to tuberculosis in new cases and retreatment cases. METHOD Comparative study with 126 patients, of which 42 were retreatment cases after default attended in a reference center, and 84 were new cases completing the first treatment and treated in Basic Health Units. The collection of primary data was through interview, and of secondary data by records of the Notifiable Diseases Information System. Comparative analysis between the two groups. RESULTS The new cases differ from retreatment cases regarding educational level. The clinical-epidemiological profile shows a significant difference in relation to performance of the tuberculin skin test, and the HIV test result (positive in favor of new cases. In relation to performance of sputum culture and the result (positive of the first sputum smear of the first and second samples, in favor of retreatment cases. CONCLUSION The two groups are significantly different in clinical and epidemiological characteristics that show the access to exams.

  8. Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, H; Dendana, F; Sellami, A; Sellami, H; Cheikhrouhou, F; Neji, S; Makni, F; Ayadi, A

    2012-12-01

    Free-living amoebae are widely distributed in soil and water. Small number of them was implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Some of the infections were opportunistic, occurring mainly in immunocompromised hosts (Acanthamoeba and Balamuthia encephalitis) while others are non opportunistic (Acanthamoeba keratitis, Naegleria meningoencephalitis and some cases of Balamuthia encephalitis). Although, the number of infections caused by these amoebae is low, their diagnosis was still difficult to confirm and so there was a higher mortality, particularly, associated with encephalitis. In this review, we present some information about epidemiology, ecology and the types of diseases caused by these pathogens amoebae.

  9. Intracranial Infections: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, B.R.; Thurnher, M.M.; Malani, P.N.; Petrou, M.; Carets-Zumelzu, F.; Sundgren, P.C. [Dept. of Radiology, and Divisions of Infectious Diseases and G eriatric Medicine, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The radiologist plays a crucial role in identifying and narrowing the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections. A thorough understanding of the intracranial compartment anatomy and characteristic imaging findings of specific pathogens, as well incorporation of the clinical information, is essential to establish correct diagnosis. Specific types of infections have certain propensities for different anatomical regions within the brain. In addition, the imaging findings must be placed in the context of the clinical setting, particularly in immunocompromised and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This paper describes and depicts infections within the different compartments of the brain. Pathology-proven infectious cases are presented in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, with a discussion of the characteristic findings of each pathogen. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characteristics for several infections are also discussed.

  10. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebbelstrup Jensen, Betina; Olsen, Katharina E P; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) represents a heterogeneous group of E. coli strains. The pathogenicity and clinical relevance of these bacteria are still controversial. In this review, we describe the clinical significance of EAEC regarding patterns of infection in humans, transmission...

  11. 宁波地区2例发热伴血小板减少综合征患者的临床特征%Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 2 cases of thrombocytopenia syndrome accompanied by fever in Ningbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    练祥; 陈晨松; 柯婷婷; 朱平光; 徐建荣; 胡爱荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 2 cases of thrombocytopenia syndrome accompanied by fever in Ningbo and help the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Methods The clinical and the epidemiological data were collected with standardized questionnaire from the first 2 cases occurred in Ningbo in May 2012 to conduct retrospective analysis. Results One case died duo to the severe illness and another one was cured. The clinical manifestations included acute onset, long time high fever, myalgia, enlarged superficial lymph nodes, progressive white cell and platelet reductions. The 2 cases were all old fanners who lived in wood and hilly areas, had histories of working in the fields or in the underbrush, and had histories of tick-bite. There were no secondary cases among the close contacts. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of thrombocytopenia syndrome accompanied by fever are complex, including multiple organ damage. The death may be related with shock, viral myocarditis, respiratory failure and multiple organ failure. The patients are usually the people who live in wood and hilly area, have histories of working in fields or in underbrush and have histories of tick-bite.%目的 分析宁波地区2例发热伴血小板减少综合征(SFTS)患者的临床特征及流行病学资料,以期加深对该病诊治的认识.方法 回顾性分析2012年5月宁波地区首发的2例SFTS的临床资料,采用统一的诊断标准和流行病学个案调查表对病例进行调查.结果 1例危重型死亡,1例普通型治愈;临床表现起病急,持续高热,全身肌痛,浅表淋巴结肿大,白细胞及血小板进行性下降;2例患者均为居住在丘陵地区老年人,有田间或草丛活动史及蜱叮咬史,患者的密切接触者均无发病病例.结论 SFTS临床表现复杂,伴有多器官损害,其死因可能与休克、病毒心肌炎、呼吸衰竭等多脏器功能衰竭有关;患者均居住在丘陵地

  12. Pars planitis: Epidemiology, clinical characteristics, management and visual prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Cakar Ozdal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pars planitis is an idiopathic chronic intermediate uveitis which predominantly affects children and adolescents, and accounts for 5-26.7% of pediatric uveitis. Although an autoimmune process with a genetic predisposition has been suggested, its etiology still remains unknown. The most common presenting symptoms are floaters and blurred vision. Diffuse vitreous cells, haze, snowballs and snowbanks are typical findings of pars planitis. Peripheral retinal vasculitis, optic disc edema and anterior segment inflammation are other well-known findings. Although pars planitis is known to be a benign form of uveitis in most cases, it may become a potentially blinding disease due to complications including cataract, cystoid macular edema, vitreous opacities and optic disc edema. Cystoid macular edema is the most common cause of visual morbidity. Band keratopathy, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularizations, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, cyclitic membranes, glaucoma and amblyopia may develop as a consequence of the chronic course of the disease. Exclusion of infectious and non-infectious causes which may present with intermediate uveitis is of utmost importance before starting treatment. Treatment of pars planitis has been a controversial issue. There is no consensus specifically for treatment of cases with minimal inflammation and relatively good visual acuity. However, current experience shows that pars planitis may cause severe inflammation and needs an aggressive treatment. A stepladder approach including corticosteroids, immunosupressive agents, anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and pars plana vitrectomy and/or laser photocoagulation is the most commonly used method for treatment of pars planitis. Adequate control of inflammation and prompt detection of associated complications are crucial in order to improve the overall prognosis of the disease.

  13. epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of 28 cases of Cholera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The data of 35 246 patients with intestinal diseases were retrospectively analyzed, 28 cases of cholera patients were screened in 17 years, of which 23 cases had suspicious unclean food history, 10 cases were migrant workers, 8 cases had history of coastal city tour in one week. All of the 28 patients were positive for Vibrio cholerae culture, 19 cases were identiifed as O1 serotype Ogawa and 6 were identiifed as O1 serotype Inaba, 3 were identified as O139. Twenty-three patients were mild, five cases were moderate, patients with severe diseases were not found. It was found in this study that O1 serotype Vibrio cholerae was still dominant, 82%of cholera patients were mild cases. Tourists who had a incompletely heated seafood intake history and migrant people are susceptible to cholera.

  14. Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of Streptococcus suis infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Ha, Ngo; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Horby, Peter; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Zhu, Xiaotong; Hoa, Ngo Thi; Hien, Tran Tinh; Zamora, Javier; Schultsz, Constance; Wertheim, Heiman Frank Louis; Hirayama, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus suis, a bacterium that affects pigs, is a neglected pathogen that causes systemic disease in humans. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize global estimates of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of this zoonosis. We searched main literature databases for all studies through December 2012 using the search term "streptococcus suis." The prevalence of S. suis infection is highest in Asia; the primary risk factors are occupational exposure and eating of contaminated food. The pooled proportions of case-patients with pig-related occupations and history of eating high-risk food were 38.1% and 37.3%, respectively. The main clinical syndrome was meningitis (pooled rate 68.0%), followed by sepsis, arthritis, endocarditis, and endophthalmitis. The pooled case-fatality rate was 12.8%. Sequelae included hearing loss (39.1%) and vestibular dysfunction (22.7%). Our analysis identified gaps in the literature, particularly in assessing risk factors and sequelae of this infection.

  15. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Rafaella Moreno; Pasquino, Jackeline Araujo; Peixoto, Laisla Rangel; Targino, Isabely Tamarys Gomes; de Sousa, Jorge Alves; Leite, Renner de Souza

    2014-04-01

    Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in the northeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Moreno Barros

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion stings are a serious public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. This is a descriptive and retrospective study of the clinical-epidemiological characteristics of scorpion sting cases registered in the Health System in the city of Campina Grande, Paraíba state, from 2007 to 2012. Data was collected from the Injury Notification Information System data banks of the Ministry of Health. A total of 2,283 records, provided by the Third Health Sector of Campina Grande, were analyzed. Data revealed that the majority of the victims are female aged between 20 and 29 years, and the highest incidence of stings was in the urban area. Victims were mostly stung on the feet and hand. Serotherapy was not administered in most cases. The majority of the victims received medical assistance within 1 to 3 hours after the sting. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were pain, edema and paresthesias. Most cases were classified as mild, though seven deaths were reported. The high incidence rate suggests that this town may be an endemic area of scorpion stings, supporting the need to develop strategies to control and prevent scorpion stings.

  17. Measles outbreak in Macedonia: epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings and identification of susceptible cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena T Kondova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Despite a 92-99% national vaccination coverage since 2000, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia experienced a large measles outbreak between 2010 and 2011. Here we investigate the characteristics of patients hospitalized during this outbreak at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Skopje. METHODS: Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data of 284 measles patients, including 251 from Skopje (43.80% of the 573 reported cases and 33 from elsewhere in Macedonia were collected. RESULTS: The most affected age groups were children up to 4 years of age and adolescents/adults of 15 years and older. Most patients were unvaccinated (n=263, 92.61% and many had non-Macedonian nationalities (n=156, 54.93% or belonged to the Roma ethnicity (n=73, 25.70%. Bronchopneumonia and diarrhea were the most common complications. Eighty-two out of 86 tested patients (95.35% had measles-specific IgM antibodies. The outbreak was caused by the measles variant D4-Hamburg. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemic identified pockets of susceptibles in Skopje and indicated that additional vaccination opportunities in particular for people with non-Macedonian nationality and traveler communities are warranted to ensure efficient measles control in Macedonia. The high attack rate among children of less than 1 year suggests that vaccination before 12 months of age should be considered in high risk settings.

  18. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of the four human parainfluenza virus types

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    Liu Wen-Kuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs are important causes of upper respiratory tract illness (URTI and lower respiratory tract illness (LRTI. To analyse epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the four types of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs, patients with acute respiratory tract illness (ARTI were studied in Guangzhou, southern China. Methods Throat swabs (n=4755 were collected and tested from children and adults with ARTI over a 26-month period, and 4447 of 4755 (93.5% patients’ clinical presentations were recorded for further analysis. Results Of 4755 patients tested, 178 (3.7% were positive for HPIV. Ninety-nine (2.1% samples were positive for HPIV-3, 58 (1.2% for HPIV-1, 19 (0.4% for HPIV-2 and 8 (0.2% for HPIV-4. 160/178 (88.9% HPIV-positive samples were from paediatric patients younger than 5 years old, but no infant under one month of age was HPIV positive. Seasonal peaks of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 occurred as autumn turned to winter and summer turned to autumn. HPIV-2 and HPIV-4 were detected less frequently, and their frequency of isolation increased when the frequency of HPIV-3 and HPIV-1 declined. HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and more “hoarseness” (p=0.015, “abnormal pulmonary breathing sound” (p Conclusions HPIV infection led to a wide spectrum of symptoms, and similar clinical manifestations were found in the patients with four different types of HPIVs. The study suggested pathogenic activity of HPIV in gastrointestinal illness. The clinical presentation of HPIV infection may differ by patient age.

  19. Epidemiologic characteristics of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Mainland China from 2006 to 2010

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    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design effective prevention and control strategies for haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS in Mainland China, we evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics and trends of HFRS cases reported between 2006 and 2010.Methods: HFRS data from 1970 to 2010 were obtained from the China Notifiable Disease Reporting System (CNDRS. The cases analysed included clinical cases and laboratory-confirmed cases. Data was extracted for statistical analysis by time, region and profession; the incidence rate was obtained directly from CNDRS. In this study, we analysed the morbidity and mortality data of HFRS from 2006 to 2010.Results: HFRS cases trended downward from 2006 (15 098 to 2009 (8745, but exhibited a slight increase in 2010 (9526. Twenty-nine of 31 provinces reported HFRS cases between 2006 and 2010. Five provinces, namely, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning in the North-east, Shandong in the east, and Shaanxi in the central part of China, were characterized as high-endemic areas. Seasonal case distribution was bimodal, with peaks of cases in spring and winter. Young male farmers were the most susceptible population to HFRS. Early- to middle-aged adults (20–50 years old represented the largest groups of HFRS cases.Conclusion: The overall number of cases of HFRS in China has trended downward possibly due to national vaccine and rodent vector control programmes implemented in the past 25 years. However, this trend slowed down in the last five years. High-endemic regions and at-risk population groups still exist and will benefit from further targeted prevention strategies.

  20. Clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Lin Ma; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Shui-Sheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical characteristics of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy.METHODS: We compared and analyzed the etiology,clinical characteristics, and laboratory examinations of 25 cases of fulminant hepatitis in pregnancy and 30 cases of fulminant hepatitis not in pregnancy.RESULTS: HBV infection and chronic fulminant hepatitis were most common both in the pregnant and in the non-pregnant groups. Jaundice, digestive tract symptoms,increase of bilirubin and thrombinogen activity were the main manifestations. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and hepato-renal syndrome (HRS) was significantly different between the two groups. The incidence of preterm labor, dead fetus and neonatal asphyxia was high.CONCLUSION: Fulminant hepatitis is likely to occur in late pregnancy with more severe complications, which significantly influences maternity, perinatal fetus, and newborn.

  1. RSV与HRV在ALRTI住院儿童中的流行状况和临床特征比较%Comparative analysis of epidemiology and clinical characteristic on respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛; 张兵; 肖霓光; 谢志萍; 钟礼立; 黄寒; 曾赛珍; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解RSV和HRV在ALRTI住院儿童中流行病学和临床特征的异同.方法:收集2007年9月~2008年8月ALRTI住院患儿NPA样本,进行病毒核酸检测,统计分析RSV和HRV检出病例的流行状况、临床特点.结果:1165名患儿裣出RSV 315例(27.0%),HRV 202例(17.3%);性别之间检出率无统计学差异;RSV检出患儿平均年龄13.1±14.3月,1岁以下检出率最高,且明显高于同年龄段HRV检出率;HRV检出患儿平均年龄15.8±17.8月,1岁检出率最高,并高于同年龄段RSV检出率;RSV检出以11月份到次年2月份为高峰;HRV检出以4月份、9~12月份为高峰;与RSV比较,HRV检出病例临床特点除末梢血白细胞计数升高较多见外,其它均无差异;与单一RSV检出病例比较,RSV混合其它病毒检出病例并发症较多,且末梢血白细胞计数升高较多见;单一HRV检出病例未见发绀,其余临床特点与混合其它病毒检出病例无差异.结论:RSV和HRV是长沙地区ALRTI住院儿童的重要病原体,两者在年龄、季节分布上有不同,临床特点无明显差别.%To compare with the difference of epidemiology and clinical features between respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) and human rhinovirus(HRV) infection in hospit- alized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Methods 1165 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA)specimens were collected in hospitalized children with ALRTI from 2007.9 to 2008.8 in Changsha. Clinical characteristics and epidemiology fea-tures of RSV infections were compared with HRV infections in children. Results RSV was detected in 315 patients (27.04%) of the 1165 children., HRV was detected in 202 patie-nts (17.3%).There is no significant difference in detection rate between male and female (X2=0.079,P=0.778). The average age of RSV infected children was 13.1±14.3 month and The detected rate was the highest in children with less than 1 year old, The detected rateof RSV infections is

  2. Primary gout in Shantou: a clinical and epidemiological study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆馀; 王庆文; 陈韧; 肖征宇; 黄少弼; 许敬才

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of primary gout in the Shantou area, China, and to understand its clinical features. Methods Samples from three surveys of the Chenghai across ten years were studied. Clinical, laboratory and radiology data of 419 cases of primary gout were collected and analyzed. Conclusions The prevalence of primary gout in Shantou area has been increasing in the last ten years. Changes in diet and lifestyle may be responsible for this rapid increase.

  3. Diabetic kidney disease: from epidemiology to clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol Whee

    2014-08-01

    With worldwide epidemic of diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy which is one of the major causes of microvascular complication has become a serious concern in Korea as well as the rest of the world. In view of its significance, there is an urgent and paramount need for proper managements that could either deter or slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Despite advances in care, ever increasing number of patients suffering from diabetic kidney disease and from end-stage renal disease implies that the current management is not adequate in many aspects. The reasons for these inadequacies compromise lack of early diagnosis, failure to intervene with timely and aggressive manner, and lack of understanding on the kind of interventions required. Another issue equally important for the adequate care of patients with diabetic nephropathy is an understanding of past, present and future epidemiology of diabetic nephropathy which serves, especially in Korea, as a material determining standard diagnosis and treatment and a national health-policy decision.

  4. Diabetic Kidney Disease: From Epidemiology to Clinical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol Whee Park

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With worldwide epidemic of diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy which is one of the major causes of microvascular complication has become a serious concern in Korea as well as the rest of the world. In view of its significance, there is an urgent and paramount need for proper managements that could either deter or slow the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Despite advances in care, ever increasing number of patients suffering from diabetic kidney disease and from end-stage renal disease implies that the current management is not adequate in many aspects. The reasons for these inadequacies compromise lack of early diagnosis, failure to intervene with timely and aggressive manner, and lack of understanding on the kind of interventions required. Another issue equally important for the adequate care of patients with diabetic nephropathy is an understanding of past, present and future epidemiology of diabetic nephropathy which serves, especially in Korea, as a material determining standard diagnosis and treatment and a national health-policy decision.

  5. [Linburg-Comstock syndrome. Epidemiologic and anatomic study, clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamitouche, K; Roux, J L; Baeten, Y; Allieu, Y

    2000-05-01

    The Linburg-Comstock (LC) syndrome is distinguished by the inability to actively flex the interphalangeal (IP) joint of the thumb without simultaneously flexing the distal IP joint of the index finger. Any resistance to this 'parasitic' reaction causes pain on the palmar side of the wrist or in the distal part of the forearm; this is due to an anomalous tendinous connection between the flexor pollicus longus (FPL) and the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). An epidemiological study was carried out on 264 individuals (a total of 528 hands were examined), and the LC syndrome was found in 98 subjects (37%); women were more frequently affected than men, and bilaterally rather than unilaterally. In addition, we dissected 26 fresh cadaver upper limbs, and in seven cases found an anomalous connection between FPL and FDP. We also examined the case of a young violinist with bilateral LC syndrome, who complained of pain in the distal part of the left forearm after prolonged musical exercises. Surgical investigation determined a complete fusion between FPL and FDP of the index with a common tendon. Treatment consisted of splitting this common tendon to form two separate tendons, thereby permitting a certain degree of independence between the thumb and index finger, and which considerably improved the violinist's musical performance. A review of the literature showed that there was a large quantity of anatomical descriptions available on these types of connection. Certain publications also provide an extremely precise report on the anthropological significance of these anomalies.

  6. Global Fluoroquinolone Resistance Epidemiology and Implictions for Clinical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Dalhoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the fluoroquinolone resistance epidemiology stratifies the data according to the different prescription patterns by either primary or tertiary caregivers and by indication. Global surveillance studies demonstrate that fluoroquinolone resistance rates increased in the past years in almost all bacterial species except S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, causing community-acquired respiratory tract infections. However, 10 to 30% of these isolates harbored first-step mutations conferring low level fluoroquinolone resistance. Fluoroquinolone resistance increased in Enterobacteriaceae causing community acquired or healthcare associated urinary tract infections and intraabdominal infections, exceeding 50% in some parts of the world, particularly in Asia. One to two-thirds of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum -lactamases were fluoroquinolone resistant too. Furthermore, fluoroquinolones select for methicillin resistance in Staphylococci. Neisseria gonorrhoeae acquired fluoroquinolone resistance rapidly; actual resistance rates are highly variable and can be as high as almost 100%, particularly in Asia, whereas resistance rates in Europe and North America range from 30% in established sexual networks. In general, the continued increase in fluoroquinolone resistance affects patient management and necessitates changes in some guidelines, for example, treatment of urinary tract, intra-abdominal, skin and skin structure infections, and traveller’s diarrhea, or even precludes the use in indications like sexually transmitted diseases and enteric fever.

  7. An analysis on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 15 cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7 N9)virus in Jiaxing City%15例人感染H7N9禽流感病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓云鹏; 顾伟玲; 富小飞; 谢亮; 查亦薇; 周晚玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析嘉兴市人感染 H7N9禽流感15例确诊病例的临床与流行病学特征。方法收集2013年4月—2015年5月嘉兴市报告的15例人感染H7N9禽流感病例的临床及流行病学调查资料,采集病例标本和疑似暴露场所外环境样本鉴定病毒亚型;采用描述性流行病学方法分析病例的三间分布及临床特征。结果15例确诊病例中死亡11例,病死率为73.33%。所有病例均在冬春季节发病,9例年龄>60岁,男女比例为1.5∶1;其中10例病例来自农村地区,病例之间无明显的流行病学联系。15例病例的首发症状主要有发热、咳嗽、胸闷气急,胸部影像学检查均表现为磨玻璃影和(或)实变影,7例病例出现胸膜腔积液;其中12例患有慢性基础性疾病。11例病例因出现呼吸衰竭、肺栓塞、多脏器功能衰竭、心脑血管栓塞等一种或几种合并症而死亡。12例病例曾有活禽市场暴露史,其中9处活禽交易市场外环境中标本检出H7N9核酸阳性;252名密切接触者中仅有1人出现轻微流感样症状,所有密切接触者的咽拭子H7 N9禽流感病毒核酸检测均为阴性。结论嘉兴地区人感染H7 N9禽流感疫情具有季节性,老年男性并伴有慢性基础性疾病者有可能是该病的易感人群,其感染来源与禽类暴露有关。%Objective To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of human avian influenza A (H7N9 ) epidemic in Jiaxing City,and to provide scientific basis for the control and prevention of the disease.Methods The epidemiological and clinical information of 15 cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9)reported from April, 2013 to May,2015 were collected.Sample of patients and external environmental samples of suspected exposure were collected and detected by real-time PCR.The epidemic distribution and clinical characteristics were analyzed.Results Fifteen cases of human infection with

  8. [The Geography of Hunger: clinical interpretation of landscapes or critical epidemiology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo Filho, Djalma Agripino de

    2008-11-01

    This article provides a new interpretation of Geografia da Fome [The Geography of Hunger], by Josué de Castro, focusing on the convergence of three fields of knowledge: geography, clinical science, and epidemiology. Although there is a certain commonality in the methodological procedures, the book offers multiple configurations of objects and a cross-disciplinary theoretical framework for explaining the phenomenon of hunger.

  9. Important considerations for designing and reporting epidemiologic and clinical studies in dental traumatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lars; Andreasen, Jens O

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to suggest important considerations for epidemiologic and clinical studies in the field of dental traumatology. The article is based on the authors' experiences from research in this field and editorial board work for the scientific journal Dental Traumatology...

  10. Epidemiological, Clinical and Paraclinical Study of Hydatid Cysts in Three Educational Medical Centers in 10 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simindokht Shoaee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis or hydatidosis, caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus, is an important public health problem in many areas of the world  and  Iran is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis In the present study, we evaluated epidemiological, complications and clinical characteristics of hydatidosis at three University Medical Centers in Tehran over a 10-year period.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study performed in patients with hydatid cysts. Information about age, gender, number of cysts, organ involvement, morbidity and mortality and relapse were collected from medical records of hydatid patients. Paraclinic information such as CT Scan, MRI, ultrasound, complete blood count, pathological diagnosis and complication of disease were collected.Results: Overall, 81 patients, 35 (43.2% male and 46 (56.8% female, who were diagnosed as having hydatid cyst by clinical and radiological findings, with pathologic documentation were studied in three university medical center registries over a 10-year period (2003- 2012 in Tehran. Fourteen patients (17% of cases had complications resulting from this disease. Patients' age ranged from 5 to 86 years, and the peak prevalence of the disease was between 20 and 40 (34% of cases.Conclusion: Iran  is a country of endemic situation for hydatidosis. Prevalence rate of hydatidosis in Iran was reported to be 0.61-2 in 100000 populations. The highest  rate of infection and complications were in patients of 20-40 years age. Clinical examination revealed that abdominal pain was the most common complaint and was present in 51.7% of the cases. Other most common complain were cough, abdominal mass, dyspnea, icterus, chest pain, dyspepsia, back pain and seizure; and it was result of occupying effect of cysts in organs. This is similar with previous studies in Iran

  11. CLINICAL-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ACQUIRED CHILD METHEMOGLOBINEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letiția-Doina DUCEAC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, intoxication with nitrates continues to represent an important aspect in child pathology. Methemoglobinemia symptoms appear when the human body is exposed to high amounts of toxic compounds.The aim of this work was to evaluate the main clinical, biological and development issues of affected patients hospitalized in a specialized clinic. Acquired methemoglobinemia cases of the ”blue child syndrome” type are more frequent than in born ones. The factors considered for the study were the environment from which patients came, a thorough clinical inspection, data on age, nutrition, methemoglobinemia values, other treatments followed, associated diseases and evolution prognosis. The conclusion of the investigation was that a low living standard, a poor health education, the climate, the presence of ground fertilizers and the type of nourishment determined a significant increase of methemoglobinemia patients.

  12. Primary hyperparathyroidism: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools and current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Percivale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a clinical condition characterized by overactive parathyroid gland secretion of parathyroid hormone with concurrent alteration of the phosphocalcemic metabolism. We present a literature review on primary hyperparathyroidism addressing key on clinical presentation, causes, medical and surgical treatment at the best of our knowledge. Based on this review we confirm the role of serum calcium and serum level examination, as well as we define the definitive treatment for PHPT being parathyroidectomy. In case of contraindication for surgery, medical treatment can play a relevant role.

  13. Psoriasis and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson KC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kelly C Pearson1, April W Armstrong21Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disorder, which has been reported to be associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV risks. CV comorbidities, such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity appear to be increased in psoriasis patients compared with the general population. Psoriasis may contribute independently to adverse cardiac outcomes after accounting for traditional CV risk factors. In this article, it was aimed to summarize large population studies that examine the relationship between psoriasis and CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes, and highlight proposed mechanisms for the observed epidemiologic link. Specifically, large population-based studies with over 1000 total subjects from 1975 to September 2008 in the English literature are highlighted. The relevant search terms in the Ovid Medline database were applied. The majority of the studies presented evidence for an increased incidence of CV risk factors and an increased risk for major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with severe psoriasis. The increased risk in severe psoriasis necessitates regular screening for other comorbidities. Current guidelines for screening CV risk factors among psoriasis patients are discussed. Also reviewed is the scarce literature in therapeutic strategies to reduce CV risk factors and major adverse cardiac outcomes in psoriasis patients. Specifically, an emerging area of research on the effects of biologic agents on CV risk factors and CV adverse outcomes in psoriasis is discussed.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular risk factors, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events, MACE, hypertension

  14. Clinical epidemiology of comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, J; Eames, S E

    1997-01-01

    The authors sought to determine the 1-year-period prevalence and demographic characteristics of comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia, as well as the demographic characteristics of SRD-dysthymia patients as compared with SRD-only patients. Patients being treated at two university medical centers and abstinent less than 2 years were followed prospectively for 6 months to establish the diagnosis of dysthymia. A total of 642 patients were assessed, of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire and assessment of DSM Axis I psychiatric diagnoses. The 1-year prevalence rate was lower than noted in previous studies where there were less stringent criteria for dysthymia. The rate of dysthymia among these SRD patients closely resembled that observed in a general population study. SRD-dysthymia patients and SRD-only patients did not differ on most demographic characteristics. SRD-dysthymia is not easily detected among recovering SRD patients because of the need for lengthy observation and the absence of special demographic characteristics.

  15. [Dengue: a re-emerging disease. A clinical and epidemiological study in 57 Spanish travelers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascón, J; Giner, V; Vidal, J; Jou, J M; Mas, E; Corachán, M

    1998-11-07

    Dengue infection is nowadays considered a re-emergent disease. It has a worldwide tropical and subtropical distribution. The dengue virus in a member of the flavivirus family composed by 4 different serotypes. The virus is transmitted by mosquitos of the Aedes genus. With the increment of travels to the endemic areas, dengue is now observed frequently in our country. We analyzed 57 patients, 30 with imported dengue (ID) and 27 with dengue fever suffered during the trip (DDT). This series is compared with other published ones and a review of the subject is presented. Patients with ID followed a protocol as a febril syndrome returning from the tropics. Dengue was diagnosed through a compatible clinico-epidemiological history, the absence of other ferbil illness and positivity of specific serology. All patients had travelled to endemic areas (Central America 28 cases, Indian subcontinent 15, South-East Asia 10, South America 2, West Africa one, and Pacific one). The following were the most important clinical characteristics: fever and asthenia (100%), headache (98%), mialgia (84%), arthralgia (72%), morbilliform rash (61%) and retroocular pain (65%). For ID cases, the most helpful analitical results were: leucopenia (70%), reactive lymphocytes in peripheral blood smear (70%), thrombocytopenia (70%), and increased hepatic enzymes ALAT (53%), ASAT (63%) and LDH (100% in the 7 patients tested for this enzyme). Dengue must be included in differential diagnosis of fever in patients coming back to travels to tropical areas.

  16. 浙江省6例人感染H7N9禽流感确诊病例的临床与流行病学特征分析%Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the 6 confirmed human cases with novel influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴程良; 陈恩富; 陈直平; 龚震宇; 吕华坤; 蔡剑; 刘社兰; 余昭; 丁华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical spectrum,geographic location of human H7N9 avian influenza as well as the characteristics of population at high risk of infection,in order to develop strategies for the prevention and control of the infection.Clinical and epidemiological characteristics on the 6 confirmed human cases in Zhejiang werfe also analyzed.Methods Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to test the nucleic acid of human H7N9 avian influenza infection,from pharyngeal swabs of the patients and their close contacts.Face to face interview and descriptive method were used to collect related clinical and epidemiological data.Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 17.0.Results Six confirmed cases were distributed in Hangzhou and Huzhou cities.The 6 confirmed human cases,including 5 males and 1 female were all confirmd with novel influenza A (H7N9) virus infection,with an average age as 60.83 years (with median as 64.50 years).Cough was the most common initial symptom to be noticed.The clinical manifestations would include fever,dizziness,pain of muscles,coughing,expectoration and short of breath.All the X-ray chest films showed severe pneumonia,and 5 of them having had other chronic diseases.None of the cases admitted to have had a history of exposure to ill/death avians.However,all of the cases had been frequently exposed to the agricultural-byproduct-trading-markets where the positive rate of novel influenza A (H7N9) virus in environmental specimens was up to 43.21%.32 of the 375 close contacts (8.53%) to the 6 cases appeared abnormal symptoms,but no positive result related to novel influenza A (H7N9) virus nucleic acid was detected from their throat swabs.Conclusion Acute infection on the respiratory system seemed the main clinical manifestation.Elderly men,especially those with chronic diseases were under high risk of human infection with H7N9 avian influenza.The source of infection might be associated with the exposure to poultry.There was

  17. [New antiepileptic drugs: characteristics and clinical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2014-05-01

    New antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) that have been used in many other countries for more than 10 years have only recently became available for use in Japan. Gabapentin, topiramate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam were licensed for use in Japan between 2006 and 2010. Stiripentol for Dravet syndrome and rufinamide for Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were also approved in 2012 and 2013 as orphan drugs. Clinical trials of other new AEDs such as oxcarbazepine, vigabatrin, lacosamide, and perampanel are in progress. In this review, the general characteristics of the new AEDs are discussed with regards to their effectiveness, tolerability, drug interaction, safety and mechanisms of action. The effectiveness, of the new AEDs compared with established AEDs is also discussed. Clinical applications of the new AEDs, focusing on gabapentin, topiramate, lamotrigine and levetiracetam are also discussed based on our domestic experience as well as overseas reports.

  18. Pituitary gigantism: Causes and clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2015-12-01

    Acromegaly and pituitary gigantism are very rare conditions resulting from excessive secretion of growth hormone (GH), usually by a pituitary adenoma. Pituitary gigantism occurs when GH excess overlaps with the period of rapid linear growth during childhood and adolescence. Until recently, its etiology and clinical characteristics have been poorly understood. Genetic and genomic causes have been identified in recent years that explain about half of cases of pituitary gigantism. We describe these recent discoveries and focus on some important settings in which gigantism can occur, including familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) and the newly described X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) syndrome.

  19. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  20. Ocular Tuberculosis I: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Clinical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumru Önal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization has declared tuberculosis (TB to be a global emergency, as it remains the most common single cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. TB is caused by the acid-fast bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs [pulmonary TB (PTB]. It can also affect any other part of the body [extrapulmonary TB (EPTB]. It is estimated that 1.4% of patients with PTB will eventually develop ocular disease; however, in the majority of cases of ocular TB, PTB may not be documented. Ocular TB infection is usually a result of hematogenous spread during PTB or EPTB. Symptomatic disease most commonly develops after reactivation of dormant foci in the ocular tissue rather than being the manifestation of the initial infection. Immune-mediated ocular TB can occur due to hypersensitivity to M. tuberculosis antigens from a distant focus (such as lungs, despite the absence of the bacterium in the eye. The most common clinical presentation of intraocular inflammation (uveitis due to TB appears to be posterior uveitis, followed by anterior uveitis, panuveitis and intermediate uveitis. The absence of uniform diagnostic criteria for intraocular TB has led to confusion regarding its diagnosis and management. Recent studies on the clinical importance of purified protein derivative (PPD skin test, interferon-gamma release assays, chest computed tomography and polymerase chain reaction have provided a new approach to diagnosing ocular TB. This review series focuses on the clinical features, diagnostic techniques, diagnostic criteria, and treatment modalities in the light of recent literature. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 171-81

  1. Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Loesche, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that causes social restraint. Studies worldwide indicate a high prevalence of moderate halitosis, whereas severe cases are restricted to around 5% of the populations. The etiological chain of halitosis relates to the presence of odoriferous substances in exhaled air, especially the volatile sulphur compounds (VSC) produced by bacteria. The organoleptic diagnosis is the gold standard and clinical management includes oral approaches, especially periodontal treatment and oral hygiene instructions, including the tongue. When oral strategies are not successful, referral to physicians is warranted.

  2. Halitosis: an overview of epidemiology, etiology and clinical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Kuchenbecker Rösing

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an unpleasant condition that causes social restraint. Studies worldwide indicate a high prevalence of moderate halitosis, whereas severe cases are restricted to around 5% of the populations. The etiological chain of halitosis relates to the presence of odoriferous substances in exhaled air, especially the volatile sulphur compounds (VSC produced by bacteria. The organoleptic diagnosis is the gold standard and clinical management includes oral approaches, especially periodontal treatment and oral hygiene instructions, including the tongue. When oral strategies are not successful, referral to physicians is warranted.

