Papanicolaou Dimitris A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of standardized criteria for defining chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has constrained research. The objective of this study was to apply the 1994 CFS criteria by standardized reproducible criteria. Methods This population-based case control study enrolled 227 adults identified from the population of Wichita with: (1 CFS (n = 58; (2 non-fatigued controls matched to CFS on sex, race, age and body mass index (n = 55; (3 persons with medically unexplained fatigue not CFS, which we term ISF (n = 59; (4 CFS accompanied by melancholic depression (n = 27; and (5 ISF plus melancholic depression (n = 28. Participants were admitted to a hospital for two days and underwent medical history and physical examination, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule, and laboratory testing to identify medical and psychiatric conditions exclusionary for CFS. Illness classification at the time of the clinical study utilized two algorithms: (1 the same criteria as in the surveillance study; (2 a standardized clinically empirical algorithm based on quantitative assessment of the major domains of CFS (impairment, fatigue, and accompanying symptoms. Results One hundred and sixty-four participants had no exclusionary conditions at the time of this study. Clinically empirical classification identified 43 subjects as CFS, 57 as ISF, and 64 as not ill. There was minimal association between the empirical classification and classification by the surveillance criteria. Subjects empirically classified as CFS had significantly worse impairment (evaluated by the SF-36, more severe fatigue (documented by the multidimensional fatigue inventory, more frequent and severe accompanying symptoms than those with ISF, who in turn had significantly worse scores than the not ill; this was not true for classification by the surveillance algorithm. Conclusion The empirical definition includes all aspects of CFS specified in the 1994 case definition and identifies persons with
Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Krivzov, Juri; Notaerts, Liza
Single case studies are at the origin of both theory development and research in the field of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. While clinical case studies are the hallmark of psychoanalytic theory and practice, their scientific value has been strongly criticized. To address problems with the subjective bias of retrospective therapist reports and uncontrollability of clinical case studies, systematic approaches to investigate psychotherapy process and outcome at the level of the single case have been developed. Such empirical case studies are also able to bridge the famous gap between academic research and clinical practice as they provide clinically relevant insights into how psychotherapy works. This study presents a review of psychoanalytic empirical case studies published in ISI-ranked journals and maps the characteristics of the study, therapist, patient en therapies that are investigated. Empirical case studies increased in quantity and quality (amount of information and systematization) over time. While future studies could pay more attention to providing contextual information on therapist characteristics and informed consent considerations, the available literature provides a basis to conduct meta-studies of single cases and as such contribute to knowledge aggregation. PMID:29046660
Fässler, Margrit; Meissner, Karin; Schneider, Antonius; Linde, Klaus
The use of placebo interventions outside clinical trials is ethically, professionally and legally controversial. Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues. We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2009 in order to identify cross-sectional surveys, qualitative or longitudinal studies among health care professionals, students or patients which investigated at least one of the following issues--frequency of placebo use or attitudes to, or motivations for, the use of placebo interventions. At least two reviewers extracted information on the study methods, participants and findings. Descriptive summaries were prepared in an iterative process by at least two reviewers per study. Twenty-two studies from 12 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Most studies had relevant shortcomings. The proportion of respondents reporting that they had applied 'pure' placebos (for example, saline injection) during their professional life varied between 17% and 80% among physicians and between 51% and 100% among nurses, but it seems that the actual frequency of such use seems to be rare. The use of 'impure' or 'active' placebos (for example, antibiotics for viral infections) is likely to be much more frequent. However, it is impossible to make a reliable estimation because there is no agreement of what an impure placebo might be. Studies using qualitative methods or asking participants to judge case examples suggest that motivations and attitudes towards placebo use are complex and health care providers are often faced with a dilemma. Although the available evidence is incomplete and confusing at times there can be little doubt that the prevalence of placebo use outside of clinical trials is not negligible and that views and attitudes on placebos use differ considerably among individuals, both health care professionals and patients. Further
Background The use of placebo interventions outside clinical trials is ethically, professionally and legally controversial. Little is known about the frequency and circumstances of placebo use in clinical practice. Our aim was to summarize the available empirical studies addressing these issues. Methods We searched PubMed and EMBASE from inception to July 2009 in order to identify cross-sectional surveys, qualitative or longitudinal studies among health care professionals, students or patients which investigated at least one of the following issues - frequency of placebo use or attitudes to, or motivations for, the use of placebo interventions. At least two reviewers extracted information on the study methods, participants and findings. Descriptive summaries were prepared in an iterative process by at least two reviewers per study. Results Twenty-two studies from 12 different countries met the inclusion criteria. Most studies had relevant shortcomings. The proportion of respondents reporting that they had applied 'pure' placebos (for example, saline injection) during their professional life varied between 17% and 80% among physicians and between 51% and 100% among nurses, but it seems that the actual frequency of such use seems to be rare. The use of 'impure' or 'active' placebos (for example, antibiotics for viral infections) is likely to be much more frequent. However, it is impossible to make a reliable estimation because there is no agreement of what an impure placebo might be. Studies using qualitative methods or asking participants to judge case examples suggest that motivations and attitudes towards placebo use are complex and health care providers are often faced with a dilemma. Conclusions Although the available evidence is incomplete and confusing at times there can be little doubt that the prevalence of placebo use outside of clinical trials is not negligible and that views and attitudes on placebos use differ considerably among individuals, both health
Mundon, Chandra R; Anderson, Melissa L; Najavits, Lisa M
Despite the high prevalence of substance use disorder (SUD) and its frequent comorbidity with mental illness, individuals with SUD are less likely to receive effective SUD treatment from mental health practitioners than SUD counselors. Limited competence and interest in treating this clinical population are likely influenced by a lack of formal training in SUD treatment. Using a factorial survey-vignette design that included three clinical vignettes and a supplementary survey instrument, we investigated whether clinical psychology doctoral students differ in their level of negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD versus major depressive disorder (MDD); whether they differ in their attributions for SUD versus MDD; and how their negative emotional reactions and attributions impact their interest in pursuing SUD clinical work. Participants were 155 clinical psychology graduate-level doctoral students (72% female). Participants endorsed more negative emotional reactions toward clients with SUD than toward clients with MDD. They were also more likely to identify poor willpower as the cause for SUD than for MDD. More than a third reported interest in working with SUD populations. Highest levels of interest were associated with prior professional and personal experience with SUD, four to six years of clinical experience, and postmodern theoretical orientation.
Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Sánchez-Henarejos, Ana; Toval, Ambrosio; Sánchez-García, Ana Belén; Hernández-Hernández, Isabel; Fernandez-Luque, Luis
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the security behavior of healthcare professionals in a real clinical setting. Standards, guidelines and recommendations on security and privacy best practices for staff personnel were identified using a systematic literature review. After a revision process, a questionnaire consisting of 27 questions was created and responded to by 180 health professionals from a public hospital. Weak passwords were reported by 62.2% of the respondents, 31.7% were unaware of the organization's procedures for discarding confidential information, and 19.4% did not carry out these procedures. Half of the respondents (51.7%) did not take measures to ensure that the personal health information on the computer monitor could not be seen by unauthorized individuals, and 57.8% were unaware of the procedure established to report a security violation. The correlation between the number of years in the position and good security practices was not significant (Pearson's r=0.085, P=0.254). Age was weakly correlated with good security practices (Pearson's r=-0.169, P=0.028). A Mann-Whitney test showed no significant difference between the respondents' security behavior as regards gender (U=2536, P=0.792, n=178). The results of the study suggest that more efforts are required to improve security education for health personnel. It was found that both preventive and corrective actions are needed to prevent health staff from causing security incidents. Healthcare organizations should: identify the types of information that require protection, clearly communicate the penalties that will be imposed, promote security training courses, and define what the organization considers improper behavior to be and communicate this to all personnel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J
It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style.
Prasad, Vinay; Jorgenson, Joel; Ioannidis, John P A; Cifu, Adam
Although observational studies provide useful descriptive and correlative information, their role in the evaluation of medical interventions remains contentious. There has been no systematic evaluation of authors' attitudes toward their own nonrandomized studies and how often they recommend specific medical practices. We reviewed all original articles of nonrandomized studies published in 2010 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, and Annals of Internal Medicine. We classified articles based on whether authors recommend a medical practice and whether they state that a randomized trial is needed to support their recommendation. We also examined the types of logical extrapolations used by authors who did advance recommendations. Of the 631 original articles published in 2010, 298 (47%) articles were eligible observational studies. In 167 (56%) of 298 studies, authors recommended a medical practice based on their results. Only 24 (14%) of 167 studies stated that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) should be done to validate the recommendation, whereas the other 143 articles made a total of 149 logical extrapolations to recommend specific medical practices. Recommendations without a call for a randomized trial were most common in studies of modifiable factors (59%), but they were also common in studies reporting incidence or prevalence (51%), studies examining novel tests (41%), and association studies of nonmodifiable factors (32%). The authors of observational studies often extrapolate their results to make recommendations concerning a medical practice, typically without first calling for a RCT. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sprenkle, Douglas H.; Olson, David H. L.
The interaction processes of 25 couples receiving marriage counseling were compared with a control group of 25 couples not receiving counseling. The study was a partial test of a circumplex model of marital and family systems. The major variable was adaptability. Creativity and support were also examined. (Author)
Borsci, Simone; Buckle, Peter; Hanna, George B
Use of in-vitro point of care devices - intended as tests performed out of laboratories and near patient - is increasing in clinical environments. International standards indicate that interaction assessment should not end after the product release, yet human factors methods are frequently not included in clinical and empirical studies of these devices. Whilst the literature confirms some advantages of bed-side tests compared to those in laboratories there is a lack of knowledge of the risks associated with their use. This article provides a review of approaches applied by clinical researchers to model the use of in-vitro testing. Results suggest that only a few studies have explored human factor approaches. Furthermore, when researchers investigated people-device interaction these were predominantly limited to qualitative and not standardised approaches. The methodological failings and limitations of these studies, identified by us, demonstrate the growing need to integrate human factors methods in the medical field.
Nilson, Elizabeth G; Acres, Cathleen A; Tamerin, Naomi G; Fins, Joseph J
The Institute of Medicine's quality imperatives include the need to provide safe, effective, patient-centered, timely, efficient, and equitable care. Less attention has been paid to quality metrics as they relate to the assessment of clinical ethics consultation and its impact on care. A better understanding of how ethics consultation influences the quality of care might identify opportunities for improvement. A descriptive pilot study, involving 7 hospitals in the New York-Presbyterian Healthcare System, was conducted to identify key elements of the ethics consultative process that might impact clinical and psychosocial outcomes. A majority of consults involved medical or intensive care unit patients and end-of-life decision making; 75.5% had or received a do-not-resuscitate order, 90.6% lacked decision-making capacity, 43.4% had an advance directive. Conflict existed in a majority. Future research should include surrogate decision making, patients on nonmedical services who may have unrecognized ethical dilemmas, and the role of conflict in clinical care.
Chima, Sylvester C
Informed consent is a legal and ethical doctrine derived from the principle of respect for autonomy. Generally two rights derived from autonomy are accorded legal protection. The constitutional right to bodily integrity followed by the right to bodily well-being, protected by professional negligence rules. Therefore healthcare professionals treating patients' without valid consent may be guilty of infringing patients' rights. Many challenges are experienced by doctors obtaining informed consent in complex multicultural societies like South Africa. These include different cultural ethos, multilingualism, poverty, education, unfamiliarity with libertarian rights based autonomy, and power asymmetry between doctors and patients. All of which could impact on the ability of doctors to obtain legally valid informed consent. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the quality of informed consent obtained by doctors practicing in South Africa is consistent with international ethical standards and local regulations. Responses from 946 participants including doctors, nurses and patients was analyzed, using a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire and person triangulation in selected public hospitals in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The median age of 168 doctors participating was 30 years with 51% females, 28% interns, 16% medical officers, 26% registrars, 30% consultant/specialists. A broad range of clinical specialties were represented. Challenges to informed consent practice include language difficulties, lack of interpreters, workload, and time constraints. Doctors spent 5-10 minutes on consent, disclosed most information required to patients, however knowledge of essential local laws was inadequate. Informed consent aggregate scores (ICAS) showed that interns/registrars scored lower than consultants/specialists. ICAS scores were statistically significant by specialty (p = 0.005), with radiologists and anaesthetists scoring lowest, while
Ye, Xiangru; Ma, Jian; Hu, Bijie; Gao, Xiaodong; He, Lixian; Shen, Wei; Weng, Lei; Cai, Liming; Huang, Yonggang; Hu, Zheng; Xu, Jianpu; Zhao, Lan; Huang, Meijiang; Cui, Xuefan; Tu, Chunling
To determine the effectiveness of empiric antibiotic regimens covering atypical pathogens with respect to detailed clinical and economic outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A population-based, multicenter, retrospective cohort study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Patients with a diagnosis of CAP were enrolled and categorized into two groups according to the initial antibiotic strategy used - covering or not covering atypical pathogens. Regression analysis was performed to assess their clinical outcomes (all-cause mortality, clinical improvement rate after 72 h of antimicrobial therapy, and clinical cure rate) and economic outcomes (length of stay, hospitalization costs, and antibiotic expenditure). A total of 827 patients met the criteria for CAP; 561 (67.8%) received antibiotics with atypical pathogen coverage (APC group), while 266 (32.2%) did not (non-APC group). Regression analysis revealed that the all-cause mortality was much lower in the APC group than in the non-APC group (0.9% vs. 4.9%, respectively), with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.49). Clinical improvement at 72 h (87.7% vs. 85.0%, p=0.274) and the clinical cure rate (91.1% vs. 88.3%, p=0.213) were more favorable in the APC group, but with no significant difference compared to the non-APC group. Moreover, the APC group had a shorter mean length of stay (APC 10.2 days vs. non-APC 11.6 days, patypical pathogens for hospitalized CAP patients is associated with reduced mortality and economic burden. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The reviewer takes Hannes FRICKE's book on the cross-relations of literature, film and psycho-trauma studies as a point of departure to articulate some thoughts and observations about the continuing dissatisfactory state of interdisciplinary literature and culture studies. In the introductory sections, the reviewer gives examples which recall the absurdities of post-modern psycho-trauma philosophy in the tradition of Richard RORTY and, at the same time, underlines how this post-modernist minority position is actually quite well embedded in the interpretations of main stream German speaking philologies with which postmodernism often seems to be so much at odds. The unseen common denominator lies in an anti-analytical and anti-interdisciplinary ideology that tends to de-empiricize and ontologize psycho-social phenomena and gives proof to the recently coined key word about the re-philologizing of the humanities. This epistemological backlash is all the more deplorable since many fields in social sciences and clinical studies have began to engage in the narrative turn, i.e., follow a cross-disciplinary interest in narration as a fundamental core process in human psyche and interaction. Thus, the anti-narrative and anti-interactional habits which are shared by main stream philologies makes it seem increasingly unlikely that literature studies will soon realize the inevitability of engaging in qualitative-empirical and psychological studies of art, media and reader response. The quite intricate dynamics of de-empiricizing psycho-social phenomena of narration can even be found in projects which explicitly try to inaugurate a philological narratology within a cross-disciplinary context (as, for instance, the two narratological readers of NÜNNING & NÜNNING or the Hamburg DFG-Research-Group on Narratology. Moreover, at the heart of these anti-enlightenment latencies of the anti-analytic and anti-narrative turn, in some instances, authors in social
Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell
This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…
This article proposes a systematic methodology for the development of a problem analysis for cross-sectional, empirical research. This methodology is referred to as the 'Annabel approach'. It is suitable both for academic studies and applied (business) studies. In addition it can be used for both
Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.
An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination. PMID:25360060
Full Text Available The technology acceptance model (TAM has been widely used to study user acceptance of new computer technologies. Previous studies claimed that future technology acceptance research should explore other additional explanatory variables, which may affect the originally proposed constructs of the TAM. The use of information technology in the health care sector and especially in hospitals offers great potential for improving the performance of physicians, increasing the quality of services and also reducing the organizational expenses. However, the main challenge that arises according to the literature is whether healthcare professionals are willing to adopt and use clinical information technology while performing their tasks. Although adoption of various information technologies has been studied using the technology acceptance model (TAM, the study of technology acceptance for professional groups (such as physicians has been limited. Physician adoption of clinical information technology is important for its successful implementation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to gain a better insight about factors affecting physicians’ acceptance of clinical decision support systems (CDSS in a hospital setting. The results reflect the importance of perceived threat to professional autonomy, perceived interactivity with clinical IT, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use in determining physicians’ intention to use CDSS.
Book, Theodore; Wallach, Dan S.
Advertising, long the financial mainstay of the web ecosystem, has become nearly ubiquitous in the world of mobile apps. While ad targeting on the web is fairly well understood, mobile ad targeting is much less studied. In this paper, we use empirical methods to collect a database of over 225,000 ads on 32 simulated devices hosting one of three distinct user profiles. We then analyze how the ads are targeted by correlating ads to potential targeting profiles using Bayes' rule and Pearson's ch...
Towards the system-wide implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health in routine clinical practice: Empirical findings of a pilot study from Mainland China.
Reinhardt, Jan D; Zhang, Xia; Prodinger, Birgit; Ehrmann-Bostan, Cristina; Selb, Melissa; Stucki, Gerold; Li, Jianan
The aims of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Generic Set in routine clinical practice, and of creating a functioning score based on it, and, subsequently, to examine its sensitivity to change. In this prospective cohort study, data from 761 adult inpatients from 21 Chinese hospitals were analysed. Each patient was assessed at admission and discharge. Feasibility was evaluated by analysing mean assessment time. The Rasch model was used to create a metric of functioning. Sensitivity to change was analysed with mixed-effects regression and by calculating standardized effect size based on Cohen's f2. Mean duration of assessment was 5.3 min, with a significant decrease between admission and discharge. After removal of the item remunerative employment, the remaining ICF Generic Set categories fitted the Rasch model well. With a mean improvement in functioning of 12.1 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 11.5-12.6), this metric proved sensitive to change, both in terms of statistical significance (p ICF Generic Set is feasible for use in routine clinical practice and is promising to serve as the basis for the development of a functioning score that is sensitive to change.
Diversifying clothing research in Southern Africa, Vol 2, 2017. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY EXPLORING BODY PERCEPTION AND APPAREL FIT. PREFERENCES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN WOMEN. Reena Pandarum*, Simon C Harlock & Lawrance Hunter. ABSTRACT. This empirical study examines the body shapes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray studies provide a way of linking variations of phenotypes with their genetic causations. Constructing predictive models using high dimensional microarray measurements usually consists of three steps: (1 unsupervised gene screening; (2 supervised gene screening; and (3 statistical model building. Supervised gene screening based on marginal gene ranking is commonly used to reduce the number of genes in the model building. Various simple statistics, such as t-statistic or signal to noise ratio, have been used to rank genes in the supervised screening. Despite of its extensive usage, statistical study of supervised gene screening remains scarce. Our study is partly motivated by the differences in gene discovery results caused by using different supervised gene screening methods. Results We investigate concordance and reproducibility of supervised gene screening based on eight commonly used marginal statistics. Concordance is assessed by the relative fractions of overlaps between top ranked genes screened using different marginal statistics. We propose a Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, which measures reproducibility of individual genes under the supervised screening. Empirical studies are based on four public microarray data. We consider the cases where the top 20%, 40% and 60% genes are screened. Conclusion From a gene discovery point of view, the effect of supervised gene screening based on different marginal statistics cannot be ignored. Empirical studies show that (1 genes passed different supervised screenings may be considerably different; (2 concordance may vary, depending on the underlying data structure and percentage of selected genes; (3 evaluated with the Bootstrap Reproducibility Index, genes passed supervised screenings are only moderately reproducible; and (4 concordance cannot be improved by supervised screening based on reproducibility.
MacEachren, A M; Roth, R E; O'Brien, J; Li, B; Swingley, D; Gahegan, M
This paper presents two linked empirical studies focused on uncertainty visualization. The experiments are framed from two conceptual perspectives. First, a typology of uncertainty is used to delineate kinds of uncertainty matched with space, time, and attribute components of data. Second, concepts from visual semiotics are applied to characterize the kind of visual signification that is appropriate for representing those different categories of uncertainty. This framework guided the two experiments reported here. The first addresses representation intuitiveness, considering both visual variables and iconicity of representation. The second addresses relative performance of the most intuitive abstract and iconic representations of uncertainty on a map reading task. Combined results suggest initial guidelines for representing uncertainty and discussion focuses on practical applicability of results.
Wilczynski, Nancy L.; Haynes, R. Brian
BACKGROUND: It is important for clinical end users of MEDLINE to be able to retrieve articles that are both scientifically sound and directly relevant to clinical practice. The use of methodologic search filters (such as "random allocation" for sound studies of medical interventions) has been advocated to improve the accuracy of searching for such studies. Methodologic search filters have been tested in previous MEDLINE files but indexing continues to evolve and the operating characteristics ...
Within the last 25 years composite resin materials have in many countries successively replaced amalgam as a restorative for posterior teeth. Resin materials and bonding systems are continuously being improved by the manufactures, adhesive procedures are now included in the curriculum of most...... universities and practicing dentists restore millions of teeth throughout the World with composite resin materials. Do we know enough about the clinical performance of these restorations over time? Numerous in vitro studies are being published on resin materials and adhesion, some of them attempting to imitate...... and repair? Have new materials improved longevity? Are there still clinical and material problems to be solved? And what has the highest impact on longevity of posterior resin restorations – the material, the dentist, the patient or the tooth? These matters will be discussed on the basis of the literature...
A.J. van Stel (André)
textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between
Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.
The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.
Full Text Available The personality of an entrepreneur is one of the most important characteristics of reaching success by creating jobs and opportunities. In this paper, we demonstrate an empirical study on personal characteristics of students who are supposed to act as entrepreneur to create jobs in seven fields of accounting, computer science, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, metallurgy engineering, electrical engineering and drawing. There are seven aspects of accepting reasonable risk, locus of control, the need for success, mental health conditions, being pragmatic, tolerating ambiguity, dreaming and the sense of challenging in our study to measure the level of entrepreneurship. We uniformly distribute 133 questionnaires among undergraduate students in all seven groups and analyze the results based on t-student test. Our investigation indicates that all students accept reasonable amount of risk, they preserve sufficient locus of control and they are eager for success. In addition, our tests indicate that students believe they maintain sufficient level of mental health care with strong sense of being pragmatic and they could handle ambiguity and challenges.
Full Text Available The aim of our research is to look into the diversity within gifted and talented students. This is important to better understand their complexity and thus offer a more appropriate educational programs. There are rather few empirical works which attempt to identify high abilities profiles (giftedness and talent that actually exist beyond the theoretical level. The present work intends to single out the different patterns or profiles resulting from the combination of the successful intelligence abilities (analytical, synthetic and practical, as defined by Stenberg. A total of 431 students from the Region of Murcia participated in this study. These students performed the Aurora Battery tasks (Chart, Grigorenko, & Sternberg, 2008, designed to measure the analytical, practical and creative intelligence. Analytically gifted students (n=27, practically gifted (n=33 and creatively gifted (n= 34 were identified, taking as criteria scores equal to or higher than 120 IQ on each intelligence. Different Q-factor analyses were carried out for the three groups of students, in such a way that students were grouped according to their similarities. A total of 10 profiles showing how successful intelligence abilities are combined were obtained, something that has made possible to support the theory put forward by Sternberg (2000: the analytical, practical and creative talent profiles, as well as the resulting combinations, the analytical-practical, analytical-creative, practical-creative profiles, along with the consummate balance talent (high performance in the three types of intelligence.
Alladin, Assen; Sabatini, Linda; Amundson, Jon K
This paper briefly surveys the trend of and controversy surrounding empirical validation in psychotherapy. Empirical validation of hypnotherapy has paralleled the practice of validation in psychotherapy and the professionalization of clinical psychology, in general. This evolution in determining what counts as evidence for bona fide clinical practice has gone from theory-driven clinical approaches in the 1960s and 1970s through critical attempts at categorization of empirically supported therapies in the 1990s on to the concept of evidence-based practice in 2006. Implications of this progression in professional psychology are discussed in the light of hypnosis's current quest for validation and empirical accreditation.
Lantos, Paul M; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Wormser, Gary P; Clemen, Robert
The skin lesion of early Lyme disease, erythema migrans (EM), is so characteristic that routine practice is to treat all such patients with antibiotics. Because other skin lesions may resemble EM, it is not known whether presumptive treatment of EM is appropriate in regions where Lyme disease is rare. We constructed a decision model to compare the cost and clinical effectiveness of three strategies for the management of EM: Treat All, Observe, and Serology as a function of the probability that an EM-like lesion is Lyme disease. Treat All was found to be the preferred strategy in regions that are endemic for Lyme disease. Where Lyme disease is rare, Observe is the preferred strategy, as presumptive treatment would be expected to produce excessive harm and increased costs. Where Lyme disease is rare, clinicians and public health officials should consider observing patients with EM-like lesions who lack travel to Lyme disease-endemic areas.
Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.
Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 31; Issue 3. Empirical pseudo-potential studies on electronic structure of semiconducting quantum dots. Anjali Kshirsagar Neelesh ... Theoretical investigations of electronic structure of quantum dots is of current interest in nanophase materials. Empirical theories such ...
This study focuses on assessing the robustness of the AASHTO Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG v 1.1) for rigid pavement : design projects in Wisconsin. The primary tasks conducted in this study included performing sensitivity analys...
Verduijn, J.; Milaneschi, Y.; van Hemert, A.M.; Schoevers, R.A.; Hickie, I.B.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Beekman, A.T.F.
Objective: Clinical staging has been proposed to supplement psychiatric diagnoses. We examined the construct and predictive validity of a clinical staging model for major depressive disorder (MDD) that distinguishes 8 consecutive stages (0, 1A, 1B, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4) based on symptom severity
Szkodny, Lauren E; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R
Knowledge of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) predominantly derives from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, there may be unique or complex issues encountered in practice, but not necessarily in the context of a controlled clinical trial. Therefore, launching a systematic dialogue between researcher and practicing clinician can be instrumental in augmenting evidence-based therapies through identification of variables that promote and interfere with clinical effectiveness. Through an initiative sponsored by the American Psychological Association's Divisions 12 (Society for Clinical Psychology) and 29 (Psychotherapy), this study aimed to examine clinical experiences conducting CBT for GAD. The participants were 260 psychotherapists who completed an online survey on assessment and therapeutic intervention utilization and their experience of factors that limit successful GAD treatment and symptom reduction. The majority of respondents reported 20 years or less experience using ESTs for GAD, typically treating clients in outpatient clinics, treatment centers, and private practice. Some of the most commonly used interventions address clients' maladaptive cognitions and elevated anxiety and muscle tension typical of GAD. Approximately one half of respondents reported incorporating integrative techniques into treatment. Factors perceived as limiting effective GAD treatment included severity and chronicity of GAD, presence of comorbid conditions, stressful home and work environments, client motivation and resistance to treatment, and issues encountered when executing therapy techniques. This study provides researchers with clinically derived directions for future empirical investigation into enhancing efficacy of GAD treatment. © 2013.
This study examines the secondary literature on Max Weber’s (1864-1920) writings onIslam and the Ottoman Empire. It demarcates approaches prevalent in the secondaryliterature. Three basic themes are apparent:- Section a) concentrates on authors who applied Weber’s concepts of patrimonialism andbureaucracy to non-Ottoman countries, such as Maslovski (on the Soviet bureaucracy)and Eisenberg (on China).- Section b) focuses on authors who studied the Ottoman Empire utilizing non-Weberianaboveall ...
Kéri, Szabolcs; Kelemen, Oguz
This paper explores the relationship among schizophrenia, spirituality, and Christian religiosity. We interviewed 120 patients with schizophrenia and 120 control individuals (74.2 % of individuals with self-reported Christian religions). Patients with schizophrenia showed increases in positive spirituality and decreases in positive congregational support, as measured by the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality. There was no significant difference in Christian religiosity. Higher positive spirituality was predicted by more severe self-disorder, perceptual disorder, and positive clinical symptoms. Schizophrenia patients with religious delusions did not exhibit enhanced Christian beliefs and rituals. These results do not confirm the hypothesis of general hyper-religiosity in schizophrenia.
This thesis consists of four studies in the economics of education. All chapters use applied microeconometric techniques to answer questions on education. Chapter two studies determinants of school choice in Amsterdam. Contrasting to a popular argument on school choice, quality indicators are not
Speklé, R.F.; Elten, van H.J.; Kruis, A.
This paper studies the factors associated with organizations’ internal audit sourcing decisions, building from a previous study by Widener and Selto (henceforth W&S) [Widener, S.K., Selto, F.H., 1999. Management control systems and boundaries of the firm: why do firms outsource internal audit
Thomas, L. Eugene
Purpose of this study was to seek some index which would be useful in identifying those members of the current youth cohort who are most likely to have adopted a new set of attitudes and values, so that social scientists might have a useful tool for further study. (Author/CB)
Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Lassri, Dana; Soffer-Dudek, Nir; Shahar, Golan
Research of dissociative absorption has raised two questions: (a) Is absorption a unique dissociative factor within a three-factor structure, or a part of one general dissociative factor? Even when three factors are found, the specificity of the absorption factor is questionable. (b) Is absorption implicated in psychopathology? Although commonly viewed as "non-clinical" dissociation, absorption was recently hypothesized to be specifically associated with obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To address these questions, we conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on 679 undergraduates. Analyses supported the three-factor model, and a "purified" absorption scale was extracted from the original inclusive absorption factor. The purified scale predicted several psychopathology scales. As hypothesized, absorption was a stronger predictor of obsessive-compulsive symptoms than of general psychopathology. In addition, absorption was the only dissociative scale that longitudinally predicted obsessive-compulsive symptoms. We conclude that absorption is a unique and clinically relevant dissociative tendency that is particularly meaningful to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Laan, G.
This thesis consists of studies of corporate governance from a behavioral perspective. The chapters are about trust between chief executive officers (CEOs) and board chairpersons, asymmetric effects of corporate social responsibility on corporate financial performance, compliance with corporate
Lam, Heidi; Bertini, Enrico; Isenberg, Petra; Plaisant, Catherine; Carpendale, Sheelagh
We take a new, scenario-based look at evaluation in information visualization. Our seven scenarios, evaluating visual data analysis and reasoning, evaluating user performance, evaluating user experience, evaluating environments and work practices, evaluating communication through visualization, evaluating visualization algorithms, and evaluating collaborative data analysis were derived through an extensive literature review of over 800 visualization publications. These scenarios distinguish different study goals and types of research questions and are illustrated through example studies. Through this broad survey and the distillation of these scenarios, we make two contributions. One, we encapsulate the current practices in the information visualization research community and, two, we provide a different approach to reaching decisions about what might be the most effective evaluation of a given information visualization. Scenarios can be used to choose appropriate research questions and goals and the provided examples can be consulted for guidance on how to design one's own study.
The chapters of this thesis focus on policy-relevant research questions in economics of education and labor economics. All chapters make use of randomized experiments in order to answer these questions. The second chapter studies the returns to medical school in a regulated labor market, by
Hosbond, J. H.
As part of an ongoing study on mobile systems development (MSD), this paper presents preliminary findings of research-in-progress. The debate on mobility in research has so far been dominated by mobile HCI, technological innovations, and socio-technical issues related to new and emerging mobile w...
J.G. Duyvesteyn (Johan)
markdownabstractAbstract This dissertation presents evidence of five studies showing that sovereign fixed income markets are not always price efficient. The emerging local currency debt market has grown to a large size of more than 1.5 trill ion US Dollars at the end of 2012. The factors
Blanchflower, Danny G.; Oswald, Andrew J.
This paper studies the links between income, sexual behavior and reported happiness. It uses recent data on a random sample of 16,000 adult Americans. The paper finds that sexual activity enters strongly positively in happiness equations. Greater income does not buy more sex, nor more sexual partners. The typical American has sexual intercourse 2-3 times a month. Married people have more sex than those who are single, divorced, widowed or separated. Sexual activity appears to have greater eff...
Full Text Available Developing a technology push product that brings real novelty to the market is difficult, risky and costly. This case study analyzes success factors defined by the literature. True industrial cases, representing Finnish ICT firms in their early phase after a successful market entry, were researched for the success factor analysis. The whole set of the previously introduced success factors were variably supported, and three new factors arose. Because the technology pushed development processes are risky with high failure rates, the validated success factors are valuable knowledge for the developments intensive firm’s management.
Full Text Available The present study aims to analyze the accounting professionals’ point of view as opposed to the students and master students’ one, regarding the creative accounting phenomenon existence and manifestation forms. In order to accomplish this objective, there has been used the poll/investigation, as a research method and the questionnaire, as a research instrument. Within the study, there is suggested the testing of more hypotheses that contribute to the clarifying of the aspects wished to be analyzed through the research. These hypotheses’ acceptance or rejection is based on the „chi-square“ (Karl Pearson statistical test and rank ordering method. Trying to elaborate a global conclusion of the questionnaire, there could be noticed the fact that over 50% from the questioned accounting students are not tempted to use the creative accounting practices and techniques in order to optimize the taxation without breaking the actual law regulations. At the opposite side, more than a half from the questioned accounting professionals would use these practices without breaking the law regulations that lead to the taxation’s optimization. The creative accounting has a negative connotation if the accurate image of the financial position and of the performance is not targeted because it represents the essential factor for elaborating and grounding the accounting policies. However, the positive side of the creative accounting is not excluded, given that one appeals to the „fair“ professional judgment of the accounting professionals and to the good faith of managers.
Full Text Available Software engineering education is under constant pressure to provide students with industry-relevant knowledge and skills. Educators must address issues beyond exercises and theories that can be directly rehearsed in small settings. Industry training has similar requirements of relevance as companies seek to keep their workforce up to date with technological advances. Real-life software development often deals with large, software-intensive systems and is influenced by the complex effects of teamwork and distributed software development, which are hard to demonstrate in an educational environment. A way to experience such effects and to increase the relevance of software engineering education is to apply empirical studies in teaching. In this paper, we show how different types of empirical studies can be used for educational purposes in software engineering. We give examples illustrating how to utilize empirical studies, discuss challenges, and derive an initial guideline that supports teachers to include empirical studies in software engineering courses. Furthermore, we give examples that show how empirical studies contribute to high-quality learning outcomes, to student motivation, and to the awareness of the advantages of applying software engineering principles. Having awareness, experience, and understanding of the actions required, students are more likely to apply such principles under real-life constraints in their working life.
Zhang, Yichao; Zhang, Zhaochun; Guan, Jihong
Recently, researchers have reported many models mimicking real network evolution growth, among which some are based on network aggregation growth. However, until now, relatively few experiments have been reported. Accordingly, in this paper, photomicrographs of real materials (the agglomeration in the filtrate of slurry formed by a GaP-nanoparticle conglomerate dispersed in water) are analyzed within the framework of complex network theory. By data mapping from photomicrographs we generate undirected networks and as a definition of degree we adopt the number of pixel's nearest neighbors while adjacent pixels define a connection or an edge. We study the topological structure of these networks including degree distribution, clustering coefficient and average path length. In addition, we discuss the self-similarity and synchronizability of the networks. We find that the synchronizability of high-concentration agglomeration is better than that of low-concentration agglomeration; we also find that agglomeration networks possess good self-similar features
Burke, M.; Mangen, Anne; Kuzmicova, Anezka; Schilhab, Theresa
The objective of this article is to review extant empirical studies of empathy in narrative reading in light of (a) contemporary literary theory, and (b) neuroscientific studies of empathy, and to discuss how a closer interplay between neuroscience and literary studies may enhance our understanding
Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.
A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…
Duan, Rui; Cao, Ming; Wu, Yonghui; Huang, Jing; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua; Chen, Yong
Over the last decade, Electronic Health Records (EHR) systems have been increasingly implemented at US hospitals. Despite their great potential, the complex and uneven nature of clinical documentation and data quality brings additional challenges for analyzing EHR data. A critical challenge is the information bias due to the measurement errors in outcome and covariates. We conducted empirical studies to quantify the impacts of the information bias on association study. Specifically, we designed our simulation studies based on the characteristics of the Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network. Through simulation studies, we quantified the loss of power due to misclassifications in case ascertainment and measurement errors in covariate status extraction, with respect to different levels of misclassification rates, disease prevalence, and covariate frequencies. These empirical findings can inform investigators for better understanding of the potential power loss due to misclassification and measurement errors under a variety of conditions in EHR based association studies.
William A. Valliere; Robert E. Manning
The underlying hypothesis of this study is that environmental ethics influence public attitudes toward wilderness management. To study this hypothesis, environmental ethics were defined, categorized, and measured empirically. Additionally, attitudes toward selected wilderness management issues were measured. Associations were found between beliefs in selected...
Kimball, Miles A.
Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…
This is a contribution to the scholarly discussion concerning the limited use of the case study qualitative method in support of legal research. It demonstrates the use of the case study qualitative method in the context of an empirical legal research project, which examines stakeholder
Sharp, Helen; Dittrich, Yvonne; Souza, Cleidson R. B. de
Ethnography is a qualitative research method used to study people and cultures. It is largely adopted in disciplines outside software engineering, including different areas of computer science. Ethnography can provide an in-depth understanding of the socio-technological realities surrounding...... everyday software development practice, i.e., it can help to uncover not only what practitioners do, but also why they do it. Despite its potential, ethnography has not been widely adopted by empirical software engineering researchers, and receives little attention in the related literature. The main goal...... of this paper is to explain how empirical software engineering researchers would benefit from adopting ethnography. This is achieved by explicating four roles that ethnography can play in furthering the goals of empirical software engineering: to strengthen investigations into the social and human aspects...
Saxe, Brenda J.; Johnson, Susan M.
Empirically assesses the effectiveness of a group treatment program on intrapersonal symptomatology and interpersonal difficulties in a clinical population of women with a history of incest. Results indicate that a time-limited group, which focuses on the original trauma, is effective in reducing intrapersonal symptomatology for women with a…
Ford, Matthew W.; Devoto, Steve; Kent, Daniel W.; Harrison, Todd
Threat emanating from financial markets may intimidate college students to some degree. In this article, the authors considered the influence of such intimidation on student financial market knowledge. They hypothesized a negative relationship between intimidation and market knowledge. An empirical study of over 150 undergraduate business school…
This empirical study examines the body shapes and apparel fit incongruities experienced by a convenience sample of South African women (n=155), aged 20 to 65 years. Also examined was the extent to which apparel manufactured using the currently-available/in-use sizing systems accommodate the women's ...
Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu
Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…
of developing and using such applications. In this paper we present a comparison of web and desktop applications from the usability point of view. The comparison is based on an empirical study that investigates the performance of a group of users on two calendaring applications: Yahoo!Calendar and Microsoft...
Y. Chen (Yongping)
textabstractLabour flexibility in China???s Companies: An Empirical Study explores labour flexibility at the workplace in ten manufacturing companies in China. It addresses how HRM contributes and facilitates management in coping with increasing market competition. Flexible labour practices are
Sekulova, F.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.
The present article builds upon the results of an empirical study exploring key factors which determine life satisfaction in Barcelona. Based on a sample of 840 individuals we first look at the way changes in income, notably income reductions, associated with the current economic situation in Spain,
Graafland, Johan; Smid, Hugo
There are relatively few empirical studies on the impacts of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and programs. This article addresses the research gap by analyzing the incidence of, and the conditions that affect, decoupling (defined as divergence) among CSR policies, implementation of
Bolker, B.; Holyoak, M.; Křivan, Vlastimil; Rowe, L.; Schmitz, O.
Roč. 84, č. 5 (2003), s. 1101-1114 ISSN 0012-9658 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : community models * competition * empirical study Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.701, year: 2003
Sillanpää, Ilkka; Sillanpää, Sebastian
The purpose of this case study research is to present a literature review of supply chain strategy approaches, develop supply chain strategy framework and to validate a framework in empirical case study. Literature review and case study research are the research methods for this research. This study presents the supply chain strategy framework which merges together business environment, corporate strategy, supply chain demand and supply chain strategy. Research argues that all the different c...
We investigate adjacency matrices of bipartite graphs with a power-law degree distribution. Motivation for this study is twofold: first, vibrational states in granular matter and jammed sphere packings; second, graphs encoding social interaction, especially electronic commerce. We establish the position of the mobility edge and show that it strongly depends on the power in the degree distribution and on the ratio of the sizes of the two parts of the bipartite graph. At the jamming threshold, where the two parts have the same size, localization vanishes. We found that the multifractal spectrum is nontrivial in the delocalized phase, but still near the mobility edge. We also study an empirical bipartite graph, namely, the Amazon reviewer-item network. We found that in this specific graph the mobility edge disappears, and we draw a conclusion from this fact regarding earlier empirical studies of the Amazon network.
