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Sample records for clinical candida isolates

  1. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum isolated from clinical specimens.

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    Furman, R M; Ahearn, D G

    1983-11-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  2. Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum Isolated from Clinical Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ten clinical yeast isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control from diverse geographic areas were identified as Candida ciferrii and Candida chiropterorum. The association of C. ciferrii with clinical specimens, particularly its repeated isolation from a case of onychomycosis, suggests that this species may be an etiological agent of superficial yeast infections.

  3. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

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    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  4. Identification and characterization of nine atypical Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

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    Albaina, Olatz; Sahand, Ismail H; Brusca, María I; Sullivan, Derek J; Fernández de Larrinoa, Iñigo; Moragues, María D

    2015-02-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a pathogenic yeast of the genus Candida closely related to Candida albicans. The phenotypic similarity of these two species often leads to misidentification of C. dubliniensis isolates in clinical samples. DNA-based methods continue to be the most effective means of discriminating accurately between the two species. Here, we report on the identification of nine unusual Candida isolates that showed ambiguous identification patterns on the basis of their phenotypic and immunological traits. The isolates were categorized into two groups. Group I isolates were unable to produce germ tubes and chlamydospores, and to agglutinate commercial latex particles coated with a mAb highly specific for C. dubliniensis. Group II isolates grew as pink and white colonies on CHROMagar Candida and ChromID Candida, respectively. Carbohydrate assimilation profiles obtained with API/ID32C together with PCR amplification with specific primers and DNA sequencing allowed reliable identification of the nine unusual clinical isolates as C. dubliniensis. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. [Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples].

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    França, Emanuele Júlio Galvão de; Fávero, Daniel; Scremin, Henrique; Oliveira, Marcelo Tempesta de; Furlaneto-Maia, Luciana; Quesada, Regina Mariuza Borsato; Furlaneto, Márcia Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+), while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++) and very strong hemolysis (++++) predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05). Isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from different clinical samples showed a capacity to promote in vitro hemolysis.

  6. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

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    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  7. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

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    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  8. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

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    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  9. The isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa from clinical samples in Ghana.

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    Adjapong, Gloria; Bartlett, Michael; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Members of the Candida rugosa species complex have been described as emerging fungal pathogens and are responsible for a growing number of Candida infections. In this communication we report the isolation of Candida rugosa and Candida mesorugosa in Ghana. To the best of our knowledge this is the first description of this species complex from a clinical setting in Africa.The isolates were identified on the basis of their rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. For one isolate, obtained from sputum, the sequence grouped well with that of C. rugosa. Two other isolates from urine had sequences that grouped with Candida mesorugosa. Morphologically, C. rugosa formed white, wrinkled, and flat colonies on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), whereas C. mesorugosa formed white, smooth colonies. On chromogenic medium, the isolates formed small, dry greenish-blue colonies with a pale or white border, similar to C. albicans. The C. rugosa isolate produced pseudohyphae in human serum and on CMA-Tween 80 agar. In contrast, the C. mesorugosa isolates did not generate pseudohyphae in human serum, but generated a few pseudohyphae with abundant blastoconidia on CMA-Tween 80 agar. Growth was observed at 37 °C and 42 °C but not at 45 °C.The two C. mesorugosa isolates had Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of 6 and 48 μg ml(-1) for fluconazole and are thus resistant. The C. rugosa isolate had an MIC of 24 μg ml(-1), indicative of resistance. All three isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole (with respective MICs of < 0.125 μg ml(-1)). © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

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    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  11. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  12. Characterization of atypical Candida tropicalis and other uncommon clinical yeast isolates.

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    Schlitzer, R L; Ahearn, D G

    1982-01-01

    Clinical yeast isolates representing alpha-glucoside-deficient variants of Candida tropicalis, C. lusitaniae, atypical C. albicans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized. Additional physiological tests, including cellobiose fermentation, rhamnose assimilation, and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride reduction, are recommended for the detection and presumptive identification of uncommon Candida spp. in the clinical laboratory.

  13. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the clinical isolates of Candida species

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    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6% and Candida albicans (3.2%. Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2% yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure.

  14. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candida species from hospitalized patients.

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    Magalhães, Yankee C; Bomfim, Maria Rosa Q; Melônio, Luciane C; Ribeiro, Patrícia C S; Cosme, Lécia M; Rhoden, Cristianne R; Marques, Sirlei G

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%), Candida tropicalis (30.1%), C. glabrata (7.4%), Candida parapsilosis (5.5%), Candida krusei (4.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%), Trichosporon spp . (3.7%), Candida norvegensis (0.9%), Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9%) and Pichia farinosa (0.9%). A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%), respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4%) and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%). Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  16. Antifungal potential of eugenyl acetate against clinical isolates of Candida species.

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    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Hmoteh, Jutharat; Thamjarungwong, Benjamas; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of eugenyl acetate (EA), a phytochemical in clove essential oil, against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EA against Candida isolates were in the range between 0.1% and 0.4% (v/v). Spot assay further confirmed the susceptibility of Candida isolates to the compound upon treatment with respective 1 × MIC. Growth profile measured in time kill study evidence that the compound at 1 × MIC and 1/2 × MIC retarded the growth of Candida cells, divulging the fungicidal activity. Light microscopic observation demonstrated that upon treated with EA, rough cell morphology, cell damage, and fragmented patterns were observed in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Furthermore, unusual morphological changes of the organism were observed in scanning electron microscopic study. Therefore, it is validated that the compound could cause cell damage resulting in the cell death of Candida clinical isolates. Eventually, the compound at sub-MIC (0.0125% v/v) significantly inhibited serum-induced germ tube formation by C. albicans. Eugenyl acetate inhibited biofilm forming ability of the organisms as well as reduced the adherence of Candida cells to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In addition, upon treatment with EA, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was increased significantly against C. albicans (P Candida infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EVALUATION OF CONGO RED AGAR FOR DETECTION OF BIOFILM PRODUCTION BY VARIOUS CLINICAL CANDIDA ISOLATES

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    Naveen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biofilm is one of the known virulence factors of Candida, an important pathogen and commensal. Microorganisms growing in a biofilm are associated with chronic and recurrent human infections and are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Early detection of biofilm production may be useful for clinical decision because of its suggestive property for potential pathogenic capacity of Candida isolates. There are various methods to detect biofilm production like Tissue Culture Plate (TCP, Tube method (TM, Congo Red Agar method (CRA, bioluminescent assay, piezoelectric sensors, and fluorescent microscopic examination. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate Congo Red Agar method for the detection of biofilms. METHOD: The study was carried out at the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Kota (Rajasthan from April 2012 to June 2013. A total of 120 clinical Candida isolates were subjected to biofilm detection method. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological procedures. Biofilm detection was tested by CRA method. RESULTS: From the total of 120 clinical Candida isolates, CRA method detected 38.33% as biofilm positive and 61.66% cases as biofilm negative. Out of total biofilm positive Candida, 21.73% were strong biofilm producers and 78.27% were weak biofilm producers. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from our study that the CRA method is a quantitative and reliable method for the detection of biofilm forming microorganisms and it can be recommended as a general screening method for detection of biofilm producing Candida in laboratories.

  18. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

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    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  19. Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation.

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    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ISOLATION AND SPECIATION OF CANDIDA FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT KURNOOL, ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA

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    Dasari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Candida is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic fungi that cause infection in humans. The pathogenesis of Candida is complex and probably varies with each infection. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of Candida from various clinical specimens of patients and to show the emergence of Non albicans Candida in clinical samples. This study also focused on the antifungal susceptibility which guides the clinicians to treat the infection effectively. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients of Government General Hospital, Kurnool over a period of one year from March2008 to June2009. Isolation, culture, speciation of Candida was done by using standard methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion technique against amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole and clotrimazole. RESULTS: Candida manifests in various sites depending on the predisposing factors and immune status of the person. In this study we found the association of Candida with various predisposing factors (Pregnancy, Oral contraceptive pills’s, Immune suppression, Diabetes. This study observed the dominance of non-albicans Candida (51% in the clinical samples over Candida albicans (49%. The maximum antifungal susceptibility was observed against amphotericin B in both the albicans and non-albicans Candia, but non-albicans Candida showed maximum resistance to azoles. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans was the most predominant species (49% isolated in various clinical samples. There was an increase in the prevalence of non albicans Candida in this study. Among the nonalbicans Candida (51% Candid tropicalis was the commonest species isolated. Candida albicans showed maximum susceptibility to amphotericin B and maximum resistance to azoles was seen in nonalbicans Candida.

  1. Aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and hemolysin activities of clinical isolates of the Candida parapsilosis species complex.

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    Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; González, J Gerardo; González, Gloria M

    2013-04-01

    Candida parapsilosis is considered as an important emerging fungal pathogen and was recently found to be a complex that include three species, i.e., Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro aspartyl proteinase, phospholipase, esterase and hemolysin activities of 65 clinical isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex, which had been previously identified by RFLP-BanI analysis. Of the enzymes evaluated, aspartyl proteinase was the least produced by the C. parapsilosis species complex. Phospholipase and esterase were strongly expressed by C. orthopsilosis (67% of isolates), while 10% and 13% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were strong producers, respectively, of these two enzymes. In contrast, high production of both enzymes was not detected in C. metapsilosis. Hemolysin activity was significantly more abundant in C. orthopsilosis (87%) than C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (67%). Overall, C. orthopsilosis isolates were statistically associated with the production of hemolysins (P= 0.048) and phospholipases (Porthopsilosis and 20% of C. metapsilosis.

  2. Rapid molecular differentiation and genotypic heterogeneity among Candida parapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis strains isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait.

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    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Zia U

    2009-06-01

    Recent molecular studies have led to the recognition of three distinct species within the Candida parapsilosis complex, namely Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. As currently available yeast identification systems fail to differentiate these species, there is a paucity of information on their occurrence in different geographical regions. This study describes a simple PCR-based protocol for rapid discrimination among C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis strains by using primers derived from unique sequences within the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8 rRNA-ITS2 region. Retrospective analysis of 114 C. parapsilosis-complex isolates recovered from clinical specimens in Kuwait identified 109 as C. parapsilosis, five as C. orthopsilosis and none as C. metapsilosis. The results were further validated by PCR-RFLP patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment. DNA sequencing of the ITS region and the D1/D2 regions of the 28S rRNA gene confirmed the species-specific identification of all five C. orthopsilosis strains. The amplicon length of the intergenic spacer between the 28S and 5S rRNA genes (IGS1) was also species-specific, and PCR-RFLP analyses of the IGS1 region identified two distinct genotypes among the five C. orthopsilosis strains, which corresponded with the ITS region sequence data. The three bloodstream C. orthopsilosis strains were confined to a single genotype. Among 81 randomly selected C. parapsilosis strains, two genotypes were detected by IGS1 region analyses, indicating limited genotypic heterogeneity among C. parapsilosis sensu stricto strains. As far as is known, this is the first report on the identification of C. orthopsilosis from a bloodstream infection in the Arabian Gulf region.

  3. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

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    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  4. STUDY OF BIOFILM FORMATION AS A VIRULENCE MARKER IN CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SPEC IMENS

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    Saroj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Candida species can be either commensals or opportunis tic pathogens with the ability to cause a variety of inf ections, ranging from superficial to life threatening. Nosocomial infections due to candida a re also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and prevent ion of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for microbiologists and clini cians worldwide. Added to this is the emerging trend of antifungal drug resistance among the biofilm producing strains of Candida. AIMS: The aim of this study was to detect biofilm producti on in Candida species isolated from various clinical samples obtained from patients hospit alized in Dr. B.R Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species (Candida albicans49 and non-albicans Candida59 species isola ted from various specimens (urine, blood, respiratory tract, genital samples, plastic devices an d pus samples were included in the study.The various candida isolates were identified by using conventional methods and their ability to produce biofilm was detected by the tube method. RESULTS: Out of 108 candida species, non-albicans Candida 59(54.63% was the pred ominant species isolated. Biofilm positivity was seen with 71(65.74% isolates and the biofilm production was observed more with non-albicans Candida species 44(61.97% compare d to C.albicans species 27(38.03%. Among the non-albicans Candida species, strong biofi lm producers were C.krusei(80.77% and C.tropicalis(72.73%. Biofilm positivity was found to be higher in the bloodstream Candida isolates (81.82% compared to isolates from other si tes. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests an increasing prevalence of non-albicans Ca ndida species in the various clinical samples isolated and also shows them as strong biofi lm producers compared to C.albicans species. These data suggest that, biofilm formation as a potential virulence factor might

  5. Susceptibility of Clinical Candida Species Isolates to Antifungal Agents by E-Test, Southern Iran: A Five Year Study

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    A Alborzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The incidence of fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, especially by Candida species, has increased in recent years. This study was designed to identify Candida species and determine antifungal susceptibility patterns of 595 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens.Material and Methods: Identification of the isolates were determined by the API 20 C AUX kit and antifungal susceptibilities of the species to fluconazole, amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were determined by the agar-based E-test method.Results: Candida albicans (48% was the most frequently isolated species, followed by Candida kruzei (16.1%, Candida glabrata (13.5%, Candida kefyr (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis (4.8%, Candida tropicalis (1.7% and other species (8.5%. Resistance varies depending on the species and the respective antifungal agents. Comparing the MIC90 for all the strains, the lower MIC90 was observed for caspofungin (0.5 μg/ml. The MIC90 for all Candida species were 64 μg/ml for fluconazole, 0.75 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 4 μg/ml for ketoconazole, 4 μg/ml for itraconazole, and 2 μg/ml for voriconazole.Conclusions: Species definition and determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns are advised for the proper management and treatment of patients at risk for systemic candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial fungal infections.

  6. Antifungal Susceptibility Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis in Iran

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    Ensieh LOTFALI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida parapsilosis is an emergent agent of invasive fungal infections. This yeast is one of the five most widespread yeasts concerned in invasive candidiasis.C. parapsilosis stands out as the second most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections especially in neonates with catheter.Recently several reports suggested that its reduced susceptibility to azoles and polyene might become a cause for clinical concern, although C. parapsilosis is not believed to be intensely prone to the development of antifungal resistance.Methods: In the present report, One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were identified and differentiated by using PCR-RFLP analysis. The isolates were then analyzed to determine their susceptibility profile to fluconazole (FLU, itraconazole (ITC and amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC results were analyzed according to the standard CLSI guide.Results: All of isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis. No C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains were found. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only three (2.5% C. parapsilosis were resistant to fluconazole, three (2.5% C. parapsilosis were resistant to itraconazole and two (1.7% C. parapsilosis were amphotericin B resistant.Conclusion: Profiles in clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis can provide important information for the control of antifungal resistance as well as distribution and susceptibility profiles in populations. Keywords: Candida parapsilosis, Antifungal susceptibility, Resistant, Iran

  7. Total Protein Profile and Drug Resistance in Candida albicans Isolated from Clinical Samples

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    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to evaluate its total protein profile based on morphological difference on drug resistance. Hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans from various clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility against four antifungal agents, namely, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole. A significant increase of drug resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans was observed. The study showed 50% fluconazole and itraconazole resistance at 32 μg mL−1 with a MIC50 and MIC90 values at 34 and 47 and 36 and 49 μg mL−1, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. The SDS-PAGE protein profile showed a prevalent band of ~52.5 kDa, indicating overexpression of gene in 72% strains with fluconazole resistance. Since the opportunistic infections of Candida spp. are increasing along with drug resistance, the total protein profile will help in understanding the evolutionary changes in drug resistance and also to characterize them.

  8. Cdr2p contributes to fluconazole resistance in Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The development of resistance to azole antifungals used in the treatment of fungal infections can be a serious medical problem. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in clinical isolates of Candida dubliniensis , showing evidence of the trailing growth phenomenon. The changes in membrane sterol composition were studied in the presence of subinhibitory fluconazole concentrations. Despite lanosterol and eburicol accumulating as the most prevalent sterols after fluconazole treatment, these ergosterol precursors still support growth of Candida isolates. The overexpression of ABC transporters was demonstrated by immunoblotting employing specific antibodies against Cdr1p and Cdr2p. The presence of a full-length 170 kDa protein Cdr1p was detected in two isolates, while a truncated form of Cdr1p with the molecular mass of 85 kDa was observed in isolate 966\\/3(2). Notably, Cdr2p was detected in this isolate, and the expression of this transporter was modulated by subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis can display the trailing growth phenomenon, and such isolates express similar molecular mechanisms like that of fluconazole-resistant isolates and can therefore be associated with recurrent infections.

  9. Distribution, virulence attributes and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis complex strains isolated from clinical samples.

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    Tosun, Ilknur; Akyuz, Zeynep; Guler, Nejla Cebeci; Gulmez, Dolunay; Bayramoglu, Gulcin; Kaklikkaya, Nese; Arikan-Akdagli, Sevtap; Aydin, Faruk

    2013-07-01

    It was recently proposed that Candida parapsilosis represents a complex composed of three closely related species, i.e., C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex isolates among clinical samples. We also evaluated antifungal susceptibility profiles, in vitro presence of lipase and secreted aspartyl proteinase, as well as their ability to grow in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solution, and biofilm production. A total of 413 non-C. albicans Candida isolates were obtained from various clinical samples between 2010 and 2011 in a Turkish Tertiary Care Hospital. Of them, 42 were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex. Among these, 38 (90.5%) were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 3 (7.1%) C. metapsilosis, and 1 (2.4%) C. orthopsilosis. All isolates recovered from blood were found to be C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis. In phenotypic tests, all 42 isolates grew in TPN solution and, although 26.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto-isolates were capable of forming biofilms in vitro, neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis isolates were able to do so. Acid proteinase activity was detected in 31% of isolates and lipase activity in 33%. All isolates were sensitive to voriconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin, with only a single C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate showing dose-dependent susceptible to fluconazole. While the number of C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis isolates remained low, there were no significant differences in antifungal MIC as compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto.

  10. Biofilm production and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility amongst clinical Candida spp. isolates, including strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex.

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    Melo, Analy S; Bizerra, Fernando C; Freymüller, Edna; Arthington-Skaggs, Beth A; Colombo, Arnaldo L

    2011-04-01

    Candida cells can form biofilms that frequently are sources of infections and are less susceptible to antifungal drugs. Some authors have reported that Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis isolates are not able to produce biofilms in vitro and there are no studies available on biofilm susceptibility for these species to antifungals. The aims of this study were to (i) quantify Candida spp. biofilms in vitro, and (ii) test the in vitro susceptibilities of Candida spp. biofilms to fluconazole (FLC) and amphotericin B (AMB). Isolates studied included four Candida albicans, six C. tropicalis, seven C. parapsilosis, eight C. orthopsilosis, and five C. metapsilosis. We compared two different methods to evaluate biofilm production, i.e., crystal violet (CV) staining and XTT-reduction assays (XTT). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe high, medium and low biofilm producing isolates screened by these two methods. To determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) for FLC and AMB, XTT-reduction assay was used to measure cell metabolic activity. Biofilm quantification by CV and XTT showed that C. tropicalis isolates were the highest biofilm producer, followed by C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Examination of SEM images revealed that the extent of biofilms formed by high, medium, and low producers was highly correlated to the results generated by CV assay. Biofilm of all the isolates evaluated were resistant to FLC (MBEC(80) ≥ 256 ug/ml) but, in general, susceptible to AMB, except for six C. parapsilosis strains (MBEC(80) ≥ 8 ug/ml).

  11. Biofilm formation in clinical Candida isolates and its association with virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Fahmi; Xess, Immaculata; Wang, Xiabo; Jain, Neena; Fries, Bettina C.

    2009-01-01

    Biofilm formation, an important virulence trait of Candida species was measured in 107 Candida isolates from 32 candidemic patients by XTT [2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetra-zolium-5-carboxanilide] activity and compared to biofilm formation of Candida isolates from oropharyngeal lesions of 19 AIDS patients. Biofilm formation by XTT varied among species and C. albicans; C. lusitaniae and C. krusei produced more biofilm than the other Candida species. C. tropicalis was the most...

  12. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  13. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Miloš; Smiljkovic, Marija; Markovic, Tatjana; Cirica, Ana; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Sokovic, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), limonene (45.62 %) and curzerene (34.65 %), respectively. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations were determined using a microdilution standardized technique. All tested Candida spp. clinical isolates and ATCC strains showed susceptibility to tested essential oils in a dose dependent manner. The strongest antifungal activity was shown by essential oil of B. carterii, sample 2; the average MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 1.34 mg/ml, and MFC values ranged from 2.50 to 3.75 mg/ml, depending on the fungus. This study supports the possible use of essential oils from the Bursecaceae family in reduction and elimination of Candida spp. populations in patients with oral cavity fungal infections.

  14. Species Distribution, Virulence Factors, and Antifungal Susceptibility Among Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates Recovered from Clinical Specimens.

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    da Silva, Beatriz Virgínia; Silva, Larissa Beatriz; de Oliveira, Diego Batista Carneiro; da Silva, Paulo Roberto; Ferreira-Paim, Kennio; Andrade-Silva, Leonardo Euripides; Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2015-12-01

    The Candida parapsilosis complex has emerged as an important fungal pathogen. In spite of this, relatively little is known about its characteristics. Thus, the purposes of this study were (1) to determine by BanI-RFLP-assay the occurrence of C. parapsilosis complex species among 81 clinical isolates primarily identified as C. parapsilosis; (2) to evaluate their in vitro production of virulence factors; and (3) to compare their susceptibility profiles, grown as planktonic cells and biofilms, against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin by following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Seventy-seven isolates (95%) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 (2.5%) as C. orthopsilosis, and 2 (2.5%) as C. metapsilosis. Protease activity was detected in 29 (37.7%) isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas only 7 (9.1%) exhibited phospholipase activity. None of the C. metapsilosis or C. orthopsilosis was able to produce protease or phospholipase. Biofilm production was detected in 35 (43.2%) isolates, among which 33 were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2 were C. orthopsilosis. Antifungal resistance was uncommon; only one C. metapsilosis was fluconazole resistant. However, biofilm-producing isolates showed a marked resistance to all antifungal agents tested, particularly to voriconazole. This knowledge could be of clinical relevance for guiding therapeutic decisions.