  3. Epidemiological and Clinical Features of Hepatitis B Virus Genotypes among Immigrants in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Scotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aims. This study aims to determine the distribution and clinical features of HBV-genotypes in a population of immigrants affected by HBV-infection. Methods. Between 01/2003 and 03/2009, 1623 immigrants were tested for HBV-infection. Biochemical and virological activities were determined in HBsAg-positive patients; HBV-genotypes were determined, by the INNO-LiPA HBV Genotyping, in the subjects with HBV DNA detectable. In every patient we evaluated the stage and classified the infection as inactive carrier, mild or moderate/severe chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and/or HCC. Results. Among the tested subjects, 191 (11.7% resulted HBsAg-positive, and in 144/191 (75.4% serum HBV-DNA was detectable. The genotype distribution was as follows: 45,13% genotype E, 18,1% genotype D, 15,3% genotype B, 13,2% genotype C, 4,9% genotype A, 3,5% mixed genotypes (A–D. The evaluation of liver disease degree showed that 24.6% patients were inactive carriers of HBV infection, 19.4% presented a immunotolerance phase, 34.5% had mild chronic hepatitis, 13.6% had a moderate/severe chronic hepatitis, 6.3% had cirrhosis, and 1.6% presented HCC. Conclusions. Our study evidences a high prevalence of HBV-infection in immigrants, and the potentiality of migratory flow in the introduction of genotype non-D hepatitis B virus. The Hepatitis B virus genotypes presented significant differences in epidemiological and clinical characteristics.

  4. Epidemiological and clinical features of hepatitis B virus related liver failure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Liu; Yu-Ming Wang; Ke Fan

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To examine the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) related liver failure in patients in China. METHODS: This study was conducted with a retrospective design to examine 1066 patients with HBVrelated liver failure in the southwest of China. RESULTS: There were more male than female patients. Young and middle-aged people comprised most of the patients. Farmers and laborers comprised the largest proportion (63.09%). Han Chinese accounted for 98.12%, while minority ethnic groups only accounted for 0.88% of patients. A total of 43.47% patients had a family history of HBV-related liver failure and 56.66% patients had a history of drinking alcohol. A total of 42.59% patients with HBV-related liver failure had definite causes. With regard to the clinical manifestation of HBV-related liver failure, the symptoms were: hypodynamia, anorexia and abdominal distension. Total bilirubin (TBIL) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were altered in 46.23% of patients with evident damage of the liver. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that the patients' prognoses were correlated with ALT, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, TBIL, prothrombin activity (PTA), and alpha-fetoprotein levels, and drinking alcohol, ascites, hepatorenal syndrome, infection and ≥ 2 complications. Multifactor logistic regression analysis showed that the activity of thrombinogen and the number of complications were related to the prognosis. CONCLUSION: Alcohol influences the patients' prognosis and condition. PTA and complications are independent factors that can be used for estimating the prognosis of HBV-related liver failure.

  5. [Refsum's disease. Epidemiologic, clinical and biological correlation. 6 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, H; Leys, D; Skjeldal, O H; Caron, J C; Lambert, P; Lehembre, P; Hache, J C

    1986-01-01

    Nine patients with symptoms and signs of Refsum's disease are reported. In 6 a systemic accumulation of phytanic acid was demonstrated, together with low phytanic acid oxidase activity in skin fibroblasts in 5 of them. In 3, no disorder of phytanic acid metabolism was demonstrated. In 3, the diagnosis was made during the pre-clinical period. The disease seems more frequent in Northern France, which agrees with the hypothesis of a genetic mutation which would have taken place in Scandinavia some centuries ago and was subsequently spread by the Vikings. The effects of a dietary treatment on serum phytanic acid levels and clinical disorders are reported. The general condition of the patients improved remarkably but only partially. The diet is unpalatable and in some patients the level of serum phytanic acid increased, due to the mobilization of body fat. Patients with very high levels of phytanic acid might be initially treated by plasmapheresis. For the same reason, the diet should supply enough calories to keep body weight unchanged, and body weight loss whatever its cause should be avoided.

  6. Clinic Characteristics of Varicella Zoster Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinic characteristics of varicella zoster myocarditis and to determine the diagnostic value of serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI ) on the disease. Methods Information of 58 hospitalized patients with varicella zoster was collected, and the incidence of varicella zoster myocarditis and clinic characteristics (ECG, cTnI, age and sex distribution, etc. ) were analyzed respectively. Results It was found that 36.2% of the patients developed myocarditis. The old and female persons were much more susceptible to varicella zoster myocarditis. All patients had responsive ECG manifestations, and the abnormal ST-T changes were more common than other ECG abnormalities. CTnI remained higher than normal and had significant diagnostic value. Most of the patients had good prognosis, only a few patients lasted a long time and even progressed into cardiomyopathy. Nearly all the patients came to see dermatologists when they felt ill initially. That would lead to more misdiagnosis. Conclusion Infection of varicella zoster can complicate myocarditis, we must pay more attention to the patients who suffer from varicella zoster especially in the aged and female; cTnI is an important and effective index for diagnosis of varicella zoster myocarditis.

  7. [Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of mentally ill patients identified in the therapy department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Iu I; Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A; Eliava, V N

    1990-01-01

    A clinico-epidemiological study was made of the incidence of mental diseases among the adult community visiting the therapeutic department of a city polyclinic. Mental patients registered at the PND (41.9 per 1000 population) underwent examinations. A large group of patients, mainly with borderline mental diseases, was additionally revealed (134.4 per 1000 population). Therefore, the total incidence of mental diseases among the adult community amounted to 176.3 per 1000 population. Both groups are compared in terms of the clinical syndromes, sex, age, and the level of social adaptation.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatic diseases: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Prodromos I; Karvounaris, Stylianos A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors of which central obesity and insulin resistance are the most characteristic--are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In these subjects, abdominal adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, known to promote insulin resistance. The presence of inflammatory cytokines together with the well-documented increased risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with inflammatory arthritides and systemic lupus erythematosus has prompted studies to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an effort to identify subjects at risk in addition to that conferred by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These studies have documented a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome which correlates with disease activity and markers of atherosclerosis. The correlation of inflammatory disease activity with metabolic syndrome provides additional evidence for a link between inflammation and metabolic disturbances/vascular morbidity.

  9. Herpes zoster: Epidemiología y clínica Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Herpes zoster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Vujacich

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El herpes zoster (HZ constituye una enfermedad de distribución mundial; sin embargo, existen es casos datos comunicados sobre la misma en países de Latinoamérica. Con el objetivo de evaluar aspectos clínicos y epidemiológicos de esta enfermedad en nuestra población, realizamos un análisis retrospectivo de historias clínicas de un centro privado de referencia en enfermedades infecciosas en Buenos Aires, Argentina (período: 2000-2005. Se realizó un análisis estadístico univariado para evaluar los factores asociados a neuralgia posherpética en este grupo de pacientes. Sobre un total de 302 casos evaluables, el 62% correspondieron a mujeres. La mediana de edad fue de 57 años. El 16.1% de los pacientes presentó condiciones predisponentes al desarrollo de zoster. Las localizaciones más frecuentes fueron la torácica, oftálmica y lumbosacra. El 7.75% presentó compromiso de más de dos metámeras. El 94% de los pacientes recibió medicación antiviral, siendo el aciclovir la droga más utilizada. El 94% recibió alguna medicación coadyuvante (antiinflamatorios no esteroideos, antineuríticos, corticoides. La complicación más frecuente fue la neuralgia posherpética (12% y se encontró estadísticamente asociada a edad mayor de 50 años.Herpes zoster (HZ is a public health problem worldwide. Although, there is paucity of data of this disease from South American countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and epidemiological aspects of HZ in a population of patients from South America. We underwent a retrospective analysis of clinical charts of an infectious diseases reference center (period: 2000-2005. Univariate analysis was performed to assess variables related to post herpetic neuralgia (PHN. From a total of 302 cases, 62% were in women. The median age was 57 years; 16.1% of the patients had a predisposing condition for the development of HZ. Most frequent dermatomes involved were: thoracic, ophthalmic and

  10. [Sarcoidosis: etiology, pathogenesis, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Éksarenko, O V; Kharlap, S I; Safonova, T N

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic idiopathic multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Prevalence of this condition is approximately 3-5: 100 000 with the highest incidence at the age of 25-40 years old and no gender predomination. Early morbidity, disability and severe prognosis worsen patient's condition and make them socially limited. In some cases ocular involvement and vision loss aggravate general condition of the patients. Ocular involvement in sarcoidosis occurs in 10-75% patients. At the same time some data confirm the fact that in 7% of patients ocular damage is the presenting sign making them come to an ophthalmologist whereas orbital involvement may present in systemic disease only. Unclear etiology and clinical similarity with other conditions cause difficulties in early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with sarcoidosis.

  11. [Plasmodium falciparum malaria: epidemiology and clinical features at Tarapoto Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, J; Rodriguez, J; Romero, D

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective study was conducted of the clinical records of 41 patients discharged from a hospital in Tarapoto, Peru, between August 1992 and June 1996 following treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Patients ranged in age from 18 to 65 years; 25 were male. The cases were uniformly distributed throughout the year. The duration of illness averaged 11 days. At admission, 40 patients had fever, 36 had shaking chills, 29 had headache, 21 had nausea and vomiting, 21 had hyporexia, 15 had pallor, and 13 had splenomegaly. 3 of the 16 women were pregnant. 7 patients reported a history of malaria. The admission diagnosis was malaria in 33 cases. 31 patients were treated with chloroquine; 18 were subsequently treated with pyrimethamine-sulfadoxin and 1 received doxycycline. No cases of grave illness or death occurred. The increasing presence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the Peruvian lowlands should promote review of the adequacy of control programs.

  12. Obesity and heart failure: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Martin A; Lavie, Carl J; Agrawal, Harsh; Aggarwal, Kul B; Kumar, Senthil A

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for heart failure (HF) in both men and women. The mortality risk of overweight and class I and II obese adults with HF is lower than that of normal weight or underweight adults with HF of comparable severity, a phenomenon referred to as the obesity paradox. Severe obesity produces hemodynamic alterations that predispose to changes in cardiac morphology and ventricular function, which may lead to the development of HF. The presence of systemic hypertension, sleep apnea, and hypoventilation, comorbidities that occur commonly with severe obesity, may contribute to HF in such patients. The resultant syndrome is known as obesity cardiomyopathy. Substantial weight loss in severely obese persons is capable of reversing most obesity-related abnormalities of cardiac performance and morphology and improving the clinical manifestations of obesity cardiomyopathy.

  13. Diagnostic incidence of the presence of positive HBsAg: epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics Incidencia diagnóstica de AgHBs positivo: Características epidemiológicas, clínicas y virológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Poves Martínez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics of patients newly diagnosed with active hepatitis B virus (HBV infection based on the presence of positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg in the digestive diseases department of a district hospital. Patients and methods: we performed a 3-year prospective study in patients newly diagnosed with HBV infection. We analyzed epidemiological, clinical, and virological characteristics, complete HBV markers, quantification of HBV DNA, and infection by hepatitis delta virus. We performed genotyping and resistance testing in patients with a high viral load. Results were obtained for patients who required liver biopsy. Results: we diagnosed 213 patients (18.8/10,000 inhabitants/year. Men accounted for 61%, and 59% were aged 20 to 40 years. Immigrants accounted for 53% of the population: 46% were from Rumania and 37% from Sub-Saharan African countries. At diagnosis, 2.3% had acute hepatitis (all with jaundice and 3.3% had cirrhosis with portal hypertension. With the exception of cases of acute hepatitis, positive HBeAg was observed in 9%. Serum transaminase levels were normal in 62.2% of patients, HBV DNA was > 2,000 IU/mL in 33.8%, and delta virus was present in 3.3%. Genotyping and resistance testing were performed in 70 patients: the most common genotype was D, followed by A. Resistance was detected at baseline in only 2 cases: to adefovir in one case and to entecavir in another. Among the 36 biopsies performed, 32.4% showed inflammatory activity ≥ 2, and 23.5% had fibrosis ≥ 2 according to the METAVIR scoring system. According to clinical practice, specific treatment for HBV infection was necessary (any reason in 17.4% of those diagnosed (3 patients per 100,000 inhabitants/year. Conclusions: despite prevention and vaccination, HBV infection is a health problem that most commonly affects the immigrant population and men. Serum transaminase levels are normal in 62

  14. Sydenham's chorea: clinical and evolutive characteristics

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    Maria Teresa Ramos Ascensão Terreri

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: During the last 12 years we have observed an increase in the frequency of Sydenham's chorea in our country. We have observed that some of our patients have presented recurrence of the chorea despite regular treatment with benzathine penicillin. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate clinical and evolutive characteristics of Sydenham's chorea in a group of patients followed in our Pediatric Rheumatology Unit. TYPE OF STUDY: Retrospective study. SETTING: Section of Pediatric Rheumatology - Discipline of Allergy, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology - Department of Pediatrics - UNIFESP - EPM. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred and ninety patients with rheumatic fever followed between 1986 and 1999. METHODS: We reviewed the records of 290 patients with rheumatic fever followed between 1986 and 1999. All patients were diagnosed according to the revised Jones criteria (1992. We included 86 patients that presented Sydenham's chorea as one of the major criteria (one or more attacks and evaluated their clinical and evolutive characteristics as well the treatment. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients were girls and 31 were boys. The mean age at onset was 9.7 years and mean follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 86 Sydenham's chorea patients presented 110 attacks of chorea. We observed isolated chorea in 35% of the patients, and 25 (29% presented one or more recurrences. We included only 17 of the 25 patients for further analysis, with a total of 22 recurrences of which 14 were attacks of chorea, because it was not possible to precisely detect the interval between attacks in the other patients. The approximate interval between the attacks ranged from 4 to 96 months. In 71% of the patients there was no failure in the secondary prophylaxis with benzathine penicillin, which was performed every 3 weeks. CONCLUSION: Despite the regular use of secondary benzathine penicillin prophylaxis, children with rheumatic fever have a high risk of Sydenham's chorea

  15. Taxonomy, Epidemiology, and Clinical Relevance of the Genus Arcobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases. PMID:21233511

  16. Taxonomy, epidemiology, and clinical relevance of the genus Arcobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Luis; Figueras, Maria José

    2011-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, defined almost 20 years ago from members of the genus Campylobacter, has become increasingly important because its members are being considered emergent enteropathogens and/or potential zoonotic agents. Over recent years information that is relevant for microbiologists, especially those working in the medical and veterinary fields and in the food safety sector, has accumulated. Recently, the genus has been enlarged with several new species. The complete genomes of Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter nitrofigilis are available, with the former revealing diverse pathways characteristic of free-living microbes and virulence genes homologous to those of Campylobacter. The first multilocus sequence typing analysis showed a great diversity of sequence types, with no association with specific hosts or geographical regions. Advances in detection and identification techniques, mostly based on molecular methods, have been made. These microbes have been associated with water outbreaks and with indicators of fecal pollution, with food products and water as the suspected routes of transmission. This review updates this knowledge and provides the most recent data on the taxonomy, species diversity, methods of detection, and identification of these microbes as well as on their virulence potential and implication in human and animal diseases.

  17. Immunization status,epidemiological and clinical characteristics of measles in hospitalized children in 2009-2013%2009-2013年麻疹住院患儿的免疫状态、流行病学及临床特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈必全; 夏春琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To realize the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of measles,and explore effective measures to control measles epidemic.Methods Clinical data of 554 hospitalized measles children between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed retrospectively.Results All children had fever,cough,and skin rash,507 (91.52% )had typical clinical manifestations of measles,47(8.48% )had mild manifestations;the major population were children aged≤6 months(n= 176,31.77% )and 7-8 months (n= 346,62.45% );132 (23.83% )children had contact history of confirmed measles,19(3.43% )measles children’s mothers also developed measles (all were cases of 2013),227 (40.97% )children had history of repeated infusion or hospitalization in large medical institutes dur-ing the measles incubation period (all were cases of 2013,there were measles children who had infusion or hospitali-zation in the same hospital during the same period). The peak incidence of measles usually occurs in January-May. Conclusion Intensive immunization of measles for young women of reproductive age and vaccination with“pre-mea-sles vaccine”for early infancy,and strengthening the medical management of fever outpatients are important meas-ures to prevent measles epidemic.%目的:了解麻疹的临床及流行病学特点,探讨控制麻疹疫情流行的有效措施。方法回顾性分析2009年1月-2013年12月收治的554例麻疹住院患儿临床资料。结果554例麻疹住院患儿均有发热、咳嗽、皮疹,临床表现为典型麻疹者507例(91.52%),轻型麻疹47例(8.48%);以≤6月龄(176例,31.77%)和7~8月龄(346例,62.45%)患儿为主;有明确麻疹疾病接触史者132例(23.83%),患儿母亲同时患有麻疹19例(均为2013年病例,占3.43%),在麻疹潜伏期内有反复在大型医疗机构就诊输液史或住院史(均为2013年病例,同期该机构有麻疹患儿就诊输液或住院史)者227

  18. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  19. Internet addiction: definition, assessment, epidemiology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Martha; Black, Donald W

    2008-01-01

    Internet addiction is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges or behaviours regarding computer use and internet access that lead to impairment or distress. The condition has attracted increasing attention in the popular media and among researchers, and this attention has paralleled the growth in computer (and Internet) access. Prevalence estimates vary widely, although a recent random telephone survey of the general US population reported an estimate of 0.3-0.7%. The disorder occurs worldwide, but mainly in countries where computer access and technology are widespread. Clinical samples and a majority of relevant surveys report a male preponderance. Onset is reported to occur in the late 20s or early 30s age group, and there is often a lag of a decade or more from initial to problematic computer usage. Internet addiction has been associated with dimensionally measured depression and indicators of social isolation. Psychiatric co-morbidity is common, particularly mood, anxiety, impulse control and substance use disorders. Aetiology is unknown, but probably involves psychological, neurobiological and cultural factors. There are no evidence-based treatments for internet addiction. Cognitive behavioural approaches may be helpful. There is no proven role for psychotropic medication. Marital and family therapy may help in selected cases, and online self-help books and tapes are available. Lastly, a self-imposed ban on computer use and Internet access may be necessary in some cases.

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Fuchs’ Uveitis Syndrome

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    Pınar Çakar Özdal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and demographic properties of Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome (FUS in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 161 patients with FUS followed in the Uveitis Division of Ulucanlar Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2014 were respectively reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis, sex, the number of affected eyes, follow-up period, clinical findings at presentation, complications during the follow-up period, medical and surgical treatments, and best corrected visual acuity at the initial and final visits were recorded. Results: The study included 171 eyes of 161 patients diagnosed with FUS. Of the patients, 94 (58.4% were female and 67 (41.6% were male. The mean age at presentation was 35.2±11.0 (11-65 years. The mean follow-up period was 23.5±32.8 (2-216 months. Ten (6.2% patients had bilateral involvement. The most common symptoms at presentation were decreased visual acuity or blurred vision in 63 (39.1% and floaters in 19 (11.8% patients. Clinical findings at presentation included diffuse small, round, white keratic precipitates in 128 (74.8% eyes, anterior chamber reaction in 82 (47.9%, vitreous cells in 122 (71.3%, heterochromia in 47 (27.4% and iris nodules in 32 (18.7% eyes. During the follow-up period, elevated intraocular pressure occured in 31 (18.1% eyes and the most common complication was cataract development (89 eyes, 52.0%. Conclusion: Heterochromia was observed in 27.4% of patients in our study. However, the diffuse small, round keratic precipitates, low-grade anterior chamber reaction and varying degrees of vitreous reaction are more common clinical characteristics that are helpful in making the diagnosis.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Fuchs’ Uveitis Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalçacıoğlu, Pınar; Çakar Özdal, Pınar; Şimşek, Mert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and demographic properties of Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome (FUS) in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 161 patients with FUS followed in the Uveitis Division of Ulucanlar Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2014 were respectively reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis, sex, the number of affected eyes, follow-up period, clinical findings at presentation, complications during the follow-up period, medical and surgical treatments, and best corrected visual acuity at the initial and final visits were recorded. Results: The study included 171 eyes of 161 patients diagnosed with FUS. Of the patients, 94 (58.4%) were female and 67 (41.6%) were male. The mean age at presentation was 35.2±11.0 (11-65) years. The mean follow-up period was 23.5±32.8 (2-216) months. Ten (6.2%) patients had bilateral involvement. The most common symptoms at presentation were decreased visual acuity or blurred vision in 63 (39.1%) and floaters in 19 (11.8%) patients. Clinical findings at presentation included diffuse small, round, white keratic precipitates in 128 (74.8%) eyes, anterior chamber reaction in 82 (47.9%), vitreous cells in 122 (71.3%), heterochromia in 47 (27.4%) and iris nodules in 32 (18.7%) eyes. During the follow-up period, elevated intraocular pressure occured in 31 (18.1%) eyes and the most common complication was cataract development (89 eyes, 52.0%). Conclusion: Heterochromia was observed in 27.4% of patients in our study. However, the diffuse small, round keratic precipitates, low-grade anterior chamber reaction and varying degrees of vitreous reaction are more common clinical characteristics that are helpful in making the diagnosis. PMID:27800260

  2. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF PREGNANCY

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    Sharath Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pregnancy is a period of profound immunologic, endocr ine, metabolic and vascular changes which are tolerated by the body for a relatively short time. Almost all pregnant women (90% may develop both physiologic and pathologic changes in the skin, nails, and hair which should be recognized and appropriately m anaged 1 . Moreover, pregnancy modifies the course of a number of pre - existing dermatological conditions. AIMS: To find out the frequency and pattern of skin changes in pregnant women i.e. physiological skin changes, dermatoses modified by pregnancy and spec ific dermatoses of pregnancy . DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study . METHODS AND MATERIAL: A total of 300 pregnant women attending antenatal OPD and those admitted in wards having symptoms related to skin and mucosa, at tertiary care centre between June 20 11 and November 2012 were studied. Patients not willing to give informed consent were only excluded. . Detailed history, clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: In our study age distribution of pregnancy, was in range of 16 - 30 years. Most of the cases belonged to 2 nd and 3 rd trimester (93%. Pigmentary changes were the most common non specific pregnancy dermatosis, seen in almost all cases. Of these linea nigra (87% being the commonest. Overall 54 cases showed specific dermatos es of pregnancy. Of these the most common was prurigo of pregnancy (12% followed by pruritus of pregnancy (4%, PUPPP (2%. Among the other dermatological conditions, scabies (16% was the commonest. Fungal infections were seen in 14%, viral infections in 8% and bacterial infections in 5%. CONCLUSION: Majority of the dermatoses associated with pregnancy were observed in third trimester and among multigravidas. Pigmentary changes was the commonest physiological change observed. Prurigo of pregnancy was the commonest specific dermatosis of pregnancy. There were no cases of dermatoses modified during pregnancy

  3. Clinical Characteristics of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A Young; Song, Ju Sun; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Jang, Shin Yi; Chung, Tae-Young; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Sung, Kiick; Huh, June; Kang, I-Seok; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Ki, Chang-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance and a highly variable clinical spectrum. However, there are limited data available on the clinical features of Korean patients with MFS. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Korean patients with MFS. Subjects and Methods We included all patients who were diagnosed with MFS between January 1995 and May 2015 at a single tertiary medical center. Patients with an MFS-related disorder including MASS phenotype (myopia, mitral valve prolapse, borderline and non-progressive aortic root dilatation, skeletal findings, and striae), mitral valve prolapse syndrome, and ectopia lentis syndrome were excluded. A total of 343 Korean patients aged ≥15 years who satisfied the revised Ghent nosology were included. Results The mean patient age at diagnosis was 35.9±12.6 years and 172 (50.1%) patients were male. Median follow-up duration was 52.8 months. A total of 303 patients (88.6%) had aortic root dilatation with Z score ≥2 or aortic root dissection. Ectopia lentis was relatively less common (163 patients, 55.1%) and systemic score ≥7 was found in 217 patients (73.8%). Among 219 probands, a family history of MFS was present in 97 patients (44.5%) and sporadic cases in 121 patients (55.5%). Among the 157 probands who underwent genetic analysis, 141 (89.8%) had an FBN1 mutation associated with aortic root aneurysm/dissection. Aortic dissection (AD) or intramural hematoma (IMH) was identified in 110 patients (32.1%). Among the 221 patients without AD or IMH, descending aortic aneurysms were identified in 19 patients (8.6%). Two hundred thirteen patients (62%) underwent cardiovascular surgery of any type. Eight patients died during follow-up. Conclusion We described the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Korean MFS patients. Cardiovascular manifestations were commonly detected and FBN1 mutation was present

  4. [Clinical and epidemiologic evaluation of carcinogenic pollution in the wood-processing industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkova, E V; Dymova, E G; Gurvich, E B; Antonova, O N; Gutnikova, O V; Saprykova, V V; Prosina, I I

    1993-01-01

    Hygienic, clinical, epidemiologic studies in primary woodworking and chipboard production workers showed that exposure to occupational hazards (wooden dust, formaldehyde and other chemicals of wooden origin) results in frequent allergy and irritation of upper respiratory tract and skin. High oncologic risk among woodworking production employees assigns the industry to a group with oncologic jeopardy. MAC for wooden dust should be corrected taking into account the chemicals (phenol, formaldehyde, furans et al.) content.

  5. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms...

  6. Clinical trial participant characteristics and saliva and DNA metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Julie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical trial and epidemiological studies need high quality biospecimens from a representative sample of participants to investigate genetic influences on treatment response and disease. Obtaining blood biospecimens presents logistical and financial challenges. As a result, saliva biospecimen collection is becoming more frequent because of the ease of collection and lower cost. This article describes an assessment of saliva biospecimen samples collected through the mail, trial participant demographic and behavioral characteristics, and their association with saliva and DNA quantity and quality. Methods Saliva biospecimens were collected using the Oragene® DNA Self-Collection Kits from participants in a National Cancer Institute funded smoking cessation trial. Saliva biospecimens from 565 individuals were visually inspected for clarity prior to and after DNA extraction. DNA samples were then quantified by UV absorbance, PicoGreen®, and qPCR. Genotyping was performed on 11 SNPs using TaqMan® SNP assays and two VNTR assays. Univariate, correlation, and analysis of variance analyses were conducted to observe the relationship between saliva sample and participant characteristics. Results The biospecimen kit return rate was 58.5% among those invited to participate (n = 967 and 47.1% among all possible COMPASS participants (n = 1202. Significant gender differences were observed with males providing larger saliva volume (4.7 vs. 4.5 ml, p = 0.019, samples that were more likely to be judged as cloudy (39.5% vs. 24.9%, p 0.21, P Conclusion Findings from this study show that demographic and behavioral characteristics of smoking cessation trial participants have significant associations with saliva and DNA metrics, but not with the performance of TaqMan® SNP or VNTR genotyping assays. Trial registration COMPASS; registered as NCT00301145 at clinicaltrials.gov.

  7. GLAUCOMA FOLLOWING BLUNT TRAUMA : AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL STUDY

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    Purvi R

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To study the demographic profile, clinical picture, treatment modalities and long term follow up of patients suffering from glaucoma developing after blunt trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study over one year in which 75 eyes, newly diagnosed or referred with post traumatic glaucoma to M & J Institute of Ophthalmology were studied. All cases underwent thorough eye examination. Treatment was individualized and instituted. RESULTS: Patients ranged from 1 - 70 years with 32 patients (42.66% below 30 years of age. 61 patients (81.33% were males. 66.65% were students, laborers or housewives, with laborers topping the charts in vulnerability. In 46 cases (61.33%, left eye was affected, while in 29 pts. (38.66% right eye was affected. In 54.66% of cases, trauma was caused by stone, wooden stick or ball. Others included fist, firecracker, iron rod, handle, belt.16% patients presented with IOP in the normal range, 38 (50.66% patients had IOP in the range of 21-30 mm Hg, whereas 16 (21.33% patients had IOP more than 40 mm Hg. Within 1 week of instituting treatment, 41 (54.66% had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg and only 3 patients had IOP more than 30 mm Hg. However, 70 (93.33% patients had IOP ≤ 20 mm Hg by the end of 6 months and all the patients were in this range after 6 months. On slit lamp examination, corneal edema, traumatic mydriasis and sphincter tears were seen in 32 patients each. 12 patients had hyphema and 19 patients had lens dislocated either into vitreous or into the anterior chamber. Iridodialysis was seen in 5 patients. Other findings included cataract, posterior synechiae, subluxation of lens and tobacco dusting. 57 (76% patients had vision less than 6/60, however after an interval of more than 6 months, 28 (37% patients had vision less than 3/60. The number of patients having vision ≥ 6/12 rose from 5 at initial presentation to 15 in follow-up more than 6 months. Disc changes could be assessed by ophthalmoscopy in 37

  8. Psychogenic tics: clinical characteristics and prevalence

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    Janik, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Clinical characteristics and the prevalence of psychogenic tics (PT Methods. 268 consecutively examined patients aged 4 to 54 years (221 men, 47 females; 134 children, 134 adults with tic phenotype: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS, n = 255, chronic motor tics (n = 6, chronic vocal tics (n = 1, transient tics (n = 1, tics unclassified (n = 2, PT (n = 5 were analyzed. The diagnosis of tic disorders was made on the DSM-IV-TR criteria and mental disorders by psychiatrists. Results. PT were found in 5 patients (1.9%, aged 17 to 51 years, four men and one woman. The phenotype included vocalizations and complex movements. In none of the patients simple motor facial tics, inability to tic suppress, unchanging clinical pattern, peak severity from the beginning of the disease, lack of concern about the disease were present. The absence of premonitory urges, regression in unexpected positions, and the presence of atypical for GTS mental disorders were found in two persons. PT occurred in three persons in whom organic tics were present in childhood. Pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy were unsuccessful. In two persons spontaneous resolution occurred, in two patients the tics persist, in one person the course of PT is unknown. Conclusions. PT are rare and may occur in patients with organic tics. The most typical features of PT are: early onset in adulthood, lack of simple motor tics, inability to tic suppress. The diagnosis is established if a few atypical symptoms for organic tics occur.

  9. Características clínico-epidemiológicas de adultos e idosos atendidos em unidade de terapia intensiva pública da Amazônia (Rio Branco, Acre Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of adults and aged interned in an intensive care unity of the Amazon (Rio Branco, Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Acuña

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A Medicina Intensiva foi implantada no Estado do Acre no ano de 1998. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar as características clínico-epidemiológicas de adultos e idosos internados em unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI pública da Amazônia. MÉTODO: Em 2004, um estudo prospectivo avaliou pacientes com idade igual ou maior a 20 anos internados através da aplicação de questionário, contendo variáveis sócio-econômicas, procedimentos invasivos, ventilação mecânica, suporte nutricional, intervenções cirúrgicas e tratamento dialítico. A gravidade foi estabelecida pelo APACHE II aplicado após 24 horas de internação. O acompanhamento prosseguiu até o destino final na unidade: alta ou óbito. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o programa SPSS. As diferenças foram consideradas significativas quando p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The intensive care Medicine was initiated in the State of the Acre in 1998. The aim of the present study was to establish clinical-epidemiological characteristics of adults and aged interned in a public intensive care unit (ICU in the Amazon. METHODS: In 2004, a prospective study evaluated patients interned through the application of a questionnaire containing socioeconomics variables, invasive procedures, mechanical ventilation, nutritional support, surgical interventions and dialitic treatment. The gravity was established by APACHE II applied after 24 hours of internment. The follow up continued until the final destination in the unit: discharge or death. The statistical analysis used program SPSS, considering differences significant when p < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 79 patients were assessed; 67.1% men; 59.5% white; 59.5% married; 50.4% came from other hospitals; 41.8% from the interior and 13.9% from others States and country (Bolivia in frontier. The age varied from 20 to 104 (53.3 ± 18.6 years old; 30 (36.1% aged (60 y old or more; 35 (44.3% in surgical treatment

  10. 肠道病毒71型和柯萨奇病毒A组16型感染的手足口病患儿的相关特征对比研究%Comparisons of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease caused by Enterovirus 71 and Coxackievirus A16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蕾; 赵成松; 张莉; 李爽; 张代涛; 刘白薇; 王全意; 黎新宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ). Methods The samples of vesicle fluid and throat swabs of 108 children with HFMD were collected and detected for enterovirus by RTPCR. The clinical data of children with EV71 and CA16 infection were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Results The total positive rate of enterovirus was 97.2% ( 105/108 ). Of the 105 cases, 56 cases were positive for EV71 (51.9%), 39 cases were positive for CA16 (36.1% ), 2 cases were positive for other enterovirus ( 1.9% ), and 8 cases were co-infected by EV71 and CA16 (7.4%). There were no significant differences in age and sex between EV71 and CV16 infected cases. The univariate analysis showed that the incidences of herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running in children infected by CA16 were higher than in those infected by EV71. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HFMD children who had erythra of knees had higher probability of CA16 infection. Conclusions EV71 should be considered as the pathogen in children with HFMD who have no herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running.%目的 比较由肠道病毒71型(EV71)和柯萨奇病毒A组16型(CA16)感染的手足口病(HFMD)患儿流行病学情况及临床特征的差异.方法 采集108名临床诊断HFMD患儿疱疹液和咽拭子标本,使用RT-PCR进行肠道病毒检测,对EV71和CA16感染患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析并比较.结果 108名患儿的肠道病毒总阳性率为97.2%(105/108),其中EV71、CA16、其他肠道病毒及EV71和CA16混合感染分别占51.9%(56/108),36.1%(39/108),1.9%(2/108),7.4%(8/108).EV71感染患儿和CA16感染患儿两组间年龄、性别差异无统计学意义.单因素分析显示,CA16感染患儿口腔疱疹、膝部皮疹、流涕的发生比率高于EV71感染患儿.进一步

  11. Melanoma cutâneo: características clínicas, epidemiológicas e histopatológicas no Hospital Universitário de Brasília entre janeiro de 1994 e abril de 1999 Cutaneous Melanoma: clinical, epidemiological and histopathological characteristics at the University Hospital of Brasília between January 1994 and April 1999

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    Ana Maria Costa Pinheiro

    2003-04-01

    characteristics of primary cutaneous melanoma, at the University Hospital of Brasília, during a period of five years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review was conducted of the data registry concerning primary cutaneous melanoma cases, in the University Hospital of Brasília, diagnosed and treated between January 1994 and April 1999, with a total of 32 cases. The patients were analyzed, characterizing the tumor distribution according to gender, age, skin color, topography, symptomatology, histopathological type, Clark level, Breslow index and presence of metastasis. Data was analyzed by simple statistics and by Chi-square (chi2. RESULTS: A predominance was observed of lesions in the limbs, corresponding to sixteen patients (50.0%. There was the primary nodular form in nine (45% patients, and seventeen (58.6% patients did not have any complaint. According to the presence or absence of metastasis and Clark level, it was found that the patients with a level of invasion up to the subcutaneous layer (Clark V presented a relative risk of 2.94 (1.24clinical, epidemiological and histopathological profile of the patients with primary cutaneous melanoma at the University Hospital of Brasília, between January 1994 and April 1999, comprised of elderly females (from 61 to 80 years old, Caucasians, whose tumor was located predominantly in the limbs, the nodular type was the most frequent, and the patients did not present symptoms at the time of diagnosis.