Sakr, Nourhan; Stein, Cliff
This work studies online scheduling algorithms for buffer management, develops new algorithms, and analyzes their performances. Packets arrive at a release time r, with a non-negative weight w and an integer deadline d. At each time step, at most one packet is scheduled. The modified greedy (MG) algorithm is 1.618-competitive for the objective of maximizing the sum of weights of packets sent, assuming agreeable deadlines. We analyze the empirical behavior of MG in a situation with arbitrary d...
Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne
Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support.
Lin, C. S.; Cable, S. B.; Sutton, E. K.
Accurate orbit prediction of space objects critically relies on modeling of thermospheric neutral density that determines drag force. In a trade study we have investigated a methodology to assess performances of neutral density models in predicting orbit against a baseline orbit trajectory. We use a metric defined as along-track error in a day a satellite is predicted to have for a given neutral density model when compared to its GPS positions. A set of ground truth data including Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) accelerometer and GPS data, solar radio F10.7 proxy and magnetic activity measurements are used to calculate the baseline orbit. This approach is applied to compare the daily along-track errors among HASDM, JB08, MSISE-00 and DTM-2012 neutral density models. The dynamically calibrated HASDM model yields a daily along-track error close to the baseline error and lower than the other empirical models. Among the three empirical models (JB08, MSISE-00 and DTM-2012) the MSISE-00 model has produced the smallest daily along-track error. The results suggest that the developed metric and methodology could be used to assess overall errors in orbit prediction expected from empirical density models. They have also been adapted in an analysis tool Satellite Orbital Drag Error Estimator (SODEE) to estimate orbit prediction errors.
Williams, Izaak L
Patients' admission to modern substance use disorder treatment comes with the attendant risk of being discharged from treatment-a widespread practice. This article describes the three mainstream theories of addiction that operate as a reference point for clinicians in reasoning about a decision to discharge a patient from treatment. The extant literature is reviewed to highlight the pathways that patients follow after administrative discharge. Little scientific research has been done to investigate claims and hypotheses about the therapeutic function of AD, which points to the need for empirical ethics to inform clinical addictions practice. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Jacob, B.; Revichandran, C.; NaveenKumar, K.R.
prolonged period, which is quite expensive and time consuming, certain predictive models are preferred. A predictive model uses parameters which are measurable and quantifiable variables and determined through empirical relations. Four empirical models have...
Beck, J. Gayle; Coffey, Scott F.
Individuals who experience a serious motor vehicle accident (MVA) are at increased risk for psychological problems, particularly Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In this article, we review the literature on PTSD among MVA survivors, with particular attention to available instruments to screen for and assess symptomatology of the disorder. Approaches to the treatment of PTSD in this population are reviewed, separated into interventions designed to prevent PTSD in unselected samples, treatment targeting individuals with Acute Stress Disorder that are designed to prevent subsequent development of PTSD, and therapy for individuals with chronic PTSD. Treatment process issues are discussed, in an effort to integrate empirical findings with clinical observations. The empirical literature suggests several approaches to treatment that have good potential outcomes, although continued work is needed to identify factors that predict treatment response, as well as augment individual-based treatment formats. PMID:18509507
Haynos, Ann F; Pearson, Carolyn M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B
Evidence suggests that eating disorder subtypes reflecting under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology personality traits constitute reliable phenotypes that differentiate treatment response. This study is the first to use statistical analyses to identify these subtypes within treatment-seeking individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and to use these statistically derived clusters to predict clinical outcomes. Using variables from the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire, K-means cluster analyses identified under-controlled, over-controlled, and low psychopathology subtypes within BN patients (n = 80) enrolled in a treatment trial. Generalized linear models examined the impact of personality subtypes on Eating Disorder Examination global score, binge eating frequency, and purging frequency cross-sectionally at baseline and longitudinally at end of treatment (EOT) and follow-up. In the longitudinal models, secondary analyses were conducted to examine personality subtype as a potential moderator of response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Enhanced (CBT-E) or Integrative Cognitive-Affective Therapy for BN (ICAT-BN). There were no baseline clinical differences between groups. In the longitudinal models, personality subtype predicted binge eating (p = 0.03) and purging (p = 0.01) frequency at EOT and binge eating frequency at follow-up (p = 0.045). The over-controlled group demonstrated the best outcomes on these variables. In secondary analyses, there was a treatment by subtype interaction for purging at follow-up (p = 0.04), which indicated a superiority of CBT-E over ICAT-BN for reducing purging among the over-controlled group. Empirically derived personality subtyping appears to be a valid classification system with potential to guide eating disorder treatment decisions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:506-514). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean
Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.
Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua
indoor moving objects. Specifically, the paper presents a method for the identification of movement patterns. Leveraging concepts from sequential pattern mining, the method takes into account the specifics of spatial movement and, in particular, the specifics of tracking data that captures indoor...... movement. For example, the paper’s proposal supports spatial aggregation and utilizes the topology of indoor spaces to achieve better performance. The paper reports on empirical studies with real and synthetic data that offer insights into the functional and computational aspects of its proposal....
Andrew C.L. Lyons
Full Text Available For many years, a trend for businesses has been to increase market segmentation and extend product and service-variety offerings in order to provid more choice for customers and gain a competitive advantags. However, there have been relatively few variety-related, empirical studies that have been undertaken. In this research, two empirical studies are presented that address the impact of product and service variety on business and business function performance. In the first (service-variety study, the focus concerns the relationship between service provision offered by UK-based, third-party logistics (3PL providers and the operational and financial performance of those providers. Here, the results of a large survey identify the most important services offered by 3PLs and the most important aspects of 3PL operational performance. Also, the research suggests that the range of service variety offered by 3PLs does not directly influence the 3PLs’ financial performance. The second (product-variety study presents the findings from an analysis of data from 163 manufacturing plants where the impact of product variety on the performance of five business functions is examined. An increase in product variety was found to influence business functions differently depending on the combination of customisation and variety offered to customers
Full Text Available The purpose of this case study research is to present a literature review of supply chain strategy approaches, develop supply chain strategy framework and to validate a framework in empirical case study. Literature review and case study research are the research methods for this research. This study presents the supply chain strategy framework which merges together business environment, corporate strategy, supply chain demand and supply chain strategy. Research argues that all the different concepts that are currently used as supply chain strategy can be condensed into a presented supply chain strategy framework. Developed supply chain strategy framework is a practical tool for business managers. Future research could be multiple case studies in the global environment to develop further the supply chain strategy framework.
Full Text Available The importance of diversification and performance in then strategic management literature is widely accepted among academics and practitioners . However, the proxies for performance and diversification that have been employed in past strategy research has not been unanimously agreed upon. Given the current state of confusion that exists with regard to the impact of corporate diversification on firm performance in selected Nigerian companies. The reason for increased interest in diversification has always been on the possibility that diversification is related to corporate performance. However , while this topic is rich in studies, empirical evidence semerging from various studies about the effect of diversification on performance have so far yield mixed results that are inconclusive and contradictory. In addition , despite the existence of these studies, very litlle attention has been given to the companies in developing countries including Nigeria. This means that there is a major gap in the relevant literature on developing countries which has to be covered by research. This research attempts to fill this gap by studying the situation of the Nigeria companies and providing more empirical evidence on the effects of corporate diversification on firm performance based on individual company-level data. Survey research design was adopted in this study with the application of simple random sampling tehnique in selecting our case study companies as well as our respondents. Primary data were collected through questionnaire. Data were analysed through descriptive statistics and correlation and coefficient of determination were used to test our hypothese. It was discovered that diversification impacted performance of these companies posivitely and we recommend that these companies should engage in geographical diversification in addition to other forms of diversification they are currently involved in for maximum performance.
Full Text Available This paper is carried out to empirically examine managerial perceptions on the relationship between supply chain collaboration practice and operational performance. The framework suggests that collaborative practice is characterised by three distinct factors: (1 decision synchronisation, (2 information sharing, and (3 incentive alignment, which enable the chain members to effectively match supply with customer demand. An important question is whether or not collaborative practice leads to better operational performance. A survey research was employed to assess the relationship between collaborative practice and operational performance of New Zealand companies. The survey results show significant positive impacts of key factors of collaborative practice on operational performance. The findings suggest that information sharing, decision synchronisation, and incentive alignment are important determinants of operational performance. This study demonstrates that the chain members need to understand the role of different key factors of collaborative practice that can be redesigned to leverage operational performance.
Nabi, Syed Irfan; Mirza, Abdulrahman A.; Alghathbar, Khaled
This paper presents selective results of a survey conducted to find out the much needed insight into the status of information security in Saudi Arabian organizations. The purpose of this research is to give the state of information assurance in the Kingdom and to better understand the prevalent ground realities. The survey covered technical aspects of information security, risk management and information assurance management. The results provide deep insights in to the existing level of information assurance in various sectors that can be helpful in better understanding the intricate details of the prevalent information security in the Kingdom. Also, the results can be very useful for information assurance policy makers in the government as well as private sector organizations. There are few empirical studies on information assurance governance available in literature, especially about the Middle East and Saudi Arabia, therefore, the results are invaluable for information security researchers in improving the understanding of information assurance in this region and the Kingdom.
Full Text Available timulated with the firm belief that environmental management helps enterprises to achieve business success, expressed by a majority of managers in the sample enterprises, we present the results of an empirical study in the Slovene processing industry. The purpose of our research work is to identify, analyse and present the importance of the environment in business decision-making, the role of environmental management in strategic decision-making and its distribution across the business functions; environmental performance in business processes; the use of the methods for environmentally oriented business decision-making and the developmental tendencies of environmental management in Slovene enterprises of the processing industry. We define the key drivers of environmental management and their effect on the environmental behaviour of these enterprises. We present and interpret data indicating that environmental management is caused not only by compliance and regulation, but also by competition and enterprises’ own initiative.
Abstract. Theoretical investigations of electronic structure of quantum dots is of current interest in nano- phase materials. Empirical theories such as effective mass approximation, tight binding methods and empirical pseudo-potential method are capable of explaining the experimentally observed optical properties.
Theoretical investigations of electronic structure of quantum dots is of current interest in nanophase materials. Empirical theories such as effective mass approximation, tight binding methods and empirical pseudo-potential method are capable of explaining the experimentally observed optical properties. We employ the ...
Balaciu Diana Elisabeta
Full Text Available The study analyses managers’ behaviour from Romania when dealing with creative accounting. For this we realized an empirical study within the Arad county space, having as main objective the identification of the managers’ perception regarding the usefulness of accounting information and of other factors considered when making decisions. Another aspect was to interpret the managers’ tendency towards manipulation or strategic management of results. The empirical research was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014, and the research method used was the survey, and as an instrument of the research we used the questionnaire. The questionnaires were posted on a website but some of them were applied directly in the field to ensure a response rate of at least 30%. For the analysis and confirmation of the feasibility of the questionnaire and of the measurement scale, we used Cronbach Alpha method. The results obtained after statistically processing the answers received from respondents and after testing the research hypotheses show that there is an increased interest of the managers from the investigated Arad firms to improve the quality of the financial accounting information and to give the users as beautiful an image as possible of the company’s performances; it is noticed their inclination to the manipulation of the accounting figures. On the other hand the results obtained demonstrate that, despite the fact that most of the managers from the sample consider that using ethics is a priority in making decisions, this idea is not an obstacle for more than a half to change an accounting policy that would affect the true image but would be favorable to the image of the company The utility of such research contributes to the insurance of the premises for the development of future research, looking to test the reaction of the professional accountants in our country, regarding the phenomenon of creative accounting.
Hackney, Kaylee; Boggs, David; Borozan, Anci
Companies wish for universities to provide business students with international education and awareness. Short- and long-term study-abroad programs are an effective method by which this is accomplished, but relatively few American students study abroad. In response to these facts, this study develops hypotheses that predict student willingness to…
Full Text Available Climatic variations affect agriculture in a process with no known end means. Adaptations help to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change. Unfortunately, adaptation has never been considered as a process. Current study empirically identified the adaptation process and its different stages. Moreover, little is known about the farm level adaptation strategies and their determinants. The study in hand found farm level adaptation strategies and determinants of these strategies. The study identified three stages of adaptation i.e. perception, intention and adaptation. It was found that 71.4% farmers perceived about climate change, 58.5% intended to adapt while 40.2% actually adapted. The study further explored that farmers do adaptations through changing crop variety (56.3%, changing planting dates (44.6%, tree plantation (37.5%, increase/conserve irrigation (39.3% and crop diversification (49.2%. The adaptation strategies used by farmers were autonomous and mostly determined perception to climate change. It was also noted that the adaptation strategies move in a circular process and once they are adapted they remained adapted for a longer period of time. Some constraints slow the adaptation process so; we recommend farmers should be given price incentives to speed-up this process.
Najafi, Seyedvahid; Saati, Saber; Tavana, Madjid
Service quality is often conceptualized as the comparison between service expectations and the actual performance perceptions. It enhances customer satisfaction, decreases customer defection, and promotes customer loyalty. Substantial literature has examined the concept of service quality, its dimensions, and measurement methods. We introduce the perceived service quality index (PSQI) as a single measure for evaluating the multiple-item service quality construct based on the SERVQUAL model. A slack-based measure (SBM) of efficiency with constant inputs is used to calculate the PSQI. In addition, a non-linear programming model based on the SBM is proposed to delineate an improvement guideline and improve service quality. An empirical study is conducted to assess the applicability of the method proposed in this study. A large number of studies have used DEA as a benchmarking tool to measure service quality. These models do not propose a coherent performance evaluation construct and consequently fail to deliver improvement guidelines for improving service quality. The DEA models proposed in this study are designed to evaluate and improve service quality within a comprehensive framework and without any dependency on external data.
Ana María Lucia-Casademunt
Full Text Available Purpose: In a multitude of studies, it is verified that the generation of positive attitudes for employees such as job satisfaction or job involvement, have a positive influence on productivity levels of companies. The current investigation focus on the identification of employee-profile -who is emotionally involved with their work activity- through the use of a set of individual, job related and attitudinal factors.Design/methodology: A review of the literature about the main factors that affect the job involvement particularly on its emotional dimension has been completed. For its measurement at the empirical level, various items related to psychological well being of employees included in the IV European Working Conditions Survey-2010 are used. Moreover, those items are identified in Job Involvement Questionnaire (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965. Since then, an empirical and multidimensional study is carried out by applying a logistic regression model on the sample of 11,149 employees obtained with European survey cited previously.Findings: The logistic regression model identifies the factors, which are directly related to emotional involvement at the workplace. Ultimately, is raised a definitive model that define the European employee-profile -who is emotionally involved at the workplace-: a rather aged person who has been working at his/her present place of employment for several years in a medium-sized company where possibly there exist a good working relationship between workers and their superiors –social support-. These employees are “white-collar” workers, have career advancement opportunities in the organizational hierarchy. They perform variety, flexible and complex tasks, which leads to satisfaction in terms of pay and working conditions.Research limitations/implications: Emotional involvement has been measured through self-awareness and, therefore, the corresponding bias in the key variable must be assumed. In addition, the casual
Zhang, X. L.; Weng, W. G.; Yuan, H. Y.
The study of crowd behavior is essential for the safe organization of mass events. However, precise quantitative empirical data are insufficient due to the lack of mass event scenarios suitable for observation. In this paper, crowd behavior during a mass event in which many people go through a door and then pass a bridge is studied by a new method based on a flow field visualization algorithm widely used in fluid experiments. Two important movement phases, laminar flow on a bridge and stop-and-go waves in a bottleneck area, are investigated. The results show that the velocity profile on the bridge is similar to that of fully developed laminar flow in a pipe. Quantitative analysis of the stop-and-go wave in the bottleneck area shows that the dominant fluctuation frequencies are mainly below 0.1 Hz and the peak frequency is around 0.05 Hz the wave propagation speed is about - 0.69 m s-1. The absolute decrease in speed as the wave propagates is also indicated. By a combination of shock wave theory and a fundamental diagram, an analytical model of a shock wave in a crowd is established to theoretically investigate the stop-and-go wave, and the model can be used to explain the measurement results. This study provides a new method and fundamental data for understanding crowd behavior. The results are also expected to be useful for the design of crowd management strategies during mass events.
Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.
Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper
The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.
Rothman, Steven I; Rothman, Michael J; Solinger, Alan B
To explore the hypothesis that placing clinical variables of differing metrics on a common linear scale of all-cause postdischarge mortality provides risk functions that are directly correlated with in-hospital mortality risk. Modelling study. An 805-bed community hospital in the southeastern USA. 42302 inpatients admitted for any reason, excluding obstetrics, paediatric and psychiatric patients. All-cause in-hospital and postdischarge mortalities, and associated correlations. Pearson correlation coefficients comparing in-hospital risks with postdischarge risks for creatinine, heart rate and a set of 12 nursing assessments are 0.920, 0.922 and 0.892, respectively. Correlation between postdischarge risk heart rate and the Modified Early Warning System (MEWS) component for heart rate is 0.855. The minimal excess risk values for creatinine and heart rate roughly correspond to the normal reference ranges. We also provide the risks for values outside that range, independent of expert opinion or a regression model. By summing risk functions, a first-approximation patient risk score is created, which correctly ranks 6 discharge categories by average mortality with pHealth Record. With just the variables in this paper, we achieve a risk score that correlates with discharge disposition. This is the first step towards creation of a universal measure of patient condition that reflects a generally applicable set of health-related risks. More importantly, we believe that our approach opens the door to a way of exploring and resolving many issues in patient assessment.
Fitch, W Tecumseh
The study of language evolution, and human cognitive evolution more generally, has often been ridiculed as unscientific, but in fact it differs little from many other disciplines that investigate past events, such as geology or cosmology. Well-crafted models of language evolution make numerous testable hypotheses, and if the principles of strong inference (simultaneous testing of multiple plausible hypotheses) are adopted, there is an increasing amount of relevant data allowing empirical evaluation of such models. The articles in this special issue provide a concise overview of current models of language evolution, emphasizing the testable predictions that they make, along with overviews of the many sources of data available to test them (emphasizing comparative, neural, and genetic data). The key challenge facing the study of language evolution is not a lack of data, but rather a weak commitment to hypothesis-testing approaches and strong inference, exacerbated by the broad and highly interdisciplinary nature of the relevant data. This introduction offers an overview of the field, and a summary of what needed to evolve to provide our species with language-ready brains. It then briefly discusses different contemporary models of language evolution, followed by an overview of different sources of data to test these models. I conclude with my own multistage model of how different components of language could have evolved.
Dodd, Ian; Habli, Ibrahim
Many safety-critical aircraft functions are software-enabled. Airborne software must be audited and approved by the aerospace certification authorities prior to deployment. The auditing process is time-consuming, and its outcome is unpredictable, due to the criticality and complex nature of airborne software. To ensure that the engineering of airborne software is systematically regulated and is auditable, certification authorities mandate compliance with safety standards that detail industrial best practice. This paper reviews existing practices in software safety certification. It also explores how software safety audits are performed in the civil aerospace domain. The paper then proposes a statistical method for supporting software safety audits by collecting and analysing data about the software throughout its lifecycle. This method is then empirically evaluated through an industrial case study based on data collected from 9 aerospace projects covering 58 software releases. The results of this case study show that our proposed method can help the certification authorities and the software and safety engineers to gain confidence in the certification readiness of airborne software and predict the likely outcome of the audits. The results also highlight some confidentiality issues concerning the management and retention of sensitive data generated from safety-critical projects.
Jen, Wen-Yuan; Chao, Chia-Cheng
The Health Risk Reminders and Surveillance (HRRS) system was designed to deliver critical abnormal test results of severely ill patients from Laboratory, Radiology, and Pathology departments to physicians within 5 min using cell phone text messages. This paper explores the success of the HRRS system. This study employed an augmented version of the DeLone and McLean IS success model. Seven variables (system quality, information quality, system use, user satisfaction, mobile healthcare anxiety, impact on the individual and impact on the organization) were used to evaluate the success of the HRRS system. The interrelationships between the seven variables were hypothesized and the hypotheses were empirically tested. The results indicate that the information quality of the HRRS system is positively associated with both system use and user satisfaction. In addition, system use is positively associated with user satisfaction, which is also positively associated with mobile healthcare anxiety. Moreover, results indicate that impact on the individual is positively associated with both user satisfaction and mobile healthcare anxiety. Finally, the impact of the organization is positively associated with impact on the individual. The results of the study provide an expanded understanding of the factors that contribute to mobile patient safety information system (IS) success. Implications of the relationship between system use and physician mobile healthcare anxiety are discussed.
Ahmet Hakan ÖZKAN
Full Text Available The level of the collaboration of third-party logistics users and logistic service providers are elaborated in Turkey. The synergy which is expected to come out after this cooperation seems to be lacking. Therefore the industry of Turkey is operating by carrying the opportunity cost of this synergy. The purpose of this paper is defining the reasons of the necessity of third-party logistics (3PL using and exploring the reasons of being reluctant to this kind of collaborations. An empirical study is conducted in industrial organizations in Turkey. The research is designed according to the structure of the Turkish companies and the main issues of the logistics. Semi-structured interview are used to collect information and learn the opinions of the managers of the companies. The responses from 7 logistic service provider companies and 10 from some other randomly selected companies were evaluated at this explaratory research, 17 valid responses are analyzed. According to findings of this study, the expected synergy does not seem to be able to appear before the removement of some prejudices and embracing the modern and effective methods. On the other hand, size of the companies is strictly correlated with outsourcing and it is the reason of inadequate demand in Turkey.
The research reported in this article aims to demonstrate a method for the systematic study of the therapist/patient interaction in psychoanalytic psychotherapy, drawing upon the tradition and methods of 'pragmatics'--the study of language in interaction. A brief introduction to the discipline of pragmatics demonstrates its relevance to the contemporary focus of clinical theory on the here-and-now dynamics of the relationship between analyst and patient. This is followed by a detailed study of five segments from the transcript of a therapeutic dialogue, drawn from a brief psychoanalytic psychotherapy, in which therapist and patient negotiate the meaning of the patient's symptom: Is it psychosomatic? The research seeks to show how the therapeutic process can be observed and studied as an interactional achievement, grounded in general and well-studied procedures through which meaning is intersubjectively developed and shared. Implications of the analysis for clinical theory and practice, and further research, are discussed.
Sherry, Alissa; Lyddon, William J.; Henson, Robin K.
The current study was designed to test specific hypotheses associated with W. J. Lyddon and A. Sherry's (2001) attachment theory model of developmental personality styles. More specifically, 4 adult attachment dimensions were correlated with 10 personality scales on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (T. Millon, R. Davis, & C.…
Yecely Aridaí Díaz-Beristain
Full Text Available Web-based Social Networks (W-bSNs have recently experienced a significant rise regarding users and the number of relations among them. Twitter is a case of W-bSN in which the relevance of the commentaries posted influences how users create new relations. The reputation of a user has a direct effect on the perception and opinions of other people and can be appropriately used to obtain advantages. The thought expressed by an influential user can produce, as an effect, which other users changed an idea about a topic. In this work, we present the design and results of the empirical study to analyze the cross influence among users, for their interest, and the messages they post and how relevant these messages are in how we create new relations. One of the main contributions of this approach is to analyze the behavior of users and the impact of the diversification of topics and the inclusion of additional resources to the tweet such as videos, images, or URLs. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed strategies are efficient for all accounts.
Full Text Available Purpose: Companies survive in saturated markets trying to be more productive and more efficient. In this context, it becomes critical for companies to manage the entire supply network to optimize overall performance. Hence, the supply strategy plays an important role because it influences the way in which production and logistics network has to be configured and managed. This paper explores the benefits obtained configuring different supply strategies adapted to customer needs.Design/methodology/approach: For this purpose a case research from a Tier 2 point of view of the supply chain has been conducted. Findings and Originality/value: The case research demonstrates that a higher service level, less holding costs and increase turnovers can be obtained implementing the adequate supply strategy. Originality/value: There is a scarcity of research specifically focused on applied Supply Chain Principles within network configuration processes. Moreover, there are few empirical studies of global Tier 2 with multiple decoupling points into its supply chain network.
Shen, Zhiyu; Li, Zhiyuan; Yew, Pen-Chung
Some results are reported from an empirical study of program characteristics that are important in parallelizing compiler writers, especially in the area of data dependence analysis and program transformations. The state of the art in data dependence analysis and some parallel execution techniques are examined. The major findings are included. Many subscripts contain symbolic terms with unknown values. A few methods of determining their values at compile time are evaluated. Array references with coupled subscripts appear quite frequently; these subscripts must be handled simultaneously in a dependence test, rather than being handled separately as in current test algorithms. Nonzero coefficients of loop indexes in most subscripts are found to be simple: they are either 1 or -1. This allows an exact real-valued test to be as accurate as an exact integer-valued test for one-dimensional or two-dimensional arrays. Dependencies with uncertain distance are found to be rather common, and one of the main reasons is the frequent appearance of symbolic terms with unknown values.
Xirasagar, Sudha; Samuels, Michael E; Stoskopf, Carleen H
The authors study the association between physician leadership styles and leadership effectiveness. Executive directors of community health centers were surveyed (269 respondents; response rate = 40.9 percent) for their perceptions of the medical director's leadership behaviors and effectiveness, using an adapted Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (43 items on a 0-4 point Likert-type scale), with additional questions on demographics and the center's clinical goals and achievements. The authors hypothesize that transformational leadership would be more positively associated with executive directors' ratings of effectiveness, satisfaction with the leader, and subordinate extra effort, as well as the center's clinical goal achievement, than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Separate ordinary least squares regressions were used to model each of the effectiveness measures, and general linear model regression was used to model clinical goal achievement. Results support the hypothesis and suggest that physician leadership development using the transformational leadership model may result in improved health care quality and cost control.
AMINI RARANI, Mostafa; RAFIYE, Hassan; KHEDMATI MORASAE, Esmaeil
Background: As social health is a condition-driven, dynamic and fluid concept, it seems necessary to construct and obtain a national and relevant concept of it for every society. Providing an empirical back up for Iran’s concept of social health was the aim of the present study. Methods: This study is an ecologic study in which available data for 30 provinces of Iran in 2007 were analyzed. In order to prove construct validity and obtain a social health index, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on six indicators of population growth, willful murder, poverty, unemployment, insurance coverage and literacy. Results: Following the factor analysis, two factors of Diathesis (made up of high population growth, poverty, low insurance coverage and illiteracy) and Problem (made up of unemployment and willful murder) were extracted. The diathesis and problem explained 48.6 and 19.6% of social health variance respectively. From provinces, Sistan & Baluchistan had the highest rate of poverty and violence and the lowest rate of literacy and insurance coverage. In terms of social health index, Tehran, Semnan, Isfahan, Bushehr and Mazandaran had the highest ranks while Sistan and Baluchistan, Lurestan, Kohkiloyeh and Kermanshah occupied the lowest ones. Conclusion: There are some differences and similarities between Iranian concept of social health and that of other societies. However, a matter that makes our concept special and different is its attention to population. The increase in literacy rate and insurance coverage along with reduction of poverty, violence and unemployment rates can be the main intervention strategies to improve social health status in Iran. PMID:23515572
Prolactinoma are treated with dopamine agonists, which are effective in reducing prolactin and tumor size. Studies reporting clinical and radiological outcome are scarce. The study described in chapter 2, assesses long-term outcome in patients treated with dopamine agonists for macroprolactinoma. An
David M. Bourrie
Full Text Available In order for the Open Access (OA to learning concept to a have wider impact in formal education, it is important that faculty members intent to adopt new educational innovations. However, little is known about which variables influence the intention of faculty members. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to empirically determine: 1 which of the characteristics of the educational innovation significantly influence the intention to adopt educational innovations, 2 which variables influence the readiness of faculty members intention to adopt educational innovations, and 3 how the characteristics of the innovations moderate the relationship between faculty readiness and intention to adopt the innovations. Participants of this study include 335 faculty members in ABET certified computer science and electrical engineering programs in the United States. The results show that ease of use is positively related to the intention of faculty members to adopt an educational innovation. We conclude that Open-CourseWare developers need to ensure that ease of use is emphasized in the CourseWare and they need to propagate these initially in institutions where faculty members have positive attitude to the CourseWare and care about student learning. In addition, a new method of identifying, building, and funding “open access grant” universities that develop easy-to-use educational innovations, make them available on an open access platform, and spread them widely by embedding agents in community colleges, schools, and other educational institutions is essential. Such an initiative may lead to wider adoption of MOOCS and other open access materials.
This paper presents framework of reverse logistics optimizing the stakeholders gain, social gain, economic gain and environmental gain. It identifies the roadblocks that prevail in recycling industry and describes various types of returns and wastes. Framework of the reverse logistics is evolved on the basis of actual happening of the items shown in table 1-4 disposed off from industries shown in table 6. The rejected items require environmental disposal passing through the different phases described in flow of operational framework. An operational framework of reverse logistics is developed studying fifty organizations.. In ad -dition three best practices of reverse logistics are proposed by consolidating the experiential information and rich hands on industrial experience in supply chain and reverse logistics area. The research has proposed the Social, Stakeholder, Economic and Environmental (SSEE) sustained gain model optimizing the benefits of stakeholders and highlights the variety of waste and its operational methodology in Pakistani industry. The proposed framework does not include the hospital waste, radioactive waste, hazardous materials waste, municipal waste, agricultural waste and cold chain waste like meat, milk, etc.The operational framework is existing way of doing that takes the waste materials from point of origin to the point of recycling. A better understanding of this framework may help researchers and front line managers to develop better, more ac -curate models for effective and sustainable utilization of waste materials, benefiting organizations and soci -ety by simultaneously enhancing the cost effectiveness and improving environmental awareness. The paper provides an operational framework of reverse logistics and 2S2E sustained gain model. Specific applications are examined through empirical research. (author)
Zain, Sharifah Raihan Syed Mohd
Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/821 on 27.03.2017 by CS (TIS) It is sometimes purported that one of the factors affecting a firm's value is its capital structure. The event of the 1997 Asian financial crisis was expected to affect the firms' gearing level as the firms' earnings deteriorated and the capital market collapsed. The main objective of this research is to examine empirically the determinants of the capital structure of Malaysian firms. The main additional aim is ...
Jerman, Damjana; Završnik, Bruno
This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected...
Gao, Shang; Zang, Zhe; Krogstie, John
Part 6: Decision Making and Knowledge Management; International audience; Mobile games have become very popular in recent years in China. This research aims to investigate the potential factors that influence users’ intention to play mobile games. Through the employment of structural equation modeling technology, a research model by extending technology acceptance model (TAM) with flow experience and social norms was proposed. This research model was empirically evaluated using survey data co...
The purpose of this article is to review of the empirical studies of parents’ attitudes toward school education in Japan and to lead problems about the study of the opinions and requests from parents to school in Japan. For this purpose, I try to review the empirical studies of parents’ attitudes toward Japanese school education in time series.
Landry, Robert J., III
This article begins with an overview of what is meant by empirical scientific research in the context of legal studies. With that backdrop, the argument is presented that without engaging in normative, theoretical, and doctrinal research in tandem with empirical scientific research, the role of legal studies scholarship in making meaningful…
Galster, Matthias; Tofan, Dan; Avgeriou, Paris
Background: Many empirical software engineering studies use students as subjects and are conducted as part of university courses. Aim: We aim at reporting our experiences with using guidelines for integrating empirical studies with our research and teaching goals. Method: We document our experience
Rendon, titled “Managing the Service Supply Chain in the Department of Defense: An Empirical Study of Current Management Practices.” 2 C...A., & Rendon, R. (2008). Managing the service supply chain in the Department of Defense: An empirical study of current management practices
Yang, M. Y.; Förstner, W.; Chai, D.
The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The inflammation of the non - keratinized epithelium of the glans penis (i.e., Balanities and that of prepuce (i.e., posthitis together comprise the term Balanoposthitis. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the aetiological and p redisposing factors for the development of Balanoposthitis, and to know its relation with venereal and non - venereal disease, local and systemic precipitatin g factors. To know the prevalence of Balanoposthitis in STD clinic. Study design - retrospective study . MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study material consists of 75 cases of balanoposthitis attending out - patient department Skin & STD clinic during a period exten din g from Feb, 1998 to Feb, 1999 . CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF A CASE: Only those cases which have a history of redness of glans or mucous surface of prepuce, with or without genital discharge or ulcer on glans or mucosal surface of prepuce with or without discharge or growth on the penis or fissuring of fore skin were selected for the study. RESULTS: Incidence of balanoposthitis during the period from Feb. 98 to Feb.99 was – 11.53%, out of 650 new STD cases. It was observed that maximum number of pat i ents w as in the 21 - 30 age group (33.34%. The next predominant groups affected were 17 - 20 & 31 - 40 age group (20% each. The third most common age group affected was 41 - 50 (16%. In this study 69 patients (92% who presented with balanoposthitis of whatever cause were found to be uncircumcised, only 6 cases (8% were found to be circumcised. Most cases who presented with balanoposthitis gave a history of exposure to STD risk. CONCLUSIONS: Balanoposthitis is very commonly encountered condition in the STD clinics wi th a multi factorial aetiology. Infective causes dominated over the other possible causes, and 30% of the candidial infection had diabetes mellitus as a predisposing factor.
Prenestini, Anna; Calciolari, Stefano; Lega, Federico; Grilli, Roberto
Health care organizations are pressured to improve the cost-effectiveness of service delivery. Clinical governance is an important trigger to improve care quality and safety and rank high in the reform agenda of health systems. The senior management team culture plays a major role in establishing clinical governance practices, because it strongly influences the values, attitudes, and behaviors of the members of an organization. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between senior management team culture and clinical governance in the public health care organizations of three Italian regions. The assessment of senior management culture was conducted using the Competing Values Framework and a corresponding instrument adapted for the Italian context. Clinical governance was assessed using an ad hoc instrument focused on the senior management team's perception and attitude toward clinical governance. The survey achieved a 54% response rate. The results of four different models demonstrate that organizations characterized by different dominant cultures are associated with significant differences in attitudes toward clinical governance. In particular, on average, dominant cultures with a prevailing external focus are associated with a more positive attitude toward clinical governance. The selection and appointments of top managers should consider the style of leadership that is most apt to facilitate the growth of rational and developmental cultures. Furthermore, the training of top managers and leading doctors should reinforce leadership aptitude and approaches that are consistent with the desired organizational cultures.
Noma, Hisashi; Matsui, Shigeyuki
The main purpose of microarray studies is screening of differentially expressed genes as candidates for further investigation. Because of limited resources in this stage, prioritizing genes are relevant statistical tasks in microarray studies. For effective gene selections, parametric empirical Bayes methods for ranking and selection of genes with largest effect sizes have been proposed (Noma et al., 2010; Biostatistics 11: 281-289). The hierarchical mixture model incorporates the differential and non-differential components and allows information borrowing across differential genes with separation from nuisance, non-differential genes. In this article, we develop empirical Bayes ranking methods via a semiparametric hierarchical mixture model. A nonparametric prior distribution, rather than parametric prior distributions, for effect sizes is specified and estimated using the "smoothing by roughening" approach of Laird and Louis (1991; Computational statistics and data analysis 12: 27-37). We present applications to childhood and infant leukemia clinical studies with microarrays for exploring genes related to prognosis or disease progression. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kelly, Joan B
When parents separate, children typically enter into new living arrangements with each parent in a pattern determined most often by one or both parents or, failing private agreement, as a result of recommendations and decisions by lawyers, therapists, custody evaluators, or family courts. Most of these decisions have been based on cultural traditions and beliefs regarding postseparation parenting plans, visitation guidelines adopted within jurisdictions, unsubstantiated theory, and strongly held personal values and professional opinions, and have resulted since the 1960s in children spending most of their time with one residential parent and limited time with nonresident, or "visiting", parents. A large body of social science and child development research generated over the past three decades has identified factors associated with risk and resiliency of children after divorce. Such research remains largely unknown and untapped by parents and professionals making these crucial decisions about children's living arrangements. This article highlights empirical and clinical research that is relevant to the shape of children's living arrangements after separation, focusing first on what is known about living arrangements following divorce, what factors influence living arrangements for separated and divorced children, children's views about their living arrangements, and living arrangements associated with children's adjustment following divorce. Based on this research, it is argued that traditional visiting patterns and guidelines are, for the majority of children, outdated, unnecessarily rigid, and restrictive, and fail in both the short and long term to address their best interests. Research-based parenting plan models offering multiple options for living arrangements following separation and divorce more appropriately serve children's diverse developmental and psychological needs.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the value or more specifically, the contribution of marketing communications strategy to effectiveness of marketing communications and hypothesizes that marketing communications strategy correlate with the effectiveness of marketing communications. The paper consists of two parts: the theoretical framework for the role of marketing communications strategy for the effectiveness of the marketing communications and the empirical analysis, based on the primary data collected. The concept of the marketing communication effectiveness assumes that there are variables that can have a positive influence on the effectiveness of marketing communications, which incorporates facets of the marketing communication strategy and bidirectional communications. The results suggest that Slovenian organisations which design and implement marketing communication strategy, also have more effective marketing communications. The development of marketing communications strategy was correlated with increased effectiveness of marketing communications in their organisation. Managerial implications are discussed along with directions for further research.
M. Y. Yang
Full Text Available The classification of building facade images is a challenging problem that receives a great deal of attention in the photogrammetry community. Image classification is critically dependent on the features. In this paper, we perform an empirical feature evaluation task for building facade images. Feature sets we choose are basic features, color features, histogram features, Peucker features, texture features, and SIFT features. We present an approach for region-wise labeling using an efficient randomized decision forest classifier and local features. We conduct our experiments with building facade image classification on the eTRIMS dataset, where our focus is the object classes building, car, door, pavement, road, sky, vegetation, and window.
Cui, Yinghui; Wu, Zhengyi; Lu, Yao; Jin, Wenzhong; Dai, Xing; Bai, Jinxi
Improving the performance of clinical departments is not only the significant content of the healthcare system reform in China, but also the essential approach to better satisfying the Chinese growing demand for medical services. Performance management is vital and meaningful to public hospitals in China. Several studies are conducted in hospital internal performance management, but almost none of them consider the effects of informational tools. Therefore, we carried out an empirical study o...
Pieterse, Herman; Diamant, Zuzana
Good clinical practice (GCP) guidelines should always be implemented and obeyed in clinical interventional studies. In this mini-review, we will address several burning questions relating to GCP in a concise 'frequently asked questions' format. While compliance to current rules and regulations is our mission, we also wish to play devil's advocate attempting to translate the rules into sizeable chunks using a high dose of common sense.
Giuffrida, Rosalba; Dittrich, Yvonne
for collaborative work, fostering awareness, knowledge management and coordination among team members. Contrary to the evident high importance of the social aspects offered by SoSo, socialization is not the most important usage reported. Conclusions: This review reports how SoSo is used in GSD and how it is capable...... of empirical studies on the usage of SoSo are available in related fields, there exists no comprehensive overview of what has been investigated to date across them. Objective: The aim of this review is to map empirical studies on the usage of SoSo in Software Engineering projects and in distributed teams......, and to highlight the findings of research works which could prove to be beneficial for GSD researchers and practitioners. Method: A Systematic Mapping Study is conducted using a broad search string that allows identifying a variety of studies which can be beneficial for GSD. Papers have been retrieved through...
Cecilio, Luiz Carlos de Oliveira
The aim of the article, based on field data collected from a continuing education program for primary health clinic administrators, was to analyze the functioning of a health service management strategy called "management committees". Different meanings and operational modalities emerged in the committees. Various antimonies appeared in the way the committees operate (autonomy versus heteronomy, reproduction of "instituted" versus "instituting" processes, and communicative versus instrumental reasoning), thus reflecting the level of complexity in this management mechanism. Healthcare provision per se by the clinics only appeared occasionally on the committees' agenda, which mainly focused on administrative issues. The article suggests that further research is needed on the coordinator's involvement in the field of forces constituting the management committee, besides developing pedagogical strategies to support the clinic coordinators and health teams in building the committees. The primary data were submitted to an epistemological discussion anchored in the idea of double hermeneutics, multiple validation of research results, and the relationship between theory and practice.