  15. Antifungal Susceptibility Analysis of Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOTFALI, Ensieh; KORDBACHEH, Parivash; MIRHENDI, Hossein; ZAINI, Farideh; GHAJARI, Ali; MOHAMMADI, Rasoul; NOORBAKHSH, Fatemeh; MOAZENI, Maryam; FALLAHI, Aliakbar; REZAIE, Sassan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida parapsilosis is an emergent agent of invasive fungal infections. This yeast is one of the five most widespread yeasts concerned in invasive candidiasis. C. parapsilosis stands out as the second most common yeast species isolated from patients with bloodstream infections especially in neonates with catheter. Recently several reports suggested that its reduced susceptibility to azoles and polyene might become a cause for clinical concern, although C. parapsilosis is not believed to be intensely prone to the development of antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present report, One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis complex were identified and differentiated by using PCR-RFLP analysis. The isolates were then analyzed to determine their susceptibility profile to fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITC) and amphotericin B. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were analyzed according to the standard CLSI guide. Results: All of isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis. No C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains were found. Evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility profile showed that only three (2.5%) C. parapsilosis were resistant to fluconazole, three (2.5%) C. parapsilosis were resistant to itraconazole and two (1.7%) C. parapsilosis were amphotericin B resistant. Conclusion: Profiles in clinical isolates of C. parapsilosis can provide important information for the control of antifungal resistance as well as distribution and susceptibility profiles in populations. PMID:27141494

  16. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

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    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  17. Identification and study of non-Albicans Candida species isolated from clinical materials of patients with Candidiasis

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    Afsarian MH

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: I Infections due to Candida spp. have increased dramatically in recent years through a rising number of predisposing factors and immunocompromised hosts. Although Candida albicans is the most prevalent and important causative agent of Candida infections, the importance of C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii and C. kefyr have increased significantly as they tend to be more resistant to antifungal agents. Therefore, it is critical that infecting Candida spp. be identified and considered. Furthermore, clinical laboratories may need to expand their yeast identification capabilities in order to facilitate rapid identification of clinical yeast isolates. Methods: In a discroptive – analytic study, the patients suspected of candidiasis were sampled. Direct examination and culture was carried out for all specimens. The isolated yeast colonies were then identified using various different tests such as culture on corn mealagar tween-80, CHROMagar Candida, and assimilation test by API 20C AUX kit. Results: In the present study, 304 yeast colonies were isolated from referral patients to mycology laboratory of 304 isolated colonies 204 were identified as C. albicans and 100 were identified as non albicans candida as follow 35% C. parapsilosis, 32% C. tropicalis, 8% C. glabrata, 8% C. kefyer, 6% C. krusei, 3% C. guilliermondii, 3% C. famata, 3% C. lusitaniae, 1% C. zeilanoides and 1% C. homicola. C. parapsilosis was the most frequent species. The result showed that clinical specimens were obtained from various infected sites of body and nail samples (59 cases were found to be the most frequent among those specimens. Conclusion: In conclusion, our results suggest that no single phenotypic test has proven to be highly effective for definitive identification. Moreover since these organisms can vary greatly in their susceptibility to the current antifungal agent and causing significant patient management problem

  18. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves-Junior, Athayde; Cartágenes-Pinto, Ana Carolina; Rocha, Débora A S; de Sá, Leandro F Reis; Junqueira, Maria de Lourdes; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candida infections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicans species and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicans species (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata). Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  20. Comparison of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of Candida species in a tertiary care center, North India

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    Vivek Agwan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Biofilms are colonies of microbial cells encased in a self-produced organic polymeric matrix. The biofilm production is more important for nonalbicans Candida (NAC; as C. albicans possess many other mechanisms to establish infections. Correct identification of Candida species has gained importance due to persistent rise in infections caused by NAC. We sought to isolate, identify Candida species in clinical isolates and study biofilm formation. Materials and Methods: Modified microtiter plate method was performed to study biofilm formation by isolates in Sabouraud's dextrose broth. It was then quantitatively assessed using a spectrophotometer. Biofilm formation was graded as negative, +1, +2, +3 and + 4 on the basis of percentage absorbance. Results: Biofilm formation was observed in 16 of 40 (40.0% isolates of C. albicans as compared to 39 of 78 (50.0% of isolates of NAC. Strong (+4 biofilm production was seen in maximum biofilm producers in C. tropicalis (12 of 27 followed by C. albicans (8 of 16. Total biofilm producers were significantly more among high vaginal swab isolates 63.2% (12 of 19 and urine isolates 59.2% (29 of 49, when compared to blood isolates 34.2% (13 of 38 as well as other isolates 27.5% (11 of 40. Interpretation and Conclusions: NAC species are qualitatively and quantitatively superior biofilm producers than C. albicans. Biofilm production is the most important virulence factor of NAC species and compared to other lesions, it is more significantly associated with luminal infections.

  1. Hemólise produzida por Candida tropicalis isoladas de amostras clínicas Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples

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    Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são responsáveis pela maioria das infecções fúngicas em humanos. Candida tropicalis tem sido uma das mais comumente isoladas dentre as espécies não-albicans. O objetivo foi analisar a hemólise in vitro promovida por isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis provenientes de sangue e outras amostras clínicas de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário da UEL, PR-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a hemólise promovida por 28 isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis, sendo os isolados agrupados em classes de acordo com os níveis de hemólise. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados de sangue apresentou hemólise fraca (+, enquanto as classes de hemólise forte (+++ e muito forte (++++ foram as predominantes nos isolados de outras amostras clínicas como urina, lesão de unha e secreção traqueal, embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças estatísticas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Isolados de C. tropicalis, obtidos de diferentes amostras clínicas, apresentam capacidade de promover hemólise in vitro.INTRODUCTION: Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. RESULTS: The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+, while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++ and very strong hemolysis (++++ predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates of C

  2. Molecular mechanisms associated with Fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida albicans isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Vidhate, Pallavi; Kusro, Chanchal; Waman, Vaishali; Saxena, Vandana; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Risbud, Arun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to azole antifungals is a significant problem in Candida albicans. An understanding of resistance at molecular level is essential for the development of strategies to tackle resistance and rationale design of newer antifungals and target-based molecular approaches. This study presents the first evaluation of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical C.albicans isolates from India. Target site (ERG11) alterations were determined by DNA sequencing, whereas real-time PCRs were performed to quantify target and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2, MDR1) in 87 [Fluconazole susceptible (n = 30), susceptible-dose dependent (n = 30) and resistant (n = 27)] C.albicans isolates. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole was observed in 74.1% isolates. Six amino acid substitutions were identified, including 4 (E116D, F145L, E226D, I437V) previously reported ones and 2 (P406L, Q474H) new ones. CDR1 over-expression was seen in 77.7% resistant isolates. CDR2 was exclusively expressed with CDR1 and their concomitant over-expression was associated with azole cross-resistance. MDR1 and ERG11 over-expression did not seem to be associated with resistance. Our results show that drug efflux mediated by Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters, especially CDR1 is the predominant mechanism of fluconazole resistance and azole cross-resistance in C. albicans and indicate the need for research directed towards developing strategies to tackle efflux mediated resistance to salvage azoles.

  3. Antifungal Effect of Teucrium polium and Zingiber officinale Extracts on Clinical isolates of Candida Species

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    N Shoaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background & aim: Candida species are opportunistic pathogen that can cause superficial mucous membrane infections to life–threatening systemic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal effects of Teucrium polium and Zingiber officinale extracts against isolated Candida sp. from urinary catheters. Mthods: In the present study, 55 urine catheters from patients of ICU ward of the 501 Army Hospital of Tehran were collected. The isolates were identified according to the classic and molecular techniques as Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. Using serial micro dilutions method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were determined. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: The extracts of Teucrium polium and Zingiber officinale had inhibitory effects against C. albicans while it had no effect against C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis. MIC50 of Teucrium polium and Zingiber officinale for C. albicans were 1000 µg/ml and 62.25 µg/ ml respectively, with P-value≥0.002. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extract of Teucrium polium and Zingiber officinale had antifungal properties. Further investigations must be done to purify effective fractions of these extracts and to test their cytotoxicity before applying them in yeast infection treatment. Key words: Candida Species, Teucrium polium, Zingiber officinale

  4. Comparison of the Rapid Yeast Plus Panel with the API20C Yeast System for Identification of Clinically Significant Isolates of Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Heelan, Judith S.; Sotomayor, Edgar; Coon, Kimberly; D’Arezzo, Julia B.

    1998-01-01

    The RapID Yeast Plus system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.) is a qualitative micromethod employing conventional tests and single-substrate chromogenic tests and having a 4-h incubation period. This system was compared with the API20C (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) system, a 24- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation method. One hundred thirty-three clinical yeast isolates, including 57 of Candida albicans, 26 of Candida tropicalis, 23 of Candida glabrata, and 27 of other yeasts,...

  5. Prevalence and Fluconazole Susceptibility Profile of Candida spp. Clinical Isolates in a Brazilian Tertiary Hospital in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athayde Neves-Junior

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis has become an important concern for clinical practice, especially with the increasing incidence of immunocompromised patients. In this scenario, the development resistance to fluconazole presents a challenge for treating these opportunistic infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate some epidemiology features of Candidainfections in a Brazilian University Hospital using data, previously unavailable. We observed that 44% of the 93 clinical isolates tested, belonged to Candida albicansspecies and 56% belonged to non-Candida albicansspecies (mainly Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. Most strains were isolated from urine samples where C. albicans was predominantly detected. 29 strains presented a fluconazole resistance phenotype and of these, 22 were chemosensitised by FK506, a classical inhibitor of ABC transporters related to azoles resistance. These data suggest the probable role of efflux pumps in this resistance phenotype. Our study highlights the need for developing effective control measures for fungal infections, rational use of antifungal drugs and development of new molecules able to abrogate the active transport of antifungals.

  6. In vitro activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against Candida inconspicua clinical isolates as determined by the time-kill method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Sóczó, Georgina; Miszti, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Candida inconspicua is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients possessing inherently decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. We determined the MICs and killing activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against C. inconspicua clinical isolates as well as reference strain C. inconspicua...

  7. In vitro activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against Candida inconspicua clinical isolates as determined by the time-kill method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Sóczó, Georgina; Miszti, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Candida inconspicua is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients possessing inherently decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. We determined the MICs and killing activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against C. inconspicua clinical isolates as well as reference strain C. inconspicua...

  8. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  9. Cyclosporine A decreases the fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration of Candida albicans clinical isolates but not biofilm formation and cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, T; Nurrokhman; Baly, I; Daeli, P R; Kartasasmita, G; Wijayanti, N

    2015-03-01

    Among the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most abundant species in humans. One of the virulent factors of C. albicans is its ability to develop biofilm. Biofilm forming microbes are characterized by decreasing of its susceptibility to antibiotics and antifungal. The fungicidal effect of fluconazole may be enhanced by cyclosporine A in laboratory engineered C. albicans strains. The aim of this work is to analyze the synergistic effect of cyclosporine A with fluconazole in C. albicans clinical isolates and the effect of cycolsporine A alone in the biofilm formation. Six fluconazole resistant and six sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates were analyzed for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs), biofilm formation, and cell growths. A semi-quantitative XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay was conducted to measure the biofilm formation. Cyclosporine A has synergistic effect with fluconazole that was shown by decreasing MICs of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. However, cyclosporine A alone did not influence the biofilm formation and cell growth of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. These results indicated that cyclosporine A might be a promising candidate of adjuvant therapy for fluconazole against both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates.

  10. Antifungal activity of the lipopeptides produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens anti-CA against Candida albicans isolated from clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Rong, Yan-Jun; Zhao, Ming-Xin; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-08-01

    The bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens anti-CA isolated from mangrove system was found to be able to actively kill Candida albicans isolated from clinic. The bacterial strain anti-CA could produce high level of bioactive substance, amylase and protease in the cheap medium containing 2.0 % soybean meal, 2.0 % wheat flour, pH 6.5 within 26 h. After purification, the main bioactive substance was confirmed to be a cyclic lipopeptide containing a heptapeptide, L-Asp→L-Leu→L-Leu→L-Val→L-Val→L-Glu→L-Leu and a 3-OH fatty acid (15 carbons). In addition to C. albicans, the purified lipopeptide can also kill many yeast strains including Metschnikowia bicuspidata, Candida tropicalis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After treated by the purified lipopeptide, both the whole cells and protoplasts of C. albicans were destroyed.

  11. Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Candida glabrata Analyzed by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldo, Xavier M.; Villa-Tanaca, Lourdes; Zúñiga, Gerardo; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 47 clinical and reference strains of Candida glabrata from several geographical origins and diverse clinical disorders, with different antifungal susceptibilities, as well as their genetic relationships were studied through multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) techniques. The genetic diversity estimated for 11 MLEE loci measured as average heterozygosity (h) was 0.055. A high level of genetic relatedness among isolates was established by cluster analysis. Forty-nine RAPD markers were analyzed, and the average genetic diversity among isolates, estimated by Shannon's index (Ho), was 0.372. The ΦST values estimated through an analysis of molecular variance to assess genetic differentiation among isolates revealed no genetic differentiation among them. Our results revealed very low genetic diversity among isolates, a lack of differentiation, and no association with their geographic origin and the clinical characteristics. PMID:14532225

  12. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against bacterial and Candida spp. isolates from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banes-Marshall, L; Cawley, P; Phillips, C A

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the in vitro activity of tea tree oil (TTO) against a range of wild strains of microorganisms isolated from clinical specimens of leg ulcers and pressure sores. The antimicrobial effectiveness of TTO is determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). The isolates include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), S. aureus, faecal streptococci, beta-haemolytic streptococci, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Pseudomonas spp. and coliform bacilli. Eleven Candida spp. isolates from skin and vaginal swabs also are tested. Using an agar dilution assay, the MICs of TTO in 88 out of 90 isolates was 0.5-1.0% (v/v), whilst with P. aeruginosa it was >2% (v/v). A broth microdilution method was used to determine MIC and minimum cidal concentration (MCC) of 80 isolates. In 64 isolates, TTO produced an inhibitory and cidal effect at 3% and 4% (v/v), respectively. S. aureus and Candida spp. were the most susceptible to TTO, with MICs and MBCs of 0.5% and 1%, respectively. P. aeruginosa and the faecal streptococci isolates, with MICs and MBCs of >8%, were resistant to TTO.

  13. Species distribution and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates in a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital over a 3-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Furlaneto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed at identifying Candida isolates obtained from blood, urine, tracheal secretion, and nail/skin lesions from cases attended at the Hospital Universitário de Londrina over a 3-year period and at evaluating fluconazole susceptibilities of the isolates. METHODS: Candida isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using species-specific forward primers. The in vitro fluconazole susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST-AFST reference procedure. RESULTS: Isolates were obtained from urine (53.4%, blood cultures (19.2%, tracheal secretion (17.8%, and nail/skin lesions (9.6%. When urine samples were considered, prevalence was similar in women (45.5% and in men (54.5% and was high in the age group >61 years than that in younger ones. For blood samples, prevalence was high in neonates (35% and advanced ages (22.5%. For nail and skin samples, prevalence was higher in women (71.4% than in men (28.6%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated in the hospital, but Candida species other than C. albicans accounted for 64% of isolates, including predominantly Candida tropicalis (33.2% and Candida parapsilosis (19.2%. The trend for non-albicans Candida as the predominant species was noted from all clinical specimens, except from urine samples. All Candida isolates were considered susceptible in vitro to fluconazole with the exception of isolates belonging to the intrinsically less-susceptible species C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: Non-albicans Candida species were more frequently isolated in the hospital. Fluconazole resistance was a rare finding in our study.

  14. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Y; Zhang, J; Huang, S B; Liu, F D; Liu, J H; Zhang, J; Hu, X F; Zhang, Z Q; Liu, X; Huang, X T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU), organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  15. Fluconazole susceptibility of 3,056 clinical isolates of Candida species from 2005 to 2009 in a tertiary-care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Ying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Candida infections have been increasing significantly. This study was to investigate the distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of such infections. Totally, 3,056 clinical isolates were analysed, C. albicans was the most prevalent species from respiratory and vaginal specimens. However, non-albicans species constituted the majority of isolates from blood, urine, intensive care unit (ICU, organ transplant and burned patients. Similarly, Candida spp. from different specimens and clinical services had different degrees of susceptibility to fluconazole. Isolates from vagina and burned patients had the highest resistance rate, while all of the isolates from ascites and dermatological services were susceptible to fluconazole.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  17. Phytochemical analysis and modulation of antibiotic activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T; Morais, Selene M; Martins, Clécio G; Vieira, Larissa G; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Carneiro, Joara N P; Machado, Antonio J P; Menezes, Irwin R A; Tintino, Saulo R; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea.

  18. Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov., a dimorphic yeast species related to the Candida haemulonis species complex isolated from flowers and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiczki, Matthias; Tap, Ratna Mohd

    2016-10-01

    In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from flowers in Cagayan de Oro, Mindenao Island, The Philippines, strains were identified as representing Kabatiella microsticta, Metschnikowia koreensis and a hitherto undescribed dimorphic species. Sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU 26S rRNA genes, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the SSU 18S rRNA genes were identical in the strains of the last-named group and differed from the corresponding sequences of the type strain of the closest related species, Candida duobushaemulonii, by 4 % (D1/D2), 7 % (ITS) and 1 % (SSU). In an independent study, a strain with D1/D2 and ITS sequences very similar to those of the Philippine strains was isolated in Malaysia from the blood of a patient dying of aspiration pneumonia. Both groups of isolates were moderately sensitive to anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole but resistant to amphotericin B. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the sequences placed the Philippine and Malaysian isolates close to the Candida haemulonis complex of Candida species. To reflect the geographical location of the sites of sample collection, the novel species name Candida vulturna pro tempore sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these strains. The type strain is 11-1170T (=CBS 14366T=CCY 094-001-001T=NCAIM-Y02177T) isolated in Cagayan de Oro, The Philippines. Mycobank: MB 817222.

  19. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Min; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Tanaka, Reiko; Li, Ruo-Yu; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates. Methods: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene and the MTL configuration were detected in all the isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. White/opaque phenotype and doubling time of cell growth were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agent were measured using broth microdilution method. Results: Sixty-four isolates (69.6%) were classified to serotype A, 19 (20.6%) to serotype B, and 9 (9.8%) to serotype C. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates were divided into four different subgroups of ITS genotypes. Most of our clinical isolates were MTLa/α type, while 6.8% remained MTLa or MTLα type. The frequency of opaque phenotype was 71.0% (66 isolates). Following the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3, all isolates were susceptible to caspofungin and a few (0.6–3.2%) of them showed resistance against amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTLa/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival. PMID:27824006

  20. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Yousef Salameh; Kamel Adwan; Ali Barakat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods: The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals.

  1. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  2. Clinical manifestations of candidemia caused by uncommon Candida species and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates in a regional hospital in Taiwan, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Lun; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Li, Ming-Chi; Wu, Chi-Jung; Ko, Wen-Chien; Hung, Yi-Li; Tang, Hung-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2017-08-26

    This retrospective study investigated clinical manifestations of candidemia caused by uncommon Candida species and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates in a regional hospital in Taiwan. The uncommon Candida species was initially defined as Candida species other than C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata complex, C. parapsilosis complex and C. krusei. All uncommon Candida isolates were identified and confirmed by molecular methods. In vitro susceptibility testing of the uncommon Candida species to nine antifungal agents was conducted using the broth microdilution method with the Sensititre YeastOne (SYO) system (Trek Diagnostic Systems, Ltd., East Grimstead, UK). Twenty-one patients, comprising 11 males and 10 females with a median age of 69 years, were recruited. Cancer (n = 11) was the most common underlying disease, 19 (90.5%) cases had prior antibiotic exposure, and only two patients had prior antifungal use. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 38.1% (n = 8). C. guilliermondii (n = 11) was the most common pathogen, followed by C. curvata (n = 3). C. guilliermondii isolates exhibited relatively high rates of azole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) above epidemiological cut-off values (ECVs), whereas C. pelliculosa and C. lusitaniae isolates all remained susceptible to azoles. All three C. curvata isolates had high caspofungin (>8 mg/L) and fluconazole MICs (8 mg/L) and could be defined as multidrug-resistant. Uncommon Candida species frequently exhibit high rates of non-susceptibility to antifungals. Identification of all Candida isolates at the species level from blood samples is of value for treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Mutations in transcription factor Mrr2p contribute to fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jin-Yan; Shi, Ce; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Lan; Xiang, Ming-Jie

    2015-11-01

    The Candida albicans zinc cluster proteins are a family of transcription factors (TFs) that play essential roles in the development of antifungal drug resistance. Gain-of-function mutations in several TFs, such as Tac1p, Mrr1p and Upc2p, have been previously well documented in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates. Mrr2p (multidrug resistance regulator 2) is a novel TF controlling expression of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 and mediating fluconazole resistance. In this study, the relationship between naturally occurring mutations in MRR2 and fluconazole resistance in clinical C. albicans isolates was investigated. Among a group of 20 fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans and 10 fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans, 12 fluconazole-resistant isolates overexpressed CDR1 by at least two-fold compared with the fluconazole-susceptible isolates. Of these 12 resistant isolates, three (C7, C9, C15) contained 11 identical missense mutations, 6 of which occurred only in the azole-resistant isolates. The contribution of these mutations to CDR1 overexpression and therefore to fluconazole resistance was further verified by generating recombinant strains containing the mutated MRR2 gene. The mutated MRR2 alleles from isolate C9 contributed to an almost six-fold increase in CDR1 expression and an eight-fold increase in fluconazole resistance; the missense mutations S466L and T470N resulted in an increase in CDR1 expression of more than two-fold and a four-fold increase in fluconazole resistance. In contrast, the other four missense mutations conferred only two- to four-fold increases in fluconazole resistance, with no significant increase in CDR1 expression. These findings provide some insight into the mechanism by which MRR2 regulates C. albicans multidrug resistance.

  4. The Use of Chitosan to Enhance Photodynamic Inactivation against Candida albicans and Its Drug-Resistant Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuimin Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Candida infection is a major health concern among immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI was introduced as an alternative treatment for local infections. Although Candida (C. has demonstrated susceptibility to PDI, high doses of photosensitizer (PS and light energy are required, which may be harmful to eukaryotic human cells. This study explores the capacity of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, to increase the efficacy of PDI against C. albicans, as well as fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates in planktonic or biofilm states. Chitosan was shown to effectively augment the effect of PDI mediated by toluidine blue O (TBO against C. albicans that were incubated with chitosan for 30 min following PDI. Chitosan at concentrations as low as 0.25% eradicated C. albicans; however, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity within the 30 min of incubation. These results suggest that chitosan only augmented the fungicidal effect after the cells had been damaged by PDI. Increasing the dosage of chitosan or prolonging the incubation time allowed a reduction in the PDI condition required to completely eradicate C. albicans. These results clearly indicate that combining chitosan with PDI is a promising antimicrobial approach to treat infectious diseases.

  5. In vivo direct interaction of the antibiotic primycin on a Candida albicans clinical isolate and its ergosterol-less mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virág, Eszter; Juhász, A; Kardos, R; Gazdag, Z; Papp, G; Pénzes, Agota; Nyitrai, M; Vágvölgyi, Cs; Pesti, M

    2012-03-01

    Interaction of primycin antibiotic with plasma membrane, and its indirect biological effects were investigated in this study. The antifungal activity of primycin against 13 human pathogenic Candida ATCC and CBS reference species and 74 other Candida albicans clinical isolates was investigated with a microdilution technique. No primycin-resistant strain was detected. Direct interaction of primycin with the plasma membrane was demonstrated for the first time by using an ergosterol-producing strain 33erg+ and its ergosterol-less mutant erg-2. In growth inhibition tests, the 33erg+ strain proved to be more sensitive to primycin than its erg-2 mutant, indicating the importance of the plasma membrane composition in primycin-induced processes. The 64 μg ml-1 (56.8 nM) primycin treatment induced an enhanced membrane fluidity and altered plasma membrane dynamics, as measured by steady-state fluorescence anisotropy applying a trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene (TMA-DPH) fluorescence polarization probe. The following consequences were detected. The plasma membrane of the cells lost its barrier function, and the efflux of 260-nm-absorbing materials from treated cells of both strains was 1.5-1.8 times more than that for the control. Depending on the primycin concentration, the cells exhibited unipolar budding, pseudohyphae formation, and a rough cell surface visualized by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Comparison of the rapid yeast plus panel with the API20C yeast system for identification of clinically significant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heelan, J S; Sotomayor, E; Coon, K; D'Arezzo, J B

    1998-05-01

    The RapID Yeast Plus system (Innovative Diagnostic Systems, Norcross, Ga.) is a qualitative micromethod employing conventional tests and single-substrate chromogenic tests and having a 4-h incubation period. This system was compared with the API20C (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.) system, a 24- to 72-h carbohydrate assimilation method. One hundred thirty-three clinical yeast isolates, including 57 of Candida albicans, 26 of Candida tropicalis, 23 of Candida glabrata, and 27 of other yeasts, were tested by both methods. When discrepancies occurred, isolates were further tested by the Automated Yeast Biochemical Card (bioMerieux Vitek). Germ tube production and microscopic morphology were used as needed to definitively identify yeast isolates. The RapID Yeast Plus system correctly identified 125 yeast isolates, with an overall accuracy of 94% (125 of 133). Excellent correlation was found in the recognition of the three yeasts most commonly isolated from human sources. The test was 99% (105 of 106 isolates) accurate with C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. The RapID Yeast Plus system compares favorably with the API20C system and provides a simple, accurate alternative to conventional assimilation methods for the rapid identification of the most commonly encountered isolates of Candida species.