  12. Epidemiological characteristics of thyroid nodules and risk factors for malignant nodules: a retrospective study from 6 304 surgical cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Qin; Wang Kun; Lou Fuchen; Zhang Li; Huang Qingxian; Han Yunfeng; Sun Hancheng

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid nodules (TN) is increasing rapidly.This study analyzed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of TN in surgically treated patients and identified the risk factors for malignant nodules (MN) to provide more understanding of the differential diagnosis of TN.Methods A total of 6 304 TN cases who underwent thyroid surgery were included in this retrospective study.The clinical data were collected to evaluate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related risk factors for MN.The nature of TN (benign nodules (BN) or MN),medical records,laboratory data,and imaging data were analyzed.The risk factors for MN were screened using Spearman's rank correlation analysis and nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The number of surgically treated TN cases increased yearly.A total of 34.33% of cases were MN and 65.67% were BN.Up to 56.74% of these cases underwent unnecessary surgery.Among the MN cases,papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 94%,in which 46.71% coexisted with benign thyroid disease and 32.28% with multiple foci.Single-related factor analysis showed that age,employment,disease duration,history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,the levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb),and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPoAb),and ultrasound features of TN were related to MN.Stepwise nonconditional binary Logistic regression analysis showed that 13 factors may be the independent risk factors for MN,including <40 years old,previous history of breast nodules and/or hypertension,disease duration <1 month,employment,hypoechoic nodule,irregular nodules,nodule calcification,solid echo nodule,fuzzy boundary,rich blood flow within nodules,abnormal lymph nodes around the neck,nodule diameter <1 cm,and abnormally high TgAb.Conclusions Our results demonstrate a rapid increase in surgically treated TN cases and ratio of MN and indicate unnecessary

  13. Multicentre study highlighting clinical relevance of new high-throughput methodologies in molecular epidemiology of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, F; de Sousa, B; Calderón, E J; Huang, L; Badura, R; Maltez, F; Bassat, Q; de Armas, Y; Antunes, F; Matos, O

    2016-06-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii causes severe interstitial pneumonia (PcP) in immunosuppressed patients. This multicentre study assessed the distribution frequencies of epidemiologically relevant genetic markers of P. jirovecii in different geographic populations from Portugal, the USA, Spain, Cuba and Mozambique, and the relationship between the molecular data and the geographical and clinical information, based on a multifactorial approach. The high-throughput typing strategy for P. jirovecii characterization consisted of DNA pooling using quantitative real-time PCR followed by multiplex-PCR/single base extension. The frequencies of relevant P. jirovecii single nucleotide polymorphisms (mt85, SOD110, SOD215, DHFR312, DHPS165 and DHPS171) encoded at four loci were estimated in ten DNA pooled samples representing a total of 182 individual samples. Putative multilocus genotypes of P. jirovecii were shown to be clustered due to geographic differences but were also dependent on clinical characteristics of the populations studied. The haplotype DHFR312T/SOD110C/SOD215T was associated with severe AIDS-related PcP and high P. jirovecii burdens. The frequencies of this genetic variant of P. jirovecii were significantly higher in patients with AIDS-related PcP from Portugal and the USA than in the colonized patients from Portugal, and Spain, and children infected with P. jirovecii from Cuba or Mozambique, highlighting the importance of this haplotype, apparently associated with the severity of the disease and specific clinical groups. Patients from the USA and Mozambique showed higher rates of DHPS mutants, which may suggest the circulation of P. jirovecii organisms potentially related with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance in those geographical regions. This report assessed the worldwide distribution of P. jirovecii haplotypes and their epidemiological impact in distinct geographic and clinical populations.

  14. Current clinical and epidemiological portrait of a patient with acute myocardial infarction (by the data of the regional vascular center

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    E. Yu. Kovalchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical presentation of acute myocardial infarction based upon the data collected in Regional Vascular Centre of Saint-Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Emergency Care n. a. I. I. Dzhanelidze in 2009-2012 years. In the article, 4697 cases have been analyzed. Specific features of epidemiology and clinical presentation of acute myocardial infarction at the present stage have been considered.

  15. Clinical and morphological characteristics of cutaneous melanoma.

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    Balaban, Jagoda; Ninković Baroš, Djuka; Grujić, Dragana; Starović, Dragana; Ćelić, Milanka

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased significantly worldwide over the last several decades. The aim of this study is to determine clinical and morphology characteristics of primary melanoma, since some of them are important prognostic factors. This retrospective study included 172 patients. The data were collected by the Consulting team for malignant skin tumors in the Banja Luka Clinical Centre from 2009 to 2011. We did not use dermoscopy as a diagnostic tool in our investigation. We determined that melanoma occurs equally commonly in both sexes, in women in the sixth decade and the seventh in men. The most common sub-type was nodular melanoma (59.5%, P<0.05), followed by superficial spreading (27.8%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (11.4%). The most common localization was on the back in men (34.3%) and on the legs in women (P<0.05). More than half of our patients (55.8%) had melanoma thickness from 1.0 to 4.0 mm, and 38% had a melanoma thicker than 4.0 mm. The average Breslow thickness is 4.6 mm. More women than men had melanoma thicker than 4 mm (P<0.05). Spread of the primary tumor localization was found in 31.4% of patients, more frequently in men than in women (P<0.05). In most cases it was abstraction of lymph nodes (P<0.05). The average thickness of the melanoma in our patients is much higher than the average in the world and the countries of Europe. The results of this study indicate a need for better unique regional registry in this part of Bosnia and Herzegovina and improvement of preventive measures in the early diagnosis of melanoma.

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis

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    Balci O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Balci Ophthalmology Department, Kolan Hospitalium Group, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh. Methods and materials: This retrospective study enrolled 30 subjects diagnosed with conjunctivochalasis. Complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, dilated funduscopy, tear break-up time, Schirmer 1 test, and fluorescein staining were performed in all patients. Age, sex, laterality, ocular history, symptoms, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The study included 50 eyes from 30 cases. Ages ranged from 45 to 80 years, with a mean age of 65±10 years. CChs grading were as follows: 30 (60% eyes with grade 1 CCh; 15 (30% eyes with grade 2 CCh; and five (10% eyes with grade 3 CCh. CCh was located in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in 45 (90% eyes, and in the remaining five (10% CCh was located in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. Ten (33.3% patients had no symptoms. Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, tired eye feeling, and epiphora were the symptoms encountered in the remaining twenty (63.6% patients. Altered tear meniscus was noted in all cases. The mean tear break-up time was 7.6 seconds. The mean Schirmer 1 test score was 7 mm. Pinguecula was found in ten patients. Conclusion: Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, and epiphora were the main symptoms in patients with CCh. Dryness, eye pain, and blurry vision were worsened during downgaze and blinking. So CCh should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of chronic ocular irritation and epiphora. Keywords: ocular irritation, epiphora, dryness, eye pain, blurry vision

  17. Epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis. A three-year study

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    Bharathi Jayahar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the epidemiological characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of fungal keratitis seen at a tertiary eye care referral centre in South India. Methods: A retrospective review of all culture-proven fungal keratitis seen over a 3-year period, September 1999 through August 2002. Results: Fungal aetiology were confirmed in1095(34.4% of 3183 corneal ulcers. The predominant fungal species isolated was Fusarium spp (471; 42.82% followed by Aspergillus spp (286; 26%. Males (712; 65.08% were more often affected (P< 0.0001. A large proportion of the patients (732; 66.85% were in the younger age group (21 to 50 years. A majority (879; 80.27% came from rural areas (P Conclusion: Agricultural activity and related ocular trauma were principal causes of mycotic keratitis. A potassium hydroxide (KOH wet mount preparation is a simple, and sensitive, method for diagnosis.

  18. The Epidemiological Characteristics of Beijing Lineage Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a National Referral Center in China.

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    Li, Xiao Ying; Li, Ying; Zhang, Yao; Kang, Wan Li; Zhao, Li Ping; Ding, Peng Ju; Dai, Wen Tao; Huang, Hai Rong; Huang, Yan Feng; Li, Wei Min

    2015-07-01

    Our study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of M.tuberculosis from a national tuberculosis referral center in China. All strains isolated from TB patients, were genotyped by the RD105 deletion, 8 and 51 SNP loci and VNTR. The high differentiation SNPs of modern Beijing strains were analyzed for protein function and structure. 413 M. tuberculosis were included. Of 379 Beijing lineage M. tuberculosis, 'modern' and 'ancient' strains respectively represented 85.5% (324/379) and 14.5% (55/379). Rv2494 (V48A) and Rv0245 (S103F) were confirmed as high differentiation SNPs associated with modern strains. In a word, Modern Beijing lineage M.tuberculosis was dominant and the structural models suggested that modern sub-lineage may more easily survive in 'extreme' host condition.

  19. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease.

  20. Epidemiological typing of clinical isolates of Achromobacter xylosoxidans: comparison of phenotypic and genotypic methods.

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    Kaur, M; Ray, P; Bhatty, M; Sharma, M

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the utility of different typing methods for Achromobacter xylosoxidans clinical isolates. Ninety-two blood culture isolates of A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans were collected over a 25-month period. The typeability, discriminatory power and reproducibility of commonly used phenotypic and genotypic methods, such as resistotyping, plasmid profiling, whole-cell protein fingerprinting, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were compared. All 92 isolates were typeable by all of the methods used, with comparable reproducibility. PFGE showed the highest discriminatory power (98.9%), but whole-cell protein profiling showed better correlation with epidemiological data without significant loss in discriminatory power (94%). Whole-cell protein profiling is a reliable epidemiological tool for the analysis of A. xylosoxidans; PFGE is the most discriminatory.

  1. Environmental Pollution Effects on Reproductive Health – Clinical-Epidemiological Study in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M.L.; Zullo, F.; De Felice, B.; Nappi, L.; Guida, M.; Trifuoggi, M.; Nappi, C.; Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Zizolfi, B.; Capece, G.; Visconti, F.; Troisi, J.; Ciccone, C.; Guida, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to address the clinical, statistical and Epidemiological Relationship Between Birth Defects and Environmental Pollution, in the Campania Region and in Salerno. Objectives: We examined four groups of subjects as follows: a sample of pregnant women living in Salerno, a sample of pregnant women living in highly polluted areas, a sample of controls, pregnant women and residents out of the Campania Region, considered in unpolluted areas (Foggia) and in the Salerno area. Methodologies: a toxicological and genetic analysis was conducted on patients examined. Conclusions: there is an epidemiological link between environmental pollution and reproductive health in the Salerno area. Experimentally there are the first evidences of endocrine disruptors by the PCB. It has been inferred an overexpression of the mir-191 as a marker of pollution by dioxin-like compounds. Socially, correct information of populations at risk is necessary and a possible preventive and ongoing medical care must be ensured. PMID:23905062

  2. [Clinical characteristics of pancreatitis after cardiovascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, H; Sumiyoshi, T; Ishizuka, N; Ueda, M; Inaba, T; Hosoda, S; Aomi, S; Endo, M; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1995-10-01

    Increases in pancreatic enzyme levels after cardiovascular surgery were studied, and their clinical characteristics evaluated. The subjects were 128 patients who had undergone cardiovascular surgery (65 patients after valve replacement, 32 after coronary bypass surgery and 31 after aortic artificial graft replacement). The pancreatic enzyme (serum amylase and lypase) levels were monitored serially before and after operation, and amylase fractions were measured at their peaks. The relationships of the peak lypase level with underlying cardiac diseases, background factors, factors related to surgery, factors related to the extracorporeal circulation, presence or absence of symptoms, and treatments were examined. The amylase level exhibited biphasic changes consisting of a peak in which salivary glands amylase (S type) was dominant and a peak in which pancreatic amylase (P type) was dominant. The second peak coincided with the peak lypase and occurred mostly 3 to 10 days after operation. The peak lypase level exceeded the normal range in 78% of all the patients. It exceeded 564 U/l, 4 times the normal value in 28% of the patients, many of whom were symptomatic. So, we recommended that these cases should be treated as "postoperative pancreatitis". A high peak lypase level showed a significant correlation with the history of gallbladder and pancreatic diseases and diabetes mellitus among the background factors and emergency operation and the use of IABP among the surgery-related factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells: characteristics and clinical applications.

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    Sylwia Bobis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are bone marrow populating cells, different from hematopoietic stem cells, which possess an extensive proliferative potential and ability to differentiate into various cell types, including: osteocytes, adipocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, cardiomyocytes and neurons. MSCs play a key role in the maintenance of bone marrow homeostasis and regulate the maturation of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. The cells are characterized by the expression of numerous surface antigens, but none of them appears to be exclusively expressed on MSCs. Apart from bone marrow, MSCs are located in other tissues, like: adipose tissue, peripheral blood, cord blood, liver and fetal tissues. MSCs have been shown to be powerful tools in gene therapies, and can be effectively transduced with viral vectors containing a therapeutic gene, as well as with cDNA for specific proteins, expression of which is desired in a patient. Due to such characteristics, the number of clinical trials based on the use of MSCs increase. These cells have been successfully employed in graft versus host disease (GvHD treatment, heart regeneration after infarct, cartilage and bone repair, skin wounds healing, neuronal regeneration and many others. Of special importance is their use in the treatment of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI, which appeared to be the only reasonable therapeutic strategy. MSCs seem to represent a future powerful tool in regenerative medicine, therefore they are particularly important in medical research.

  4. Clinical characteristics of high grade foveal hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2013-02-01

    To report clinical characteristics of high grade foveal hypoplasia. Patients with foveal hypoplasia of grade 3 or 4 on spectral domain optical coherence tomography according to a previously published scheme were enrolled. All patients underwent a full ophthalmologic assessment including visual acuity testing, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundus examination, and evaluation of ocular alignment. The underlying causes of foveal hypoplasia were identified as albinism in five patients and aniridia in six patients. The mean logMAR visual acuity was 0.57 ± 0.24 (range 0.22-1.00) in the right eyes and 0.58 ± 0.21 (range 0.30-1.00) in the left eyes. On fundus examination in patients with albinism, two patients showed marked transparency, one patient showed moderate transparency, and two patients showed minimal transparency. Among six patients with aniridia, five patients showed normal macular pigmentation without macular reflex and one patient showed decreased macular pigmentation with no macular reflex. Patients with high grade macular hypoplasia tended to have poor visual acuities; however, the range of visual acuity was quite variable. Other factors associated with underlying disease could be the reason of this variability. Therefore, careful consideration should be given when assessing visual prognosis in foveal hypoplasia using optical coherence tomography.

  5. 59例经网络征集的"自疑HIV感染者"流行病学特征与临床表现的分析%Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of 59 persons suspecting of being infected by the HIV virus despite having repeated negative laboratory findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴迎新; 李兴旺; 张智清; 施国庆; 郭建强; 申涛; 曾光

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiologic characteristics and clinical manifestations of 59 persons recruited via an intemet chat group who complained of AIDS-like symptoms, so as to formulate effective intervention strategies and measures. Methods Case was defined as onset of any three of the following self-reported AIDS-like symptoms in a member of relevant "intemet chat groups": persistent low grade fever, rash, swollen lymph node, fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss and low CD4+T count. We administered an internet-based questionnaire, and invited 59 of the 88 casepersons for voluntary physical examination and laboratory testing. Results The 59 case-persons came from 22 provinces; 54 (91.5 %)were men; the median age was 34 (range: 22-53)years; 84.7% of them had high-risk sexual behaviors before the onset of self-reported symptoms. The median time interval from exposure to onset was 15 d (range: 1-365 d). Blood specimens for all the 59 case-persons were tested negative for HIV and syphilis antibodies. There was also no evidence of Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus infection. One case-person was tested positive for hepatitis C virus antibody. The average CD4'T lymphocyte count was 707/μl. Of the 59 case-persons,57 (96.6%) sought medical care from multiple providers; 40 were diagnosed to have no physical disorders. Conclusion None of the 59 case-persons had any evidence of infection with HIV or any other infectious agents that could explain their self-reported symptoms.%目的 了解网络征集的59例"自疑HIV感染者"流行病学特征和临床表现.方法 "自疑HIV感染者"定义为网络聊天室中自诉具有至少3项类似艾滋病症状者:持续低热、皮疹、淋巴结肿大、乏力、腹泻、体重下降或CD4+T淋巴细胞计数低于正常.通过网络问卷调查,在88例报名者中选择59例做志愿临床检查与实验室检测.结果 59例"自疑HIV感染者"来自22个省(市),男性54例(91.5%),平均年龄34岁(22~53

  6. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

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    Rune Erichsen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Rune Erichsen1, Timothy L Lash1, Stephen J Hamilton-Dutoit2, Beth Bjerregaard3, Mogens Vyberg2,4, Lars Pedersen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Institute of Pathology, 4Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 3Department of Pathology and the Pathology Data Bank, Herlev University Hospital, Herlev, DenmarkAbstract: Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB. The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens.Keywords: cohort profile, epidemiology, paraffin blocks, pathology

  7. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 4 cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Xiacheng district of Hangzhou, Zhejiang%杭州市下城区4例人感染H7N9禽流感病例的临床与流行病学特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寿钧; 周晓红; 何玉芳; 席胜军; 商晓春; 朱建慧; 王峥; 张睿; 胡薇薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 4 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Xiacheng district of Hangzhou,Zhejiang province,and provide evidence for the prevention and control of this kind of human infection.Methods All the confirmed cases and their close contacts were surveyed,and respiratory tract specimens were taken form the confirmed cases to detect the nucleic acid of H7N9 virus with real-time PCR.Results Four cases were diagnosed with severe and progressive pneumonia,The average interval between the onset of the disease and the first medical care seeking was 2 days,the average interval between the onset and the fast hospitalization was 5 days and the average interval between the onset and the diagnosis was 7 days.The 4 cases were highly sporadic and no epidemiological links were found among them.All the cases occurred in spring and had the histories of farm produce market exposure,all the cases were isolated and treated,and all the close contacts received medical observation.Terminal disinfection was conducted and farm produce markets were closed.The epidemic was under control effectively.Conclusion The 4 cases of human infection with H7N9 were associated with farmer produce markets exposure,and no evidence of human to human transmission was found.Early detection and treatment of the cases infected with H7N9 are essential for the improvement of patients' prognosis,and it is necessary to strengthen the surveillance of H7N9 epidemic and conduct appropriate response to stop the spread of H7N9 virus.%目的 对杭州市下城区2013年确诊报告的4例人感染H7N9禽流感病例进行临床和流行病学分析,为进一步科学防控人禽流感提供依据.方法 对确诊病例和病例的密切接触者进行个案调查,采用荧光双标记探针反转录-聚合酶链反应检测H7N9禽流感病毒.对病例的呼吸道标本进行人感染H7N9禽

  8. Epidemiological features of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a large clinic-based African American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazamel, Mohamed; Cutter, Gary; Claussen, Gwendolyn; Alsharabati, Mohammad; Oh, Shin J; Lu, Liang; King, Peter H

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to identify the main clinical and epidemiological features of ALS in a large cohort of African American (AA) patients and compare them to Caucasian (CA) patients in a clinic-based population. We retrospectively identified 207 patients who were diagnosed with ALS based on the revised El Escorial criteria (60 AA and 147 CA subjects). Patients were seen in the Neuromuscular Division at the University Medical Center. We compared epidemiological and clinical features of these two groups, focusing on age of onset and diagnosis, clinical presentation and survival. Results showed that AA patients had a significantly younger age of disease onset (55 years vs. 61 years for CA, p = 0.011) and were diagnosed at an earlier age (56 years vs. 62 years, p = 0.012). In younger ALS patients (population and males in the CA population (p = 0.025). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, survival rates were not different between the groups. In both groups, survival significantly increased with younger age. In conclusion, AA patients presented at an earlier age, but there was no difference in survival compared to CA patients. A gender reversal occurred in younger ALS patients, with AA patients more likely to be female and CA patients more likely to be male.

  9. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: The Western Denmark Heart Registry

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    Morten Schmidt

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Morten Schmidt1, Michael Maeng2, Carl-Johan Jakobsen3, Morten Madsen1, Leif Thuesen2, Per Hostrup Nielsen4, Hans Erik Bøtker2, Henrik Toft Sørensen11Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 2Department of Cardiology, 3Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, 4Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital-Skejby, DenmarkBackground: The Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR has not previously been described as a research tool in clinical epidemiology.Objectives: We examined the setting, organization, content, data quality, and research potential of the WDHR.Method: We collected information from members of the WDHR organization, including the committee of representatives, the board, the data management group, and physicians reporting to the database. We retrieved 2008 data from the WDHR to illustrate database variables.Results: The WDHR is a clinical database within a population-based health care system. It was launched on 1 January 1999 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac intervention in Western Denmark (population: 3.3 million and to allow for clinical and health-service research. More than 200,000 interventions, with 50–150 variables each, have been registered. The data quality is ensured by automatic validation rules at data entry combined with systematic validation procedures and random spot-checks after entry.Conclusions: The WDHR is a valuable research tool because it provides ongoing longitudinal registration of detailed patient and procedural data. The Danish national health care system enables this research because it allows complete follow-up for medical events after cardiac intervention by linkage with multiple medical databases.Keywords: cardiac surgical procedures, catheterization, coronary angiography, database, epidemiology, registries

  10. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Matthew J Page

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews (SRs can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs.We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%. Few SRs (7% searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary outcome, an

  11. New Epidemiological and Clinical Signatures of 18 Pathogens from Respiratory Tract Infections Based on a 5-Year Study.

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    Xiaohong Liao

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infections (RTIs are a heavy burden on society. However, due to the complex etiology of RTIs, the clinical diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these infections remain challenging, especially in developing countries.To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 18 respiratory pathogens, we analyzed 12,502 patients with acute respiratory infections (ARIs by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR on patient pharyngeal swabs.Samples positive for at least 1 pathogen were obtained from 48.42% of the total patients. Of these pathogen-positive patients, 17.99% were infected with more than 1 pathogen. Of the 18 pathogens analyzed, four were detected with a positive detection rate (PDR > 5%: influenza A virus (IAV > respiratory syncytial virus (RSV >Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP > human coronavirus (HCoV. The pathogens with the 4 highest co-infection rates (CIRs were as follows: HCoV > human bocavirus (HBoV > enterovirus (EV > parainfluenza virus (PIV. The overall positive detection rate (PDR varied significantly according to patient age, the season and year of detection, and the disease subgroup, but not according to patient sex. The individual PDRs of the pathogens followed 3 types of distributions for patient sex, 4 types of distributions for patient age, 4 types of seasonal distributions, 2 types of seasonal epidemic trends, 4 types of yearly epidemic trends, and different susceptibility distributions in the disease subgroups. Additionally, the overall CIR showed significantly different distributions according to patient sex, patient age, and the disease subgroup, whereas the CIRs of individual pathogens suggested significant preference characteristics.IAV remains the most common pathogen among the pathogens analyzed. More effort should be directed toward the prevention and control of pathogens that show a trend of increasing incidence such as HCoV, human adenovirus (ADV, and RSV. Although clinically

  12. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-04-27

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  13. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frenzel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Herb induced liver injury (HILI and drug induced liver injury (DILI share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT. However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance.

  14. [Study of epidemiological characteristics and viral sources of dengue fever outbreak in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M M; Tan, Y; Tang, Z Z; Lin, M; Zhou, K J; He, W T; Yang, Y P; Wang, J

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and viral sources of dengue fever outbreak in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi) in 2014. Methods: A combined analysis of epidemiological characteristics and genetic characteristics were performed in this study. The time, population and area distributions of the cases were analyzed. Serum samples were collected from dengue fever cases to detect NS1 antigen by using commercial ELISA kits according to the guideline of the manufacture. RT-PCR assay was conducted to detect dengue virus in NS1 positive samples. Phylogenetic tree based on E gene sequence of dengue virus were further analyzed. Results: During September-December 2014, an outbreak of dengue fever caused by dengue virus type 1 and 2 occurred in Guangxi, a total of 854 cases were reported without death, including 712 laboratory confirmed cases and 142 clinical diagnosed cases, in which 79.63% (680/854) occurred during 22 September-21 October 2014. All the cases had typical dengue fever symptoms. Most cases occurred in Nanning and Wuzhou, in which 83.61% (714/854) were in age group 15-59 years; 46.60% (398/854) were staff or people engaged in commercial service. A total 526 serum samples were tested for dengue virus serotype by RT-PCR assay. Among 414 positive samples, 345 were positive for dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) and 69 were positive for dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2), no DENV-3 and DENV-4 were detected. The results of phylogenetic analysis of E gene sequence indicated that the sequences of 99.12%(113/114) of DENV-1 strains in Nanning in China shared 100.00% homology with the isolate (SG EHI D1/529Y13) from Singapore in 2013, which belonged to the genotype Ⅰ; All the DENV-2 isolates from Wuzhou shared 99.80% homology with the isolate (D14005) from Guangdong province, which belonged to genotype Cosmopolitan. Conclusions: The outbreak was caused by DENV-1 from Singapore and DENV-2 from Guangdong province in China. It is necessary to

  15. 梅州地区临床分离耐碳氢霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药机制及分子流行病学研究%Resistance mechanism and molecular epidemiological characteristics of isolated clinically carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Meizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖光文; 汪雪涛; 乔亚峰; 邹尚平; 叶振东

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解梅州地区临床分离的耐碳青霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药性,探讨其耐药机制及分子流行病学特征。方法收集梅州地区5所医院2012年1~12月临床分离的非重复耐碳青霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌210株,采用K-B法检测药敏性,改良Hodge试验筛选耐碳青霉烯表型,PCR扩增IM P、VIM、OXA-23、OXA-24、OXA-51和OXA-58型碳氢霉烯酶基因,并测序。应用ERIC-PCR分型及同源性分析。结果药敏结果显示,17种药物除多粘菌素B耐药率为0.48%外,其他药敏耐药率都高于60%;改良 Hodge试验阳性菌株163株(77.62%)。扩增结果显示Bla-OXA-51的检出率为最高为94.29%(198/210),Bla-OXA-23的检出率次之为78.57%(165/210),Bla-VIM的检出率为4.29%(9/210),Bla-IM P、Bla-OXA-24、Bla-OXA-58均未被检出。210株菌株分为7个ERIC基因型,其中A型97株,B型44株,H型25株,为主要的流行克隆株。结论梅州地区临床分离的耐碳青霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌耐药十分严重;产OXA-51、OXA-23和VIM 型碳氢霉烯酶是本地区鲍曼不动杆菌对碳青霉烯类药物耐药的重要机制,且耐碳青霉烯类鲍曼不动杆菌存在克隆的流行。%In order to survey antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates carbapenem-resistant A cinetobacter baumannii in Meizhou and to investigate resistance mechanism and molecular epidemiological characteristics ,a total of 210 non-duplicated clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii from January 2012 to December 2012 were collected .The K-B disk diffusion method was applied for the drug-susceptibility test ,a modified Hodge test was used for the screening of carbapen-emase ,PCR was used to amplify carbapenemase genes (including IMP ,VIM ,OXA-23 ,OXA-24 ,OXA-51 and OXA-58) ,and the positive products were sequenced .Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) was used for DNA typing and

  16. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of clinically isolated carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in Changsha%长沙地区临床分离碳青霉烯类耐药鲍曼不动杆菌的分子流行病学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 邹明祥; 邬靖敏; 邬国军; 李军; 豆清娅; 刘文恩

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解长沙地区临床分离鲍曼不动杆菌的耐药性,探讨碳青霉烯类抗生素耐药菌株的分子流行病学特征.方法:收集长沙地区10所综合性医院2010年3月至2010年12月间临床分离的非重复鲍曼不动杆菌株205株;采用K-B法检测药物敏感性,改良双纸片协同试验检测金属β-内酰胺酶(金属酶),改良Hodge试验筛查碳青霉烯酶;PCR扩增OXA-23,OXA-24,OXA-51,OXA-58及IMP-1和VIM-2型碳青霉烯酶基因,并进行测序分析.应用肠杆菌科基因间一致重复序列聚合酶链反应(enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR,ERIC-PCR)对菌株进行DNA分型及同源性分析.结果:在监测的18种药物中,耐药率超过50%的达14种.其中哌拉西林耐药率最高(80.5%),头孢哌酮/舒巴坦耐药率最低(2.5%).共筛选出耐碳青霉烯类药物鲍曼不动杆菌115株,其金属酶表型及基因检测均为阴性;改良Hodge试验阳性71株,其中64株OXA-23基因扩增阳性.115株菌株OXA-51均阳性,未检出OXA-24,OXA-58基因.115株菌株共分为7个ERIC基因型.其中A型19株,B型72株,为主要的流行克隆.结论:长沙地区临床分离鲍曼不动杆菌多重耐药十分严重;产OXA-23和OXA-51型碳青霉烯酶是鲍曼不动杆菌对碳青霉烯类药物耐药的重要机制,且碳青霉烯类耐药菌株存在克隆流行.%Objective: To survey antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii in Changsha and to investigate molecular epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.Methods: A total of 205 non-duplicated, clinical isolates of Acinetabacter baumannii from 10 general hospitals in Changsha were collected from March 2010 to December 2010. The K-B disk diffusion method was applied for the drug-susceptibility test; a modified, double-disk synergy test was used to detect metallo-|5-lactamase (MBL), and a modified Hodge test was used for the screening of carbapenemase. PCR

  17. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  18. The use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s (1936, Snow on Cholera, Commonwealth Fund, New York), and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s (1964, Goldberger on Pellagra, M. Terris, ed., Louisiana State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge). The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  19. Integration of gene expression, clinical, and epidemiologic data to characterize Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Suzanne D

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has no diagnostic clinical signs or diagnostic laboratory abnormalities and it is unclear if it represents a single illness. The CFS research case definition recommends stratifying subjects by co-morbid conditions, fatigue level and duration, or functional impairment. But to date, this analysis approach has not yielded any further insight into CFS pathogenesis. This study used the integration of peripheral blood gene expression results with epidemiologic and clinical data to determine whether CFS is a single or heterogeneous illness. Results CFS subjects were grouped by several clinical and epidemiological variables thought to be important in defining the illness. Statistical tests and cluster analysis were used to distinguish CFS subjects and identify differentially expressed genes. These genes were identified only when CFS subjects were grouped according to illness onset and the majority of genes were involved in pathways of purine and pyrimidine metabolism, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and glucose metabolism. Conclusion These results provide a physiologic basis that suggests CFS is a heterogeneous illness. The differentially expressed genes imply fundamental metabolic perturbations that will be further investigated and illustrates the power of microarray technology for furthering our understanding CFS.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 2009 in Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkova, Slavyana; Golparian, Daniel; Titov, Leonid; Pankratova, Nataliya; Suhabokava, Nataliya; Shimanskaya, Irina; Domeika, Marius; Unemo, Magnus

    2011-08-01

    Increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a global concern, and ultimately gonorrhoea may become untreatable. Nonetheless, AMR data from East-Europe are scarce beyond Russia, and no AMR data or other characteristics of gonococci have been reported from Belarus for more than 20 years. The aim was to describe the prevalence of AMR, and report molecular epidemiological characteristics of gonococci circulating in 2009 in Belarus. In a sample of 80 isolates, resistance prevalences to antimicrobials used for gonorrhoea treatment in Belarus were: Ceftriaxone 0%, spectinomycin 0%, azithromycin 17.3%, tetracycline 25.9%, ciprofloxacin 34.6% and erythromycin 59.2%. The isolates displayed no penA mosaic alleles, 38 porB gene sequences and 35 N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence types, of which 20 have not been described before worldwide. Due to the high levels of antimicrobial resistance, only ceftriaxone and spectinomycin can be recommended for empirical treatment of gonorrhoea in Belarus according to WHO recommendations. Continuous gonococcal AMR surveillance in Eastern Europe is crucial. This is now initiated in Belarus using WHO protocols.

  1. KRAS Mutations in Lung Adenocarcinoma: Molecular and Epidemiological Characteristics, Methods for Detection, and Therapeutic Strategy Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, N; Ilie, M; Long, E; Hofman, V; Bouhlel, L; Brest, P; Mograbi, B; Marquette, C H; Didier, A; Mazieres, J; Hofman, P

    2015-01-01

    KRAS mutations are detected in over one third of lung adenocarcinomas, most frequently in Caucasian and smoker patients. The impact of KRAS mutations on lung adenocarcinoma prognosis is currently subject to debate, as is their impact on the response to chemotherapy and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The different methods for KRAS status assessment, based on histological and cytological samples or biological fluids, offer varying sensitivities. Since no treatments are available in clinical routine for KRAS-mutated lung cancer patients, one of the current major challenges in thoracic oncology is developing new dedicated strategic therapies. Different molecules can be developed that act on a post-transcriptional KRAS protein level, blocking its cytoplasmic membrane recruitment. The efficacy of these molecules' targeting of the different signaling pathways activated by the KRAS mutation (such as the MEK and BRAF pathways) is related to the particular KRAS mutation subtype. New therapeutic strategies are currently focused on certain genes linked with KRAS inducing a synthetic lethal interaction. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview of i) the recent epidemiological and molecular findings concerning KRASmutated lung adenocarcinoma, ii) the prognostic impact of KRAS mutations, in particular during response to treatment, iii) the available methods for detecting this mutation, and iv) the current molecules under development for new therapeutic strategies and the clinical trials targeting this genomic alteration.

  2. Clinical Characteristics and Treatment of Malignant Granuloma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjin Feng; Junbing Guo; Yong Chen

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyse the clinical characteristics of malignant granuloma(MG) and evaluate its treatment.METHODS From March 1985 to May 1998, 101 cases of malignant granuloma were treated with radiation (RT) alone or radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. For chemotherapy, a CCNU, COMP (CTX, VCR, MTX, PDN) or CHOP (CTX,ADM, VCR, PDN) regimen was given. Radiation was directed through the anterior field of the nose mainly for nasal and paranasal sinus malignant granuloma, and through the faciocervical field for malignant granuloma of Walderyer's ring or for patients with cervical lymphadenectasis. Total dose was 45-65 Gy over 5-6 weeks.RESULTS The overall 3-year, 5-year and 10-year survival rates were 78.2%, 56.1% and 39.7% respectively. The 5-year survival rate was: RT group 60.3%, RT + CHOP or CHOP + RT group 64.7% (P >0.05), RT +CCNU group 40%, and RT + COMP group 33.3%. The 5-year survival rates of patients with one involved focus and more than 2 involved foci were 75.6%(34/45) and 39.3% (22/56) (P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of patients with or without body symptoms were 39.6% (18/48) and 67.9%(36/53) (P<0.05). The 5-year survival rate of the 50-60 Gy group and the <50Gy group were 60.1% (40/66) and 20% (1/5)(P <0.05). The local and regional recurrence rate was 20.8 % (21/101 ).CONCLUSION Radiotherapy alone should be the treatment of choice for patients with one site involvement and without body symptoms. Radiation fields should be large enough to include the potentially involved sites. The recommended dose is 50-60 Gy over 5-6 weeks. It is suggested that patients with more than 2 foci involvement and those with body symptoms should receive the combination therapy.