Teranishi, Hideto; Koga, Yuhki; Nishio, Hisanori; Kato, Wakako; Ono, Hiroaki; Kanno, Shunsuke; Nakashima, Kentaro; Takada, Hidetoshi
Febrile neutropenia (FN) is the main treatment-related cause of mortality among children with cancer, as the prolonged use of broad-spectrum antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance in these patients. Antibiotic cycling has been reported to limit the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among adult patients. However, no studies have evaluated pediatric patients with FN. Between September 2011 and February 2014, 126 pediatric cancer patients were admitted to our center for chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were included in this study. Retrospective and prospective data collection were performed before and after antibiotic cycling, respectively. Between September 2011 and November 2012 (before antibiotic cycling was implemented), intravenous cefpirome was used as the empirical therapy for FN. Between December 2012 and February 2014 (after antibiotic cycling was implemented), the monthly antibiotic cycling involved intravenous piperacillin-tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ), intravenous meropenem or ciprofloxacin (CPFX), and intravenous cefepime in that order. For children aged ≥13 years, the monthly cycling involved intravenous PIPC/TAZ, and CPFX was administered. The detection rates for extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers in blood and stool culture samples decreased significantly after the implementation of antibiotic cycling (0.33/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p = 0.03; 1.00/1000 patient-days vs 0/1000 patient-days, p Antibiotic cycling was associated with a decreased emergence of multidrug-resistant microbes. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Caleb Parker,1 Amy Corneli,1 Kawango Agot,2 Jacob Odhiambo,2 Jesse Asewe,2 Khatija Ahmed,3 Joseph Skhosana,3 Malebo Ratlhagana,3 Michele Lanham,1 Christina Wong,1 Jennifer Deese,1 Rachel Manongi,4 Lut Van Damme,1On behalf of the FEM-PrEP recruitment group 1FHI 360, Global Health, Population and Nutrition, Durham, NC, USA; 2Impact Research and Development Organization, Kisumu, Kenya; 3Setshaba Research Centre, Soshanguve, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Moshi, Tanzania Abstract: We implemented an empirically informed, geographically based recruitment approach for FEM-PrEP, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention clinical trial of daily oral emtricitabine (FTC and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF for HIV prevention. During the formative research phase, we conducted a modification of the Priorities for Local AIDS Control Efforts (PLACE method and used those data and staff experiences to identify and prioritize for recruitment geographic areas where HIV incidence might be high. During the clinical trial, we implemented a routinely monitored and flexible recruitment plan in the geographical areas identified in the formative research. We describe three lessons learnt from implementing this approach: 1 the PLACE data were critical in identifying places presumed to be high risk; 2 staff experiences, in combination with PLACE data, were needed to inform a practical recruitment strategy; and 3 recruiting in establishments in priority areas identified by the PLACE data led to screening many HIV-positive women at the Bondo site (Kenya, placing additional burden on clinic staff. These lessons learnt highlight the critical importance of having a flexible and monitored recruitment strategy. Although we successfully recruited a study population at higher risk for HIV, FEM-PrEP was unable to determine the effectiveness of FTC/TDF for HIV prevention, due to low adherence to the study product among participants. We must
Mascia, Daniele; Morandi, Federica; Cicchetti, Americo
The adoption of clinical directorates through the internal reconfiguration of hospital organizations has been one of the most widespread restructuring interventions in many Western European countries. Despite its extensive adoption, a lack of knowledge remains on the analysis of how this reorganization affects professionals' job satisfaction. This paper contributes to the debate on clinical directorates by exploring how the structural characteristics of newly adopted organizational models influence physician's job satisfaction. More than 300 physicians in 18 clinical directorates in the Italian National Health Service were surveyed regarding their overall job satisfaction following the introduction of departmental arrangements. Survey results were then linked to another survey that classified newly adopted models according to the criteria used to merge hospital wards into directorates, by recognizing "Process-integration", "Specialty-integration" and "Mixed-integration" types of directorates. Our findings show that structural aspects of change significantly influenced overall job satisfaction, and that a physician's openness to experience moderated the adoption and implementation of new clinical directorates. Specifically, results demonstrate that physicians with high openness to experience scores were more receptive to the positive impacts of change on overall job satisfaction. Implications for how these findings may facilitate organizational shifts within hospital settings are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a neonatal life threatening infection which is usually treated with ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin. Recently, growing number of Escherchia coli species resistant to ampicillin and aminoglycosides have raised concerns regarding the necessity to change the empirical therapy. This motivates us to determine neonatal UTI clinical response to the used empirical antibiotics. This study was designed as a Case Series. All neonates admitted to Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2001- 2010 with a diagnosis of UTI surveyed by simple non-random sampling. Totally, 97 cases (including 83 (85.6% term, 8 (8.2% post-term and 6 (6.2% preterm neonates with a mean age of 15.85 ± 7.05 days at admission ,average weight of 3195.57 ± 553g at birth and 3276.29 ± 599.182 g at admission were studied. Ampicillin resistance in 93 cases (95.9%, gentamicin resistance in 51 cases (52.6% and trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole resistance in 44 cases (45.4% were the leading resistances in this study. Escherichia coli was the dominant organism in 76.3% (74 patients of study population which was resistant to ampicillin in 95.9% (71 cases. Despite the observed resistant to initial empirical regimen antibiotics (especially ampicillin, 81.4% of patients responded to empirical therapy. However, we believe till conductance of more detailed studies regarding the relationship between empirical therapy and antibiogram concordance, physicians take ampicillin-resistant E coli infection issue into accounts from the first steps of management of critically ill neonates.
Vanaja Ratnakumari Billa
Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent times there has been increased incidence of abdominal trauma cases due to several causes. Quick and prompt intervention is needed to decrease the mortality of the patients. So we conducted a study to assess the cause and the management of abdominal trauma cases in our institution. The aim of this study was to know the incidence of blunt and penetrating injuries and their causes, age and sex incidence, importance of various investigations, mode of treatment offered and post-operative complications. To study the cause of death and evolve better management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprises of patients admitted to and operated in various surgical units in the Department of Surgery at Government General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College Guntur, from August 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS Increase incidence seen in age group 20-29 years (30%. Male predominance 77.5%. Mechanism of injury–road traffic accidents 65%. Isolated organ injury–colon and rectum 40%. Other associated injuries–chest injuries with rib fractures 7.5%. Complications–wound infection 17.5%. Duration of hospital stay 8–14 days. Bowel injury management–closure of perforation 84.6%. Resection anastomosis 15.38%. CONCLUSION Thorough clinical examination, diagnostic paracentesis, plain X-ray erect abdomen and ultrasound proved to be very helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. Spleen is the commonest organ involved in blunt trauma and colon is the commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma, many patients have associated extremity and axial skeleton injuries. With advances in diagnosis and intensive care technologies, most patients of solid visceral injuries with hemodynamic stability can be managed conservatively. Surgical site infection is the most common complication following surgery. The mortality is high; reason might be patient reaching the hospital late, high incidence of postoperative septic
Verhagen, T.; Boter, J.; Adelaar, T.
This study attempts to demonstrate empirically how the importance of website content in online purchasing varies across 2 product categorizations: goods versus services and hedonic versus utilitarian products. We conducted an experiment that showed that when purchasing services, customers value
Turcan, Romeo V.; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar
The paper focuses on legitimation and legitimation strategies applied by companies. Following the process of systematic review, we analyze empirical studies exploring legitimation and legitimation strategies from different theoretical perspectives. Using the key findings by reconnoitering and com...... and comparing the theoretical background, approaches, methodologies, and findings of these empirical studies, we outline potential directions for research in the legitimation strategies of firms engaged in international business operations....
An anoerxiant, mazindol suppresses food intake by 1) stimulating beta-adrenergic receptors, 2) inhibiting the feeding center and, 3) stimulating the satiety center in the hypothalamus. In Japan, mazindol is available for clinical use. We examined the effects of mazindol on 1) body weight, appetite, and abnormalities of obesity-related diseases in long-term use 2) maintenance of the reduced body weight after very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) therapy 3) combined use with VLCD therapy and, 4) inhibition of body weight gain in Prader-Willi syndrome. In long-term effects of mazindol, the average reduction of individual body weight was around 6.8 kg. The appetite of 59% of obese subjects was moderately suppressed. Systolic blood pressure, serum GOT, serum triglyceride, serum cholesterol, and glucose tolerance were also improved. With mazindol, 53.3% of obese subjects kept the reduced body weight after VLCD, in contrast, 20.0% of them kept it without mazindol. Combined use of mazindol with VLCD made the VLCD therapy more effective in outpatients. Two of 3 patients with Prader-Willi syndrome inhibited their body weight gain with mazindol. Thus, mazindol produced positive effects in these studies, although the effects were limited.
Franklin, Martin E; Kratz, Hilary E; Freeman, Jennifer B; Ivarsson, Tord; Heyman, Isobel; Sookman, Debbie; McKay, Dean; Storch, Eric A; March, John
The efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been the subject of much study over the past fifteen years. Building on a foundation of case studies and open clinical trials, the literature now contains many methodologically sound studies that have compared full CBT protocols to waitlist controls, pill placebo, psychosocial comparison conditions, active medication, combined treatments, and brief CBT. This review is part of a series commissioned by The Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (CIOCD) in an effort to publish in one place what is known about the efficacy of treatments for OCD. A total of fourteen studies were identified; collectively their findings support the efficacy of CBT for youth with OCD. CBT protocols that emphasized either strictly behavioral or cognitive conceptualizations have each been found efficacious relative to waitlist controls. Efforts to enhance CBT׳s efficacy and reach have been undertaken. These trials provide guidance regarding next steps to be taken to maximize efficacy and treatment availability. Findings from studies in community clinics suggest that significant treatment benefits can be realized and are not reported only from within academic contexts. These findings bode well for broader dissemination efforts. Recommendations for future research directions are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Jennifer E; Wilenzick, Marc; Ritcey, Nolan; Ross, Joseph S; Mello, Michelle M
To define a series of clinical trial transparency measures and apply them to large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and their 2014 FDA-approved drugs. Cross-sectional descriptive analysis of all clinical trials supporting 2014 Food and Drugs Administration (FDA)-approved new drug applications (NDAs) for novel drugs sponsored by large companies. Data from over 45 sources, including Drugs@FDA.gov, ClinicalTrials.gov, corporate and international registries; PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, corporate press releases, Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) filings and personal communications with drug manufacturers. Trial registration, results reporting, clinical study report (CSR) synopsis sharing, biomedical journal publication, and FDA Amendments Acts (FDAAA) compliance, analysed on the drug level. The FDA approved 19 novel new drugs, sponsored by 11 large companies, involving 553 trials, in 2014. We analysed 505 relevant trials. Per drug, a median of 100% (IQR 86%-100%) of trials in patients were registered, 71% (IQR 57%-100%) reported results or shared a CSR synopsis, 80% (70%-100%) were published and 96% (80%-100%) were publicly available in some form by 13 months after FDA approval. Disclosure rates were lower at FDA approval (65%) and improved significantly by 6 months post FDA approval. Per drug, a median of 100% (IQR 75%-100%) of FDAAA-applicable trials were compliant. Half of reviewed drugs had publicly disclosed results for all trials in patients in our sample. One trial was uniquely registered in a corporate registry, and not ClinicalTrials.gov; 0 trials were uniquely registered in international registries. Among large pharmaceutical companies and new drugs, clinical trial transparency is high based on several standards, although opportunities for improvement remain. Transparency is markedly higher for trials in patients than among all trials supporting drug approval, including trials in healthy volunteers. Ongoing efforts to publicly track
Ansari, S.H.; Nasim, S.; Ahmed, A.; Irfan, M.; Ishaque, A.; Farzana, T.; Panjwani, V.K.; Taj, M.; Shamsi, T.S.
To find the in-vitro sensitivity data and clinical response in order to determine the changes required in empiric antibiotic therapy for management of febrile neutropenia in paediatric patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. All patients were treated according to institutional protocol for febrile neutropenia. Empirical antibiotics include Ceftriaxone and Amikacin. In non-responders, changes made included Imipenem and Amikacin, Piperacillin Tazobactum/Tiecoplanin or Vancomycin/Cloxacilin/Ceftazidime. In non-responders, amphotaracin was added until recovery. Out of 52 patients, 5 did not develop any fever; in the remaining 47 patients there were 57 episodes of febrile neutropenia. The mean days of febrile episodes were 4.71 (range 3-8). Fever of unknown origin (FUO) occurred in 31 (54.3%) episodes. Microbiologically documented infection (MDI) occurred in 17 (29.8%) episodes of fever. Clinically documented infection (CDI) occurred in 9 (15.7%) episodes. Gram-negative organisms were isolated in 10 while gram-positive organisms in 7. Klebseilla, S. aureus were the most common isolates. Empirical therapy was effective in 12 of the 33 (36%) episodes. Out of 28, 26 (92%) responded to Imipenem/Amikacin as second line therapy while those who received any other second line combination, only 11 out of 22 (50%) showed response. Systemic Amphotericin was used in 4 patients, 2 responded. Infection related mortality rate was 4%. (author)
Rogiest, Sofie; Segers, Jesse; Witteloostuijn, van, Arjen
Abstract: Although leadership is generally considered an important lever to increase commitment during organizational change, empirical research has yet to unravel many of the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we propose that the impact of participative leadership on affective commitment to change will be contingent on employees orientation toward leadership. In our empirical study in two police organizations, we find evidence that followers orientation toward leadership is a useful inter...
Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.
Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…
Liu, Chennan; Liao, Minli; Smith, Douglas C.
Objectives: The authors systematically reviewed the outcomes and methodological quality of 24 Internet addiction (IA) treatment outcome studies in China. Method: The authors used 15 attributes from the quality of evidence scores to evaluate 24 outcome studies. These studies came from both English and Chinese academic databases from 2000 to 2010.…
Vesara A. Gatera
Full Text Available Pneumonia is one of infectious diseases that require a comprehensive and effective effort in its treatment, including in the use of empirical antibiotics. The use of empirical antibiotics should be based on patterns of sensitivity toward bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of antibiotics based on the sensitivity patterns by clinical outcomes as the goal of treatment. This study was conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung in October–December 2013 using a retrospective cross-sectional study design. Secondary data were obtained from medical records during January 2011–December 2012. This study consisted of 24 patients with positive culture test and received antibiotic prescription. The results showed the percentage of the use of cefotaxime-ampicillin (37.5%, cefotaxime (33.3%, ceftriaxone (20.8%, and Ampicillin (8.4%. The most influential antibiotics for achieving clinical outcome using 95% confidence level is combination of cefotaxime-ampiciline (P=0.044 with 77.7% sensitivity level. This study suggested that the pattern of antibiotic sensitivity affected the clinical outcomes of pediatric patients with pneumonia.
HATIF Majeed; SADIK Hamza
This study aimed at introducing the methods of strategic management accounting and its role in serving the objectives of contemporary management – strategic management of Romanian organizations, through the study of these methods, and then applied the topic in the field through distributing a questionnaire in a sample of Romanian companies. We used the descriptive analytical approach in the theoretical part of the study, where we tried to showing the most important ideas on the subject of str...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2003, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH has sought to restructure the clinical research enterprise in the United States by promoting collaborative research partnerships between academically-based investigators and community-based physicians. By increasing community-based provider participation in research (CBPPR, the NIH seeks to advance the science of discovery by conducting research in clinical settings where most people get their care, and accelerate the translation of research results into everyday clinical practice. Although CBPPR is seen as a promising strategy for promoting the use of evidence-based clinical services in community practice settings, few empirical studies have examined the organizational factors that facilitate or hinder the implementation of CBPPR. The purpose of this study is to explore the organizational start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in community-based practice. Methods We used longitudinal, case study research methods and an organizational model of innovation implementation to theoretically guide our study. Our sample consisted of three community practice settings that recently joined the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP in the United States. Data were gathered through site visits, telephone interviews, and archival documents from January 2008 to May 2011. Results The organizational model for innovation implementation was useful in identifying and investigating the organizational factors influencing start-up and early implementation of CBPPR in CCOP organizations. In general, the three CCOP organizations varied in the extent to which they achieved consistency in CBPPR over time and across physicians. All three CCOP organizations demonstrated mixed levels of organizational readiness for change. Hospital management support and resource availability were limited across CCOP organizations early on, although they improved in
Pettit, Sophie; Qureshi, Adam; Lee, William; Stirzaker, Alex; Gibson, Alex; Henley, William; Byng, Richard
Older people with common mental health problems (CMHPs) are known to have reduced rates of referral to psychological therapy. To assess referral rates to the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) services, contact with a therapist, and clinical outcome by age. Empirical research study using patient episodes of care from South West of England IAPT services. By analysing 82 513 episodes of care (2010-2011), referral rates and clinical improvement were compared with both total population and estimated prevalence in each age group using IAPT data. Probable recovery of those completing treatment was calculated for each group. Estimated prevalence of CMHPs peaks in 45-49-year-olds (20.59% of population). The proportions of patients identified with CMHPs being referred peaks at 20-24 years (22.95%) and reduces with increase in age thereafter to 6.00% for 70-74-year-olds. Once referred, the proportion of those attending first treatment increases with age between 20 years (57.34%) and 64 years (76.97%). In addition, the percentage of those having a clinical improvement gradually increases from the age of 18 years (12.94%) to 69 years (20.74%). Younger adults are more readily referred to IAPT services. However, as a proportion of those referred, probabilities of attending once, attending more than once, and clinical improvement increase with age. It is uncertain whether optimum levels of referral have been reached for young adults. It is important to establish whether changes to service configuration, treatment options, and GP behaviour can increase referrals for middle-aged and older adults. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Age had a moderate significant relationship with the level of work-related stress for the sample. The study recommends that stress management programmes for teachers are imperative to deal with the consequences of stress. Keywords: descriptive study; job performance; strain; stress; stress management; stressors; ...
The present study on consumer preference of beverage was carried out in Ilorin Metropolis. Kwara State, with the use of a well-structured questionnaire. The analytical techniques employed in this study include; descriptive statistics, the Likert scale, the least significant difference (LSD), and the AIDS Model. The result of the ...
Russell, Brian E.
The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…
Birchley, Giles; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Deans, Zuzana; Fraser, James; Huxtable, Richard
In English paediatric practice, English law requires that parents and clinicians agree the 'best interests' of children and, if this is not possible, that the courts decide. Court intervention is rare and the concept of best interests is ambiguous. We report qualitative research exploring how the best interests standard operates in practice, particularly with decisions related to planned non-treatment. We discuss results in the light of accounts of best interests in the medical ethics literature. We conducted 39 qualitative interviews, exploring decision making in the paediatric intensive care unit, with doctors, nurses, clinical ethics committee members and parents whose children had a range of health outcomes. Interviews were audio-recorded and analysed thematically. Parents and clinicians indicated differences in their approaches to deciding the child's best interests. These were reconciled when parents responded positively to clinicians' efforts to help parents agree with the clinicians' view of the child's best interests. Notably, protracted disagreements about a child's best interests in non-treatment decisions were resolved when parents' views were affected by witnessing their child's physical deterioration. Negotiation was the norm and clinicians believed avoiding the courts was desirable. Sensitivity to the long-term interests of parents of children with life-limiting conditions is defensible but must be exercised proportionately. Current approaches emphasise negotiation but offer few alternatives when decisions are at an impasse. In such situations, the instrumental role played by a child's deterioration and avoidance of the courts risks giving insufficient weight to the child's interests. New approaches to decision making are needed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
The present study Communication and Performance explores how communicational structures impact the performance of innovation teams. Communication is particular important in teams in which members with different specializations and professional backgrounds have to execute the work together as it is
T. S. Nanjundeswaraswamy
Full Text Available bsenteeism is a major challenge for any organization in the current competitive world. Curbing absenteeism helps organizations achieve their targets and increases productivity. This study highlights the major causes of absenteeism in the production division of a garment industry under various dimensions, which influence on absenteeism like work environment, organizational culture, relation and co-operation, compensation and rewards, facilities, job satisfactory and security, and general factors. The Study helps to identify reasons for employee absenteeism in production division. Sample of 180 employees responses were considered for the study from the universe and the data were analysed, statistically. The study shows that the major factors like wages, other source of income, and bad relationship with supervisors were contributing to the major absence of employees from work. This clearly indicates that work environment, relation and co-operation, facilities provided by the organization and job satisfaction were the main components which are causing the employee absenteeism.
Free software has matured well into the commercial software market, yet little qualitative research exists which accurately describes the state of commercial free software today. For this thesis, an instrumental case study was performed on a prominent free software company in Norway. The study found that the commercial free software market is largely driven by social networks, which have a social capital in its own that attracts more people, which in turn become members of the ...
Full Text Available We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainability issues.
Mario Henrique, Ogasavara; Yasuo, Hoshino; Doctoral student of Finance and Management Doctoral Program in Quantitative Finance and Management, University of Tsukuba; Professor of Finance and Management Institute of Policy and Planning Science, University of Tsukuba
Most studies of FDI found performance difference between wholly-owned subsidiaries (WOS) and international joint ventures (IJVs), and showed that WOS perform better than IJVs. However, these studies have focused on subsidiaries performance operating in developed countries and Asian developing countries. In this paper we examine the factors influencing performance of Japanese subsidiaries in a developing country outside Asia using a framework of Dunning's eclectic paradigm, and entry mode sele...
Full Text Available Purpose – This study attempts to investigate customer experience with respect to the bancassurance channel. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study is based on primary data collected using a structured questionnaire from customers buying life insurance policies from SBI Life through different branches of State Bank of India in the city of Guwahati in the state of Assam, India. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire. Statistical tools, such as mean, standard deviation, and factor analysis were used to attain the objective of the study. Findings and implications – The study found that customers have favorable experiences when buying life insurance through the bancassurance channel. There are seven core factors that affect customer experience in bancassurance: ease of buying, whether maturity benefit is received, reliability of the channel, responsiveness of the channel, after-sale services, stock market-related information, and accuracy of the channel. Banks should devise a strategy to sustain favorable experiences of their customers, as this enables banks to retain their existing customers while also attracting new ones. Limitation – The study is restricted to customers buying life insurance policy from various branches of State Bank of India in Guwahati, India. Therefore, longitudinal and cross-sectional research is needed to generalize the findings. Originality – The study is first of its kind and hence original in nature.
Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma
search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta......-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective"). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ...) characteristic. Results: We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate) sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7...
Lai, Ivan K. W.; Lai, Donny C. F.
This study aims to examine the positive and negative factors that can significantly explain user acceptance of mobile commerce (m-commerce) in Macau. A technology acceptance model for m-commerce with five factors is constructed. The proposed model is tested using data collected from 219 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis is performed to examine the reliability and validity of the model, and structural equation modelling is performed to access the relationship between behaviour intention and each factor. The acceptance of m-commerce is influenced by factors including performance expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions and privacy concern; while effort expectancy is insignificant in this case. The results of the study are useful for m-commerce service providers to adjust their strategies for promoting m-commerce services. This study contributes to the practice by providing a user technology acceptance model for m-commerce that can be used as a foundation for future research.
José Luis VÁZQUEZ
Full Text Available This study aims to suggest best practices for improving the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programs in the European area, based on their impact on expected attitudes of undergraduate students towards business startup as a career choice. Particularly, the paper presents some results from a study carried out in two Spanish universities aimed at validating a structure of entrepreneurship education based on a double component of curricular teaching and extracurricular support, and to analyze their effect upon undergraduates’ entrepreneurial selfefficacy and outcome expectations as immediate antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and behaviors. Sample was comprised of 800 university students, and statistical treatment of data was based on factorial and regression analyses. Findings underline the very limited involvement of Spanish universities in entrepreneurship education as perceived by students, together with the existence of different effects of curricular and extracurricular elements when fostering entrepreneurial careers among future graduates. Implications of these results and limitations of the study are discussed.
Despite the fact that service quality is a critical determinant of website success, studies show that consumers frequently view the service quality delivered through websites as unsatisfactory. This paper outlines a study that investigated the dimensions of website service excellence valued by Irish customers of a small-to-medium enterprise specialising in gifts. The E-S-QUAL measurement instrument was applied to the customers who purchase products online from this retailer, in order to determine their purchasing patterns and the dimensions of e-service quality that they value. The results of this study indicate the effectiveness of the instrument in determining gaps in e-service quality. The findings will be of benefit both to practitioners and researchers seeking to improve their understanding of the factors that contribute towards the creation and maintenance of consumer satisfaction in Irish online transactions.
Full Text Available The paper that we present aims to address the issue of relationships naturally established in a community through some items that we consider relevant to the proposed topic. In this purpose, we have initiated a quantitative research, developed through a survey, based on questionnaire, self-managed and on line. The recorded answers are statistically interpreted, using IBM SPSS application. The results suggests that the perception of the subjects participating in the study on the relationships established with their communities, on the date of the study, is not clearly contoured.
Manuel R. Abuín
Full Text Available Autogenic therapy emerges from the "autogenic training" method created by Schultz, and its development incorporates different therapeutic methods based on a psychophysiological approach. All these methods promote homeostatic self-regulatory brain processes. The aims of this paper are to describe and analyse the autogenic methods, the psychophysiological and neurophysiological processes involved, and their effective applications in both health and clinical fields. For these purposes, beside reviewing the earlier work by Schultz and Luthe, an electronic search of literature was conducted in order to find relevant contributions on these topics. Results show a big development of autogenic methods until the 80s, with an enormous amount of applications and studies on the psychophysiological and neurophysiological changes related to the practice of autogenic training. However, their expansion during the last 25 years has been much lower in comparison with other methods such as mindfulness and hypnosis. Possible causes are discussed and new challenges are suggested
to generate the pseudo-potential matrix elements in the basis of ... and Bergstresser. (1966) that are accurate to 0⋅01 Ry. Table 1 lists the form factors used to generate the pseudo-potentials in the pre- sent study. These form factors can be adjusted with the ..... Lattice generally contracts by a small amount in quantum dots.
Based on the idea that feedback seeking enhances job performance, the study was aimed at investigating managers' feedback seeking tendencies on their intra personal, interpersonal and leadership skills, and their preferred feedback sources: subordinates, peers and superiors. Using cross-sectional survey design, 156 ...
The study therefore recommended provision of access to licensed EIS, fast Internet connectionand pro-activeness of media librarians in creating awareness to available EIS. Keywords: Accessibility; Electronic Information Sources; Journalists; Print Media; Broadcast Media; Electronic Resources Utilization; Nigeria ...
Sumaedi, Sik; Bakti, Gede Mahatma Yuda; Metasari, Nur
Purpose: This paper aims to identify: university students' perceived service quality dimensions; the dimensions contributing most towards overall students' perceived service quality; and whether there is a difference in perceived quality level of each dimension based on students' year of study and gender in the context of undergraduate students of…
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…
Janavaras, Basil; Kuzma, John; Thiewes, Harold
The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which business majors' attitudes towards globalization are influenced by the area of selected study. Research has documented that more favorable attitudes towards globalization are found among college students, and specifically, these more favorable attitudes are found in business majors.…
Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus
To protect children and adolescents against and inform parents about harmful media content, media ratings show whether a media product's content is harmful for minors below a given age. In this research project, we performed a series of studies into the effectiveness of media ratings in the
High rates of child and adult abuse, neglect and abandonment were also reported. These histories were strong predictors of poor physical and mental health. The findings of this study force us to examine the interplay of the cultural, ideological and structural factors affecting women's lives from a gender, class and relational ...
Because of the increased demand for sport as a product, university studentathletes are subjected to higher levels of pressure which ultimately results in stress. Hence it is a common feature that athletes in competitive sports have to perform in stressful situations. This study was conducted to assess the coping strategies ...
Six Sigma has been widely adopted in a variety of industries as a proven management innovation methodology to produce high-quality products with the lowest possible cost. This study focuses on implementing the DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) based Six Sigma Approach in order to reduce the ...
Rahim, Md. Mahbubur; Seyal, Afzaal H.; Rahman, Mohd. Noah Abd.
Discusses softlifting as a form of software piracy and describes a study that analyzed the softlifting intentions of computing students in Brunei Darussalam. Considers student attitudes; gender; family income; personal computer ownership; experience; faculty remarks; institutional monitoring; and implications for attempts to curb software piracy.…
Anvari, M., "Electronic Data Interchange and Inventories," International Journal of Production Economics , 26, 1-3 (1992), 135-143. Baker, R. H., EDI: What...Electronic Data Interchange -- A Study of Norwegian Freight Forwarders Using EDI," International Journal of Production Economics , 24 (1991), 91-101. Henry, G
Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim
This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this study…
Heightened competition both on a global and national level has raised the bar regarding the expectations that sport organisations have of their coaches. Using the Self-Determination Theory (SDT), which emphasizes the distinction between intrinsically- and extrinsically- driven behaviours, the current study investigated the ...
IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the…
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore obstacles to ISO 9001 quality management system implementation in Moroccan firms. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire survey has been conducted among a heterogeneous sample of 115 organizations, operating in different sectors in Morocco. The authors have studied barriers to quality initiatives in general and obstacles to QMS implementation in particular through an extensive literature review. Questions related to profiles of respondents, reasons of seeking certification, external consultancy and barriers to ISO 9001 implementation experienced by surveyed organizations. For the purpose of this study, authors considered three categories of quality inhibiting factors: organizational, technical and costs related barriers. Findings: Results indicate that surveyed companies sought ISO 9001 certification mainly for marketing reasons and experienced many difficulties during the implementation process. Barriers reported by respondents were mostly organizational. Resistance to change headed the list according to participants’ opinion. Also, findings highlighted the prominence of bureaucracy and poor interdependence between departments in organizations. Lack of communication, poor top management commitment and insufficient trainings were also ascertained to be obstacles to QMS implementation in Morocco. Originality/value: Earlier studies were led by different researchers in different countries about barriers to quality initiatives in general and to ISO 9001 implementation in particular. Few of those studies were conducted in Arab speaking countries but no research has been carried in Morocco. This study on obstacles to QMS implementation in Morocco will help in completing the jigsaw of difficulties faced by organizations worldwide when preparing to ISO 9001 certification.
Kuusela, Jaakko; Tuominen, Harri
This paper presents a case-study where a new programming technique is applied to an established branch of software development. The purpose of the study was to test whether or not aspect-oriented programming (AOP) could be used in operating systems development. Instead of any real world operating system an educational OS with the name Nachos was used. This was because Nachos is written in Java which makes it easy to introduce aspect-oriented techniques. In this paper a new file system for the Nachos OS is developed and then it is analyzed by profiling and metrics. The results show that it is possible to use AOP in OS development and that it is also beneficial to do so.
Ramayah, T; Lee, Jason Wai Chow; Lim, Shuwen
This paper examines the determinants of recycling behaviour among 200 university students from the perspective of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Data was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling technique. Findings indicate that environmental awareness was significantly related to attitude towards recycling, whilst attitude and social norms had significant impact on recycling behaviour. However, convenience and cost of recycling were not significant reasons for recycling. The study has enhanced the understanding of the determinants of recycling behaviour and has implications for schools and governmental agencies in educating and encouraging positive recycling behaviour. It also confirms the appropriateness of the TPB in examining studies of this nature. Further suggestions for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gonzalo Herranz de Rafael
This article examines the existence of xenophobia in ten census tracts, each with the greatest and lowest density of immigration in the city of Almeria. The study shows that immigration density encourages xenophobic attitudes and behaviours within the population, as well as segmentation according to the immigrant's place of origin. This paper presents a descriptive and explanatory analysis of xenophobia. The descriptive analysis profiles the most and least xenophobic areas in Almeria. The exp...
on the practical implications of corporate human resources programs 15. Communicate sexual harassment policy and other communications of general EEO...compensation projects (e.g., program salary study) 42 33 40 66. Assist mangemnt in conducting salary planing/forecasting 41 32 43 0 i1b. Earlovee Relacions ...the philosophy, legal iaplications, and strategy relating to employee relacions 41 45 IV. Emolovee Support (10) 82. %taintain health maintenance
Nase Azad; Sanaz Sadeghi
Organizational commitment plays an important role on the success of business units. Many companies rely on their human resources and when some skilled employees leave an organization, there would be a chaos in some organizations especially in small business units. The proposed study of this paper gathers the necessary information from 200 employees who work for custom organization in Iran. The results of factor analysis have indicated there are four factors influencing organizational commitme...
Pontes, Halley M; Patrão, Ivone M; Griffiths, Mark D
Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT's items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals.
PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.
Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221
A study quantitatively reviewed empirical studies of negative political advertising using a method that combined citation analysis and content analysis. The citation analysis examined each individual cited work in 20 selected studies with respect to its citation information, and the content analysis investigated the 20 selected studies (citing…
Sabrina O. Sihombing
Full Text Available No studies have been conducted to link three variables of work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in predicting employee loyalty. Therefore, this research aims to fulfill the gap by developing a model that include work values, internal marketing, and job satisfaction in assessing employee loyalty in educational context. This research applies a judgmental sampling with the sample size of 200 lecturers from private universities in Tangerang. Structural equation modeling was applied in testing the research hypotheses. The results showed that there is one out of three hypotheses that were not supported. That hypothesis is the relationship between internal marketing and job satisfaction.
Full Text Available Understanding how technology investments create business value is a research priority in today's technology-intensive world. Drawing on a literature review as well as a qualitative study, this research suggests that sales technology can support both: externally focused tasks towards managing customer relationships and internal administrative tasks. To unleash its real potential, sales technology should be designed to enable customer relationships rather than being perceived as a cost cutting tool. Today organisations are forced to constantly invent new ways of interacting with the customer to increase customer loyalty and to decrease the possibility of commoditization. This paper will focus on Sales Force Automation (SFA and its increasing importance. It will explore the purpose of SFA, its advantages and disadvantages, and its future impact on organisations through a qualitative research study: the authors investigated a small company operating in the business-to-business services sector to obtain practical feedback on the organisational and individual implications, the potential benefits and the problems related to adoption of an SFA system.
Md. Sahidur Rahman
Full Text Available Emotional intelligence is very critical to the managerial effectiveness. The present study intends to explore the relationships between emotional intelligence and the three roles such as, interpersonal, informational, and decision of managerial effectiveness. Emotional intelligence is measured by using the Emotional Quotient Index (Rahim et al., 2002 [Rahim, M., Psenicka, C., Polychroniou, P., Zhao, J., Yu, C., Chan, K., Susana, K., Alves, M., Lee, C., Rahman, M.S., Ferdausy, S., & Wyk, R. (2002. A model of emotional intelligence and conflict management strategies: a study in seven countries. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(4, 302-326.] while managerial effectiveness is assessed by using Tsui’s (1984 scale [Tsui, A.S. (1984. A role set analysis of managerial reputation. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 64-96.]. Data were collected by distributing self-administered questionnaires among the working MBA students using a convenience sampling technique. Respondents are asked to rate their emotional intelligence and managerial effectiveness scales. Finally 127 usable responses are received and, then, analyzed by using the descriptive statistics, bivariate correlation, and regression analysis. Analysis shows that emotional intelligence was positively related with interpersonal role, informational role, and decision role. The main implication is that emotional intelligence could enhance managerial effectiveness guiding the managers, academics, and professionals. The limitations are the sample size and the sampling technique which might limit the generalizability of the findings. Future directions are also discussed.
Sinan S. Abbadi
Full Text Available This paper assesses the reality of corporate governance in Jordan. It identifies the framework of corporate governance, which has here been set into two dimensions – institutionalisations and regulations – and describes the five major principles of corporate governance. The study was carried out by interviews with key employees and the review of related laws and selected annual reports. The study found (1 basic shareholder rights were honoured in decision-making, except for large decisions such as major asset sales; (2 shareholders were not treated equitably in practice, although controllers sometimes took action and prohibited insider trading; (3 the role and rights of stakeholders in corporate governance were respected, and stakeholders had a number of legal protections, which were largely covered in Jordan's Company Law; (4 disclosure and transparency were observed to a large extent, although limited to quantity rather than quality, because Jordan has fully adopted IFRS and ISA and (5 boards largely fulfilled their responsibilities, as these are extensively defined by law and regulation.
Sándor, Piroska; Szakadát, Sára; Bódizs, Róbert
The examination of children's sleep-related mental experiences presents many significant challenges for researchers investigating the developmental trajectories of human dreaming. In contrast to the well-explored developmental patterns of human sleep, data from dream research are strikingly divergent with highly ambiguous results and conclusions, even though there is plenty of indirect evidence suggesting parallel patterns of development between neural maturation and dreaming. Thus results from studies of children's dreaming are of essential importance not only to enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming but to also add to our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive and emotional development. This review summarizes research results related to the ontogeny of dreaming: we critically reconsider the field, systematically compare the findings based on different methodologies, and highlight the advantages and disadvantages of methods, arguing in favor of methodological pluralism. Since most contradictory results emerge in connection with descriptive as well as content related characteristics of young children's dreams, we emphasize the importance of carefully selected dream collection methods. In contrast nightmare-related studies yield surprisingly convergent results, thus providing strong basis for inferences about the connections between dreaming and cognitive emotional functioning. Potential directions for dream research are discussed, aiming to explore the as yet unraveled correlations between the maturation of neural organization, sleep architecture and dreaming patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The websites marketing is becoming an important tool both for multinationals and SMEs, in their effort to internationalizing their business.This study focuses on the international opportunities that are present within the European markets. The paper aims at identifying the degree of websites marketing standardization vs. adaptation, as a marketing tool for cosmetic products. Moreover, the study examines in a comparative manner the standardization strategy of multinationals and small and medium enterprises (SMEs, leaders in European markets, for different cosmetic cathegories.The evaluation of online advertising standardization is based on the modified Model for Testing Advertising Standardization, developed by Whitelock and Chung. The web sites degree of localizations areanalyzed based upon 98 criteria, as resulted from an adapted methodology of ProfNet Institut fur Internet Marketing, Munster (Germany. The sample includes the 101 leaders from European markets.The research outcomes reflect a standardized websites marketing policy for SMEs and localized for multinationals. Also, for perfumes, dental care products and toiletry, European cosmetic leaders implementstandardized websites marketing policies and balanced for the other cosmetics categories. The hypothesis concerning a strong correlation between standardization and handling dimension was supported.
Silva, N.; Vieira, M.; Ricci, D.; Cotroneo, D.
Independent software verification and validation (ISVV) has been a key process for engineering quality assessment for decades, and is considered in several international standards. The “European Space Agency (ESA) ISVV Guide” is used for the European Space market to drive the ISVV tasks and plans, and to select applicable tasks and techniques. Software artefacts have room for improvement due to the amount if issues found during ISVV tasks. This article presents the analysis of the results of a large set of ISVV issues originated from three different ESA missions-amounting to more than 1000 issues. The study presents the main types, triggers and impacts related to the ISVV issues found and sets the path for a global software engineering improvement based on the most common deficiencies identified for space projects.
Full Text Available European crisis affected financial sustainability of Monetary Union countries negatively. Union countries are trying to alleviate the short term effects of the crisis on policy implementation. Whether union countries will ride out the crisis with short term policies can be examined by investigating their financial sustainability. The aim of this study was to examine the European Monetary Union member countries’ financial viability. For this aim we use a balanced panel covering EMU 12 countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Luxemburg, Ireland, Portugal, Netherland, Italy, Greece, Spain over the period 1995-2011. We analyzed the relationship between debt/GDP and primary surplus for panel causality covering EMU 12 countries. The results of the panel co-integration tests revealed that the variables are co-integrated. In other words there is statistically significant long-run relationship among the variables.
Coolidge, Frederick L; Segal, Daniel L; Benight, Charles C; Danielian, Jack
This study investigated the construct validity of a measure of Karen Horney's (1945) psychoanalytic theory that postulated three neurotic trends: compliant, aggressive, and detached. Her theory was operationalized by the Horney-Coolidge Type Indicator (HCTI). One hundred seventy-two adults completed the HCTI and the short form of the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, a measure of the three DSM-IV personality disorder clusters. Multiple regression and canonical correlation analyses revealed significant and differential patterns of the three HCTI dimensions with the three clusters. Because Paris (1994) has noted that Horney's neurotic trends may today be conceived of as personality disorders, one implication of the present findings is that Horney's dynamic theory can be valid and useful in the general understanding of personality disorders from a cluster perspective.
Wong, Venus; Ruble, Lisa A; McGrew, John H; Yu, Yue
Consultation is essential to the daily practice of school psychologists (National Association of School Psychologist, 2010). Successful consultation requires fidelity at both the consultant (implementation) and consultee (intervention) levels. We applied a multidimensional, multilevel conception of fidelity (Dunst, Trivette, & Raab, 2013) to a consultative intervention called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS) for students with autism. The study provided 3 main findings. First, multidimensional, multilevel fidelity is a stable construct and increases over time with consultation support. Second, mediation analyses revealed that implementation-level fidelity components had distant, indirect effects on student Individualized Education Program (IEP) outcomes. Third, 3 fidelity components correlated with IEP outcomes: teacher coaching responsiveness at the implementation level, and teacher quality of delivery and student responsiveness at the intervention levels. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Tîrnăucă, Cristina; Montaña, José L; Ontañón, Santiago; González, Avelino J; Pardo, Luis M
Imagine an agent that performs tasks according to different strategies. The goal of Behavioral Recognition (BR) is to identify which of the available strategies is the one being used by the agent, by simply observing the agent's actions and the environmental conditions during a certain period of time. The goal of Behavioral Cloning (BC) is more ambitious. In this last case, the learner must be able to build a model of the behavior of the agent. In both settings, the only assumption is that the learner has access to a training set that contains instances of observed behavioral traces for each available strategy. This paper studies a machine learning approach based on Probabilistic Finite Automata (PFAs), capable of achieving both the recognition and cloning tasks. We evaluate the performance of PFAs in the context of a simulated learning environment (in this case, a virtual Roomba vacuum cleaner robot), and compare it with a collection of other machine learning approaches.