  7. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  8. Hemolytic activity and production of germ tubes related to pathogenic potential of clinical isolates of Candida albicans

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    MELYSSA FERNANDA NEGRI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We assessed the virulence factor profile and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 27 hospital isolates of C. albicans; 19 of these were from infections (16 urinary and three blood, and the other eight were isolated from sites of colonization (two from hands of health professionals, and six from central venous catheters. The virulence factors assayed were germ tube formation and production of extracellular products (hemolysins, proteinases, and phospholipases. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by E-test. Regarding the virulence factors, the infection isolates produced significantly more hemolysin and germ tubes than the colonization isolates (p<0.05. There were no significant differences in the production of other factors between isolates from the two sources (p>0.05. Amphotericin B showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations for all the isolates. The highest resistance was observed for the azoles, especially in the clinical isolates. These results suggest that the capacity of C. albicans to produce hemolysins and germ tubes may be associated with its pathogenic potential. Colonization isolates may pose a high risk of nosocomial infection, especially when the yeasts show resistance to antifungals. Keywords: Nosocomial infection. Virulence. Candida albicans. Germ tube. Hemolysins. RESUMO Atividade hemolítica e produção de tubos germinativos relacionados ao potencial patogênico de isolados clínicos de Candida albicans O perfil de virulência e o de susceptibilidade in vitro aos antifúngicos de 27 amostras de C. albicans de origem hospitalar foi avaliado, sendo que 19 delas foram isoladas de infecções (16 urinárias e três sanguíneas e as outras oito foram isoladas de colonização (duas de mãos de profissionais da saúde e seis de cateter venoso central. Os seguintes fatores de virulência foram investigados: formação de tubo germinativo e produ

  9. In vitro synergistic efficacy of combination of amphotericin B with Myrtus communis essential oil against clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahboubi, M; Ghazian Bidgoli, F

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the antifungal activity of the essential oil from Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves against Candida albicans (eight clinical isolates and one ATCC type strains) and different species of Aspergillus sp (A. niger, A. parasiticus, six isolates of Aspergillus flavus) using broth micro dilution assay. In addition, we evaluated the synergistic effect between the essential oil and the antifungal compound amphotericin B by checkboard micro titer assay. The essential oil was obtained from myrtle leaves by hydrodistillation method and the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS methods. Chemical analysis of oil revealed the presence of 70 components, representing 99.23% of the total oil. 1,8-cineole (36.1%), alpha-pinene (22.5%), linalool (8.4%), bornyl acetate (5.2%), alpha-terpineol (4.4%), linalyl acetate (4.2%) and limonene (3.8%) were found to be the major components of the oil. The antifungal evaluating showed that myrtle oil exhibited good antifungal activity against fungi. Myrtle oil showed significant antifungal activity when combined with amphotericin B.

  10. Sensitivity of clinical isolates of Candida to essential oils from Burseraceae family

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić, Miloš; Smiljković, Marija; Marković, Tatjana; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marković, Dejan; Soković, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition and antifungal activity of four commercial essential oils from the Burseraceae family - two Boswellia carterii Flueck oils, Canarium luzonicum (Blume) A. Gray oil, and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl oil, against most common Candida spp. recovered from the human oral cavity. The essential oil samples were analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. The analysis showed that major essential oils' components were α-pinene (23.04 % and 31.84 %), l...

  11. Evaluation of the New Chromogenic Medium Candida ID 2 for Isolation and Identification of Candida albicans and Other Medically Important Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Eraso, Elena; Moragues, María D.; Villar-Vidal, María; Sahand, Ismail H.; González-Gómez, Nagore; Pontón, José; Quindós, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    The usefulness of Candida ID 2 (CAID2) reformulated medium (bioMérieux, France) has been compared with that of the former Candida ID (CAID; bioMérieux), Albicans ID 2 (ALB2; bioMérieux), and CHROMagar Candida (CAC; Chromagar, France) chromogenic media for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically relevant yeasts. Three hundred forty-five stock strains from culture collections, and 103 fresh isolates from different clinical specimens were evaluated. CAID2 permitted differentia...

  12. The identification of Candida species isolated from clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients with PCR and determination of antifungal resistance genes with RFLP and sequencing analysis

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    Yıldız Yeğenoğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate PCRtechnique and antifungal resistance genes with RFLP andsequencing analysis in Candida species isolated fromclinical specimens of immune-compromised patients.Materials and methods: Clinical samples (96 bronchoalveolarlavages, 56 biopsy-abscess, 8 blood specimens,15 peritoneal fluid specimens, 15 pleural fluid, 5 cerebrospinalfluid and 5 pericard fluid specimens from 200 immunosuppressedpatients were studied by conventionaland molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility testingwas performed by the E-test method. Firstly, fungal DNAwas isolated from specimens, and then the resultantproducts are defined with multiplex PCR. Antifungal resistanceand resistance genes were established by E-testand RFLP analysis.Results: Thirty of 200 samples (15% were culture positive[20 Candida albicans (67%, five Candida parapsilosis(17%, five Candida tropicalis (17%], and 170 ofsamples were found culture negative (85%. PCR with theuniversal primers detected fungal DNA in all 30 culturepositive samples. One strain was determined as resistant;2 strains were dose dependent susceptible and 27 strainswere sensitive to fluconazole by E-test. The resistancegene (ERG11 was detected by BamHI and SalI enzymesrevealed fluconazole resistance in one of C.albicansstrains. The identification was successful in Candida dubliniensis(950 bp and Candida krusei (360 bp with multiplexPCR. D132E and E216D mutations were detected insequencing of ERG 11 gene of this isolate and comparedwith reference gene in GenBank by clustal analysis.Conclusion: The molecular test methods supplies correcttherapy rather early in immunosuppressive patientstherefore it is important for the survival.

  13. Paradoxical antifungal activity and structural observations in biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Carla J; Bernardo, Stella M; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans have been reported, and key-hot spot mutations in the FKS1 gene, which encodes a major glucan synthase subunit, have been identified in these (caspofungin-resistant [CAS-R]) strains. Although these mutations result in phenotypic resistance to echinocandins in planktonic cells, there is little data on antifungal susceptibilities of CAS-R C. albicans strains within biofilms. Thus, we analyzed biofilms formed by 12 C. albicans CAS-R clinical strains in which we previously identified FKS1 hot-spot mutations and compared the sessile antifungal and paradoxical activity of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MICA). Biofilms were formed in a 96-well static microplate model and assayed using both tetrazolium-salt reduction and crystal violet assays, as well as examination by scanning electron microscopy. We first sought to assess biofilm formation and structure in these fks1 mutants and found that the biofilm mass and metabolic activities were reduced in most of the fks1 mutants as compared with reference strain SC5314. Structural analyses revealed that the fks1 mutant biofilms were generally less dense and had a clear predominance of yeast and pseudohyphae, with unusual "pit"-like cell surface structures. We also noted that sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ANID, CAS, and MICA were higher than planktonic MICs of all but one strain. The majority of strains demonstrated a paradoxical effect (PE) to particular echinocandins, in either planktonic or sessile forms. Overall, biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates demonstrated varied PEs to echinocandins and were structurally characterized by a preponderance of yeast, pseudohyphae, and pit-like structures.

  14. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis complex species isolated from culture collection of clinical samples

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    Fábio Silvestre Ataides

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractINTRODUCTION:Candida parapsilosis is a common yeast species found in cases of onychomycosis and candidemia associated with infected intravascular devices. In this study, we differentiated Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis , and Candida metapsilosis from a culture collection containing blood and subungual scraping samples. Furthermore, we assessed the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of these species to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin.METHODS:Differentiation of C. parapsilosis complex species was performed by amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH gene and digestion by the restriction enzyme Ban I. All isolates were evaluated for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations using Etest, a method for antifungal susceptibility testing.RESULTS:Among the 87 isolates, 78 (89.7% were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto , five (5.7% were identified as C. orthopsilosis , and four (4.6% were identified as C. metapsilosis . Analysis of antifungal susceptibility showed that C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates were less susceptible to amphotericin B and itraconazole. One C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to amphotericin B and itraconazole. Moreover, 10.2% of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Two C. parapsilosis sensu strictoisolates and one C. metapsilosis isolate were susceptible to fluconazole in a dose-dependent manner.CONCLUSIONS:We reported the first molecular identification of C. parapsilosiscomplex species in State of Goiás, Brazil. Additionally, we showed that although the three species exhibited differences in antifungal susceptibility profiles, the primary susceptibility of this species was to caspofungin.

  15. Genotyping of Candida orthopsilosis clinical isolates by amplification fragment length polymorphism reveals genetic diversity among independent isolates and strain maintenance within patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Ghelardi, Emilia; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2007-05-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species named C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In this report, 400 isolates (290 patients) previously classified as C. parapsilosis by conventional laboratory tests were screened by BanI digestion profile analysis of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment and by amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Thirty-three strains collected from 13 patients were identified as C. orthopsilosis, thus giving the first retrospective evidence that C. orthopsilosis was responsible for 4.5% of the infections/colonization attributed to C. parapsilosis. AFLP was proven to unambiguously identify C. orthopsilosis at the species level and efficiently delineate intraspecific genetic relatedness. A high percentage of polymorphic AFLP bands was observed for independent isolates collected from each patient. Statistical analysis of the pairwise genetic distances and bootstrapping revealed that clonal reproduction and recombination both contribute to C. orthopsilosis genetic population structure. AFLP patterns of sequential isolates obtained from two patients demonstrated that a successful strain colonization within the same patient occurred, as revealed by strain maintenance in various body sites. No association between AFLP markers and drug resistance was observed, and none of the clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates were found to produce biofilm in vitro.

  16. Mechanistic Insights Underlying Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in Vaginal Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana V; Salazar, Sara B; Lopes, Maria M; Mira, Nuno P

    2017-01-01

    During colonization of the vaginal tract Candida glabrata cells are challenged with the presence of acetic acid at a low pH, specially when dysbiosis occurs. To avoid exclusion from this niche C. glabrata cells are expected to evolve efficient adaptive responses to cope with this stress; however, these responses remain largely uncharacterized, especially in vaginal strains. In this work a cohort of 18 vaginal strains and 2 laboratory strains (CBS138 and KUE100) were phenotyped for their tolerance against inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid at pH 4. Despite some heterogeneity has been observed among the vaginal strains tested, in general these strains were considerably more tolerant to acetic acid than the laboratory strains. To tackle the mechanistic insights behind this differential level of tolerance observed, a set of vaginal strains differently tolerant to acetic acid (VG281∼VG49 acetic acid the more tolerant vaginal strains exhibited a higher activity of the plasma membrane proton pump CgPma1 and a reduced internal accumulation of the acid, these being two essential features to maximize tolerance. Based on the higher level of resistance exhibited by the vaginal strains against the action of a β-1,3-glucanase, it is hypothesized that the reduced internal accumulation of acetic acid inside these strains may originate from them having a different cell wall structure resulting in a reduced porosity to undissociated acetic acid molecules. Both the vaginal and the two laboratory strains were found to consume acetic acid in the presence of glucose indicating that metabolization of the acid is used by C. glabrata species as a detoxification mechanism. The results gathered in this study advance the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the increased competitiveness of C. glabrata in the vaginal tract, a knowledge that can be used to guide more suitable strategies to treat infections caused by this pathogenic yeast.

  17. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

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    M V Pravin Charles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  18. In vitro antifungal activity of fluconazole and voriconazole against non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandras, Narcisa; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Fucale, Giacomo; Allizond, Valeria; Banche, Giuliana; Barbui, Anna; Li Vigni, Nicolò; Newell, Vance A; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Tullio, Vivian

    2015-10-01

    The risk of opportunistic infections caused by non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi is increasingly common, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Appropriate first-line therapy has not been defined and standardized, mainly due to the low number of cases reported. To improve empirical treatment guidelines, we describe the susceptibility profile to fluconazole and voriconazole of 176 non-Candida yeasts and yeast-like fungi collected from hospitals in Piedmont, North West Italy from January 2009 to December 2013. The results showed that most isolates are susceptible to voriconazole (94%), but less susceptible to fluconazole (78%), suggesting that voriconazole could be used as first-line therapy in infections caused by these fungi.

  19. Mechanistic Insights Underlying Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in Vaginal Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana V.; Salazar, Sara B.; Lopes, Maria M.; Mira, Nuno P.

    2017-01-01

    During colonization of the vaginal tract Candida glabrata cells are challenged with the presence of acetic acid at a low pH, specially when dysbiosis occurs. To avoid exclusion from this niche C. glabrata cells are expected to evolve efficient adaptive responses to cope with this stress; however, these responses remain largely uncharacterized, especially in vaginal strains. In this work a cohort of 18 vaginal strains and 2 laboratory strains (CBS138 and KUE100) were phenotyped for their tolerance against inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid at pH 4. Despite some heterogeneity has been observed among the vaginal strains tested, in general these strains were considerably more tolerant to acetic acid than the laboratory strains. To tackle the mechanistic insights behind this differential level of tolerance observed, a set of vaginal strains differently tolerant to acetic acid (VG281∼VG49 < VG99 < VG216) and the highly susceptible laboratory strain KUE100 were selected for further studies. When suddenly challenged with acetic acid the more tolerant vaginal strains exhibited a higher activity of the plasma membrane proton pump CgPma1 and a reduced internal accumulation of the acid, these being two essential features to maximize tolerance. Based on the higher level of resistance exhibited by the vaginal strains against the action of a β-1,3-glucanase, it is hypothesized that the reduced internal accumulation of acetic acid inside these strains may originate from them having a different cell wall structure resulting in a reduced porosity to undissociated acetic acid molecules. Both the vaginal and the two laboratory strains were found to consume acetic acid in the presence of glucose indicating that metabolization of the acid is used by C. glabrata species as a detoxification mechanism. The results gathered in this study advance the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the increased competitiveness of C. glabrata in the vaginal tract, a knowledge that can

  20. Clinical characteristics, laboratory identification, and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Trichomonascus (Candida) ciferrii isolates associated with granular myringitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, JFW; Tsang, CC; Yang, J.; Xing, F.; LEUNG, SM; Ngan, AHY; Lau, SKP; Woo, PCY; Yuen, KY

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Trichomonascus (Candida) ciferrii is an emerging opportunistic yeast pathogen that has been increasingly recognised in human infections. T. ciferrii has previously been implicated as the cause of tinea pedis, tinea cruris, onchychomycosis, and less commonly, fungaemia. Recently, we diagnosed four unusual cases of T. ciferrii-associated granular myringitis in Chinese patients in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, China. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics, laboratory identif...

  1. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  2. Isolated Candida infection of the lung

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    Yousef Shweihat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida pneumonia is a rare infection of the lungs, with the majority of cases occurring secondary to hematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or skin. We report a case of a 77-year-old male who is life-long smoker with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica, but did not take immunosuppressants for those conditions. Here, we present an extremely rare case of isolated pulmonary parenchymal Candida infection in the form pulmonary nodules without evidence of systemic disease which has only been described in a few previous reports.

  3. Overexpression of aldo-keto-reductase in azole-resistant clinical isolates of Candida glabrata determined by cDNA-AFLP

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    Farahyar Shirin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata. Methods The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection in immunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazole and itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns of the organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potential gene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains. Results and conclusions The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinical isolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  4. Genotyping of Candida orthopsilosis Clinical Isolates by Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism Reveals Genetic Diversity among Independent Isolates and Strain Maintenance within Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tavanti, Arianna; Hensgens, Lambert A. M.; Ghelardi, Emilia; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species named C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, respectively. In this report, 400 isolates (290 patients) previously classified as C. parapsilosis by conventional laboratory tests were screened by BanI digestion profile analysis of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase gene fragment and by amplification fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Thirty-three strains collected from 13 patients were identifi...

  5. Species distribution and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates in a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital over a 3-year period

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Cristina Furlaneto; Juliana Frasnelli Rota; Regina Mariuza Borsato Quesada; Luciana Furlaneto-Maia; Renne Rodrigues; Silas Oda; Marcelo Tempesta de Oliveira; Rosana Serpa; Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed at identifying Candida isolates obtained from blood, urine, tracheal secretion, and nail/skin lesions from cases attended at the Hospital Universitário de Londrina over a 3-year period and at evaluating fluconazole susceptibilities of the isolates. METHODS: Candida isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using species-specific forward primers. The in vitro fluconazole susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST-AFST reference...

  6. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

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    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  7. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto-Reductase in Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Glabrata Determined by cDNA-AFLP

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    Mansour Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata.Methods: The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection inimmunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazoleand itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns ofthe organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potentialgene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains.Results and conclusions: The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinicalisolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  8. Virulence factors of Candida species isolated from patients with urinary tract infection and obstructive uropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenzi, Faris Q.B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Fungal urinary tract infections due to Candida have increased significantly in recent years. Our research objective was to study Candida species in urine samples of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) associated with obstructive uropathy and to investigate the virulence factors of the isolated Candida. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups: Group I (cases): 50 patients with UTIs and obstructive uropathy. Group II (control): 50 patients with UTIs but with no functional or anatomical obstruction of their urinary tract. Clinical histories and physical examinations, together with laboratory investigations of urine samples were carried out in all patients in this study. Mid stream urine samples were examined microscopically and by fungal cell culture. The isolated Candida species were identified by analytical profile index (API). Candida Virulence factors were determined for the isolated Candida. The susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated. Results: This study revealed an overall isolation rate of 27% of Candida species among all patient groups. The rate was 36% in cases, and 18% in controls, a difference found to be statistically significant (P<0.05). By API, C.albicans was detected in 44% of Candida species in cases, and in 33% in controls. While C.glabrata was detected in 28% of Candida species in cases, and in 22% in controls. C.tropicalis was detected in 17% of Candida species in cases, and in 22% in controls. Both C.krusei and C.kyfr were detected in 5.5% of Candida species in cases, and in 11% in controls. In terms of virulence factors the study showed that 11 out of 27 (40.5%) of Candida isolates were biofilm positive by tube adherence. Phospholipase activity was demonstrated in 12 out of 27 (44.5%) of Candida isolates. Secretory aspartic proteinase activity was demonstrated in 13 out of 27 (48%) of the Candida isolates. Conclusion: Candida is an important cause of UTIs and obstructive uropathy is a major predisposing factor

  9. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. Copyright 2009 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Min Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTL a/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival.

  11. Prevalence, distribution and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis bloodstream isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, Lucas Xavier; Martins, Marilena dos Anjos; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Pukiskas, Sandra Brasil Stolf; Purisco, Sonia Ueda; Pimentel, Fabiana Cortez; Pereira, Graziella Hanna; Silva, Dayane Cristina; Oliveira, Lidiane; Melhem, Marcia de Souza Carvalho

    2012-07-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis. These species are phenotypically indistinguishable, and molecular methods are needed for their detection. We analysed 152 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during 1997-2011. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from those of the C. parapsilosis group were characterized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (90.8 %), C. orthopsilosis (8.6 %) and C. metapsilosis (0.6 %). Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all isolates were susceptible to itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin. Although C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, higher MICs (≥2 mg l(-1)) were observed for C. orthopsilosis. Three isolates (2.0 %) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto were resistant to voriconazole. Five C. parapsilosis isolates (3.3 %) were intermediate, and a single isolate (0.7 %) was resistant (MIC 16 mg l(-1)) to fluconazole. These data were confirmed using reference strains. It was observed that C. parapsilosis isolates were less susceptible to all triazoles, and this finding deserves further attention to assess the appearance of cross-resistance phenomena. In conclusion, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Brazil.

  12. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toro, M; Torres, M J; Maite, Ruiz; Aznar, J

    2011-03-01

    Candida parapsilosis former groups II and III have recently been established as independent species, named Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, respectively. We investigated the distribution of C. parapsilosis complex species in 122 isolates from blood and other sources in a southern Spain tertiary-care hospital, and we examined the relationship between species, site of isolation and biofilm positivity. We also evaluated the planktonic MICs and sessile MICs (SMICs) of voriconazole, amphotericin B and anidulafungin. One hundred and eleven isolates (91%) were categorized as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas ten isolates (8.2%) were categorized as C. orthopsilosis and one (0.8%) as C. metapsilosis. Biofilm positivity was observed in 58.5% (65 of 111) of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates vs. 0% (0 of 11) of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates (p orthopsilosis than for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (0.03 mg/L). In contrast to planktonic cells, the SMICs show that amphotericin B and anidulafungin are moderately effective against the biofilm of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, whereas voriconazole is ineffective.

  13. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, J Pratiba; Kelkar, S S

    1980-01-01

    One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  14. Comparison of E,E-Farnesol Secretion and the Clinical Characteristics of Candida albicans Bloodstream Isolates from Different Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jin; Kim, Joo Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon; Koo, Sun Hoe; Chang, Hyun Ha; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; d'Enfert, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Candida albicans can be subdivided into 18 different clades. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by C. albicans, is thought to play an important role in the development of C. albicans biofilms and is also a virulence factor. This study evaluated whether C. albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) strains belonging to different MLST clades secrete different levels of E,E-farnesol (FOH) and whether they have different clinical characteristics. In total, 149 C. albicans BSI isolates from ten Korean hospitals belonging to clades 18 (n = 28), 4 (n = 23), 1 (n = 22), 12 (n = 17), and other clades (n = 59) were assessed. For each isolate, the FOH level in 24-hour biofilms was determined in filtered (0.45 μm) culture supernatant using high-performance liquid chromatography. Marked differences in FOH secretion from biofilms (0.10-6.99 μM) were observed among the 149 BSI isolates. Clade 18 isolates secreted significantly more FOH than did non-clade 18 isolates (mean ± SEM; 2.66 ± 0.22 vs. 1.69 ± 0.10 μM; P albicans BSI isolates belonging to the most prevalent MLST clade (clade 18) in Korea are characterized by increased levels of FOH secretion and less severe illness.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida tropicalis%热带念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药分子机制的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永安; 窦娟; 张全斌; 马云霞

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of this pathogenic yeast .Methods A total of 41 Candida tropicalis strains were collected from the clinical laboratory of Taiyuan City Central Hospital .Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by ATB FUNGU 3 method.The 14 α-demethylase (ERG11) gene in all clinical iso-lates of Candida tropicalis were amplified by PCR,and their nucleotide sequences were determined in order to detect point mutations.Likewise,efflux transporters (CDR1 and MDR1) and ERG11 genes were tested by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for their expression in Candida tropicalis cells at the mRNA level.Results The fluconazole-resistant rate of 41 Candida tropicalis was 12.2%.The amino acid substitutions in ERG11p of R245K,Y221F and V362I were found in fluconazole-re-sistant isolates.And no amino acid substitution was detected in fluconazole -susceptible ones.The mRNA level of CDR1,MDR1 and ERG11 genes in fluconazole-resistant isolates all showed overexpression compared with fluconazole-susceptible ones.Conclusions Missense mutations in ERG11 gene associated with overexpres-sion of CDR1,MDR1 and ERG11 gene seemed to be responsible for the acquired fluconazole resistance of these clinical isolates.

  16. STUDY OF BIOFILM FORMATION AS A VIRULENCE MARKER IN CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SPEC IMENS

    OpenAIRE

    Saroj; Vivek; Sangeetha; Vasudha

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Candida species can be either commensals or opportunis tic pathogens with the ability to cause a variety of inf ections, ranging from superficial to life threatening. Nosocomial infections due to candida a re also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and prevent ion of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for microbiologists and clini cians worldwide. Added to this is the emerging tren...