  3. Lobular breast cancer: Clinical, molecular and morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christgen, Matthias; Steinemann, Doris; Kühnle, Elna; Länger, Florian; Gluz, Oleg; Harbeck, Nadia; Kreipe, Hans

    2016-07-01

    Infiltrating lobular breast cancer (ILBC) is the most common special breast cancer subtype. This review provides a comprehensive description of ILBC characteristics, including epidemiology, clinical features, molecular genetics and histomorphology. Twenty detailed supplemental data tables guide through primary data of more than 200 original studies. Meta-analyses indicate that ILBC is at least twice as common in the Western world as it is in other geographic regions. ILBC is over-represented in so-called interval carcinomas and in primary metastatic breast cancer. ILBC is also associated higher age, higher pT stage and hormone receptor (ER/PR) positivity. Pathological complete response rates after neoadjuvant chemotherapy are low, ranging between 0% and 11%. Positive resection margins after breast-conserving surgery are comparatively frequent and 17% to 65% of patients undergo a second surgical intervention. Depending on the morphological stringency in the diagnosis of ILBC, lack of E-cadherin expression is observed in 55% to 100% of cases. CDH1/E-cadherin mutation detection rates vary between 12% and 83%. Various additional molecular factors, including PIK3CA, TP53, FOXA1, FGFR1, ZNF703 and BCAR4, have been implicated in ILBC or progression of lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) to invasive cancer and are discussed in detail. Eight instructive figure plates recapitulate the histomorphology of ILBC and its variants. Furthermore, we draw attention to rarely addressed histological details, such as two-sided nuclear compression and fat-avoiding growth at the invasion front. Last but not least, we discuss future translational research directions and emphasize the concept of synthetic lethality, which promises new options for targeted ILBC therapy.

  4. The analysis of epidemiological characteristics of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周继红; 赵新才; 王正国; 朱佩芳; 简华刚; 刘大维; 周金玲; 刘蕾

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics and preventive methods of road traffic crashes in a mountain city in western China through sampling investigation of traffic crashes in different regions of Chongqing city in recent years. Methods: Two police teams of traffic management in downtown, two teams in suburb, one team in county and one freeway team were randomly selected, and road traffic crashes between 1988 and 1997 were investigated and analyzed. Results: A total of 13121 road traffic crashes with 6201 crashes with casualties were analyzed. The incidence of crashes was higher in May, June and July, and on Friday and Wednesday and at 8:00-12:00 and 14:00-18:00 within a day. Casualties were 44.0% in pedestrians and 42.5% in passengers of total casualties. The deaths and severe injuries in pedestrians were59.1% of total deaths and 56.4% of total severe injuries. The age of drivers and passengers were mainly at 18-30 years, followed by 31-40 years. People over 60 years old accounted for 24.1% of total pedestrian casualty. Head injury was the most common reason for deaths. The main reasons for these crashes were improper driving and violating traffic laws. Violating traffic laws by pedestrian was one of the main reasons for pedestrian casualty. Conclusions: The crashes are related to the characteristics of geography, climate, society activity of people, and the sense of traffic safety, the basic traffic construction and management in Chongqing. The traffic casualty of pedestrian is a big problem in Chongqing. To prevent and decrease road traffic injuries effective methods should be worked out and propaganda on traffic safety and traffic management should be strengthened according to different characteristics of different regions. To strengthen the first aid and treatment of cranium-brain injury and chest-back injury is also helpful in decreasing traffic deaths.

  5. Epidemiological and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Influenza B Infection in Severe Acute Respiratory Infection Cases in Beijing, 2014 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Peng; Qian, Haiqun; Shi, Weixian; Wu, Shuangsheng; Cui, Shujuan; Zhang, Daitao; Wang, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Influenza B viral infection is of great importance, but the epidemiological and phylogenetic characteristics of influenza B infection in severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases are still unclear. The clinical information of 2816 SARI cases and 467,737 influenza-like illness (ILI) cases in Beijing area from September 2014 to April 2015 were collected and analyzed. Among them, 91 influenza B viruses isolated from SARI cases were sequenced. The overall yield rate of influenza A/B infection was 14.21% and 27.77% in sampled SARI and ILI cases, respectively. Compared with influenza A infection, the frequency of influenza B infection in SARI cases was higher in younger patients. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that most tested hemagglutination genes belonged to Yamagata lineage Clade 3, which were similar with current circulating viruses but different with 2014 to 2015 influenza season vaccine strain (Clade 2). Importantly, HA-Y3/NA-V4 intralineage reassorting was identified in Beijing area for the first time, which can act as a possible risk factor of SARIs. The influenza activity and virus types/subtypes/lineages among SARI patients were well correlated with that of ILI cases. Furthermore, the potential risk of reassorted influenza B virus infection should not be overlooked. PMID:26717393

  6. Evaluating clinical periodontal measures as surrogates for bacterial exposure: The Oral Infections and Vascular Disease Epidemiology Study (INVEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobs David R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic studies of periodontal infection as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease often use clinical periodontal measures as a surrogate for the underlying bacterial exposure of interest. There are currently no methodological studies evaluating which clinical periodontal measures best reflect the levels of subgingival bacterial colonization in population-based settings. We investigated the characteristics of clinical periodontal definitions that were most representative of exposure to bacterial species that are believed to be either markers, or themselves etiologic, of periodontal disease. Methods 706 men and women aged ≥ 55 years, residing in northern Manhattan were enrolled. Using DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization in subgingival biofilms, standardized values for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were averaged within mouth and summed to define "bacterial burden". Correlations of bacterial burden with clinical periodontal constructs defined by the severity and extent of attachment loss (AL, pocket depth (PD and bleeding on probing (BOP were assessed. Results Clinical periodontal constructs demonstrating the highest correlations with bacterial burden were: i percent of sites with BOP (r = 0.62; ii percent of sites with PD ≥ 3 mm (r = 0.61; and iii number of sites with BOP (r = 0.59. Increasing PD or AL severity thresholds consistently attenuated correlations, i.e., the correlation of bacterial burden with the percent of sites with PD ≥ 8 mm was only r = 0.16. Conclusions Clinical exposure definitions of periodontal disease should incorporate relatively shallow pockets to best reflect whole mouth exposure to bacterial burden.

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of malaria among children in Niamey, Niger

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    Ibrahim Maman

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria takes a heavy toll in Niger, one of the world's poorest countries. Previous evaluations conducted in the context of the strategy for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, showed that 84% of severe malaria cases and 64 % of ordinary cases are not correctly managed. The aim of this survey was to describe epidemiological, clinical and biological features of malaria among Methods The study was performed in 2003 during the rainy season from July 25th to October 25th. Microscopic diagnosis of malaria, complete blood cell counts and measurement of glycaemia were performed in compliance with the routine procedure of the laboratory. Epidemiological data was collected through interviews with mothers. Results 256 children aged 3–60 months were included in the study. Anthropometrics and epidemiological data were typical of a very underprivileged population: 58% of the children were suffering from malnutrition and all were from poor families. Diagnosis of malaria was confirmed by microscopy in 52% of the cases. Clinical symptoms upon admission were non-specific, but there was a significant combination between a positive thick blood smear and neurological symptoms, and between a positive thick blood smear and splenomegaly. Thrombopaenia was also statistically more frequent among confirmed cases of malaria. The prevalence of severe malaria was 86%, including cases of severe anaemia among Conclusions The study confirmed that malaria was a major burden for the National Hospital of Niamey. Children hospitalized for malaria had an underprivileged background. Two distinctive features were the prevalence of severe malaria and a high mortality rate. Medical and non-medical underlying factors which may explain such a situation are discussed.

  8. Classic Kaposi’s sarcoma: The clinical, demographic and teratment characteristics of seventy-four patients

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    Beril Gülüş Demirel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Classic Kaposi's sarkoma (CKS is a rare disease, generally seen across Mediterranean and the Middle East region. It's an angioproliferative disorder associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. There is a few data on epidemiology and clinical characteristics among Turkish patients with CKS. This study aims to evaluate epidemiologic, clinical characteristics and treatment results in patients with the diagnosis of CKS in Zonguldak. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the hospital records of patients with CKS who attended the dermatological and venereal diseases department between 2003 and 2014. Seventy-four patients were included in this study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, applied treatments and responses to treatments were evaluated. Results: During the eleven year examination period, 74 CKS patients have been diagnosed in the dermatology clinic. The prevalence of CKS among dermatologic patients was found to be 0.02%. Patient age at diagnosis ranged from 33 to 90 years (mean: 70.2±11.7. Fifty-two patients were male (70.3% and 22 patients were female (29.7%. Multiple nodules were the most frequently seen clinical forms and the distal lower extremity was the most common site of involvement (80.6%. According to the CKS staging system, it was observed that 47 patients (62.7% were at stage 1, 11 patients (15.49% at stage 2, eight patients (10.7% at stage 3, and six patients (8% were at stage 4. Treatment options were excision for 35.1% of patients (n=26, radiotherapy for 25.7% of patients (n=19, cryosurgery for 14.9% of patients (n=11, and chemotherapy for 10.8% of patients (n=8. Relapse was found to occur most commonly after excision (58.3%. Conclusion: Larger, multicenter studies are needed in order to determine the prevalence of CKS and characteristics of patients with CKS in our country.

  9. Clinical-epidemiological profile of snakebites occurred on the island of Colares, Pará, eastern Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Douglas Guimarães; Maria Correia Palha; Jean Carlos Silva

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of snakebites occurred on the island of Colares, Pará, Brazil. The study consisted of a cross-epidemiological research based on the analysis of all cases of poisoning by venomous snakes treated at City Hospital and served on the National System Notifications and Disability (SINAN) and conducted to the Ministry of Health between January 2007 and December 2011. Data obtained from the notification records were analyzed using simple descriptive...

  10. Characteristics and Roles of Literacy Clinic Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlieb, Evan; Pearce, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    A literacy clinic is an ideal setting where research and exploration often lead to breakthroughs in reading remediation; that information can then be transferred to classroom instruction (Morris, 2003). Although it is clear that literacy clinics should be structured around what works for their student populations, there remains ambiguity…

  11. Epidemiology and characteristics of the dengue outbreak in Guangdong, Southern China, in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L; Luo, X; Shao, J; Yan, H; Qiu, Y; Ke, P; Zheng, W; Xu, B; Li, W; Sun, D; Cao, D; Chen, C; Zhuo, F; Lin, X; Tang, F; Bao, B; Zhou, Y; Zhang, X; Li, H; Li, J; Wan, D; Yang, L; Chen, Y; Zhong, Q; Gu, X; Liu, J; Huang, L; Xie, R; Li, X; Xu, Y; Luo, Z; Liao, M; Wang, H; Sun, L; Li, H; Lau, G W; Duan, C

    2016-02-01

    Dengue is a rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease caused by the dengue virus (DENV) and has emerged as a severe public health problem around the world. Guangdong, one of the southern Chinese provinces, experienced a serious outbreak of dengue in 2014, which was believed to be the worst dengue epidemic in China over the last 20 years. To better understand the epidemic, we collected the epidemiological data of the outbreak and analyzed 14,594 clinically suspected dengue patients from 25 hospitals in Guangdong. Dengue cases were then laboratory-confirmed by the detection of DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen and/or DENV RNA. Afterwards, clinical manifestations of dengue patients were analyzed and 93 laboratory-positive serum specimens were chosen for the DENV serotyping and molecular analysis. Our data showed that the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong had spread to 20 cities and more than 45 thousand people suffered from dengue fever. Of 14,594 participants, 11,387 were definitively diagnosed. Most manifested with a typical non-severe clinical course, and 1.96 % developed to severe dengue. The strains isolated successfully from the serum samples were identified as DENV-1. Genetic analyses revealed that the strains were classified into genotypes I and V of DENV-1, and the dengue epidemic of Guangdong in 2014 was caused by indigenous cases and imported cases from the neighboring Southeast Asian countries of Malaysia and Singapore. Overall, our study is informative and significant to the 2014 dengue outbreak in Guangdong and will provide crucial implications for dengue prevention and control in China and elsewhere.

  12. Paracoccidioidomycosis in Mexico: clinical and epidemiological data from 93 new cases (1972-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Arenas, Roberto; Padilla-Desgarennes, María Del Carmen; Estrada, Roberto; Chávez, Guadalupe

    2014-09-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic infection in several countries of Latin America. The few registered cases in Mexico most likely do not reflect the real frequency. Disseminate the epidemiological and clinical data of unreported cases of PCM in Mexico from 1972 until 2012 is the aim of this work. Epidemiological and clinical information of non-published cases of PCM was requested from the principal mycological diagnosis centres in Mexico. A total of 93 cases were received. The infection was found predominantly in men (95.7%), peasants (88.5%) and individual between 31 and 60 years of age. Most of the cases were found in tropical areas of the Gulf of Mexico (54.84%) and the Pacific littoral (20.3%). The main sites of dissemination were the oral mucosa (39.38%) and skin (34.05%). The most effective treatments were itraconazole alone and the combination of itraconazole with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. PCM is a subdiagnosed pathology in Mexico. Therefore, adequate training is necessary to determine the current status of this mycosis.

  13. [Mediastino-pulmonary sarcoidosis in Ivory Coast. Epidemiological and clinical significance of sixteen new cases observed in Abidjan (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudaut, M; Tiendrebeogo, H; Pigearias, B; Rain, B; Schmidt, D; Coulibaly, N; Delormas, P

    1980-01-01

    Sixteen cases of mediastion-pulmonary sarcoïdosis are reported, half of them presenting extra-thoracic associated lesions. The clinical and epidemiological study of these cases, compared to the previously published ones, demonstrates that the clinical features are similar in Africans and Black Americans and that the disease in coming out in Africa South of the Sahara.

  14. Non-allergic rhinitis in children: Epidemiological aspects, pathological features, diagnostic methodology and clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Gelardi, Matteo; Licari, Amelia; Del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Marseglia, Gian Luigi

    2016-12-26

    Chronic rhinitis is a very common disease, as the prevalence in the general population resulted to be 40%. Allergic rhinitis has been considered to be the most frequent form of chronic rhinitis, as non-allergic rhinitis has been estimated to account for 25%. However, several evidences suggested that non-allergic rhinitis have been underrated, especially in children. In pediatrics, the diagnostic definition of non-allergic rhinitis has been often limited to the exclusion of an allergic sensitization. Actually, local allergic rhinitis has been often misdiagnosed as well as mixed rhinitis has not been recognized in most cases. Nasal cytology is a diagnostic procedure being suitable for routine clinical practice with children and could be a very useful tool to characterize and diagnose non-allergic rhinitis, providing important clues for epidemiological analysis and clinical management.

  15. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria-resistant infections: epidemiology, clinical issues and therapeutic options

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    Matteo Bassetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed a dramatic increase in the number of multidrug resistant Gram-negative (MDRGN bacterial pathogens, both in Italy and worldwide, with Enterobacteriacae (mostly Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii being the major threats in clinical practice. Inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy of severe infections caused by MDR Enterobacteriacae has been associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. However, a careful selection of patients who may receive empirical treatment covering MDR Enterobacteriacae is important to avoid the overuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanism of resistance, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical issues, and therapeutic options for MDRGN pathogens.

  16. Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutmann, Jean; Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Pan, Xiaochuan; Crawford, Martha; Sore, Gabrielle; Seite, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the health effects associated with air pollution have been intensively studied. Most studies focus on air pollution effects on the lung and the cardiovascular system. More recently, however, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that air pollution is also affecting skin integrity. This state-of-the-art review focuses on this latter aspect; it was developed with the collaboration of European and Chinese board of experts with specific interests in environmental health, clinical and basic research in dermatology and cosmetic dermatology. A literature review limited to pollution and health effects and (sensitive) skin was performed using PubMed. Review and original articles were chosen. We summarize the existing scientific evidence that air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin, discuss potential clinical implications and suggest specific and unspecific cosmetic protective measures.

  17. Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia in a hematology unit: molecular epidemiology and analysis of clinical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Wan-Shik; Kim, Myungshin; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Min, Woo-Sung; Kim, Chun-Choo

    2005-04-01

    An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia in hemato-oncological patients (n=19) in our institution from 2000 through 2001 led us to analyze the molecular epidemiologic patterns and clinical features unique to our cases. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the isolates revealed that the bacteremia was not originated from a single clone but rather showed endemic pattern of diverse clones with small clusters. A different DNA pattern of blood and stool isolates from one patient suggested exogenous rather than endogenous route of infection. Enterococcus faecium carrying vanA gene was the causative pathogen in all cases. Patients with VRE bacteremia showed similar clinical courses compared with those with vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal (VSE) bacteremia. Vancomycin resistance did not seem to be a poor prognostic factor because of similar mortality (5/8, 62.5%) noted in VSE bacteremia. Initial disease severity and neutropenic status may be major determinants of prognosis in patients with VRE bacteraemia.

  18. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

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    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  19. Clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy patients attended at Ceará, 2007-2011*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirós, Maria Iranilda; Ramos Júnior, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Monteiro, Lorena Dias; Sena, Amanda Lima; Barbosa, Jaqueline Caracas

    2016-01-01

    Background Leprosy is an infectious chronic condition associated with potentially serious physical, social and psychological impacts. Objectives To characterize the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy patients treated from 2007 to 2011 in the University Hospital of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Methods This is a retrospective and descriptive study. The study population consisted of residents in the state of Ceará treated in a dermatology clinic between 2007-2011. Clinical and epidemiological data analyzed were obtained from medical records and from the database of national Information System for Notifiable Diseases. Results 475 cases were analyzed, mostly women (51.8%), aged 45-59 years (35.0%) - mean of 45.2 years at diagnosis - with 6.3% of children under 15 , with low education (73.7%), white color (68.8%), residency in the city of Fortaleza (82.3%), and no defined work occupation (59.6%). At diagnosis, most patients were multibacillary (MB) (65.5%), had borderline clinical form (48.0%), and 22.7% had physical disability (8.0% with grade 2), predominantly in MB cases (p <0.001). We observe worsening of disability in 5.1% of cases post-MDT. The proportion of cases with reactional episodes was 42.7%, mainly during MDT (51.2%). Conclusion This is the first study conducted in this hospital context, revealing late diagnosis, high burden of disease, hidden endemicity, and high social vulnerability in the state of Ceará. This study reinforces the need to strengthen health care network for timely diagnosis and treatment, aiming at longitudinality of assistance. PMID:27438198

  20. [Epidemiological, clinical and biological features of infantile visceral leishmaniasis at Kairouan hospital (Tunisia): about 240 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissi, W; Ben Hellel, K; Habboul, Z; Ben Sghaier, I; Harrat, Z; Bouratbine, A; Aoun, K

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important health problem in Tunisia. It is most common in children under five years of age. The governorate of Kairouan (central Tunisia) is one of the most affected foci. The aim of this study was to update the epidemiological, clinical and biological features of the disease. The study concerned all VL cases admitted in the pediatric department of Kairouan hospital during 10 years (from 2004 to 2013). For every patient included in this study and when available, data such as sex, age, geographical origin and the condition of the patient at admission (clinical and biological findings) were collected. The myelogram results were also exploited as well as results of serology, culture, Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and isoenzymatic typing of Leishmania isolates. Two hundred and forty cases were recorded. Rural cases (87.1%) were more prevalent than urban ones (12.9%). Age ranged from 2 months to 13 years (median, 18 months). The female/male sex ratio was 1.03. The diagnosis delays ranged from 1 day to 8 months (median, 15 days). The most common clinical symptoms at admission were splenomegaly (97.9%), fever (79.9%) and hepatomegaly (47.3%). The principal biological disturbances were anemia (91.7%), thrombocytopenia (83.9%) and leucopenia (56.1%). Among the different biological tools used for diagnosis confirmation, PCR was the most sensitive (100%). All 43 typed stocks corresponded to Leishmania (L.) infantum species. Although zymodeme MON-1 was predictably the most frequent (27 cases), L. infantum MON-24 and MON-80 were responsible of no negligible numbers of cases (11 and 5 cases respectively). The present study gave an updated epidemiological, clinical and biological profile of infantile VL in Tunisia. The diagnosis delays were considerably shortened compared to previous reports. However, an even earlier diagnosis of cases is needed to improve the disease prognosis. Real-Time PCR showed to be helpful in VL management.

  1. Clinical Characteristics of Fuchs’ Uveitis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and demographic properties of Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome (FUS) in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 161 patients with FUS followed in the Uveitis Division of Ulucanlar Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2014 were respectively reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis, sex, the number of affected eyes, follow-up period, clinical findings at presentation, complications during the follow-up period, medical and surgical treatments, and best cor...

  2. Clinical Characteristics of Fuchs’ Uveitis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and demographic properties of Fuchs’ uveitis syndrome (FUS) in Turkish patients. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 161 patients with FUS followed in the Uveitis Division of Ulucanlar Eye Hospital between 1996 and 2014 were respectively reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis, sex, the number of affected eyes, follow-up period, clinical findings at presentation, complications during the follow-up period, medical and surgical treatments, and...

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of a new focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Settat, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Amarir; Faiza, Sebti; Hajiba, Fellah; Francine, Pratlong; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Bouchra, El Mansouri; Asmae, Hmamouch; Bouchra, Delouane; Khalid, Habbari; Abderrahim, Sadak; Ibrahim, Abassi; Mohamed, Rhajaoui

    2015-10-01

    A new emerging focus of human cutaneous leishmaniasis (HCL) caused by Leishmania tropica was identified within the province of Settat. This study was performed in order to analyze the reasons of the extension of CL in this area, and to describe the clinico-epidemiological characteristic of this emerging focus during 2007-2012. A total of 553 suspected cases of CL were diagnosed in laboratory of Settat, controlled and confirmed in reference national laboratory of leishmaniasis in Rabat. Leishmania parasite is found in 356 cases. Most of them (33.89%) were recorded in localities of Ouled Ghalem (110 cases) and Laamarcha (102 cases) of El Borouj sector. The lesions were typically small, dry and mostly located on the face and extremities. Majority of infection (25%) was recorded among children under 11 years old, and female (72%). Strains of L. tropica were identified by PCR ITS1 from positive slides and zymodeme MON-102 was typed using isoenzyme technique on starch gel electrophoresis.

  4. University student’s dental and maxillofacial fractures characteristics and epidemiology in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Onone Gialain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the characteristics and epidemiology of oral and nasal fractures and knowledge degree regarding the use of a mouthguard by an amateur university handball team inBrazil.  A cross-sectional study comprised 138 students who practiced the sport. They were interviewed on dental and nasal fractures and on the need of mouthguards in games such as amateur handball. Data were processed by descriptive analysis. Results showed that 19.6% had suffered some type of dental injury during the practice of sports, namely 40 fractured teeth; 12% had fractured nasal bones; 57% underwent head and neck injuries; 32% were unaware of the need to use a mouthguard during sports; 68% had heard of mouthguards, but only 4.5% of the interviewees made use of this protection device. There was a high prevalence of nasal and dental fractures in the group under analysis. The upper central incisors were most susceptible to fracture. Even though most athletes knew a mouthguard was needed during sports activities, only 4.5% actually used one.

  5. Prognostic factors and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal head and neck melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Anna; Azarjana, Kristine; Cema, Ingrida; Pjanova, Dace; Rivosh, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To describe the prognostic factors and epidemiological characteristics of cutaneous and mucosal head and neck melanoma and to identify the variables associated with mortality from this disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Patients treated for head and neck melanoma in the Oncology Centre of Latvia, Riga during a 10-year period were identified. Records from 124 cases were analyzed in a descriptive, retrospective study. For each patient, information regarding age, sex, tumor anatomic site, as well as ulceration, histological tumor subtypes, Breslow thickness and Clark invasion level was viewed. Disease specific survival rates were calculated. The frequencies of all study variables and their 95% confidence intervals were determined. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced to illustrate the survival differences for each variable. RESULTS. The patients' mean age was 67.36 years. The study included 81 females (65.32%) and 43 males (34.67%). The prevalent anatomical site for cutaneous head and neck melanoma was the cheek - 49% (n=55) and the intraocular site for mucosal melanoma (61.5%). A high percentage of thick cutaneous melanoma was detected. In 53 cases (47.3%) out of 112 cutaneous melanoma the tumor ulceration was found. Nodular melanoma subtype was predominating (38%). The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased unequally whereas mucosal melanoma of the head and neck is an uncommon cancer and the incidence rates in Latvia during a ten year period are decreasing. CONCLUSION. Female sex, advanced age, facial skin, tumor thickness, nodular subtype and ulceration carried a relevant risk of poor prognosis.

  6. Clinical characteristics of idiopathic portal hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ozgur Harmanci; Yusuf Bayraktar

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic portal hypertension is one of the interesting causes of portal hypertension. Even in very developed medical centers, this disorder is still one of the most important misdiagnoses of clinical practice. To inexperienced physicians, presenting esophageal varices and upper gastrointestinal bleeding usually prompt an unfortunate diagnosis of cirrhosis. A heterogenous clinical presentation and progression of this disorder should be recognized by physicians, and management should be directed towards some specific problems confined to this disorder. Although a genetic basis and other factors are implicated in its pathogenesis, exact underlying mechanism(s) is (are) unknown. In this review, we discuss the heterogeneity of idiopathic portal hypertension, its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and management issues. With the expectation of an excellent prognosis, a practicing gastroenterologist should be aware that "not all varices mean cirrhosis".

  7. Brucellosis in San Diego: epidemiology and species-related differences in acute clinical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Stephanie B; Rickman, Leland S; Davis, Charles E

    2005-05-01

    Although aggressive public health measures have greatly reduced the number of brucellosis cases in the United States, there is a resurgence of interest in this worldwide zoonosis because of its potential as a bioweapon and its 8-fold higher incidence in California, Texas, and the other borderlands between the United States and Mexico compared with the national rate. Accordingly, we reviewed the clinical records of 28 patients diagnosed at a university hospital in San Diego, CA, between 1979 and 2002 to look for new epidemiologic trends and to test the hypothesis that there are species-specific differences in clinical presentations. In contrast to the latest California-wide study completed in 1992, Brucella abortus infections were more common (73%) than Brucella melitensis after 1992, and women were more commonly infected (77% compared with 39%) than men. Major risk factors remained Hispanic ethnicity, travel to Mexico, and ingestion of nonpasteurized dairy products. Analysis of diagnostic procedures suggested that the traditional practice of prolonged incubation of blood cultures increased their sensitivity for Brucella, even in automated radiometric systems. Direct comparison of the clinical manifestations of infections with B. abortus and B. melitensis strongly supported differences in acute presentations. B. melitensis presented more acutely as fevers of unknown origin with statistically significant higher rates of abdominal tenderness, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and hepatic dysfunction. These results suggest that the epidemiology of brucellosis in California may be evolving, and they show, to our knowledge for the first time in a single series, that species-specific differences in presentations may account for some of the protean manifestations of brucellosis. Familiarity with manifestations of brucellosis and the optimal laboratory techniques for its diagnosis could help physicians protect the public against this reemerging

  8. Clinical and Epidemiological behavior of Acute Dentoalveolar Abscess in Patients of the Health Area VII in Cienfuegos

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    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: acute dentoalveolar abscess is a dental emergency and one of the major condition affecting the population; however, there are few studies on the subject. Objective: to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of acute dentoalveolar abscess in patients of the health area VII in Cienfuegos. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted from January to December 2013 in the Health Area VII, Cienfuegos. The universe consisted of 672 patients and the sample included 374 individuals selected by simple random sampling. Primary data recording and data collection was obtained from medical records prior informed consent of the patients. The main variables were age, sex, pulp irritating agents. Results: females were more affected with 55, 35% and the 19-34 year age group with 33.69%. The main pulp irritator was microbial, 59.36%. Among the iatrogenic factors, the remains of decayed tissues were significant with 32.35%. Conclusions: there is a high number of patients with acute dentoalveolar abscess, thus, as a dental emergency, the dentist should know the characteristics and factors that develop the disease to promote a comprehensive job in terms of health promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of affected patients.

  9. Epidemiological Investigation of Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic in Hangzhou Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Hangzhou area. Methods Male subjects (n=375) aged 18-70 years,attending the STD clinic were recruited. Urethral swabs were assessed for HPV DNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)with the consensus primers MY09/11. HPV genotypes of positive PCR products were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphisms and direct sequence analysis. Results Of the 375 swabs collected, 305 (81.3%) yielded sufficient DNA for the subsequent HPV analysis. Among the 305 subjects, the prevalence of HPV was 13.8%. Nononcogenic HPV types were found in 8.5% (26/305) of subjects, oncogenic types in 4.3% (13/305), and multiple types in 1.0% (3/305). The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in subjects from urban area than in those from rural area (P<0.05). The prevalence was also higher in those who received fewer years of education (P<0.05) and those who had more sex partners (P<0.05). Conclusions HPV infection among men at high risk is not uncommon. The detection rate of HPV DNA is significantly related to some sociodemographic factors, such as residence, educational level and the number of sex partners.

  10. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions:a review on epidemiology,etiology,clinical manifestation and pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomy Martin; LI Hui

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To review the current progress in epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestation, and pathophysiology of severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions(SCADRs). Data sources Data were acquired by using Blackwell-Synergy, PubMed, original articles published in the main Chinese journals and related medical textbooks materials. Study-selection and date extraction Throughout the literature review 49 articles were selected. Results SCADRs cases are rare, however, the implication is life threatening with significant mortatity rates. Epidemiology studies have shown various incidences from different regions, gender, age, race and concurrent illness. There are typical signs and symptoms for each type of SCADRs, but this is not always so. Drugs associated with inducing SCADRs are anticonvulsants, antibiotics, NSAIDs and antirheumatic drugs. In some countries, especially in Asia, traditional drugs are offen the cause of SCADRs. Genetic polymorphisms and viral infections are predisposition factors of SCADRs. Patients with certain genetic alleles and underlying diseases are vulnerable to SCADRs. The exact pathogenesis of SCADRs is not well defined. Nonetheless, recent study showed that reactive metabolites and immunological processes have a significant role in SCADRs. Conclusions The different SCADRs reactions are attributed by different intrinsic factors, such as genetic polymorphisms, gender, age and race as well as extrinsic factors, such as underlying diseases. Different regions and culprit drugs also play a role in the various types of SCADRs.

  11. A clinical review of recent findings in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease

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    Ponder A

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexis Ponder, Millie D LongDepartment of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, including both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, are disorders of chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract marked by episodes of relapse and remission. Over the past several decades, advances have been made in understanding the epidemiology of IBD. The incidence and prevalence of both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have been increasing worldwide across pediatric and adult populations. As IBD is thought to be related to a combination of individual genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, and alterations in the gut microbiome that stimulate an inflammatory response, understanding the potentially modifiable environmental risk factors associated with the development or the course of IBD could impact disease rates or management in the future. Current hypotheses as to the development of IBD are reviewed, as are a host of environmental cofactors that have been investigated as both protective and inciting factors for IBD onset. Such environmental factors include breast feeding, gastrointestinal infections, urban versus rural lifestyle, medication exposures, stress, smoking, and diet. The role of these factors in disease course is also reviewed. Looking forward, there is still much to be learned about the etiology of IBD and how specific environmental exposures intimately impact the development of disease and also the potential for relapse.Keywords: clinical epidemiology, inflammatory bowel disease, environmental risk factors

  12. Clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with valvular heart disease admitted to the emergency department

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    Moraes, Ricardo Casalino Sanches de [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Katz, Marcelo [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tarasoutchi, Flávio [Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with valvular heart disease who arrived decompensated at the emergency department of a university hospital in Brazil. A descriptive analysis of clinical and echocardiographic data of 174 patients with severe valvular disease, who were clinically decompensated and went to the emergency department of a tertiary cardiology hospital, in the State of São Paulo, in 2009. The mean age of participants was 56±17 years and 54% were female. The main cause of valve disease was rheumatic in 60%, followed by 15% of degenerative aortic disease and mitral valve prolapse in 13%. Mitral regurgitation (27.5%) was the most common isolated valve disease, followed by aortic stenosis (23%), aortic regurgitation (13%) and mitral stenosis (11%). In echocardiographic data, the mean left atrial diameter was 48±12mm, 38±12mm for the left ventricular systolic diameter, and 54±12mm for the diastolic diameter; the mean ejection fraction was 56±13%, and the mean pulmonary artery pressure was 53±16mmHg. Approximately half of patients (44%) presented atrial fibrillation, and over one third of them (37%) had already undergone another cardiac surgery. Despite increased comorbidities and age-dependent risk factors commonly described in patients with valvular heart disease, the clinical profile of patients arriving at the emergency department represented a cohort of rheumatic patients in more advanced stages of disease. These patients require priority care in high complexity specialized hospitals.

  13. Clinical characteristics and current treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Laura P; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-06-02

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disorder in which degenerating retinal ganglion cells (RGC) produce significant visual disability. Clinically, glaucoma refers to an array of conditions associated with variably elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that contributes to RGC loss via mechanical stress, vascular abnormalities, and other mechanisms, such as immune phenomena. The clinical diagnosis of glaucoma requires assessment of the ocular anterior segment with slit lamp biomicroscopy, which allows the clinician to recognize signs of conditions that can produce elevated IOP. After measurement of IOP, a specialized prismatic lens called a gonioscope is used to determine whether the angle is physically open or closed. The structural manifestation of RGC loss is optic nerve head atrophy and excavation of the neuroretinal rim tissue. Treatment is guided by addressing secondary causes for elevated IOP (such as inflammation, infection, and ischemia) whenever possible. Subsequently, a variety of medical, laser, and surgical options are used to achieve a target IOP.