Full Text Available Tourism and hospitality have become key global economic activities as expectations with regard to our use of leisure time have evolved, attributing greater meaning to our free time. While the growth in tourism has been impressive, India's share in total global tourism arrivals and earnings is quite insignificant. It is an accepted fact that India has tremendous potential for development of tourism. This anomaly and the various underlying factors responsible for it are the focus of our study. The objective being determination of customer preferences for multi attribute hybrid services like tourism, so as to enable the state tourism board to deliver a desired combination of intrinsic attributes, helping it to create a sustainable competitive advantage, leading to greater customer satisfaction and positive word of mouth. Conjoint analysis has been used for this purpose, which estimates the structure of a consumer’s preferences, given his/her overall evaluations of a set of alternatives that are pre-specified in terms of levels of different attributes.
Full Text Available There is no doubt that conventional accounting does not provide actual value of a firm since they only take into account the tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for considering actual value of the assets, which helps calculate intangible values of the firm. In this paper, we use value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC to measure the performance of a firm. The study investigates the relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets and value added for three consecutive years between 2008 and 2010. The results indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets for fiscal years of 2008 and 2009 but there is a meaningful relationship between these two items for the fiscal year of 2010 when . Our findings also indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and value added for the years of 2008 and 2010 but there is a meaningful relationship between the items for the fiscal year of 2009. The results somewhat confirm the recently published results in the literature, which argues the use of VAIC for assessing the direct impact of IC on other financial factors.
Full Text Available The companies are facing some risks due to changes in a dynamic environment. If risks are not managed properly, it will have some negative impacts on the companies at the present and the future. One important function of the Information Technology (IT governance is risk management. Risk management in IT project aims to provide a safe environment for IT projects undertaken. Risk management becomes an important process for the success of IT projects. This article discussed the risk of IT project and whether there was a relationship between risk management and the success of the project. The method used was performing a literature review of several scientific articles which published between 2010 and 2014. The results of this study are the presence of risk management and risk manager influence the success of the project. Risk analysis and risk monitoring and control also have a relationship with the subjective performance of IT projects. If risk management is applied properly, the chance of the success of the projects undertaken can be increased.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.
Célia Cristina da Silva Vicente
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge on innovation in accounting tasks, from the point of view of two professional groups. Its goals are: evaluating the importance given by the professionals to accounting tasks; identifying whether there is convergence between the two professional groups, regarding the importance of the tasks; examining whether there is an association between the professionals’ individual characteristics and the importance they attach to the tasks. Two professional groups were surveyed: 105 financial officers of the top 500 Portuguese companies; and 412 Chartered Accountants. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that the respondents attach more importance to the traditional tasks, linked to the concept of a monetary-oriented accountant, and less importance to the more innovative tasks, related to business strategy; there is no convergence between the two professional groups in terms of the importance of the accountants’ participation in the strategic tasks. Regarding the association between individual characteristics and the level of importance assigned to the accounting tasks, we found an influence of the following characteristics: gender; academic degree of the professionals; and the institution where that degree was obtained.
Hassan I. Mathkour
Full Text Available Most queries that applied on database management systems (DBMS depend heavily on the performance of the used sorting algorithm. In addition to have an efficient sorting algorithm, as a primary feature, stability of such algorithms is a major feature that is needed in performing DBMS queries. In this paper, we study a new Sorting Algorithm for Join Queries (SAJQ that has both advantages of being efficient and stable. The proposed algorithm takes the advantage of using the m-way-merge algorithm in enhancing its time complexity. SAJQ performs the sorting operation in a time complexity of O(nlogm, where n is the length of the input array and m is number of sub-arrays used in sorting. An unsorted input array of length n is arranged into m sorted sub-arrays. The m-way-merge algorithm merges the sorted m sub-arrays into the final output sorted array. The proposed algorithm keeps the stability of the keys intact. An analytical proof has been conducted to prove that, in the worst case, the proposed algorithm has a complexity of O(nlogm. Also, a set of experiments has been performed to investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm outperforms other Stable–Sorting algorithms that are designed for join-based queries.
Clausen, G; Borchelt, M; Janssen, C; Loos, S; Mull, L; Pfaff, H
Patients' satisfaction has become a central concept in quality assurance. Despite progress in research in this area is still a lack of data for geriatric patients. Referring to the consumer model, satisfaction can be described as a difference between expectations and assessed performance. The aim of this study is to analyze satisfaction among geriatric patients in an in-patient setting. A personal interview was performed 1-2 days before discharge. Patients suffering for dementia or with problems to communicate were excluded. 124 of 268 geriatric patients who were discharged in 2003 were included (inclusion rate 46.3%). 119 were willing to participate (response rate 96.0%). Respondents were between 61 and 96 years old, 39% were male and 42% had serious functional limitations at time of admission. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed three significant predictors of a combined index of satisfaction and expectations: a) quality of hotel services; b) experience of neglect; c) provision of medical information and skills. In summary, standardized personal questionnaires can provide valid and reliable data of geriatric patients. Satisfaction of elderly patients is negatively affected by neglect and positively influenced by provision of medical information and a good hotel services.
Jones, R L
One hypothesis of traditional psychoanalytic theory holds that a cardinal aspect of the "natural" development of femininity involves the woman's substitution of the wish for a baby in place of her original wish for a penis. The current study modified and extended earlier research examining the validity of Freud's this "penis-baby" theory. College-aged women and men were presented with either subliminal or supraliminal auditory messages concerned with either pregnancy or penetration themes. Subjects' written responses to Holtzman ink-blots, obtained both before and after exposure to an auditory message, were content-coded for phallic imagery and sexual imagery. Consistent with Freud's speculations about the phallic significance of pregnancy for women, female subjects who were exposed to the subliminal pregnancy message produced significantly more phallic imagery responses to ink-blots than did women in any of the other experimental conditions (p message condition. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of modern revisions to Freud's psychology of women and the current psychoanalytic conceptualization of penis envy as a highly condensed mental product with many layers of meaning.
Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew; Penny, Matthew; Mao, Shude; Gendron, Rieul
We undertake the first study of two-planet microlensing models recovered from simulations of microlensing events generated by realistic multiplanet systems in which 292 planetary events, including 16 two-planet events, were detected from 6690 simulated light curves. We find that when two planets are recovered, their parameters are usually close to those of the two planets in the system most responsible for the perturbations. However, in 1 of the 16 examples, the apparent mass of both detected planets was more than doubled by the unmodeled influence of a third, massive planet. This fraction is larger than but statistically consistent with the roughly 1.5% rate of serious mass errors due to unmodeled planetary companions for the 274 cases from the same simulation in which a single planet is recovered. We conjecture that an analogous effect due to unmodeled stellar companions may occur more frequently. For 7 out of 23 cases in which two planets in the system would have been detected separately, only one planet was recovered because the perturbations due to the two planets had similar forms. This is a small fraction (7/274) of all recovered single-planet models, but almost a third of all events that might plausibly have led to two-planet models. Still, in these cases, the recovered planet tends to have parameters similar to one of the two real planets most responsible for the anomaly.
Full Text Available Organizational commitment plays an important role on the success of business units. Many companies rely on their human resources and when some skilled employees leave an organization, there would be a chaos in some organizations especially in small business units. The proposed study of this paper gathers the necessary information from 200 employees who work for custom organization in Iran. The results of factor analysis have indicated there are four factors influencing organizational commitments. The first factor is associated with cultural factor, the second issue is related to human resource based factors while the third factor indicates the behavior based factors and finally empowering based factors are the last item. The ratio of Chi-Square/df is equal to 2.66, which is less than 3 and this validates the results. We have also used structural equation modeling and the results show that the third factor, behavior based components, is the most important factor followed by the second factor, human resource factor. In addition, the third important factor is cultural issues followed by empowering factors.
Full Text Available English as a lingua franca (ELF for international communication has become a heated issue for discussions among educators of English in recent years. As scholars find it essential for teachers to encourage their students to acquire the ability of using English in real-life conversations, they also wonder about the necessity of requiring students to speak in an accent approximate to that of native speakers of English. With the purpose of encouraging non-English majors at technological universities to speak English and directing English majors’ attention to things other than the so-called ‘standard norms of English accent,’ this study involved 85 freshmen from two technological universities at southern Taiwan. The researchers ask the following questions: What are the students’ attitudes toward native speaker norms of English? After a semester of teaching interventions, do the students’ attitudes change? Do the students’ majors affect their attitudes? Do the students’ genders affect their attitudes? The teaching interventions included providing students with teaching materials covering varieties of spoken English and assisting students to prepare three three-minute group conversation video clips. The results gained from both quantitative and qualitative methods indicate that the students appreciated the accent of the native speakers most. However, after the interventions, the students could appreciate other accents as well. Moreover, the students did not find it so important to speak like a native speaker, and their self-evaluation of English speaking ability and confidence in speaking English with others were significantly boosted after the implementation of the project.
Livia Vania Suwono
Full Text Available Awareness of healthy lifestyle in society is increasing day by day. Therefore, the fitness centers more motivated to focus on these business opportunities. Hence, it is important for companies to understand how to satisfy consumers to obtain consumer loyalty. Main variables were applied to predict customer loyalties areswitching cost, customer value, physical environment, and customer satisfaction. Data was collected through questionnaires distribution to students at private university in Tangerang. Data then was analyzed to by applying multipleregressionswith SPSS software. The results showed that there are three hypotheses are supported. The hypothesis is the relationship between switching cost and customer value, the relationship between customer value and customer satisfaction, and the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. There is a hypothesis that is not supported, namely the relationship between the physical environment and customer satisfaction. This study also provides a discussion and offers direction for further research.Kesadaran akan hidup sehat dalam masyarakat semakin meningkat. Oleh karenaitu, perusahaan-perusahaan pusat kebugaran termotivasi untuk focus pada peluang bisnis ini. Dengan demikian, pemahaman akan kepuasan konsumen yang dapat menjadikan konsumen semakin loyal adalah penting bagi perusahaan. Penelitian ini focus pada variable biaya perpindahan, nilai yang diterima konsumen, lingkungan fisik, dan kepuasan konsumen dalam memprediksi loyalitas konsumen. Data dikumpulkan melalui penyebaran kuesioner pada mahasiswa di sebuah universitas swasta. Data kemudian dianalisis dengan menggunakan regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga hipotesis yang didukung. Hipotesis tersebut adalah hubungan antara biaya perpindahan dan nilai yang diterima konsumen, hubungan antara nilai yang diterima konsumen dan kepuasan konsumen, dan hubungan antara kepuasan konsumen dan loyalitas konsumen
Mendoza López Edgar
Full Text Available This is a report on the experimental phase of a two-stage study on the effects of implicit-explicit grammar instruction regarding EFL students’ performance. The purpose of this phase was to investigate whether the methodologies of implicit and explicit EFL instruction account for the improvement of university students’ performance on a test over two grammar topics. Three groups were selected. Students in the implicit language classes had no explicit instruction on these topics which were taught through meaningful and contextualised listening, speaking, reading and writing activities. Students in the explicit language classes were taught the regular course plus additional exercises and drills in order to practise the grammatical features, and a control group was taught the regular course. The results indicate that students in the explicit instruction group achieved significantly higher scores than both the students in the implicit instruction group and the students in the control group on the performance tests. Key words: Grammar-Input, Implicit-Grammar, Explicit-Grammar, Grammar- Teaching, Quantitative-Research Éste es un informe de la fase experimental de un estudio en dos etapas sobre los efectos de la enseñanza implícita y explícita de la gramática en el desempeño de los estudiantes. El propósito de esta etapa era investigar si las metodologías implícita y explícita se relacionaban con el mejoramiento de estudiantes universitarios en una prueba sobre dos temas gramaticales. Se seleccionaron tres grupos: los estudiantes en el grupo de instrucción implícita no tuvieron ninguna instrucción explícita en los dos tópicos que se enseñaron a través de actividades significativas y contextualizadas en escucha, habla, lectura y escritura. El grupo de instrucción explícita tomó el curso regular ofrecido por la institución más actividades y ejercicios extras con el propósito de practicar los temas gramaticales ense
Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.
The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…
Bischoff, Florian; Gassmann, Freya; Emrich, E.
What features lead a student to choose sport science, chemistry, physics, computer science or musicology as their subject of study and the Saarland University Saarbrücken as their place of study? Empirical analysis shows that study conditions for students of chemistry, physics and music do not play an important role in selecting the place of…
Stanwick, Peter A.
The purpose of this study is to empirically examine whether presenting a multimedia case study enhances the learning experience of students in an undergraduate management class. A questionnaire was administered before and after the presentation of the case study and the results showed that the multimedia case did indeed enhance the learning…
G.J. de Zwart (Gerben)
textabstractThis dissertation consists of five empirical studies on financial markets. Each study can be read independently and covers a specific market, either private equity, corporate bonds or emerging markets. The first study documents that risk factors cannot account for the significant excess
Pott, Christian; Wegner, Felix K; Bögeholz, Nils; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Dechering, Dirk G; Zellerhoff, Stephan; Kochhäuser, Simon; Milberg, Peter; Köbe, Julia; Wasmer, Kristina; Breithardt, Günter; Mönnig, Gerold; Eckardt, Lars
Catheter-based modulation of the slow pathway is the first-line therapy of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), the most common supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). In patients with a typical history, in whom AVNRT is not inducible during an electrophysiological study, the current guidelines allow consideration of empirical slow pathway modulation (ESPM) under the precondition that both, dual nodal pathway physiology (DNPP) and an ECG documentation compatible with AVNRT exist. This recommendation is based on small series. Furthermore, it is unknown whether ESPM is beneficial in the presence of ECG documentation but the absence of DNPP or vice versa in the presence of DNPP but absence of ECG documentation. Out of 3003 patients who underwent slow pathway modulation from 1993 to 2013, we included 116 patients (68 female; median age 47.0 years) with symptomatic tachycardia who had non-inducible SVT. All patients either had ECG documentation of SVT (66 %) or DNPP (89 %) or both (54 %). All patients underwent ESPM. No severe complications occurred. After a follow-up time of 64 ± 5.3 months, 81 % of all patients had benefited from ESPM (49 % freedom of symptoms, 32 % improvement). In patients with ECG documentation but absence of DNPP 100 % benefited (85 % freedom of symptoms; 15 % improvement). In patients with DNPP but absence of ECG documentation 75 % benefited (40 % freedom of symptoms, 35 % improvement). In a large cohort of patients, ESPM is a safe procedure that improves clinical symptoms in the majority of patients during long-term follow-up. We show for the first time that this also applies for cases where there is no DNPP but a characteristic ECG documentation, and vice versa.
Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A.
The pretest–posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest–posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175). PMID:23729942
Huang, Chiung-Yu; Qin, Jing; Follmann, Dean A
The pretest-posttest study design is commonly used in medical and social science research to assess the effect of a treatment or an intervention. Recently, interest has been rising in developing inference procedures that improve efficiency while relaxing assumptions used in the pretest-posttest data analysis, especially when the posttest measurement might be missing. In this article we propose a semiparametric estimation procedure based on empirical likelihood (EL) that incorporates the common baseline covariate information to improve efficiency. The proposed method also yields an asymptotically unbiased estimate of the response distribution. Thus functions of the response distribution, such as the median, can be estimated straightforwardly, and the EL method can provide a more appealing estimate of the treatment effect for skewed data. We show that, compared with existing methods, the proposed EL estimator has appealing theoretical properties, especially when the working model for the underlying relationship between the pretest and posttest measurements is misspecified. A series of simulation studies demonstrates that the EL-based estimator outperforms its competitors when the working model is misspecified and the data are missing at random. We illustrate the methods by analyzing data from an AIDS clinical trial (ACTG 175).
Yang, Xiu-Mu; Qi, Yu-Long; Shne, Zheng-Fu; Han, Bu-Xin; Meng, Bei
To perform theory construction and empirical study of the competency model of rural general practitioners. Through literature study, job analysis, interviews, and expert team discussion, the questionnaire of rural general practitioners competency was constructed. A total of 1458 rural general practitioners were surveyed by the questionnaire in 6 central provinces. The common factors were constructed using the principal component method of exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The influence of the competency characteristics on the working performance was analyzed using regression equation analysis. The Cronbach 's alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.974. The model consisted of 9 dimensions and 59 items. The 9 competency dimensions included basic public health service ability, basic clinical skills, system analysis capability, information management capability, communication and cooperation ability, occupational moral ability, non-medical professional knowledge, personal traits and psychological adaptability. The rate of explained cumulative total variance was 76.855%. The model fitting index were Χ(2)/df 1.88, GFI=0.94, NFI=0.96, NNFI=0.98, PNFI=0.91, RMSEA=0.068, CFI=0.97, IFI=0.97, RFI=0.96, suggesting good model fitting. Regression analysis showed that the competency characteristics had a significant effect on job performance. The rural general practitioners competency model provides reference for rural doctor training, rural order directional cultivation of medical students, and competency performance management of the rural general practitioners.
Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy
The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
P S Sorokin
Full Text Available The article discusses the main current approaches to the interpretation of the term professional career, as well as the established lines of empirical study of the factors of career development. The author points out to the insufficient co-ordination between the efforts of theoretical conceptualization of career-related issues and the empirical studies of this subject. The author analyzes the most promising directions for further career research in terms of Bourdieu's theory of social space. Primarily, the author focuses on elaborating the concepts of career field and career capital related to it.
van Beusichem, Herman Clasinus
This dissertation contains three empirical studies that contribute to our understanding of dividend, governance and transparency policies of Dutch listed firms. The first study describes the dividend policy decisions of Dutch firms in the twentieth century. The fraction of dividend-paying firms has
The present empirical study scrutinizes the use of short stories via computer technologies in teaching and learning English language. The objective of the study is two-fold: to examine how short stories could be used through computer programs in teaching and learning English and to collect data about students' perceptions of this technique via…
Roy, Leena; Sawyers, Janet K.
Conducted an empirical study of communications in a mother-child context, studied cognitive, emotional, and metacommunicational responses to "subtle inconsistencies" and consistencies in communication in this context. Found subtle inconsistency to be more stressful, complex, and evocative of responses showing lack of metacommunication, than…
Spintzyk, Katharina; Strehlke, Friederike; Ohlberger, Stephanie; Gröben, Bernd; Wegner, Claas
This paper deals with an empirical study examining the effectiveness of interdisciplinary teaching in biology and physical education (PE) regarding the students' growth in knowledge. The study was conducted with 141 German sixth form students. In groups, they were taught three hours a week for a period of six weeks. In order to compare the…
Hardin, J. Michael; Anderson, Billie S.; Woodby, Lesa L.; Crawford, Myra A.; Russell, Toya V.
This article explores the statistical methodologies used in demonstration and effectiveness studies when the treatments are applied across multiple settings. The importance of evaluating and how to evaluate these types of studies are discussed. As an alternative to standard methodology, the authors of this article offer an empirical binomial…
H.C. van Beusichem (Henry)
textabstractThis dissertation contains three empirical studies that contribute to our understanding of dividend, governance and transparency policies of Dutch listed firms. The first study describes the dividend policy decisions of Dutch firms in the twentieth century. The fraction of
Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks
This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…
This study reports an empirical study of an explicit instruction of corpus-aided Business English collocations and verifies its effectiveness in improving learners' collocation awareness and learner autonomy, as a result of which is significant improvement of learners' collocation competence. An eight-week instruction in keywords' collocations,…
Mones, Enys; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'; Hupert, Nathaniel; Lehmann, Sune
Targeted vaccination, whether to minimize the forward transmission of infectious diseases or their clinical impact, is one of the 'holy grails' of modern infectious disease outbreak response, yet it is difficult to achieve in practice due to the challenge of identifying optimal targets in real time. If interruption of disease transmission is the goal, targeting requires knowledge of underlying person-to-person contact networks. Digital communication networks may reflect not only virtual but also physical interactions that could result in disease transmission, but the precise overlap between these cyber and physical networks has never been empirically explored in real-life settings. Here, we study the digital communication activity of more than 500 individuals along with their person-to-person contacts at a 5-min temporal resolution. We then simulate different disease transmission scenarios on the person-to-person physical contact network to determine whether cyber communication networks can be harnessed to advance the goal of targeted vaccination for a disease spreading on the network of physical proximity. We show that individuals selected on the basis of their closeness centrality within cyber networks (what we call 'cyber-directed vaccination') can enhance vaccination campaigns against diseases with short-range (but not full-range) modes of transmission. © 2018 The Author(s).
Stage, Jan; Andreasen, M. S.; Nielsen, H. V.
The idea of conducting usability tests remotely emerged ten years ago. Since then, it has been studied empirically, and some software organizations employ remote methods. Yet there are still few comparisons involving more than one remote method. This paper presents results from a systematic...... empirical comparison of three methods for remote usability testing and a conventional laboratorybased think-aloud method. The three remote methods are a remote synchronous condition, where testing is conducted in real time but the test monitor is separated spatially from the test subjects, and two remote...... asynchronous conditions, where the test monitor and the test subjects are separated both spatially and temporally....
Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.
Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…
He, Wei; Li, Feifei; Wolfe, Edward W.; Mao, Xia
For those tests solely composed of testlets, local item independency assumption tends to be violated. This study, by using empirical data from a large-scale state assessment program, was interested in investigates the effects of using different models on equating results under the non-equivalent group anchor-test (NEAT) design. Specifically, the…
An Empirical Study of Gender Gap in Children Schooling in Nigeria. Olanrewaju Olaniyan. Abstract. African Journal of Economic Policy Vol10(1) 2003: 117-131. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajep.v10i1.24245 · AJOL African ...
Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Treude, Christoph
When developers gain thorough understanding and knowledge of software security, they can produce more secure software. This study aims at empirically identifying and understanding the security issues posted on a random sample of GitHub repositories. We tried to understand the presence of security...
den Hond, F.; Boersma, F.K.; Heres, L.; Kroes, E.H.J.; van Oirschot, E.
There is an increasing interest in the application of Structuration Theory in the fields of management and organization studies. Based upon a thorough literature review, we have come up with a data-set to assess how Structuration Theory has been used in empirical research. We use three key concepts
Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho
Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…
Dom, Vannak; Yi, Gihong
The empirical study on 610 undergraduate students between the age of 16 to 25 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was set to examine the relationship of gender and subject choice. The findings have revealed that women were overrepresented in non-science subjects and their gender identity has strong connection with subject choice (*** p < 0.001). The study…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee
Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…
Full Text Available This empirical study examines the body shapes and apparel fit incongruities experienced by a convenience sample of South African women (n=155), aged 20 to 65 years. Also examined was the extent to which apparel manufactured using the currently...
Spencer-Oatey, Helen; Xiong, Zhaoning
This paper reports an empirical study of the psychological and sociocultural adjustments of two cohorts of Chinese students taking a foundation course in English language at a British university. Using Zung's (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale and a modification of Ward and Kennedy's (1999) Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, quantitative data were…
van Zundert, Jeroen
This dissertation contains five empirical studies on the efficiency of corporate bond and stock markets. In Chapter 2, the pricing of interest rate risk in the stock market is analyzed. Over the long run, 1927 to 2015, the price of bearing interest rate risk is positive as expected, but there is
Based on the data collected from 5 prestigious creativity journals, research methodologies and methods of 612 empirical studies on creativity, published between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed and compared to those in gifted education. Major findings included: (a) Creativity research was predominantly quantitative and psychometrics and experiment…
This study used nationwide, randomly sampled data from the Peking University Institute of Economics of Education 2011 survey of college graduates to conduct an empirical analysis of their job satisfaction. The results indicate that work-related factors have a significant effect on the job satisfaction of college graduates, while nonwork factors…
Wang, Gang; Wu, Liyun; Han, Rongbin
The modernization theory contends that there is a link between education and democracy. Yet few empirical studies have been done to investigate the role of higher education on promoting democratic values in the Chinese context. Using China General Social Survey 2006, this paper generates several findings which are not completely consistent with…
van Herpen, M.; van Praag, C.M.; Cools, K.
The design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system can strongly affect the motivation of employees. Building on economic and psychological theory this study develops a conceptual model that is used to empirically test this effect. Our survey results demonstrate a
Full Text Available Today, it is common for software projects to collect measurement data through development processes. With these data, defect prediction software can try to estimate the defect proneness of a software module, with the objective of assisting and guiding software practitioners. With timely and accurate defect predictions, practitioners can focus their limited testing resources on higher risk areas. This paper reports the results of three empirical studies that uses an automated genetic defect prediction framework. This framework generates and compares different learning schemes (preprocessing + attribute selection + learning algorithms and selects the best one using a genetic algorithm, with the objective to estimate the defect proneness of a software module. The first empirical study is a performance comparison of our framework with the most important framework of the literature. The second empirical study is a performance and runtime comparison between our framework and an exhaustive framework. The third empirical study is a sensitivity analysis. The last empirical study, is our main contribution in this paper. Performance of the software development defect prediction models (using AUC, Area Under the Curve was validated using NASA-MDP and PROMISE data sets. Seventeen data sets from NASA-MDP (13 and PROMISE (4 projects were analyzed running a NxM-fold cross-validation. A genetic algorithm was used to select the components of the learning schemes automatically, and to assess and report the results. Our results reported similar performance between frameworks. Our framework reported better runtime than exhaustive framework. Finally, we reported the best configuration according to sensitivity analysis.
Eljaaly, Khalid; Alshehri, Samah; Aljabri, Ahmed; Abraham, Ivo; Al Mohajer, Mayar; Kalil, Andre C; Nix, David E
Both typical and atypical bacteria can cause community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); however, the need for empiric atypical coverage remains controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of antibiotic regimens with atypical coverage (a fluoroquinolone or combination of a macrolide/doxycycline with a β-lactam) to a regimen without atypical antibiotic coverage (β-lactam monotherapy) on rates of clinical failure (primary endpoint), mortality, bacteriologic failure, and adverse events, (secondary endpoints). We searched the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases for relevant RCTs of hospitalized CAP adults. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a fixed-effect model, but used a random-effects model if significant heterogeneity (I 2 ) was observed. Five RCTs with a total of 2011 patients were retained. A statistically significant lower clinical failure rate was observed with empiric atypical coverage (RR, 0.851 [95% CI, 0.732-0.99; P = 0.037]; I 2 = 0%). The secondary outcomes did not differ between the two study groups: mortality (RR = 0.549 [95% CI, 0.259-1.165, P = 0.118], I 2 = 61.434%) bacteriologic failure (RR = 0.816 [95% CI, 0.523-1.272, P = 0.369], I 2 = 0%), diarrhea (RR = 0.746 [95% CI, 0.311-1.790, P = 0.512], I 2 = 65.048%), and adverse events requiring antibiotic discontinuation (RR = 0.83 [95% CI, 0.542-1.270, P = 0.39], I 2 = 0%). Empiric atypical coverage was associated with a significant reduction in clinical failure in hospitalized adults with CAP. Reduction in mortality, bacterial failure, diarrhea, and discontinuation due to adverse effects were not significantly different between groups, but all estimates favored atypical coverage. Our findings provide support for the current guidelines recommendations to include empiric atypical coverage.
Wasserman, Jason Adam; Stevenson, Shannon Lindsey; Claxton, Cassandra; Krug, Ernest F
In light of the ongoing development and implementation of core competencies in bioethics, it is important to proceed with a clear sense of how bioethics knowledge is utilized in the functioning of hospital ethics committees (HECs). Without such an understanding, we risk building a costly edifice on a foundation that is ambiguous at best. This article examines the empirical relationship between traditional paradigms of bioethics theory and actual decision making by HEC members using survey data from HEC members. The assumption underlying the standardization of qualifications and corresponding call for increased education of HEC members is that they will base imminent case decisions on inculcated knowledge. Our data suggest, however, that HEC members first decide intuitively and then look for justification, thereby highlighting the need to re-examine the pedagogical processes of ethics education in the process of standardizing and improving competencies. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.
Goersch, Henning G.; Werner, Ute
The empirical study on the feasibility of measures for public self-protection capability enhancement covers the following issues with several sections: (1) Introduction: scope of the study; structure of the study. (2) Issue coherence: self-protection; reduction and prevention of damage by personal emergency preparedness, personal emergency preparedness in Germany. (3) Solution coherence: scientific approaches, development of practical problem solution approaches, proposal of a promotion system. (4) Empirical studies: Promotion system evaluation by experts; questioning of the public; Delphi-study on minimum standards in emergency preparedness; local networks in emergency preparedness. (5) Evaluation of models for personal emergency preparedness (M3P). (6) Integration of all research results into the approach of emergency preparedness: scope; recommendations, conclusions.
Albana Berisha Qehaja
Full Text Available There is no doubt that strategic management tools and techniques are important parts of the strategic management process. Their use in organizations should be observed in a practice-based context. This paper analyzes the empirical studies on the usage of strategic management tools and techniques. Hence, the main aim of this study is to investigate and analyze which enterprises, according to their country development level, use more strategic management tools and techniques and which of these are used the most. Also, this paper investigates which strategic management tools and techniques are used globally according to the results of empirical studies. The study presents a summary of empirical studies for the period 1990–2015. The research results indicate that more strategic tools and techniques are used in developed countries, followed by developing countries and fewest in countries in transition. This study is likely to contribute to the ﬁeld of strategic management because it summarizes the most used strategic tools and techniques at the global level according to varying stages of countries’ economic development. Also, the ﬁndings from this study may be utilized to maximize the full potential of enterprises and reduce the cases of entrepreneurship failures, through creating awareness of the importance of using strategic management tools and techniques.
Ulusoy, Gündüz; Ulusoy, Gunduz; Çetindamar, Dilek; Cetindamar, Dilek; Yeğenoğlu, Hande; Yegenoglu, Hande; Bulut, Çağrı; Bulut, Cagri
In this paper, we report on some of the results of the Innovations in Manufacturing Industries in Turkey Study (IMITS). This study is an empirical investigation into the innovation performance and competitive strategies of manufacturing firms in Turkey. The data was gathered in nine different cities in Turkey during the period August 2004 – January 2005. The survey was conducted through face-to-face interviews due to the complex nature of the survey and was implemented in 135 manufacturing fi...
Christopher A. Wingrove; Boris Urban
Orientation: Franchising is a popular and multifaceted business arrangement that captures a sizeable portion of the restaurant industry worldwide. Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the influence of various site location and branding factors on the growth of franchised fast food restaurant brands across the greater Gauteng region. Motivation of the study: Researching which factors influence the growth of franchised fast food restaurant brands is important for an emer...
Adewale Stephen Bakare
This study examined the crowding out effects of corruption and its destabilizing implications on the economic growth of Nigeria, using parsimonious error correction mechanism. The study employed experimental research design approach for the data analysis, which combined theoretical consideration (a priori criteria) with empirical observations and extracted maximum information from the available data. The Nigerian secondary and time series data were tested for stationary and co integration var...
Yung-Heng Lee; Yann-Haur Huang; Mei-Jane Chan
The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the effectiveness of The Eclectic Theory in explaining the entry mode choices of Taiwanese Electronic Components firms in China markets during the time period from 2003 to 2005. The annual data includes as many as 267, 324, and 283 firms respectively. This study explores how the ownership, location, and internalization advantages( OLI advantages) influence the entry mode choices between wholly-owned subsidiaries (WOS) and joint ventures (JV)...
Koo, Hoon Jung; Kwon, Jung-Hye
Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and...
Full Text Available Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008 in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. A revised ELU model is proposed based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a early attention processes in listening to speech, (b signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.
Full Text Available Wen and Wang (2004 reviewed the empirical studies over the past two decades (from 1984 to 2003 on learning strategies that Chinese EFL learners used. This article, following their methodological framework, reviews about 45 empirical studies on Chinese EFL learners’ English vocabulary learning strategies, conducted by Mainland Chinese scholars over the past two decades. The review shows that more than half of the Chinese scholars are interested in questionnaire investigation of EFL learners’ preferences for vocabulary learning. The reports of the questionnaire investigations indicate that most Chinese EFL learners prefer rote learning of vocabulary to learning vocabulary in context or through language use. The experimental studies suggest that strategies-based instruction results in the learners’ vocabulary achievement. Cognitive and metacognitive strategies are the two groups of strategies that Chinese researchers show particular interest in.
Full Text Available The article presents the situation of youth in contemporary society. Neoliberal economy, ageing society, rapid globalisation, technological changes, increase of social risk have prompted specific, historically unfamiliar, and fairly difficult to forecast social change. Social adaptation and construction of own identity are becoming challenging to youth as a specific social group in this period of great uncertainty, risk, and opportunities. Youth studies are referred to as one of the means to help understand the youth phenomenon and form the respective policy. Aim of the article is to reveal the role of youth studies as a specific interdisciplinary genre of the empirical-analytic paradigm in social sciences. Research objectives: (1 To identify the traditions of youth studies and differences between them; (2. To reveal the specific character of youth studies as an empirical paradigm in the contemporary context. Analysis of scientific sources and document analysis are used for achievement of the goal and objectives. Since the 20th century, youth studies have been developing as an independent research discipline and tradition. Perception of the notion of a young person has been changing along with development of the paradigmatic and methodological research traditions. Modernity has doubtlessly contributed to a young person finding his/her place in other age groups and putting an emphasis on the importance of youth as a specific social group. Recently, youth has been viewed as both the risk and the opportunity group. Although qualitative research, in particular, where youth emancipation is aspired, prevails in the contemporary research tradition, the empirical-analytic paradigm has not lost its relevance. The research has demonstrated that empirical-analytic paradigm is a specific genre of the youth studies characterised by quantitative approach and strong link to politics and practical situation of the phenomenon.
Dechartres, Agnes; Huas, Caroline; Godart, Nathalie; Pousset, Maud; Pham, Alexandra; Divac, Snezana M; Rouillon, Frederic; Falissard, Bruno
To empirically classify phenotypes of eating disorders (ED) using latent class analysis (LCA), and to validate this classification based on clinical outcomes. LCA was applied to 968 inpatients. The resultant classes were validated by clinical outcomes including mortality. A 5-class solution showed the best fit. The symptoms of latent class 1 (LC1; 26% of the sample) resembled anorexia nervosa (AN), bingeing-purging (AN-B/P) subtype; those of LC2 (23%) resembled bulimia nervosa; those of LC3 (11%) were close to AN-B/P without weight and body concerns; those of LC4 resembled restrictive anorexia nervosa (RAN) without weight and body concerns, and those of LC5 RAN. A history of hospitalization for ED was significantly more frequent for LC3 and LC4. The lowest BMI at admission were presented in LC4. LC1 showed the highest level of psychological disturbances and LC4 the lowest. LC3 and LC4 differed from LC1 and LC5 by higher percentages of treatment dropout (64.9 vs. 57.2 and 55.7 vs. 47.5%, respectively; overall p = 0.001). Survival rates tended to be different between the LC (p = 0.09). Subgroups of AN patients with low weight and body concerns seem more severe at hospitalization and more difficult to manage, with a higher rate of treatment dropout than the 'typical' AN patients. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background The case has historically been presented that structured and/or coded electronic health records (EHRs benefit direct patient care, but the evidence base for this is not well documented.Methods We searched for evidence of direct patient care value from the use of structured and/or coded information within EHRs. We interrogated nine international databases from 1990 to 2011. Value was defined using the Institute of Medicine’s six areas for improvement for healthcare systems: effectiveness, safety, patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency and equitability. We included studies satisfying the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC group criteria.Results Of 5016 potentially eligible papers, 13 studies satisfied our criteria: 10 focused on effectiveness, with eight demonstrating potential for improved proxy and actual clinical outcomes if a structured and/or coded EHR was combined with alerting or advisory systems in a focused clinical domain. Three studies demonstrated improvement in safety outcomes. No studies were found reporting value in relation to patient-centredness, timeliness, efficiency or equitability.Conclusions We conclude that, to date, there has been patchy effort to investigate empirically the value from structuring and coding EHRs for direct patient care. Future investments in structuring and coding of EHRs should be informed by robust evidence as to the clinical scenarios in which patient care benefits may be realised.
Ota, Sakiko; Kudo, Ken-Ichi; Taguchi, Kenta; Ihori, Mikio; Yoshie, Satoru; Yamamoto, Takuma; Sudoh, Osamu; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Iijima, Katsuya
Information and communications technology has attracted attention as a useful way of sharing care records in community-based care. Such information sharing systems, however, imposed the burden of inputting the same records into different information systems due to a lack of interoperability of the systems. The purpose of this study was to develop a gateway that links information systems and to investigate the functionality and usability of the gateway through an empirical study. We developed a gateway with healthcare and welfare professionals in Kashiwa city, Japan. The gateway system consisted of two sub-systems: a data exchange sub-system and a common sub-system. Regarding the security, we used the transport layer security 1.2 and a public key infrastructure. For document formats, we utilized the health level seven international, extensible markup language, and portable document format. In addition, we performed an empirical study with 11 scenarios of four simulated patients and a questionnaire survey to the professionals. Professionals of eight occupations participated the empirical study and verified the gateway to link information systems of six vendors. For a questionnaire survey, 32 professionals out of 40 reported that the gateway would eliminate the burden of inputting the same records into different information systems.
Burstein, Marcy; Georgiades, Katholiki; Lamers, Femke; Swanson, Sonja A.; Cui, Lihong; He, Jian-Ping; Avenevoli, Shelli; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Objective: The current study examined the sex- and age-specific structure and comorbidity of lifetime anxiety disorders among U.S. adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 2,539 adolescents (1,505 females and 1,034 males) from the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement who met criteria for "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…
Full Text Available Building national brand plays an important role on today's economy to attract interested tourists in visiting various countries. There are different factors impacting national brand such as advertisement, natural attraction, etc. In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to find the impact of ten most important factors on building brand. The study designs and distributes a questionnaire among 384 international tourists who visited Iran during the year of 2010 and it uses factor analysis to group important factors. The results extract four groups; the first factor includes three most important components including satellite advertisement programs, public awareness on economical power and public awareness on specialized symposium and conferences. The second factor includes three other important factors, which are public awareness on human right, advertisement programs through distribution brushers and internet advertisement. The third factor includes two variables, which are public awareness on education and access to educational services and introducing cultural heritage. Finally, the last factor includes introducing natural attraction and advertisement programs through distribution brushers.
This study investigates the effect of globalisation on governance in 51 African countries for the period 1996-2011. Four bundled governance indicators and four globalisation (political, economic, social and general) variables are used. The empirical evidence is based on Instrumental Variable Quantile Regressions. The motivation for the estimation technique is that blanket governance-globalisation policies are not likely to succeed unless they are contingent on initial levels of governance and...
Naidu, G M; Narayana, C L; Pillari, G D
It is about two decades since the marketing scholars identified the need and relevance of marketing in health care organizations. The health care industry itself has been undergoing significant changes brought on by deregulation, declining demand, intraorganizational competition and growth of HMO's and PPO's. Yet, the industry has not fully implemented the marketing concept. For many health care organizations, marketing seems still to mean advertising and public relations as evidenced by an empirical study.
As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecologica...
Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...
This empirical study aimed at conducting a cross case analysis of a four targeted Web-based CRM companies (Microsoft dynamics, Salesforce.com, Sugarcrm and Oracle on demand), in which this research will recognize the extent of knowledge management implantations used in these selected systems. Then highlighting the enhancement role of knowledge management implantations on these web-based CRM selected systems. Besides conducting the cross mapping the marketing campaigns of these selected system...
Choi, Tsan-Ming; Chow, Pui-Sze; Kwok, Bowood; Liu, Shuk-Ching; Shen, Bin
Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs) such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and...
Pajak, Wojciech; Brzezińska, Elzbieta; Mielczarek, Cecylia
The article presents extended computer investigations of various sulfate derivatives of riboflavin. A number of physicochemical parameters such as total energy, binding energy and formation heat were calculated via semi-empirical methods AM1 and PM3 for the different derivatives of riboflavin. Their analysis made it possible to determine the sequence of formation of sulfate derivatives--esterification is the easiest at hydroxyl groups at the farthest positions from the ring. This methodology may be used to study biologically active compounds.
Porcerelli, John H; Jones, John R; Klamo, Rachel; Heeney, Rebecca
In the healthcare setting, adult patients with histories of childhood abuse are of significant concern and are frequently encountered in the primary care setting. However, there is a dearth of studies investigating the relationships between psychopathology, overall health, healthcare utilization, physician ratings of patient difficulty, and childhood abuse. The present study examines these relationships in primary care patients with (N = 45) and without (N = 129) histories of childhood abuse (physical, sexual, and both). Findings revealed that adult patients with histories of childhood abuse generally scored significantly higher on measures of psychopathology, emergency room use, and doctor-patient relationship difficulty, and lower on a measure of mental and physician-rated physical health. In a multiple regression analysis, income and a history of childhood sexual abuse significantly predicted overall mental health. In a second multiple regression analysis, income, depression, somatization, borderline personality disorder, and difficult doctor-patient relationship ratings significantly predicted physician-rated physical health. Overall, these findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse is associated with a host of negative health outcomes. Findings also suggest that negative feelings about a patient may help physicians identify patients with histories of childhood abuse. It is especially important for physicians to routinely include an assessment of childhood abuse during the psychosocial portion of the medical interview or through screening instruments.