  17. A nonsense mutation in the ERG6 gene leads to reduced susceptibility to polyenes in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Tronchin, Guy; Larcher, Gérald; Ernoult, Emilie; Bergès, Thierry; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2008-10-01

    Unlike the molecular mechanisms that lead to azole drug resistance, the molecular mechanisms that lead to polyene resistance are poorly documented, especially in pathogenic yeasts. We investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduced susceptibility to polyenes of a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata. Sterol content was analyzed by gas-phase chromatography, and we determined the sequences and levels of expression of several genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. We also investigated the effects of the mutation harbored by this isolate on the morphology and ultrastructure of the cell, cell viability, and vitality and susceptibility to cell wall-perturbing agents. The isolate had a lower ergosterol content in its membranes than the wild type, and the lower ergosterol content was found to be associated with a nonsense mutation in the ERG6 gene and induction of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Modifications of the cell wall were also seen, accompanied by increased susceptibility to cell wall-perturbing agents. Finally, this mutation, which resulted in a marked fitness cost, was associated with a higher rate of cell mortality. Wild-type properties were restored by complementation of the isolate with a centromeric plasmid containing a wild-type copy of the ERG6 gene. In conclusion, we have identified the molecular event responsible for decreased susceptibility to polyenes in a clinical isolate of C. glabrata. The nonsense mutation detected in the ERG6 gene of this isolate led to a decrease in ergosterol content. This isolate may constitute a useful tool for analysis of the relevance of protein trafficking in the phenomena of azole resistance and pseudohyphal growth.

  18. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relevant and selective activity of Pancratium illyricum L. against Candida albicans clinical isolates: a combined effect on yeast growth and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicini, Francesca; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iannello, Carmelina; Maxia, Andrea; Poli, Ferruccio; Gentilomi, Giovanna Angela

    2014-10-23

    Alkaloids present in plants of the Amaryllidaceae family are secondary metabolites of high biological interest, possessing a wide range of pharmacological activities. In the search for new plant-derived compounds with antimicrobial activities, two alkaloid extracts obtained from bulbs and leaves of Pancratium illyricum L., a plant of the Amarillydaceae family, were tested for their effect on bacterial and yeast growth. The broth microdilution susceptibility test was applied to study the effect of plant extracts on the growth of reference bacterial strains and Candida albicans reference and clinical isolates strains. Extracts obtained from the different parts of the plant were tested and compared with the pure components identified in the extracts. Since matrix metalloproteinase enzymes play a role in the dissemination process of Candida albicans, the effect of the bulb extract and pure alkaloids on in vitro collagenase activity was tested. Cell viability test was carried out on human embryo lung fibroblasts (HEL 299). Whilst both extracts did not show any inhibitory activity against neither Gram positive nor Gram negative bacteria, a strong antifungal activity was detected, in particular for the bulb extract. All clinical isolates were susceptible to the growth inhibitory activity of the bulb extract, with endpoint IC50 values ranging from 1.22 to 78 μg/mL. The pure alkaloids lycorine and vittatine, identified as components of the extract, were also assayed for their capacity of inhibiting the yeast growth, and lycorine turned very active, with endpoint IC50 values ranging from 0.89 to 28.5 μg/mL. A potent inhibition of the in vitro collagenase activity was found in the presence of the bulb extract, and this effect was much higher than that exerted by the pure alkaloids. Viability of cell lines tested was not affected by the extract. Taken together, results suggest that the extract of Pancratium illyricum may act as antifungal agent both directly on the yeast

  20. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC

  1. Yeasts isolated from clinical samples of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Rejane Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate yeasts in oropharyngeal secretion, urine, sputum and inguinal scales from AIDS patients, clinical samples were collected from one hundred patients interned in the Infectious and Parasitic Diseases Sector of the Hospital das Clínicas of the Universidade Federal de Pernambuco and in Hospital Universitário Osvaldo Cruz of the Universidade de Pernambuco. Yeasts were isolated from seventy-two out of one hundred and eight clinical samples. The isolated yeasts were: Candida albicans (sixty-two isolates, Candida tropicalis (four isolates, Candida glabrata (two isolates, Candida parapsilosis (two isolates, Candida krusei (one isolate and Trichosporon pullulans (one isolate.

  2. Biofilm formation and genotyping of Candida haemulonii, Candida pseudohaemulonii, and a proposed new species (Candida auris) isolates from Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bong Joon; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Mi-Na; Sung, Heungsup; Lee, Kyungwon; Joo, Min Young; Shin, Myung Geun; Suh, Soon Pal; Ryang, Dong Wook

    2011-01-01

    Emergence of Candida haemulonii and closely related species at five Korean hospitals has been recently described. We examined biofilm formation by these isolates and assessed their genotypic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). This study is the first to show that all bloodstream isolates of Candida pseudohaemulonii can form significant biofilms in glucose-containing medium. PFGE of NotI-digested genomic DNA revealed that C. pseudohaemulonii isolates recovered from seven patients in two hospitals shared five patterns, and that 15 isolates of a proposed new species (Candida auris) obtained from patients at three hospitals shared seven patterns, suggesting that some of these isolates may be related to clonal transmission.

  3. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  4. [Comparison of Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel and API® ID 32C commercial systems for the identification of Candida species isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayibova, Ülkü; Dalyan Cılo, Burcu; Ağca, Harun; Ener, Beyza

    2014-07-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, and several different types of yeasts, especially Candida species are increasingly recovered from immunocompromised patients. Since many of the yeasts are resistant to the commonly used antifungal agents, the introduction of appropriate therapy depends on rapid and accurate identification. The aims of this study were to compare the commercial identification systems namely API® ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) and Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, USA) for the identification of Candida species and to evaluate the effect of morphological findings in the identification process. A total of 211 yeast strains isolated from different clinical samples (111 urine, 34 blood/vascular catheter, 27 upper/lower respiratory tract, 16 abscess/pus, 13 throat/vagina swabs and 10 sterile body fluids) of 137 patients hospitalized in Uludag University Health and Research Center between October 2013 to January 2014, were included in the study. Samples were cultured on blood agar, chromogenic agar (CHROMagar Candida, BD, USA) and Saboraud's dextrose agar (SDA), and isolated yeast colonies were evaluated with germ tube test and morphological examination by microscopy on cornmeal/Tween-80 agar. The isolates were identified as well by two commercial systems according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Discrepant results between the systems were tried to be resolved by using morphological characteristics of the yeasts. Of the isolates 159 were identified identical by both of the systems, and the concordance between those systems were estimated as 75.4%. According to the concordant identification, the most frequently isolated species was C.albicans (44.1%) followed by C.tropicalis (9.9%), C.glabrata (9.5%), C.parapsilosis (8.5%) and C.kefyr (8.1%). The concordance rate was 81.7% in identification of frequently isolated species (C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C

  5. Reduced susceptibility to polyenes associated with a missense mutation in the ERG6 gene in a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with pseudohyphal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeputte, Patrick; Tronchin, Guy; Bergès, Thierry; Hennequin, Christophe; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2007-03-01

    Little information is available about the molecular mechanisms responsible for polyene resistance in pathogenic yeasts. A clinical isolate of Candida glabrata with a poor susceptibility to polyenes, as determined by disk diffusion method and confirmed by determination of MIC, was recovered from a patient treated with amphotericin B. Quantitative analysis of sterols revealed a lack of ergosterol and an accumulation of late sterol intermediates, suggesting a defect in the final steps of the ergosterol pathway. Sequencing of CgERG11, CgERG6, CgERG5, and CgERG4 genes revealed exclusively a unique missense mutation in CgERG6 leading to the substitution of a cysteine by a phenylalanine in the corresponding protein. In addition, real-time reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated an overexpression of genes encoding enzymes involved in late steps of the ergosterol pathway. Moreover, this isolate exhibited a pseudohyphal growth whatever the culture medium used, and ultrastructural changes of the cell wall of blastoconidia were seen consisting in a thinner inner layer. Cell wall alterations were also suggested by the higher susceptibility of growing cells to Calcofluor white. Additionally, complementation of this isolate with a wild-type copy of the CgERG6 gene restored susceptibility to polyenes and a classical morphology. Together, these results demonstrated that mutation in the CgERG6 gene may lead to a reduced susceptibility to polyenes and to a pseudohyphal growth due to the subsequent changes in sterol content of the plasma membrane.

  6. Molecular identification of Candida orthopsilosis isolated from blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, P V C; Chong, P P; Lau, L Y; Yeoh, R S C; Jamal, F

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.

  7. Candida parapsilosis complex water isolates from a haemodialysis unit: biofilm production and in vitro evaluation of the use of clinical antifungals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Helena Pires

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis, currently divided into three distinct species, proliferates in glucose-rich solutions and has been associated with infections resulting from the use of medical devices made of plastic, an environment common in dialysis centres. The aims of this study were (i to screen for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis (100 environmental isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis, (ii to test the ability of these isolates to form biofilm and (iii to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp biofilms to the antifungal agents, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMB. Isolates were obtained from a hydraulic circuit collected from a haemodialysis unit. Based on molecular criteria, 47 strains were re-identified as C. orthopsilosis and 53 as C. parapsilosis. Analyses using a formazan salt reduction assay and total viable count, together with microscopy studies, revealed that 72 strains were able to form biofilm that was structurally similar, but with minor differences in morphology. A microtitre-based colorimetric assay used to test the susceptibility of fungal biofilms to AMB and FLC demonstrated that the C. parapsilosis complex displayed an increased resistance to these antifungal agents. The results from these analyses may provide a basis for implementing quality controls and monitoring to ensure the microbiological purity of dialysis water, including the presence of yeast.

  8. [Candida dubliniensis studies and isolation of Candida types in oropharyngeal specimens from oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeli, Alper; Dolapçi, Iştar; Cesur, Salih; Tekeli, Emin; Içli, Fikri

    2002-01-01

    Fungal opportunistic infections, and in particular those caused by the various Candida species, have gained considerable significance as a cause of morbidity and, often, mortality. Although Candida albicans remains to be the most frequently isolated fungal species as an opportunistic oral pathogen, other yeast species are often identified in immunocompromised patients. C. dubliniensis, the recently described species, has been recovered primarily from oropharyngeal candidasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected patients. C. dubliniensis shares many phenotypic characteristics with, and is phylogenetically closely related to, C. albicans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization rates of fungal species, and especially C. dubliniensis, in the oropharyngeal samples from cancer patients. The oropharyngeal swabs of 543 patients were collected during their visits to oncology clinic in 9 months period, and a total of 209 Candida species have been isolated. Of them, 147 isolates were found to be positive for germ tube and chlamydospore formation, and they were tested for the growth inability at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, colony morphology in Staib agar and the intracellular beta-glucosidase activity, in order to identify C. dubliniensis. The results of these tests and carbohydrate assimilation tests by API 20C AUX yeast identification system, yielded that all these 147 (70.3%) isolates were C. albicans. The other isolates were identified as follows; 16 C. parapsilosis (7.6%), 13 C. tropicalis (6.2%), 10 C. glabrata (4.7%), 5 C. guilliermondii (2.3%), 4 C. krusei (1.9%), 3 C. keyfr (1.4%), 3 C. famata (1.4%), 2 S. cerevisiae (0.9%), 2 C. pelliculosa (0.9%), 1 C. utiles (0.4%), 1 C. neoformans (0.4%) and 1 Hansenula polymorpha (0.4%), while no C. dubliniensis was isolated.

  9. [Genotypic identification and distribution patterns of Candida parapsilosis complex species (C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, C.metapsilosis and C.orthopsilosis) isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebeci Güler, Nejla; Tosun, Ilknur; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Buruk, Kurtuluş; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-10-01

    Candida parapsilosis, which has recently gained increasing importance, is the second most common fungal pathogen isolated from clinical specimens. C.parapsilosis strains exhibiting genetic heterogeneity were previously considered as a complex of three genetically different groups (group I, II, III). However, they have recently been reclassified as new species and named as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto (Grup I), C.orthopsilosis (Grup II) and C.metapsilosis (Grup III). In the present study we aimed to identify C.parapsilosis complex species by PCR-RFLP (Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment lenght polymorphism) method and to determine the distribution of new species isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 68 samples (44 blood, 10 urine, 5 wound, 2 paracentesis fluids, 2 tympanocentesis samples and one of each cerebrospinal fluid, peritoneal fluid, surgical material, oral lesion and nail sample) in which C.parapsilosis had been isolated and identified with API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France) between October 2005 - July 2009 in the Microbiology Laboratory of Karadeniz Technical University Hospital, in Trabzon, Turkey, were included in the study. Yeast genomic DNA was extracted using the "High Pure PCR Template Preparation Kit" (Roche Diagnostic, USA) and amplification of SADH gene was performed by using specific primers (S1-F sense; 5'-GTTGATGCTGTTGGATTGT-3' ve S1-R antisense; 5'-CAATGCCAAATCTCCCAA-3') with PCR. RFLP method was then applied by digesting PCR product (716 bp) with BanI enzyme (Fermentas, USA). In our study 98.5% (67/68) of the isolates were identified as C.parapsilosis sensu stricto, and 1.5% (1/68) was identifed as C.orthopsilosis, whereas no C.metapsilosis strains were detected. The strain identified as C.orthopsilosis was from a urine specimen and all the blood culture isolates were C.parapsilosis sensu stricto. In conclusion, the inability to differentiate C.parapsilosis complex species by phenotypical and routine tests leads to lack of

  10. Antifungal activity and influence of propolis against germ tube formation as a critical virulence attribute by clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghdoost, N S; Salehi, T Z; Khosravi, A; Sharifzadeh, A

    2016-12-01

    The potentiality to switch between yeast and hyphal morphologies plays an important role in the virulence of Candida albicans (C. albicans). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the chemical composition, antifungal activity and influence of propolis upon germ tube formation of C. albicans clinical isolates. The major compounds of propolis ethanolic extract (PEE) was revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Broth microdilution method was used for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of this extract. C. albicans isolates were exposed to sub-MIC concentrations of propolis and germ tube reduction percent (GRP) and morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form were monitored microscopically. Phenolic compounds, aromatic acids, aliphatic acids, sugars and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were the major compound classes in PEE. Mean of MIC and MFC values of PEE against C. albicans isolates were 360.6μg·mL(-1) and 1250.1μg·mL(-1), respectively. The increase in concentration led to a significant reduction in germ tube formation, so mean of GRP was 36.7±11.1 and 22±10.1 at concentration of ½ MIC and ¼ MIC of PEE, respectively. In conclusion, the present study indicated that PEE has interesting potential as a therapeutic agent that targets germ tube formation by C. albicans as a critical virulence factor. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species...... analysis demonstrated a genetic relationship for 90% of all paired blood and oral isolates. Patients exposed to azoles for ≥ 7 days (n = 93) had a significantly larger proportion of species intrinsically less susceptible to azoles (particularly Candida glabrata) among oral isolates than among initial blood...... isolates (36.6% versus 12.9%; P 0.5). Acquired resistance in Candida albicans was rare (

  12. Fungal CYP51 Inhibitors VT-1161 and VT-1129 Exhibit Strong In Vitro Activity against Candida glabrata and C. krusei Isolates Clinically Resistant to Azole and Echinocandin Antifungal Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, W A; Jones, A M; Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Alexander, B D

    2017-03-01

    The in vitro activities of fungal CYP51 inhibitors VT-1161 and VT-1129 were determined for Candida glabrata (n = 34) and C. krusei (n = 50). C. glabrata isolates were screened for FKS gene mutations. All isolates were resistant clinically and/or in vitro to at least one standard antifungal compound. VT-1161 and VT-1129 MICs for all isolates were at least 5-fold below achievable human plasma levels for VT-1161. VT-1161 and VT-1129 are promising for the treatment of resistant C. glabrata and C. krusei infections. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  14. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan; Ram Murugan

    2016-01-01

    BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai....

  15. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  16. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  17. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  18. Comparison of virulence factors of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates in healthy people and patients with chronic candidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, J; Saarela, M; Dogan, B; Paatsama, J; Koukila-Kähkölä, P; Pirinen, S; Alakomi, H L; Perheentupa, J; Asikainen, S

    2000-08-01

    We determined differences in the expression of certain virulence factors between oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans species. In addition, clonal differences were sought among C. albicans isolates recovered from patients with and without compromised immune system. The material comprised 93 clinical yeast isolates originated in 40 subjects (1-5 isolates per subject). All 26 C. dubliniensis isolates and 46 C. albicans isolates originated from healthy routine dental clinic patients. Additionally, 21 C. albicans isolates were collected from patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidosis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), who have chronic candidosis as one manifestation of their immunocompromising disease. Polymerase chain reaction amplification using the random sequence primer OPE-03 enabled grouping of the C. dubliniensis isolates in 2 genotypes (I and II) and C. albicans isolates in 15 genotypes (I-XV). No significant difference was found in the distribution of genotypes between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects. C. dubliniensis isolates exhibited high-frequency phenotypic switching significantly more frequently than did C. albicans isolates, and vice versa regarding phospholipase and proteinase production. Proteinase production was significantly more frequent among C. albicans genotype V than genotype IX isolates. No significant difference was found in expression of virulence factors of C. albicans isolates between the patients with APECED and the healthy subjects.

  19. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from bloodstream infections in Konya, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagi, Hatice Turk; Findik, Duygu; Senkeles, Cigdem; Arslan, Ugur

    2016-05-31

    In this study, our aim was to identify Candida species isolated from bloodstream infections and to determine their susceptibilities to various antifungal agents to demonstrate the local resistance profiles and to guide empirical treatment for clinicians. Two hundred Candida isolates (95 Candida albicans, 105 non-albicans Candida strains) were included in the study. Candida species were identified by conventional, biochemical and molecular methods. Antifungal susceptibility tests for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin were performed with broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 document. Of the 200 Candida strains, the most prevalent species were C. albicans (47.5 %), Candida glabrata (18.0 %) and Candida parapsilosis complex (14.0 %). All Candida species except for three (1.5 %) Candida kefyr strains were susceptible to amphotericin B. Only one (2.8 %) C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 μg/ml), and the others (97.2 %) exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility. All species, but C. glabrata strains, were susceptible to fluconazole. Resistance to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin was not detected in any strain. Candida albicans were susceptible to all antifungal drugs. Three C. kefyr strains were resistant to amphotericin B. Only one C. glabrata was resistant to fluconazole. All the strains were susceptible to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests should be performed to select of appropriate and effective antifungal therapy, and monitor the development of resistance.

  20. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution of Candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype of Candida albicans in vaginal swab. A total of 115 Candida albicans strains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115 Candida albicans strains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicans was the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance among Candida albicans isolated from VVC patients.

  2. STUDY OF CHARACTERIZATION & ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT CANDIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last two decades Candida has accounted for the most serious opportunistic infections especially in the immuno-compromised individuals. Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections & the rates of resistance to standard antifungal therapies are on the rise. Awareness regarding fungal infections has compelled the clinicians and laboratories to lay more emphasis on the detection of fungi; as speciation and antifungal tests are not routinely done. Over the past decade significant progress has been made with standardization of the methods for antifungal susceptibility testing, correlation between in-vitro results & patient outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to isolate, identify & determine the susceptibility pattern of clinically significant Candida species and study the spectrum of Non-albicans Candida species, thus contributing to overall reduction in the cost of treatment and duration of hospital stay. METHODS: The study was carried out at department of microbiology MVJ Medical Hospital Bangalore for one year from Aug 2010 – July 2011. 50 Candida species which were isolated from various clinical specimens were included in the study. They were identified by using various media & identification methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done on Yeast nitrogen base agar by disk diffusion method & analyzed. RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida (NAC emerged as the commonest species with [39(22%] causing fungal infection followed by Candida albicans [11(22%]. Among the NAC isolates Candida tropicalis was predominant followed by Candida krusei, Candida glabrata & Candida guilliermondi. CONCLUSION: Studying the speciation & susceptibility patterns of Candida will help us understand the etio-pathology and might assist in better patient care

  3. Molecular differentiation and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida parapsilosis isolated from patients with bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Na, Shiang Ling; Chong, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    The genetic heterogeneity and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida parapsilosis isolated from blood cultures of patients were investigated in this study. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis generated 5 unique profiles from 42 isolates. Based on the major DNA fragments of the RAPD profiles, the isolates were identified as RAPD type P1 (29 isolates), P2 (6 isolates), P3 (4 isolates), P4 (2 isolates) and P5 (1 isolate). Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene of the isolates identified RAPD type P1 as C. parapsilosis, P2 and P3 as Candida orthopsilosis, P4 as Candida metapsilosis, and P5 as Lodderomyces elongisporus. Nucleotide variations in ITS gene sequences of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were detected. Antifungal susceptibility testing using Etests showed that all isolates tested in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. C. parapsilosis isolates exhibited higher MIC(50) values than those of C. orthopsilosis for all of the drugs tested in this study; however, no significant difference in the MICs for these two Candida species was observed. The fact that C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were responsible for 23.8 and 4.8 % of the cases attributed to C. parapsilosis bloodstream infections, respectively, indicates the clinical relevance of these newly described yeasts. Further investigations of the ecological niche, mode of transmission and virulence of these species are thus essential.

  4. Two-year surveillance on fluconazole susceptibility of Candida spp isolates in a general and university hospital in Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testore, G P; Falco, F; Sarrecchia, C; Sordillo, P; Bontempo, G; Andreoni, M

    2001-01-01

    Fluconazole susceptibility was tested in 385 clinical yeast isolates (285 Candida albicans, 38 C. glabrata, 31 C. tropicalis, 31 other Candida subsp.) using the agar disk diffusion test. Yeasts were collected from specimens obtained from outpatients (69) and inpatients (intensive care unit: 79 isolates, major burn unit: 31 isolates, hematology ward: 45 isolates, gynecology ward: 67 isolates, other wards: 94 isolates). Three hundred and fifty-six (92%) yeast isolates showed to be susceptible, 18 (5%) were susceptible dose-dependent, and 10 (3%) were resistant to fluconazole. Of the resistant group, 3 isolates were C.albicans, while seven were Candida non-albicans (2 C. rugosa, 2 C. humicola, 1 C. tropicalis, 1 C. ciferrii, 1 C. glabrata). The disk-diffusion method was easy to perform and there were no difficulties in the interpretation of inhibition zone diameters. Fluconazole maintained a good activity against Candida spp despite its extensive use for the prophylaxis and treatment of fungal infections.

  5. OTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SP ISOLATED FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudramurthy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ACT: Candida , a yeast like ubiquitous fungus , is an endogenous species which produces commonest fungal infection; Candidiasis. Resistance to antifungal agents is an alarming sign for the emerging common nosocomial candidiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Various types of specimens we re collected from the c linically suspected cases of candidiasis. Isolation and characterization of candida sp . was done by standard procedures. Antifungal susceptibility was done by disc diffusion method. RESULT: The candida was isolated from various clinical specimens , vaginal swab (24.66% , skin scraping (13.33% oral swabs (12.66% , ear swabs ( 11.33% , nail scraping (10% , and pus from diabetes foot ulcer and post - operative wound infection ( 8% , sputum ( 6% , urine (4.66% , stool ( 4% , blood ( 2.66% , and eye swabs ( 2.66%. Amon g different species of candida isolated C.albicans was the predominant species (79.33% followed by C tropicalis (19.33% and C.Guilliermondii (1.33%. Antifungal resistance of different species of candida was higher to fluconazole . The least resistance wa s seen with amphotericin - B (1.33%. CONCLUSION: The increased isolation of candida species and development of resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs requires careful interpretation and the in vitro susceptibility testing. This facilitates better pat ient care.