  14. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentations of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Subgroups A and B Detected with Multiplex Real-Time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenkuan; Chen, Dehui; Tan, Weiping; Xu, Duo; Qiu, Shuyan; Zeng, Zhiqi; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn. RSV-B was dominant in 2013 and RSV-A in 2015, whereas RSV-A and RSV-B cocirculated in 2014. The clinical presentations of 645 RSV-positive patients were analyzed. Bronchiolitis, dyspnea, coryza, vomiting, poor appetite, and diarrhea occurred more frequently in RSV-A-positive than RSV-B-positive patients, whereas chill, headache, myalgia, debility, and rash etc. were more frequent in RSV-B-positive than RSV-A-positive patients, suggesting specific clinical characteristics for RSV-A and RSV-B. Coinfectons with other pathogens were common and diverse. Bronchiolitis, fever (≥ 38°C), and poor appetite were more frequent in patients with single RSV infections than in coinfected patients, suggesting the key pathogenic activity of RSV. Analysis of the relationships between the comparative viral load and clinical presentations showed significant differences in bronchiolitis, fever (≥ 38°C), and rash etc. among patients with different viral loads. This study provides a novel rapid method for detecting RSV subgroups, and provides new insights into the epidemiology and clinical implications of RSV. PMID:27764220

  15. Dengue fever in Pakistan: a paradigm shift; changing epidemiology and clinical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Zahra; Ahmad, Farina Zia; Mahmood, Asif; Waseem, Tariq; Shafiq, Irfan; Raza, Tanzeem; Qazi, Javaria; Siddique, Nasir; Humayun, Malik Asif

    2015-11-01

    Dengue fever has huge public health implications and affects over 100 million people worldwide. This review pictures the current situation of Dengue in Pakistan and presents a review of published literature. Pakistan has seen recurrent epidemics of Dengue Fever recently. Unfortunately, these epidemics are becoming more severe in their clinical manifestation. Pakistan experienced large epidemics of dengue fever during 2008, 2010 and 2011 affecting thousands of people and claiming hundreds of deaths. A comparison of data during these epidemics indicates a shift from mild to a more severe disease, which could be interpreted as an epidemiologic transition pattern in the country. Expansion of Dengue in Pakistan seems to be multifactorial, including the climate change, frequent natural disasters, vector resistance to insecticides and lack of resources. This highlights the need for rigorous vector control. Continuing education of primary care physicians is crucial for early appropriate management to reduce mortality.

  16. HLA-B27-ASSOCIATED UVEITIS: EPIDEMIOLOGY, CLINICAL PICTURE, AND COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Dubinina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior uveitis is the most common form of intraocular inflammation. Among them, HLA-B27-associated uveitis occupies one of the leading places, which may be an independent disease or one of the manifestations of spondy- loarthritis (SA. The paper considers the general issues of the nomenclature and classification of uveitis, by using the classification criteria of the International Uveitis Study Group and the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Workshop. The epidemiological aspects of uveitis are described. Emphasis is laid on a difference in the detection rate of uveitis in different countries, in men and women, as well as in different forms of SA. The clinical features of SA- associated uveitis and its complications are discussed. 

  17. The outbreak of tularemia in Khanty-Mansiysk in 2013: clinical and epidemiological features in children

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    A. A. Girina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tularemia is a zoonotic disease. The pathogen (Francisella tularensis is а gram negative bacteria virulent to humans and animals (rodents, hares, rabbits. The outbreak of tularemia had happened in 2013, in Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District, during which 1005 people became ill, including 157 children, of whom 152 people were treated at the Hospital District of Khanty-Mansiysk. The histories of inpatients and outpatients affected children had been analysed (n=152. Specialists have identified epidemiological and clinical features of children tularemia. There was ulceroglandular form of tularemia in 98.7% of cases. Purulent lymphadenitis has appeared in 5.9% of cases. 21,2% of affected children have been vaccinated and revaccinated against tularemia for 1–11 years before the disease.

  18. [Cervicitis--epidemiological and clinical risk for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, A; Stevenson, M

    1994-01-01

    Fifty volunteer, asymptomatic sexually active university female students were examined and inquired, in order to find risk factors predictive of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Epidemiologic and behavioral factors (age, number of sexual partners, oral contraceptives use and history of previous sexually transmitted diseases) were found to be similar among the studied group and published data for North American female college students, but barrier contraceptive methods use was found to be different. Twenty two per cent of the sample had clinical cervicitis, and 30% had subclinical. If the screening models proposed by different authors would have been applied, between a 32% and 72% of the sample would have been selectively for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. It is concluded that international sugerences about Chlamydia trachomatis screening should be adopted until national experiences are made.

  19. Epidemiological Characteristics of Fatal Traumatic Accidents in Babol, Iran: A Hospital-Based Survey

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    Seyed Reza Modarres

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traumatic accidents in patients referred to a hospital in Babol, Northern Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during a 1-year period including all the dead trauma patients referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Babol. We included all those patients who were transferred to our center to trauma and injuries and passed away during the hospital stay. Those who died due to electrical shock, drowning and suffocation caused by hanging sand poisoning were excluded from the study. Demographic information such as age, sex, marital status, education, employment, the type, location, and time of injury, injured parts of body and treatment methods, the cause, location and time of death were recorded. Results: From the 92 dead patients, 76 were men (82.6% and 16 were women (17.4%. The cause of death in 53 cases (57.6% was head injury. Regarding the location,30patients (32.6% died at the scene of the accident, 62(67.4% died in the hospital. The maximum rate of trauma occurred in the afternoon shift between the hours of 13:30 to 19:30.The head and face were the most damaged organs. Road traffic accidents were the most common cause of injury related mortality recorded in 81 patients (88.0%. Most of the accidents occurred in intercity roads in 27 people (33.3% and the others in rural-urban roads. Pedestrians were the most common victims of road traffic accidents mortality being reported in 29 people (35.8%. Conclusion: Road traffic accidents are among the most common cause of injury related mortality in our region. Increasing the public knowledge and improve the traffic law enforcement measures should be considered for decreasing the morbidity and mortality.

  20. Epidemiology and Characteristics of Urinary Tract Infections in Children and Adolescents

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    Rima Hanna Hanna-Wakim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are among the most common infections in the pediatric population. Over the last two decades, antibiotic resistance is increasing significantly as extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL producing organisms are emerging. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive view of the epidemiologic characteristics of UTIs in hospitalized children, examine the risk factors of UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms, and determine the resistance patterns in the isolated organisms over the last 10 years. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted at two Lebanese medical centers. Subjects were identified by looking at the following ICD-9 discharge codes: Urinary tract infection, UTI, Cystitis, and/or Pyelonephritis. Children less than 18 years of age admitted for UTI between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2011 were included. Cases whose urine culture result did not meet our definition for UTI were excluded. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine risk factors for ESBL. Linear regression analysis was used to determine resistance patterns.Results: The study included 675 cases with a median age of 16 months and female predominance of 77.7% (525 cases. Of the 584 cases caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp, 91 cases (15.5% were found to be ESBL-producing organisms. Vesico-ureteral reflux and previous antibiotics use were found to be independent risk factors for ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp (p-value < 0.05. A significant linear increase in resistance to all generations of Cephalosporins (r2=0.442 and Fluoroquinolones (r2=0.698 was found.Conclusion: The recognition of risk factors for infection with ESBL-producing organisms and the observation of increasing overall resistance to antibiotics warrant further studies that might probably lead to new recommendations to guide management of UTIs and antibiotic use in children an

  1. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged.

  2. Epidemiologic and clinical impact of Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection: a reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Macarena; Cano, María E; Gato, Eva; Garnacho-Montero, José; Miguel Cisneros, José; Ruíz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Vila, Jordi; Pascual, Alvaro; Tomás, María; Bou, Germán; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-07-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most important antibiotic-resistant nosocomial bacteria. We investigated changes in the clinical and molecular epidemiology of A. baumannii over a 10-year period. We compared the data from 2 prospective multicenter cohort studies in Spain, one performed in 2000 (183 patients) and one in 2010 (246 patients), which included consecutive patients infected or colonized by A. baumannii. Molecular typing was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The incidence density of A. baumannii colonization or infection increased significantly from 0.14 in 2000 to 0.52 in 2010 in medical services (p infections were carbapenems in 2000 (45%) and colistin in 2010 (50.3%). There was molecular-typing evidence of an increase in the frequency of A. baumannii acquisition in non-intensive care unit wards in 2010 (7.6% in 2000 vs 19.2% in 2010, p = 0.01). By MSLT, the ST2 clonal group predominated and increased in 2010. This epidemic clonal group was more frequently resistant to imipenem and was associated with an increased risk of sepsis, although not with severe sepsis or mortality. Some significant changes were noted in the epidemiology of A. baumannii, which is increasingly affecting patients admitted to conventional wards and is also the cause of non-nosocomial health care-associated infections. Epidemic clones seem to combine antimicrobial resistance and the ability to spread, while maintaining their clinical virulence.

  3. Neonatal peripheral hypotonia: clinical and electromyographic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parano, E; Lovelace, R E

    1993-06-01

    Hypotonia is a common occurrence in pediatrics, especially in the neonatal period. The hypotonic neonate represents a diagnostic challenge for the general pediatrician because hypotonia may be caused by a lesion at any level in the neuraxis: (1) central nervous system (CNS), (2) peripheral nerves (PN), (3) neuromuscular junction, or (4) muscles. Distinguishing among these pathologies is a particularly arduous task. This review will discuss the clinical approach to neonatal hypotonia with emphasis on disorders of the peripheral nervous system and muscle, and the importance of the electrophysiological study as a diagnostic test.

  4. Candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, S S

    2000-12-01

    Candida organisms live on the skin and mucous membranes of up to 75 percent of the population. They can live commensally without causing harm or can change to an aggressive form and invade tissue, causing both acute and chronic disease in the host. Oropharyngeal candidiasis manifests clinically as acute pseudomembranous, acute atrophic, chronic atrophic, chronic hypertrophic/hyperplastic, and angular cheilitis. Systemic infection leading to candidemia can be devastating and cause up to a 60 percent mortality rate in medical or post-surgical intensive care wards. Oral nystatin, clotrimazole, and fluconazole usually provide appropriate therapy; although resistance to medications is increasing, particularly in immunocompromised hosts.

  5. Hydatidiform mole clinical and pathological characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco D., José; Instituto de Patología, UNMSM; Instituto de Medicina Legal; Alegre, Jaime; Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Perú; Paniagua, Gissela; Instituto de Patología de la UNMSM

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine clinical and pathological findings in hydatidiform mole. Design: Descriptive retrospective study. Material and methods: All cases de molar pregnancy attended at Dos de Mayo National Hospital (HNDM) between 1998 and 2001 were reviewed. Results: Twenty-four cases of hydatidiform mole were attended; mean age was 26,4 years ± 6,4 and gestational age 13,1 weeks ± 3,3. Past history only showed 1 and 3 cases of hyperemesis gravidarum and previous abortions, respectively; 18 p...

  6. The Evaluation Clinical and Demographic Characteristics of 115 Patients Diagnosed with Herpes Zoster in Eeastern Turkey

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    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients diagnosed with herpes zoster and to explore the similarities and differences with other epidemiological studies from Turkey and the world. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 115 patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in the Yuzuncu Yıl University Medical Faculty Dermatology Department between January 2007 and December 2010. Results: The mean age of the patients was 42.21±23.88 years. 115 patients, -47 female (40.9%, 68 male (59.1%- aged between 2 and 93 years were assessed. Pediatric age group, 20 (17.4%, adult age group, 95 (82.6% patients, respectively. The incidence of HZ was found to be 0.43%. HZ was observed winter rarely (13.04%. Is mostly seen in the months of March (17.39% The affected dermatome were thorasic (49 patient, 42.6%, servical (21 patient, 18.3%, ophtalmic (22 patient, 19.1%, lomber (16 patient, 13.9%, sacral (7 patient, 6.1% respectively. Complications developed in 13% of patients. Conclusion: We observed that our findings were more or less similar to the findings of the literature data. Cases of HZ in our study was very rare during the winter season. Multi-center studies are needed to the emergence of clinical and epidemiological characteristics of HZ in Turkey.

  7. Acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis: Clinical characteristics and outcome

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    Ahmed Farag Elhassanien

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: ADEM, although relatively uncommon, is probably under-recognized. Objectives: To spotlight the clinical profile and therapeutic outcome of children with ADEM. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of patients with ADEM who were admitted to the Pediatric Departments in Aladan and Alfarawanya Hospitals in Kuwait, from January 2009 to January 2011. Clinical, microbiological and radiological data were analyzed. Results: Of 48 patients presented with acute neurological symptoms and signs, 21 patients fulfilled criteria for ADEM. 80.95% of cases were presenting in winter and spring, 57% of patients had a history of upper respiratory tract illness. The commonest presentations were motor deficits, convulsions and altered consciousness. CSF virology studies showed herpes simplex virus (HSV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV (3 patients whereas nasal and nasopharyngeal swab showed evidence of influenza H1N1 virus (1 patient. Brain MRI was performed in all patients and revealed multiple hyperintense supratentorial brain lesions on T2/FLAIR images. 85.7% of patients had cortical and/or subcortical white matter lesions which were bilateral and asymmetric in location and size. Conclusion: ADEM although rare must be considered in children with acute onset of neurological signs and symptoms and must be distinguished from any acute neurological insult.

  8. Workshop report: Schistosomiasis vaccine clinical development and product characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Annie X; Colley, Daniel G

    2016-02-17

    A schistosomiasis vaccine meeting was organized to evaluate the utility of a vaccine in public health programs, to discuss clinical development paths, and to define basic product characteristics for desirable vaccines to be used in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination programs. It was concluded that clinical evaluation of a schistosomiasis vaccine is feasible with appropriate trial design and tools. Some basic Preferred Product Characteristics (PPC) for a human schistosomiasis vaccine and for a veterinary vaccine for bovine use were also proposed.

  9. Clinical characteristics of 297 newly diagnosed Chinese HIV / AIDS patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玮

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinical characteristics of HIV infected patients in China in order to improve early recognition and diagnosis of AIDS.Methods A total of297 newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients were enrolled in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH)from January 2001 to December 2012,including 19 patients of primary phase,115 of asymptomatic phase and 163 of AIDS phase.Clinical characteristics of these patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results Two hundred and

  10. Molecular epidemiology of an outbreak of clinical mastitis in sheep caused by Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaleki, Lida; Browning, Glenn F; Allen, Joanne L; Markham, Philip F; Barber, Stuart R

    2016-08-15

    The aetiology and epidemiology of outbreaks of clinical mastitis in sheep under extensive pastoral conditions are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to conduct a detailed investigation of a clinical mastitis outbreak that affected more than 10% of 230 at-risk ewes on a sheep and grain producing property in south east Australia during drought conditions in 2009. Milk samples were collected aseptically from all affected ewes and plated on sheep blood agar for bacterial identification. M. haemolytica was isolated from 80% of the samples that yielded cultivable microorganisms and thus was the main microorganism responsible for the outbreak. Analysis of the restriction endonuclease cleavage patterns of the isolates using pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed some evidence of clonality, suggesting the possibility of horizontal transmission, but there was also considerable diversity between the clusters of closely related isolates. Multilocus sequence typing of the M. haemolytica isolates revealed most of the isolates belonged to ST1 with no association between the PFGE and MLST fingerprints of the isolates. Resistance to neomycin, streptomycin and sulphafurazole was detected in some of the isolates, but they were all susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, ceftiofur, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin and trimethoprim. This is the first published record of a comparison of the strains of M. haemolytica involved in a clinical mastitis outbreak in sheep and demonstrates the importance of this pathogen in sheep production systems, particularly during adverse climatic conditions and increased stocking rate.

  11. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  12. [Specific clinical, epidemiological patterns and laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infection in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvros'eva, T V; Poklonskaia, N V; Bogush, Z F; Kazinets, O N; Germanovich, F A; Fisenko, E G; Titov, L P; Kvacheva, Z B; Bezruchko, A A; Scheslenok, E P

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and epidemiological patterns as well as the results of the laboratory verification of the outbreak of enterovirus infection (EVI) in Minsk during the period of summer-autumn, 2000, are presented. During this outbreak a variety of clinical forms were observed, the serous meningitis being prevalent (57.5%). Practically simultaneous occurrence of infection on the territory of all administrative districts of the city, the predominant involvement of children aged up to 14 years into the outbreak, a high proportion of simultaneous casualities in the multiple foci. A number of circulating enteroviruses (EV)--ECHO 30, ECHO 6 of three serotypes and Coxsackie B5--were simultaneously isolated from clinical material. EV of the same serotypes were isolated from tap drinking water, and neutralizing antibodies to these serotypes were often detected in the patients blood sera. Infectious EV were also present in samples of bottled water and in water reservoirs used for bathing. The routes of EV transmission and the improvement of EVI control are discussed.

  13. Clinical characteristics of roxatidine acetate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; de Looze, S M; Bender, W; Labs, R

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies revealed that 150 mg of roxatidine acetate were optimal in suppressing gastric acid secretion, and that a single bedtime dose of 150 mg was more effective than a dose of 75 mg twice daily in terms of inhibiting nocturnal acid secretion. When administered orally as a capsule containing a granule formulation, the drug displayed modified-release properties, which led to a sustained suppression of gastric acid secretion. Clinical trials revealed that roxatidine acetate, 75 mg twice daily and 150 mg at night, was highly effective in healing duodenal and gastric ulcers and in reducing ulcer pain, over 4, 6, and 8 weeks of therapy. A steady reduction in diameter was observed in those ulcers not completely healed during therapy. The single bedtime dose regimen, while producing the same degree of healing as the divided daily dose during controlled clinical trials, may be of greater value in therapeutic use owing to improved patient compliance. In all efficacy criteria (cure, reduction in ulcer size, and pain relief) there was no significant difference between roxatidine acetate in a total daily dose of 150 mg, ranitidine in a total daily dose of 300 mg, and cimetidine in a total daily dose of 800 mg. Prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcer relapse was achieved by roxatidine acetate, 75 mg at night for 6 months, in about 70% of patients, as determined in open, pilot studies--a rate comparable to those reported for cimetidine and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate shares with ranitidine an improved safety profile when compared with cimetidine. Human pharmacology studies and short-term and long-term clinical trials have all shown that roxatidine acetate is an exceptionally well tolerated compound, without the antiandrogenic activity and interference with hepatic drug metabolism which have characterized cimetidine treatment. A reason for the improved safety profile of roxatidine acetate may be its greater potency than cimetidine (six times less potent) and

  14. Clinic-epidemiological evaluation of ulcers in patients with leprosy sequelae and the effect of low level laser therapy on wound healing: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreto Josafá G

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacterium leprae is the only pathogenic bacteria able to infect peripheral nerves. Neural impairment results in a set of sensitive, motor and autonomic disturbances, with ulcers originating primarily on the hands and feet. The study objectives were to analyze the clinic-epidemiological characteristics of patients attended at one specialized dressing service from a leprosy-endemic region of the Brazilian Amazon and to evaluate the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT on wound healing of these patients. Methods Clinic-epidemiological evaluation of patients with leprosy sequelae was performed at the reference unit in sanitary dermatology of the state of Pará in Brazil. We conducted anamnesis, identification of the regions affected by the lesions and measurement of ulcer depth and surface area. After that, we performed a randomized clinical trial. Fifty-one patients with ulcers related to leprosy were evaluated, twenty-five of them were randomly assigned to a low level laser therapy group or a control group. Patients were treated 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Outcome measures were ulcer surface area, ulcer depth and the pressure ulcer scale for healing score (PUSH. Results Ninety-seven ulcers were identified, with a mean (SD duration of 97.6 (111.7 months, surface area of 7.3 (11.5 cm2, and depth of 6.0 (6.2 mm. Statistical analysis of the data determined that there were no significant differences in the variables analyzed before and after treatment with low level laser therapy. Conclusions Ulcers in patients with leprosy remain a major source of economic and social losses, even many years after they have been cured of M. leprae infection. Our results indicate that it is necessary to develop new and more effective therapeutic tools, as low level laser therapy did not demonstrate any additional benefits to ulcer healing with the parameters used in this study. Trial Registration The trial was registered at Clinical

  15. Huntington's disease: clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ken; Aminoff, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Huntington's disease is a devastating disorder with no known cure. The disease results from an expanded sequence of CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene and leads to a movement disorder with associated cognitive and systemic deficits. Huntington's disease is diagnosed by genetic testing and disease progression can be followed with a variety of imaging modalities. The accumulation of aggregated huntingtin with associated striatal degeneration is evident at autopsy. The pathophysiology of Huntington's disease remains unknown, although protein aggregation, excitotoxicity, deficits in energy metabolism, transcriptional dysregulation and apoptosis may all be involved. Current pharmacologic therapy for Huntington's disease is limited and exclusively symptomatic. However, the disease is being heavily researched, and a wide range of disease-modifying therapies is currently under development. The efficacy of these therapies is being evaluated in transgenic models of Huntington's disease and in preliminary clinical trials.

  16. Clinical characteristics of eosinophilic asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Asger; Laing, Ingrid A; Backer, Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Airway eosinophilia is associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations; however, the impact on the severity of exacerbations is largely unknown. We describe the sputum inflammatory phenotype during asthma exacerbation and correlate it with severity and treatment...... response. METHODS: Patients presenting to hospital with an asthma exacerbation were recruited during a 12-month period and followed up after 4 weeks. Induced sputum was collected at both visits. Patients underwent spirometry, arterial blood gas analysis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide analysis, white...... with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 70%. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that eosinophilic asthma exacerbations may be clinically more severe than NEEs, supporting the identification of these higher risk patients for specific interventions....

  17. Ovarian fibroma--clinical and histopathological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Dutta, R; Jayalakshmi, P

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-three cases of ovarian fibroma, comprising 3% of all benign tumors seen over a 20-year period, were analyzed. It was unilateral in all cases affecting more commonly the left ovary (70%). Whilst a majority of cases (77%) were encountered in the reproductive age group, the tumor was rare before the second decade. Only in 13% of cases was ascitis clinically detectable. This was not influenced by the size and weight (average of 9.3 x 10.8 x 11.1 cm and 959 g, respectively) of the tumors; a smooth-surfaced tumor was, however, associated with a greater amount of peritoneal fluid. Varying degrees of calcification in some tumors are detectable on ultrasonography and occasionally on abdominal radiography. The classical Meig's Syndrome was seldom encountered. The histopathological features, diagnostic problems and management are discussed.

  18. [Clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of scimitar syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinola-Zavaleta, Nilda; Játiva-Chávez, Silvio; Muñoz-Castellanos, Luis; Zamora-González, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Seven patients with scimitar syndrome underwent retrospective clinical and echocardiographic examination. The findings were: respiratory infection with dyspnea on moderate exercise in 90%, scimitar sign in four (57%), dextrocardia in five (71%), and interatrial septal defect in five (71%), one of whom had patent ductus arteriosus. Overall, two patients had patent ductus arteriosus: one also had aortic coarctation and the other, a bicuspid aortic valve. Dilation of the right cavities was found in five (71%) and blunt edge in five (71%). In two patients, anomalous drainage was into the right atrium; in another two, into the inferior vena cava; and in three, towards the junction of the right atrium and the inferior vena cava. In three patients, drainage was obstructed. Six patients with cardiac abnormalities proceeded to surgery. Scimitar syndrome is a rare entity. In the large majority of patients (86%), diagnosis and follow-up can be performed echocardiographically.

  19. Nationwide study of haemolytic uraemic syndrome : clinical, microbiological, and epidemiological features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elliott, EJ; Robins-Browne, RM; O'Loughlin, EV; Bennett-Wood, [No Value; Bourke, J; Henning, P; Hogg, GG; Knight, J; Powell, H; Redmond, D

    2001-01-01

    Aims-To establish the incidence and aetiology of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) in Australia and compare clinical and microbial characteristics of sporadic and outbreak cases. Methods-National active surveillance through the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit with monthly case notification f

  20. Epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs based on a community cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Z; Li, D; Wang, A; Su, H; Shao, Z; Zhang, J; Ji, Z; Gao, J; Choi, B C K; Yan, Y

    2016-04-01

    The coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs is an atypical serological pattern in HBV infection. There is no epidemiological characteristics of this serological pattern in the community and there is controversy over the molecular mechanisms underlying this pattern. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of the carriers with HBsAg and anti-HBs in a longitudinal community cohort study. The prevalence of this atypical serological pattern was 2.93% (122/4169) in HBsAg-positive populations. The prevalence progressively increased with age from 40 to 70 years old. The rate of HBeAg positive and detectable HBV DNA were both significantly higher in carriers with this pattern than in carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (26/122 verse 598/4047, P = 0.046; 86/122 verse 275/529,P anti-HBs, 14.81% of the carriers lost their anti-HBs. Viral sequencing showed that carriers with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs had higher numbers of residue changes within the S gene than carriers who were HBsAg positive but anti-HBs negative (2.42 verse 1.33 changes per 100 residues, P anti-HBs is a unique serological pattern which may be associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcome and may be related to HBsAg immune variants which have genotypic heterogeneity.

  1. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN OF THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bezrodnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical  and  epidemiological features of brucellosis in children in the Stavropol region.Materials and  methods: Analysis of brucellosis is made and  the  share  of brucellosis in the  Stavropol Territory  from 2010 to 2014 is clarified. The paper  used  the  data  from the Territorial  Rospotrebnadzor in  the  Stavropol Territory.  Dynamic   clinical  indices were  analyzed in  17  children with brucellosis under treatment and  dispensary observation in the  State  Budget Institution of Health  of the  Stavropol Territory  «Regional Clinical  Hospital of  Infectious Diseases». Analyzed an  outbreak of brucellosis in  Essentuki in  2016. We used  the following methods: bibliographic, monographic description, epidemiological, analytical, statistical methods.Results. The proportion of the incidence of brucellosis in children in Stavropol Krai in comparison with the Russian figures were: in 2010 – 8,33%, in 2016 – 56%. A household way of infection increases, including children, who were infected in the  farms  of their  own  parents. The age  of infection was12–16 (47,06%, 8–11 (35,29% and 4–7  years (17,65%.The  main  clinical  syndromes were: arthritic, vegetative, asthenic, lymphoproliferative syndrome, liver disease, splenomegaly. Isolated forms did not occur. Predominantly, large joints with dysfunction of joints of I–II degree were affected. Late referral after the initial manifestation is typical. Late initiation of treatment. The etiotropic therapy is carried  out at least 4 weeks, in the presence of carditis – up to 16 weeks.Conclusion. The epidemiological situation of brucellosis in the Stavropol territory  has been  tense in the recent  years. The active migration of the population from the regions of the North  Caucasus Federal  District  contributes to this.  Intensive  incidence rate of brucellosis exceeds the  average Russian level by 5–8

  2. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical characteristics and medicine treatment of patients with severe ulcerative colitis(UC),the efficacy of rescue treatment in patients with glucocorticoid(GCS)resistant severe UC,and the clinical risk factors in patients with GCS-refractory severe UC.Methods From January 2001 to December 2012,

  3. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George D′Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Bangalore, with information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco-use details, nicotine dependence, family/medical history, past quit attempts, baseline stage-of-change, and treatment initiated. Results: Only 5% were ′walk-in′ patients; 98% of attendees were smokers; 97% were males. The mean (±SD age of attendees was 48.0 (±14.0 years. Most participants were married (88%, and predominantly urban (69%. About 62% had completed at least 8 years of schooling. Two-thirds of smokers reported high levels of nicotine dependence (Fagerström score >5/10. About 43% of patients had attempted quitting earlier. Four-fifths (79% of tobacco-users reported a family member using tobacco. Commonly documented comorbidities included: Chronic respiratory disease (44%, hypertension (23%, diabetes (12%, tuberculosis (9%, myocardial infarction (2%, stroke (1%, sexual dysfunction (1% and cancer (0.5%. About 52% reported concomitant alcohol use. At baseline, patients′ motivational stage was: Precontemplation (14%, contemplation (48%, preparation/action (37% and maintenance (1%. Treatment modalities started were: Counseling alone (41%, nicotine replacement therapy alone (NRT (34%, medication alone (13%, and NRT+medication (12%. Conclusions: This is the first study of the baseline profile of patients attending a tobacco cessation clinic located within a chest medicine department in India. Important determinants of outcome have been captured for follow-up and prospective

  4. Clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness

    OpenAIRE

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar; Eliane Maria Dias von Söhsten Lins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness is the dizziness that lasts for over three months with no clinical explanation for its persistence. The patient's motor response pattern presents changes and most patients manifest significant anxiety. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent postural and perceptual dizziness. METHODS: statistical analysis of clinical aspects of patients with persistent postural-perceptual dizziness. RESULTS: 81 pati...

  5. Clinical and behavioral characteristics in FG syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J M; Superneau, D; Rogers, R C; Corning, K; Schwartz, C E; Dykens, E M

    1999-08-27

    FG syndrome is a rare X-linked recessive form of mental retardation, first described by Opitz and Kaveggia in 1974. Based on over 50 reported cases, FG syndrome is associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum, minor facial anomalies (high, broad forehead with frontal cowlick, ocular hypertelorism, down-slanted palpebral fissures, and small cupped auricles), relative macrocephaly, broad thumbs and halluces, and prominent fetal fingertip pads. Affected individuals manifest neonatal hypotonia and severe constipation, which usually resolves during mid-childhood. The hypotonia with joint hyperlaxity evolves into spasticity with joint contractures in later life. Affability, hyperactivity, and excessive talkativeness are noted frequently in patients with FG syndrome. Recently, we described three additional families (six additional patients) with FG syndrome who support the localization of a gene for the FG syndrome in chromosome region Xq12-q21 [Graham JM Jr, Tackels D, Dibbern K, Superneau D, Rodgers C, Corning K, Schwartz CE. 1998. Am J Med Genet 80:145-156.]. Using these same families and one additional sporadic case of FG syndrome, we compared behavioral and personality characteristics of 6 FG boys with other boys with syndromic and nonsyndromic mental retardation: eight with Down syndrome, seven with Prader-Willi syndrome, eight with nonspecific mental retardation, and 13 with Williams syndrome. Using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Reiss Personality Profiles, and the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist, parents were asked to characterize the behavior and personality of their boys from ages 4 to 10 years. When compared with Williams syndrome, the FG boys had fewer internalizing behaviors and were significantly less anxious and withdrawn but had similar socially oriented, attention-seeking behaviors. On the Reiss Profile, FG boys were also quite similar to Williams syndrome boys. On the Vineland Scales, FG boys demonstrated significant relative strengths

  6. Incidence, clinical characteristics and 30-day mortality of enterococcal bacteraemia in Denmark 2006-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, M; Ostergaard, C; Arpi, M;

    2014-01-01

    Enterococci currently account for approximately 10% of all bacteraemias, reflecting remarkable changes in their epidemiology. However, population-based data of enterococcal bacteraemia are scarce. A population-based cohort study comprised all patients with a first episode of Enterococcus faecalis...... or Enterococcus faecium bacteraemia in two Danish regions during 2006-2009. We used data collected prospectively during clinical microbiological counselling and hospital registry data. We determined the incidence of mono- and polymicrobial bacteraemia and assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics...... as predictors of 30-day mortality in monomicrobial bacteraemia by logistic regression analysis. We identified 1145 bacteraemic patients, 700 (61%) of whom had monomicrobial bacteraemia. The incidence was 19.6/100 000 person-years (13.0/100 000 person-years for E. faecalis and 6.6/100 000 person-years for E...

  7. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  8. Existing data sources in clinical epidemiology: the Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer Cohort

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    Jensvoll H

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hilde Jensvoll,1,2 Marianne T Severinsen,3,4 Jens Hammerstrøm,5 Sigrid K Brækkan,1,2 Søren R Kristensen,4,6 Suzanne C Cannegieter,7 Kristine Blix,1,2 Anne Tjønneland,8 Frits R Rosendaal,1,7,9 Olga Dziewiecka,1 Kim Overvad,10,11 Inger Anne Næss,12 John-Bjarne Hansen1,21Department of Clinical Medicine, KG Jebsen – Thrombosis Research and Expertise Center (TREC, UiT – The Arctic University of Norway, 2Division of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, 4Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 5Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 8Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 9Department of Thrombosis and Hemostasis, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; 10Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 11Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; 12Department of Hematology, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Although venous thromboembolism (VTE is a known common complication in cancer patients, there is limited knowledge on patient-related and cancer-specific risk factors in the general population. The Scandinavian Thrombosis and Cancer (STAC Cohort was established by merging individual data from three large Scandinavian cohorts (The Tromsø Study, the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. Here, we present the profile of the STAC cohort and provide age-specific incidence rates of VTE and cancerMethods: The STAC cohort includes 144,952 subjects aged 19–101 years

  9. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

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    Y Cesaretli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3% while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%. Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2% and systemic effects (24.7%. Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2% of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents.

  10. Clinico-epidemiological profile of tobacco users attending a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city

    OpenAIRE

    George D′Souza; Dorothy P Rekha; Priya Sreedaran; Srinivasan, K.; Mony, Prem K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tobacco-attributable mortality in India is estimated to be at least 10%. Tobacco cessation is more likely to avert millions of deaths before 2050 than prevention of tobacco use initiation. Objective: To describe the clinico-epidemiological profile of attendees of a tobacco cessation clinic in a teaching hospital in Bangalore city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study of 189 attendees seen over 2 years in the Tobacco Cessation Clinic of a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Ba...

  11. Nosocomial outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritidis with unusual clinical-epidemiological features

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    Marco Arosio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature reports about Norovirus outbreaks, especially in hospitals, have accumulated in the past years, including patients and health workers.This report describes a small outbreak by Norovirus which occurred in USC Urology with unusual clinical-epidemiological features.The clinical course was unusual, as it presented no vomiting and duration of diarrhoea was unusually long (4-6 days with the lack of involvement of health workers.The search for the virus was done with immunoassay method RIDASCREEN 2a generation on 11/19 patients (58% with gastroenteritis symptoms, and 3/11 samples (27% were positive. The molecular investigation by RT/PCR with diagnostic primers JV12 and JV13 on the polymerase region, carried out at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, gave negative results while the RT/PCR using primers GIISKR and GIISKF, which amplify a fragment of the capsid region, was positive in 4/11 samples (36% showing a correlation of 2/4 samples (50% with RIDASCREEN immunoassay test. Our observations confirm the usefulness of immunoassay tests and the need to extend the molecular methods using different diagnostic primers. In outbreaks of gastroenteritis the microbiologist should consider the detection of Norovirus in diagnostic routine, as a positive result requires prevention measures to avoid also the spreading by droplets when vomiting is present.