Wen Cheong Chin
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the benefits of combining realized volatility, higher power variation volatility and nearest neighbour truncation volatility in the forecasts of financial stock market of DAX. A structural break heavy-tailed heterogeneous autoregressive model under the heterogeneous market hypothesis specification is employed to capture the stylized facts of high-frequency empirical data. Using selected averaging forecast methods, the forecast weights are assigned based on the simple average, simple median, least squares and mean square error. The empirical results indicated that the combination of forecasts in general shown superiority under four evaluation criteria regardless which proxy is set as the actual volatility. As a conclusion, we summarized that the forecast performance is influenced by three factors namely the types of volatility proxy, forecast methods (individual or averaging forecast and lastly the type of actual forecast value used in the evaluation criteria.
Bodoff, David; Bekkerman, Ron; Dai, Julie
The evolutionary theory of language predicts that a language will tend towards fewer synonyms for a given object. We subject this and related predictions to empirical tests, using data from the eBay Big Data Lab which let us access all records of the words used by eBay vendors in their item titles, and by consumers in their searches. We find support for the predictions of the evolutionary theory of language. In particular, the mapping from object to words sharpens over time on both sides of the market, i.e. among consumers and among vendors. In addition, the word mappings used on the two sides of the market become more similar over time. Our research contributes to the literature on language evolution by reporting results of a truly unique large-scale empirical study.
Li, Ming; Shu, Zhiqun; Huang, Xuan; Du, Zhaohui; Wu, Jun; Xia, Qingshi; Liu, Kun; Lou, Jiquan; Jing, Limei
Building highly qualified General Practitioners (GPs) is key to the development of primary health care. It's therefore urgent to ensure the GPs' quality service under the background of the new round of health care system reforms in China. A new model of GP qualification examination was originally implemented in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China, which aimed to empirically evaluate the GPs' capability in terms of clinical performance and social recognition. In the current study, an analysis was made of the first two years (2014-2015) of such theoretical and practical examinations on the GPs there with a view to getting a deep insight into the GP community so as to identify the barriers to such a form of GP qualification examination. The agency survey method was applied to the two-year database of the GP examinees, the formative research conducted to explore the key elements for developing the examination model. The data analysis was performed with SPSS for Windows (Version 19.0) to describe the GPs' overall characteristics, and to make comparisons between different groups. In 2015, the total number of GPs was 1264 in the area, in different districts of which, statistically significant differences were found in sex, age, professional title and employment span (P < 0.05). Such results were found to be similar to those in 2014. The examinees' theoretical scores were statistically different (F = 7.76; P < 0.05), showing a sloping trend from the urban district to the suburban, to the rural and then to the farther rural, as indicated by LSD-t test (P < 0.05). From the theoretical examinations the scores were higher on the western medicine than on the traditional Chinese medicine (F = 22.11; P < 0.05). As suggested by the current study on the GPs' qualification examination, which was pioneered in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, the construction of GP community was far from sufficient. It was a preliminary study and further studies are merited along
Cui, Yinghui; Wu, Zhengyi; Lu, Yao; Jin, Wenzhong; Dai, Xing; Bai, Jinxi
Improving the performance of clinical departments is not only the significant content of the healthcare system reform in China, but also the essential approach to better satisfying the Chinese growing demand for medical services. Performance management is vital and meaningful to public hospitals in China. Several studies are conducted in hospital internal performance management, but almost none of them consider the effects of informational tools. Therefore, we carried out an empirical study on effects of using performance management information system in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital. The main feature of the system is that it provides a real-time query platform for users to analyze and dynamically monitor the key performance indexes, timely detect problems and make adjustments. We collected pivotal medical data on 35 clinical departments of this hospital from January 2013 until December 2014, 1 year before and after applying the performance management information system. Comparative analysis was conducted by statistical methods. The results show that the system is beneficial to improve performance scores of clinical departments and lower the proportion of drug expenses, meanwhile, shorten the average hospitalized days and increase the bed turnover rate. That is to say, with the increasing medical services, the quality and efficiency is greatly improved. In a word, application of the performance management information system has a positive effect on improving performance of clinical departments.
Bargas-Avila, Javier A.; Hornbæk, Kasper
This paper reviews how empirical research on User Experience (UX) is conducted. It integrates products, dimensions of experience, and methodologies across a systematically selected sample of 51 publications from 2005-2009, reporting a total of 66 empirical studies. Results show a shift in the pro...
Schackmann, Holger; Schaefer, Henning; Lichter, Horst
The information routinely collected in change request management systems contains valuable information for monitoring of the process quality. However this data is currently utilized in a very limited way. This paper presents an empirical study of the process quality in the product portfolio of the Eclipse project. It is based on a systematic approach for the evaluation of process quality characteristics using change request data. Results of the study offer insights into the development process of Eclipse. Moreover the study allows assessing applicability and limitations of the proposed approach for the evaluation of process quality.
Keng, Shian-Ling; Smoski, Moria J.; Robins, Clive J.
Within the past few decades, there has been a surge of interest in the investigation of mindfulness as a psychological construct and as a form of clinical intervention. This article reviews the empirical literature on the effects of mindfulness on psychological health. We begin with a discussion of the construct of mindfulness, differences between Buddhist and Western psychological conceptualizations of mindfulness, and how mindfulness has been integrated into Western medicine and psychology, before reviewing three areas of empirical research: cross-sectional, correlational research on the associations between mindfulness and various indicators of psychological health; intervention research on the effects of mindfulness-oriented interventions on psychological health; and laboratory-based, experimental research on the immediate effects of mindfulness inductions on emotional and behavioral functioning. We conclude that mindfulness brings about various positive psychological effects, including increased subjective well-being, reduced psychological symptoms and emotional reactivity, and improved behavioral regulation. The review ends with a discussion on mechanisms of change of mindfulness interventions and suggested directions for future research. PMID:21802619
Full Text Available Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method.
Full Text Available The research examines service delivery innovation architecture and its role in achieving sustainable competitive advantage of firms. The study develops and empirically examines an antecedent based model of service delivery innovation. We collected data from 203 service sector professionals working in Mexican financial and information technology firms, and tested the proposed relationship. Further, the study investigates the moderating role of customer orientation on innovation driven performance outcomes. Results show that customer orientation strengthens the service delivery–performance relationship. This paper aims to contribute to the strategic planning of service firms by guiding their resource allocation to ensure sustainable growth.
Chen, Shih-Chih; Liu, Ming-Ling; Lin, Chieh-Peng
The aim of this study was to integrate technology readiness into the expectation-confirmation model (ECM) for explaining individuals' continuance of mobile data service usage. After reviewing the ECM and technology readiness, an integrated model was demonstrated via empirical data. Compared with the original ECM, the findings of this study show that the integrated model may offer an ameliorated way to clarify what factors and how they influence the continuous intention toward mobile services. Finally, the major findings are summarized, and future research directions are suggested.
Loneliness is often assumed to be an occupational hazard for senior-ranked members of an organization. However, most of what researchers hear about being "lonely at the top" is anecdote. This article provides empirical evidence from three separate studies assessing loneliness in managers and nonmanagers. Across all three studies, loneliness did not differ by managerial status. Managers were no more or less lonely than their nonmanager counterparts. This suggests that factors beyond seniority may be contributing to loneliness in organizational settings. Ideas for future research are discussed.
Displaying multiple levels of data visually has been proposed to address the challenge of limited screen space. Although many previous empirical studies have addressed different aspects of this question, the information visualization research community does not currently have a clearly articulated consensus on how, when, or even if displaying data at multiple levels is effective. To shed more light on this complex topic, we conducted a systematic review of 22 existing multi-level interface studies to extract high-level design guidelines. To facilitate discussion, we cast our analysis findings
Peggs, S.; Talman, R.
As proton accelerators get larger, and include more magnets, the conventional tracking programs which simulate them run slower. The purpose of this paper is to describe a method, still under development, in which element-by-element tracking around one turn is replaced by a single man, which can be processed far faster. It is assumed for this method that a conventional program exists which can perform faithful tracking in the lattice under study for some hundreds of turns, with all lattice parameters held constant. An empirical map is then generated by comparison with the tracking program. A procedure has been outlined for determining an empirical Hamiltonian, which can represent motion through many nonlinear kicks, by taking data from a conventional tracking program. Though derived by an approximate method this Hamiltonian is analytic in form and can be subjected to further analysis of varying degrees of mathematical rigor. Even though the empirical procedure has only been described in one transverse dimension, there is good reason to hope that it can be extended to include two transverse dimensions, so that it can become a more practical tool in realistic cases
Full Text Available The research aimed to identify the psychological and behavioural characteristics as potential triggers of youths’ entrepreneurial intentions within the context of rational action and planned behaviour theory. The empirical study proposed nine antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions for Romanian students with entrepreneurial higher education background. The results emphasized that behavioural variables (favourable subjective norms and attitude development, perceived behavioural control influence entrepreneurial intentions in a higher degree than the psychological ones (propensity to risk-taking, self-confidence, need for achievement, innovativeness. Moreover, some psychological variables (locus of control and tolerance of ambiguity have been identified as having insignificant influence on entrepreneurial intentions of the respondent students.
Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt
The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.
Full Text Available We describe an approach to empirically test the use of metaCASE environments to model methods. Both diagrams and matrices have been proposed as a means for presenting the methods. These different paradigms may have their own effects on how easily and well users can model methods. We extend Batra's classification of errors in data modelling to cover metamodelling, and use it to measure the performance of a group of metamodellers using either diagrams or matrices. The tentative results from this pilot study confirm the usefulness of the classification, and show some interesting differences between the paradigms.
Full Text Available Logistics occupations require skills that involve blue- and white-collar activities and different levels of educational skills. With the increase in global trade and competition, the varying skills necessary for different parts of the logistics sector have attracted attention. In this regard, this empirical study examines the relationship between logistics performance indicators and education assessment scores and identifies associations. The presented results, by using canonical correlation analysis, indicate that certain education assessment scores contribute more to improving logistics performance than do other variables. The variables that influence logistics performance are also highlighted.
Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Sorce, Fabio
Does usability of a web-based communication artifact affect brand, i.e., the set of beliefs, emotions, attitudes, or qualities that people mentally associate to the entity behind that artifact? Intuitively, the answer is “yes”: usability is a fundamental aspect of the quality of the experience with a website, and a “good” experience with a “product” or its reifications tends to translate into “good” brand perception. To date, however, the existence of a connection between web usability and brand perception is shown through anecdotic arguments, and is not supported by published systematic research. This paper discusses a study that empirically investigates this correlation in a more rigorous, analytical, and replicable way. Our main contribution is twofold: on the one hand, we provide empirical evidence to the heuristic principle that web usability influences branding, and we do that through four between subjects controlled experiments that involved 120 subjects. On the other hand, we inform the study with a systematic value-oriented approach to the user experience, and thus provide a conceptual framework that can be reused in other experimental settings, either for replicating our study, or for designing similar studies focusing on the correlation of web branding vs. design factors other than usability.
Sahoo, Narayan; Kazi, Abdul M.; Hoffman, Mark
The measured radiation beam profiles need to be corrected for the detector size effect to derive the real profiles. This paper describes two new semi-empirical procedures to determine the real profiles of high-energy x-ray beams by removing the detector size effect from the measured profiles. Measured profiles are corrected by shifting the position of each measurement point by a specific amount determined from available theoretical and experimental knowledge in the literature. The authors developed two procedures to determine the amount of shift. In the first procedure, which employs the published analytical deconvolution procedure of other investigators, the shift is determined from the comparison of the analytical fit of the measured profile and the corresponding analytical real profile derived from the deconvolution of the fitted measured profile and the Gaussian detector response function. In the second procedure, the amount of shift at any measurement point is considered to be proportional to the value of an analytical function related to the second derivative of the real profile at that point. The constant of proportionality and a parameter in the function are obtained from the values of the shifts at the 90%, 80%, 20%, and 10% dose levels, which are experimentally known from the published results of other investigators to be approximately equal to half of the radius of the detector. These procedures were tested by correcting the profiles of 6 and 18 MV x-ray beams measured by three different ionization chambers and a stereotactic field diode detector with 2.75, 2, 1, and 0.3 mm radii of their respective active cylindrical volumes. The corrected profiles measured by different detectors are found to be in close agreement. The detector size corrected penumbra widths also agree with the expected values based on the results of an earlier investigation. Thus, the authors concluded that the proposed procedures are accurate and can be used to derive the real
Brunetti, Luigi; Poustchi, Shirin; Cunningham, Daniel; Toscani, Michael; Nguyen, Joanne; Lim, Jeremy; Ding, Yilun; Nahass, Ronald G
Current medical center practice allows for the automatic conversion of all piperacillin/tazobactam orders from intermittent to extended infusion (EI). To compare the clinical and cost impact of empirical extended-infusion piperacillin/tazobactam. All consecutive patients treated with piperacillin/tazobactam for >48 hours were reviewed for inclusion. Patients were stratified into 2 groups: (1) traditional infusion (TI), preprotocol implementation, and (2) EI, postprotocol implementation. Patient demographics and primary and secondary diagnoses were extracted from the hospital discharge database. All patients were assessed for the primary end point of all cause 14-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included length of hospital stay, duration of antibiotic therapy, cost per treatment course, and occurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. A total of 2150 patients were included (EI = 632; TI = 1518). After adjusting for comorbidity, length of stay, and age, 14-day in-hospital mortality was similar between groups (odds ratio = 1.16; 95% CI = 0.85-1.58; P = 0.37). Length of stay was similar between the EI group versus TI (mean ± SD: 12.5 ± 9.58 days vs 11.8 ± 9.58 days, respectively; P = 0.10) after adjusting for age and Chalson-Deyo comorbidity index. Total cost per treatment course was reduced in the EI group by 13% compared with the TI group ($565.90 ± $257.70 vs $648.30 ± $349.20, respectively; P < 0.0001). Automatic substitution of EI for TI piperacillin/tazobactam is safe and associated with significant cost savings. EI piperacillin/tazobactam was not associated with a reduction in mortality or length of stay. © The Author(s) 2015.
Syan, C. S.; Ramoutar, K.
There is a constant search for ways to achieve a competitive advantage through new manufacturing techniques. Best performing manufacturing companies tend to use world-class manufacturing (WCM) practices. Although the last few years have witnessed phenomenal growth in the use of WCM techniques, their effectiveness is not well understood specifically in the context of less developed countries. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate the impact of company size on improving manufacturing performance in manufacturing organizations based in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Empirical data were collected via a questionnaire survey which was send to 218 manufacturing firms in T&T. Five different company sizes and seven different industry sectors were studied. The analysis of survey data was performed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The study signified facilitating and impeding factors towards improving manufacturing performance. Their relative impact/importance is dependent on varying company size and industry sectors. Findings indicate that T&T manufacturers are still practicing traditional approaches, when compared with world class manufacturers. In the majority of organizations, these practices were not 100% implemented even though they started the implementation process more than 5 years ago. The findings provided some insights in formulating more optimal operational strategies, and later develop action plans towards more effective implementation of WCM in T&T manufacturers.
Zhang, Yixiang; Wang, Zhaohua; Zhou, Guanghui
China is one of the major energy-consuming countries, and is under great pressure to promote energy saving and reduce domestic energy consumption. Employees constitute an important target group for energy saving. However, only a few research efforts have been paid to study what drives employee energy saving behavior in organizations. To fill this gap, drawing on norm activation model (NAM), we built a research model to study antecedents of employee electricity saving behavior in organizations. The model was empirically tested using survey data collected from office workers in Beijing, China. Results show that personal norm positively influences employee electricity saving behavior. Organizational electricity saving climate negatively moderates the effect of personal norm on electricity saving behavior. Awareness of consequences, ascription of responsibility, and organizational electricity saving climate positively influence personal norm. Furthermore, awareness of consequences positively influences ascription of responsibility. This paper contributes to the energy saving behavior literature by building a theoretical model of employee electricity saving behavior which is understudied in the current literature. Based on the empirical results, implications on how to promote employee electricity saving are discussed. - Highlights: • We studied employee electricity saving behavior based on norm activation model. • The model was tested using survey data collected from office workers in China. • Personal norm positively influences employee′s electricity saving behavior. • Electricity saving climate negatively moderates personal norm′s effect. • This research enhances our understanding of employee electricity saving behavior
Tse, Samson; Hong, Song-Iee; Wang, Chong-Wen; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M
With the rapid aging of the population and the increased availability of gambling facilities over the past three decades, older adults may gamble more and may be increasingly at risk for problem gambling (PG) or pathological gambling disorder (PGD). To facilitate a better understanding of gambling behavior among older adults that will inform preventive strategies, this article systematically examined empirical studies on issues related to older adults' gambling. This article reviewed 75 empirical studies including data on the distribution and determinants of PG and PGD and the outcomes of gambling. This review used the broad term of "disordered gambling" as a means to explain a continuum of problems caused by PG and PGD. The analyses covered seven topics concerning older adults' gambling behaviors: Participation rates for gambling, prevalence rates of disordered gambling, motivation for initially beginning to gamble, risk and protective factors for disordered gambling, and negative and positive health outcomes from gambling. Based on research gaps identified in the review, this article proposes six recommendations for future studies focusing on well-being of older adults who gamble, research method issues, and taking into account older adults' inspirations and adjustment to the aging process in the 21st century.
Full Text Available This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Slovenian entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurship. We have conducted our own empirical quantitative study on the representative sample of Slovenian entrepreneurs (n =114. Using the obtained results, we tried to verify the six hypotheses. We were particularly interested in those hypotheses that presuppose the entrepreneur who highly appreciates and respects the values and virtues of an ethical businesspearson in practice, will be more economically successful. Based on the results of our research we indicated that the Slovenian entrepreneurs are largely aware of the relevant organizational values and moral virtues, although this is not always obvious in their actions in everyday business practices. The article concludes with an interpretation of the results and discussion of the prospects and challenges for further exploration of the topics covered.
Tatyana B. Zagorulya
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of empirical research aimed at identifying the personality traits of students as bearers of innovation culture: innovative susceptibility, assertiveness, autonomy in decision-making, initiative and responsibility.Methods. In accordance with the object and purpose of the empirical research, empirical methods are used: instructional design model, observation, notes and forming experiments, testing, questionnaire, interview, qualitative analysis of empirical data; block of complementary techniques: «Research of features of response to conflict» (by K. Thomas, «Assertiveness», «Leader. Qualities of a Leader», «Leading representative system».Scientific novelty and results. Scientific novelty consists in the justification of psycho-pedagogical tools for diagnosing the level of development of the innovation culture of students of high school. It is found that students who successfully realizing the potential strength and ability to organize their own life, educational activities and communication on the basis of aggregate conscious goals, values in assertiveness, are outer-directed to innovation taking place in society and in the world. The use of innovative technologies in the educational process, especially creative projects, the decision of cases, holding debates, simulations and role-playing games creates conditions for the development of assertive behavior required in the process of successful adaptation and integration of students in the educational environment of the university, the acquisition of competitiveness in the society. It is concluded that the presence of the students’ considerable potential for the development of an innovation culture, in particular the leading representative of different systems, allowing to develop communication skills and engage in constructive dialogue.Practical significance. Appropriate methods and appropriate tools for diagnosing the level
This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. PMID:28579840
Full Text Available Knowledge about the practical use of statistics and probability in today's mathematics instruction at secondary schools is vital in order to improve the academic education for future teachers. We have conducted an empirical study among school teachers to inform towards improved mathematics instruction and teacher preparation. The study provides a snapshot into the daily practice of instruction at school. Centered around the four following questions, the status of statistics and probability was examined. Where did the current mathematics teachers study? What relevance do statistics and probability have in school? Which contents are actually taught in class? What kind of continuing education would be desirable for teachers? The study population consisted of all teachers of mathematics at secondary schools in the federal state of Salzburg.
Full Text Available Measuring organization performance plays an important role for developing better strategic plans. In today's competitive environment, organizations attempt for the product quality or offering the service, delivery, reliability capability and the customer satisfaction. These properties are not measurable only by traditional financial criteria and we need a method, which could consider non-financial factors as well. The present study of this paper proposed a hybrid of balanced score card (BSC and data envelopment analysis (DEA method for an empirical study of banking sector. The study proposes a model for assessing the Tose`eTa`avon bank performance, which is an example of governmental credit and financial services institutes. The study determines different important factors associated with each four components of BSC and uses analytical hierarchy process to rank the measures. In each part of BSC implementation, we use DEA for ranking different units of bank and efficient and inefficient units are determined.
This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs). There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC), and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant.
Niemansburg, Sophie L; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oner, F Cumhur; Dhert, Wouter J A; Bredenoord, Annelien L
Regenerative medicine (RM) interventions, such as (stem) cell transplantation, scaffolds, gene transfer, and tissue engineering, are likely to change the field of orthopedics considerably. These strategies will significantly differ from treatments in current orthopedic practice, as they treat the underlying cause of disease and intervene at a biological level, preferably in an earlier stage. Whereas most of the RM interventions for orthopedics are still in the preclinical phase of research, the number of clinical studies is expected to increase rapidly in the future. The debate about the challenging scientific and ethical issues of translating these innovative interventions into (early) clinical studies is developing. However, no empirical studies that have systematically described the attitudes, opinions, and experiences of experts in the field of orthopedic RM concerning these challenges exist. The aim of this study was to identify ethical issues that experts in the area of RM for musculoskeletal disorders consider to be relevant to address so as to properly translate RM interventions into (early) clinical studies. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 36 experts in the field, mainly spine surgeons and musculoskeletal scientists from The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. A topic list of open questions, based on existing literature and pilot interviews, was used to guide the interviews. Data analysis was based on the constant comparative method, which means going back and forth from the data to develop codes, concepts, and themes. Four ethical themes emerged from the interview data. First, the risks to study participants. Second, the appropriate selection of study participants. Third, setting relevant goal(s) for measuring outcome, varying from regenerating tissue to improving well-being of patients. Finally, the need for evidence-based medicine and scientific integrity, which is considered challenging in orthopedics. The overall attitude toward
Kim, Jane Paik; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Empirical ethics inquiry works from the notion that stakeholder perspectives are necessary for gauging the ethical acceptability of human studies and assuring that research aligns with societal expectations. Although common, studies involving different populations often entail comparisons of trends that problematize the interpretation of results. Using graphical model selection - a technique aimed at transcending limitations of conventional methods - this report presents data on the ethics of clinical research with two objectives: (1) to display the patterns of views held by ill and healthy individuals in clinical research as a test of the study's original hypothesis and (2) to introduce graphical model selection as a key analytic tool for ethics research. In this IRB-approved, NIH-funded project, data were collected from 60 mentally ill and 43 physically ill clinical research protocol volunteers, 47 healthy protocol-consented participants, and 29 healthy individuals without research protocol experience. Respondents were queried on the ethical acceptability of research involving people with mental and physical illness (i.e., cancer, HIV, depression, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder) and non-illness related sources of vulnerability (e.g., age, class, gender, ethnicity). Using a statistical algorithm, we selected graphical models to display interrelationships among responses to questions. Both mentally and physically ill protocol volunteers revealed a high degree of connectivity among ethically-salient perspectives. Healthy participants, irrespective of research protocol experience, revealed patterns of views that were not highly connected. Between ill and healthy protocol participants, the pattern of views is vastly different. Experience with illness was tied to dense connectivity, whereas healthy individuals expressed views with sparse connections. In offering a nuanced perspective on the interrelation of ethically relevant responses, graphical
Zimak, Eric H.; Edwards, Katie M.; Johnson, Shannon M.; Suhr, Julie
This study used a national sample of PhD students in clinical psychology (N = 1,034) to explore when students decided to pursue their graduate degree, reasons for their decisions, and associated satisfaction. Results indicated that immediately after completing their undergraduate degree, 57% of current graduate students reported postponing…
Full Text Available Cross-border e-commerce has been very successful in the last decade. Merchants and consumers have been encouraged to participate in e-commerce, including B2C or B2B. B2C is not limited to a domestic market anymore. Consumers across countries are interested in overseas direct purchases. They are willing to purchase products from major online shopping sites such as Amazon and eBay. We aim at gaining a better understanding of overseas direct purchases. Determinants of overseas direct purchases based on cross-national data are identified. Accordingly, we investigate logistics and regulatory determinants. Furthermore, external environments such as regulatory institutions and globalization are discussed in terms of overseas direct purchases. This study incorporates theoretical foundations into empirical findings. Specifically, the institutional theory and the resource-based view are applied to explain the internal and external determinants to increase overseas direct purchases. We conduct an empirical test using panel data for each country to identify the various determinants associated with overseas direct purchases.
Daniel Ştefan Armeanu
Full Text Available This study aims at empirically investigating the drivers of sustainable economic growth in EU-28 countries. By means of panel data regression models, in the form of fixed and random effects models, alongside system generalized method of moments, we examine several drivers of real gross domestic product (GDP growth rate, as follows: higher education, business environment, infrastructure, technology, communications, and media, population lifestyle, and demographic changes. As regards higher education, the empirical results show that expenditure per student in higher education and traditional 18–22 year-old students are positively linked with sustainable economic growth, whereas science and technology graduates negatively influence real GDP growth. In terms of business environment, total expenditure on research and development and employment rates of recent graduates contributes to sustainable development, but corruption perceptions index revealed a negative association with economic growth. As well, the results provide support for a negative influence of infrastructure abreast technological measures on economic growth. Besides, we found a negative connection between old-age dependency ratio and sustainable economic growth.
Masood ul Hassan
Full Text Available This study empirically reveals the influence of the TQM elements comprising leadership, people management, process management, customer focus, information & analysis and strategic planning on the organizational performance in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. The data were collected through a questionnaire survey from the 160 managers and employees of the manufacturing firms. Results using SPSS support the hypotheses that there is a positive relationship between the TQM elements and performance of Pakistani manufacturing firms. Furthermore, it is also found that customer focus is perceived as a dominant TQM practice for enhancing quality performance. Moreover, this study also provides a valuable knowledge to the top managers. Practical implementations along with the limitations have also been discussed in this study.
Ugochukwu O. Madu
Full Text Available Orientation: Past research recognises that human resources management practices may influence innovative behaviour, particularly as compensation systems can be used as a tool to increase intrapreneurial activity. Research purpose: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between actual versus desired compensation practices and elevated intrapreneurial behaviour. This is in line with research that focuses on how to promote business innovation, rather than merely research whether innovation is desirable for businesses or not. Motivation for the study: Recognising that entrepreneurial actions are the bedrock of intrapreneurial behaviour and that these behaviours may be critical to the long-term vitality of a firm and economy, it is important to facilitate the empirical study of them in an underresearched, emerging market environment. Moreover, compensation such as reward preferences and variable pay schemes remain controversial in terms of their costs versus contributions, and these constructs deserve more empirical research. Research approach, design and method: The study employed a quantitative research design, using a cross-sectional and empirical approach with primary data sources. A structured webbased instrument rendered a sample of 209 respondents from a diverse set of businesses. Canonical correlational analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses. Main findings: The results reveal that a gap exists between an employee’s perception of desired compensation practices and the actual compensation practices. The results further highlight that non-outcome-based measures like pay risk, job risk and expectations of success play a role in determining whether employees decide to be intrapreneurial or not. Practical/managerial implications: Due to the potential impact rewards have on intrapreneurial behaviour, it is necessary to design relevant compensation systems as part of organisational architecture in order to foster
Full Text Available The article explores various approaches to the development of cognitive process dimensions in financial literacy. It is based on the empirical research of the financial literacy levels among 1,207 fifteen-year-old Czech students compared with 18 countries worldwide (OECD, 2014a. Applying the regression model, the study has examined the strength of the relationship between the actual financial competence of 284 Czech students aged 17-18, studying economic disciplines, and their school performance. The research has produced the following conclusions: (a a weak dependence of actual skills on school performance; (b inherently associated consequence of school performance is not corresponding to the actual financial skills; (c a low level of financial competence in the dimensions - Remember, Understand and Apply. Proceeding from the research results, it will be desirable to focus on the transfer of economic methods and foreign practice into the learning process, thereby contributing to the improvement of the current situation in Czech Republic.
Özkil, Ali Gürcan
This paper provides an empirical study of a collective design platform (Thingiverse); with the aim of understanding the phenomenon and investigating how designs concurrently evolve through the large and complex network of designers. The case study is based on the meta-data collected from 158 489...... designs and 247 768 users; and it reveals that (i) Designs can be shared and quickly evolved into other designs through a distributed network of designers, (ii) only a small portion of the users are designers and (iv) collective design has deep and strong evolutionary roots. Better understanding...... of collective design platforms can help design practitioners to identify lead users in their respective domains and to discover latent needs that stem from different sub-communities or geographic regions....
Full Text Available Memes, the replicator of culture and information, and basic unit of culture, are copied, spread, transmitted and finally survives through imitation among vectors. The replication and transmission of memes have some resemblance to the process of second language acquisition. This paper examines the influence of language memes on the development of Chinese college students’ English writing proficiency through an empirical study. The study reveals that students instructed by the framework of teaching writing with memetics obtain an obvious improvement in their overall writing proficiency, compared with those who are instructed by the traditional method, that students’ awareness of using memes is greatly enhanced, and that language memes are significantly correlated to the students’ performance in the post-test writing. Singular language memes can be easily transmitted; memetic genotype prevails in EFL learners’ essay writing.
Tarun K. Sen
Full Text Available Radical and Incremental Innovation Preferences in Information Technology: An Empirical Study in an Emerging Economy Abstract Innovation in information technology is a primary driver for growth in developed economies. Research indicates that countries go through three stages in the adoption of innovation strategies: buying innovation through global trade, incremental innovation from other countries by enhancing efficiency, and, at the most developed stage, radically innovating independently for competitive advantage. The first two stages of innovation maturity depend more on cross-border trade than the third stage. In this paper, we find that IT professionals in in an emerging economy such as India believe in radical innovation over incremental innovation (adaptation as a growth strategy, even though competitive advantage may rest in adaptation. The results of the study report the preference for innovation strategies among IT professionals in India and its implications for other rapidly growing emerging economies.
The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) advocated by the National Research Council emphasize the connections among Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) disciplines. By design, NGSS is expected to replace the previous science education standards to enhance the quality of STEM education across the nation. To support this initiative, this investigation was conducted to fill a void in the research literature by developing an empirical indicator for the relationship of student performance across STEM subjects using a large-scale database from the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In particular, an innovative approach has been taken in this study to support the canonical correlation analysis of student plausible scores between physics and other STEM subjects at different grade levels and in a cross-country context. Results from this doctoral research revealed the need to strengthen the alignment between the intended, implemented, and attained curricula to support the integration of STEM disciplines in the United States.
Pedro R. Palos-Sanchez
Full Text Available The present study empirically analyzes the factors that determine the adoption of cloud computing (SaaS model in firms where this strategy is considered strategic for executing their activity. A research model has been developed to evaluate the factors that influence the intention of using cloud computing that combines the variables found in the technology acceptance model (TAM with other external variables such as top management support, training, communication, organization size, and technological complexity. Data compiled from 150 companies in Andalusia (Spain are used to test the formulated hypotheses. The results of this study reflect what critical factors should be considered and how they are interrelated. They also show the organizational demands that must be considered by those companies wishing to implement a real management model adopted to the digital economy, especially those related to cloud computing.
Schok, Michaela L; Kleber, Rolf J; Elands, Martin; Weerts, Jos M P
The aim of this article is to review the scientific literature on making sense of war and peacekeeping experiences, and it includes an analysis of empirical studies that examine appraisals of military deployment experiences among veterans. Veterans reported more positive than negative effects in the studies of this review. Furthermore, construing positive meaning from war and peacekeeping experiences, especially related to combat exposure or high perceived threat, is associated with better psychological adjustment. More insight on "normal" psychological processing of stressful and traumatic experiences is obtained when the concept of meaning is used in research. This perspective emphasizes the perception of individuals and focuses on beliefs and attitudes in making sense of threatening events instead of pathologizing the response to trauma.
Full Text Available Chaos management is one of the most necessary efforts on managing business units. Many organizations fail to cope with undesirable circumstances, which may happen without any prior notice and as a result, they may face with significant financial losses. In this paper, we present an empirical study to determine critical success factors, which could help handle any possible chaos in organizations. The proposed study of this paper is implemented for a set of travel agencies located in Tehran, Iran. Chronbach alpha is calculated as 0.821, which is well above the minimum desirable level. In addition, we have also performed factor analysis, which yields a KMO value of 0.576 with the level of significance of 0.000. The results indicate that there are six important factors including effective management strategy, internal environmental factors, creative and innovative attitudes, external environmental factors and top level management thoughts.
Liakou, Aikaterini I; Theodorakis, Michael J; Melnik, Bodo C; Pappas, Apostolos; Zouboulis, Christos C
Nutrition has long been associated with skin health, beauty, integrity and aging through multiple pathways and cofactors implicated in skin biology. The onset and clinical course of various common skin diseases, especially acne, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and hair loss, have been suggested to be critically affected by nutrition patterns and habits. The relationship between acne and diet, predominantly the role of high glycemic load diets and dairy consumption have recently gained increased interest. Abnormal nutritional conditions such as obesity or malnutrition often manifest themselves by specific cutaneous features and altered skin function. Skin photoprotection, rendered by various nutrients, is well documented and appropriate nutritional supplementation has been shown to exert beneficial effects upon impaired skin integrity, restore its appearance and promote skin health. It is our intention to provide a comprehensive review of the most recent information on the role of nutrition for common skin diseases and regulation of skin biology. Nutritional clinical studies in dermatology have been reviewed using the MedLine literature source and the terms "diet" or "nutrition" and "skin". The data on the relationship between nutrition and skin are until now controversial and much more work is needed to be done to clarify possible etiological correlations.
Park, Keun Jo; Park, Sun Yang; Park, Jung Sik; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho
A clinical study was made on 263 patients of hypothyroidism among the 5,970 patients of Various thyroid diseases diagnosed and treated at the Radioisotope Clinic and Laboratory, Seoul National University Hospital from May, 1960 to Aug, 1975. The results obtained with this study are as follows: 1) The etiological classification of hypothyroidism revealed 244 cases (93%) of primary hypothyroidism and 19 cases (7%) of secondary hypothyroidism. 2) The most frequent cause of the thyroprivic primary hypothyroidism was post radioiodine therapy with 109 cases (41.4%). 3) There were 37 cases (14%) of male and 226 cases (86%) of female, showing a ratio of 1 : 6. 4) The majority of patients were between the ages of 30 and 60 with the peak incidence (87 cases, 33%) in their fourth decades of lives. 5) The major symptoms and signs were weakness (97%), edema of face and extremities (92%); Decreased Achilles tendon reflex (87%), cold intolerance (82%), gain in weight (76%), constipation (58%) and cold skin (51%). 6) The cumulative incidence of hypothyroidism in patient treated with 131 I (3-8 mci) was 7.2% at first year, 33.3% at tenth year and the 50% at fourteenth year and the annual increment was 2.9%. 7) The incidence of hypothyroidism related to the numbers of 131 I therapy was not linear. 8) The diagnostic compatibilities of the various tests to hypothyroidism were TSH (100%), T 4 (93.8%), 24-hour-RNIU (91.5%), ATR (86.7%), T 3 RU (66.1%) and BMR (64.9%).
Shortell, Stephen M; Schmittdiel, Julie; Wang, Margaret C; Li, Rui; Gillies, Robin R; Casalino, Lawrence P; Bodenheimer, Thomas; Rundall, Thomas G
The performance of medical groups is receiving increased attention. Relatively little conceptual or empirical work exists that examines the various dimensions of medical group performance. Using a national database of 693 medical groups, this article develops a scorecard approach to assessing group performance and presents a theory-driven framework for differentiating between high-performing versus low-performing medical groups. The clinical quality of care, financial performance, and organizational learning capability of medical groups are assessed in relation to environmental forces, resource acquisition and resource deployment factors, and a quality-centered culture. Findings support the utility of the performance scorecard approach and identification of a number of key factors differentiating high-performing from low-performing groups including, in particular, the importance of a quality-centered culture and the requirement of outside reporting from third party organizations. The findings hold a number of important implications for policy and practice, and the framework presented provides a foundation for future research.
Mones, Enys; Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'
. If interruption of disease transmission is the goal, targeting requires knowledge of underlying person-to-person contact networks. Digital communication networks may reflect not only virtual but also physical interactions that could result in disease transmission, but the precise overlap between these cyber......-to-person physical contact network to determine whether cyber communication networks can be harnessed to advance the goal of targeted vaccination for a disease spreading on the network of physical proximity. We show that individuals selected on the basis of their closeness centrality within cyber networks (what we...... and physical networks has never been empirically explored in real-life settings. Here, we study the digital communication activity of more than 500 individuals along with their person-to-person contacts at a 5-min temporal resolution. We then simulate different disease transmission scenarios on the person...
Lluis Oviedo Torró, OFM
Full Text Available Cognitive Science of Religion (CSR has developed for almost twenty years naturalistic explanations on religious mind and behavior, opening that field to scientific scrutiny. Scholars used to study religion from a more humanistic tradition or a hermeneutic approach could feel surprised by the application of biological-evolutionary, cognitive and neurological means to better explain religion. Not too confident with the new approach, many traditional students of religion, like theologians, religion philosophers, phenomenologists, and even psychologists, were often dazzled by the exhibition of new terms, concepts and ways to understand religion, beyond the traditional frames. Time is ripe for an assessment on the plausibility that these new theories exhibit, taking into account their respective frameworks and the reported empirical evidence.
Full Text Available Investments in the Indian manufacturing sector do not seem to match the rate of growth of sales. This study empirically determines factors explaining within-firm variation in investment growth in three industries—auto components, chemicals and electronics—using panel data from 2002 to 2006. The results show that common firm-specific factors and some industry-specific factors, explain variation in investments within firms. Capital productivity is a significant factor in auto components and chemicals while capital intensity is significant for chemicals and electronics. Labour productivity is significant only for the electronics industry. The results suggest that there is a need to manage productivity improvements from the growth point of view and not only for efficiency improvements.
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an empirical study that investigated the instructional design process of three teams involved in the development of an e-learning unit. The teams declared they were using the same fast-prototyping design and development model, and were composed of the same roles (although with a different number of SMEs. Results indicate that the design and development model actually informs the activities of the group, but that it is interpreted and adapted by the team for the specific project. Thus, the actual practice model of each team can be regarded as an emergent feature. This analysis delivers insights concerning issues about team communication, shared understanding, individual perspectives and the implementation of prescriptive instructional design models.
Full Text Available The explosion of Internet usage has drawn the attention of researchers towards online Social Networks Marketing (SNM. Research has shown that a number of the Internet users are distrustful and indecisive, when it comes to the use of social networks marketing system. Therefore, there is a need for researchers to identify some of the factors that determine users’ acceptance of social networks marketing using Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model theoretical framework to predict consumer acceptance of social networks marketing within Western Cape Province of South Africa. The research model was tested using data collected from 470 questionnaires and analysed using linear regression. The results showed that user intentions to use SNM are strongly and positively correlated with user acceptance of using SNM systems. Empirical results confirmed that perceived credibility and perceived usefulness are the strongest determinant in predicting user intentions to use SNM system.
Pho, Hang Thu; Tambo, Torben
(EDMS) is essential, especially at global enterprises where a large amount of documents generated by processes flows through different work cultures. However, there is no "one-size-fits-all" design for EDMS because it depends on organizations' needs, size and resource allocation. This article discusses...... the interrelation between EDMS and IMS in order to suggest a best practice. Design/methodology/approach: This article methodologically based upon a qualitative, interpretivistic, longitudinal empirical study in a wind turbine factory. Findings and Originality/value: IMS improvement and effectiveness has been...... overlooking EDMS as a key factor in establishing appropriate technological support of the IMS processes. Rightful application of EDMS can further contribute to organizational learning, precision of documentation and cross-organisational collaboration. Research limitations/implications: Theorising on IMS needs...
Contingency theory and management control systems research offer avenues for investigating how contextual factors in organizations affect performance. This quantitative case study investigates how the context of CERN internal services influences the performance consciousness of functional service managers. A literature review recognized four contingency factors relevant for performance consciousness: interdependence, scope, standardization and variation. Data from these factors was measured empirically using a cross-sectional electronic survey and supplemented by data gathered from CERN internal documentation. A quantitative analysis of the data was performed using structural equation modelling. The main findings were congruent with existing literature indicating that a.) high interdependence between work units is associated with decreased variation, increased standardization and increased performance consciousness. b.) high scope is related to increased variation and decreased standardization. Overall, a bet...