  6. Photodynamic inactivation of virulence factors of Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Silva, Michelle Peneluppi; Costa, Anna Carolina Borges Pereira; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Candida species are major microorganisms isolated in denture stomatitis (DS), an inflammatory process of the mucosa underlying removable dental prostheses, and express a variety of virulence factors that can increase their pathogenicity. The potential of Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) in planktonic culture, biofilms and virulence factors of Candida strains was evaluated. A total of 48 clinical Candida isolates from individuals wearing removable maxillary prostheses with DS were included in the study. The effects of erythrosine (ER, 200 μM) and a green LED (λ 532 ± 10 nm, 237 mW/cm(2) and 42.63 J/cm(2)) in a planktonic culture were evaluated. The effect of the addition of ER at a concentration of 400 μM together with a green LED was evaluated in biofilms. The virulence factors of all of the Candida strains were evaluated before and after the PDI process in cells derived from biofilm and planktonic assays. All of the Candida species were susceptible to ER and green LED. However, the biofilm structures were more resistant to PDI than the planktonic cultures. PDI also promoted slight reductions in most of the virulence factors of C. albicans and some of the Candida tropicalis strains. These results suggest that the addition of PDI is effective for reducing yeasts and may also reduce the virulence of certain Candida species and decrease their pathogenicity.

  7. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Candida albicans ISOLATES FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: The majority of nosocomial fungal infections are caused by Candida spp. where C. albicans is the species most commonly identified. Molecular methods are important tools for assessing the origin of the yeasts isolated in hospitals. Methods: This is a study on the genetic profifiles of 39 nosocomial clinical isolates of C. albicans using two typing methods: random amplifified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and microsatellite, two different primers for each technique were used. Results: RAPD provided 10 and 11 different profiles with values for SAB of 0.84 ± 0.126 and 0.88 ± 0.08 for primers M2 and P4, respectively. Microsatellite using two markers, CDC3 and HIS3, allowed the observation of six and seven different alleles, respectively, with combined discriminatory power of 0.91. Conclusions: Although genetic variability is clear, it was possible to identify high similarity, suggesting a common origin for at least a part of isolates. It is important to emphasize that common origin was proven from yeasts isolated from colonization (urine, catheter or endotracheal secretions and blood culture from the same patient, indicating that the candidemia must have started from a site of colonization. The combination of RAPD and microsatellite provides a quick and efficient analysis for investigation of similarity among nosocomial isolates of C. albicans.

  8. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  9. Chromogenic medium for direct susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolated from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Antônio Alexandre; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio

    2011-08-01

    Currently, there has been an increased frequency of fungal infections. Candida albicans and other Candida spp. have been proven to be major causes for urinary tract infection. Increased resistance to antifungals indicates the need to develop strategies in order to prevent the spread of resistance. Chromogenic medium have been proven to be useful in the detection of yeasts in clinical specimens containing mixed cultures of Candida. The aim of this study was to compare the results of antifungal susceptibility testing with fluconazole and amphotericin B on strains of Candida spp. isolated from urine, conducted on a Mueller-Hinton Agar with Glucose and Methylene Blue (MHAGMB) medium and on a Hicrome Candida® Agar with 2% Glucose (HCAG) medium. We used 40 samples of Candida spp. isolated from urine samples from inpatients and outpatients. The results showed that both media presented high rates of agreement, above 94%. The use of the HCAG medium decreases the release time of the results by 24-48 h, which may be decisive for initiating the correct drug treatment.

  10. Echinocandin Resistance in Candida Species Isolates from Liver Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Gwénolé; Aït-Ammar, Nawel; Levesque, Eric; Fekkar, Arnaud; Costa, Jean-Marc; El Anbassi, Sarra; Foulet, Françoise; Duvoux, Christophe; Merle, Jean-Claude; Dannaoui, Eric; Botterel, Françoise

    2017-02-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at risk of invasive fungal infections, especially candidiasis. Echinocandin is recommended as prophylactic treatment but is increasingly associated with resistance. Our aim was to assess echinocandin drug resistance in Candida spp. isolated from liver transplant recipients treated with this antifungal class. For this, all liver-transplanted patients in a University Hospital (Créteil, France) between January and June of 2013 and 2015 were included. Susceptibilities of Candida isolates to echinocandins were tested by Etest and the EUCAST reference method. Isolates were analyzed by FKS sequencing and genotyped based on microsatellites or multilocus sequence typing (MLST) profiles. Ninety-four patients were included, and 39 patients were colonized or infected and treated with echinocandin. Echinocandin resistance appeared in 3 (8%) of the treated patients within 1 month of treatment. One patient was colonized by resistant Candida glabrata, one by resistant Candida dubliniensis, and one by resistant Candida albicans Molecular analysis found three mutations in FKS2 HS1 (F659S, S663A, and D666E) for C. glabrata and one mutation in FKS1 HS1 (S645P) for C. dubliniensis and C. albicans Susceptible and resistant isolates belonged to the same genotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study on echinocandin resistance in Candida spp. in a liver transplant population. Most resistant isolates were found around/in digestive sites, perhaps due to lower diffusion of echinocandin in these sites. This work documents the risk of emergence of resistance to echinocandin, even after short-term treatment. Copyright © 2017 Prigent et al.

  11. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  12. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  13. Study of strains of Candida spp. Isolated from catheters in UHC of Oran (Algeria): Identification and antifungal susceptibility.

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    Bendjelloul, M; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K

    2016-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Candida spp., and the vital prognosis often compromise for patients with Candida species make urgent the exact knowledge of their distribution worldwide and exhaust action antifungals currently used in clinical. That why we carry out an epidemiological study of Candida species and testing their susceptibility against two antifungals: amphotericin B and caspofungin. Samplings of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) were carried out from during 8months on the services of Internal medicine, Surgery A and Neonatology of Oran's University Hospital Center (UHC). The study of the susceptibility of Candida species to antifungal agents was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2008). From 300 samples, 25 yeasts were isolated. The rate of colonization PVC was 8.33% by Candida spp. The most isolated strains were Candida parapsilosis with 64% of cases, followed by Candida albicans (12%) then 8% for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. However, only 4% of isolates were Candida famata or Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore all isolated strains were susceptible to amphotericin B with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.25 to 1μg/mL. MIC obtained with caspofungin vary from 0.0625 to 2μg/mL for all strains. Moreover, one strain of C. krusei is resistant to caspofungin with a MIC superior to 8μg/mL. All though caspofungin is at least as effective as amphotericin B, it is better tolerated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia.

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    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment.

  15. Sequence-identification of Candida species isolated from candidemia

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    Fathi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin; Ghahri, Mohammad; Sadrossadati, Seyedeh Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections such as candidemia. Candidemia is a lethal fungal infection among immunocompromised patients worldwide. Main pathogen is Candida albicans but a global shift in epidemiology toward non-albicans species have reported. Species identification is imperative for good management of candidemia as a fatal infection. The aim of the study is to identify Candida spp. obtained from candidemia and determination of mortality rate among this population. Materials and Methods: The study was performed during February 2014 to March 2015 in Tehran, Iran. Two-hundred and four blood cultures were evaluated for fungal bloodstream infection. Identification of isolates was carried out using phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction sequencing technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 204 patients (10.8%) had candidemia. Candida parapsilosis was the most prevalent species (45.4%), followed by C. albicans (31.8%) and Candida glabrata (22.7%). Male to female sex ratio was 8/14. Conclusions: The emergence of resistant strains of Candida species should be considered by physicians to decrease the mortality of this fatal fungal infection by appropriate treatment. PMID:27713871

  16. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from patients with candidemia in southern Taiwan, 2007-2012: impact of new antifungal breakpoints.

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    Chen, Yi-Chun; Kuo, Shu-Fang; Chen, Fang-Ju; Lee, Chen-Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) revised the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for the azoles and echinocandins against Candida species in 2012. We aimed to report the epidemiology of candidemia and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species and evaluate the impact of new CBPs on antifungal susceptibility in our region. All blood isolates of Candida species were obtained from 2007 to 2012. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of fluconazole, voriconazole, echinocandins and flucytosine against Candida isolates were determined by Sensititre YeastOne system. Differences in susceptibility rates between the CBPs of previous and revised versions of CLSI were examined. Of 709 Candida isolates, the fluconazole-susceptible rate was 96.5% in Candida albicans, 85.8% in Candida tropicalis and 92.1% in Candida parapsilosis by the revised CBPs. Compared with the susceptibility results by previous CBPs, the marked reductions in susceptibility of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to fluconazole, that of C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis to voriconazole, that of C. tropicalis and Candida glabrata to anidulafungin and that of C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and Candida krusei to caspofungin by revised CBPs were found. In conclusion, Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole. The non-susceptible rates of Candida species to azoles and echinocandins increase with interpretation by the revised CBPs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

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    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species......, especially C. glabrata, following treatment for candidemia. The resistance rates were high, raising concern in general for patients exposed to antifungal drugs....

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS

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    Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND : The incidence of Candida infections has increased dramatically over the past few decades due to increase in the number of population susceptible to fungal infections. With multiple antifungal ag ents that are available and recovery of clinical isolates that exhibit inherent or developed resistance to commonly used antifungal agents, it has become imperative to do susceptibility testing routinely. The study was done to determine the predisposing fa ctors, species incidence and susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates to commonly use d antifungal agents. METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species were recovered from symptomatic clinical cases. Candida isolates were speciated by germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar and color produced on chromogenic media. Antifungal susceptibility test was done by disk diffusion method for nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin - B. RESULTS: Candida albicans is the m ost frequently isolated species. However, non - albicans Candida species, taken as a group has predominated in clinical samples. Chromogenic agar medium showed good correlation in species identification in comparison with conventional germ tube test and chla mydospore formation on corn meal agar. C. albicans (41, C. tropicalis (33, C. krusei (30 and C. glabrata (04 were isolated. Candida species showed 95.4% susceptibility to amphotericin - B, 77.8% to voriconazol e, 69.4% to nystatin, 64.1% to f luconazole an d 63.9% to itraconazole. CONCLUSION : Increasing incidence of non - albicans species infection. Chromogenic medium can be used for species identification. Increasing resistance of Candida species to commonly used antifungal agents.

  19. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation.

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    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Fuursted, Kurt; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Nielsen, Lene; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2010-04-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained during the years 2004-2008. The isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-encoding gene ( SADH) followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme Ban I, using C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. orthopsilosis ATCC 96139 and C. metapsilosis ATCC 96144 as controls. Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH gene alone, four isolates (5.1 %) had a pattern identical to the C. orthopsilosis reference strain. Sequence analysis of SADH and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) regions identified two of these isolates as C. metapsilosis. These results were confirmed by creating a phylogenetic tree based on concatenated sequences of SADH, ITS and 26S rRNA gene sequence regions. Optimal differentiation between C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis was predicted using digestion with NlaIII, producing discriminatory band sizes of: 131 and 505 bp; 74, 288 and 348 bp; and 131, 217 and 288 bp, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant number of invasive infections in Denmark.

  20. Epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of candidemia isolates of non-albicans Candida species from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping-Feng; Liu, Wei-Lun; Hsieh, Min-Han; Hii, Ing-Moi; Lee, Yu-Lin; Lin, Yi-Tsung; Ho, Mao-Wang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wang, Fu-Der

    2017-10-11

    Candidemia is a growing concern worldwide, and its species distribution has shifted toward non-albicans Candida in recent decades, especially in patients with malignancy. This study aimed to update the epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans candidemia isolates from the cancer patients. Adult cancer patients with non-albicans candidemia were recruited, and clinical data were retrospectively collected from five medical centers in Taiwan from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2014. In vitro susceptibility was determined by the broth dilution method using a Sensititre YeastOne system and interpreted according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A total of 346 episodes of non-albicans candidemia were identified in cancer patients. Candida tropicalis was the most common species (n=145, 41.9%) and had the highest resistance rate to fluconazole (n=17, 13.9%) among all the preserved isolates, including C. tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. A higher Charlson comorbidity index, non-albicans candidemia due to C. tropicalis, neutropenia and septic shock were independent predictors of 28-day mortality. In conclusion, the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of non-albicans candidemia isolates in our study differed from those in Western countries, providing useful information about local epidemiology for the selection of empirical antifungal agents for cancer patients.

  1. [Isolation rate and susceptibilities of candida species from blood, vascular catheter, urine and stool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Masato; Murakami, Hinako; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates during 2002-2008. Of 177 Candida isolates from blood, species distribution was 90 (51%) Candida albicans, 30 (17%) C. parapsilosis, 22 (12%) C. glabrata, 6 (3%) C. tropicalis and 29 (16%) other Candida spp.. Of 162 Candida isolates from vascular catheter, species distribution was 87 (54%) C. albicans, 14 (9%) C. parapsilosis, 36 (22%) C. glabrata, 5 (3%), C. tropicalis, 2 (1%) C. krusei and 18 (11%) other Candida spp.. Of 1889 Candida isolates from urine, species distribution was 1165 (62%) C. albicans, 22 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 484 (26%) C. glabrata, 83 (4%) C. tropicalis, 26 (1%) C. krusei and 109 (6%) other Candida spp.. Of 782 Candida isolates from stool, species distribution was 425 (54%) C. albicans, 3 (1%) C. parapsilosis, 103 (13%) C. glabrata, 28 (4%) C. tropicalis, 5 (1%), C. krusei and 218 (28%) other Candida spp. Both C. albicans and non-Candida spp. isolated from urine increased slightly over the past 7 years. Flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin still have strong activity against Candida isolates.

  2. Use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 3,764 clinical isolates of Candida by use of CLSI methods and interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Diekema, Daniel J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Due to unacceptably high interlaboratory variation in caspofungin MIC values, we evaluated the use of micafungin as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida spp. to caspofungin using reference methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. The MIC results for 3,764 strains of Candida (eight species), including 73 strains with fks mutations, were used. Caspofungin MIC values and species-specific interpretive criteria were compared with those of micafungin to determine the percent categorical agreement (%CA) and very major error (VME), major error (ME), and minor error rates as well as their ability to detect fks mutant strains of Candida albicans (11 mutants), Candida tropicalis (4 mutants), Candida krusei (3 mutants), and Candida glabrata (55 mutants). Overall, the %CA was 98.8% (0.2% VMEs and MEs, 0.8% minor errors) using micafungin as the surrogate marker. Among the 60 isolates of C. albicans (9 isolates), C. tropicalis (5 isolates), C. krusei (2 isolates), and C. glabrata (44 isolates) that were nonsusceptible (either intermediate or resistant) to both caspofungin and micafungin, 54 (90.0%) contained a mutation in fks1 or fks2. An additional 10 C. glabrata mutants, two C. albicans mutants, and one mutant each of C. tropicalis and C. krusei were classified as susceptible to both antifungal agents. Using the epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) of 0.12 μg/ml for caspofungin and 0.03 μg/ml for micafungin to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains of C. glabrata, 80% of the C. glabrata mutants were non-WT for both agents (96% concordance). Micafungin may serve as an acceptable surrogate marker for the prediction of susceptibility and resistance of Candida to caspofungin.

  3. Prospective multicenter study of the epidemiology, molecular identification, and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis isolated from patients with candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen; Velasco, David

    2011-12-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2%), and Candida metapsilosis (1.1%). Most candidemias (C. parapsilosis, 76.4%; C. orthopsilosis, 70.0%; C. metapsilosis, 100%) were observed in adults. No C. orthopsilosis or C. metapsilosis candidemias occurred in neonates. C. parapsilosis was most frequent in adult intensive care unit (28.8%), surgery (20.9%), and internal medicine (19.7%) departments; and C. orthopsilosis was most frequent in hematology (28.6%), pediatrics (12.0%), and neonatology (11.5%) departments. The geographic distribution of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis was not uniform. According to CLSI clinical breakpoints, all C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis isolates were susceptible to the nine agents tested. Resistance (MICs > 1 mg/liter) was observed only in C. parapsilosis: amphotericin B, posaconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin (0.3% each), anidulafungin (1.9%), and micafungin (2.5%). Applying the new species-specific fluconazole and echinocandin breakpoints, the rates of resistance to fluconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis increased to 4.8% and 0.3%, respectively; conversely, for C. parapsilosis they shifted from 1.9 to 0.6% (anidulafungin) and from 2.5 to 0.6% (micafungin). Our study confirms the different prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex candidemia among age groups: neither C. orthopsilosis nor C. metapsilosis was isolated from neonates; interestingly, C. metapsilosis was isolated only from adults and the elderly. The disparity in antifungal susceptibility among species

  4. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

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    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  5. Oral rinse as a potential method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients

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    Desiana Radithia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida isolate is easily sampled from oral cavity by swabbing directly on the candidiasis lesion, to be smeared onto slides for direct examination or cultured in a growth medium. This method is by far the gold standard for defining candidiasis diagnosis. However it is difficult to apply on sensitive patients and almost impossible on patients showing no clinical appearance of oral candidiasis. AIDS patients are very prone to candida infection and have a tendency of repetitive infection involving mixed species. As many candida species show different susceptibility to anti-fungal agents, it is necessary to identify the species causing the infection in the management of oral candidiasis. Oral rinse is a suggested method to obtain candida isolate to be cultured for further analysis such as species identification. This method is simple and less risky on infection transmission as less tools are required in the procedure. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the application of oral rinse as an alternative method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients. Methods: A cross-sectional observative study was conducted in HIV/AIDS in-Patient Facility of Intermediate Care Unit for Infection Disease, Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Fourteen stadium 4 AIDS patients matching criteria were swabbed on 1/3-posterior of the tongue, and then given 10 ml phosphate buffer saline to rinse vigorously for 15 seconds. Both specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and colony growth was observed. Results: Candida colonies were able to grow from all 14 isolates (100% by both methods. Qualitatively, cultures from oral rinse specimens were more populated than cultures from swab specimens. Conclusion: Oral rinse is an applicable technique to obtain Candida species isolate. This technique is safe, easy, non-invasive, and needs less tools therefore less risky for HIV transmission.Latar belakang: Isolat Candida mudah diambil dengan cara mengusap lesi

  6. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

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    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  7. Impact of Candida spp. isolation in the respiratory tract in patients with intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, S; Ferrer, M; Martín-Loeches, I; Esperatti, M; Di Pasquale, M; Giunta, V; Rinaudo, M; de Rosa, F; Li Bassi, G; Centanni, S; Torres, A

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompetent patients with nosocomial pneumonia, the relationship between Candida spp. isolation in respiratory samples and outcomes or association with other pathogens is controversial. We therefore compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), with or without Candida spp. isolation in the respiratory tract. In this prospective non-interventional study, we assessed 385 consecutive immunocompetent patients with ICUAP, according to the presence or absence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract samples. Candida spp. was isolated in at least one sample in 82 (21%) patients. Patients with Candida spp. had higher severity scores and organ dysfunction at admission and at onset of pneumonia. In multivariate analysis, previous surgery, diabetes mellitus and higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II at ICU admission independently predicted isolation of Candida spp. There were no significant differences in the rate of specific aetiological pathogens, the systemic inflammatory response, and length of stay between patients with and without Candida spp. Mortality was also similar, even adjusted for potential confounders in propensity-adjusted multivariate analyses (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.57-2.05, p 0.80 for 28-day mortality and adjusted hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 0.81-2.35, p 0.24 for 90-day mortality). Antifungal therapy was more frequently prescribed in patients with Candida spp. in respiratory samples but did not influence outcomes. Candida spp. airway isolation in patients with ICUAP is associated with more initial disease severity but does not influence outcomes in these patients, regardless of the use or not of antifungal therapy. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  9. Proteinase and phospholipase activity as virulence factors in Candida species isolated from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan das, Vinitha; Ballal, Mamatha

    2008-12-31

    The number of nosocomial blood stream infections due to Candida species has increased over the past few decades. In order to establish an infection, opportunistic pathogens have to evade the immune system, survive, divide in the host environment, and spread to other tissues. Proteinase and phospholipase secretion has been implicated as potential virulence factors for some Candida species responsible for catheter related candidemia in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with indwelling devices. We therefore have aimed at demonstrating the secretion of proteinase and phospholipase enzymes as virulent factors by Candida species isolated from blood samples collected from ICUs, dialysis units and oncology units. One hundred and fourteen isolates of Candida species were obtained from the blood samples and the isolates include 37 Candida albicans, 7 Candida glabrata, 5 Candida guilliermondii, 3 Candida kefyr, 45 Candida krusei, 5 Candida parapsilosis, and 12 Candida tropicalis. Proteinase assay was performed by using the Staib et al method. Phospholipase assay was performed by using the method of Samaranayake et al. Precipitation zone (Pz value) was determined. The percentage of isolates which produced detectable amounts of proteinase is 74.56% and 44.73% of isolates produced detectable amounts of phospholipase. We believe that production of both phospholipase and proteinase enzimes could be an important virulence factor for several Candida species.

  10. Conditions influencing the in vitro antifungal activity of lactoferrin combined with antimycotics against clinical isolates of Candida - Impact on the development of buccal preparations of lactoferrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, ME; Beljaars, L; Van Beek, N; De Vries, HG; Heegsma, J; Van Den Berg, JJM; Meijer, DKF; Swart, PJ

    2002-01-01

    Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a potential agent for the treatment of oropharyngeal Candidiasis. The aim of the present study was to test the capability of lactoferrin, combined or not combined with conventional antifungal agents, to inhibit the growth of different Candida species und

  11. Prevalence of Candida spp. in cervical-vaginal samples and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates

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    Tchana Martinez Brandolt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

  12. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Fluconazole susceptibility of Brazilian Candida isolates assessed by a disk diffusion method

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    Arnaldo L. Colombo

    Full Text Available The increasing magnitude of antifungal resistance as well as the advent of new antifungal drugs has generated a renewed interest in fungal susceptibility testing. We used a previously described disk diffusion method to evaluate the susceptibility profile of a large collection of recent clinical Candida spp. isolates against fluconazole. A total of 1,784 yeast isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (1,036, C. tropicalis (279, C. parapsilosis (202, C. glabrata (119, C. guilliermondii (90, C. krusei (32, C. lusitaniae (7, Candida spp. (14 and other yeasts (5. Susceptibility ranking to fluconazole obtained with all yeasts tested was: C. parapsilosis @ C. tropicalis @ C. guilliermondii > C. glabrata > C. krusei. The majority (94% of all yeast isolates tested were susceptible to fluconazole. Isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei exhibited the highest rate of DDS/resistance among all isolates tested but they represented only 9% of all yeasts routinely sent to our lab. Careful periodical surveillance is needed in order to identify any changes in the susceptibility patterns of fluconazole with the increased use of this antifungal agent in Brazilian tertiary care hospitals.

  14. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida spp. bloodstream isolates from Latin American hospitals

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    Godoy Patrício

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From March 1999 to March 2000, we conducted a prospective multicenter study of candidemia involving five tertiary care hospitals from four countries in Latin America. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and the antifungal susceptibility profile was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards microbroth assay method. During a 12 month-period we were able to collect a total of 103 bloodstream isolates of Candida spp. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species accounting for 42% of all isolates. Non-albicans Candida species strains accounted for 58% of all episodes of candidemia and were mostly represented by C. tropicalis (24.2% and C. parapsilosis (21.3%. It is noteworthy that we were able to identify two cases of C. lusitaniae from different institutions. In our casuistic, non-albicans Candida species isolates related to candidemic episodes were susceptible to fluconazole. Continuously surveillance programs are needed in order to identify possible changes in the species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of yeasts that may occurs after increasing the use of azoles in Latin American hospitals.