  12. Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Amani E; Moemen, Dalia; El-Tantawy, Nora L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory findings of infectious keratitis. METHODS A retrospective study on cases of infective keratitis, attended our institution from Mar. 2013 to Feb. 2015, was done at Mansoura Ophthalmic Center, Egypt. Corneal scrapings were performed and processed for direct microscopy and culture in appropriate media using standard laboratory protocols. RESULTS Out of 245 patients enrolled for study, 247 corneal scrapings were obtained. Ocular trauma was the most common predisposing factor (51.4%), followed by diabetes mellitus (15.1%). Cultures were positive in 110 scraping samples (44.5%): 45.5% samples had pure fungal infection, 40% had pure bacterial infections and 10% had mixed fungal and bacterial growths. Acanthamoeba was detected in 5 (4.5%) samples. The most common fungal pathogen was Aspergillus spp. (41%). The most common bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (38.2%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21.8%). CONCLUSION Incidence of fungal keratitis is high in our region. Therapeutic approach can initially be based on clinical features and sensitivity/resistance patterns. Microbiological research should direct the antimicrobial treatment. Antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides is an important consideration. PMID:28149778

  13. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD

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    Smith MC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Miranda Caroline Smith,1 Jeremy P Wrobel2 1Respiratory Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Advanced Lung Disease Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: Comorbidities are frequent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and significantly impact on patients' quality of life, exacerbation frequency, and survival. There is increasing evidence that certain diseases occur in greater frequency amongst patients with COPD than in the general population, and that these comorbidities significantly impact on patient outcomes. Although the mechanisms are yet to be defined, many comorbidities likely result from the chronic inflammatory state that is present in COPD. Common problems in the clinical management of COPD include recognizing new comorbidities, determining the impact of comorbidities on patient symptoms, the concurrent treatment of COPD and comorbidities, and accurate prognostication. The majority of comorbidities in COPD should be treated according to usual practice, and specific COPD management is infrequently altered by the presence of comorbidities. Unfortunately, comorbidities are often under-recognized and under-treated. This review focuses on the epidemiology of ten major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Further, we emphasize the clinical impact upon prognosis and management considerations. This review will highlight the importance of comorbidity identification and management in the practice of caring for patients with COPD. Keywords: cardiovascular disease, prevalence, mortality, chronic bronchitis, emphysema

  14. Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruma, Junichiro; Ogawa, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro

    2015-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the status of Trichophyton tonsurans infection in Japan in terms of epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis and infection control. Since approximately 2000, outbreaks of T. tonsurans infections among combat sports club members have been reported frequently, with the infection then spreading to their friends and family members. The most common clinical features of T. tonsurans infection are tinea corporis, which is difficult to differentiate from eczema, and tinea capitis. Tinea capitis is classified as the seborrheic form, kerion celsi form or "black dot" form, although 90% or more of patients are asymptomatic carriers. The diagnosis of symptomatic T. tonsurans infection is established by potassium hydroxide examination and fungal culture. However, because there are many asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans infection, tests using the hairbrush culture method are necessary. An increase in asymptomatic carriers of T. tonsurans makes assessment of the current prevalence of the infection challenging and underscores the importance of educational efforts and public awareness campaigns to prevent T. tonsurans epidemics.

  15. The clinical epidemiology of male osteoporosis: a review of the recent literature

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    Willson T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tina Willson,1,2 Scott D Nelson,1,2 Jonathan Newbold,1 Richard E Nelson,2,3 Joanne LaFleur1,2 1University of Utah College of Pharmacy, 2Veterans Affairs Salt Lake City Health Care System, 3University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Osteoporosis, a musculoskeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD and an increased risk of fragility fractures, is now recognized as an important public health problem in men. Osteoporotic fractures, particularly of the hip, result in significant morbidity and mortality in men and lead to considerable societal costs. Many national and international organizations now address screening and treatment for men in their osteoporosis clinical guidelines. However, male osteoporosis remains largely underdiagnosed and undertreated. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of recent findings in male osteoporosis, including pathophysiology, epidemiology, and incidence and burden of fracture, and discuss current knowledge about the evaluation and treatment of osteoporosis in males. In particular, clinical practice guidelines, fracture risk assessment, and evidence of treatment effectiveness in men are addressed.Keywords: screening, treatment, fracture risk, guidelines, diagnosis

  16. Myasthenia gravis in Ceará, Brazil: clinical and epidemiological aspects

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    Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective chart review was performed on patients diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis in Ceará State, Brazil and who were followed from October 1981 to June 2009. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects were evaluated. In this work, 122 patients were studied, of whom 85 (69.7% were females and 37 (30.3% were males. The disease duration ranged from five months to 50 years (8.9±8.1 years. Age at the first symptoms varied from 0 to 74 years (31.9±14.4 years. The first main symptoms and signs were ptosis, diplopia and limb weakness. Generalized myasthenia was the most common clinical presentation, but 5.1% (n=6 persisted as ocular myasthenia. Thymectomy was performed in 42.6% (n=52 of myasthenic patients. A thymoma was present in 10 patients. Serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR antibodies were present in 80% (n=20 of specimens tested. The data presented are similar to those of studies performed in other countries.

  17. Lower genital tract infections in women: comparison of clinical and epidemiologic findings with microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, J C; Averous, S; Bauriaud, R; Blanc, C; Bertrand, M A; Lareng, M B

    1988-01-01

    We screened 392 women attending the Laboratory of Microbiology of Toulouse Purpan Hospital for symptoms of lower genital tract infection for six microorganisms. Rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, Mycoplasma hominis, and Gardnerella vaginalis were 1%, 7.7%, 29.8%, 23.8%, and 37.5%, respectively. Trichomonas vaginalis was detected by direct examination in specimens from 3.1% of patients. Another goal of this study was to determine the relative prevalence of these microorganisms in relation to clinical and epidemiologic findings. C. trachomatis was isolated significantly more often from patients under 25 year old (P less than 0.001), from those who use oral contraceptives (P less than 0.01), from those who have a male sexual partner with symptoms of sexually transmitted disease (P less than 0.001), and from those who present signs of cervicitis (P less than 0.05). Isolation of C. albicans was significantly associated with vulvar pruritus (P less than 0.01), vulvitis (P less than 0.01), and vaginitis (P less than 0.001). G. vaginalis and M. hominis are significantly associated with bacterial vaginosis (P less than 0.001). This syndrome was diagnosed clinically in 27.2% of our study population and was highly correlated with use of an intrauterine device (P less than 0.05).

  18. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón de; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Colmenares, Cecilia; Ruiz-Guevara, Raiza; Mauriello, Luciano; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Noya, Oscar

    2015-05-01

    Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas) with 249 cases (73.5% children) and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana's signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission.

  19. Update on oral Chagas disease outbreaks in Venezuela: epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkisyolé Alarcón de Noya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Orally transmitted Chagas disease has become a matter of concern due to outbreaks reported in four Latin American countries. Although several mechanisms for orally transmitted Chagas disease transmission have been proposed, food and beverages contaminated with whole infected triatomines or their faeces, which contain metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, seems to be the primary vehicle. In 2007, the first recognised outbreak of orally transmitted Chagas disease occurred in Venezuela and largest recorded outbreak at that time. Since then, 10 outbreaks (four in Caracas with 249 cases (73.5% children and 4% mortality have occurred. The absence of contact with the vector and of traditional cutaneous and Romana’s signs, together with a florid spectrum of clinical manifestations during the acute phase, confuse the diagnosis of orally transmitted Chagas disease with other infectious diseases. The simultaneous detection of IgG and IgM by ELISA and the search for parasites in all individuals at risk have been valuable diagnostic tools for detecting acute cases. Follow-up studies regarding the microepidemics primarily affecting children has resulted in 70% infection persistence six years after anti-parasitic treatment. Panstrongylus geniculatus has been the incriminating vector in most cases. As a food-borne disease, this entity requires epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that differ from those approaches used for traditional direct or cutaneous vector transmission.

  20. [Tick-borne rickettsioses in the Americas: clinical and epidemiological advances, and diagnostic challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2013-09-01

    Rickettsioses are a group of zoonotic diseases caused by strict intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia and Orientia which belong to the Rickettsiaceae family. Their ecology is influenced by environmental factors and the presence of specific vectors that determine the establishment and epidemiology in different world regions. In America, during the 20 th century, only three of these diseases were recognized: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, epidemic typhus and endemic typhus. However, since 2000, more than 10 different species that had previously been unknown in this continent have been described, both in arthropods and in clinical cases, fact that classifies them as emerging and re-emerging diseases. Given the clinical manifestations of the diseases caused by rickettsias, being the majority unspecific and, therefore, shared with other infectious diseases, especially viral and bacterial, they have been framed within the differential diagnoses of acute febrile syndrome in urban and tropical areas. Nowadays, there are direct and indirect diagnostic methods, which are useful in the definition of the infectious agent, in this case, the cause of rickettsioses.

  1. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

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    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.

  2. Clinic Characteristics of Varicella Zoster Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Wu-wang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Kokstein Z, Balatka J, Horacek J. ECG changes in children with acute myocarditis[J]. Sb Ved Pr Lek Fak Karlovy Univerzity Hradci Kralove Suppl, 1990, 33(4): 373-379.[2]Rich R, McErlean M. Complete heart block in a child with varicella[J]. Am J Emerg M, 1993, 11(6): 602-605.[3]Sobrino MJM, Lopez PF, Cisneros JM, et al. Thoracic pain as early clinical manifestation of myocarditis caused by varicella [J]. Med Clin Barc,1992, 99(6): 236-237.[4]Teravanichpong S, Chuangsuwanich T. Fatal varicella in a healthy girl[J]. J Med Assoc Thai, 1990, 73(11): 648-651.[5]Amral FT, Bestetti RB, Araujo RC, et al. Transient atroventricular conduction disordor: a potential cause of sudden death in myocarditis due to varicella[J]. Arq Bras Cardiol, 1989, 53(2): 129-131.[6]Lorber A, Zonis Z, Maisuls E, et al. The scale of myocardial involvement in varicella myocarditis[J]. Int J Cardiol,1988, 20(2): 257-262.[7]Ettedgui JA, Ladusans E, Bamford M. Complete heart block as a complication of varicella[J]. Int J Cardiol, 1987, 14(3): 362-365.[8]Waagner DC, Murphy TV. Varicella myocarditis[J]. Pediatr Infect Dis J, 1990, 9(5): 360-363.[9]Rivera CF, Omar M, Aliaga ML, et al. Varicella complicated by pericarditis and pneumonia [J]. An Med Interna, 1996, 13(3): 130-132.[10]Civico RF, Omar M, Martinez LA, et al. Varicella complicated by pericarditis and pneumonia [J]. An Med Interna, 1996, 13(3): 130-132.[11]Bachli E, Kagi MK, Krause M. Visceral and neurological complications in varicella infections of adults [J]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr, 1996, 126(11): 440-446.[12]Senellart F, Bozio A, Sassolas F, et al. Varicella myocarditis and junctional ectopic tachycardia [J]. Pediatrie Bucur, 1991, 46(3): 267-270.[13]Straus S, Ostrove J, Inchauspe G, et al. Varicella- zoster virus infections[J]. Ann Intern Med,1988, 108: 221-237.[14]Tsintsof A, Delprado WJ, Keogh AM. Varicella zoster myocarditis progressing to cardiomyopathy and cardiac

  3. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    emphasis. The emergence of ZIKV as a new pathogen for Brazil in 2015 underscores the need for clinical vigilance and strong epidemiological and laboratory surveillance.

  4. Epidemiology characteristics, reporting characteristics, and methodological quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses on traditional Chinese medicine nursing interventions published in Chinese journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Jiang, Li; Wang, Aihong; Xu, Guihua

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics, reporting characteristics, and methodological quality of systematic reviews in the traditional Chinese medicine nursing field published in Chinese journals. The number of systematic reviews in the traditional Chinese medicine nursing field has increased, but their epidemiology, quality, and reporting characteristics have not been assessed completely. We generated an overview of reviews using a narrative approach. Four Chinese databases were searched for systematic reviews from inception to December 2015. The Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews checklists were adopted to evaluate reporting and methodological quality, respectively. A total of 73 eligible systematic reviews, published from 2005 to 2015, were included. The deficiencies in reporting characteristics mainly lay in the lack of structured abstract or protocol, incomplete reporting of search strategies, study selection, and risk of bias. The deficiencies in methodological quality were reflected in the lack of a priori design and conflict of interest, incomplete literature searches, and assessment of publication bias. The quality of the evaluated reviews was unsatisfactory; attention should be paid to the improvement of reporting and methodological quality in the conduct of systematic reviews.

  5. Epidemiological characteristics and societal burden of varicella zoster virus in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, Jorien G. J.; Gumbs, Pearl D.; Fortanier, Sander A. C.; Van Steenwijk, Pauline C. E.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Varicella and herpes zoster are both caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection or reactivation and may lead to complications associated with a (severe) societal burden. Because the epidemiology of VZV-related diseases in the Netherlands remains largely unknown or incomplete, the m

  6. Epidemiological and virological characteristics of influenza B: results of the Global Influenza B Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caini, S.; Huang, Q.S.; Ciblak, M.A.; Kusznierz, G.; Owen, R.; Wangchuk, S.; Henriques, C.M.; Njouom, R.; Fasce, R.A.; Yu, H.; Feng, L.; Zambon, M.; Clara, A.W.; Kosasih, H.; Puzelli, S.; Kadjo, H.A.; Emukule, G.; Heraud, J.M.; Ang, L.W.; Venter, M.; Mironenko, A.; Brammer, L.; Mai, T.Q. le; Schellevis, F.; Plotkin, S.; Paget, J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Literature on influenza focuses on influenza A, despite influenza B having a large public health impact. The Global Influenza B Study aims to collect information on global epidemiology and burden of disease of influenza B since 2000. METHODS: Twenty-six countries in the Southern (n = 5

  7. Evaluation of epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of definite infective endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Reza; Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad; Kalantar, Seyed Mehdi; Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Soltani, Mohammadhossien; Zandi, Hengameh; Firoozabadi, Ali Dehghani; Tavakkoli Banizi, Neda; Kahtooie, Foroozandeh Qasemi; Banaei, Mehdi; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a microbial infection of heart valves and its endothelial lining which is considered as a life-threatening disorder. This study evaluated the epidemiological, clinical, and microbiological features of IE at the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 20 patients diagnosed with definite IE on the basis of Duke’s criteria hospitalized for one year in the Cardiovascular Research Center in Yazd, Iran, from January 2015 to December 2015. Demographic information, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological findings, and also trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE) of each patient were recorded and assessed. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Results: The mean age of the patients under study was 45±16 years with most of the afflicted patients (60%) being male. Most cases (70%) of IE were observed in the warm seasons (spring and summer). The most common clinical sign (80%) was fever. TEE was positive for all (100%) patients, and vegetation was seen in all patients. The nosocomial mortality rate was zero. However, 14 (70%) patients underwent surgical treatment. The valves afflicted with IE were: the mitral valve (40%), the aortic valve (35%), and the tricuspid valve (25%), respectively. 4 patients (20%) had a positive history of IE. Blood culture test was positive only in 1 case and the isolated microorganism belonged to the viridans group streptococci. Conclusion: Despite the one-year high prevalence of IE in this study, the nosocomial mortality rate was not high and was reported to be nil under surgical and antimicrobial therapy. PMID:28149706

  8. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  9. Dengue 1 diversity and microevolution, French Polynesia 2001-2006: connection with epidemiology and clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Descloux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF is an emerging infectious disease in the tropics and subtropics. Determinants of DF epidemiology and factors involved in severe cases-dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS-remain imperfectly characterized. Since 2000, serotype 1 (DENV-1 has predominated in the South Pacific. The aim of this study was (i to determine the origin and (ii to study the evolutionary relationships of DENV-1 viruses that have circulated in French Polynesia (FP from the severe 2001 outbreak to the recent 2006 epidemic, and (iii to analyse the viral intra-host genetic diversity according to clinical presentation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sequences of 181 envelope gene and 12 complete polyproteins of DENV-1 viruses obtained from human sera in FP during the 2001-2006 period were generated. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all DENV-1 FP strains belonged to genotype IV-"South Pacific" and derived from a single introduction event from South-East Asia followed by a 6-year in situ evolution. Although the ratio of nonsynonymous/synonymous substitutions per site indicated strong negative selection, a mutation in the envelope glycoprotein (S222T appeared in 2002 and was subsequently fixed. It was noted that genetic diversification was very significant during the 2002-2005 period of endemic DENV-1 circulation. For nine DF sera and eight DHF/DSS sera, approximately 40 clones/serum of partial envelope gene were sequenced. Importantly, analysis revealed that the intra-host genetic diversity was significantly lower in severe cases than in classical DF. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: First, this study showed that DENV-1 epidemiology in FP was different from that described in other South-Pacific islands, characterized by a long sustained viral circulation and the absence of new viral introduction over a 6-year period. Second, a significant part of DENV-1 evolution was observed during the endemic period characterized by the rapid

  10. Epidemiological and clinical profile of triple negative breast cancer at a cancer hospital in North India

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    P Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recent concept and the burning topic of research today. Various studies have been reported in western literature on TNBCs or the similar group of basal like cancers, all highlighting the poor prognostic features of this molecular subtype in comparison to the other types of breast cancers. However extensive data from India is lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the epidemiological and clinical profile of TNBcs at our institute. Materials and Methods: Data on 171 patients of TNBCs registered at this hospital between 2005 and 2008 and followed up until December 2010 was collected and reviewed for epidemiological and clinical features. Results: The median age at presentation was 49 years (22-75 years. Sixty eight patients (40% had lump in the breast of less than 1 month duration. Fourteen (8% were nulliparous and 10 (7% patients had crossed the age of 30 years at first full-term pregnancy, 89 (52% were pre or peri-menopausal at presentation. Only 8 (5% patients had a family history of breast or ovarian cancer. One hundred and six (62% patients were stage II, 26 (15% stage III, 21 (12% stage I and 18 (10% stage IV at presentation. One hundred and twenty eight patients (75% had early breast cancer eligible for surgery at presentation, 25 (15% were locally advanced and received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT and 18 (10% were found to be metastatic. Modified radical mastectomy was the preferred surgical option by most patients (76% who underwent upfront surgery in our study. The pathological overall response rates (complete and partial response after NACT was 75% with complete response rate of 25% and there were no relapses in the complete responders. The median follow-up was 30 months (9-70 months. One hundred and twenty two patients (71% were alive at last follow-up, 34 (22% had relapsed, 18 (11% had died due to progressive disease. Thirty one patients (18% were lost to follow-up. Most of

  11. Characteristics of student preparedness for clinical learning: clinical educator perspectives using the Delphi approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chipchase Lucinda S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During clinical placements, clinical educators facilitate student learning. Previous research has defined the skills, attitudes and practices that pertain to an ideal clinical educator. However, less attention has been paid to the role of student readiness in terms of foundational knowledge and attitudes at the commencement of practice education. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain clinical educators’ views on the characteristics that they perceive demonstrate that a student is well prepared for clinical learning. Methods A two round on-line Delphi study was conducted. The first questionnaire was emailed to a total of 636 expert clinical educators from the disciplines of occupational therapy, physiotherapy and speech pathology. Expert clinical educators were asked to describe the key characteristics that indicate a student is prepared for a clinical placement and ready to learn. Open-ended responses received from the first round were subject to a thematic analysis and resulted in six themes with 62 characteristics. In the second round, participants were asked to rate each characteristic on a 7 point Likert Scale. Results A total of 258 (40.56% responded to the first round of the Delphi survey while 161 clinical educators completed the second (62.40% retention rate. Consensus was reached on 57 characteristics (six themes using a cut off of greater than 70% positive respondents and an interquartile deviation IQD of equal or less than 1. Conclusions This study identified 57 characteristics (six themes perceived by clinical educators as indicators of a student who is prepared and ready for clinical learning. A list of characteristics relating to behaviours has been compiled and could be provided to students to aid their preparation for clinical learning and to universities to incorporate within curricula. In addition, the list provides a platform for discussions by professional bodies about the role of placement

  12. Epidemiological Characteristics of Dengue Disease in Latin America and in the Caribbean: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jaime Rafael; Orduna, Tomás Agustín; Piña-Pozas, Maricela; Vázquez-Vega, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne virus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti, is a major public health issue in Latin America and the Caribbean. National epidemiological surveillance systems, usually based on passive detection of symptomatic cases, while underestimating the true burden of dengue disease, can provide valuable insight into disease trends and excess reporting and potential outbreaks. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to characterize the recent epidemiology of dengue disease in Latin America and the English-speaking and Hispanic Caribbean Islands. We identified 530 articles, 60 of which met criteria for inclusion. In general, dengue seropositivity across the region was high and increased with age. All four virus serotypes were reported to circulate in the region. These observations varied considerably between and within countries and over time, potentially due to climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity) and their effect on mosquito densities and differences in socioeconomic factors. This review provides important insight into the major epidemiological characteristics of dengue in distinct regions of Latin America and the Caribbean, allowing gaps in current knowledge and future research needs to be identified. PMID:28392806

  13. Clinical and epidemiological study of low vision in Sancti Spíritus. 2005-2010.

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    Esther Caridad Díaz Guzmán

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of patients with low vision in the opthalmology service in Sancti Spíritus province made possible a descriptive retroprospective research based on 703 patients of low vision office, from January 1st, 2005 to December 31, 2010, the clinical and epidemiological behavior was studied and 561 patients were visual disability. The frequency distribution was carried out according to selected variables age, sex, color of the skin, residence municipality, general and ocular disease. The results were showed in tables and graphs, concluding that there was a high prevalence rate in the province. The affected sex was males of the province; white skin was the one that predominate. Hypertension and Diabetes Mellitus were the most frequent sickness. In the ocular diseases the one that predominate was glaucoma, being the municipality of Sancti Spíritus the one that has more cases. The data were taken from the medical histories and processed by means of a database made in Epi-Info v6.0. They were analyzed using the Statcalc Module.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis

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    Heloisa da Silveira Paro Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more resistant to TB drugs compared to other individuals (p < 0.05. Approximately half of the individuals received supervised treatment, but most drug-resistant cases were positive for pulmonary TB and exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli smears, which are complicating factors for TB control programs. Primary healthcare is the ideal level for early disease detection, but tertiary healthcare is the most common entry point for patients into the system. These factors require special attention from healthcare managers and professionals to effectively control and monitor the spread of TB drug-resistant cases.

  15. Clinical and epidemiological evolution of modern therapy and measles in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and epidemiological research on the evolution of measles in children in Leningrad – St. Petersburg from 1927–2014 with an analysis of the effectiveness of treatment of this infection. Divided into three periods of fighting «child plague». First period – to use in the practice of specific therapies and antibacterial drugs, characterized by high morbidity, severe weight, high rates of mortality. In the second period the use of donor serum syvotrotki convalescents and sulfa drugs significantly lowered the mortality rate due to the effective treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. The use of penicillin and broad-spectrum antibiotics led to a further reduction in the severity of measles, a sharp decline in mortality – to tenths and hundredths of a percent. The third period is due to the mass of active immunization against measles, characterized by a significant decline in incidence rates up to her absence in some years. Combined therapy of children with measles in modern conditions with the inclusion etiotropic drugs (Viferon causes rapid regression of the symptoms of measles, warns layering respiratory viral infection contributes to the smooth course of the disease. 

  16. Clinical and Epidemiologic Profile of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombian Children: Considerations for Local Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Victor M.; Cossio, Alexandra; Martinez, Javier D.; Saravia, Nancy Gore

    2013-01-01

    Treatment alternatives have seldom been evaluated in children with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). We examine the clinical/epidemiological profile of children with CL considering international guidelines for local treatment. Descriptive analyses were conducted using International Center for Medical Research and Training (CIDEIM) case reports of parasitologically diagnosed patients ≤ 14 years of age from 2004 to 2010. Eligibility for local treatment based on World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization (WHO/PAHO) criteria was determined. Among 380 children, 90% presented lesions of < 3 months duration, 54% presented single lesions < 30 mm in diameter, and 45% were ≤ 5 years old. Lesions on the head and neck were more frequent among children 0–5 years, and lesions below the head/neck were more frequent among 11- to 14-year-old children (P = 0.004). Using PAHO and WHO criteria, 26% and 53% of children, respectively, were eligible for local treatment. Recommended local treatments for New World CL have potential but limited applicability in children. Individual risk–benefit assessment and effectiveness data in children may increase eligibility. PMID:23798581

  17. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  18. Food-borne trematodiases in Southeast Asia epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Intapan, Pewpan M; Maleewong, Wanchai; Brindley, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    The food-borne trematodiases are an important group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Over 40 million people are infected with food-borne trematodes and 750 million (>10% of the world's population) are at risk of these NTDs. Here, we review the life cycles, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathology and pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and control of the major food-borne trematodiases in Southeast Asia. We focus particularly on opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini and clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which people contract by ingestion of metacercariae in flesh of raw or undercooked freshwater fishes, on fascioliasis caused by Fasciola species, where infection arises from ingestion of metacercariae on water plants such as watercress, and on Paragonimus species, the lung flukes, which use freshwater crabs and other crustaceans as intermediate hosts. We also include information on the intestinal flukes Fasciolopsis buski, the echinostomes and the so-called 'minute intestinal flukes' of the family Heterophyidae. Ecological information, placing emphasis on reservoir hosts, intermediate snail hosts and secondary hosts where applicable, is also reviewed and research needs are highlighted.

  19. The Vital Capacity Is Vital: Epidemiology and Clinical Significance of the Restrictive Spirometry Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Mark S; Jankowich, Matthew D

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic research has revealed a substantial portion of the general population with abnormal spirometry results that are characterized by decreased FEV1 and FVC but a preserved FEV1/FVC ratio. This restrictive spirometry pattern (RSP) is inconsistently defined in the literature and not well addressed by current guidelines; there is an accumulating body of evidence, however, that RSP is prevalent to a similar degree as airflow obstruction. Genetic and other risk factors for RSP, such as inhalational injuries and early life exposures, continue to be actively described. Although it seems that RSP is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic inflammation, it is not a simple marker of obesity. RSP is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, as well as mortality, and it may be an underappreciated cause of functional impairments and respiratory symptoms. Improvement in outcomes in this population will require that clinicians have an appreciation for the significance of this spirometry pattern; additional research into the clinical and radiologic phenotype of these subjects is also needed. This article provides an overview of the recent developments in our understanding of this prevalent and highly morbid spirometry pattern.

  20. Hepatitis C virus genotype 6: virology, epidemiology, genetic variation and clinical implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Vo Duy; Akkarathamrongsin, Srunthron; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-03-21

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious public health problem affecting 170 million carriers worldwide. It is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer and is the primary cause for liver transplantation worldwide. HCV genotype 6 (HCV-6) is restricted to South China, South-East Asia, and it is also occasionally found in migrant patients from endemic countries. HCV-6 has considerable genetic diversity with 23 subtypes (a to w). Although direct sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis is the gold standard for HCV-6 genotyping and subtyping, there are also now rapid genotyping tests available such as the reverse hybridization line probe assay (INNO-LiPA II; Innogenetics, Zwijnaarde, Belgium). HCV-6 patients present with similar clinical manifestations as patients infected with other genotypes. Based on current evidence, the optimal treatment duration of HCV-6 with pegylated interferon/ribavirin should be 48 wk, although a shortened treatment duration of 24 wk could be sufficient in patients with low pretreatment viral load who achieve rapid virological response. In addition, the development of direct-acting antiviral agents is ongoing, and they give high response rate when combined with standard therapy. Herein, we review the epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment as it pertain to HCV-6.

  1. Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Heloisa da Silveira Paro; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Pereira, Maria Izabel Ferreira; Oliveira, Rosângela Siqueira; Suffys, Philip Noel; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Finardi, Amanda Juliane; de Moraes, Eloise Brasil; Baptista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Castiglioni, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more resistant to TB drugs compared to other individuals (p < 0.05). Approximately half of the individuals received supervised treatment, but most drug-resistant cases were positive for pulmonary TB and exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli smears, which are complicating factors for TB control programs. Primary healthcare is the ideal level for early disease detection, but tertiary healthcare is the most common entry point for patients into the system. These factors require special attention from healthcare managers and professionals to effectively control and monitor the spread of TB drug-resistant cases. PMID:25946248

  2. Clinical and epidemiological features of 123 cases of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Andrea de Siqueira Campos; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Paniago, Anamaria Melo Miranda; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Moncada, Paula Maria Frank; Bonfim, Gisele Facholi; Nogueira, Susie Andries; Wanke, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis diagnosed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, medical records of 123 patients admitted from January 1995 to December 2005 were analyzed. One hundred and four cases (84.5%) had HIV infection, six (4.9%) had other predisposing conditions and 13 (10.6%) were immunocompetent. Male patients predominated (68.3%) and their age ranged from 19 to 69 years (mean: 35.9). Most patients (73.2%) were born and lived lifelong in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Involvement of the central nervous system occurred in 103 patients (83.7%) and headache and vomiting were the most frequent symptoms. In 77 cases it was possible to identify the Cryptococcus species: 69 (89.6%) C. neoformans and eight (10.4%) C. gattii. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment (106/123), followed by fluconazole in 60% of cases. The overall lethality rate was 49.6%, being 51% among the HIV infected patients and 41.2% among the non-HIV infected (p > 0.05). Although cryptococcosis exhibited in our region a similar behavior to that described in the literature, the detection of an important rate of immunocompetent individuals and five C. gattii cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients is noteworthy.

  3. Leptospirosis in dogs and cats: epidemiology, clinical disease, zoonotic implications and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Azócar-Aedo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. The genus includes a large number of serovars that may be sheed in the urine of infected animals creating a highly infectious source of transmission. Numerous species of wild and domestic mammals act as maintenance hosts and form reservoirs of the bacteria, with other species being incidental hosts that may develop the disease. In dogs and cats, the disease is caused by different serovars and while dogs act as maintenance host for some serovars, both species are incidental host for others. Dogs and cats may have frequent contact with wild and domestic farm animals, therefore they are an important link in the transmission route. Leptospira may survive in the environment which increases the complexity of the epidemiology. The presentation of the disease can be highly variable and, particularly for feline leptospirosis, not well described. Laboratory testing is essential for the diagnosis, however, it is complicated due to the need to discriminate between Leptospira infection in animals with clinical disease from leptospiral specific antibody responses in maintenance hosts, or in animals with subclinical infection. Infection in pets may have important economic and public health implications and because of the risk of transmission from pets to their owners and to other animals, preventive measures need to be applied and an increased awareness is adviced.

  4. Epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-10-20

    In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2) per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX) are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg) has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  5. Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Y. K. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, the main objective was to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of ciguatera fish poisoning in Hong Kong. From 1989 to 2008, the annual incidence of ciguatera varied between 3.3 and 64.9 (median 10.2 per million people. The groupers have replaced the snappers as the most important cause of ciguatera. Pacific-ciguatoxins (CTX are most commonly present in reef fish samples implicated in ciguatera outbreaks. In affected subjects, the gastrointestinal symptoms often subside within days, whereas the neurological symptoms can persist for weeks or even months. Bradycardia and hypotension, which can be life-threatening, are common. Treatment of ciguatera is primarily supportive and symptomatic. Intravenous mannitol (1 g/kg has also been suggested. To prevent ciguatera outbreaks, the public should be educated to avoid eating large coral reef fishes, especially the CTX-rich parts. A Code of Practice on Import and Sale of Live Marine Fish for Human Consumption for Prevention and Control of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning was introduced from 2004 to 2013. The Food Safety Ordinance with a tracing mechanism came into full effect in February 2012. The Government would be able to trace the sources of the fishes more effectively and take prompt action when dealing with ciguatera incidents.

  6. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  7. Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Mark

    2016-11-24

    Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.

  8. Soy and Health Update: Evaluation of the Clinical and Epidemiologic Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Messina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soyfoods have long been recognized as sources of high-quality protein and healthful fat, but over the past 25 years these foods have been rigorously investigated for their role in chronic disease prevention and treatment. There is evidence, for example, that they reduce risk of coronary heart disease and breast and prostate cancer. In addition, soy alleviates hot flashes and may favorably affect renal function, alleviate depressive symptoms and improve skin health. Much of the focus on soyfoods is because they are uniquely-rich sources of isoflavones. Isoflavones are classified as both phytoestrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators. Despite the many proposed benefits, the presence of isoflavones has led to concerns that soy may exert untoward effects in some individuals. However, these concerns are based primarily on animal studies, whereas the human research supports the safety and benefits of soyfoods. In support of safety is the recent conclusion of the European Food Safety Authority that isoflavones do not adversely affect the breast, thyroid or uterus of postmenopausal women. This review covers each of the major research areas involving soy focusing primarily on the clinical and epidemiologic research. Background information on Asian soy intake, isoflavones, and nutrient content is also provided.

  9. Linfoma não-Hodgkin na infância: características clínico-epidemiológicas e avaliação de sobrevida em um único centro no Nordeste do Brasil Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood: clinical and epidemiological characteristics and survival analysis at a single center in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Ferreira Pedrosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de linfoma não-Hodgkin diagnosticados no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica do Instituto Materno-Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira em um período de 9 anos, bem como descrever sobrevida e possíveis associações prognósticas com as variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas estudadas. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo de corte transversal, realizado através da análise dos prontuários de 110 pacientes com linfoma não-Hodgkin admitidos na instituição no período de maio de 1994 a maio de 2003. As sobrevidas global e livre de doença foram analisadas através da técnica de Kaplan-Meier, e o teste de log rank foi utilizado para avaliar diferenças entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: A idade média foi de 6,1 anos, e a relação masculino-feminino, 2,4:1. O subtipo histológico mais freqüente foi o linfoma de Burkitt. A maioria dos pacientes foi diagnosticada em estádio III e IV da classificação de Murphy e provinha da zona rural. Renda familiar per capita inferior a 1/2 salário mínimo foi observada em 36,4%, e analfabetismo materno, em 12,7% dos casos. A probabilidade de sobrevida global e livre de doença aos 5 anos foi de 70±4% e 68±4%, respectivamente. Nenhuma das variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas analisadas mostrou associação estatística significante com a probabilidade de sobrevida dos pacientes (p > 0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Observamos incidência mais elevada do subtipo Burkitt e de crianças acometidas em idade mais jovem quando comparada à descrita em literatura estrangeira. A sobrevida observada aproximou-se dos resultados descritos pelos principais grupos cooperativos de tratamento de câncer infantil. As variáveis clínico-epidemiológicas analisadas não apresentaram associação prognóstica estatística significante.OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients diagnosed at the Pediatric Oncology Unit

  10. Epidemiology and Clinical Burden of Malaria in the War-Torn Area, Orakzai Agency in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Mustafa Karim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Military conflict has been a major challenge in the detection and control of emerging infectious diseases such as malaria. It poses issues associated with enhancing emergence and transmission of infectious diseases by destroying infrastructure and collapsing healthcare systems. The Orakzai agency in Pakistan has witnessed a series of intense violence and destruction. Military conflicts and instability in Afghanistan have resulted in the migration of refugees into the area and possible introduction of many infectious disease epidemics. Due to the ongoing violence and Talibanization, it has been a challenge to conduct an epidemiological study.All patients were sampled within the transmission season. After a detailed clinical investigation of patients, data were recorded. Baseline venous blood samples were taken for microscopy and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR analysis. Plasmodium species were detected using nested PCR (nPCR and amplification of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (ssrRNA genes using the primer pairs. We report a clinical assessment of the epidemic situation of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax (86.5% and Plasmodium falciparum (11.79% infections with analysis of complications in patients such as decompensated shock (41%, anemia (8.98%, hypoglycaemia (7.3%, multiple convulsions (6.7%, hyperpyrexia (6.17%, jaundice (5%, and hyperparasitaemia (4.49%.This overlooked distribution of P. vivax should be considered by malaria control strategy makers in the world and by the Government of Pakistan. In our study, children were the most susceptible population to malaria infection while they were the least expected to use satisfactory prevention strategies in such a war-torn deprived region. Local health authorities should initiate malaria awareness programs in schools and malaria-related education should be further promoted at the local level reaching out to both children and parents.