Full Text Available We studied the relationship between investor protection, government behavior, and financial development using data covering six provinces (Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Henan, and Sichuan and two provincial-level cities (Beijing and Shanghai in China for the period 2005–2014. Using panel data estimation techniques, we found that there is a positive relationship between investor protection and financial development; by contrast, highly-intense government intervention leads to more financial impediments. Moreover, government intervention in education could promote financial development through its contribution to having a higher amount of the fund supply. Our empirical findings have important implications for policy-makers in terms of reforming the capital market regulation.
Justus, Selwyn; Iyakutti, K.
Computer applications are smart that they require efficient storage and retrieval of data. Object-relational data models are the opted and the widely appreciable approach because of their power in object representation and relational retrieval. Two OR models were designed for representing knowledge units in the Music Expert System and three metrics were proposed to study the storage and retrieval of the knowledge units from the OR schemas. Experiments conducted to asses the storage efficiency and relational retrieval of the objects indicated significant results. The metrics were used to keep in check the size of the objects created during runtime and their relational coupling helped in the retrieval of objects, with minimal disk reads. The empirical results and interpretations concludes the work, focusing on the efficient design of OR schema models which commend the functioning of the system’s performance.
Full Text Available There are many cases, where we may wish to choose a good accounting system and would like to learn how they work and the advantages and disadvantages of each so we can choose the better one for a business. In this paper, we present an empirical survey to understand whether we can choose accrual or cash accounting system. The proposed study designs a questionnaire among 220 experts in area of accounting affairs. The survey considers four sub hypotheses and one main hypothesis to see whether there are reliable rules and regulations in accrual-based accounting compared with cash accounting or not. Similarly, the survey investigates whether accrual-based accounting is more informative, comprehensive and provides better comparative results compared with cash accounting. The results indicate that accrual-based account performs better in terms of all mentioned criteria and it is a better method for managing accounting affairs compared with cash accounting systems.
How is new knowledge produced in the natural sciences? This question has long been an issue of central relevance for philosophers, historians and sociologists of science, who have fiercely debated whether and how the emergence of new scientific knowledge can be described as following regular patterns, for example as far as the interplay of theory and experiment is concerned. To this aim, more or less recent historical examples have been used as empirical case studies, and widely diverging conclusions have at times been drawn from the same material. The interdisciplinary, DFG-funded project-cluster "Epistemology of the LHC" (University of Wuppertal, Germany) has in the past three years attempted to investigate knowledge production "in real time" by following the interplay of theory and experiment unfold during the first phase of LHC activity and how the knowledge landscape of high energy physics accordingly did (or did not) change. To try and reconstruct some aspects of this epistemic dynamics, the project ...
Konukoglu, E.; Ganz, Melanie; Van Leemput, Koen
the community. In this article, we present an empirical study on the relevant features produced by two recently developed discriminative learning algorithms: neighborhood approximation forests (NAF) and the relevance voxel machine (RVoxM). Specifically, we examine whether the sets of features these methods......Determining disease-related variations of the anatomy and function is an important step in better understanding diseases and developing early diagnostic systems. In particular, image-based multivariate prediction models and the “relevant features” they produce are attracting attention from...... produce are exhaustive; that is whether the features that are not marked as relevant carry disease-related information. We perform experiments on three different problems: image-based regression on a synthetic dataset for which the set of relevant features is known, regression of subject age as well...
Jamshid Salehi Sadaghiani
Full Text Available Intellectual capital (IC is normally used to create value for organizations and in today's business environment; the success of each organization depends on managing such assets. During the past few years, many organizations implement IC to increase their competitive advantages. Hospitals are among business units where IC plays an important role on the success of these units. People normally choose hospitals based not only based on their equipments but also based on the specialists and physicians they have. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of IC in accounting parts of hospitals. The results of our regression analysis indicates that when there is a unit increase in either of human, customer, structural or intellectual capital individually, we can expect of an increase of 1.278, 1.210, 1.415 and 1.620 units increase in the performance of the university, respectively.
Demorest, A P; Siegel, P F
This study addresses the hypothesis that individuals have characteristic ways of looking at the world that are revealed not only in their life story but also in their professional work. It seeks to provide the first empirical test of this hypothesis using systematic methods for data selection, interpretation, and matching, as applied to the case of B. F. Skinner. Using the salience identifier "primacy" (Alexander, 1990), Skinner's first research design and the first paragraph of his autobiography were selected for analysis. Adopting a personological approach to interpretation, "scripts" (Tomkins, 1987) were derived from these materials by blind and independent coders. A matching task (Allport, 1961) then indicated that the scripts derived from Skinner's work and life were substantially similar and significantly more similar than random pairs of scripts . A search through other autobiographical and professional writings by Skinner revealed that the elements of the discovered script appear recurrently in his imagery.
Lin, Ling; Evans, Stephen
This paper presents an analysis of the major generic structures of empirical research articles (RAs), with a particular focus on disciplinary variation and the relationship between the adjacent sections in the introductory and concluding parts. The findings were derived from a close "manual" analysis of 433 recent empirical RAs from high-impact…
This article investigates empirically the potential and actual exchange rate exposure strategies of industrial companies in relation to identifying and quantifying the neutral financial positions in an optimal hedging strategy.......This article investigates empirically the potential and actual exchange rate exposure strategies of industrial companies in relation to identifying and quantifying the neutral financial positions in an optimal hedging strategy....
Yazdi Feyzabadi, Vahid; Haghdoost, Aliakbar; Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Aminian, Zahra
Although theoretically peace affects health, few published evidence for such an association was empirically available. This study aimed to explore the association between peace and life expectancy (LE) among the world countries. In an ecological study and using random effects regression model, we examined the association between peace and LE among world countries between 2007 and 2012. The LE at birth and global peace index (GPI: a score between 1 and 5, higher score means lower peace) were selected as outcome and main predictor variables, respectively. We adjusted their association for the gross national income (GNI) per capita and education index (EI). Data were obtained from the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) and UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Numbers of included countries were 158 based on the available data. GPI had a negative, considerable, and statistically significant effect on LE (standardized coefficient -0.039; 95% CI: -0.058, -0.019). This association was also significant even after the adjustment for EI (-0.019; 95% CI: -0.035, -0.003), GNI (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.055, -0.015), and both EI and GNI (-0.017; 95% CI: -0.033, -0.001). The full model showed that around 0.61 of the variation of LE among countries may be explained by the GPI, EI and GNI per capita. The contribution of peace as a global determinant of LE was empirically considerable even after the adjustment for the economic and education levels of countries. This implies that governments should make efforts to settle peace through implementing good governance based on interactions with both public and other countries.
Full Text Available The majority of research into full-sized helicopter overlapping propulsion systems involves co-axial setups (fully overlapped. Partially overlapping rotor setups (tandem, multirotor have received less attention, and empirical data produced over the years is limited. The increase in demand for compact small unmanned aircraft has exposed the need for empirical investigations of overlapping propulsion systems at a small scale (Reynolds Number < 250,000. Rotor-to-rotor interference at the static state in various overlapping propulsion system configurations was empirically measured using off the shelf T-Motor 16 inch × 5.4 inch rotors. A purpose-built test rig was manufactured allowing various overlapping rotor configurations to be tested. First, single rotor data was gathered, then performance measurements were taken at different thrust and tip speeds on a range of overlap configurations. The studies were conducted in a system torque balance mode. Overlapping rotor performance was compared to an isolated dual rotor propulsion system revealing interference factors which were compared to the momentum theory. Tests revealed that in the co-axial torque-balanced propulsion system the upper rotor outperforms the lower rotor at axial separation ratios between 0.05 and 0.85. Additionally, in the same region, thrust sharing between the two rotors changed by 21%; the upper rotor produced more thrust than the lower rotor at all times. Peak performance was recorded as a 22% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was greater than 0.25. The performance of a co-axial torque-balanced system reached a 27% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was equal to 0.05. The co-axial system swirl recovery effect was recorded to have a 4% efficiency gain in the axial separation ratio region between 0.05 and 0.85. The smallest efficiency loss (3% was recorded when the rotor separation ratio was between 0.95 and 1 (axial separation ratio was kept at 0
Mathie, Robert T
Observations about controlled clinical trials expressed by Max Haidvogl in the book Ultra High Dilution (1994) have been appraised from a perspective two decades later. The present commentary briefly examines changes in homeopathy research evidence since 1994 as regards: the published number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), the use of individualised homeopathic intervention, the 'proven efficacy of homeopathy', and the quality of the evidence. The commentary reflects the details of RCTs that are available in a recently published literature review and by scrutiny of systematic reviews of RCTs in homeopathy. The homeopathy RCT literature grew by 309 records in the 18 years that immediately followed Haidvogl's article, with more than a doubling of the proportion that investigated individualised homeopathy. Discounting one prior publication, the entire systematic review literature on homeopathy RCTs post-dates 1994. A total of 36 condition-specific systematic reviews have been identified in the peer-reviewed literature: 16 of them reported positive, or tentatively positive, conclusions about homeopathy's clinical effectiveness; the other 20 were negative or non-conclusive. Reviews typically have been restricted in the strength of their conclusions by the low quality of the original RCT evidence. Three comprehensive systematic reviews concluded, cautiously, that homeopathy may differ from placebo; a fourth such review reached negative conclusions. A recent high-quality meta-analysis concluded that medicines prescribed in individualised homeopathic treatment may have small, specific, effects. Despite important growth in research activity since 1994, concerns about study quality limit the interpretation of available RCT data. The question whether homeopathic intervention differs from placebo awaits decisive answer. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solstad, Stig Magne; Castonguay, Louis Georges; Moltu, Christian
Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) and clinical feedback (CF) systems have become important tools for psychological therapies, but there are challenges for their successful implementation. To overcome these challenges, a greater understanding is needed about how patients experience the use of ROM/CF. We conducted a systematic literature search of qualitative studies on patient experiences with the use of ROM/CF in mental health services. The findings from 16 studies were synthesized, resulting in four meta-themes: (1) Suspicion towards service providers, (2) Flexibility and support to capture complexity, (3) Empowering patients, and (4) Developing collaborative practice. We discuss the implications of these meta-themes for further development and implementation of ROM/CF into clinical practice, acknowledging the limitations of our review and suggesting avenues for further research. Clinical or methodological significance of this article: This article provides useful and actionable knowledge about the patient perspective on ROM/CF, an important discussion on the current state of research in this area, and useful and concrete suggestions for further avenues of research.
Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois
The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.
Boring, Ronald L.; Forester, John A.; Bye, Andreas; Dang, Vinh N.; Lois, Erasmia
The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to 'translate' the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.
Rebecca J. Von Der Heide
Full Text Available Studies of nonhuman primates have reported face sensitive patches in the ventral anterior temporal lobes (ATL. In humans, ATL resection or damage causes an associative prosopagnosia in which face perception is intact but face memory is compromised. Some fMRI studies have extended these findings using famous and familiar faces. However, it is unclear whether these regions in the human ATL are in locations comparable to those reported in non-human primates, typically using unfamiliar faces. We present the results of two studies of person memory: a meta-analysis of existing fMRI studies and an empirical fMRI study using optimized imaging parameters. Both studies showed left-lateralized ATL activations to familiar individuals while novel faces activated the right ATL. Activations to famous faces were quite ventral, similar to what has been reported in monkeys. These findings suggest that face memory-sensitive patches in the human ATL are in the ventral/polar ATL.
Aridelmo José Campanharo Teixeira
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the relationship between spending on research and development (R&D and the stock price of Brazilian companies listed for trading on the São Paulo Stock Exchange (Bovespa, following on the studies of Lopes (2001;2002 and Rezende (2005 about the value-relevance of accounting information in Brazil. This empirical-analytic study was based on the model of Collins et al. (1997, which is a proxy for the Residual Income Valuation (RIV model of Ohlson (1995, and on the classification of technological intensity in the study of Chan et al. (1990, carried out in the United States. The sample consisted of Brazilian firms with shares traded on the Bovespa between 1996 and 2006. By means of multiple regressions we identified that R&D spending is not statistically significant for the stock prices of the firms analyzed. These conclusions do not corroborate the findings of Chan et al. (1990, but do provide support for the studies of Ohlson (1995 and Lopes (2001; 2002 and complement the study by Rezende (2005, since our results indicate that earnings is statistically significant for stock price, with a positive relationship even after deducting R&D spending accounted for as expense. The situation is different for book value, which ceased being statistically significant and being related with stock price after deducting R&D spending accounted for as investment.
Emerson Wagner MAINARDES
Full Text Available In accordance with the importance that the student stakeholder represents to universities, the objective of this research project was to identify and classify the leading expectations of students at public universities. In order to achieve this, the study adopted both the premises of Stakeholder Theory and the approaches of earlier studies on the management of university stakeholders. This empirical study began with an exploratory study of students, at one university, to identify their expectations this resulting in a list of a total of twenty-five confirmed expectations. This provided the basis for the subsequent quantitative study involving students attending eleven Portuguese public universities. Through recourse to an online questionnaire, we obtained 1,669 correctly completed surveys that provided the input for data analysis deploying descriptive statistical processes and multiple linear regressions. Our findings show that the most important student expectations are the academic level of demand, the university’s connections with the employment market, student personal self-fulfillment and the prevailing university environment. According to students, these expectations should gain priority attention by university managers, once they consider them the most relevant aspects to the relationship between the student and the university.
Aslı Beyhan Acar
Full Text Available In this empirical study, it’s investigated differences of part-time working rates between men and women in the period of 2000-2012. 17 members of the EU and Turkey -as a candidate country- are participated in the study. Turkey is participated into the study too, because Turkey must adapt the most of the regulations of EU as a candidate member of the Union. The data are collected from OECD and World Bank statistics web site. Beyond that many database indicate part-time employment rates for both common and national definition of part-time working for statistical purpose. According to this it’s aimed to determine whether there is a significant difference between part-time working rates that are based on common and national definition. In the literature, there are some studies that investigate fertility rates and part-time employment rates of women. The correlation of these two variables that are belonged the years 2000-2012 is tested and the findings are indicated in the study. Furthermore, it’s analyzed the rate differences of part-time working for men and women in the period of 2000-2012.
Aslı Beyhan Acar
Full Text Available In this empirical study, it’s investigated differences of part-time working rates between men and women in the period of 2000-2012. 17 members of the EU and Turkey -as a candidate country- are participated in the study. Turkey is participated into the study too, because Turkey must adapt the most of the regulations of EU as a candidate member of the Union. The data are collected from OECD and World Bank statistics web site. Beyond that many database indicate part-time employment rates for both common and national definition of part-time working for statistical purpose. According to this it’s aimed to determine whether there is a significant difference between part-time working rates that are based on common and national definition. In the literature, there are some studies that investigate fertility rates and part-time employment rates of women. The correlation of these two variables that are belonged the years 2000-2012 is tested and the findings are indicated in the study. Furthermore, it’s analyzed the rate differences of part-time working for men and women in the period of 2000-2012.
Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhaolan; Wang, JianLi
Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3%) and the United Kingdom (9.2%). Only seven studies (2.9%) were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1%) in Oceania, and two (0.8%) in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4%) were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8%) were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were recommended. Collaboration and support from developed countries in global
Full Text Available Purpose: While tourism e-commerce develops rapidly in China, these channels are truly new to both web providers and web consumers, understanding the nature of these media attaches greater importance. This study investigates the mediation effects of flow experience on the relationship between motivation and behavior intention in tourism e-commerce.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the technology acceptance model, an empirical study is designed to test this relationship.we estimated the measurement model with 13 manifest indicators and 4 latent constructs by CFA to assess the reliability and validity of the construct measures, then tested hypotheses by OLS regression and a formal three-step mediation procedure.Findings: Overall, the results reveal that trust is incorporated in motivation and play it’s role together with other motivations; telepresence and concentration are confirmed in flow experience, and both partially mediated the relationship.Research limitations/implications: This study demonstrates that to improve consumers’ usage adoption, marketers should pay much attention to not only consumers’ motivation but also the areas such as flow experience.Originality/value: This study takes flow experience as a new perspective to explore china tourism e-commerce, estimates its measurement and tests its roles between motivation and behavior intention.
Saeed Moghaddas Pour
Full Text Available Leadership plays an important role among five main components of management. These days, many organizations try to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and conflict management. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between relationship-oriented leadership style and solution-oriented strategy as well as between leadership style and conflict management. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 43 managers who were in different industries in west part of Iran. Most of the people who participated in our survey were male and they were between 25 to 30 years old. The study considers relationship between leadership style and conflict management, which includes the relationship between relationship-oriented and task-oriented leaderships with avoiding conflict management strategy, solution and control based conflict managements. The results confirmed that there is only a meaningful relationship between relationship-oriented leadership with solution-based conflict management. In other words, our survey indicates that when there is a conflict, management can handle the problem using his/her relationship and find appropriate solution to resolve any possible conflict.
Noah S. Podolefsky
Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002. In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002. Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.
Noah D. Finkelstein
Full Text Available Previously, we proposed a model of student reasoning which combines the roles of representation, analogy, and layering of meaning—analogical scaffolding [Podolefsky and Finkelstein, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 3, 010109 (2007]. The present empirical studies build on this model to examine its utility and demonstrate the vital intertwining of representation, analogy, and conceptual learning in physics. In two studies of student reasoning using analogy, we show that representations couple to students’ existing prior knowledge and also lead to the dynamic formation of new knowledge. Students presented with abstract, concrete, or blended (both abstract and concrete representations produced markedly different response patterns. In the first study, using analogies to scaffold understanding of electromagnetic (EM waves, students in the blend group were more likely to reason productively about EM waves than students in the abstract group by as much as a factor of 3 (73% vs 24% correct, p=0.002 . In the second study, examining representation use within one domain (sound waves, the blend group was more likely to reason productively about sound waves than the abstract group by as much as a factor of 2 (48% vs 23% correct, p=0.002 . Using the analogical scaffolding model we examine when and why students succeed and fail to use analogies and interpret representations appropriately.
Full Text Available Hongliang Chen Department of Communication, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: This study investigates the factors predicting positive self-disclosure on social networking sites (SNSs. There is a formidable body of empirical research relating to online self-disclosure, but very few studies have assessed the antecedents of positive self-disclosure. To address this literature gap, the current study tests the effects of self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness (SC, and perceived collectivism on positive self-disclosure on SNSs. Data were collected online via Qualtrics in April 2013. Respondents were undergraduate students from the University of Connecticut. Using ordinary least squares regression, the current study found that self-esteem and perceived collectivism increased positive self-disclosure, life satisfaction, and privacy concerns decreased positive self-disclosure, and the effects of social anxiety and public SC were not significant. Keywords: positive self-disclosure, self-esteem, life satisfaction, social anxiety, privacy concerns, public self-consciousness, perceived collectivism
Auer, Michael; Griffiths, Mark D
Many research findings in the gambling studies field rely on self-report data. A very small body of empirical research also suggests that when using self-report, players report their gambling losses inaccurately. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the differences between objective and subjective gambling spent data by comparing gambler's actual behavioral tracking data with their self-report data over a 1-month period. A total of 17,742 Norwegian online gamblers were asked to participate in an online survey. Of those surveyed, 1335 gamblers answered questions relating to gambling expenditure that could be compared with their actual gambling behavior. The study found that the estimated loss self-reported by gamblers was correlated with the actual objective loss and that players with higher losses tended to have more difficulty estimating their gambling expenditure (i.e., players who spent more money gambling also appeared to have more trouble estimating their expenses accurately). Overall, the findings demonstrate that caution is warranted when using self-report data relating to amount of money spent gambling in any studies that are totally reliant on self-report data.
Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00......Review of 'Inglorious Empire: What the British did to India' by Shashi Tharoor, London, Hurst Publishers, 2017, 296 pp., £20.00...
Think-aloud protocols (TAPs) are frequently used in research on essay rating processes. However, there are very few empirical studies of the completeness of TAP data and the effects of this technique on rater performance (i.e., rating processes and outcomes). This study aims to start to address this research gap. As part of a larger study on rater…
Van Herpen, M; Van Praag, M; Cools, K
This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship
van Herpen, M.; van Praag, M.; Cools, K.
This paper analyzes empirically the relationship between pay and performance. Economic and psychological theories predict that the design and implementation of a performance measurement and compensation system affect the motivation of employees. Our survey results demonstrate a positive relationship
Zhao, Hong; Lu, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting; Yin, Yanbin
With economy’s continuous rapid growth, textile industry is required to search for new rules and adjust strategies in order to optimize industrial structure and rationalize social spending. The sustainable development of China’s textile industry is a comprehensive research subject. This study analyzed the status of China’s textile industry and constructed the evaluation model based on the economical, ecologic, and social benefits. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) were used for an empirical study of textile industry. The result of evaluation model suggested that the status of the textile industry has become the major problems in the sustainable development of China’s textile industry. It’s nearly impossible to integrate into the global economy if no measures are taken. The enterprises concerned with the textile industry status should be reformed in terms of product design, raw material selection, technological reform, technological progress, and management, in accordance with the ideas and requirements of sustainable development. The results of this study are benefit for 1) discover the main elements restricting the industry’s sustainable development; 2) seek for corresponding solutions for policy formulation and implementation of textile industry; 3) provide references for enterprises’ development transformation in strategic deployment, fund allocation, and personnel assignment.
Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi
Full Text Available The retail store can be the key success factor, the competitive advantage of a retail company. An important element to the retail strategy is the store image; the total sum of customers’ perceptions about a store. The present paper compares the theoretical and empirical dimensions of retail store’s image in a Brazilian study. The type of research used was the quantitative study, and the data collected was analyzed by use of the factor analysis technique, in order to identify the underlying factors to retail store image. In conclusion, it was observed that the form by which the respondents evaluate the image of a specific supermarket in Brazil is simpler than what was foreseen by theory, with nine factors representing the following store image dimensions: quality,price, after sales service, advertising, clientele, assortment, convenience, atmosphere and services. An important practical contribution of the present study refers to the development of a simpler scale, that can be used by retailers in a viable form to obtain data on their perceived image.
Christopher A. Wingrove
Full Text Available Orientation: Franchising is a popular and multifaceted business arrangement that captures a sizeable portion of the restaurant industry worldwide. Research purpose: The study empirically investigated the influence of various site location and branding factors on the growth of franchised fast food restaurant brands across the greater Gauteng region. Motivation of the study: Researching which factors influence the growth of franchised fast food restaurant brands is important for an emerging market context such as South Africa when considering the marked increase in the consumption of fast foods. Design: A sample of 140 customers was surveyed from 12 leading franchised fast food outlets. Primary data were collected for various items representing site location and brand factors. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Findings: The overall findings showed that convenience and central facilities of a retail location are positively and significantly associated with the growth of the franchise fast food outlet. Practical implications: The study findings have implications for practitioners who need to take into account which factors influence revenue growth, since targeted interventions may be required to implement sustainable strategies by franchisors. Contribution: The findings may serve as a catalyst for this growing and important activity in South Africa and other emerging markets.
Full Text Available This paper is part of an applied, broad, based popular empirical procedures (such as natural observation scientific research. The positivist research methodology used was based on consensual-inductive system (Locke, which is why we studied different specialists’ opinions on the use of EU funds for the elderly in Romania or employer contributions to voluntary private funds, necessary to formulate the problem of generating relevant information. The used research strategies were the comparative and longitudinal ones, as we analyzed the time evolution in time of the number of pensioners and employees in Romania, in the main time with the EU funding for the elderly, to determine Romania's concrete economic alternatives to support this category of populations. Causality assumptions about the relationship efficient use of EU funds-beneficiaries was inductively built in this paper (by analyzing the European funds management issue in Romania, causally (by cause and effect explanation of the studied phenomenon, deductively, logically and subjectively (on the basis of existence and perpetuation of fund premise conflict between strategic absorption of European funds and regional development. The qualitative approach of the phenomenon studied was made by collecting information (using the mediate data collection technique has allowed relevant findings and practical solutions necessary for all those involved in this concerted action for the elderly, which affects us all.
Full Text Available Purpose: The performance management system (PMS is a metasystem over all business processes at the strategic and operational level. Effectiveness of the various management systems depends on many factors. One of them is the consistent definition of each system elements. The main purpose of this study is to explore if the performance management systems of the sample companies is consistent and how companies can create such a system. The consistency in this case is based on the homogenous definition of attributes relating to the performance indicator as a basic element of PMS.Methodology: At the beginning, we used an affinity diagram that helped us to clarify and to group various attributes of performance indicators. The main research results we achieved are through empirical study. The empirical study was carried out in a sample of Slovak companies. The criterion for selection was the existence of the certified management systems according to the ISO 9001. Representativeness of the sample companies was confirmed by application of Pearson´s chi-squared test (χ2 - test due to above standards. Findings: Coming from the review of various literature, we defined four groups of attributes relating to the performance indicator: formal attributes, attributes of target value, informational attributes and attributes of evaluation. The whole set contains 21 attributes. The consistency of PMS is based not on maximum or minimum number of attributes, but on the same type of attributes for each performance indicator used in PMS at both the operational and strategic level. The main findings are: companies use various financial and non-financial indicators at strategic or operational level; companies determine various attributes of performance indicator, but most of the performance indicators are otherwise determined; we identified the common attributes for the whole sample of companies. Practical implications: The research results have got an implication for
Richard M. Levich
Theoretical and empirical research completed over the last decade has dramatically increased our understanding of exchange rate behavior. The major insight to come from this decade of research is that foreign exchange is a financial asset. In an asset pricing framework, current exchange rates reflect the expected values of future exogenous variables. The purpose of this paper is to survay the empirical evidence on exchange rate behavior, market efficiency and related topics. Section 2 present...
Mäki, David; Lundström, Martin
The financial crisis has made the stock markets a very turbulent place. Investors have therefore begun searching for stable and profitable investments. Nordic real estate has for decades steadily increased in value and the stocks of real estate companies are said to be less risky than the market. This has led to a view of them being a safe haven for risk adverse investors. Very few empirical studies have been done on how these supposedly safe stocks actually behave in the Nordic countries. Th...
Van Meter, Anna; Youngstrom, Eric; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos; Ollendick, Thomas; Demeter, Christine; Findling, Robert L
Anxiety disorders are common among children but can be difficult to diagnose. An actuarial approach to the diagnosis of anxiety may improve the efficiency and accuracy of the process. The objectives of this study were to determine the clinical utility of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self Report (YSR), two widely used assessment tools, for diagnosing anxiety disorders in youth and to aid clinicians in incorporating scale scores into an actuarial approach to diagnosis through a clinical vignette. Demographically diverse youth, 5 to 18 years of age, were drawn from two samples; one (N = 1,084) was recruited from a research center, and the second (N = 651) was recruited from an urban community mental health center. Consensus diagnoses integrated information from semistructured interview, family history, treatment history, and clinical judgment. The CBCL and YSR internalizing problems T scores discriminated cases with any anxiety disorder or with generalized anxiety disorder from all other diagnoses in both samples (ps .05 for tests of difference). No other scales, nor any combination of scales, significantly improved on the performance of the Internalizing scale. In the highest risk group, Internalizing scores greater than 69 (CBCL) or greater than 63 (YSR) resulted in a Diagnostic Likelihood Ratio of 1.5; low scores reduced the likelihood of anxiety disorders by a factor of 4. Combined with other risk factor information in an actuarial approach to assessment and diagnosis, the CBCL and YSR Internalizing scales provide valuable information about whether a youth is likely suffering from an anxiety disorder.
Rasekh, Hamid Reza; Mehralian, Gholamhossein; Vatankhah-Mohammadabadi, Abbas Ali
As global competition intensifies, research and development (R & D) organizations need to enhance their strategic management in order to become goal-directed communities for innovation and allocate their resources consistent with their overall R & D strategy. The world pharmaceutical market has undergone fast, unprecedented, tremendous and complex changes in the last several years. The pharmaceutical industry is today still one of the most inventive, innovative and lucrative of the so-called "high-tech" industries. This industry serves a dual role in modern society. On one hand, it is a growing industry, and its output makes a direct contribution to gross domestic product (GDP). On the other side, drugs, this industry's major output, are an input in the production of good health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate R & D activities of pharmaceutical companies, and also to highlight critical factors which have influential effect on results of these activities. To run this study a valid questionnaire based on literature review and experts' opinion was designed and delivered to 11 pharmaceutical companies. Empirical data show there is not acceptable situations considering of the factors that should be taken in to account by managers including; management commitment, human resource management, information technology and financial management. Furthermore, we concluded some interesting results related to different aspects of R & D management. In conclusion, managers must be aware about their performance in R & D activities, accordingly they will able to take a comprehensive policy in both national and within the company.
Full Text Available Customer service is crucially important for online shopping platforms (OSPs such as eBay and Taobao. Based on the well-established service quality instruments and the scenario of the specific case on Taobao, this paper focuses on exploring the service quality of an OSP with an aim of revealing customer perceptions of the service quality associated with the provided functions and investigating their impacts on customer loyalty. By an empirical study, this paper finds that the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function is significantly related to the customer loyalty. Further analytical study is conducted to reveal that the optimal service level on the “fulfillment and responsiveness” function for the risk averse OSP uniquely exists. Moreover, the analytical results prove that (i if the customer loyalty is more positively correlated to the service level, it will lead to a larger optimal service level, and (ii the optimal service level is independent of the profit target, the source of uncertainty, and the risk preference of the OSP.
Saffari, S Ehsan; Löve, Áskell; Fredrikson, Mats; Smedby, Örjan
For optimizing and evaluating image quality in medical imaging, one can use visual grading experiments, where observers rate some aspect of image quality on an ordinal scale. To analyze the grading data, several regression methods are available, and this study aimed at empirically comparing such techniques, in particular when including random effects in the models, which is appropriate for observers and patients. Data were taken from a previous study where 6 observers graded or ranked in 40 patients the image quality of four imaging protocols, differing in radiation dose and image reconstruction method. The models tested included linear regression, the proportional odds model for ordinal logistic regression, the partial proportional odds model, the stereotype logistic regression model and rank-order logistic regression (for ranking data). In the first two models, random effects as well as fixed effects could be included; in the remaining three, only fixed effects. In general, the goodness of fit (AIC and McFadden's Pseudo R (2)) showed small differences between the models with fixed effects only. For the mixed-effects models, higher AIC and lower Pseudo R (2) was obtained, which may be related to the different number of parameters in these models. The estimated potential for dose reduction by new image reconstruction methods varied only slightly between models. The authors suggest that the most suitable approach may be to use ordinal logistic regression, which can handle ordinal data and random effects appropriately.
Full Text Available As part of the planned expansion work of the motorway A8 between Rosenheim and Salzburg and the associated legal opportunity to develop new traffic noise protection measures, this study investigated properties of sustainable noise abatement in a community next to the A8. A two-stage empirical survey was conducted integrating a citizen and an expert Delphi survey. The results show that the noise from the motorway heavily affects the quality of life in health, economic and ecological respects. Sustainable noise abatement should take into consideration ecological and social aspects like landscape integration and contribution to local development due to the unique location of the municipality. Enclosed motorway canopies are particularly beneficial to meet these criteria. The costs for sustainable noise abatement measures should be weighted as less important; however, financial costs are crucial for the federal government due to the requirements of the Federal Pollution Control Act. Hence, residents and experts assume that noise barriers as the cheaper noise abatement measures will be implemented. However, the results of the study and the latest developments in the expansion plans suggest that the implementation of enclosed motorway canopies, which go beyond the legal requirements, is feasible through extensive citizen participation and community-specific planning.
Full Text Available Business strategy involves adopting the equilibrium between competitiveness and performance, on one hand, and the responsibility towards environmental goals, on the other hand. The transition to green economy becomes synonym with two structural transformations: firstly, the IT industry restructuration through the development of green information and communication technologies (green ICT, and secondly, the using of IT solutions, according to environment protection and sustainable development. The purpose of this paper is to assess the organizational behavior on adopting green information tools into the policies and processes of an enterprise. To conduct this research, a methodology based on an empirical study was used. Proceeding from an investigation that shows the concerns of some Romanian companies in green ICT concept and practices, the findings suggest a low awareness level about these subjects. Practical implications of the study refer to the fact that the results of research may be useful for managers who are looking to implement green ICT practices in their business strategy and the organizational processes.
Asep Mohamad Ishaq Shiddiq
Full Text Available In deviated and horizontal drilling, hole-cleaning issues are a common and complex problem. This study explored the effect of various parameters in drilling operations and how they affect the flow rate required for effective cutting transport. Three models, developed following an empirical approach, were employed: Rudi-Shindu’s model, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s model. Rudi-Shindu’s model needs iteration in the calculation. Firstly, the three models were compared using a sensitivity analysis of drilling parameters affecting cutting transport. The result shows that the models have similar trends but different values for minimum flow velocity. Analysis was conducted to examine the feasibility of using Rudi-Shindu’s, Hopkins’, and Tobenna’s models. The result showed that Hopkins’ model is limited by cutting size and revolution per minute (RPM. The minimum flow rate from Tobenna’s model is affected only by well inclination, drilling fluid weight and drilling fluid rheological property. Meanwhile, Rudi-Shindu’s model is limited by inclinations above 45°. The study showed that the investigated models are not suitable for horizontal wells because they do not include the effect of lateral section.
Watts, Simon; Stenner, Paul
Social psychological research has increasingly acknowledged that any pretensions to a singular theory of love should be replaced with a concern about its affirmation and what people actually say and do in love's name. Lee's (1977) love styles research and Sternberg's (1995) theory of love as a story are prime examples. Despite traditional definitions of love in western cultures being dominated by feminine images and tales of gender difference, however, the personal definitions and experiences of women have received comparatively little empirical attention, particularly in recent years and despite some well-documented changes in their cultural circumstances. This study remedies that situation through presentation of a Q methodological study in which a convenience sample of 59 British women were asked to Q sort 54 single-word descriptors of love to define love as they had experienced it. Factor analysis of the resulting Q sorts revealed six distinct definitions of love, interpreted as 'attraction, passion & romance', 'unconditional love', 'sex & fun', 'friendship & spirituality', 'a permanent commitment', and 'separate people, separate lives'. The six definitions are then discussed in terms of their allegiance to traditionally feminine and/or masculine values and as a means of highlighting the changing face of Britain's relational culture. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Frei, Christoph W.; Haldi, Pierre-Andre; Sarlos, Gerard
This paper presents an empirical study that quantifies the effects of an ecological fiscal reform as recently rejected by the Swiss population. The measure aims to encourage employment and, at the same time, to dissuade from an excessive energy use and thereby decrease energy-induced external costs (CO 2 , etc.). The analysis is based on the model SCREEN, a general equilibrium model using the complementarity format for the hybrid description of economy-wide production possibilities where the electricity sector is represented by a bottom-up activity analysis and the other production sectors are characterised by top-down production functions. A dynamic formulation of the activity analysis of technologies allows for the reproduction of endogenous structural change (see Frei, C.W., Haldi, P.-A., Sarlos, G., 2003. Dynamic formulation of a top-down and bottom-up merging energy policy model. Energy Policy 31 (10), 1017-1031.). The labour market is formulated according to the microeconomically founded efficiency wages and calibrated for Switzerland. The study includes the development of a consistent set of top-down, bottom-up and labour data for Switzerland. The collection of bottom-up data on the electricity sector, just before liberalisation, was not easy. The electricity sector characterising data was prepared, based on original statistics about 140 Swiss electricity companies
Shi, Baoguo; Wang, Lijing; Yang, Jiahui; Zhang, Mengpin; Xu, Li
The threshold hypothesis is a classical and notable explanation for the relationship between creativity and intelligence. However, few empirical examinations of this theory exist, and the results are inconsistent. To test this hypothesis, this study investigated the relationship between divergent thinking (DT) and intelligence with a sample of 568 Chinese children aged between 11 and 13 years old using testing and questionnaire methods. The study focused on the breakpoint of intelligence and the moderation effect of openness on the relationship between intelligence and DT. The findings were as follows: (1) a breakpoint at the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 109.20 when investigating the relationship between either DT fluency or DT flexibility and intelligence. Another breakpoint was detected at the IQ of 116.80 concerning the correlation between originality and intelligence. The breakpoint of the relation between the composite score of creativity and intelligence occurred at the IQ of 110.10. (2) Openness to experience had a moderating effect on the correlation between the indicators of creativity and intelligence under the breakpoint. Above this point, however, the effect was not significant. The results suggested a relationship between DT and intelligence among Chinese children, which conforms to the threshold hypothesis. Besides, it remains necessary to explore the personality factors accounting for individual differences in the relationship between DT and intelligence. PMID:28275361
Shukla, Dhwanil; Noebe, Ronald D.; Stebner Aaron P.
An empirical study was conducted to characterize the multiaxial, thermomechanical responses of new high temperature NiTiHf alloys. The experimentation included loading thin walled tube Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 29.7)Hf(sub 20) alloy samples along both proportional and nonproportional axial-torsion paths at different temperatures while measuring surface strains using stereo digital image correlation. A Ni(sub 50.3)Ti(sub 33.7)Hf(sub 16) alloy was also studied in tension and compression to document the effect of slightly depleting the Hf content on the constitutive responses of NiTiHf alloys. Samples of both alloys were made from nearly texture free polycrystalline material processed by hot extrusion. Analysis of the data shows that very small changes in composition significantly alter NiTiHf alloy properties, as the austenite finish (Af) temperature of the 16-at Hf alloy was found to be approximately 60 C less than the 20-at Hf alloy (approximately 120 C vs. 180 C). In addition, the 16-at Hf alloy exhibited smaller compressive transformation strains (2 vs. 2.5 percent). Multi-axial characterization of the 20-at % Hf alloy showed that while the random polycrystal transformation strains in tension (4 percent) and compression (2.5 percent) are modest in comparison with binary NiTi (6 percent, 4 percent), the torsion performance is superior (7 vs. 4 shear strain width to the pseudoelastic plateau).
Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.
Manal M. Abd-Elgawad
Apr 23, 2013 ... b Pathology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received ... Children;. Egypt;. Clinical profile;. Histopathologic changes. Abstract Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem and a leading ..... current or past history of IV drug abuse, women who received.
Despite the effectiveness of on-the-job training (OJT), few systematic empirical studies have been conducted on how OJT trainers instruct trainees in firms. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the trainer's instructional skills for OJT using survey data collected from 715 employees covering 22 firms. Results…
Barton, Keith C.; McCully, Alan W.
This study reports results of an empirical investigation of secondary students' conceptions of history and identity in Northern Ireland. Interviews with 253 students from a variety of backgrounds indicate that they initially identify with a wide range of historical themes, but that these identifications narrow as they study the required national…
De Ambrosis, Anna; Levrini, Olivia
This paper concerns an empirical study carried out with a group of high school physics teachers engaged in the Module on relativity of a Master course on the teaching of modern physics. The study is framed within the general research issue of how to promote innovation in school via teachers' education and how to foster fruitful interactions…
Multi-locus genome-wide association studies has become the state-of-the-art procedure to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with traits simultaneously. However, implementation of multi-locus model is still difficult. In this study, we integrated least angle regression with empirical B...
Hannah, S G; Turf, E E; Fierro, M F
An empiric validation of a proposed typology of murder-suicide events was carried out in the Central District of the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of Virginia for two cohorts, 1980 to 1984 and 1990 to 1994; use of a single typology allows description of trends in these events over time, a unique aspect of this study. For both cohorts, a total of 53 successful events with 63 victims (116 total deaths) was evaluated. A significant shift in the characteristics of location, perpetrators, and victimology of such events between the two cohorts is demonstrated: events changed from urban, multiple victim events with a majority of white perpetrators to rural, dyadic events in which victims did not live with perpetrators, the majority of whom were black. The results are compared with published data, and the implications for use of this typology as a clinical evaluation tool for prevention are addressed in light of current domestic violence emphases in public health. Additionally, the need for prospective tracking of these events is reiterated and use of the Hanzlick-Koponen typology as the tool for such tracking is suggested.
Full Text Available Corporate Volunteering (CV is a phenomenon that emerged in the second half of the 20th century and began to grow and globalize at the beginning of the 21st century. There seems to be a consensus that the recent growth of Corporate Volunteering is related to the development and growing legitimacy of the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR. Nevertheless, the theoretical discussion on how the two concepts (Corporate Volunteering and Corporate Social Responsibility are related is just beginning, while empirical research on how this relationship operates in corporate practice is still incipient. This paper presents preliminary results of a research on this subject carried out in Uruguay in 2016. This is a statistical study that analyses the relationship between the application of corporate volunteering activities and the incorporation of a CSR approach to the management of companies. The incorporation of both types of practices is measured by a self-assessment questionnaire that includes 81 indicators (using a Likert scale to assess them, which were designed based on ISO 26000 Guidance of Social Responsibility. The questionnaire was administered to 96 companies, using a comparative analysis between those that practice Corporate Volunteering and those which do not. The results obtained allow us to support the hypothesis that the application of Corporate Volunteering is positively associated with the incorporation of CSR when managing the relationship between the company and its employees and also with the community. Moreover, these results contribute to a better understanding on how both concepts are related.