  15. Fungicidal efficacy of various honeys against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV(+) patients with candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Honey is well known to possess a broad spectrum of activity against medically important organisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of different honeys against 40 fluconazole (FLU) resistant Candida species, including Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Three honey samples were collected from northern (Mazandaran, A), southern (Hormozgan, B) and central (Lorestan, C) regions of Iran. A microdilution technique based on the CLSI, M27-A2 protocol was employed to compare the susceptibility of honeys "A", "B" and "C" against different pathogenic Candida isolates. The results showed that different Candida isolates were resistant to FLU, ranging from 64μg/mL to 512μg/mL. All of the honeys tested had antifungal activities against FLU-resistant Candida species, ranging from 20% to 56.25% (v/v) and 25% to 56.25% (v/v) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), respectively. Honey "A" (MIC: 31.59%, v/v) showed higher anti-Candida activity than honey "B" (MIC: 35.99%, v/v) and honey "C" (MIC: 39.2%, v/v). No statistically significant differences were observed among the mean MIC values of the honey samples (P>0.05). The order of overall susceptibility of Candida species to honey samples were; C. krusei>C. glabrata>C. tropicalis>C. albicans (P>0.05). In addition, the mean MICs of Candida strains isolated from the nail, vagina and oral cavity were 33.68%, 36.44% and 39.89%, respectively, and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Overall, varying susceptibilities to the anti-Candida properties of different honeys were observed with four FLU-resistant species of Candida. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of honey as an inhibitor of candidal growth in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro Susceptibility of Fluconazole, Clotrimazole and Toucrium Polium Smoke Product on Candida Isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis

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    B Bonyadpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been estimated that up to 75% of women in their child-bearing age have been affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their life time. Almost 45% of women experience this infection two or more times. The antifungal azole group, in topical and oral forms, is the common way of therapy. Herbal products are often used for vulvovaginal therapy. Nowadays, Toucrium polium (TP products are being used as traditional medicine to reduce signs of Candida vaginitis. There is no study regarding to antifungal activity of TP smoke product in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the In vitro activity of TP smoke product against Candida, isolated from women with Candida vaginitis, compared with antifungal drugs which are ordinary used to cure Candida vaginitis. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Shiraz in 1387 (2008. During seven months, samples were taken from 450 patients suffering from urogenital infections and 105 Candida vaginitis were detected. Germ tube test was used for identification of fungal species. TP smoke product was prepared in suitable potency. Antifungal activity of fluconazole, clotrimazole and TP product were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Sterile blank disks were loaded by TP smoke product in potency of 10-240 microliter/disk. Inhibition zone around the disks were measured and compared with each other. Results: 105 Candida species were isolated from the patients. Candida species were identified by germ tube test as Candida albicans 74 (70.5% and Candida non-albicans 31(29.5%.The mean of inhibition zone around the clotrimazole disks was 22±5.39 along with one case of resistance. Forty seven species had resistance to fluconazole while 94% and 55.2.% of all samples were sensitive to clotrimazole and fluconazole respectively. All of the clinical isolates and standard Candida species were sensitive to TP smoke product

  17. Clinical significance of the isolation of Candidaspecies from hospitalized patients

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    Yankee C. Magalhães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we isolated and phenotypically identified 108 yeast strains from various clinical specimens collected from 100 hospitalized patients at three tertiary hospitals in São Luís-Maranhão, Brazil, from July to December 2010. The isolates were analyzed for their susceptibility to four of the most widely used antifungal agents in the surveyed hospitals, amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and voriconazole. The species identified were Candida albicans (41.4%, Candida tropicalis (30.1%, C. glabrata (7.4%, Candida parapsilosis(5.5%, Candida krusei (4.6%, Cryptococcus neoformans (4.6%, Trichosporonspp. (3.7%, Candida norvegensis (0.9%, Rhodotorula glutinis (0.9% and Pichia farinosa (0.9%. A higher isolation rate was observed in the following clinical specimens: urine (54 isolates; 50%, respiratory tract samples (21 isolates; 19.4% and blood (20 isolates; 18.6%. Candida albicans isolates were 100% sensitive to all antifungal agents tested, whereas Candida krusei and Crytococcus neoformans displayed intermediate resistance to 5-flucytosine, with Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC values of 8 mg/mL and 16 mg/mL, respectively. Both strains were also S-DD to fluconazole with an MIC of 16 mg/mL. C. tropicalis was resistant to 5-flucytosine with an MIC of 32 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of identifying the yeast species involved in community and nosocomial infections.

  18. Production of virulence factors in Candida strains isolated from patients with denture stomatitis and control individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Domingues, Nádia; Araújo, Maria Izabel Daniel Santos Alves; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Back-Brito, Graziella Nuernberg; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of virulence factors in Candida isolates from the oral cavities of 50 patients with different degrees of denture stomatitis (DS, type I, II and III) and 50 individuals without signs of DS. We evaluated the enzymatic and hemolytic activities, the biofilm formation, and the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) in all isolates. Germ tube (GT) production was also evaluated in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis isolates. In C. albicans and C. dubliniensis the secretion of hemolysin and GT production was significantly different between isolates from patients with DS and individuals without DS. No significant difference was observed in the production of virulence factors by Candida glabrata isolates. Candida isolates expressed a wide range of virulence factors. However, in the majority of isolates from the type III lesions, the production of the virulence factors was higher than for the other groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana C; Fuchs, Beth B; Muhammed, Maged; Coleman, Jeffrey J; Suleiman, Jamal M A H; Vilela, Simone F G; Costa, Anna C B P; Rasteiro, Vanessa M C; Jorge, Antonio O C; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2011-11-04

    Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg) than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg). However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%), C. novergensis (37%), C. krusei (25%), C. glabrata (20%), and C. kefyr (12%). We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates, suggesting that Candida isolates have similar biofilm

  20. Detection of ERG11 mutations in clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole%耐氟康唑白念珠菌临床株ERG11基因突变检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永豪; 陈腊梅; 李春阳

    2008-01-01

    Objeetive To detect ERG11 gene mutations in clinical isolares of Candida albicans resistant to fluconazole.and discuss their relationship with formation of drug resistance.Methods Clinical specimens were collected.CHROMagar mediuln and amplification of the fragment spanning the conserved sequence of 25S rDNA including some transposable introns.were used to identify subtype Candida albicans isolates.FIuconazole sensitivity was detected in vitro through microdilution and Rosco tablets.The other three fragment of ERG11 gene were amplified and followed by sequencing with resistant type strain ATCC 76615-19 and Candida albicans Darlington strain with two sensitive isolates as controh.Results Fifteen resistant isolates of Candida albicans were found,all of which were type A.Sixteen silent mutations and 11 missense mutations were detected.Mutations in ATCC 76615-19 and Darlington strain were same with what had been reported.In the 2 sensitive strains.G640A(E165K),A945C(E266D)and G1609A/G(V488I)occurred,as well as the other 9 silent mutations.Only G487T(A114S)and T916C(Y257H)existed in each of 14 resistant isolates.In the other one resistant isolate,T541C(Y132H),T495A(D116E),A530C (K128T)and T1493A(F449Y)occurred Mong with 8 silent mutations.Conclusions The occurrence of G487T(A114S)and 1916C(Y257H)in 14 isolates from different sources suggested they may involve in fluconazole resistance.The novel mutation T1493A(F449Y)can appear in resistant isolves of Candida albicans.%目的 筛查耐氟康唑白念珠菌ERG11基因突变,探讨其与耐药的关系.方法 用柯玛嘉显色培养基和25S rDNA转座内含子保守区分型方法,收集鉴定白念珠菌临床株.联用微量稀释法和Rosco药敏纸片扩散法体外测定试验菌株对氟康唑的敏感性.以ERG11序列明确的白念珠菌标准耐药株ATCC 76615-19和达令顿株为质控,以标准敏感株C1b和临床敏感株02928为对照,分3段扩增临床耐药株ERG11基因并测序.结果 获得15株A

  1. Use of anidulafungin as a surrogate marker to predict susceptibility and resistance to caspofungin among 4,290 clinical isolates of Candida by using CLSI methods and interpretive criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2014-09-01

    This study addressed the application of anidulafungin as a surrogate marker to predict the susceptibility of Candida to caspofungin due to unacceptably high interlaboratory variation of caspofungin MIC values. CLSI reference broth microdilution methods and species-specific interpretive criteria were used to test 4,290 strains of Candida (eight species), including 71 strains with documented fks mutations. Caspofungin MIC values were compared with those of anidulafungin to determine the percentage of categorical agreement (CA) and very major (VME), major (ME), and minor error rates, as well as the ability to detect fks mutants. For all 4,290 isolates the CA was 97.1% (0.2% VME and ME, 2.5% minor errors) using anidulafungin as the surrogate. Among the 62 isolates of Candida albicans (4 isolates), C. tropicalis (5 isolates), C. krusei (4 isolates), C. kefyr (2 isolates), and C. glabrata (47 isolates) that were nonsusceptible (NS; either intermediate [I] or resistant [R]) to both caspofungin and anidulafungin, 52 (83.8%) contained a mutation in fks1 or fks2. Eight mutants of C. glabrata, two of C. albicans, and one each of C. tropicalis and C. krusei were classified as susceptible (S) to both antifungal agents. The remaining 7 mutants (2 C. albicans and 5 C. glabrata) were susceptible to one of the agents and either intermediate or resistant to the other. Using the epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.12 μg/ml for both caspofungin and anidulafungin to differentiate wild-type (WT) from non-WT strains of C. glabrata, 42 of the 55 (76.4%) C. glabrata mutants were non-WT and 8 of the 55 (14.5%) were WT for both agents (90.9% concordance). Anidulafungin can accurately serve as a surrogate marker to predict S and R of Candida to caspofungin.

  2. Prospective Multicenter Study of the Epidemiology, Molecular Identification, and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis Isolated from Patients with Candidemia ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cantón, Emilia; Pemán, Javier; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena; Miranda-Zapico, Ilargi; Álvarez, María; Merino, Paloma; Campos-Herrero, Isolina; Marco, Francesc; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gomez G.; Yagüe, Genoveva; Guna, Remedios; Rubio, Carmen; Miranda, Consuelo; Pazos, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A 13-month prospective multicenter study including 44 hospitals was carried out to evaluate the epidemiology of Candida parapsilosis complex candidemia in Spain. Susceptibility to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin was tested by the microdilution colorimetric method. A total of 364 C. parapsilosis complex isolates were identified by molecular methods: C. parapsilosis (90.7%), Candida orthopsilosis (8.2...

  3. Antifungal activity of propolis against Candida species isolated from cases of chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Ana Beatriz Sotero; Rodriguez, Larissa Rodrigues Nolasco de Araújo; Santos, Ruth Karine Barroso; Marinho, Ricardo Romulo Batista; Abreu, Sheila; Peixoto, Raniel Fernandes; Gurgel, Bruno César de Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    This research evaluated the fungistatic and fungicidal activities of red propolis alcoholic extract (RPAE) against different Candida species isolated from chronic periodontitis cases, and compared with chlorhexidine (CHX). Nineteen samples of Candida species (C. albicans [n = 12], C. tropicalis [n = 5] and C. glabrata [n = 2]) isolated from chronic periodontitis cases were analyzed. The fungistatic and fungicidal activity of both RPAE and CHX were evaluated using fluconazole and C. parapsilosis (ATCC 6258) as a control. Fungistatic activity was analyzed based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference procedure to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations. Fungicidal activity was established according to the absence of fungal growth on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar medium. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities of RPAE were observed, respectively, at 32-64 μg/mL and 64-512 μg/mL for C. albicans, 64 μg/mL and 64-256 μg/mL for C. glabrata, and 32-64 μg/mL and 64 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. CHX fungistatic activity was observed at concentrations of 0.003-1.92 µg/mL for C. albicans, 1.92 µg/mL for C. glabrata, and 0.03-1.92 µg/mL for C. tropicalis. Fluconazole fungistatic activity ranged between 1-64 μg/mL, and fungicidal activity occurred at 8-64 μg/mL, for the three Candida species analyzed. All the Candida species were susceptible to RPAE antifungal activity, but five samples of C. albicans, one of C. tropicalis and one of C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole antifungal activity. CHX showed fungistatic activity against all the Candida species analyzed. The antifungal potential of these substances suggests that they can be applied as an alternative treatment for diseases affected by these species.

  4. Antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes of animal-derived isolates of Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; de Jesus Santos Rodrigues, Terezinha; de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Débora; Teixeira, Carlos Eduardo Cordeiro; de Brito Macedo, Ramila; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Pereira de Alencar, Lucas; Monteiro, André Jalles; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rossana; de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Tereza; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to identify strains of the Candida parapsilosis complex isolated from animals, as well as to assess their in vitro antifungal susceptibility profile and in vitro production of virulence attributes. We used 28 isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu lato recovered from clinically healthy animals. The strains were characterized phenotypically, followed by molecular identification of the species through PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. The susceptibility of the strains to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole and caspofungin was assessed through broth microdilution. Additionally, the ability of the strains to produce biofilm, phospholipases and proteases was analysed. Molecular analysis showed 13 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 10 Candida orthopsilosis and five Candida metapsilosis strains. In vitro resistance to fluconazole was observed in three strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and two C. metapsilosis. All tested strains were able to form biofilms and 23/28 isolates presented protease production, whilst none was able to produce phospholipases. Our study showed that C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis are the most common species of the C. parapsilosis species complex and that these cryptic species present no significant phenotypical differences.

  5. Biofilm formation by and antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates from urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, N; Kohli, R; Cook, E; Gialanella, P; Chang, T; Fries, B C

    2007-03-01

    Biofilm formation (BF) in the setting of candiduria has not been well studied. We determined BF and MIC to antifungals in Candida spp. isolates grown from urine samples of patients and performed a retrospective chart review to examine the correlation with risk factors. A total of 67 Candida spp. isolates were grown from urine samples from 55 patients. The species distribution was C. albicans (54%), C. glabrata (36%), and C. tropicalis (10%). BF varied greatly among individual Candida isolates but was stable in sequential isolates during chronic infection. BF also depended on the growth medium and especially in C. albicans was significantly enhanced in artificial urine (AU) compared to RPMI medium. In nine of the C. albicans strains BF was 4- to 10-fold higher in AU, whereas in three of the C. albicans strains and two of the C. glabrata strains higher BF was measured in RPMI medium than in AU. Determination of the MICs showed that planktonic cells of all strains were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB) and caspofungin (CASPO) and that three of the C. glabrata strains and two of the C. albicans strains were resistant to fluconazole (FLU). In contrast, all biofilm-associated adherent cells were resistant to CASPO and FLU. The biofilms of 14 strains (28%) were sensitive to AMB (MIC(50) of Candida strains that varies greatly among clinical strains and is dependent on the growth medium. Resistance to AMB is associated with higher BF in AU, which may represent the more physiologic medium to test BF. Future studies should address whether in vitro BF can predict treatment failure in vivo.

  6. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  7. Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species: comparison of biofilm production and metabolic activity in biofilms, and putative virulence properties of isolates from hospital environments and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A V; Prado, C G; Carvalho, R R; Dias, K S T; Dias, A L T

    2013-04-01

    Candida albicans and, more recently, non-C. albicans Candida spp. are considered the most frequent fungi in hospitals. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency of different species, that is, C. albicans and non-C. albicans Candida spp., and the origins of isolates, that is, from hospital environments or infections. Yeast virulence factors were evaluated based on biofilm production and metabolic activity. Hemolysin production and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of isolates were also evaluated. Candida spp. were highly prevalent in samples collected from hospital environments, which may provide a reservoir for continuous infections with these yeasts. There were no differences in the biofilm productivity levels and metabolic activities of the environmental and clinical isolates, although the metabolic activities of non-C. albicans Candida spp. biofilms were greater than those of the C. albicans biofilms (p albicans Candida spp. predominated in samples collected from hospital environments and infections (p albicans, which may explain the increased incidence of fungal infections with these yeasts during recent years.

  8. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin; Wang; Li-Hua; Huang; Ji-Xue; Zhao; Man; Wei; Hua; Fang; Dan-Yang; Wang; Hong-Fa; Wang; Ji-Gang; Yin; Mei; Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans(C.albicans)from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance.Methods: Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected.Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans(2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced.Results: Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2% were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8% and4.2% were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total,27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dosedependent isolates. Among them, Y132 H, A114 S, and Y257 H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464 S and F72 S also have been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified.Conclusions: Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azoleresistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  9. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Li-Hua Huang; Ji-Xue Zhao; Man Wei; Hua Fang; Dan-Yang Wang; Hong-Fa Wang; Ji-Gang Yin; Mei Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans (C. albicans) from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance. Methods:Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected. Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans (2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced. Results:Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2%were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8%and 4.2%were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total, 27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dose-dependent isolates. Among them, Y132H, A114S, and Y257H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464S and F72S also has been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified. Conclusions:Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azole-resistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  10. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and wa

  11. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological fungicide...

  12. Scope and frequency of fluconazole trailing assessed using EUCAST in invasive Candida spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Trailing is a well-known phenomenon that is defined as reduced but persistent visible growth of Candida spp. at fluconazole concentrations above the MIC. Trailing is commonly detected using the CLSI M27-A3 method, although little is known about its frequency when investigated with EUCAST. We assessed the frequency and scope of fluconazole trailing after using EUCAST EDef 7.2. against a large number of Candida spp. isolates from patients with candidemia. We studied 639 fluconazole-susceptible non-krusei Candida spp. isolates from 570 patients admitted to Gregorio Marañón Hospital. Isolates were tested in vitro for fluconazole susceptibility according to the EUCAST EDef 7.2 procedure; trailing was defined as the presence of any residual growth in wells containing fluconazole concentrations above the MIC. According to the mean percentage of trailing observed, isolates were classified as residual trailers (0.1-5%), slight trailers (6%-10%), moderate trailers (11%-15%), and heavy trailers (>15%). The relationship between trailing and genotyping was assessed. The mean overall percentage of trailing was 6.8%, with C. albicans and C. tropicalis showing the highest percentages (9.75% and 9.29%, respectively; P 15%). Trailing was not genotype-specific. Fluconazole trailing was observed frequently when EUCAST was used for antifungal susceptibility testing, particularly in isolates of C. albicans and C. tropicalis The cut-off proposed enabled us to classify the isolates according to the degree of trailing and can be used as the basis for future studies to evaluate the clinical impact of this phenomenon. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Typing of Candida isolates from patients with invasive infection and concomitant colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Bergmann, O.; Jensen, Irene Møller

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between colonizing and invasive isolates from patients with candidaemia. Molecular typing was performed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found MLST to be sufficient for typing Candida isolates, and that......We investigated the relationship between colonizing and invasive isolates from patients with candidaemia. Molecular typing was performed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found MLST to be sufficient for typing Candida isolates...

  15. Primary isolation of Candida species from urine specimens using chromogenic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulicz, J F; Rivard, R G; Conger, N G; Nguyen, M X; Hospenthal, D R

    2008-03-01

    CHROMagar Candida (CaC) is a chromogenic medium that can be used to detect Candida species, including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. We evaluated the utility of CaC to detect candiduria in high-risk patients and the potential usefulness of this information in directing initial antifungal therapy in those later identified with candidaemia. CaC was compared in parallel to standard laboratory methods (SM) for the detection of Candida from urine collected from high-risk units and wards. Of 893 samples, Candida was recovered by CaC from 104 compared with 35 using SM. No isolates detected by SM were undetected by CaC. More than one Candida species were recovered by CaC in 19 of the 104 (18.3%); only two mixed cultures were detected by SM. The identification was more rapid with CaC. Five of 69 patients with candiduria detected by CaC developed candidaemia on or after the date of urine culture. SM recovered fungus in only two of these patients. CaC can be used as primary media for the detection of Candida species from urine specimens. Primary isolation by CaC may enable clinicians to make earlier, directed selection of antifungal agents and potentially reduce patient morbidity and mortality.

  16. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  17. Susceptibility profile of Candida spp. isolated from humans and dogs with stomatitis to the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida spp. form a part of human and animal oral cavity flora. However Candida spp. is the main cause of dental related stomatitis in humans and stomatitis in dogs. Stomatitis treatment implies the use of azoles and polyenes to which yeasts build up resistance. The research is directed to the use of natural compounds such as essential oils. The aim of this paper is to define the antifungal activity of thyme oil on 15 clinical strains of Candida spp., isolated from humans and dogs and to determine if there is a difference in susceptibility between human and dog isolates. Sampling in patients with stomatitis was done by swabbing the denture or oral mucosa swab while sampling in dogs was done by swabbing the oral cavity mucosa after stomatitis has been diagnosed. In order to investigate the antifungal activity of thyme oil in vitro, microdilution method was used. Thyme oil expressed antifungal effects on all investigated strains. Also, our data show that the values of minimum fungicide concentration (MFC and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC are lower in human strains. Explanation is that in most cases, stomatitis in humans is asymptomatic and thus not treated, so Candida strains have not developed resistance. On the other hand, stomatitis in dogs is followed by a marked clinical picture and treated is by antimicotics (mostly by azoles, therefore resistant Candida strains are more likely to occur.

  18. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  19. 光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的分子机制%Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈银忠; 卢洪洲; 张永信

    2010-01-01

    目的 明确光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的主要分子机制.方法 采用实时荧光定量RT.PCR技术对光滑念珠菌临床分离株ERG11、CDR1和CDR2基因表达的mRNA进行相对定量,比较氟康唑耐药株与敏感株基因表达水平的差异.结果 在光滑念珠菌氟康唑耐药株、剂量依赖性敏感株及敏感株中,ERG11基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:121.4±96.8、102.9±78.8、51.2±20.7:CDR1基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:3.1±1.4、1.9±0.7、1.1±0.4;CDR2基因mRNA相对表达量分别为:3.7±2.2、3.4±2.4、1.9±0.9.耐药株ERGll基因mRNA表达量高于敏感株(P=0.041);耐药株(P<0.001)和剂量依赖性敏感株(P=0.009)CDR1基因mRNA表达量均高于敏感株;耐药株CDR2基因mRNA表达量高于敏感株(P=0.018).随着光滑念珠菌对氟康唑敏感性的降低,ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因mRNA的表达量均不同程度上升.结论 ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因mRNA的上调表达与光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑的耐药性有关,ERG11、CDR1及CDR2基因上调表达是光滑念珠菌临床分离株对氟康唑耐药的主要分子机制.%Objective To determine if changes in the levels of expression of ERG11, CDR1 and CDR2 genes could be associated with resistance phenotype in clinical isolates of Candida glbrata (C. glabrata). Methods We used quantitative RT-PCR analysis to evaluate the expression of the ERG11, CDR1 and CDR2 genes in clinical isolates including 9 fluconazole-resistant, 9 flueonazole-susceptible dose dependent (S-DD) and 10 fluconazole-sensitive C glabrata isolates. Results In the fluconazole-resistant isolates. The S-DD isolates and the fluconazole-sensitive isolates, the levels of expression of ERG11 gene were 21.4±96.8, 102.9±78.8, 51.2±20.7, respectively; the levels of expression of CDR1 gene were 3.1±1.4, 1.9±0.7,1.1±0.4, respectively; the levels of expression of CDR2 gene were 3.7±2.2,3.4±2.4,1.9±0.9, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses revealed

  20. Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C; Kumar, N; Pandey, R; Meis, J F; Chowdhary, A

    2016-09-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast that causes nosocomial fungaemia and deep-seated infections. Notably, the emergence of this yeast is alarming as it exhibits resistance to azoles, amphotericin B and caspofungin, which may lead to clinical failure in patients. The multigene phylogeny and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing methods report the C. auris population as clonal. Here, using whole genome sequencing analysis, we decipher for the first time that C. auris strains from four Indian hospitals were highly related, suggesting clonal transmission. Further, all C. auris isolates originated from cases of fungaemia and were resistant to fluconazole (MIC >64 mg/L).

  1. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS OR DETECTION OF SECRETED ASPARTYL PROTEINASE IN URINARY ISOLATES OF CANDIDA SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Patil

    2014-04-01

    Results: Out of 150 candida species isolated from clinical urine samples 86.6% were C. tropicalis, followed by C. albicans (11.3%, C. glabrata (1.33% and C. dubliniensis (0.6%. SAP detection using Bovine serum agar was 29.3% where as using bovine haemoglobin agar was 18.6%. Conclusions: So we conclude that the bovine serum agar is far superior to bovine haemoglobin agar for detection of SAP. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 119-121

  2. Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Yarrowia (Candida) lipolytica Isolates Causing Fungemia: a Multicenter, Prospective Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wang, He; Guo, Dawen; Pan, Yuhong; Xiao, Yuling; Yue, Na; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Xu, Yingchun; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat

    2015-11-01

    Our case series showed that uncomplicated Yarrowia lipolytica fungemia might be treated with catheter removal alone. The Vitek 2 YST identification (ID) card system, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and internal transcribed spacer and 25S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) gene sequencing provided reliable identification. All isolates had low MICs to voriconazole, echinocandins, and amphotericin B.