  11. Evolution of the clinical and epidemiological knowledge about Chagas disease 90 years after its discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata Aluízio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different periods may be considered in the evolution of knowledge about the clinical and epidemiological aspects of Chagas disease since its discovery: (a early period concerning the studies carried out by Carlos Chagas in Lassance with the collaboration of other investigators of the Manguinhos School. At that time the disease was described and the parasite, transmitters and reservoirs were studied. The coexistence of endemic goiter in the same region generated some confusion about the clinical forms of the disease; (b second period involving uncertainty and the description of isolated cases, which lasted until the 1940 decade. Many acute cases were described during this period and the disease was recognized in many Latin American countries. Particularly important were the studies of the Argentine Mission of Regional Pathology Studies, which culminated with the description of the Romaña sign in the 1930 decade, facilitating the diagnosis of the early phase of the disease. However, the chronic phase, which was the most important, continued to be difficult to recognize; (c period of consolidation of knowledge and recognition of the importance of Chagas disease. Studies conducted by Laranja, Dias and Nóbrega in Bambuí updated the description of Chagas heart disease made by Carlos Chagas and Eurico Villela. From then on, the disease was more easily recognized, especially with the emphasis on the use of a serologic diagnosis; (d period of enlargement of knowledges on the disease. The studies on denervation conducted in Ribeirão Preto by Fritz Köberle starting in the 1950 decade led to a better understanding of the relations between Chagas disease and megaesophagus and other visceral megas detected in endemic areas.

  12. Clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, French Guiana, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahamat, Aba; Bertrand, Xavier; Moreau, Brigitte; Hommel, Didier; Couppie, Pierre; Simonnet, Christine; Kallel, Hatem; Demar, Magalie; Djossou, Felix; Nacher, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the clinical epidemiology and resistance mechanisms of Acinetobacter baumannii and characterised the clonal diversity of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) during an ICU-associated outbreak at Cayenne Hospital, French Guiana. All non-duplicate A. baumannii isolates from 2008 to 2014 were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disk diffusion. Multilocus sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and characterisation of carbapenemase-encoding genes were performed on CRAB. Of the 441 A. baumannii isolates, most were from males (54.0%) and were detected mainly from the ICU (30.8%) and medicine wards (21.8%). In the ICU, strains were mainly isolated from the respiratory tract (44.1%) and bloodstream (14.0%), whereas in medicine wards they mainly were from wound/drainage (36.5%) and bloodstream (25.0%). A. baumannii showed the greatest susceptibility to piperacillin/tazobactam (92.7%), imipenem (92.5%), colistin (95.6%) and amikacin (97.2%), being lower in the ICU and medicine wards compared with other wards. An outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB occurred in the 13-bed ICU in 2010. CRAB strains were more co-resistant to other antimicrobials compared with non-CRAB. Molecular genetics analysis revealed five sequence types [ST78, ST107 and ST642 and two new STs (ST830 and ST831)]. Analysis of PFGE profiles indicated cross-transmissions of CRAB within the ICU, between the ICU and one medicine ward during transfer of patients, and within that medicine ward. This study provides the first clinical and molecular data of A. baumannii from French Guiana and the Amazon basin. The ICU was the highest risk unit of this nosocomial outbreak of OXA-23-producing CRAB, which could subsequently disseminate within the hospital.

  13. An epidemiological study on hearing loss and its demographic characteristics within Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindra Singh Bisht; Vikas Sikarwar; Richa Mina; Amit Arya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hearing impaired cases attending ear, nose, and throat (ENT) OPD were assessed for hearing loss and associated factors of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. There has not been any such study yet in this region. Objective: Epidemiological study to investigate the hearing loss and its associated diseases in general population Garhwal region of Uttarakhand reporting in ENT OPD. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on OPD basis and a total of 300 patients were i...

  14. Clinical characteristics of cervicogenic-related dizziness and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacovino, Dario A; Hain, Timothy C

    2013-07-01

    Cervical vertigo has long been a controversial entity and its very existence as a medical entity has advocates and opponents. Supporters of cervical vertigo claim that its actual prevalence is underestimated due to the overestimation of other diagnostic categories in clinics. Furthermore, different pathophysiological mechanisms have been attributed to cervical vertigo. Here the authors discuss the clinical characteristics of rotational vertebral artery vertigo, postwhiplash vertigo, proprioceptive cervical vertigo, and cervicogenic vertigo of old age. A clinical entity named subclinical vertebrobasilar insufficiency appears in the context of cervical osteoarticular changes. Migraine-associated vertigo may explain why some patients suffering from cervical pain have vertigo while others do not.

  15. Clinical and diagnostic characteristics of hyperprolactinemia in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catli, Gonul; Abaci, Ayhan; Bober, Ece; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2013-01-01

    Pituitary adenoma is the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia, which is a rare endocrine disorder encountered in pediatric patient care. Epidemiological and clinical information about hyperprolactinemia in childhood and adolescence is limited. Clinical signs of hyperprolactinemia are very heterogeneous. In girls, disturbances in menstrual function and galactorrhea may be seen, whereas in boys, headache, visual disturbances, delayed pubertal development and hypogonadism are often present. Owing to the ease of ordering a serum prolactin measurement, an evidence-based, cost-effective approach to the management of this endocrine disorder is required. Before a diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia is made, drug use, renal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, and parasellar tumors should be excluded. The main objectives of treatment are normalization of prolactin level, adenoma shrinkage, and recovery from clinical signs related to hyperprolactinemia. In patients with microadenoma, invasive or non-invasive macroadenoma, and even in patients with visual field defects, dopamine agonists are the first-line treatment. Surgical treatment is indicated in patients who are unresponsive or intolerant to medical treatment or who have persistent neurological signs. Radiotherapy should be considered as a supportive treatment for patients in whom surgery fails or medical response is not achieved.

  16. Paranasal sinuses malignancies: A 12-year review of clinical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafraz, Alireza; Chamani, Mojtaba; Derakhshandeh, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Inadequate epidemiologic investigations of the paranasal sinuses malignancies prompted this retrospective study with special emphasis on a major group of 111 tumors. Material and Methods Clinical records of 111 patients with histologically confirmed malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were investigated retrospectively from April 2000 to January 2012. Collection of data included demographic information, clinical manifestations, treatment plans, and histopathology of the tumor. Results There were 69 (62.16%) male and 42 (37.83%) female patients (male-to-female ratio of 1.6:1), with a median age of 49±12.2 years (range 21 to 88 years). A high level of occurrence was noticed in the fifth (26.3%) decade of life. The most frequent histological types were squamous cell carcinoma (43.5%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (19%). Among clinical manifestations, nasal obstruction was the most frequent followed by diplopia, and facial swelling. Fifty three patients (47.74%) were treated with combined approach of surgery and radiation therapy. Conclusions Paranasal sinuses malignancies are rare conditions with nonspecific symptoms which make early diagnosis of the lesions more challenging. The optimal therapeutic protocol for patients suffering from these tumors is still a somewhat controversial entity and requires further studies. Key words:Paranasal sinuses, malignancy, surgery,radiotherapy. PMID:27475693

  17. The Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania: an organizational model for clinical research in a school of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Brian L; Kelly, Thomas O; Landis, J Richard; Feldman, Harold I

    2012-01-01

    A new model for the conduct of clinical research was established at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) School of Medicine, now the Perelman School of Medicine, through the development of the interdepartmental Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics in 1993 and the basic science Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology in 1994. The authors describe the development and evolution of these novel structures.Five key objectives were achieved with these structures' creation: (1) Clinical faculty have the opportunity to be identified as both clinicians and epidemiologists, (2) nonclinical faculty have an academic "home," (3) clinical trainees are now educated in population medicine, which promotes its incorporation into their clinical practice, (4) population medicine and clinical medicine have become fully integrated, and (5) better epidemiologic research is conducted, informed by clinical insights.Today's center is the primary home for epidemiology and biostatistics at Penn, linking epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical medicine, and the health sciences. The center's core faculty manage their own research programs, conduct primary research in epidemiology and biostatistics, serve as members of collaborative research teams, manage cores and service centers that support research projects, and lead graduate training programs in epidemiology and biostatistics. The department provides an academic home and structure for faculty, provides primary research in epidemiology and biostatistics, supports the center's mission, and provides training in biostatistics. This organizational approach has wide applicability across schools of medicine in the United States and abroad and has been a model for many.

  18. Clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period%深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌感染特征及其克隆变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟元; 金晓菲; 吴诗品; 吴劲松; 卢月梅; 吴文苑; 陆坚; 刘映霞

    2015-01-01

    目的 调查深圳市人民医院近8年耐碳青霉烯鲍曼不动杆菌(CRAB)感染临床特征、耐药机制及其克隆变迁.方法 收集2002至2009年深圳市人民医院院内感染患者分离鲍曼不动杆菌;琼脂稀释法检测亚胺培南等抗菌药对鲍曼不动杆菌最低抑菌浓度(MICs);聚合酶链反应(PCR)和DNA测序分析CRAB碳青霉烯酶基因型;脉冲场凝胶电泳(PFGE)分析菌株同源性;依据中国鲍曼不动杆菌感染诊治与防控专家共识,回顾性调查CRAB感染患者病历资料.结果 2002至2009年共收集到87例CRAB院内感染患者,以呼吸道感染最常见,占69.0%(60/87),其次为血流感染占8.0%(7/87)、伤口感染占8.0% (7/87)和腹腔感染占6.9% (6/87).80.5% (70/87) CRAB来源于重症监护病房(ICu).2009年CRAB感染迅速增多,占48.3%(42/87),以呼吸道感染为主(34/42).87株CRAB共获8种PFGE型别.2002至2006年,CRAB感染主要流行携带blaOXA-58-like基因的CRAB克隆A;2007至2008年主要流行CRAB克隆A和携带blaOXA-23-like基因的CRAB克隆C;2009年携带blaOXA-23-like基因对碳青霉烯高度耐药的CRAB克隆D取代克隆A和C,成为深圳市人民医院CRAB病原菌的主要克隆.结论 携带blaOXA-23-1ike基因的CRAB高耐药克隆D造成深圳市人民医院2009年CRAB感染迅速流行.%Objective To investigate the clinical features,mechanism of resistance and molecular epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections at Shenzhen People's Hospital during an 8-year period.Methods A.baumannii isolates were recovered from nosocomial infections patients at this hospital from 2002 to 2009.The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antimicrobial agents against A.baumannii isolates were detected by agar dilution method.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used to examine the carbapenemase genotype among CRAB.All isolates were typed by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).Clinical cases of CRAB

  19. Demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of seronegative spondyloarthritis Egyptian patients: A rheumatology clinic experience in Mansoura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdelsalam

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The demographic, clinical and radiological characteristics of Egyptian SpA patients are comparable to those from other countries except for the lower prevalence of extra-articular manifestations.

  20. Sex differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Carolyn S P; McEntegart, Margaret; Claggett, Brian;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined the association of sex with clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients following myocardial infarction (MI) in the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT). METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 4570 women and 10 133 men with heart failure (HF), left ventr...

  1. Characteristics and Clinical Practices of Rural Marriage and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, James

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a subset of data collected from the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT) Practice Research Network project conducted in 2002. A sample of 47 clinical members of AAMFT who indicated they practiced in a rural community provided descriptive information on demographic characteristics, training, clinical…

  2. [Hereditary optic neuropathies: clinical and molecular genetic characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanakova, N A; Sheremet, N L; Loginova, A N; Chukhrova, A L; Poliakov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a review of literature on hereditary optic neuropathies: Leber mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathy, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive optic neuropathies, X-linked optic atrophy. Clinical and molecular genetic characteristics are covered. Isolated optic neuropathies, as well as hereditary optic disorders, being a part of a complex syndromic disease are described.

  3. Application description and policy model in collaborative environment for sharing of information on epidemiological and clinical research data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias César Araujo de Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sharing of epidemiological and clinical data sets among researchers is poor at best, in detriment of science and community at large. The purpose of this paper is therefore to (1 describe a novel Web application designed to share information on study data sets focusing on epidemiological clinical research in a collaborative environment and (2 create a policy model placing this collaborative environment into the current scientific social context. METHODOLOGY: The Database of Databases application was developed based on feedback from epidemiologists and clinical researchers requiring a Web-based platform that would allow for sharing of information about epidemiological and clinical study data sets in a collaborative environment. This platform should ensure that researchers can modify the information. A Model-based predictions of number of publications and funding resulting from combinations of different policy implementation strategies (for metadata and data sharing were generated using System Dynamics modeling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The application allows researchers to easily upload information about clinical study data sets, which is searchable and modifiable by other users in a wiki environment. All modifications are filtered by the database principal investigator in order to maintain quality control. The application has been extensively tested and currently contains 130 clinical study data sets from the United States, Australia, China and Singapore. Model results indicated that any policy implementation would be better than the current strategy, that metadata sharing is better than data-sharing, and that combined policies achieve the best results in terms of publications. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our empirical observations and resulting model, the social network environment surrounding the application can assist epidemiologists and clinical researchers contribute and search for metadata in a collaborative environment, thus potentially

  4. Clinical and epidemiological differences between septic arthritis of the knee and hip caused by oxacillin-sensitive and -resistant s. aureus

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    Camilo Partezani Helito

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish the risk factors for joint infection by oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA using clinical and epidemiological data. METHODS: All septic arthritis cases of the knee and hip diagnosed and treated in our institution from 2006 to 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Only patients with cultures identified as microbial agents were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the patients were analyzed, seeking the differences between populations affected by MRSA and oxacillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA. RESULTS: S. aureus was isolated in thirty-five patients (46.0% in our total sample, 25 in the knee and 10 in the hip. Of these 35 patients, 22 presented with MSSA and 13 presented with MRSA. Provenance from a health service-related environment, as described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was the only variable associated with oxacillin-resistant strains of this bacterium (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Provenance from a health service-related environment was associated with a higher incidence of MRSA-related septic arthritis, suggesting that this agent should be considered in the initial choice of antibiotic treatment. Previous surgeries of the knee or affected limb and the absence of leukocytes might also be related to infection with this agent.

  5. Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease: epidemiology, diagnosis, and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Signe; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Extraintestinal manifestations occur rather frequently in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), e.g. ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The present paper provides an overview of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnostic process, and management of rheumatic, metabo...

  6. Differences in epidemiological and molecular characteristics of nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA-MRSA in children from a university hospital and day care centers.

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    Erika A Rodríguez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical significance of Staphylococcus aureus colonization has been demonstrated in hospital settings; however, studies in the community have shown contrasting results regarding the relevance of colonization in infection by community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA. In Colombia there are few studies on S. aureus colonization. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of nasal colonization by S. aureus (MSSA-MRSA in children from a university hospital and day care centers (DCCs of Medellin, Colombia. METHODS: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in 400 children (200 in each setting, aged 0 months to 5 years, during 2011. Samples were collected from each nostril and epidemiological information was obtained from the parents. Genotypic analysis included spa typing, PFGE, MLST, SCCmec typing, detection of genes for virulence factors and agr groups. RESULTS: Frequency of S. aureus colonization was 39.8% (n = 159 (hospital 44.5% and DCCs 35.0% and by MRSA, 5.3% (n = 21 (hospital 7.0% and DCCs 3.5%. Most S. aureus colonized children were older than two years (p = 0.005, the majority of them boys (59.1%, shared a bedroom with a large number of people (p = 0.028, with history of β-Lactamase inhibitors usage (p = 0.020. MSSA strains presented the greatest genotypic diversity with 15 clonal complexes (CC. MRSA isolates presented 6 CC, most of them (47.6% belonged to CC8-SCCmec IVc and were genetically related to previously reported infectious MRSA strains. CONCLUSION: Differences in epidemiological and molecular characteristics between populations may be useful for the understanding of S. aureus nasal colonization dynamics and for the design of strategies to prevent S. aureus infection and dissemination. The finding of colonizing MRSA with similar molecular characteristics of those causing infection demonstrates the dissemination capacity of S. aureus and the risk of

  7. Clinical epidemiology of IgE-mediated cutaneous and oculo-conjunctival allergic diseases.

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    Giuseppe De Renzi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: IgE-mediated allergic disease may clinically manifest itself with either a single symptom or a multisymptomatic disease involving different organs. In this work we investigated whether gender and age of the patients and reactivity to specific allergens are related to different clinical presentations of IgE-mediated allergic disease, considering in particular eye-conjunctival and cutaneous symptoms, alone or in combination.

    Methods: Epidemiological and clinical data related to patients of the Local Health Unit of Torino and Alessandria were collected. Measuring of specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE was carried out by using allergenic extracts and by the employment of the chemiluminescence method. Clinical outcomes were the presence of eye-conjunctival, cutaneous (with also other symptom, and only cutaneous symptoms. The covariates under study were the type of allergen (mite, epithelium, poaceae, food, trees and grasses, number and localisation of the allergic reactions, gender, age over 30 years. For each clinical outcome, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

    Results: 844 patients with allergic problems (clinical manifestations of allergic disease entered the study. We found that exposure to epithelium [OR=3,61; IC 95% (2,17; 6,00], poaceae [OR=2,24; IC 95% (1,46; 3,42], grasses [OR=2,06; IC 95% (1.35; 3,14] and age over 30 years [OR=2,05; IC 95% (1,35; 3,13] are risk factors for the development of eye-conjunctival symptoms. With regard to cutaneous allergic reactions, exposure to mite [OR=1,49; IC 95% (1,07; 2,08], food [OR=4,16; IC 95% (3,01; 5,75] and multidistrict symptoms [OR=3,63; IC 95% (2,54; 5,20] should be risk factors. Instead, considering only cutaneous reactions, possible risk factor is the exposure to food [OR=3,58; IC 95% (2,54; 5,03]. The exposure to trees is associated with a reduction of the likelihood

  8. Study on Clinical Characteristics and Molecular Epidemiology of Younger than 5 Years Old Children with Diarrhea Caused by Rotavirus Infection in Nanjing City in 2009 - 2010%2009-2010年南京地区5岁以下儿童轮状病毒性腹泻临床特点及分子流行病学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林谦; 周进苏; 陆芬; 李晓乐; 李玫; 金玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the epidemiology of rotavirus diarrhea arid serotype and the gene variation of rotavirus in Nanjing Children's Hospital from Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010. Methods From Jul. 2009 to Jun. 2010 in Department of Gastroentefology of Nanjing Chil dren's Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University, stool samples were collected from 300 hospitalized children with diarrhea. Stool specimens were stored in - 20 ℃. Rotavirus antigen Was detected in stool samples using a commercial enzyme linked immuhosorbent assays (ELISA). Positive specimens were then G and P genotyped by nested RT - PCR with type - specific primers. Results Rotavirus were identi fied in 37. 67% (113/300 cases)of 300 specimens. Rotavirus G3 (44 cases,38. 94% )was the most prevailing serotype,followed by G2 (10 cases,8; 85% ) ,G1 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,C2 + G3 (2 cases,1.77% ) ,G9 (1 case,0.88% ) ,54 cases (47.79% ) were not genotyped. Based onPtyping,P [8] (38 cases,33.63% ) was the most common genotype,followed by P[4] (19 cases,16. 81% ) ,56 cases (49.56%) Were not genotyped. The most common G -P combination was G3P [8] (18/113 cases, 15. 93% ). The prevalence of HRV infection was highest from Oct. 2009 to Jan. 2010. The majority (95.58% ) of subjects positive for HRV were 2 years old or less of age. The HRV positive bases had more serious clinical features than HRV negative cases. Conclusion Rotavirus is the most important pathogen for gastroenteritis in Nanjing, and G3P[8] is the most prevailing serotype.%目的 了解2009年7月-2010年6月南京地区轮状病毒性腹泻的流行病学情况及病毒的血清及基因分型特点,为轮状病毒感染性腹泻的防治提供科学依据.方法 收集2009年7月-2010年6月本科随机留取水样泻患儿粪便标本300份,标本采集后立即保存于- 20℃冰箱,集中进行病毒检测和数据分析.使用ELISA法检测A组人类轮状病毒(HRV),应用Trizol法提取HRV RNA,反转录合成病毒cDNA,采用巢式反转录PCR

  9. Recurrent pneumonia: a review with focus on clinical epidemiology and modifiable risk factors in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T T; Majumdar, S R; Marrie, T J; Eurich, D T

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalizations in North America. Rates of CAP increase with age and CAP is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Though there is much written about the epidemiology and risk factors of incident (first episode) pneumonia, much less is known about recurrent pneumonia. Rates of recurrent pneumonia within 3-5-years of an episode of CAP are 9-12% with a median time to recurrence of 123-317 days and mortality ranging from 4 to 10%. Age ≥65-years-old and impaired functional status are the only patient characteristics that are independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. In terms of modifiable risk factors, only the use of proton-pump inhibitors and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently been associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exert a protective effect. Many chronic medical conditions typically associated with increased incident pneumonia-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease (resulting in dysphagia or silent aspiration), and heart failure-were not associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. However, those who are immune-suppressed (e.g., immunoglobulin deficiencies) may be at increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. In summary, among those who survive an episode of pneumonia, recurrence is not uncommon, particularly in the elderly. Following recovery from an episode of pneumonia, patients should be evaluated for risk factors that would predispose to a second episode including seeking evidence of immunosuppression in younger patients and medication optimization, particularly in the elderly.

  10. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, LABORATORY AND IMAGING ASPECTS OF BRUCELLOSIS WITH AND WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL INVOLVEMEN

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    M. Ghaffarpour

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in our country. Neurobrucellosis occurs in 5 to 10% of cases, and can present at any stage of of the disease. This study was undertaken to evaluate clinical, epidemiological and paraclinical aspects of brucellosis with and without neurological manifestations. Data of 30 patients, 15 cases with nervous system involvement (neurobrucellosis and 15 cases without neurological complication (brucellosis were collected and analyzed. Constitutional manifestations of the disease were detected with nearly the same frequencies in both groups. Exceptions were headache which was more common in patients with neurobrucellosis (73% vs. 33% and arthralgia which was detected more frequently in cases with brucellosis than neurobrucellosis (53% vs. 13%. Signs and symptoms of meningeal irritation and disturbances of consciousness were the most common manifestations in cases with neurobrullosis, which had been detected in 60% and 46.7% of cases, respectively. Less common neurological presentations, in decreasing order of frequency were ophthalmoplegia, papilledema and seizures, spastic weakness of limbs, hearing loss and spinal epidural abscess. In two patients with negative serum and CSF agglutinin test, diagnosis of neurobrucellosis was made by blood and CSF cultures. In patients with neurobrucellosis, MRI of brain and spinal cord showed abnormalities in 5/15(33.3% of cases, including decreased lateral ventricular volume due to brain swelling (2/15, hydrocephalus with periventricular edema and meningeal enhancement in posterior fossa (1/15, multiple hypodense periventricular lesions, ischemic or demyelinating in nature (1/15 and spinal epidural abscess (1/15. Brucellosis should be kept in mind in patients with neurological presentations.

  11. Iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis within children in Benin: Epidemiological, clinical, therapeutical aspects

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    A S Gbenou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In tropical countries, iatrogenic retractile quadriceps fibrosis (IRQF, the cause of walking handicap in children, is often the result of intraquadricipital injection of quinine salts. The aim of this review was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic aspects and outcome of IRQF in children admitted in three hospitals in Benin Republic. Patients and Methods: It was a 10-year retrospective, descriptive and analytic survey of IRQF, involving 81 children aged from 8 months to 15 years. Iterative mobilization of the knee (IMK or modified distal quadriceps plasty by Thompson-Payr′s technique (MDQTPT, with a POP on the knee in flexion position, was performed with additional functional rehabilitation. The results were evaluated on knee flexion gain and walking quality. Data were processed using Epi Info 3.2 software. Results: Patients′ average age was 7.60 years. Children of 6-10 years were most affected; sex ratio was 1.02. Lesions were unilateral (71.6% and bilateral (28.4%. The knees′ stiffness was in flexion (10.57%, rectitude (64.42% and recurvatum (25%. The amyotrophy of the thigh was found in 79.42 %. The IMK was successful in eight cases (7.69 % and the MDQTPT was done in 98 cases (94.23% associated with femoral osteotomy in 13 cases (12.50%. In post-surgical period, skin necrosis and fractures occurred respectively in 15.31% and 5.10%. Results were good in 92.31% of cases. Conclusions: IRQF in children do exist in our settings. The treatment that is based on MDQTPT associated to rehabilitation leads to acceptable outcome.

  12. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  13. The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of melioidosis: 540 cases from the 20 year Darwin prospective study.

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    Bart J Currie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over 20 years, from October 1989, the Darwin prospective melioidosis study has documented 540 cases from tropical Australia, providing new insights into epidemiology and the clinical spectrum. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The principal presentation was pneumonia in 278 (51%, genitourinary infection in 76 (14%, skin infection in 68 (13%, bacteremia without evident focus in 59 (11%, septic arthritis/osteomyelitis in 20 (4% and neurological melioidosis in 14 (3%. 298 (55% were bacteremic and 116 (21% developed septic shock (58 fatal. Internal organ abscesses and secondary foci in lungs and/or joints were common. Prostatic abscesses occurred in 76 (20% of 372 males. 96 (18% had occupational exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei. 118 (22% had a specific recreational or occupational incident considered the likely infecting event. 436 (81% presented during the monsoonal wet season. The higher proportion with pneumonia in December to February supports the hypothesis of infection by inhalation during severe weather events. Recurrent melioidosis occurred in 29, mostly attributed to poor adherence to therapy. Mortality decreased from 30% in the first 5 years to 9% in the last five years (p<0.001. Risk factors for melioidosis included diabetes (39%, hazardous alcohol use (39%, chronic lung disease (26% and chronic renal disease (12%. There was no identifiable risk factor in 20%. Of the 77 fatal cases (14%, 75 had at least one risk factor; the other 2 were elderly. On multivariate analysis of risk factors, age, location and season, the only independent predictors of mortality were the presence of at least one risk factor (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.3-39 and age ≥ 50 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-2.3. CONCLUSIONS: Melioidosis should be seen as an opportunistic infection that is unlikely to kill a healthy person, provided infection is diagnosed early and resources are available to provide appropriate antibiotics and critical care.

  14. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease: clinical characteristics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ivy N; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-12-15

    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease.

  15. Genetic characteristics of Japanese clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

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    Satoko Miya

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne illnesses through consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Although 135-201annual listeriosis cases have been estimated in Japan, the details regarding the clinical isolates such as infection source, virulence level, and other genetic characteristics, are not known. In order to uncover the trends of listeriosis in Japan and use the knowledge for prevention measures to be taken, the genetic characteristics of the past human clinical isolates needs to be elucidated. For this purpose, multilocus tandem-repeat sequence analysis (MLTSA and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST were used in this study. The clinical isolates showed a variety of genetically distant genotypes, indicating they were from sporadic cases. However, the MVLST profiles of 7 clinical isolates were identical to those of epidemic clone (EC I isolates, which have caused several serious outbreaks in other countries, suggesting the possibility that they have strong virulence potential and originated from a single outbreak. Moreover, 6 Japanese food isolates shared their genotypes with ECI isolates, indicating that there may be risks for listeriosis outbreak in Japan. This is the first investigational study on genetic characteristics of Japanese listeriosis isolates. The listeriosis cases happened in the past are presumably sporadic, but it is still possible that some isolates with strong virulence potential have caused listeriosis outbreaks, and future listeriosis risks also exist.

  16. Clinical characteristics associated with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato skin culture results in patients with erythema migrans.

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    Franc Strle

    Full Text Available Clinical characteristics associated with isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from skin have not been fully evaluated. To gain insight into predictors for a positive EM skin culture, we compared basic demographic, epidemiologic, and clinical data in 608 culture-proven and 501 culture-negative adult patients with solitary EM. A positive Borrelia spp. skin culture was associated with older age, a time interval of >2 days between tick bite and onset of the skin lesion, EM ≥ 5 cm in diameter, and location of the lesion on the extremities, whereas several other characteristics used as clinical case definition criteria for the diagnosis of EM (such as tick bite at the site of later EM, information on expansion of the skin lesion, central clearing were not. A patient with a 15-cm EM lesion had almost 3-fold greater odds for a positive skin culture than patients with a 5-cm lesion. Patients with a free time interval between the tick bite and onset of EM had the same probability of a positive skin culture as those who did not recall a tick bite (OR=1.02; however, the two groups had >3-fold greater odds for EM positivity than patients who reported a tick bite with no interval between the bite and onset of the lesion. In conclusion, several yet not all clinical characteristics used in EM case definitions were associated with positive Borrelia spp. skin culture. The findings are limited to European patients with solitary EM caused predominantly by B. afzelii but may not be valid for other situations.

  17. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

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    Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horses naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5% have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8% were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25% followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20% and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%. Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion

  18. [TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS AND PREVENTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Barbić, Ljubo; Pandak, Nenad; Pem-Novosel, Iva; Stevanović, Vladimir; Kaić, Bernard; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a small, enveloped virus that belongs to the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, tick-borne encephalitis serocomplex. There are three subtypes of TBEV: European, Far-Eastern and Siberian subtypes, which differ in geographical distribution, tick vector and clinical manifestation of disease in humans. TBEV is endemic in a wide geographic area ranging from Central Europe and the Scandinavian Peninsula to Japan. The virus is maintained in nature in so-called natural foci in cycles involving ticks and wild vertebrate hosts (mainly small rodents). The principal vector for the European subtype is Ixodes (I.) ricinus tick, whereas for Far-Eastern and Siberian subtypes it is I. persulcatus. In the Baltic States and Finland, co-circulation of two or all three subtypes was documented. Several animals, principally small rodents, serve as virus reservoirs. In the tick population, TBEV is transmitted by feeding/co-feed ing on the same host, transovarially (from infected females to their eggs) and trans-stadially (from one development stage to the next). An infected tick remains infected for life. While most TBE infections in humans occur following a tick bite, alimentary routes of TBEV transmission (consumption of unpasteurized milk/milk products from infected livestock) have also been described. All three tick stages can transmit the infection to humans. In the last decade, an increase of TBE incidence has been observed in some endemic areas. This could be due to a number of interacting factors such as changes in the climatic conditions affecting tick habitats, improvements in the quality of epidemiological surveillance systems and diagnostics, in landscape resources and their utilization and more outdoor recreation activity. In addition, the endemic area of TBEV has expanded to higher altitudes (up to 1500 m), apparently influenced by climatic changes. The typical clinical picture of infection with European subtype TBEV is

  19. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langagergaard V

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vivian Langagergaard,1 Jens P Garne,2 Ilse Vejborg,3 Walter Schwartz,4 Martin Bak,5 Anders Lernevall,1 Nikolaj B Mogensen,6 Heidi Larsson,7 Berit Andersen,1 Ellen M Mikkelsen7 1Department of Public Health Programs, Randers Hospital, Randers, Denmark; 2Department of Breast Surgery, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Diagnostic Imaging Center, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Center of Mammography, 5Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark; 6Department of Radiology, Ringsted Hospital, Ringsted, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Abstract: The Danish Quality Database of Mammography Screening (DKMS was established in 2007, when screening was implemented on a nationwide basis and offered biennially to all Danish women aged 50–69 years. The primary aims of the database are to monitor and evaluate the quality of the screening program and – after years of follow-up – to evaluate the effect of nationwide screening on breast cancer-specific mortality. Here, we describe the database and present results for quality assurance from the first round of national screening. The steering committee for the DKMS defined eleven organizational and clinical quality indicators and standards to monitor the Danish breast cancer screening program. We calculated the relevant proportions and ratios with 95% confidence intervals for each quality indicator. All indicators were assessed on a national and regional level. Of 670,039 women invited for mammography, 518,823 (77.4% participated. Seventy-one percent of the women received the result of their mammography examination within 10 days of screening, and 3% of the participants were recalled for further investigation. Among all detected cancers, 86% were invasive cancers, and the proportion of women with node negative cancer was 67%. There were 36% women with small cancers, and the ratio of surgery for

  20. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in north and south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggar, Axana; Nerlich, Andreas; Kumar, Rajesh; Abraham, Vinod J; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N; Ray, Pallab; Dhanda, Vanita; Joshua, John Melbin Jose; Mehra, Narinder; Bergmann, Rene; Chhatwal, G Singh; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2012-05-01

    The lack of epidemiologic data on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in many developing countries is concerning, as S. pyogenes infections are commonly endemic in these areas. Here we present the results of the first prospective surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in India. Fifty-four patients with invasive S. pyogenes infections were prospectively enrolled at two study sites, one in the north and one in the south of India. Sterile-site isolates were collected, and clinical information was documented using a standardized questionnaire. Available acute-phase sera were tested for their ability to inhibit superantigens produced by the patient's own isolate using a cell-based neutralizing assay. The most common clinical presentations were bacteremia without focus (30%), pneumonia (28%), and cellulitis (17%). Only two cases of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and no cases of necrotizing fasciitis were identified. Characterization of the isolates revealed great heterogeneity, with 32 different emm subtypes and 29 different superantigen gene profiles being represented among the 49 sterile-site isolates. Analyses of acute-phase sera showed that only 20% of the cases in the north cohort had superantigen-neutralizing activity in their sera, whereas 50% of the cases from the south site had neutralizing activity. The results demonstrate that there are important differences in both clinical presentation and strain characteristics between invasive S. pyogenes infections in India and invasive S. pyogenes infections in Western countries. The findings underscore the importance of epidemiologic studies on streptococcal infections in India and have direct implications for current vaccine developments.

  1. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  2. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation of Parainfluenza Type 4 in Children: A 3-Year Comparative Study to Parainfluenza Types 1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Holly M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are among the most common causes of respiratory tract infections in children. Little is known about the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HPIV type 4.

  3. The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of melioidosis in a teaching hospital in a North-Eastern state of Malaysia: a fifteen-year review

    OpenAIRE

    Zueter, AbdelRahman; Yean, Chan Yean; Abumarzouq, Mahmoud; Rahman, Zaidah Abdul; Deris, Zakuan Z.; Harun, Azian

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades, many epidemiological studies were performed to describe risks and clinical presentations of melioidosis in endemic countries. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 158 confirmed cases of melioidosis collected from medical records from 2001 to 2015 in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, in order to update the current status of melioidosis clinical epidemiology in this putatively high risk region of the country....