Full Text Available Web-based technologies have been used in the classroom for over 15 years, including websites, email, listserves, library reserves, and text books. Among these options, social scientists range widely in their web usage – from simply posting syllabi on-line to delivering a course fully on-line in asynchronous learning networks. Use of web-based technology for instructional purposes is increasing, as is enrollment in distance education courses and on-line course offerings. Many administrators and faculty promote on-line instruction as the solution to managing increased college enrollments, particularly among non-traditional students. However, are the academic outcomes of on-line instruction similar to traditional in-person instruction? Few empirical studies have been done. This is unfortunate. The results of an experiment to evaluate the relative effectiveness of on-line verses an in-person course on sociological research are presented. Unfortunately the on-line participants did much worse than the in-person course.
Gastaldi, Luca; Ghezzi, Antonio; Mangiaracina, Riccardo; Rangone, Andrea; Cortimiglia, Marcelo N; Zanatta, Mateus; Amaral, Fernando G
It is well known that the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are important to assist people with disability in the workplace. In this context, this paper sheds light on the state of ICT accessibility for Italian employees with disabilities in private sector companies by mapping and critically analyzing the assistive role of ICT. To do this, empirical evidence was drawn from a multi-methods research with middle and top managers from 97 medium and large Italian companies. Quantitative data was collected using a survey was directed at personnel identified as Human Resource (HR) and Information System (IS) managers, followed by a qualitative study with selected firms whose aim was to understand the inner workings of assistive technology and the decision making process related to assistive technology acquisition and use. The main results show the role and the integration level of people with disabilities, and the presence and effectiveness of specific assistive technologies. Ways to improve the inclusion of people with disability in the workplace, as well as the use of assistive technologies are discussed. ICT could be more disseminated within companies and best used with modifications to improve usability.
Sebastián A. Rey
Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the (recently proposed non-arbitrage valuation of equities framework is the reduction in pricing subjectivity. This is evidenced in terms of the dividends discount rate and the outlook of future performance (dividends projection of the company that is being valued. Under this framework, as in the case of derivatives pricing, the discount rate is the risk-free interest rate (not the cost of equity, and the subjectively-determined drift of the stochastic process that drives the operating profits of the company is eliminated. The challenge that emerges is that the structure of the new drift of the operating profits process is undetermined under the methodology (this is a similar feature that is observed in the case of derivatives related to non-tradable assets. This paper proposes that the structure of this new drift is represented by the (country-specific GDP nominal growth effect. This proposition is tested through an empirical study that involves several companies of 10 equity indices worldwide, for two different periods (1995–2004 and 2005–2014. The results of the test are reasonably successful, meaning that further research related to the framework could provide useful information for the understanding of financial assets and their links to the macro-economy.
Full Text Available An empirical study in Shanghai was performed to explore consumers’ use willingness and opinions on electric vehicle sharing (EVS to help operators effectively operate and expand the new business model. Through the multinomial logistic regression developed for different groups, the results show that the factors of the main trip mode in daily use, monthly transportation expenditure, driving range of electric vehicles, gender, age, marital status and occupation have significant influences on consumers’ use willingness. In short, the population characteristics of people choosing to use EVS are male, aged between 18 and 30 and usually taking the subway and bus as the daily transportation modes. Otherwise, the factors of the acceptable highest price of EVS, occupation and personal monthly income have significant impacts on the use willingness of people who keep a neutral stance. These people pay more attention to convenience and the economy of EVS. These results reveal that a reasonable price, accurate positioning of target groups, convenient site layout and usage are required for operators to successfully launch a new transportation mode of EVS.
Mahmoud O. Elish
Full Text Available Accurate estimation of software development effort is essential for effective management and control of software development projects. Many software effort estimation methods have been proposed in the literature including computational intelligence models. However, none of the existing models proved to be suitable under all circumstances; that is, their performance varies from one dataset to another. The goal of an ensemble model is to manage each of its individual models’ strengths and weaknesses automatically, leading to the best possible decision being taken overall. In this paper, we have developed different homogeneous and heterogeneous ensembles of optimized hybrid computational intelligence models for software development effort estimation. Different linear and nonlinear combiners have been used to combine the base hybrid learners. We have conducted an empirical study to evaluate and compare the performance of these ensembles using five popular datasets. The results confirm that individual models are not reliable as their performance is inconsistent and unstable across different datasets. Although none of the ensemble models was consistently the best, many of them were frequently among the best models for each dataset. The homogeneous ensemble of support vector regression (SVR, with the nonlinear combiner adaptive neurofuzzy inference systems-subtractive clustering (ANFIS-SC, was the best model when considering the average rank of each model across the five datasets.
Zhao, YingSi; Shen, Bo
User preference plays a prominent role in many fields, including electronic commerce, social opinion, and Internet search engines. Particularly in recommender systems, it directly influences the accuracy of the recommendation. Though many methods have been presented, most of these have only focused on how to improve the recommendation results. In this paper, we introduce an empirical study of user preferences based on a set of rating data about movies. We develop a simple statistical method to investigate the characteristics of user preferences. We find that the movies have potential characteristics of closure, which results in the formation of numerous cliques with a power-law size distribution. We also find that a user related to a small clique always has similar opinions on the movies in this clique. Then, we suggest a user preference model, which can eliminate the predictions that are considered to be impracticable. Numerical results show that the model can reflect user preference with remarkable accuracy when data elimination is allowed, and random factors in the rating data make prediction error inevitable. In further research, we will investigate many other rating data sets to examine the universality of our findings.
Muhamad Nasir Rahmatdin
Full Text Available Route network patterns have been investigated globally by many researchers, with the majority of studies only focussing on the liner shipping industry for long-distance services, and with less attention paid to the feeder services industry. The feeder services industry is important to enhance the economic sustainability and viability of feeder service providers and trade partners. The primary objectives of this paper were to study the focal economy points of feeder services in Malaysia and to demonstrate the type of network patterns practised by Malaysian feeder service providers. Accordingly, an empirical study was conducted through the cooperation of eight Malaysian feeder service providers via face-to-face interviews and port visits to understand the patterns of each shipping route deployed. Moreover, to demonstrate the network patterns of each feeder service provider, a route network model was designed. The main finding from this study found that Port Klang was the primary feeder hub port and focal economy point in Malaysia due to the highest number of feeder vessels entering the port. Furthermore, the type of route patterns applied by Malaysian feeder service providers were determined and categorised based on three models: 75% (basic model, 17.5% (butterfly model, and 7.5% (chain model collected data consisting of 40 service routes. This paper will assist future and existing feeder service providers in their planning and execution of the optimal service routes regarding their efficiency in servicing existing and future customers and promoting strategic and tactical allocation of shipping services to specific ports.
Full Text Available Background: Global health has stimulated a lot of students and has attracted the interest of many faculties, thereby initiating the establishment of many academic programs on global health research and education. global health education reflects the increasing attention toward social accountability in medical education. Objective: This study aims to identify gaps in the studies on global health education. Design: A critical literature review of empirical studies was conducted using Boolean search techniques. Results: A total of 238 articles, including 16 reviews, were identified. There had been a boom in the numbers of studies on global health education since 2010. Four gaps were summarized. First, 94.6% of all studies on global health education were conducted in North American and European countries, of which 65.6% were carried out in the United States, followed by Canada (14.3% and the United Kingdom (9.2%. Only seven studies (2.9% were conducted in Asian countries, five (2.1% in Oceania, and two (0.8% in South American/Caribbean countries. A total of 154 studies (64.4% were qualitative studies and 64 studies (26.8% were quantitative studies. Second, elective courses and training or programs were the most frequently used approach for global health education. Third, there was a gap in the standardization of global health education. Finally, it was mainly targeted at medical students, residents, and doctors. It had not granted the demands for global health education of all students majoring in medicine-related studies. Conclusions: Global health education would be a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity, reducing health disparities, and also for future professional careers. It is the time to build and expand education in global health, especially among developing countries. Global health education should be integrated into primary medical education. Interdisciplinary approaches and interprofessional collaboration were
Abiodun Eniola Alao
Full Text Available The long years of marketing practices in the Nigerian banking industry has recorded low level standards relative to global standard practice. The effect on the overall industry performance measurable basically in terms of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and brand equity has been on the negativity. In some cases, banks overall performance level was never assessed based on customer orientation, value and other customer related measures rather on some quick financial indicators. This poor orientation towards marketing has rather become a forgone especially in the banking area of financial services in Nigeria. This study was therefore conducted to examine the changing trend towards embracing marketing philosophy and the extent of the banks’ performance level in response to changing expectations of customers. Theoretical issues relating marketing, customer philosophy, financial marketing, customer loyalty, satisfaction, and brand equity were explored to establish the key performance variables and the existing relationships amongst them. Empirical study was equally carried out with the use of questionnaire, administered on randomly selected banks’ customers and management staff. Data collected were analyzed on the basis of critical measures which include customer awareness, market sensitivity to financial delivery, customer profile and sophistication through the use of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient. The result among other things shows that there is a significant relationship between the new trend towards marketing orientation, financial services in the banking industry and performance level. Based on this study, we recommend improved marketing performance and training to enhance service delivery, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty across all banks in the geographical places of the Nigerian financial markets.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical study to detect important factors, which could increase the number of moviegoers. The study distributes a questionnaire among different people at four age groups including 35.2% (men, and 64.8% (women, most of them are single (between 21 to 30 years living at 3- to 4-member families, holding BA degree with 4 to 7 million Rials monthly salary. Inferential statistics tests, including Kolmogorov–Smirnov, binominal or ratio, Chi Square and Friedman, show that type of story, genre and artists, casts are considered as the most important factors in selection of film while quality of sound, seat comfort, ventilation of cinema hall are regarded as the most important factors in selection of cinema. In addition, cinema is not predominant pastime or hobby of individuals during holidays and existence of more attractive pastimes than cinema is the most important factor, which hinders individuals from going to cinema. Individuals go to cinema fewer than three times a year, primarily during the afternoon of holidays at the weekend. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements are the most significant publicity tools for those individuals who intend to go to cinema halls. These two factors, i.e. TV teasers and word of mouth advertisements, are the most significant sources of studying individuals for the selection of film. Individuals almost select their favorite movies before going to cinema and if ticket is finished at the box office of cinema, they suspend watching film in another time and finally, they re-plan watching film. It should be noted that satisfaction of individuals from cinema is much more effective than their satisfaction from film.
Koo, Hoon Jung
Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction. PMID:25323910
Ding, Yimin; Ding, Zhuo
In this paper, we present the empirical investigation results on the urban public transport networks (PTNs) and propose a model to understand the results obtained. We investigate some urban public traffic networks in China, which are the urban public traffic networks of Beijing, Guangzhou, Wuhan and etc. The empirical results on the big cities show that the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs take neither power function forms, nor exponential function forms, but they are described by a shifted power function, and the accumulative act-degree distributions of PTNs in medium-sized or small cities follow the same law. In the end, we propose a model to show a possible evolutionary mechanism for the emergence of such network. The analytic results obtained from this model are in good agreement with the empirical results.
Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman; Imtiaz, Nasir; Shafiq, Yasir
Ethics are very important factor in today business. We have conducted this study to identify consumer ethics and their buying behavior in Particular two Organizations of Faisalabad, to study the consumer ethics we used four different dimensions. The purpose of this paper to find the situation in which consumer behaves unethically in Pakistan. And the result compares with previous consumer ethics researches. It is an exploratory research for the purpose of seeing the consumer ethics. The study...
Mysling, Peter; Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup
In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in spectral manifold learning techniques. Despite the interest, only little work has focused on the empirical behavior of these techniques. We construct synthetic data of variable complexity and observe the performance of the techniques as they ......In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in spectral manifold learning techniques. Despite the interest, only little work has focused on the empirical behavior of these techniques. We construct synthetic data of variable complexity and observe the performance of the techniques...
Chan, Kin Hang
Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…
Chan, Kin Hang
Purpose: The purpose of this paper, which is written in two parts, is to investigate empirically if intellectual capital (IC) has an impact on the financial aspects of organisational performance as well as attempting to identify the IC components that may be the drivers for the leading financial indicators of listed companies. The study sought…
Lam, Yan Yan
This paper focuses on the impact of globalization in the domain of higher education, particularly, design education. It reviews how globalization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on an empirical study involving senior management, a course leader and a design trainer/facilitator. This paper not only illustrates the…
Braund, Heather; DeLuca, Christopher
This study explored how elementary teachers leveraged and structured student-involved formative assessment to promote metacognition and self-regulation. Research has suggested a connection between formative assessment practices (e.g., self-assessment and peer-assessment) and metacognition. However, this connection has limited empirical support,…
Vladut, Anamaria; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert
Two learning resource-oriented motivational strategies for gifted educators are introduced: a homeostatic orientation that aims for balance and an allostatic orientation that aims at growth. In order to establish the empirical basis of these motivational strategies, two studies were conducted with samples of students from a specialized…
This research investigated a comparison between the effect of cooperative learning and lecture teaching on Comprehensive English classes in a Chinese Independent College. An empirical study for two semesters was carried out in the forms of pretest, posttest, questionnaire and interviews. While control class was taught in the conventional way,…
Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao
Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…
Odekerken-Schröder, G.J.; Bloemer, J.M.M.
The objective of this study is to empirically determine the role of constraints and dedication as drivers of relationship commitment as most of the existing work is of a conceptual nature only. We assess how and to which extent these two drivers fit into the established relationships between overall
Van der Heijden, Beate; Boon, Jo; Van der Klink, Marcel; Meijs, Ely
Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., Boon, J., Van der Klink, M., & Meijs, E. (2009). Employability enhancement through formal and informal learning. An empirical study among Dutch non-academic university staff members. International Journal of Training & Development, 13(1), 19-37.
Daneva, Maia; Cuadrado-Gallego, Juan J.; Abran, Alain; Mas, A.
This paper reports on initial findings in an empirical study carried out with representatives of two ERP vendors, six ERP adopting organizations, four ERP implementation consulting companies, and two ERP research and advisory services firms. Our study’s goal was to gain understanding of the
Page, Matthew J.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Clayton, Gemma; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Savović, Jelena
Objective To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials. Design Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies. Methods We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012), and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR) or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD)) in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome (“mortality” versus “other objective” versus “subjective”). Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies) and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies). For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding) (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies), lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study) and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study). The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition) is unclear. Conclusions Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several characteristics, particularly attrition and selective reporting, is needed. PMID:27398997
Nikolakopoulou, Adriani; Mavridis, Dimitris; Furukawa, Toshi A; Cipriani, Andrea; Tricco, Andrea C; Straus, Sharon E; Siontis, George C M; Egger, Matthias
Abstract Objective To examine whether the continuous updating of networks of prospectively planned randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (“living” network meta-analysis) provides strong evidence against the null hypothesis in comparative effectiveness of medical interventions earlier than the updating of conventional, pairwise meta-analysis. Design Empirical study of the accumulating evidence about the comparative effectiveness of clinical interventions. Data sources Database of network meta-analyses of RCTs identified through searches of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews until 14 April 2015. Eligibility criteria for study selection Network meta-analyses published after January 2012 that compared at least five treatments and included at least 20 RCTs. Clinical experts were asked to identify in each network the treatment comparison of greatest clinical interest. Comparisons were excluded for which direct and indirect evidence disagreed, based on side, or node, splitting test (Pmeta-analysis. The frequency and time to strong evidence was compared against the null hypothesis between pairwise and network meta-analyses. Results 49 comparisons of interest from 44 networks were included; most (n=39, 80%) were between active drugs, mainly from the specialties of cardiology, endocrinology, psychiatry, and rheumatology. 29 comparisons were informed by both direct and indirect evidence (59%), 13 by indirect evidence (27%), and 7 by direct evidence (14%). Both network and pairwise meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis for seven comparisons, but for an additional 10 comparisons only network meta-analysis provided strong evidence against the null hypothesis (P=0.002). The median time to strong evidence against the null hypothesis was 19 years with living network meta-analysis and 23 years with living pairwise meta-analysis (hazard ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 7.72, P=0.05). Studies directly comparing
Mace, Ruth; Jordan, Fiona M
A growing body of theoretical and empirical research has examined cultural transmission and adaptive cultural behaviour at the individual, within-group level. However, relatively few studies have tried to examine proximate transmission or test ultimate adaptive hypotheses about behavioural or cultural diversity at a between-societies macro-level. In both the history of anthropology and in present-day work, a common approach to examining adaptive behaviour at the macro-level has been through correlating various cultural traits with features of ecology. We discuss some difficulties with simple ecological associations, and then review cultural phylogenetic studies that have attempted to go beyond correlations to understand the underlying cultural evolutionary processes. We conclude with an example of a phylogenetically controlled approach to understanding proximate transmission pathways in Austronesian cultural diversity.
Matthew J Page
Full Text Available To synthesise evidence on the average bias and heterogeneity associated with reported methodological features of randomized trials.Systematic review of meta-epidemiological studies.We retrieved eligible studies included in a recent AHRQ-EPC review on this topic (latest search September 2012, and searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE for studies indexed from Jan 2012-May 2015. Data were extracted by one author and verified by another. We combined estimates of average bias (e.g. ratio of odds ratios (ROR or difference in standardised mean differences (dSMD in meta-analyses using the random-effects model. Analyses were stratified by type of outcome ("mortality" versus "other objective" versus "subjective". Direction of effect was standardised so that ROR < 1 and dSMD < 0 denotes a larger intervention effect estimate in trials with an inadequate or unclear (versus adequate characteristic.We included 24 studies. The available evidence suggests that intervention effect estimates may be exaggerated in trials with inadequate/unclear (versus adequate sequence generation (ROR 0.93, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99; 7 studies and allocation concealment (ROR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.97; 7 studies. For these characteristics, the average bias appeared to be larger in trials of subjective outcomes compared with other objective outcomes. Also, intervention effects for subjective outcomes appear to be exaggerated in trials with lack of/unclear blinding of participants (versus blinding (dSMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.77 to 0.04; 2 studies, lack of/unclear blinding of outcome assessors (ROR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.96; 1 study and lack of/unclear double blinding (ROR 0.77, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93; 1 study. The influence of other characteristics (e.g. unblinded trial personnel, attrition is unclear.Certain characteristics of randomized trials may exaggerate intervention effect estimates. The average bias appears to be greatest in trials of subjective outcomes. More research on several
Maruyama, Takaya; Fujisawa, Takao; Okuno, Masataka; Toyoshima, Hirokazu; Tsutsui, Kiyoyuki; Maeda, Hikaru; Yuda, Hisamichi; Yoshida, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Hiroyasu; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Ihara, Toshiaki; Brito, Veronica; Niederman, Michael S
Optimal empiric therapy for hospitalized patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is uncertain. We prospectively applied a therapeutic algorithm, based on the presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens in a multicenter cohort study of 445 pneumonia patients, including both community-acquired pneumonia (CAP; n = 124) and HCAP (n = 321). MDR pathogens were more common (15.3% vs 0.8%, P risk factors, one of which was severity of illness (n = 170), vs HCAP patients with 0-1 risk factor (n = 151) had a significantly higher frequency of MDR pathogens (27.1% vs 2%, P risk factor, mortality was lower than with ≥2 MDR risk factors (8.6% vs 18.2%, P = .012). In multivariate analysis, initial treatment failure, but not inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy, was a mortality risk factor (odds ratio, 72.0). Basing empiric HCAP therapy on its severity and the presence of risk factors for MDR pathogens is a potentially useful approach that achieves good outcomes without excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Japan Medical Association Center for Clinical Trials, JMA-IIA00054.
This study attempts to analyze student-teachers' attitude towards the use of computers for classroom teaching. Four dimensions of computer attitude on a Likert-type five-point scale were used: Affect (liking), Perceived usefulness, Perceived Control, and Behaviour Intention to use computers. The effect of student-teachers' subject area, years of…
Shaw, James; Shaw, Sara; Wherton, Joseph; Hughes, Gemma; Greenhalgh, Trisha
Health and care technologies often succeed on a small scale but fail to achieve widespread use (scale-up) or become routine practice in other settings (spread). One reason for this is under-theorization of the process of scale-up and spread, for which a potentially fruitful theoretical approach is to consider the adoption and use of technologies as social practices. This study aimed to use an in-depth case study of assisted living to explore the feasibility and usefulness of a social practice approach to explaining the scale-up of an assisted-living technology across a local system of health and social care. This was an individual case study of the implementation of a Global Positioning System (GPS) "geo-fence" for a person living with dementia, nested in a much wider program of ethnographic research and organizational case study of technology implementation across health and social care (Studies in Co-creating Assisted Living Solutions [SCALS] in the United Kingdom). A layered sociological analysis included micro-level data on the index case, meso-level data on the organization, and macro-level data on the wider social, technological, economic, and political context. Data (interviews, ethnographic notes, and documents) were analyzed and synthesized using structuration theory. A social practice lens enabled the uptake of the GPS technology to be studied in the context of what human actors found salient, meaningful, ethical, legal, materially possible, and professionally or culturally appropriate in particular social situations. Data extracts were used to illustrate three exemplar findings. First, professional practice is (and probably always will be) oriented not to "implementing technologies" but to providing excellent, ethical care to sick and vulnerable individuals. Second, in order to "work," health and care technologies rely heavily on human relationships and situated knowledge. Third, such technologies do not just need to be adopted by individuals; they need
Cheng, Yin Cheong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching
Purpose: This paper aims to report empirical research investigating how school-based management (SBM) and paradigm shift (PS) in education are closely related to teachers' student-centered teaching and students' active learning in a sample of Hong Kong secondary schools. Design/methodology/approach: It is a cross-sectional survey research…
Ibáñez, María-Blanca; Di-Serio, Ángela; Villarán-Molina, Diego; Delgado-Kloos, Carlos
This paper reports empirical evidence on having students use AR-SaBEr, a simulation tool based on augmented reality (AR), to discover the basic principles of electricity through a series of experiments. AR-SaBEr was enhanced with knowledge-based support and inquiry-based scaffolding mechanisms, which proved useful for discovery learning in…
Rogiest, Sofie; Segers, Jesse; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen
Although leadership is generally considered an important lever to increase commitment during organizational change, empirical research has yet to unravel many of the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, we propose that the impact of participative leadership on affective commitment to change will be
Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek
Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…
van Dalen, Harry; Henkens, Kene
Trust in pension institutions is pivotal in making pension decisions, like saving or enrolling in pension programs. But which traits of pension institutions matter in making or breaking trust in providers like pension funds, banks or insurance companies? This paper presents an empirical analysis of
Papavassiliou-Alexiou, Ioanna; Zourna, Christina
This article examines how the training in and use of Drama in Education (DiE) affects the development of teachers' professional skills. The article draws on data from broader empirical qualitative research about the impact of DiE on personal, social and professional development of Greek secondary school teachers. The research was carried out using…
Nowadays, both large financial and non-financial institutions use models for the term structure of interest rates for risk management and pricing purposes. This thesis focuses on these two important applications of term structure models. In the first part, the empirical performance of several term
Mazereeuw, C.; Graafland, J.J.; Kaptein, M.
In this paper, we examine the relationship between Christian religiosity, attitudes towards corporate social responsibility (CSR), and CSR behavior of executives. We distinguish four types of CSR attitudes and five types of CSR behavior. Based on empirical research conducted among 473 Dutch
Helen Levey Bernie, DO, MPH
Conclusion: Empiric and risk-based strategies for ICI therapy resulted in significant improvements across multiple domains of sexual function. Complication rates, satisfaction, and efficacy overall were similar between the two approaches. Clinicians can be reassured that no one approach to ICI therapy for ED management appears inferior to another.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of an empirical investigation of the effective use of social software in further and higher education. The aims of the research are to: identify situations where social software tools had been employed in learning and teaching; elicit the experiences of the staff and students; and to…
The concept of a computer-controlled pseudo-random pulser is described, which is able to produce pulse sequences obeying statistical distributions, used in probability assessments of safety technology. It shall be used in empirical investigations of the reliability of complex systems. (orig.) [de
With the popularity of learner-oriented approach in language teaching, research on learners is gaining more and more importance. This paper attempts to review the empirical researches on self-efficacy in the ESL/EFL settings during the past 10 years with the purpose of depicting the extent to which the self-efficacy research in ESL/EFL has…
Jin, Jiahua; Yan, Xiangbin; Li, Yijun; Li, Yumei
The emergence of social media technology has led to the creation of many online healthcare communities, where patients can easily share and look for healthcare-related information from peers who have experienced a similar problem. However, with increased user-generated content, there is a need to constantly analyse which content should be trusted as one sifts through enormous amounts of healthcare information. This study aims to explore patients' healthcare information seeking behavior in online communities. Based on dual-process theory and the knowledge adoption model, we proposed a healthcare information adoption model for online communities. This model highlights that information quality, emotional support, and source credibility are antecedent variables of adoption likelihood of healthcare information, and competition among repliers and involvement of recipients moderate the relationship between the antecedent variables and adoption likelihood. Empirical data were collected from the healthcare module of China's biggest Q&A community-Baidu Knows. Text mining techniques were adopted to calculate the information quality and emotional support contained in each reply text. A binary logistics regression model and hierarchical regression approach were employed to test the proposed conceptual model. Information quality, emotional support, and source credibility have significant and positive impact on healthcare information adoption likelihood, and among these factors, information quality has the biggest impact on a patient's adoption decision. In addition, competition among repliers and involvement of recipients were tested as moderating effects between these antecedent factors and the adoption likelihood. Results indicate competition among repliers positively moderates the relationship between source credibility and adoption likelihood, and recipients' involvement positively moderates the relationship between information quality, source credibility, and adoption
Mohammadzadeh, Mehdi; Aarabi, Sied Mohammad; Salamzadeh, Jamshid
Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006-2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial strategy.
Full Text Available Background:Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper.Methods:All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006--2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 x 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value, ROA (Return on Asset, ROE (Return on Equity have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used.Results:Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing's rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy.Conclusion:Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their
Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial
Full Text Available The current context of globalization, financial markets mondialisation, internationalization of production and intensification of international trade relations represents references that justify the need for an international project of reducing international accounting differences between the local accounting referential. Recent developments in the area of financial reports improvements interest devotes international accounting convergence solution as the way forward. Regardless of the approach chosen by each country in the process of international accounting convergence, the situation of conflict situation between state vs. accounting profession persists nowadays. This situation has led to the establishment of a dual financial reporting system at the national level, not at all beneficial to the users of financial information. The success of international accounting convergence process is reduced to the level of the consolidated financial statements of listed companies. The next step that needs to be done is also to provide solutions of accounting convergence to the rest of the companies, and also to extend the normalization process for the statutory financial statements too. Positive effects of international accounting referential, confirmed by recent studies, become a solid base for adopting IFRS for statutory financial statements too. The main impediment that needs to be eliminated is to convince the state that this step is appropriate for all players of accounting information market. Considering romanian current situation, where from now IFRS is used to report the statutory financial statements of listed companies too, we try, by an empirical approach at the level of BVB, to look for the impact of such a legislative change. The main objective is to check if the state budget is affected consistently, and also take a look on the economic effects of IFRS adoption gained by companies, especially on evolution of rate-of-equity and short
Full Text Available We have carried out an empirical study of long-term change in European cookery to test if the development of this cultural phenomenon matches a general hypothesis about cultural evolution: that human cultural change is characterized by cumulativity. Data from seven cookery books, evenly spaced across time, the oldest one written in medieval times (~1200 and the most recent one dating from late modernity (1999, were compared. Ten recipes from each of the categories “poultry recipes”, “fish recipes” and “meat recipes” were arbitrarily selected from each cookery book by selecting the first ten recipes in each category, and the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients, semi-manufactured ingredients, compound semi-manufactured ingredients (defined as semi-manufactured ingredients containing no less than two raw products, and self-made semi-manufactured ingredients were counted. Regression analyses were used to quantitatively compare the cookery from different ages. We found a significant increase in the numbers (per recipe of steps, separate partial processes, methods, ingredients and semi-manufactured ingredients. These significant increases enabled us to identify the development of cookery as an example of the general trend of cumulativity in long-term cultural evolution. The number of self-made semi-manufactured ingredients per recipe, however, may have decreased somewhat over time, something which may reflect the cumulative characteristics of cultural evolution at the level of society, considering the accumulation of knowledge that is required to industrialize food production.
Full Text Available Against the background of global warming, China has vowed to meet a series of carbon emissions reduction targets and plans to launch a national carbon emissions rights trading market by 2017. Therefore, from the provincial value chain perspective, using input-output tables from China in 2002, 2007, and 2010, this study constructs models to calculate the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province under the production, consumption, and value capture principles, respectively. Empirical results indicate that Shandong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Henan bear the most responsibility for CO2 emissions under the three principles in China, while Hainan and Qinghai have the least responsibility. However, there is a great difference in the proportion of carbon emissions responsibility for each province during the same period under different principles or different periods under the same principle. For consumption-oriented areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Guangdong, the production principle is more favorable, and the consumption principle is more beneficial for production-oriented provinces such as Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. However, the value capture principle strikes a compromise of the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province between the production and consumption principles, and it shares the CO2 emissions responsibility based on the actual value captured by each province in the provincial value chain. The value capture principle is conducive to the fair and reasonable division of CO2 emissions rights of each province by sectors, as well as the construction of a standardized carbon emissions rights trading market.
Jordanova, V. K.; Zaharia, S.; Welling, D. T.
The effects of nondipolar magnetic field configuration and the feedback of a self-consistently computed magnetic field on ring current dynamics are investigated during a double-dip storm with minima SYM-H = -90 nT at ˜2000 UT, 20 November, and SYM-H = -127 nT at ˜1000 UT, 21 November 2002. We use our kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field (RAM-SCB) to study the redistribution of plasma in the inner magnetosphere after its fresh injection from the plasma sheet. The kinetic model is fully extended to nondipolar magnetic (B) field geometry and two-way coupled with an Euler-potential-based equilibrium model that calculates self-consistently the three-dimensional magnetic field in force balance with the anisotropic ring current distributions. The ring current source population is inferred from LANL geosynchronous satellite data; a superdense plasma sheet observed during the second storm main phase contributes significantly to ring current buildup. We find that the bounce-averaged velocities increase while the bounce-averaged geocoronal hydrogen densities decrease on the nightside when a nondipolar B field is used. A depression of the ring current fluxes and a confinement of the ring current close to Earth are thus observed on the nightside as geomagnetic activity increases. In contrast to the dipolar case, the proton anisotropy increases considerably in the postnoon sector, and the nondipolar simulations predict the excitation of intense EMIC waves at large L shells. The total ring current energy and ∣Dst∣ index calculated with the self-consistent B field are in best agreement with observations, being smaller compared to the dipolar calculations but larger than the empirical B field predictions.
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, local governments all over Europe have launched reforms to improve local democracy, public management and efficiency in the provision of local services. Some of these reforms are inspired by what previously has worked in private management and some of them have also a macro-level approach, whose main aim is to introduce institutional reforms and reorganizations to ensure contextual problem solving by strengthening governance within the local public sector. In this context, Strategic Planning in public organizations has attracted interest among academic researchers and practitioners as an instrument for dealing with a complex environment and for the achievement of higher performance and the attainment of greater democracy. But the decision on how to introduce Strategic Planning might follow a different rationale. The hypothesis maintained in this paper is that those that are based in an endogenous rationale are more likely to succeed. To test our hypothesis this paper draws on a comparative empirical analysis concerning the design and implementation of a Strategic Planning process within two Spanish city governments: one considered to have been a failure and the other a success. Focusing on the way in which the use of Strategic Planning has to face the trade-offs between urban and economic development and democracy, the paper explores how this formal mechanism of citizen´s and business’ participation serves to establish relational processes to reinvigorate local economic development, democracy and administrative modernization only when a strong political and administrative leadership is put into motion. Overall, the study yields evidence consistent with the notion that a successful Strategic Planning at the local level has to take into account not only institutional issues, but also the communal, social and political resources that frame the deliberations propelled by the Strategic Planning process.
Full Text Available Urban sustainable development strategies are of great importance to rapidly urbanized countries such as China. One of the most challenging problems is how to coordinate urban spatial development with social efficiency and environmental protection, e.g., highly efficient low-carbon urban traffic. Despite broad research efforts with respect to the influence of urban form on travel patterns, questions persist as to the impact of compact urban form on travel distance and modes. In this study, we adopted urban form metrics to capture key dimensions of urban form with the aid of image processing and spatial analysis based on satellite images and statistical data from the cases of 35 cities. Combined with urban travel survey data, we empirically examined the relationships between urban form and travel patterns of local urban residents. The results showed that urban form and travel patterns have regionalized characteristics, e.g., the eastern cities are characterized by disperse urban development patterns and longer commuting times on average compared with western and central cities. We found that relatively smaller built-up areas, higher degrees of urban spatial agglomeration and more paved road area per person would decrease the commuting time of urban residents. We also found that the public transport choices of urban residents are positively associated with built-up areas and commuting times, which suggests the need for provision and promotion of facilities for a high-quality public transport system. The findings provide helpful suggestions for the planning of sustainable urban form and development of transportation.
Kelly M O'Connor
Full Text Available Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1 by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras, and (2 by total season length (1-365 days. Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, bobcat (Lynx rufus, raccoon (Procyon lotor, and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana. For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128% from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori
O'Connor, Kelly M; Nathan, Lucas R; Liberati, Marjorie R; Tingley, Morgan W; Vokoun, Jason C; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G
Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1) by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras), and (2) by total season length (1-365 days). Four species from our dataset that represented a range of body sizes and differing degrees of presumed detectability based on life history traits were investigated: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), bobcat (Lynx rufus), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana). For all species, increasing from a single camera to a multi-camera array significantly improved detection probability across the range of season lengths and number of study sites evaluated. The use of a two camera array increased survey detection an average of 80% (range 40-128%) from the detection probability of a single camera across the four species. Species that were detected infrequently benefited most from a multiple-camera array, where the addition of up to eight cameras produced significant increases in detectability. However, for species detected at high frequencies, single cameras produced a season-long (i.e, the length of time over which cameras are deployed and actively monitored) detectability greater than 0.75. These results highlight the need for researchers to be critical about camera trap study designs based on their intended target species, as detectability for each focal species responded differently to array size and season length. We suggest that researchers a priori identify
Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to gastroesophageal reflux disease or peptic ulcer are common, but the outcome of proton pump inhibitor therapy in clinical practice is not well documented.
Brauer, Susanne; Bolliger, Christian; Strub, Jean-Daniel
In Switzerland, assisted suicide is legal as long as it does not involve self-serving motives. Physician-assisted suicide is regulated by specific guidelines issued by the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS). This article summarises the results of an empirical study of physicians' attitudes to assisted suicide in Switzerland, which was commissioned by the SAMS. The study (in German) is available online at: www.samw.ch. Twelve qualitative interviews and a written survey were conducted, involving a disproportional, stratified random sample of Swiss physicians (4,837 contacted, 1,318 respondents, response rate 27%). Due to the response rate and the wide variation of respondents from one professional speciality to another, the findings and interpretations presented should be regarded as applying only to the group of physicians who are interested in or are particularly affected by the issue of assisted suicide. They cannot be generalised to the whole body of physicians in Switzerland. Of the respondents, 77% considered physician-assisted suicide to be justifiable in principle, while 22% were fundamentally opposed to it. Although 43% could imagine situations where they would personally be prepared to perform assisted suicide, it is clear from the study that this potential readiness does not mean that all respondents would automatically be prepared to perform it in practice as soon as the legal criteria are met. The vast majority of respondents emphasised that there should be no obligation to perform physician-assisted suicide. Opinions differed as to whether physician-assisted suicide should remain restricted to cases where the person concerned is approaching the end of life. While a large majority of respondents considered physician-assisted suicide also to be justifiable in principle in non-end-of-life situations, 74% supported the maintenance of the end-of-life criterion in the SAMS Guidelines as a necessary condition for physician-assisted suicide. Over 50% of
Ennenbach, M; Gass, B; Reinecker, H; Soyka, M
Following an anonymous survey on health und substance use problems in 2004, a prevention program for workers at a Bavarian rehabilitation clinic was initiated. Its efficiency was evaluated by a follow-up study in 2007. The initial analysis had indicated a high rate of substance abuse. Young female employees had been identified as one of the risk groups for alcohol consumption and professional discontent. Based on these findings, a special prevention program was established. The follow-up study revealed some improvements with respect to health und substance abuse, including a significant reduction in average alcohol consumption. These findings indicate that prevention programs at the workplace are both possible and effective.
Zahra Shirzour Aliabadi
Full Text Available The world Trade Organization (WTO is one of the few organizations, which could significantly influence on foreign trade and consequently on the economic structure of the countries. There are literally different people in Iran who either encourage or discourage WTO membership. Therefore, it is important to analyze Iran’s WTO membership to empower Iranian handmade carpet in international trades and to help improvement in quality of production. The purpose of this research is to study the effects of Iran’s membership in WTO to empower this industry by performing an empirical survey among 100 experts in this industry. Findings demonstrate that access to WTO plays an important role on increasing production of handmade carpet and developing this industry. In addition, the industry needs to incorporate the recent advances on technology to ensure cost efficient production materials. The industry also needs more creative and innovative ideas due to an increase competition in handmade carpet producers from other countries.
Owen, Art B
Empirical likelihood provides inferences whose validity does not depend on specifying a parametric model for the data. Because it uses a likelihood, the method has certain inherent advantages over resampling methods: it uses the data to determine the shape of the confidence regions, and it makes it easy to combined data from multiple sources. It also facilitates incorporating side information, and it simplifies accounting for censored, truncated, or biased sampling.One of the first books published on the subject, Empirical Likelihood offers an in-depth treatment of this method for constructing confidence regions and testing hypotheses. The author applies empirical likelihood to a range of problems, from those as simple as setting a confidence region for a univariate mean under IID sampling, to problems defined through smooth functions of means, regression models, generalized linear models, estimating equations, or kernel smooths, and to sampling with non-identically distributed data. Abundant figures offer vi...
Full Text Available One of the most important issues in financing corporate is to find appropriate method to make a wise selection between getting loans and increasing the number of shares. There are different theories for making appropriate financing methods. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate this issue based on market timing theory. The proposed model of this paper chooses selective companies from Tehran Stock Exchange. The proposed model of this paper uses regression analysis on two different models. The primary purpose of the first model given in this paper is to study the effect of market timing theory. In this part of survey, we measure the effect of the ratio of market value to book value on the sources of financing firms though increase in equities. Based on the results, we can conclude that as the ratio of market value to book value increases, firms tend to increase their equity though an increase to the number of shares. The first hypothesis of this paper is confirmed. The second model is associated with the relationship with mean ratio of market value on weighted book value and Leverage and the results of this paper do not confirm such relationship.
Sarwar Uddin Ahmed
Full Text Available Corporate governance refers to the relationship present between the corporation and the stakeholders that determines and controls the strategic direction and performance of the corporation. Good corporate governance should provide adequate incentives for the board and management to pursue objectives that are in the interests of the company and shareholders, thereby encouraging firms to use resources more efficiently. However, the definition of accountability differs between conventional and Islamic Banks. Islam was made accountable not only to stakeholders, but also to Allah, the ultimate owner and authority. These powerful moral ethics help in promoting fair, just and honest business dealing. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between corporate governance structures and the resultant financial performance of listed Islamic banks of Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE in Bangladesh. The panel time series data were collected for the time period of 6 years (2009-2014 from all the listed Islamic banks to run an Ordinary Least Squared (OLS regression model to examine whether the existing corporate governance mechanisms as well as several other internal and external indicators are significant in influencing the financial performance. Preliminary findings suggest corporate governance mechanisms in Islamic banks are not quite as strong as they should be, hinting at possible market and management inefficiencies.