  3. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  4. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Rodríguez-Purata, Pamela; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Vázquez-Villaseñor, Marco; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina; Vaca, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes...

  5. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, C. norvegensis, and C. dubliniensis. The systemic strains were isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. lusitaniae, and C. kefyr. For each of the acquired strains, biofilm formation was evaluated on standardized samples of silicone pads and acrylic resin. We assessed the pathogenicity of the strains by infecting G. mellonella animals with Candida strains and observing survival. Results The biofilm formation and pathogenicity in Galleria was similar between oral and systemic isolates. The quantity of biofilm formed and the virulence in G. mellonella were different for each of the species studied. On silicone pads, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis produced more biofilm (1.12 to 6.61 mg than the other species (0.25 to 3.66 mg. However, all Candida species produced a similar biofilm on acrylic resin, material used in dental prostheses. C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis were the most virulent species in G. mellonella with 100% of mortality, followed by C. lusitaniae (87%, C. novergensis (37%, C. krusei (25%, C. glabrata (20%, and C. kefyr (12%. Conclusions We found that on silicone pads as well as in the Galleria model, biofilm formation and virulence depends on the Candida species. Importantly, for C. albicans the pathogenicity of oral Candida isolates was similar to systemic Candida isolates

  6. Two new anamorphic yeasts, Candida thailandica sp. nov. and Candida lignicola sp. nov., isolated from insect frass in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Tuntirungkij, Manee; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2007-12-01

    Two new yeast strains of the genus Candida were isolated from insect frass collected in Khao-Yai National Park, Nakhonrachasima, Thailand. Based on the morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, these two strains were found to represent two distinct undescribed species and were named Candida thailandica sp. nov. (ST-17 = BCC 7717(T) = NBRC 102562(T)=CBS 10 610) and Candida lignicola sp. nov. (ST-33 = BCC 7733(T) = NBRC 102564(T) = CBS 10612). In the D1/D2 domain of 26S rRNA gene, C. thailandica (GeneBank accession no. AY228491) differs from Candida tsuchiyae, the nearest species, in 66 nucleotide substitutions (10%) and C. lignicola (GeneBank accession no. AY845350) differs from Candida coipomoensis, the nearest species, in nine nucleotides (1.6%). These two new species are clearly distinguished from their closest species by the assimilation of several carbon compounds.

  7. Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato) isolated from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil: Species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and virulence attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Mariangela; Souza, Lucieri O P; Gandra, Rafael M; Galdino, Anna Clara M; Baptista, Andréa R S; Nunes, Ana Paula F; Ribeiro, Mariceli A; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2015-12-01

    Candida parapsilosis (sensu lato), which represents a fungal complex composed of three genetically related species - Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis, has emerged as an important yeast causing fungemia worldwide. The goal of the present work was to assess the prevalence, antifungal susceptibility and production of virulence traits in 53 clinical isolates previously identified as C. parapsilosis (sensu lato) obtained from hospitals located in the Southeast of Brazil. Species forming this fungal complex are physiologically/morphologically indistinguishable; however, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism of FKS1 gene has solved the identification inaccuracy, revealing that 43 (81.1%) isolates were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 10 (18.9%) as C. orthopsilosis. No C. metapsilosis was found. The geographic distribution of these Candida species was uniform among the studied Brazilian States (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo). All C. orthopsilosis and almost all C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (95.3%) isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Nevertheless, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was resistant to fluconazole and another one was resistant to caspofungin. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates exhibited higher MIC mean values to amphotericin B, fluconazole and caspofungin than those of C. orthopsilosis, while C. orthopsilosis isolates displayed higher MIC mean to itraconazole compared to C. parapsilosis sensu stricto. Identical MIC mean values to voriconazole were measured for these Candida species. All the isolates of both species were able to form biofilm on polystyrene surface. Impressively, biofilm-growing cells of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis exhibited a considerable resistance to all antifungal agents tested. Pseudohyphae were observed in 67.4% and 80

  8. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda Mb; Girão, Manoel João Bc; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14 Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and two Candida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrata isolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ.

  9. Comparison of the clinical risk factors between Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species for bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemura, Katsumi; Osawa, Kayo; Jikimoto, Takumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Hayama, Brian; Ohji, Goh; Iwata, Kentaro; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the risk factors and susceptibilities to antifungal agents of Candida albicans and Candida non-albicans species (spp.) in candidemia cases in Kobe University Hospital. We investigated all consecutive patients with candida bloodstream infection (BSI) from 2008-2013 for whose full data were available for analyses, examining clinical factors such as gender, general complications, postoperative status or susceptibilities to antifungal agents. These factors were also compared between Candida albicans spp. and Candida non-albicans by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate analyses showed a significantly higher rate of Candida non-albicans species BSI patients cancer (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI))=2.29 (1.04-5.06) and P=0.040), chemotherapy (OR=4.35 (1.11-17.1) and P=0.035), fluconazole (FLCZ) resistance (OR=77.3 (4.51-1324) and P=0.003), and itraconazole (ITCZ) resistance (OR=15.6 (5.39-45.1) and PCandida albicans. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. had significantly higher rate of chemotherapy (OR=4.44 (1.04-19.0) and P=0.045), FLCZ resistance (OR=5.87 (2.01-17.1) and P=0.001), and ITCZ resistance (OR=18.7(5.77-60.4) and PCandida albicans. In conclusion, this study revealed several risk factors for BSI with Candida albicans (underlying cardiovascular diseases and postoperative status) and Candida non-albicans spp. (cancer and chemotherapy), and demonstrated that Candida non-albicans spp. were more resistant to FLCZ and ITCZ than Candida albicans.

  10. Candida duobushaemulonii: an emerging rare pathogenic yeast isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatto, Humberto Fabio; Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Del Negro, Gilda MB; Girão, Manoel João BC; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Ishida, Kelly; Gompertz, Olga Fischman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify Candida species isolated from women diagnosed with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) and their partners; and to evaluate the fluconazole (FLZ) susceptibility of the isolates. In a period of six years, among 172 patients diagnosed with vulvovaginal candidiasis, 13 women that presented RVVC and their partners were selected for this investigation. The isolates were obtained using Chromagar Candida medium, the species identification was performed by phenotypic and molecular methods and FLZ susceptibility was evaluated by E-test. Among 26 strains we identified 14Candida albicans, six Candida duobushaemulonii, four Candida glabrata, and twoCandida tropicalis. Agreement of the isolated species occurred in 100% of the couples. FLZ low susceptibility was observed for all isolates of C. duobushaemulonii (minimal inhibitory concentration values from 8-> 64 µg/mL), two C. glabrataisolates were FLZ-resistant and all C. albicans and C. tropicalis isolates were FLZ-susceptible. This report emphasises the importance of accurate identification of the fungal agents by a reliable molecular technique in RVVC episodes besides the lower antifungal susceptibility profile of this rare pathogen C. duobushaemulonii to FLZ. PMID:27304096

  11. Antifungal susceptibility of invasive Candida bloodstream isolates from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Thean Yen; Hsu, Li Yang; Alejandria, Marissa M; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Chinniah, Terrence; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Choudhury, Saugata; Chen, Yen Hsu; Shin, Jong Hee; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Mendoza, Myrna; Prabhu, Kavitha; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai; Tan, Ai Ling; Phan, Xuan Thi; Tran, Thi Thanh Nga; Nguyen, Gia Binh; Doan, Mai Phuong; Huynh, Van An; Nguyen, Su Minh Tuyet; Tran, Thanh Binh; Van Pham, Hung

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species are of increasing importance and associated with significant mortality. We performed a multi-centre prospective observational study to identify the species and antifungal susceptibilities of invasive bloodstream isolates of Candida species in the Asia-Pacific region. The study was carried out over a two year period, involving 13 centers from Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Identification of Candida species was performed at each study center, and reconfirmed at a central laboratory. Susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial broth dilution panel (Sensititre YeastOne YST-010, Thermofisher, United Kingdom) with susceptibility categorisation (S = susceptible, S-DD = susceptible dose-dependent) applied using breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Eight hundred and sixty-one Candida isolates were included in the study. The most common species were C. albicans (35.9%), C. tropicalis (30.7%), C. parapsilosis (15.7%), and C. glabrata (13.6%). Non-albicans species exceeded C. albicans species in centers from all countries except Taiwan. Fluconazole susceptibility was almost universal for C. albicans (S = 99.7%) but lower for C. tropicalis (S = 75.8%, S-DD = 6.1%), C. glabrata (S-DD = 94.9%), and C. parapsilosis (S = 94.8%). Echinocandins demonstrated high rates of in vitro susceptibility (S>99%) against C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis This study demonstrates that non-albicans species are the most common isolates from bloodstream infections in most countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with C. tropicalis as the predominant species. Because of the prevalence of reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in non-albicans species, the study indicates that echinocandins should be the antifungal of choice in clinically unstable or high-risk patients with documented candidemia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  12. Emergence of a Candida krusei Isolate with Reduced Susceptibility to Caspofungin during Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakki, Morgan; Staab, Janet F.; Marr, Kieren A.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical failure associated with reduced susceptibility to caspofungin has been described in Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. We report a case of Candida krusei infection that progressed despite caspofungin therapy. Reduced microbial susceptibility to all three echinocandins (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) was noted but was not associated with mutations in FKS1.

  13. Demineralizing potential of dental biofilm added with Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis isolated from preschool children with and without caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroline de Abreu Brandi, Thayse; Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima, Paula Moraes; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the demineralizing potential of dental biofilm added of Candida albicans (CA) and Candida parapsilosis (CP), isolated from preschoolers with and without caries. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 48), with initial hardness = 341.50 ± 21,83 kg/mm(2) were fixed in 24 well plates containing culture media. A pool of children saliva (PHS) was the inoculum for biofilm formation in the presence or absence of isolated CA or CP in accordance with each group (G n = 8): G1 - PHS; G2 - PHS + CA isolated from children with caries; G3 - PHS + CP isolated from children with caries; G4 - PHS + CA isolated from children without caries; G5 - PHS + CP isolated from children without caries; and G6 - blank control. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 5 days, with daily changes of culture media. The microhardness loss percentage (MHL%) of the blocks was calculated, taking in account the hardness values before and after the experiment. Dental biofilm became more cariogenic, independently of the isolated Candida species. The highest MHL% was observed in G4 (85.90 ± 8.72%) and G5 (86.13 ± 6.74%) compared to the others (p < 0.001): G1 (34.30 ± 14,30%) < G2 (59.40 ± 10.56%) and G3 (65.80 ± 6.36%) < G6 (13.68 ± 4.86%) (p < 0.001). C. albicans and C. parapsilosis isolates induced the demineralization of the dental enamel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection m...

  15. Molecular characterization of Italian Candida parapsilosis isolates reveals the cryptic presence of the newly described species Candida orthopsilosis in blood cultures from newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Orazio; Delfino, Demetrio; Costanzo, Barbara; Cascio, Antonio; Criseo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The authors report the molecular characterization of Candida parapsilosis isolates recovered from the blood and venous central catheter tips of patients admitted to different care units of the Polyclinic Hospital, University of Messina, Italy. Among 97 presumed C. parapsilosis isolates examined, 94 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and the remaining 3 isolates were found to belong to the cryptic species Candida orthopsilosis which was recovered only from blood cultures of neonates (orthopsilosis in newborns.

  16. Distribution of Candida Species in different clinical samples and their virulence: Biofilm formation, proteinase and phospholipase production: A study on hospitalized patients in Southern India

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    Vinitha Mohandas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucosa. The importance of epidemiological monitoring of yeasts involved in pathogenic processes is unquestionable due to the increase of these infections over the last decade; Materials and Methods: The clinical samples from the respiratory tract (sputum, bronchial wash, tracheal secretions, saliva, blood, urine, middle ear discharge, vitreous fluid, corneal ulcer, and plastic devices (endotracheal tube, catheter tip, suction tip were collected and cultured. The species of Candida isolated were identified. Results: A total of 111 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 250 diverse clinical sources. C. albicans (39.64% was the most isolated species, although the Candida non albicans species with 60.36% showed the major prevalence. In blood cultures, C. krusei (38.23% and C. albicans (20.58% were isolated frequently. C. albicans (63.27% was the predominant species in mucosal surface. Urinary tract infections caused by yeasts were more frequent in hospitalized patients, C. krusei (50.0% being commonly isolated, followed by C. albicans (25.0%. Discussion: Several virulence factors like, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, etc. contribute to the pathogenecity. Early detection of virulence factors by Candida is useful in clinical decision making. We therefore have aimed at demonstrating the formation of biofilm using the method proposed by Branchini et al, (1994. The proteinase produced by Candida was estimated as per the method of Staib et al, (1965. Phospholipase assay was carried out as per the method of Samaranayake et al, (2005. Conclusions : The data suggests that the capacity of Candida species to produce biofilm may be a reflection of the pathogenic potential of the isolates. C. krusei and C. tropicalis showed strong slime production. The non-Candida albicans produced more proteinase than C. albicans. C. albicans produced higher levels of phospholipase than non

  17. Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Akeela; Bashir, Gulnaz; Wani, Tehmeena; Jan, Abiroo; Kohli, Amrish; Khan, Mosin S

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Kappa test for agreement. The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.

  18. Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital

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    Akeela Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. Aims: The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test for agreement. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.

  19. Multilocus sequence typing indicates diverse origins of invasive Candida tropicalis isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Xin; Xiao Meng; Wang He; Zhang Li; Kong Fanrong; Lu Juan; Hu Zhidong

    2014-01-01

    Background According to data from the China Hospital Invasive Fungal Surveillance Net (CHIF-NET) 2010,Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) is the third most common pathogen causing invasive candidiasis.Moreover,the majority of fluconazole-resistant C.tropicalis isolates were from a single hospital.Therefore,a molecular epidemiological survey is necessary to investigate the genetic relatedness of C.tropicalis isolates in China.Methods In this study,48 C.tropicalis isolates causing invasive fungal infections from four tertiary hospitals in China were studied.All the isolates were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer region.Antifungal susceptibility to triazoles,amphotericin B,and caspofungin was determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute standard broth microdilution method.Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed,and phylogenetic analysis was further performed by the eBURST and maximum parsimony (MP) methods to characterize the genetic relatedness of isolates.Results MLST discriminated 40 diploid sequence types (DSTs) among 48 isolates,including 36 novel DSTs,and the XYR1 gene showed the highest discriminatory power.The DSTs obtained from this study were compared with those of previously reported C.tropicalis isolates,and there was poor type alignment with regional strains.Nine groups and 11 singletons were identified by eBURST,whereas two groups and 10 subgroups were clustered by MP analysis.Generally,there were no obvious correlations between clonal clusters generated and the specimen source or hospital origin.Seven fluconazole-resistant isolates were confirmed and assigned to three distinguishable branches.Conclusions The results suggested diverse origins of invasive C.tropicalis isolates in China.Although most invasive C.tropicalis strains in the mainland of China were clustered with previously characterized Asian isolates,major C.tropicalis clusters identified in this study were genetically distinct from those of other

  20. Candida species isolated from urine specimens and antifungal susceptibility in hospitalized patients

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    Mustafa Altay Atalay

    2014-01-01

    [¤]CONCLUSION[|] In our hospital, C. albicans was the most frequently isolated Candida species from urine cultures, however, C. glabrata was found as the second most frequent species. As a result, in parallel to the increase of patient population who are at risk for Candida infections, the necessity of doing epidemiological studies for identification of species and susceptibility tests including new antifungal agents was concluded.[¤

  1. Isavuconazole and nine comparator antifungal susceptibility profiles for common and uncommon Candida species collected in 2012: application of new CLSI clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Dietrich, Rachel R; Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole and nine antifungal comparator agents was assessed using reference broth microdilution methods against 1,421 common and uncommon species of Candida from a 2012 global survey. Isolates were identified using CHROMagar, biochemical methods and sequencing of ITS and/or 28S regions. Candida spp. were classified as either susceptible or resistant and as wild type (WT) or non-WT using CLSI clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values, respectively, for the antifungal agents. Isolates included 1,421 organisms from 21 different species of Candida. Among Candida spp., resistance to all 10 tested antifungal agents was low (0.0-7.9 %). The vast majority of each species of Candida, with the exception of Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida guilliermondii (modal MICs of 0.5 µg/ml), were inhibited by ≤0.12 µg/ml of isavuconazole (99.0 %; range 94.3 % [Candida tropicalis] to 100.0 % [Candida lusitaniae and Candida dubliniensis]). C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. guilliermondii were largely inhibited by ≤1 µg/ml of isavuconazole (89.7, 96.9 and 92.8 %, respectively). Decreased susceptibility to isavuconazole was most prominent with C. glabrata where the modal MIC for isavuconazole was 0.5 µg/ml for those strains that were SDD to fluconazole or WT to voriconazole, and was 4 µg/ml for those that were either resistant or non-WT to fluconazole or voriconazole, respectively. In conclusion, these data document the activity of isavuconazole and generally the low resistance levels to the available antifungal agents in a large, contemporary (2012), global collection of molecularly characterized species of Candida.

  2. Isolates from hospital environments are the most virulent of the Candida parapsilosis complex

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    Sabino Raquel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida parapsilosis is frequently isolated from hospital environments, like air and surfaces, and causes serious nosocomial infections. Molecular studies provided evidence of great genetic diversity within the C. parapsilosis species complex but, despite their growing importance as pathogens, little is known about their potential to cause disease, particularly their interactions with phagocytes. In this study, clinical and environmental C. parapsilosis isolates, and strains of the related species C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were assayed for their ability to induce macrophage cytotocixity and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, to produce pseudo-hyphae and to secrete hydrolytic enzymes. Results Environmental C. parapsilosis isolates caused a statistically significant (p = 0.0002 higher cell damage compared with the clinical strains, while C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis were less cytotoxic. On the other hand, clinical isolates induced a higher TNF-α production compared with environmental strains (p C. orthopsilosis strains was similar to the obtained with C. parapsilosis environmental isolates, it was lower for C. metapsilosis strains. No correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation or proteolytic enzymes secretion and macrophage death was detected (p > 0.05. However, a positive correlation between pseudo-hyphae formation and TNF-α secretion was observed (p = 0.0119. Conclusions We show that environmental C. parapsilosis strains are more resistant to phagocytic host defences than bloodstream isolates, being potentially more deleterious in the course of infection than strains from a clinical source. Thus, active environmental surveillance and application of strict cleaning procedures should be implemented in order to prevent cross-infection and hospital outbreaks.

  3. Comparison of human and soil Candida tropicalis isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole.

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    Yun-Liang Yang

    Full Text Available Infections caused by treatment-resistant non-albicans Candida species, such as C. tropicalis, has increased, which is an emerging challenge in the management of fungal infections. Genetically related diploid sequence type (DST strains of C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole circulated widely in Taiwan. To identify the potential source of these wildly distributed DST strains, we investigated the possibility of the presence in soil of such C. tropicalis strains by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and DST typing methods. A total of 56 C. tropicalis isolates were recovered from 26 out of 477 soil samples. Among the 18 isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole, 9 belonged to DST149 and 3 belonged to DST140. Both DSTs have been recovered from our previous studies on clinical isolates from the Taiwan Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance of Yeasts (TSARY program. Furthermore, these isolates were more resistant to agricultural azoles. We have found genetically related C. tropicalis exhibiting reduced susceptibility to fluconazole from the human hosts and environmental samples. Therefore, to prevent patients from acquiring C. tropicalis with reduced susceptibility to azoles, prudent use of azoles in both clinical and agricultural settings is advocated.

  4. Characterization of Candida parapsilosis complex strains isolated from invasive fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, E; Sciota, R; Iatta, R; Biassoni, C; Montagna, M T; Morace, G

    2011-11-01

    In the present work, we studied the distribution of Candida parapsilosis complex species and the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates collected during an Italian surveillance study of yeast invasive fungal infections (IFIs) in intensive care units (ICUs). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution method. BanI digestion patterns of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were used to identify C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. A total of 138 C. parapsilosis isolates were stored (January 2007-December 2008). The overall frequency of C. parapsilosis complex in IFIs was 22%. Of the 138 tested isolates, 95% were C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 3.6% were C. orthopsilosis, and 1.4% were C. metapsilosis. The MIC(50) values (expressed as μg/ml) for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin for C. parapsilosis complex were 2, 1, and 2, respectively, and the MIC(90) values were 4, 2, and 4, respectively. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for itraconazole and posaconazole were 0.12 and 0.25, respectively, and for fluconazole, they were 1 and 4, respectively. This study, the most comprehensive study conducted to date to evaluate the frequency and antifungal susceptibility profiles of C. parapsilosis complex isolates from critically ill patients in Italy, highlights the low prevalence of C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis in IFIs.

  5. Antifungal susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species from nine hospitals in Korea: application of new antifungal breakpoints and relationship to antifungal usage.

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    Eun Jeong Won

    Full Text Available We applied the new clinical breakpoints (CBPs of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to a multicenter study to determine the antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream infection (BSI isolates of Candida species in Korea, and determined the relationship between the frequency of antifungal-resistant Candida BSI isolates and antifungal use at hospitals. Four hundred and fifty BSI isolates of Candida species were collected over a 1-year period in 2011 from nine hospitals. The susceptibilities of the isolates to four antifungal agents were determined using the CLSI M27 broth microdilution method. By applying the species-specific CBPs, non-susceptibility to fluconazole was found in 16.4% (70/428 of isolates, comprising 2.6% resistant and 13.8% susceptible-dose dependent isolates. However, non-susceptibility to voriconazole, caspofungin, or micafungin was found in 0% (0/370, 0% (0/437, or 0.5% (2/437 of the Candida BSI isolates, respectively. Of the 450 isolates, 72 (16.0% showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≥4 μg/ml]. The total usage of systemic antifungals varied considerably among the hospitals, ranging from 190.0 to 7.7 defined daily dose per 1,000 patient days, and fluconazole was the most commonly prescribed agent (46.3%. By Spearman's correlation analysis, fluconazole usage did not show a significant correlation with the percentage of fluconazole resistant isolates at hospitals. However, fluconazole usage was significantly correlated with the percentage of fluconazole non-susceptible isolates (r = 0.733; P = 0.025 or the percentage of isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC ≥4 μg/ml (r = 0.700; P = 0.036 at hospitals. Our work represents the first South Korean multicenter study demonstrating an association between antifungal use and antifungal resistance among BSI isolates of Candida at hospitals using the new CBPs of the CLSI.

  6. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Oral Candida albicans isolates from HIV-positive individuals have similar in vitro biofilm-forming ability and pathogenicity as invasive Candida isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Rasteiro Vanessa MC; Costa Anna CBP; Vilela Simone FG; Suleiman Jamal MAH; Coleman Jeffrey J; Muhammed Maged; Fuchs Beth B; Junqueira Juliana C; Jorge Antonio OC; Mylonakis Eleftherios

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida can cause mucocutaneous and/or systemic infections in hospitalized and immunosuppressed patients. Most individuals are colonized by Candida spp. as part of the oral flora and the intestinal tract. We compared oral and systemic isolates for the capacity to form biofilm in an in vitro biofilm model and pathogenicity in the Galleria mellonella infection model. The oral Candida strains were isolated from the HIV patients and included species of C. albicans, C. glabrata...

  8. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...