  4. Epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic survey in 505 cases with Brucellosis

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    Haj Abdolbaghi M

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in Iran with variety of clinical manifestation. Special characteristics of clinical diagnosis and treatment issues may cause some problems in manegement of patients. In this descriptive study 505 patients with Brucellosis retrospectively were evaluated from clinical point of view, Lab exams and therapeutic issues for 10 years (1990 to 1999. From 505 patients, 321 cases were male and 184 were female. 42.7 percent of cases were in age group of 10 to 30 years. Ingestion of un-pasteurized dairy products was detected in (66.7 percent and 31.86 percent of cases were sheep herders. The most common symptoms and signs were fever (65 percent, sweating (61 percent, arthritis (30.09 percent, sacroilitis (21.5 percent, orchitis (8.2 percent, spondylitis (2-3 percent and endocarditis (1.18. In this survery blood culture for Brucella melitensis became positive in 48.5 percent and bone marrow in 61 percent. Standard tube agglutination was positive in 96 percent (?1.80. Doxycyclin plus Rifampin was the most common regimen we used (37.8 percent. 4 patients died, but just one of those was directly because of Brucella Endocarditis. In this article we have discussed about some interesting cases as well.

  5. Epidemiological Characteristics of Strongyloidiasis in Inhabitants of Indigenous Communities in Borneo Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Halim, Noor Amira Abdul; Rajoo, Yamuna; Lim, Yvonne AL; Ambu, Stephen; Rajoo, Komalaveni; Chang, Tey Siew; Woon, Lu Chan; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological study on strongyloidiasis in humans is currently lacking in Malaysia. Thus, a cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among the inhabitants of longhouse indigenous communities in Sarawak. A single stool and blood sample were collected from each participant and subjected to microscopy, serological and molecular techniques. Five species of intestinal parasites were identified by stool microscopy. None of the stool samples were positive for S. stercoralis. However, 11% of 236 serum samples were seropositive for strongyloidiasis. Further confirmation using molecular technique on stool samples of the seropositive individuals successfully amplified 5 samples, suggesting current active infections. The prevalence was significantly higher in adult males and tended to increase with age. S. stercoralis should no longer be neglected in any intestinal parasitic survey. Combination of more than 1 diagnostic technique is necessary to increase the likelihood of estimating the ‘true’ prevalence of S. stercoralis. PMID:27853126

  6. Epidemiological characteristics of nosocomial diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile in a tertiary level hospital in Serbia

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    Šuljagić Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Among the most important causes of diarrhea in modern hospitals is Clostridium difficile (C. difficile. A wide spectrum of diseases caused by this bacterium is now known as C. difficile associated disease (CDAD. The development of CDAD is usually preceded by the administration of antimicrobial therapy and fecal-oral infections with C. difficile. Over the last years epidemiology of CDAD has significantly changed. Recently, a hypervirulent BI/NAP1/027 strain, the cause of severe epidemics in North America and Western Europe, has been identified. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for CDAD in patients operated on at the Military Medical Academy (MMA. Methods. The study included all patients who underwent surgery at the MMA during 2010. Nested case-control study design was used. The subjects were divided into groups of operated patients with and without CDAD. The patients were under prospective follow-up, while their data were collected using a questionnaire during a routine epidemiological control. Results. During 2010 the incidence rate of CDAD was 3.3 per 10,000 hospital days. Univariate regression analysis showed that the length of administration of one or two antibiotics, as well as concurrent administration of two antibiotics, were far more frequently observed in the patients with than in the patients without CDAD. Independent risk factor for the development of CDAD was the length of the administration of one antibiotic. Conclusion Reduction in the incidence rate of CDAD can be achieved by using reliable measures of prevention and control; the rational use of antibiotics, early diagnosis and therapy of infected patients, contact isolation of infected persons, proper disinfection, and continued education of medical and non-medical personnel.

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of the 2005 and 2007 dengue epidemics in Singapore - similarities and distinctions

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    Lyn James

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We investigated the epidemiological features of the 2007 dengue outbreak to determine the factors that could have triggered it two years after the previous large outbreak in 2005.Methods: All laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue reported during the year, as well as entomological and virological data, were analysed.Results: A total of 8826 cases including 24 deaths were reported in 2007, giving an incidence of 192.3 cases per 100 000 residents and a case-fatality rate of 0.27%. The median age of the cases was 37 years (interquartile range 25 to 50, with an age range from two days to 101 years, which was higher than the median age of 31 years (interquartile range 20 to 42, with a range from four days to 98 years, in 2005. The overall Aedes premises index in 2007 was 0.68%, lower than the 1.15% observed in 2005. The predominant dengue serotype in 2007 was dengue virus DENV-2 which re-emerged with a clade replacement in early 2007, and overtook the predominant serotype (DENV-1 of 2005. Seroprevalence studies conducted in the three largest outbreak clusters revealed that 73.2% of residents with recent infection were asymptomatic.Discussion: With the exception of an increase in the median age of the cases, and a change in the predominant dengue serotype, the epidemiological features of the 2007 epidemic were largely similar to those of 2005. Singapore remains vulnerable to major outbreaks of dengue, despite sustained vector control measures to maintain a consistently low Aedes premises index.

  8. Clinical characteristics associated with illness perception in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Astrid K; Robinson, Hilde S; Langeland, Eva; Larsen, Marie H; Krogstad, Anne-Lene; Moum, Torbjørn

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of illness perception may aid the identification of groups of patients with a higher risk of coping poorly with the demands of their illness. This study aims to investigate associations between illness perception, clinical characteristics, patient knowledge, quality of life and subjective health in persons with psoriasis. The present study was based on cross-sectional data from patients awaiting climate therapy in Gran Canaria. We included 254 eligible patients (74%) who completed a questionnaire including the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Psoriasis Knowledge Questionnaire, and the Dermatological Life Quality Index. Disease severity was measured using the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Several statistically significant associations between clinical characteristics, knowledge and various illness perception dimensions were found. Illness perception was also significantly related to disease-specific quality of life and subjective health. These findings contradict previous findings, which suggested that objective disease factors are not relevant to illness perception in psoriasis.

  9. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Ivy N.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2010-01-01

    More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that c...

  10. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of Achromobacter xylosoxidans infection.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans was isolated from six patients. The organism causes opportunistic infections in patients who are compromised. A. xylosoxidans is a catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, gram-negative rod that oxidizes xylose and glucose. The organism exists in a water environment and may be confused with Pseudomonas species. Unlike pseudomonas, achromobacter has peritrichous flagella. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of A. xylosoxidans are presented.

  11. Estudo clínico e epidemiológico de fissuras orofaciais Clinical and epidemiological study of orofacial clefts

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    Josiane Souza

    2013-04-01

    tratamento de FO, por exemplo.OBJECTIVE: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P or cleft palate (CP are groups of malformations named orofacial clefts (OC, which are the second leading cause of birth defects. This study aimed to analyze clinical and epidemiological features of Brazilian patients with OC, studying cases treated in the reference center of the state of Paraná (PR. METHODS: 2,356 charts were reviewed and 1,838 were evaluated by the same clinical geneticist. Data were collected in the reference center, and compared with those of the Health Department of the state of Paraná. Clinical characteristics, presence of other anomalies, and birth prevalence were evaluated. RESULTS: 389 (21.2% patients had CP, 437 (23.8% had cleft lip (CL, and 1,012 (55% had cleft lip and palate (CLP. Syndromic OC were identified in 15.3% of patients, 10.4% of patients with CL±P, and 33.9% of patients with CP. Common additional anomalies were: central nervous system, limbs, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal defects. The number of syndromic cases was lower when clinical evaluation was performed by other medical specialists when compared to that of the clinical geneticist. Birth prevalence was 1/1,010 live births. Lack of notification with the national birth registry was observed in 49.9% of CL±P. The present data suggests a decrease of 18.52% in the prevalence of non-syndromic OC after folic acid fortification in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of clinical and epidemiological aspects of OC is crucial to improve the understanding of pathogenesis, promote preventive strategies, and guide clinical care, including the presence of clinical geneticists in the multidisciplinary team for OC treatment.

  12. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton

    2010-01-01

    epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type...... of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...

  13. Epidemiological and clinical features of human rabies cases in Bali 2008-2010

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    Susilawathi Ni M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously thought to be rabies free, Bali experienced an outbreak of animal and human rabies cases in November 2008. We describe the epidemiological and clinical data of human rabies cases occurring in the first two years of the outbreak. Methods We analysed the patient records of all rabies cases from the Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar, and district hospitals in Buleleng and Tabanan. A conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect the rabies virus genome in saliva, corneal swabs, and ante- and post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. Results There were 104 human rabies cases in Bali during November 2008-November 2010. Patients' mean age was 36.6 years (range 3-84 years; SD 20.7, most were male (56.7%, and originated from rural districts. Almost all (92% cases had a history of dog bite. Only 5.8% had their wounds treated and received an anti-rabies vaccine (ARV after the bite incident. No patients received rabies immunoglobulin (RIG. The estimated time from dog bite to the onset of signs and symptoms was 110.4 days (range 12-720 days; SD 118.2. The mean length of medical care until death was 21.8 hours (range 1-220 hours; SD 32.6. Less than 50% of patients had prodromal symptoms. The most frequent prodromal symptom was pain or paraesthesia at the bite site (37.6%. The two most common central nervous system infection signs were agitation (89.2% and confusion (83.3%. Signs of autonomic nervous system dysfunction included hydrophobia (93.1%, hypersalivation (88.2%, and dyspnea (74.4%. On admission, 22 of 102 patients (21.6% showed paralytic manifestations, while the rest (78.4% showed furious rabies manifestations. The case-fatality rate was 100%. The rabies virus genome was detected in 50 of 101 patients (49.5% with the highest detection rate from post-mortem CSF samples. Conclusions Rabies is a major public health problem in Bali. Human fatalities occur because of a lack of knowledge

  14. Biological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Aspects of Echinococcosis, a Zoonosis of Increasing Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Johannes; Deplazes, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Echinococcosis in humans is a zoonotic infection caused by larval stages (metacestodes) of cestode species of the genus Echinococcus. Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by E. multilocularis, and polycystic forms are caused by either E. vogeli or E. oligarthrus. In untreated cases, AE has a high mortality rate. Although control is essentially feasible, CE remains a considerable health problem in many regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. AE is restricted to the northern hemisphere regions of North America and Eurasia. Recent studies have shown that E. multilocularis, the causative agent of AE, is more widely distributed than previously thought. There are also some hints of an increasing significance of polycystic forms of the disease, which are restricted to Central and South America. Various aspects of human echinococcosis are discussed in this review, including data on the infectivity of genetic variants of E. granulosus to humans, the increasing invasion of cities in Europe and Japan by red foxes, the main definitive hosts of E. multilocularis, and the first demonstration of urban cycles of the parasite. Examples of emergence or reemergence of CE are presented, and the question of potential spreading of E. multilocularis is critically assessed. Furthermore, information is presented on new and improved tools for diagnosing the infection in final hosts (dogs, foxes, and cats) by coproantigen or DNA detection and the application of molecular techniques to epidemiological studies. In the clinical field, the available methods for diagnosing human CE and AE are described and the treatment options are summarized. The development of new chemotherapeutic options for all forms of human echinococcosis remains an urgent requirement. A new option for the control of E. granulosus in the intermediate host population (mainly sheep and cattle) is vaccination. Attempts are made to reduce the

  15. PEDro or Cochrane to Assess the Quality of Clinical Trials? A Meta-Epidemiological Study.

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    Susan Armijo-Olivo

    Full Text Available There is debate on how the methodological quality of clinical trials should be assessed. We compared trials of physical therapy (PT judged to be of adequate quality based on summary scores from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale with trials judged to be of adequate quality by Cochrane Risk of Bias criteria.Meta-epidemiological study within Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.Meta-analyses of PT trials were identified in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each trial PeDro and Cochrane assessments were extracted from the PeDro and Cochrane databases. Adequate quality was defined as adequate generation of random sequence, concealment of allocation, and blinding of outcome assessors (Cochrane criteria or as trials with a PEDro summary score ≥5 or ≥6 points. We combined trials of adequate quality using random-effects meta-analysis.Forty-one Cochrane reviews and 353 PT trials were included. All meta-analyses included trials with PEDro scores ≥5, 37 (90.2% included trials with PEDro scores ≥6 and only 22 (53.7% meta-analyses included trials of adequate quality according to the Cochrane criteria. Agreement between PeDro and Cochrane was poor for PeDro scores of ≥5 points (kappa = 0.12; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16 and slight for ≥6 points (kappa 0.24; 95% CI 0.16-0.32. When combining effect sizes of trials deemed to be of adequate quality according to PEDro or Cochrane criteria, we found that a substantial difference in the combined effect size (≥0.15 was evident in 9 (22% out of the 41 meta-analyses for PEDro cutoff ≥5 and 10 (24% for cutoff ≥6.The PeDro and Cochrane approaches lead to different sets of trials of adequate quality, and different combined treatment estimates from meta-analyses of these trials. A consistent approach to assessing RoB in trials of physical therapy should be adopted.

  16. Estudo clínico e epidemiológico de pacientes submetidos a implante de marcapasso cardíaco artificial permanente: comparação dos portadores da doença de Chagas com os de doenças degenerativas do sistema de condução Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Chagas' disease submitted to permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Costa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os pacientes portadores de marcapasso cardíaco artificial permanente, comparando as características clínicas e epidemiológicas dos portadores da doença de Chagas com a dos portadores de doenças degenerativas do sistema de condução. MÉTODO: Foram analisados 57.632 procedimentos cadastrados no Registro Brasileiro de Marcapassos, realizados no período de 1995 a 2003, sendo: 25.648 pacientes portadores da doença de Chagas e 31.984, de doenças degenerativas. A comparação das características dessas populações foi feita pelos testes do Qui-quadrado e t-Student com nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio da doença de Chagas na região Centro-Oeste, nos implantes iniciais. Nas reoperações, a população chagásica representou maioria também no Sudeste. A idade dos pacientes chagásicos foi 58,6 ± 15,3 e 59,3 ± 14,8 anos, respectivamente para implantes iniciais e reoperações, e, nos não chagásicos, 73,5 ± 12,6 e 73,7 ± 13,5. Não foi notada diferença na distribuição entre os dois sexos. Houve maior ocorrência de síncopes, pré-síncopes e bloqueio atrioventricular com QRS largo nos pacientes chagásicos e de tonturas, insuficiência cardíaca e QRS estreito nos não chagásicos. O modo de estimulação ventricular foi utilizado em 60% e 63% nos implantes iniciais e em 77% e 76% das reoperações, respectivamente para os pacientes chagásicos e não chagásicos. A depleção da bateria por desgaste normal foi o principal motivo para reoperação dos pacientes, tendo ocorrido em 76,1% e 79,6% das reoperações, respectivamente para chagásicos e não chagásicos. CONCLUSÕES: Os dados analisados demonstraram diferenças significativas nas características clínicas e demográficas das populações estudadas.OBJECTIVE: To study patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers, comparing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with Chagas' disease versus the ones with

  17. Estudo das características epidemiológicas e clínicas de pacientes portadores do vírus da imunodeficiência humana em Pronto Atendimento do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Study on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with human immunodeficiency virus at the walk-in service of the teaching hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Gómez Ravetti

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetiva a análise prospectiva das características clínicas e epidemiológicas que levam os pacientes adultos com HIV/AIDS a procurarem atendimento clínico de urgência em Pronto Atendimento do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Noventa e nove pacientes perfizeram 118 internações. A idade foi em média 39,4 anos. A relação homem e mulher foi de 1,35:1. O tempo desde o diagnóstico até a admissão situou-se de forma mais freqüente entre 0-5 anos em 40,4% dos casos. A terapêutica anti-retroviral era usada regularmente em 56,8% das admissões. A contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ foi inferior a 200 células/mm³ em 45,7% dos pacientes. As queixas mais freqüentes foram aumento da temperatura corpórea, diarréia, tosse e dispnéia. O aparelho respiratório foi o mais acometido. As doenças oportunistas mais freqüentes foram pneumocistose, pneumonia comunitária, síndrome diarréica, e candidiase oral. A demanda de internações de pacientes com HIV representou 2,8% das admissões, com tempo médio de permanência hospitalar de 4,6 dias. Os pacientes possuíam, em sua maioria, contagem de linfócitos TCD4+ baixa, quase metade não usava a terapia anti-retroviral altamente eficaz. Houve tendência à feminização. As doenças relacionadas à AIDS continuam sendo as mais freqüentes no nosso meio.This study had the aim of prospectively analyzing the clinical and epidemiological characteristics that lead adult patients with HIV/AIDS to seek urgent medical care in the walk-in service of the teaching hospital of the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Over a one-year period, all admissions of adult patients with HIV were evaluated. There were 118 admissions involving 99 patients. Their mean age was 39.4 years. The male-to-female ratio was 1.35:1. The length of time from diagnosis to admission was most frequently 0-5 years (40.4% of the cases. Antiretroviral therapy was being regularly used among 56

  18. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2003-09-01

    With the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. In seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. Brazilian patient with NCC presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal CSF, CT showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of NCC), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical CSF syndrome of NCC or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC). Although two localities from the state of S o Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  19. Laboratory diagnosis, clinical manifestations, epidemiological situation and public health importance of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shushtar County, Southwestern Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Kassiri; Ali kassiri; Masoud Lotfi; Parvaneh Farajifard; Elnaz Kassiri

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate as a descriptive and cross sectional study on epidemiology, the laboratory diagnosis and clinical manifestation ofCutaneousLeishmaniasis(CL) inShushtar County.Methods:The investigation was carried out on referrals from different districts of ShushtarCounty and was diagnosed based on their ulcer clinical manifestations withCL using laboratory method.This study was actively developed over the period of2008 to2010.Surface of a clean slide was pressed on to the scraped part of the lesions and moved along to produce a smear on the slide.The slides were fixed with methanol, stained with standardGiemsa, and examined carefully under high magnification for an hour or more to look for amastigotes by a trained person.Two smears were prepared and examined from each patient and data were collected using different correlative patients characteristics to analyze information.The essential records including residential area, type and location of lesion, age, sex, the number of ulcers, season, and the history of traveling to endemic areas for this disease were carefully gathered. Results:Parasites presumed to beLeishmania major (L. major) based on the existence of a large vacuole in the cytoplasm.Totally206 patients were referred to the central laboratory and their manifestation lesions were clinically examined.Of these,64 cases(31.1%) were female and142 cases(68.9%) were male.The findings documented that the rate of incidence ofCL was in fall61 cases(29/6%) and winter80 cases(38/8%), which is one of the most important characteristics of zoonoticCL.Sixty-eight cases(33%) had ulcers on hands,63 cases(30.6%) on feet and30 cases (14.6%) on hands and feet.A total of120 patients(58.3%) had only one ulcer.But70 cases(34%) had2 ulcers.The highest incidence was found among patients with two age groups of20-29 years old(43.2%) and10-19 years old(18%).The most cases resided in rural areas with164 cases(79.6%). Conclusions:Analyzing of the composed results revealed

  20. [Epidemiological and bacteriological characteristics of uropathogen bacteria isolated in a pediatric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjani, A; Mkaddemi, H; Tilouche, S; Marzouk, M; Hannechi, N; Boughammoura, L; Boukadida, J

    2011-02-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children is a grave pathology, which requires a fast and effective care. Bacteriological and epidemiological data play a determining role in patient's care. We report a retrospective study, which spreads out from January 1st till August 31st, 2009, having concerned hospitalized children for urinary infection in pediatrics service of Farhat Hached teaching hospital in Sousse. Our series contained 51 children with a sex ratio of 0.76, an average age of 32 months. The majority of cases was pyelonephritis (94.1%). A pathology is associated with the urinary infection in 41.2%. Three cases of vesico-ureteral reflux were noted. The diagnosis of urinary infection was confirmed by cytobacteriological exam of urine (CBEU). Enterobacteriacea were isolated in 96.1%. Escherichia coli remains the most often isolated (80.4%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.8%) then by Proteus mirabilis (5.9%). E. coli was resistant to amoxicillin in 78% of cases, to the association amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in 64,8%, to cephalosporins of 3(rd) generation (C3G) in 5% and to cotrimoxazole in 51%. No K. pneumoniae or P. mirabilis strain was resistant to C3G. UTI in children is always an indication for CBEU realization at first intention. The results of this exam are very important considering the diversity of the responsible bacteria and the growing frequency of acquired antibiotic resistance.

  1. An epidemiological study on hearing loss and its demographic characteristics within Garhwal region of Uttarakhand

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    Ravindra Singh Bisht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hearing impaired cases attending ear, nose, and throat (ENT OPD were assessed for hearing loss and associated factors of Garhwal region of Uttarakhand. There has not been any such study yet in this region. Objective: Epidemiological study to investigate the hearing loss and its associated diseases in general population Garhwal region of Uttarakhand reporting in ENT OPD. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on OPD basis and a total of 300 patients were included in the study. The study included all the patients attending ENT OPD with a complaint of hearing loss. The exclusion criteria were as follows: Patients who were unable to respond to pure tone audiometry (PTA test. Assessment of hearing loss was done by PTA, which was done by a certified audiologist of the department. Results: Predominantly, patients were male of the late 50s. Moderate-severe sensory neural hearing loss was the most common type of hearing loss and intact tympanic membrane being most common otoscopic finding. The most common cause of hearing loss in this study group was presbycusis. Conclusion: Presbycusis is most common presentation of hearing loss in Garhwal region of Uttarakhand.

  2. Molecular and clinical epidemiological surveillance of dengue virus in Paraíba, Northeast Brazil

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    Isabel Cristina Guerra-Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Despite being the most prevalent arboviral disease worldwide, dengue has been neglected lately. However, recent epidemics of arboviruses such as Zika and chikungunya in locations throughout the world have alerted health authorities to these diseases. This study evaluated the incidence pattern of dengue, its clinical characteristics, and co-circulation of serotypes from 2007 to 2015 in Paraiba State, Northeast Brazil. METHODS: Data on dengue cases from 2007 to 2015 were extracted from clinical reports of the National System for Notifiable Diseases [Sistema Nacional de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN] of Brazil provided by the Paraiba Health Department. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays for dengue serotypes were carried out on plasma samples obtained from patients with suspected dengue. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: According to clinical features, dengue fever [n = 39,083 (70.2%] and dengue without warning signs [n = 15,365 (27.7%] were the most common classifications of dengue. On RT-PCR, DENV 1 was the most commonly identified serotype (80.5% in all years studied. Co-circulation of all four DENV serotypes was observed in 2013 and 2014. Furthermore, we observed an increase in dengue notifications in 2015, possibly due to the rise of Zika and chikungunya. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that co-circulation of the four DENV serotypes may be a reason for the increased prevalence of severe forms of dengue in the years studied. This study may contribute to directing research, health policy, and financial resources toward reducing poorly controlled epidemic diseases.

  3. Does Gender Matter in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma? Differences in Epidemiology, Clinical Behavior, and Therapy

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    Nurit Horesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is one of the most common hematologic malignancies worldwide. The incidence of NHL has been rising for several decades; however, in the last 20 years, it reached a plateau. NHL incidence among males is significantly higher than in females. In addition to gender itself, gravidity has a protective role against NHL occurrence. Gender also matters in terms of NHL clinical characteristics. For example, female predominance was found in three extra-nodal sites (the breast, thyroid, and the respiratory system occasionally involved in NHL. The diagnosis of NHL during pregnancy is associated with a unique clinical behavior. It is usually diagnosed in the second or third trimester and in advanced stage. Furthermore, the histological subtype is highly aggressive, and reproductive organ involvement is common. The reduced rate of NHL among females may be explained by direct effects of estrogens on lymphoma cell proliferation or by its effect on anti-tumor immune response. Gender has an important role in responsiveness to standard B cell NHL treatment. Among older adults, women benefited more from the addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab to standard chemotherapy regimens. This phenomenon can be explained by the difference in clearance rate of rituximab that was found to be significantly lower among older females than older males. In mantle cell lymphoma, women receiving lenalidomide have higher rates of response. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for gender-associated NHL differences will ultimately improve the clinical approach, allowing for a more accurate assessment of prognosis and patient-tailored treatment.

  4. CLINICAL, EPIDEMIOLOGIC, AND ENDOSCOPIC PROFILE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH COLONIC POLYPS IN TWO REFERENCE CENTERS

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    Denise O ANDRADE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - The main goal of this paper is to investigate the frequency, clinical profile, and endoscopic findings of children and teenagers submitted to colonoscopies. Methods - Patients of below 18 years of age, diagnosed with polyps by means of colonoscopies at two reference centers of pediatric endoscopy were followed-up between 2002 and 2012. The clinical variables evaluated in this study included: gender, recommendation of colonoscopy, associated signs and symptoms, age of onset of symptoms, age at identification of the polyp, interval of time between the onset of symptoms and the endoscopic diagnosis of colonic polyps, and family history of intestinal polyposis and/or colorectal cancer. The characteristics of the polyps also included: number, morphological type, histology, and distribution. Polyposis syndromes were also investigated. Results - From the 233 patients submitted to colonoscopies, polyps were found in 74 (31.7% patients, with a median age of 6.6 years, of which 61% were male. Juvenile polyps were identified in 55 (74% patients, with 7 (9% characterized within the criteria for juvenile polyposis. Patients with intestinal polyposis syndromes were diagnosed in 35% of the patients. The most frequent clinical presentation was hematochezia. Abdominal pain with acute episodes of intestinal partial obstruction or intussusception with emergency laparotomy was observed in the majority of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients leading to an increased morbidity. Conclusions - Even though juvenile colonic polyps are the most frequent type of diagnosed polyps, the present study identified a significant level of children with polyposis syndromes (35%, associated with a higher morbidity of these individuals.

  5. A demographic and epidemiological study of a Mexican chiropractic college public clinic

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    Ndetan Harrison T

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Descriptive studies of chiropractic patients are not new, several have been performed in the U.S., Australia, Canada, and Europe. None have been performed in a Latin American country. The purpose of this study is to describe the patients who visited a Mexican chiropractic college public clinic with respect to demographics and clinical characteristics. Methods This study was reviewed and approved by the IRB of Parker College of Chiropractic and the Universidad Estatal del Valle de Ecatepec (UNEVE. Five hundred patient files from the UNEVE public clinic from May 2005 to May 2007 were selected from an approximate total number of 3,700. Information was collected for demographics, chief complaints, associated complaints, and previous care sought. Results The sample comprised 306 (61.2% female. Most files (44.2% were in the age range of 40–59 years (mean of 43.4 years. The most frequent complaints were lumbar pain (29.2% and extremity pain (28.0%, most commonly the knee. Most (62.0% described their complaints as greater than one year. Trauma (46.6% was indicated as the initial cause. Mean VAS score was 6.26/10 with 20% rated at 8/10. Conclusion Demographic results compared closer to studies conducted with private clinicians (females within the ages of 40–59. The primary complaint and duration was similar to previous studies (low back pain and chronic, except in this population the cause was usually initiated by trauma. The most striking features were the higher number of extremity complaints and the marked increased level of VAS score (20% rated as 8/10.

  6. Osteoarthritis of the first carpometacarpal joint: a study of radiology and clinical epidemiology:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Stig; Jacobsen, J

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show an increased prevalence of osteoarthritis of the knee and hand with increased body mass index [BMI]. Osteoarthritis of the hip joint is not related to BMI. The connection between obesity and osteoarthritis cannot exclusively be explained by genetic factors or by the a...

  7. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy; Dutoit, Stephen Jacques Hamilton;

    2010-01-01

    of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens...

  8. Mastitis in Ettawa Crossbred Goat (Pe Caused by Staphylococcus Aureus: Epidemiology, Clinical Signs, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Control

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    Widodo Suwito

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat is commonly found and caused economic loss. Staphylococcus aureus is one of bacteria caused clinical mastitis or subclinical mastitis in Ettawa crossbred goat. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of clinical and subclinical mastitis in the Ettawa crossbred goat caused by S. aureus from epidemiological aspect, clinical symptoms, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. Mastitis should be eliminated because it lead to death for the goats and lambs. In addition, S. aureus has greater risk for contamination in milk because it produces heat-stable toxin. Isolation and identification bacteria with total of somatic cell counts are important as a reference to determine the actions to decrease the occurrence of mastitis. Some preventive measures for mastitis include clean milking, dipping the teats with a disinfectant and antibiotic treatment during dry lactation.

  9. Epidemiologia clínica: nova ideologia médica? Clinical epidemiology: a new medical ideology?

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    Rita Barradas Barata

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute a emergência da epidemiologia clínica e seu caráter duplamente ideológico. Inicialmente são apresentadas diferentes conotações do conceito de ideologia optando-se por trabalhar com dois desses sentidos. O primeiro é a noção positivista de ideologia enquanto idéias de um dado tempo histórico; e o segundo é a noção marxista de ideologia como ocultamento das relações de dominação. Sob o primeiro sentido, a epidemiologia clínica é discutida com relação às idéias vigentes na década de 80, o que lhe conferiria um caráter eminentemente pós-moderno, com toda a carga de individualismo que o termo carrega. Finalmente são apontados os mitos de que se alimenta a epidemiologia clínica, tomada agora no segundo sentido da noção de ideologia.In this work we discuss the emergence of Clinical Epidemiology with its doubly ideological nature. We begin by presenting different connotations of ideology, two of which are chosen to be discussed here. The first is the positivistic concept of ideology as the set of ideas of a given historical time; the second is the Marxist concept of ideology, as concealing relations of dominance. Under the first meaning, Clinical Epidemiology is discussed vis-à-vis ideas in force in the 1980's, giving it a predominantly post-modern character along with the load of individualism born by this word. Finally, we present the myths underlying Clinical Epidemiology, seen now according to the second meaning of ideology.

  10. CLINICAL-IMMUNOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ACUTE BRUCELLOSIS IN CHILDREN

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    D. R. Atakhodjayeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is acute zoonotic, multi-systemic infection caused by Brucella bacteria kind. Brucellosis is met everywhere on all continents of the world, especially in the countries where livestock sector is developed. Nowadays in spite of significant success in the struggle against brucellosis this infection is a social problem. Brucellosis has specific clinical manifestations during various age periods. Problems interrelated with the study of the pathogenesis of brucellosis infection, particularly immune genesis, defining the progress and the outcome of the disease have great importance. Object of the research: to study peculiarities of the progress of acute brucellosis in children taking into account clinical-immunologic data. Materials and methods of the research: the research was based on the results of examinations of 23 children from 3 to 14 years old with brucellosis mostly living in endemic foci of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The diagnosis was defined based on epidemiologic anamnesis, clinical symptoms and laboratory data. All examined children got the analysis of detailed blood immunogramm. The corresponding data of 20 healthy children served to be controlling ones. Results and discussion: The analysis of epidemiologic anamnesis showed, that 78.3% of the examined patients with brucellosis were villagers keeping sheep, goats and cattle. In 73.9% cases source of infection was sheep and goats, 8.7% - cattle, and in 17.4% cases we could observe mixed type of infection. 78% of patients applied to hospital during prodromal period. Main complaints were weakness, frustration, headache, fatigue, bad appetite. These symptoms lasted not more than 3-5 days, after which there were symptoms of intoxication of organism with the rise of cardinal symptoms such as fever with chill (100%, arthalgia (69%, slight sweating (70%, hepato-lienal syndrome (68%. 32.9% of patients had tachycardia. Objective visual examination showed enlargement of

  11. East meets West: ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors of lung cancer between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhou; David C. Christian

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, with large variation of the incidence and mortality across regions. Although the mortality of lung cancer has been decreasing, or steady in lhe US, it has been increasing in Asia for the past two decades. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer, and other risk factors such as indoor coal buming, cooking fumes, and infections may play important roles in the development of lung cancer among Asian never smoking women. The median age of diagnosis in Asian patients with lung cancer is generally younger than Caucasian patients, particularly among never smokers. Asians and Caucasians may have different genetic susceptibilities to lung cancer, as evidenced from candidate polymorphisms and genome-wide association studies. Recent epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have shown consistently that Asian ethnicity is a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), independent of smoking status. Compared with Caucasian patients with NSCLC, East Asian patients have a much higher prevalence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (approximately 30% vs. 7%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and never-smokers), a lower prevalence of K-Ras mutation (less than 10% vs. 18%, predominantly among patients with adenocarcinoma and smokers), and higher proportion of patients who are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The ethnic differences in epidemiology and clinical behaviors should be taken into account when conducting global clinical trials that include different ethnic populations.

  12. Epidemiological and ecological characteristics of past dengue virus infection in Santa Clara, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiskind, M H; Baisley, K J; Calampa, C; Sharp, T W; Watts, D M; Wilson, M L

    2001-03-01

    To determine risk factors associated with dengue (DEN) virus infection among residents of Santa Clara, Peru, a rural Amazonian village near Iquitos, a cross-sectional serological, epidemiological and environmental survey was conducted. Demographic, social and behavioural information was obtained by standardized questionnaire from 1225 Santa Clara residents (61.3%) aged 5 years or older. Additional data were obtained on the environmental variables and immature mosquito species and abundance surrounding each household (n = 248). Sera that had been collected previously by the Peruvian Ministry of Health from residents were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for DEN virus IgG antibody. Antibody identity was verified as DEN by plaque reduction neutralization test. Data on individuals were analysed by univariate and multivariable methods, and independent sample t-tests. Spatial clustering was evaluated by comparing distances among DEN positive households. Overall, antibody prevalence was 29.4 % and more than doubled from the youngest to the oldest age groups, but did not differ by sex. Curiously, length of residence in Santa Clara was negatively associated with DEN virus antibodies. More frequent travel to Iquitos was positively associated with seroprevalence. Residents who obtained water from a river source rather than a local well also had significantly higher antibody prevalence. None of the environmental variables measured at each household corresponded to the patterns of antibody distribution. Of the larval mosquitoes found around residences, all were determined to be species other than Aedes. No evidence of spatial autocorrelation among antibody-positive households was detected. These results strongly suggested that recent DEN virus transmission did not occur in the village and that most infections of residents of this rural village were acquired while visiting the city of Iquitos.

  13. Characteristics of liver cancer stem cells and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with liver cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and thus miss the opportunity for surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, which target tumor bulk, have exhibited limited therapeutic efficacy to date. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of undifferentiated cells existed in liver cancer, which are considered to be responsible for liver cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance. Elucidating liver CSC characteristics and disclosing their regulatory mechanism might not only deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer but also facilitate the development of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the clinical management of liver cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in liver CSC research in terms of the origin, identification, regulation and clinical correlation.

  14. Clinical and Molecular Characteristics of Post-Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoffel, Elena M; Erichsen, Rune; Frøslev, Trine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy provides incomplete protection from colorectal cancer (CRC), but determinants of post-colonoscopy CRC are not well understood. We compared clinical features and molecular characteristics of CRCs diagnosed at different time intervals after a previous colonoscopy....... METHODS: We performed a population-based, cross-sectional study of incident CRC cases in Denmark (2007-2011), categorized as post-colonoscopy or detected during diagnostic colonoscopy (in patients with no prior colonoscopy). We compared prevalence of proximal location and DNA mismatch repair deficiency (d...

  15. Clinical Presentation and Microbial Analyses of Contact Lens Keratitis; an Epidemiologic Study

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    Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual impairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of