Degenhardt, Aemilie Louize; Oliveira, Silvia Maria Velasques de
The radiopharmaceuticals should be approved for consumption by evaluating their quality, safety and efficacy. Clinical studies are designed to verify the pharmacodynamics, pharmacological and clinical effects in humans and are required for assuring safety and efficacy. The Bayesian analysis has been used for clinical studies effectiveness evaluation. This work aims to identify uncertainties associated with the process of production of the radionuclide and radiopharmaceutical labelling as well as the radiopharmaceutical administration and scintigraphy images acquisition and processing. For the development of clinical studies in the country, the metrological chain shall assure the traceability of the surveys performed in all phases. (author)
Rekha; Sumangala; Ishwarya
BACKGROUND: In recent days fever with Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical presentation in the medical wards. This study has been undertaken to know the modes of clinical presentations and possible causes of fever with Thrombocytopenia. OBJECTIVE: 1. To determine possible infective etiology for fever with Thrombocytopenia. 2. To correlate clinical features, laboratory studies and infective etiology. METHODS: Case record analysis of fever with Thrombocytopenia admitted to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxes on alcohol and tobacco have long been an important means of raising revenues for public spending in many countries but there is increasing interest in using taxes on these, and other unhealthy products, to achieve public health goals. We present a systematic review of the research on health taxes, and aim to generate insights into how such taxes can: (i reduce consumption of targeted products and related harms; (ii generate revenues for health objectives and distribute the tax burden across income groups in an efficient and equitable manner; and (iii be made politically sustainable. Methods Six scientific and four grey-literature databases were searched for empirical studies of ‘health taxes’ – defined as those intended to increase the costs of manufacturing, distributing, retailing and/or consuming health-damaging products. Since reviews already exist of the evidence relating to traditional alcohol and tobacco excise taxes, we focus on other taxes such as taxes on retailers and manufacturers of unhealthy products, and consumer taxes targeting unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Results Ninety-one peer-reviewed and 11 grey-literature studies met our inclusion criteria. The review highlights a recent, rapid rise in research in this area, most of which focuses on high-income countries and on taxes on food products or nutrients. Findings demonstrate that high tax rates on sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to have a positive impact on health behaviours and outcomes, and, while taxes on products reduce demand, they add to fiscal revenues. Common concerns about health taxes are also discussed. Conclusions If the primary policy goal of a health tax is to reduce consumption of unhealthy products, then evidence supports the implementation of taxes that increase the price of products by 20% or more. However, where taxes are effective in changing health behaviours, the predictability of the revenue stream
Wright, Alexandra; Smith, Katherine E; Hellowell, Mark
Taxes on alcohol and tobacco have long been an important means of raising revenues for public spending in many countries but there is increasing interest in using taxes on these, and other unhealthy products, to achieve public health goals. We present a systematic review of the research on health taxes, and aim to generate insights into how such taxes can: (i) reduce consumption of targeted products and related harms; (ii) generate revenues for health objectives and distribute the tax burden across income groups in an efficient and equitable manner; and (iii) be made politically sustainable. Six scientific and four grey-literature databases were searched for empirical studies of 'health taxes' - defined as those intended to increase the costs of manufacturing, distributing, retailing and/or consuming health-damaging products. Since reviews already exist of the evidence relating to traditional alcohol and tobacco excise taxes, we focus on other taxes such as taxes on retailers and manufacturers of unhealthy products, and consumer taxes targeting unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened beverages. Ninety-one peer-reviewed and 11 grey-literature studies met our inclusion criteria. The review highlights a recent, rapid rise in research in this area, most of which focuses on high-income countries and on taxes on food products or nutrients. Findings demonstrate that high tax rates on sugar-sweetened beverages are likely to have a positive impact on health behaviours and outcomes, and, while taxes on products reduce demand, they add to fiscal revenues. Common concerns about health taxes are also discussed. If the primary policy goal of a health tax is to reduce consumption of unhealthy products, then evidence supports the implementation of taxes that increase the price of products by 20% or more. However, where taxes are effective in changing health behaviours, the predictability of the revenue stream is reduced. Hence, policy actors need to be clear about the primary
Francisco Gutierrez Diez
In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish). Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units), we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equa...
Spekman, MLC; Konijn, EA; Roelofsma, PHMP; Griffiths, MD
Aims: Although the general public appears to have embraced the term 'video game addiction', the scientific debate as to whether 'gaming addiction' can actually be considered an addiction similar to substance addictions of DSM-IV is still unsettled. To date, research on gaming addiction has focused on problematic behavior from the gaming activity itself and there has been little empirical research related to pathological personality patterns that usually are associated with substance addiction...
Chan, Wing Yin; To, Chester Kin-man; Chu, Wai Ching
This study investigates tourist consumption responses toward tourism innovation. To measure tourist responses, this study posits three key consumption drivers, namely social esteem, desire for experiential travel, and avoidance against rituality of tourism settings (a subscale of need for uniqueness) and models consumers’ affective response within the context of tourism innovation. It involves 295 respondents in an empirical survey. The findings affirm the three drivers toward tourist consump...
This study is focused on the concept of company competitiveness, on the relevant factors in order to analyze and explain the advantage of competitiveness for a company in regard to another, as well as the dimension and intensity which it uses the sponsors’ capital, the organizational capital, the human capital, the innovational capital and the capital represented by the customers portfolio. Secondly, using the questionnaire method as a research method, the objective of this paper is to provide some empirical evidences designed to assess the factors determining the Romanian company competitiveness on the competitive market. By using an initial dataset of 300 companies, which are part of the 14 fields of activity provided in the activity classification of the national economy, Reviewed NACE 2, we have made their classification on size classes, taking into account as classification criteria the number of employees, the annual net turnover and the value of the total assets held, then testing the opinions of the managers from the selected sample concerning the factors determining the competitiveness of the companies they manage. According to the results, the analysis of the sample structure reflects the control of microenterprises followed by the small and medium sized enterprises. The manner of administration and organization and the quality of the employed human factor are influenced by the company dimension and position held on the market. We consider that the managers of the small size companies, as well as the ones from the provided sample, rely on a preponderant intuitive management, they deal the administered businesses based on the spur of the moment inspiration, make decisions subjectively not starting from objective economic criteria, being concerned only with the management of the current problems. Since they aren’t the beneficiaries of a managerial education, they don’t possess the necessary competences to focus on the elaboration of certain strategies
Wiedemann, A.; Marañón-Jiménez, S.; Herbst, M.; Cuntz, M.; Rebmann, C.
Sap flow sensors are common to assess the contribution of tree transpiration to ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET). Thermal dissipation (TD) is one of the most popular methods for sap measurements but the insertion of TD probes in the tree stems imply wounding of the wood tissue and a consequent alteration of the sap flow. But the determination of sap flux density (SFD) is based on an empirical function developed for freshly drilled holes and it does hence not account for the wound effect. Here we investigate the effect of wound healing on sap flow measurements with TD probes. Our objectives were (1) the establishment of correction factors to account for the wound effect and (2) the determination of the point in time after installation when the correction factors become applicable. For that we performed an experiment in which TD probes were installed successively in diffuse- and ring-porous trees (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea, resp.) during the growing season. The trees were logged in fall and additional sensors were installed afterwards in the logged stems. SFDs measured by the different TD sensors were compared with gravimetric estimates in the laboratory. Gravimetric flow compared well with SFD estimates from freshly installed sensors without wound formation, with only a slight underestimation by the TDs. In contrast, older sensors, submitted to wound reactions, underestimated SFD by up to 40%. However, sensors with 5, 11 and 22 week old wounds showed no significant differences, which implies that wound healing occurs in the first weeks after scission. Similar sap flow underestimations due to wound effects were observed in both species, oak and beech. This study highlights the relevance of accounting for tree wound reactions for accurate estimation of tree transpiration based on thermal dissipation sensors. We provide a correction factor for the classical Granier TD sensors that can be used from the first weeks after installation in similar species. This
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Klann, Jeffrey G.
Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Malalignment in the visual axes of the two eyes is called strabismus. Fusion of both images is replaced either by diplopia or suppression of one image. Squint leads to loss of binocular single vision. Concomitant squint is a type of manifest squint in which the amount of deviation in the squinting eye is same in all gazes. Binocular single vision and ocular movement coordination are not present since birth, but are acquired in the early childhood. This process starts by the age of 3-6 months and is completed up to 5-6 years. Any hindrance in the development of these processes may result in concomitant squint. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 100 cases of concomitant squint, patients were included in our study. Detailed history was taken regarding the onset of squint and duration. Past history and family history was also elicited. General examination was done to detect any abnormalities of central nervous system. Routine ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity, cover test performed to detect the type of deviation whether uniocular or alternating and the type of fixation. Angle of deviation was measured by Hirschberg’s test and on the synoptophore. Binocular single vision was assessed using Worth’s 4-dot test and synoptophore. Cycloplegic refraction and fundus evaluation done in all patients. Inclusion Criteria- All primary non-paralytic deviations, sensory deprivation strabismus. Exclusion Criteria- Paralytic strabismus, strabismus associated with neurological disorders, consecutive strabismus and palpebral fissure abnormalities patients. RESULTS Majority of cases of concomitant squint were of esotropic type. Most common form of esotropia seen was infantile esotropia. Most common form of exotropia was intermittent exotropia. 19% of cases were secondary to other ocular diseases namely cataract, macular lesion, high myopia, etc. Amblyopia was present in 54% patients and of very dense type, which could not be treated
Nakazawa, Saburo; Hattori, Toshiyuki; Inui, Kazuo
We studied the usefulness of CT colonography (CTC) for colon cancer diagnosis. CTC and optical colonoscopy were performed for 150 cases mainly including patients with a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT). The results were compared and analyzed. The following are the final diagnoses given to the patients: advanced colon cancer: 41 cases; early cancer: 25 cases; adenoma: 74 cases; hyperplasia: 3 cases; submucosal tumor: 1 case; and no lesion: 6 cases. In terms of diagnostic performance of CTC, accuracy was found to be 96%, sensitivity was found to be 97.9%, and specificity was found to be 50%. Cancer stage-specific sensitivity was as follows: advanced colon cancer: 100%; early cancer: 96.3%; adenoma: 71.2%; and hyperplasia: 47.4%. Lesion site-specific sensitivity was as follows: caecum: 76.2%; ascending colon: 57.6%; transverse colon: 66.2%; descending colon: 83.3%; sigmoid colon: 85.1%; and rectum: 78.0%. Lesion size-specific sensitivity was as follows: 2 to 5 mm: 56.7%; 6 to 9 mm: 88.1%; 10 mm or more: 92.5%; and 6 mm or more: 90.9%. Therefore, the diagnostic sensitivity of CTC was confirmed to be high. The results suggest that CTC would be useful for colon cancer screening. (author)
Cheng, Feng; Xu, Junfang; Su, Chunyan; Fu, Xiaoxing; Bricker, Jonathan
With 360 million smokers, China consumes more cigarettes than any other country in the world. Given that 620 million Chinese own smartphones, smartphone apps for smoking cessation are increasingly used in China to help smokers quit. This study analyzed and evaluated the contents of all smoking cessation apps (iOS and Android) available in China, applying the China Clinical Smoking Cessation Guideline (CCSCG; identical to the US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) as a framework for analysis. We conducted a content analysis of Chinese Android and iOS smoking cessation apps (N=64) designed to assist users in quitting smoking. Each app was independently coded by two raters for its approach to smoking cessation and adherence to the CCSCG. We also recorded the features of smoking cessation apps (eg, release date, size, frequency of downloads, user ratings, type, quality scores by raters, and designers). Linear regression was used to test predictors of popularity and user-rated quality. Chinese smoking cessation apps have low levels of adherence to guidelines, with an average score of 11.1 for Android and 14.6 for iOS apps on a scale of 0 to 46. There was no significant association between popularity, user rating, and the characteristics of apps. However, there was a positive relationship between popularity, user rating, and adherence score. Chinese apps for smoking cessation have low levels of adherence to standard clinical practice guidelines. New apps need be developed and existing apps be revised following evidence-based principles in China. ©Feng Cheng, Junfang Xu, Chunyan Su, Xiaoxing Fu, Jonathan Bricker. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 11.07.2017.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the salivary gland scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate for the prognosis of Bell's palsy. The salivary gland scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with Bell's palsy and 15 normal subjects. After intravenous injection of 10 mCt of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate, sequential scintigrams were taken with a scintillation camera every one minute for 25 minutes. At 15 minutes after injection, both of normal subjects and patients were given ascorbic acid to stimulate the secretion of saliva. By the present method, the time activity curve was examined for the regions of interest over the parotid and submandibular glands and backgrounds. In normal subjects, values of the concentration and excretory ratio between the right and left sides of the parotid and submandibular glands were more than 80%. Some patients with Bell's palsy showed a decreased concentration and/or excretory ratio less than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the parotid glands. This suggests a functional involvement of the facial nerve in the salivary secretion from the parotid glands. On examination within 10 days of the onset of Bell's palsy, 31 cases with complete recovery showed values of the concentration ratio and/or excretory ratio more than 80% between the normal and affected sides of the submandibular glands. In contrast, 9 cases with imcomplete recovery showed low values of the concentration ratio and excretory ratio less than 80%. In the latter, more active treatments such as decompression operation should be considerd in the early stage of the palsy. The salivary scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate is more valuable as an early prognostic indicator for Bell's palsy compared with other prognostic tests such as the lid vibration test, the stapedial reflex test, the electrogustometry, the nerve excitability test and the evoked electromyography. (author)
Full Text Available During this workshop scholars presented new, mainly empirical studies which explored different aspects of right-wing extremism in Germany. While a number of talks focused on political strategies and modern forms of organization of local neo-Nazi scenes, political elites and the music industry, others had chosen a biographical view on the personal development of young right-wing extremists. Studies on the local context of and conditions for right-wing extremist actions were complemented by representative survey data on political attitudes of German citizens. Apart from discussions about the phenomenon of right-wing extremism itself, participants had the opportunity to exchange their experience of doing empirical qualitative research in a dangerous field. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401215
Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been tremendous fluctuations on different currencies. For instance, European common currency, Euro, has be fluctuated between 0.60 to 0.9 against US dollar. Therefore, it is important to study the behavior of currency valuations using different techniques. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the impact of different items on risk of foreign currency using value at risk (VaR and regression methods. The proposed model of this paper investigates whether the risk of open positions of six foreign currencies including US dollar, Euro, British Pound, Switzerland Frank, Norwegian Kroner and United Emirate Dirham increase during the time horizon. The proposed study of this paper uses historical daily prices of these currencies for a fiscal year of 2011 in one of private banks located in Iran and measures the relative risk. The results of the implementation of two methods of VaR and linear regression indicate that the risk of open positions increases during the time horizon.
Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine
This paper contributes to the HCI literature on usability practice with insights about the empirical challenges and global emerging practices caused by the advent of agile software development (ASD). In the paper we report from a worldwide study involving 12 usability professionals from 12 different countries. The findings show that the usability professionals share a forced development and innovation in their practice that stem from their clients’ adoption and use of ASD methods. The ASD met...
Taehee Lee; Hyunjeong Nam
This study empirically identifies individual supply chain orientation (SCO) components as antecedents of organizational SCO and analyzes the causal relationships between organizational SCO and supply chain management (SCM). A survey was conducted with Korean firms and the partial least squares method was used to test the proposed hypotheses. The results show that individual SCO has a significant influence on organizational SCO. Organizational SCO has a significant influence on strategic SCM, ...
Gaby Odekerken-Schröder; Bloemer Josée
The objective of this study is to empirically determine the role of constraints and dedication as drivers of relationship commitment as most of the existing work is of a conceptual nature only. We assess how and to which extent these two drivers fit into the established relationships between overall service quality, satisfaction, trust and commitment. Using LISREL, we estimate the conceptual model based on a sample of customers of health-care centers. The results indicate that both constraint...
Lebherz, Philipp Robert
Projecte final de carrera fet en col.laboració amb Karlsruher Institut für Technologie English: Final proyect with the topic "relevant factors for the impact of social media marketing strategies - an empirical study of the internet travel agency sector" at Faculty of Informatics and the chair of management. Supervised by Ferran Sabaté and Antonio Cañabate. Student Philipp Lebherz.
Nasim Kazemi; Parisa Ehsani; Farshid Abdi; Mohammad Kazem Bighami
This paper presents an empirical investigation to measure different dimensions of hospital service quality (HSQ) by gap analysis and patient satisfaction (PS). It also attempts to measure patients’ satisfaction with three dimensions extracted from exploratory factor analysis (EFA) by Principle component analysis method and conformity factor analysis (CFA). In addition, the study analyzes relationship between HSQ and PS in the context of Iranian hospital services, using structural equation mod...
Numminen, O H; Leino-Kilpi, H; van der Arend, A; Katajisto, J
To explore graduating nursing students' perception of nurse educators' teaching of codes of ethics in polytechnics providing basic nursing education in Finland. Codes of ethics are regarded as an essential content in most nursing ethics curricula. However, little is known about how their teaching is implemented. Descriptive, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 214 nursing students responded to a structured questionnaire with one open-ended question. The data was analysed statistically by SPSS and content analysis. Students perceived teaching of the codes as fairly extensive. The emphasis was on the nurse-patient relationship. Less attention was paid to nursing in wider social contexts. Educators' use of teaching and evaluation methods was narrow. Students whose teaching had been integrated into clinical training perceived that teaching had been more extensive. However, students did not perceive integration to clinical training as a much used teaching format. Students assessed their own knowledge and ability to apply the codes as mediocre. Those educators, whose knowledge about the codes students had assessed as adequate, were also perceived to teach the codes more extensively. Regardless of the responding students' positive description of the teaching, the findings should be interpreted with caution, due to the students' limited interest to respond. In teaching ethics, particular attention should be paid to more versatile use of teaching and evaluation methods, organization of integrated teaching, educators' competence in ethics, and student outcomes so that the importance of ethics would come across to all nursing students.
Gaggero, Alberto A.
The economic theory on regulation suggests that firms subject to incentive regulation, such as price cap, bear more risk than firms subject to cost plus regulation, such as rate of return regulation. This hypothesis is tested empirically using a sample of 93 regulated companies operating in six English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, UK and USA, during the period 1995-2004. I replicate the methodology of the existing literature and also apply panel data techniques to my sample. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis that price cap regulation imposes more risk. (author)
Full Text Available Exporting goods and services play an important role on economy of developing countries. There are many countries in the world whose economy is solely based on exporting raw materials such as oil and gas. Many believe that countries cannot develop their economy as long as they rely on exporting one single group of raw materials. Therefore, there is a need to help other sectors of industries build good infrastructure for exporting diversified products. In this paper, we perform an empirical analysis to determine the critical success factors on exporting different goods. The results are analyzed using some statistical non-parametric methods and some useful guidelines are also suggested.
It is known that one and the same interior colouring will appear different in rooms with windows facing north or facing south, but it is not known how natural daylight from these two compass points affects perceived colour and the ways in which colour is experienced. The objective is to describe the perceived colours to be expected in rooms with sunlight and diffused light, and thus develop a tool for colour design. Two empirical investigations provide the basis for six attached papers. The m...
Salgado, Ana C.
The purpose of this article is to review the empirical researches supporting the positive impact of religion, religiosity and spirituality as protective factors in various areas of human life. An analysis of each variable is performed individually and collectively. Among the conclusions of this work, researches show that they help people to have more self-esteem, are a source of strength and hope, are associated with greater satisfaction with life and spiritual well-being and increase the cap...
Several testimonies from both pagan and Christian sources, though generally neglected, allow us to reconstruct the medical curriculum in the Greek part of the Roman Empire, in particular Alexandria. This curriculum turns out to be remarkably comprehensive, as can be explained by the particular roles of physicians in classical society. In this paper we will clarify the part played by several physicians in the cultural context of their time, even outside their professional domain, as well as the relations between the sciences and the humanities, which were entirely complementary in those days, even from a practical point of view.
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to empirically compare the management that is most suitable for radical innovation with that needed for incremental innovation. The relationship between the results of research and development and management styles was surveyed using a questionnaire. Respondents included research and development leaders in Japanese manufacturing, with special attention given to the differences between radical innovation and incremental innovation. Results verified, in an integrated way, the management and leadership factors, taking into consideration the differences arising from the object under analysis and the environmental factors.
Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann
The book examines the emerging approach of using qualitative methods, such as interviews and field observations, in the philosophy of science. Qualitative methods are gaining popularity among philosophers of science as more and more scholars are resorting to empirical work in their study...... of scientific practices. At the same time, the results produced through empirical work are quite different from those gained through the kind of introspective conceptual analysis more typical of philosophy. This volume explores the benefits and challenges of an empirical philosophy of science and addresses...
Financial theory argues that companies should manage cash flows and not accounting earnings when they hedge exchange rate exposures. Still, empirical evidence shows that a number of companies choose to manage accounting earnings. This empirical study of Danish, non-financial companies finds (1......) that when hedging the majority of companies expect to add value to their company by avoiding financial distress (reduce down side risk), (2) that when hedging managing cash flows versus managing accounting earnings as a first priority splits the companies in two, (3) a lack of difference (except...... for profitability) in company characteristics between the group of companies that manage cash flows versus the group of companies that manage accounting earnings as a first priority. The decision in real business on whether to manage cash flows or accounting earnings when hedging exchange rate exposures seems...
Leslie J. Francis
Full Text Available The sensing, intuition, feeling and thinking (SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching has its roots in three fields: a theology of individual differences situated within the doctrine of creation, an application of Jungian psychological-type theory and empirical observation. The present study tested the empirical foundations for this method by examining the psychological-type profile of two groups of Anglican preachers (24 licensed readers in England and 22 licensed clergy in Northern Ireland and by examining the content of their preaching according to their dominant psychological-type preferences. These data provided further support for the psychological principles underpinning the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching.
Houts, Carrie R; Edwards, Michael C; Wirth, R J; Deal, Linda S
There has been a notable increase in the advocacy of using small-sample designs as an initial quantitative assessment of item and scale performance during the scale development process. This is particularly true in the development of clinical outcome assessments (COAs), where Rasch analysis has been advanced as an appropriate statistical tool for evaluating the developing COAs using a small sample. We review the benefits such methods are purported to offer from both a practical and statistical standpoint and detail several problematic areas, including both practical and statistical theory concerns, with respect to the use of quantitative methods, including Rasch-consistent methods, with small samples. The feasibility of obtaining accurate information and the potential negative impacts of misusing large-sample statistical methods with small samples during COA development are discussed.
Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha; Allison, David B; Menachemi, Nir
Odds ratios (ORs) are widely used in scientific research to demonstrate the associations between outcome variables and covariates (risk factors) of interest, and are often described in language suitable for risks or probabilities, but odds and probabilities are related, not equivalent. In situations where the outcome is not rare (e.g., obesity), ORs no longer approximate the relative risk ratio (RR) and may be misinterpreted. Our study examines the extent of misinterpretation of ORs in Obesity and International Journal of Obesity. We reviewed all 2010 issues of these journals to identify all articles that presented ORs. Included articles were then primarily reviewed for correct presentation and interpretation of ORs; and secondarily reviewed for article characteristics that may have been associated with how ORs are presented and interpreted. Of the 855 articles examined, 62 (7.3%) presented ORs. ORs were presented incorrectly in 23.2% of these articles. Clinical articles were more likely to present ORs correctly than social science or basic science articles. Studies with outcome variables that had higher relative prevalence were less likely to present ORs correctly. Overall, almost one-quarter of the studies presenting ORs in two leading journals on obesity misinterpreted them. Furthermore, even when researchers present ORs correctly, the lay media may misinterpret them as relative RRs. Therefore, we suggest that when the magnitude of associations is of interest, researchers should carefully and accurately present interpretable measures of association--including RRs and risk differences--to minimize confusion and misrepresentation of research results.
Yang, Chunfen; Su, Xun; Liu, Anchang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Aihua; Xi, Yanwei; Zhai, Guangxi
Curcumin has been estimated as a potential agent for many diseases and attracted great attention owing to its various pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory. Now curcumin is being applied to a number of patients with breast cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, colorectal cancer, psoriatic, etc. Several clinical trials have stated that curcumin is safe enough and effective. The objective of this article was to summarize the clinical studies of curcumin, and give a reference for future studies.
Carlier, I V E; Meuldijk, D; van Vliet, I M; van Fenema, E M; van der Wee, N J A; Zitman, F G
Routine Outcome Monitoring ROM is an important instrument for measuring the effectiveness of treatment and has been implemented in the Dutch mental health care system. To review the effectiveness of ROM with regard to diagnosis, treatment, and other outcomes. The literature study focused on randomised controlled trials RCT's of ROM performed on patients of all age groups, some being general patients, others being psychiatric patients. The main search words were 'routine outcome monitoring' or 'routine outcome measurement'. 52 RCTs on adult patients were included in the study; 45 of these trials were performed on patients with mental health problems, but not always in a psychiatric setting or as primary outcome measure. rom appears to have positive effects on diagnosis and treatment and on the communication between patient and therapist. Other results were less clear. ROM seems to be particularly effective for the monitoring of treatments which have not been entirely successful. Further research needs to be done into the clinical and cost-effectiveness of ROM when used with adults and children who have mental health problems.
Full Text Available "Why do parents parent the way they do?" is a very important question. The aim of the current research is to study whether and to what extent the way parents have been parented influences the way they parent. Original data were collected from 48 families across three generations. Grandparents, parents and young adults were asked to report on how they had been parented, how they themselves had parented in the case of the grandparents' and parents' generations, or how they were planning to parent in the case of young adults without children. We tested the hypothesis of a "childrearing tradition" across three generations of respondents in a cross-sectional study with a non-clinical sample. Some arguments in favour of continuities have been found, in particular for supportive rather than for controlling parenting. The results hence suggest that reports on parenting behaviour correlate from one generation to the next and even across two non-consecutive generations. The similarities that have been displayed result from the influence of the parenting individuals have received on the way they themselves parent. Our results also suggest that such an influence may be higher for childrearing attitudes such as warmth that have consistently been regarded as desirable, than for those that have been regarded as more controversial in society, such as harsh discipline.
Farooquie, Parveen; Gani, Abdul; Zuberi, Arsalanullah K.; Hashmi, Imran
To enter new markets and remain competitive in the existing markets, companies need to shift their focus from traditional means and ways to some innovative approaches. Though the paper industry in India has improved remarkably on its technological and environmental issues, yet it shows a low rate of innovation. The present paper attempts to review the industry in the perspective of technological innovations and investigates empirically the role of innovations in performance improvement and pollution control. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis are applied for data processing. The findings reveal that the mean scores on the factors, such as sales, quality, and flexibility, are higher for the good innovators than those for the poor innovators. Conversely, the factors which are likely to be reduced as a result of innovations, such as time, cost, emissions, and disposal of waste, have shown higher means for the poor innovators.
Vazquez, Emmanuel; Villemonteix, Julien; Sidorkiewicz, Maryan; Walter, Eric
The optimization of the output of complex computer codes has often to be achieved with a small budget of evaluations. Algorithms dedicated to such problems have been developed and compared, such as the Expected Improvement algorithm (El) or the Informational Approach to Global Optimization (IAGO). However, the influence of noisy evaluation results on the outcome of these comparisons has often been neglected, despite its frequent appearance in industrial problems. In this paper, empirical convergence rates for El and IAGO are compared when an additive noise corrupts the result of an evaluation. IAGO appears more efficient than El and various modifications of El designed to deal with noisy evaluations. Keywords. Global optimization; computer simulations; kriging; Gaussian process; noisy evaluations.
Full Text Available To investigate customer’s service requirement for parcel delivery, combining with theoretical analysis and empirical test, a measuring model of customer service requirement was proposed for terminal delivery. Based on literature reviews, five potential dimensions with 27 items were initially discussed. Through exploratory factor analysis on samples collected from Taobao networks, four dimensions with 18 measurement items were finally confirmed including service attitude, service reliability, service standardization and service flexibility. By further confirmatory factor analysis, the fitness of this measuring model was proved to be acceptable. The research revealed that online shoppers paid attention to not only service result but also service process, so related suggestions were also proposed for express firms to promote their service management.
Guilherme Fowler A. Monteiro
Full Text Available The growing complexity of supply chains poses new challenges for Agricultural Research Centers and statistical agencies. The aim of this perspective paper is to discuss the role of empirical research in understanding the complex forms of governance in agribusiness. The authors argue that there are three fundamental levels of analysis: (i the basic structure of the market, (ii the formal contractual arrangements that govern relations within the agroindustrial system and (iii the transactional dimensions governed by non-contractual means. The case of the agrochemical industry in Brazil illustrates how traditional analyses that only address market structure are insufficient to fully explain the agricultural sector and its supply chain. The article concludes by suggesting some indicators which could be collected by statistical agencies to improve understanding of the complex relationships among agribusiness segments. In doing so, the paper seeks to minimize costs and to enable a better formulation of public and private policies.
Vazquez, Emmanuel; Villemonteix, Julien; Sidorkiewicz, Maryan; Walter, Éric
The optimization of the output of complex computer codes has often to be achieved with a small budget of evaluations. Algorithms dedicated to such problems have been developed and compared, such as the Expected Improvement algorithm (El) or the Informational Approach to Global Optimization (IAGO). However, the influence of noisy evaluation results on the outcome of these comparisons has often been neglected, despite its frequent appearance in industrial problems. In this paper, empirical convergence rates for El and IAGO are compared when an additive noise corrupts the result of an evaluation. IAGO appears more efficient than El and various modifications of El designed to deal with noisy evaluations. Keywords. Global optimization; computer simulations; kriging; Gaussian process; noisy evaluations.
Carol X. J. Ou
Full Text Available Social networking applications (SNAs are among the fastest growing web applications of recent years. In this paper, we propose a causal model to assess the success of SNAs, grounded on DeLone and McLean’s updated information systems (IS success model. In addition to their original three dimensions of quality, i.e., system quality, information quality and service quality, we propose that a fourth dimension - networking quality - contributes to SNA success. We empirically examined the proposed research model with a survey of 168 Facebook and 149 Twitter users. The data validates the significant role of networking quality in determining the focal SNA’s success. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Lucas Joan Pujol Cols
Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the factors that influence the employee’s possibilities perceived to trigger actions of meaningful participation in three levels: Intra-group Level, Institutional Level and directly in the Leadership team of of the organization.Twelve (12 interviews were done with teachers from the Social and Economic Sciences School of the Mar del Plata (Argentina University, with different positions, areas and working hours.Based on qualitative evidence, an empirical model was constructed claiming to connect different factors for each manifest of participation, establishing hypothetical relations between subgroups.Additionally, in this article the implication of participation, its relationship with the job satisfaction and the role of individual expectations on the participation opportunities that receives each employee, are discussed. Keywords: Participation, Job satisfaction, University, Expectations, Qualitative Analysis.
Savic, Ivana; Trifunovic-Skodric, Vesna; Mitrovic, Dragan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) usually presents with atypical clinical manifestations; thus it is often recognized only at autopsy. Our objectives were to study the frequency of MT diagnosed at autopsy and determine clinical diagnoses that masked TB, as well as causes of death and comorbidities. Retrospective study of all autopsies performed between 2008 and 2014. Institute of Pathology, Belgrade, Serbia. in subjects where autopsy showed the presence of MT that was not recognized clinically, we recorded the clinical diagnoses (presumed causes of death) as reported in autopsy request forms, as well as actual cause of death and comorbidities as determined at autopsy. Clinically unrecognized MT. The total number of autopsies in this period was 6206. thirty-five individuals showed clinically unrecognized MT (0.56% of all autopsies, age: 62.2 [17.2] years, M:F=2:3). Common clinical diagnoses masking pulmonary MT were exacerbation of COPD (25%) and pulmonary thromboembolism (25%), with common radiological presentation of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates (56.3%). Dominant clinical diagnoses in patients with generalized MT were adult respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, gastrointestinal bleeding and meningoencephalitis. Disseminated MT was often associated with secondary anemia or thrombocytopenia (15.8%) and recent surgery (15.8%). Frequent comorbidities included chronic renal failure and malignancies, whereas MT was a dominant cause of death. Greater awareness of MT is needed to improve recognition in clinical settings. In particular, MT should be considered in patients with atypical clinical presentation and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest X-ray, particularly if they have chronic renal failure, malignancy, hematological disorders or a history of recent surgery. None.
Lisebet S. Skarpaas
Full Text Available Stories are powerful aids to reflection. Thus, the use of stories may be a pathway to enhanced reflective practice and clinical reasoning skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether and how digital storytelling can contribute to occupational therapy (OT students’ learning through reflections on experiences from placement education. A cohort of OT students (n = 57 participated in a 2-day workshop to create digital stories. Data were generated through a questionnaire with a response rate of 100% of students who completed the workshop (n = 34. Quantitative analysis methods were used to reveal a level of agreement in the questionnaire statements, and qualitative content analysis was performed for the open-ended questions. The results show that the students learned through reflection on placement experiences in the digital storytelling process as they emphasized reflection as a main outcome. They highlighted the importance of sharing thoughts and reflections with peers. The students confirmed that this happens through the creative process and the use of multimodality in poetic reflection, but they were less convinced by the use of the narrative approach as a dramatic structure. The students experienced reflection and sharing as important elements in the digital storytelling process. However, investigations are needed into the use of a narrative approach to enhance reflection with larger cohorts as well as more thematic analyses.
Scorte Carmen Mihaela
Full Text Available We seek performance. We want to become performers, but undoubtedly most often we forget to get down to the essence of things, wondering "What is performance?". But what is meant by performance in the hospitality and tourism industry, an industry that is booming at world level, but which, at the same time, in the local area, faces an environment increasingly difficult? What is the perception of managers about this concept? This was one of the questions addressed to managers in the hospitality industry Bihor within a broader empirical research that targeted the importance of accounting information for the management of entities in this sector. The basis of the empirical research is a survey conducted between November 2012 and January 2013, the working tool used being a questionnaire that consists of 38 questions administered on the ground and online. The total population consists of 146 economic entities in the sector in Bihor; the sample consists of 91 tourist entities and the response rate is 62.33 % as a result of research in the field. 83.5% of the managers surveyed said that the most important factor influencing the performance in this sector is the occupancy rate of the capacities available, in second place as a factor of influence being the demand for services and travel packages offered, in the view of 75.8 % of respondents. It is surprising that less than 50% of the managers surveyed identified as a factor influencing the performance the accounting result of the business. Based on these results we also wanted to identify what measures are taken by managers in the sector to increase occupancy rate. The research conducted adds value to the indigenous research on issues regarding management accounting in hospitality and tourism industry, but also in the perception of performance, paving the way for future research. As limitations of our research we can identify the restricted area of application of the questionnaires (Bihor county, but also
Full Text Available The CSIR has acquired the reports to 14 clinical studies in which Hoodia has been assesses, using crude extracts and concentrated active ingredients formulated in a number of different ways. In many of the studies Hoodia was found to be generally...
Townsend, Simon W; Koski, Sonja E; Byrne, Richard W; Slocombe, Katie E; Bickel, Balthasar; Boeckle, Markus; Braga Goncalves, Ines; Burkart, Judith M; Flower, Tom; Gaunet, Florence; Glock, Hans Johann; Gruber, Thibaud; Jansen, David A W A M; Liebal, Katja; Linke, Angelika; Miklósi, Ádám; Moore, Richard; van Schaik, Carel P; Stoll, Sabine; Vail, Alex; Waller, Bridget M; Wild, Markus; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Manser, Marta B
Language's intentional nature has been highlighted as a crucial feature distinguishing it from other communication systems. Specifically, language is often thought to depend on highly structured intentional action and mutual mindreading by a communicator and recipient. Whilst similar abilities in animals can shed light on the evolution of intentionality, they remain challenging to detect unambiguously. We revisit animal intentional communication and suggest that progress in identifying analogous capacities has been complicated by (i) the assumption that intentional (that is, voluntary) production of communicative acts requires mental-state attribution, and (ii) variation in approaches investigating communication across sensory modalities. To move forward, we argue that a framework fusing research across modalities and species is required. We structure intentional communication into a series of requirements, each of which can be operationalised, investigated empirically, and must be met for purposive, intentionally communicative acts to be demonstrated. Our unified approach helps elucidate the distribution of animal intentional communication and subsequently serves to clarify what is meant by attributions of intentional communication in animals and humans. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Full Text Available Failure modes and effects analysis ( F M E A substantially facilitates the efforts of industrial manufacturers in prioritizing failures that require corrective actions to continuously improve product quality. However, the conventional approach fails to provide satisfactory explanation of the aggregate effects of a failure from different perspectives such as technical severity, economic severity, and production capacity in some practical applications. To fulfill the existing gap in the F M E A literature, this paper proposes an extension by considering associated quality cost and the capability of failure detection system as additional determinants to signify the priority level for each failure mode. The quality cost and capacity are considered as key factors for sustainable survival and development of an industrial manufacturer in the fierce competition market these days. The performance of the extended scheme was tested in an empirical case at a non-woven fabrics manufacturer. Analytical results indicate that the proposed approach outperforms the traditional one and remarkably reduces the percentage of defective fabrics from about 2.41% before the trial period to 1.13%,thus significantly reducing wastes and increasing operation efficiency, thereby providing valuable advantages to improve organizational competition power for their sustainable growth.
Full Text Available This article considers location filming for heritage dramas in rural England, focusing on the experiences of the communities that “host” television crews during production. The article specifically examines the filming of the 2009 BBC adaptation of Jane Austen’s Emma, for which the historic Kent village, Chilham, doubled as the fictional Highbury. In doing so, it interrogates two central aspects. First, it illuminates some of the practical issues and economic and cultural impact of location filming for heritage dramas within rural areas. Second, it reflects upon how a community experiences and responds to its status as the host of such a series, considering the impact this has upon questions of identity and heritage. The article draws upon original empirical research, oral history interviews and community archive building conducted within the Chilham community and with Kent Film Office. It explores the memories and experiences of the local population involved in the television location filming process, as both spectators and participants. We thus consider the significance of location from the point of view of those who solicit, resist, profit from, and are caused problems by the temporary transformation of their local space into a television drama shooting space, forging new connections between production practices, location shooting and heritage series and national television/cinema.
Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A
Linked to the theoretical framework of marketing in the veterinary practice, as explained in Schuurmans and Smidts (1) pp. 1-10 and Schuurmans and Smidts (2), an empirical research project has been undertaken. This research gives insight into the extent to which practices base their services on a marketing orientation. By means of telephone inquiries among a sample of 166 veterinarians, this was investigated. The research shows that veterinarians think more in a product-oriented way than in a market-oriented way, and they do not use all the opportunities a marketing orientation could bring to their services. This expresses itself, among others by not using market segmentation, by the inadequate use of the marketing mix elements communication and distribution, and by the fact that the opportunities of the marketing information system are hardly applied. By means of further research in individual practices it might be possible to give concrete advise fit for that practice. Research among the clients of the veterinarians might, beside many other kinds of research, also give valuable insights.
Hsu, S.-L.; Walters, Joshua; Purgas, Anthony
Economists widely agree that in concept, pollution taxes are the most cost-effective means of reducing pollution. With the advent of monitoring and enforcement technologies, the case for pollution taxation is generally getting stronger on the merits. Despite widespread agreement among economists, however, pollution taxes remain unpopular, especially in North America. Some oppose pollution taxes because of a suspicion that government would misspend the tax proceeds, while others oppose pollution taxes because they would impose economic hardships upon certain individuals, groups, or industries. And there is no pollution tax more pathologically hated as the gasoline tax. This is unfortunate from an economic perspective, as a gasoline tax is easy to implement, and is a reasonable Pigouvian tax, scaling proportionately with the harms of consumption. Surprisingly, there is a dearth of theory explaining this cleave between economists and virtually everybody else. Drawing on behavioralist literatures, this paper introduces several theories as to why people and governments so vehemently oppose pollution taxes. Using the example of gasoline taxes, we provide some empirical evidence for these theories. We also show that 'revenue recycling,' the use of tax proceeds to reduce other taxes, is an effective means of reducing opposition to gasoline taxes
Francisco Gutierrez Diez
Full Text Available In this article we present part of the results of an empirical research on contrastive rhythm (English-Spanish. Of the several points dealt with in such a research (syllable compression, foot timing, syllable timing and isochrony of rhythmic units, we refer here to syllable duration in English and Spanish as well as the leaming of syllable duration by a group of advanced leamers of English whose first language is Spanish. Regarding the issue of syllable timing, a striking result is the equal duration of unstressed syllables in both languages, which challenges an opposite view underlying a teaching practice common among Spanish teachers of English to Spanish learners of that language. As for the interlanguage of the group of Spanish leamers of English, we comment on the presence of an interference error represented by a stressed/unstressed durational ratio mid way between the ratios for Spanish and English; we have also detected a developmental error related to the tempo employed by the leamers in their syllable timing, which is slower than the tempo produced by native speakers of English.
Ana C. Salgado
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the empirical researches supporting the positive impact of religion, religiosity and spirituality as protective factors in various areas of human life. An analysis of each variable is performed individually and collectively. Among the conclusions of this work, researches show that they help people to have more self-esteem, are a source of strength and hope, are associated with greater satisfaction with life and spiritual well-being and increase the capacity for forgiveness. They provide emotional and social support, promote prosocial values, are associated with less use and abuse of drugs and less tendency to smoke. They help to have better physical and psychological health, contribute to prevention and help to speed recovery and promote tolerance to diseases. They help to decrease depression, anxiety, blood pressure and stress. They contribute to a better adaptation, help to cope with the disease and fear of death. Finally, they help to better deal with disability condition associated with chronic disease.