  9. In vitro activity of inexpensive topical alternatives against Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traboulsi, Rana S; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A

    2008-03-01

    The use of inexpensive topical alternatives, e.g. oil of melaleuca (tea tree oil (TTO)), chlorhexidine (CHX), povidone iodine (PI) and gentian violet (GV), to treat oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has been proposed in resource-poor countries. However, pre-clinical studies comparing the antifungal activity of these agents are lacking. This study compared the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TTO, GV, PI, CHX and fluconazole (FLZ) against 91 clinical Candida strains using Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) methodology. Isolates were obtained from the oral cavity of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Among the topical agents examined, GV showed the most potent activity against all Candida isolates tested (MIC range, MIC for 50% of the organisms (MIC(50)) and MIC for 90% of the organisms (MIC(90)) of 0.03-0.25 microg/mL, 0.06 microg/mL and 0.1 2microg/mL, respectively). CHX was 64 times less active than GV (MIC range, MIC(50) and MIC(90) of 0.5-16 microg/mL, 4 microg/mL and 8 microg/mL, respectively). The lowest antifungal activity was seen for PI (MIC(90)=0.25%). Moreover, GV, unlike the other topical agents tested, was fungicidal (minimum fungicidal concentration=1 microg/mL) against Candida albicans isolates (n=83). In addition, GV showed activity against FLZ-resistant C. albicans (n=3). The combination of GV and FLZ was not antagonistic and there was no interaction between the two compounds. GV possesses potent antifungal activity against FLZ-susceptible and -resistant Candida strains and is not antagonistic when used in combination with FLZ. In vivo evaluation is warranted.

  10. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

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    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  11. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livério, Harisson Oliveira; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Freitas, Roseli Santos de; Nishikaku, Angela; Souza, Ana Clara de; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Domaneschi, Carina

    2017-04-13

    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.

  12. Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation

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    C. Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast that causes nosocomial fungaemia and deep-seated infections. Notably, the emergence of this yeast is alarming as it exhibits resistance to azoles, amphotericin B and caspofungin, which may lead to clinical failure in patients. The multigene phylogeny and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing methods report the C. auris population as clonal. Here, using whole genome sequencing analysis, we decipher for the first time that C. auris strains from four Indian hospitals were highly related, suggesting clonal transmission. Further, all C. auris isolates originated from cases of fungaemia and were resistant to fluconazole (MIC >64 mg/L.

  13. Molecular epidemiology of Candida species isolated from urine at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergon, M C; Gülay, Z

    2005-03-01

    Candida spp. has been the leading microorganism isolated from the urine specimens of patients hospitalized at the Anesthesiology and Reanimation intensive care unit (ICU) of Dokuz Eylul University Hospital, Izmir, since 1998. This study was undertaken to investigate the clonal relationship of Candida urine isolates in order to find the mode of spread among the patients. Epidemiological surveillance of 38 Candida albicans, 15 Candida tropicalis and 12 Candida glabrata recovered from the urine specimens of patients who were hospitalized in the ICU between June 11, 2000 and October 15, 2001 was carried out by antifungal susceptibility testing and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Two short primers [Cnd3 (5'-CCAGATGCAC-3') and Cnd4 (5'-ACGGTACACT-3')] were used for RAPD. None of the isolates had high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values (>1 microg ml(-1)) against amphotericin B with MIC50 values of 0.5 microg ml(-1), 0.5 microg ml(-1) and 0.125 microg ml(-1) for C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata isolates, respectively. However, three C. glabrata isolates were resistant and one C. albicans and five C. glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (D-DS) to fluconazole. Among C. albicans isolates 19 and 20 patterns were detected with primers Cnd3 and Cnd4, respectively. When primers Cnd3 and Cnd4 were evaluated together, three and four genotypes were identified for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata isolates, respectively. Our results suggest that the source of C. albicans isolates was mostly endogenous. It is difficult to interpret the mode of spread of C. tropicalis and C. glabrata urine isolates as we obtained insufficient banding patterns for these species.

  14. Candida sergipensis, a new asexual yeast species isolated from frozen pulps of tropical fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Rita C; Resende, Maria A; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2004-07-01

    Sixteen strains of the new yeast species Candida sergipensis have been isolated from frozen pulps of the tropical fruits umbú ( Spondias tuberosa Avr. Cam.) and mangaba ( Hancornia speciosa Gom.). Candida sergipensis was one of the prevalent species in the yeast community of these substrates. The new asexual ascomycetous yeast is phylogenetically related to Candida spandovensis and Candida sorbophila, species belonging to the Wickerhamiella clade, as evidenced by the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of their large subunit ribosomal DNAs. The species C. sergipensis and C. spandovensis can be separated on the basis of growth on 50% glucose agar, xylose and succinate, negative for the first species and positive for the second. The type culture is strain UFMG-R188 (CBS 9567).

  15. Atividade antifúngica de óleos essenciais frente a amostras clínicas de Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes HIV positivos Antifungal activity of essential oils against clinical samples of Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F.D. Almeida

    2012-01-01

    ão (ATCC 76845. Entretanto não foi observada inibição antimicrobiana para os óleos de O. basilicum e T. vulgaris.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. (basil, Cymbopogon martinii L. (palmarosa, Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme and Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Chinese cinnamon against Candida albicans strains isolated from HIV-positive patients and the standard strain (ATCC 76845. Fifteen clinical samples of C. albicans (C1-C15 were subcultured in Sabouraud Dextrose agar to prepare suspensions in sterile saline solution (0.9% containing 1.5 x 10(6 CFU mL-1. The emulsions of essential oils were prepared in sterile distilled water and Tween 80, with concentrations ranging between 1024 µg mL-1 and 4 µg mL-1. The antifungal action was determined by means of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC, using the microdilution technique. Nystatin and miconazole (50 µg mL-1 were used as positive controls. The tests were performed in triplicate and the MIC was the lowest concentration capable of inhibiting the growth of yeasts, which was observed by the visual method, according to the turbidity of the culture medium. For C. albicans (ATCC 76845, the MIC of C. cassia essential oil was 64 µg mL-1, while the MIC for C. martini was 1024 µg mL-1. Considering the clinical strains, the MIC of C. cassia was 64 µg mL-1 for 80% of the strains, and the variation in MIC values was between 128 µg mL-1 and 64 µg mL-1. For 66.6% of the clinical samples, the MIC of C. matinii was 612 µg mL-1. Nystatin did not present activity against the clinical strains (C1-C15, while the antifungal activity of miconazole was noticed for 100% of the samples. The antimicobrial activity of essential oils from O. basilicum and T. vulgaris was not identified at the evaluated concentrations. It was concluded that the essential oils from C. cassia and C. martinii, at different concentrations, presented antifungal activity against C. albicans strains

  16. Antifungal susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. isolated primarily during invasive Candidiasis and comparison of the Vitek 2 system with the CLSI broth microdilution and Etest methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N; Dehandschoewercker, L; Bertout, S; Bousquet, P-J; Rispail, P; Lachaud, L

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 11 different species, were tested for fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility. For azoles, essential agreement ranged from 25% to 100%, depending on the method used and the Candida species tested. Categorical agreements for all of the species averaged 92.2% and ranged from 14.3 to 100%, depending on the 24-h or 48-h MIC reading by the Etest and CLSI methods and on the Candida species. Results obtained for Candida albicans showed excellent categorical and essential agreements with the two comparative methods. For Candida glabrata, the essential agreement was high with the CLSI method but low with the Etest method, and several very major errors in interpretation were observed between VK2 and the Etest method for both azoles. Low MICs of fluconazole were obtained for all of the Candida krusei isolates, but the VK2 expert software corrected all of the results obtained to resistant. Amphotericin B results showed MICs of CLSI), and 202 (Etest) isolates. The AST-YS01 Vitek 2 card system (bioMérieux) is a reliable and practical standardized automated antifungal susceptibility test. Nevertheless, more assays are needed to better evaluate C. glabrata fluconazole sensitivity.

  17. Antifungal Susceptibility of 205 Candida spp. Isolated Primarily during Invasive Candidiasis and Comparison of the Vitek 2 System with the CLSI Broth Microdilution and Etest Methods▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, N.; Dehandschoewercker, L.; Bertout, S.; Bousquet, P.-J.; Rispail, P.; Lachaud, L.

    2010-01-01

    Infections due to Candida spp. are frequent, particularly in immunocompromised and intensive care unit patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests are now required to optimize antifungal treatment given the emergence of acquired antifungal resistance in some Candida species. An antifungal susceptibility automated method, the Vitek 2 system (VK2), was evaluated. VK2 was compared to the CLSI broth microdilution reference method and the Etest procedure. For this purpose, 205 clinical isolates of Candida spp., including 11 different species, were tested for fluconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B susceptibility. For azoles, essential agreement ranged from 25% to 100%, depending on the method used and the Candida species tested. Categorical agreements for all of the species averaged 92.2% and ranged from 14.3 to 100%, depending on the 24-h or 48-h MIC reading by the Etest and CLSI methods and on the Candida species. Results obtained for Candida albicans showed excellent categorical and essential agreements with the two comparative methods. For Candida glabrata, the essential agreement was high with the CLSI method but low with the Etest method, and several very major errors in interpretation were observed between VK2 and the Etest method for both azoles. Low MICs of fluconazole were obtained for all of the Candida krusei isolates, but the VK2 expert software corrected all of the results obtained to resistant. Amphotericin B results showed MICs of ≤1 mg/liter for 201 (VK2), 190 (CLSI), and 202 (Etest) isolates. The AST-YS01 Vitek 2 card system (bioMérieux) is a reliable and practical standardized automated antifungal susceptibility test. Nevertheless, more assays are needed to better evaluate C. glabrata fluconazole sensitivity. PMID:19889902

  18. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  19. Genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from healthy individuals and their distribution in patients with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yuki; Fukano, Hideo; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko; Horii, Toshinobu; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    For the study of Candida albicans genotypes involved in development of candidiasis, Candida albicans isolates were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with oral candidiasis and genotyped on the basis of 25S rDNA and microsatellite polymorphisms. In the microsatellite analysis using two microsatellite markers (CDC3 and CAI), 63 healthy volunteer isolates were classified into 35 genotypes (allelic relations to CDC3 alleles 1:2/CAI alleles 1:2), among which genotypes II (115:119/23:23), III (115:123/18:27), and V (123:127/32:41) were found at frequencies of 12.7%, 7.9%, and 7.9%, respectively. In 68 oral candidiasis isolates classified into 39 genotypes, genotypes II and III were identified in 4.4% and 20.6% of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of genotype III was higher in the candidiasis isolates than in the healthy isolates (p oral candidiasis.

  20. In vitro activities of natural products against oral Candida isolates from denture wearers

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    Marcos-Arias Cristina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a frequent infectious disease. Treatment of this oral condition is difficult because failures and recurrences are common. The aim of this study was to test the in vitro antifungal activity of pure constituents of essentials oils. Methods Eight terpenic derivatives (carvacrol, farnesol, geraniol, linalool, menthol, menthone, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, a phenylpropanoid (eugenol, a phenethyl alcohol (tyrosol and fluconazole were evaluated against 38 Candida isolated from denture-wearers and 10 collection Candida strains by the CLSI M27-A3 broth microdilution method. Results Almost all the tested compounds showed antifungal activity with MIC ranges of 0.03-0.25% for eugenol and linalool, 0.03-0.12% for geraniol, 0.06-0.5% for menthol, α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, 0.03-0.5% for carvacrol, and 0.06-4% for menthone. These compounds, with the exception of farnesol, menthone and tyrosol, showed important in vitro activities against the fluconazole-resistant and susceptible-dose dependent Candida isolates. Conclusions Carvacrol, eugenol, geraniol, linalool and terpinen-4-ol were very active in vitro against oral Candida isolates. Their fungistatic and fungicidal activities might convert them into promising alternatives for the topic treatment of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis.

  1. Biological Treatment of Textile Effluent Using Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isolated from Soil

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    O. P. Abioye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the efficacy of yeasts isolated from soil in the treatment of textile wastewater. Two yeast species were isolated from soil; they were identified as Candida zeylanoides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeasts were inoculated into flask containing effluent and incubated for 15 days. Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed the most significant treatment capacity with a 66% reduction in BOD; this was followed closely by Candida zeylanoides with 57.3% reduction in BOD and a consortium of the two species showed the least remediation potential of 36.9%. The use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida zeylanoides in treatment of textile wastewater will help to limit the adverse environmental and health implications associated with disposal of untreated effluent into water bodies.

  2. Effect of Eugenol on Cell Surface Hydrophobicity, Adhesion, and Biofilm of Candida tropicalis and Candida dubliniensis Isolated from Oral Cavity of HIV-Infected Patients

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    Suelen Balero de Paula

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Candida spp. infections are associated with biofilm formation on host surfaces. Cells within these communities display a phenotype resistant to antimicrobials and host defenses, so biofilm-associated infections are difficult to treat, representing a source of reinfections. The present study evaluated the effect of eugenol on the adherence properties and biofilm formation capacity of Candida dubliniensis and Candida tropicalis isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. All isolates were able to form biofilms on different substrate surfaces. Eugenol showed inhibitory activity against planktonic and sessile cells of Candida spp. No metabolic activity in biofilm was detected after 24 h of treatment. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that eugenol drastically reduced the number of sessile cells on denture material surfaces. Most Candida species showed hydrophobic behavior and a significant difference in cell surface hydrophobicity was observed after exposure of planktonic cells to eugenol for 1 h. Eugenol also caused a significant reduction in adhesion of most Candida spp. to HEp-2 cells and to polystyrene. These findings corroborate the effectiveness of eugenol against Candida species other than C. albicans, reinforcing its potential as an antifungal applied to limit both the growth of planktonic cells and biofilm formation on different surfaces.

  3. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

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    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  4. Differentially expressed proteins in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yinzhong; Zhang, Lijun; Jia, Xiaofang; Zhang, Yongxin; Lu, Hongzhou

    2015-06-01

    The current study aimed to identify the differences presented in the proteome of fluconazole-susceptible isolates of Candida glabrata compared to those with fluconazole-resistant ones. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was applied to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant isolates of C. glabrata. Eight proteins including aspartyl-tRNA synthetase, translation elongation factor 3, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, ribosomal protein L5, coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, pyruvate kinase, G-beta like protein, and F1F0-ATPase alpha subunit were found to be more abundantly represented, while four proteins including vitamin B12-(cobalamin)-independent isozyme of methionine synthase, microtubule-associated protein, adenylosuccinate synthetase, and aldose reductase were found to be less abundantly represented in fluconazole-resistant strains versus those with fluconazole-susceptible ones. These differentially expressed proteins were primarily associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis. Proteins associated with energy metabolism, stress response, and macromolecule synthesis may play a role in the development of fluconazole resistance in the clinical isolates of C. glabrata. Multiple different mechanisms are involved in the development of fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata. These findings provide a scientific basis for discovering new genes and mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility survey of 2,000 bloodstream Candida isolates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Rex, John H; Pappas, Peter G; Hamill, Richard J; Larsen, Robert A; Horowitz, Harold W; Powderly, William G; Hyslop, Newton; Kauffman, Carol A; Cleary, John; Mangino, Julie E; Lee, Jeannette

    2003-10-01

    Candida bloodstream isolates (n = 2,000) from two multicenter clinical trials carried out by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group between 1995 and 1999 were tested against amphotericin B (AMB), flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FLU), itraconazole (ITR), voriconazole (VOR), posaconazole (POS), caspofungin (CFG), micafungin (MFG), and anidulafungin (AFG) using the NCCLS M27-A2 microdilution method. All drugs were tested in the NCCLS-specified RPMI 1640 medium except for AMB, which was tested in antibiotic medium 3. A sample of isolates was also tested in RPMI 1640 supplemented to 2% glucose and by using the diluent polyethylene glycol (PEG) in lieu of dimethyl sulfoxide for those drugs insoluble in water. Glucose supplementation tended to elevate the MIC, whereas using PEG tended to decrease the MIC. Trailing growth occurred frequently with azoles. Isolates were generally susceptible to AMB, 5FC, and FLU. Rates of resistance to ITR approached 20%. Although no established interpretative breakpoints are available for the candins (CFG, MFG, and AFG) and the new azoles (VOR and POS), they all exhibited excellent antifungal activity, even for those strains resistant to the other aforementioned agents.

  6. CHANGING TRENDS OF CANDIDA ISOLATES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN IN VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS CASES OF TRIPURA, NORTH EAST INDIA

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    Jhinuk Basu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Candida species are a part of the complex endogenous vaginal microflora, which under pathological condition cause vulvovaginal candidiasis. Worldwide it is the second most common cause of vaginitis after bacterial vaginosis and in India it accounts for 18-20% of clinical visits. AIM: To determine the spectrum of Candida species among the subjects of suspected vulvovaginal candidiasis with an objective to isolate and identify all the Candida species and determine their antifungal susceptibility pattern. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was cross sectional observational, conducted on 275 symptomatic outdoor and admitted patients in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in a tertiary care hospital in Tripura between August 2012 and April 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Discharge was collected from patients and identified by Grams staining and wet mount test. Culturing was done in Sabouraud dextrose agar followed by speciation through germ tube test, corn meal agar morphologies and chromogenic identification in HiCrome agar. Antifungal susceptibility was determined through E-test for Polyenes and Azoles. RESULT: Vulvovaginal candidiasis was found at a frequency of 25% with non-albicans Candida species (62% prevailing over C. albicans (38%. Highest frequency was observed in the 40–49 age group. Highest susceptibility was seen for fluconazole and least for ketoconazole. CONCLUSION: The frequency of vulvovaginal candidiasis was found to be higher than other prevalence studies from India. The study also showed increasing shift towards non-albicans Candida species from C. albicans. The reason for high frequency among the menopausal group and ectopic pregnancy cases could be topics for future studies. Amphotericin B and fluconazole were effective towards most species and hence could be used to treat the local population.

  7. Isolation of a germ-tube-forming revertant from Candida albicans B311V6.

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, H R; Daneo-Moore, L; Ahrens, J C; Sobel, J D

    1986-01-01

    We describe and partially characterize the isolation of a germ-tube-positive revertant from Candida albicans B311V6. This revertant has all of the properties of a germ-tube-forming strain of C. albicans except that it appears to have a nutrition defect.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing of Candida albicans isolates from Burn Intensive Care Unit (BICU) in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, Mohammad H; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Shokohi, Tahereh; Katiraee, Farzad

    2015-01-01

    Burn intensive care unit patients are specifically exposed to deep-seated nosocomial infections caused by Candida albicans. Superficial carriage of C. albicans is a potential source of infection and dissemination, and typing methods could be useful to trace the different isolates. Multilocus sequenc

  9. [25S intron analysis followed by restriction enzyme digestion performed for genotyping Candida albicans isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Saran, Begüm; Yenice, Sevinç; Ağırbaşlı, Handan; Arıkan Akan, Ozay; Tekeli, Alper

    2012-04-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered fungal pathogen especially in the immunocompromised hosts. Genotyping clinical microbial isolates is important for obtaining epidemiological data and for establishing appropriate infection control strategies in the hospital setting. 25S intron analysis is an easy and reliable method used for genotyping C.albicans strains. As it has a low discriminatory power, its use is limited in epidemiological studies. In this study, our aim was to genotype clinical C.albicans isolates by using 25S intron analysis followed by restriction enzyme digestion in order to develop a more discriminative genotyping system for C.albicans. A total of 260 clinical C.albicans strains isolated from various infection sites (121 blood, 69 sputum, 36 vaginal discharge, 26 wound, 8 urine samples) were genotyped by 25S intron analysis, and all the products obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. Discriminatory power of each method was calculated. Among the isolates 184 (70.8%) were classified as genotype A, 42 (16.2%) as genotype B, and 34 (13%) as genotype C by 25S intron analysis. Discriminatory power of the method was calculated as 0.46. HaeIII restriction of genotype A, B and C isolates produced ten, one, and five restriction patterns (genotypes), respectively. By the addition of restriction enzyme analysis, the number of genotypes obtained was increased to 16, and the discriminatory power of the method to 0.79. Combining different genotyping methods increases the discriminatory power by increasing the number of genotypes obtained. However, there is also a risk to split certain strains in different genotypes by the different methods used and this makes the genotypic evaluation more difficult. On the other hand, combining 25S intron analysis with restriction enzyme analysis increases the discriminatory power without introducing a totally different method, and makes the method more suitable for

  10. 子宫内膜炎患牛子宫黏液内念珠菌的分离及体外溶血活性鉴定%Identification of Candida Species and the Hemolytic Activity Isolated from Endometritis Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 郭梦尧; 张乃生; 王国卿

    2011-01-01

    本研究通过API20CAUX系统对从子宫内膜炎患牛子宫内黏液中分离到的183株念珠菌进行鉴定.结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌最多,为33.9%,其次是皱褶念珠菌为17.5%,乳酒念珠菌为13.1%,白色念珠菌为11.5%及热带念珠菌为8.7%.分离中不常见的有假丝酵母为5.5%,近平滑念珠菌为4.4%,吉利蒙念珠菌为3.3%,著名念珠菌为1.1%和光滑念珠菌为1.1%.此外,还对所分离到的念珠菌进行体外溶血活性检测,结果显示克鲁斯念珠菌、乳酒念珠菌、白色念珠菌、热带念珠菌、涎沫假丝念珠菌和光滑念珠菌在接种后48 h后显示α和β溶血;皱褶念珠菌、吉利蒙念珠菌、著名念珠菌只显示α溶血;在孵育72 h后,近平滑念珠菌不显示任何溶血活性.涎沫假丝酵母、白色念珠菌和乳酒念珠菌的β溶血活性比其他菌株高.本研究为临床牛真菌性子宫内膜炎的防治及发病机理的研究奠定了基础.%Candida stain is a conditional pathomycete that could be isolated from the bovine with the disease of endoraetri-tis. The 183 Candida strains were isolated from the uterus mucus of bovine with disease endometritis were used to identified at the level of generic by API20CAUX. The most commonly could be isolated were Candida krusei which accounted for 33. 9%, followed by Candida rugosa were 17. 5%, and the Candida kefyr, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis were 13. 1%, 11.5%, 8. 7%. The seldom could be isolated were Candida zeylanoides, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondi, Candida fanata , Candida glabrata were 5. 5% , 4. 4% , 3. 3% , 1.1%, 1. 1%. In addition, we had also tested the active of hemolyzation in vitro of the Candida stain. Candida krusei, Candida kefyr, Candida albicans , Candida tropicalis , Candida zeylanoides and Candida glabrata display α and β haemolysis post inoculation 48 h. Candida rugosa , Candida guilliermondi , Candida fanata only display α haemolysis, Candida

  11. Occurrence, isolation and differentiation of Candida spp. and prevalence of variables associated to chronic atrophic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Rafael Guerra; da Silva Nascente, Patrícia; Etges, Adriana; Ribeiro, Gladis Aver; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the frequency of Candida spp. in patients with chronic atrophic candidiasis (CAC), to differentiate Candida species and to assess the prevalence of certain infection-associated variables to this disease. Patients with CAC and wearing partial or complete dentures were recruited. Data were obtained by means of a questionnaire with details involving identification of the subject, demographic characteristics, behaviour and medical history, clinical and mycological evaluation and identification of yeast. The sample collection was carried out in the palate or palate and tongue of the subjects using sterilised swabs. Data were submitted to statistical analyses using Fischer's test. Forty-three (53%) cases of CAC showed the presence of Candida albicans. Females (75.2%) wearing complete dentures (60.1%) for more than 10 years (58%) were risk factors to CAC development. It could be concluded that: (a) the results did not confirm a significant difference among patients with CAC concerning the presence or absence of Candida spp.; (b) the occurrence of Candida was negatively related to important factors associated to this opportunistic infection; and (c) mycological findings did not indicate that the variables investigated have a significant effect on oral infections by C. albicans or other Candida species.

  12. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  13. In vitro fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates in Korea: use of the CLSI and EUCAST epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Min Joong; Shin, Jong Hee; Lee, Wee Gyo; Kim, Mi-Na; Lee, Kyungwon; Lee, Hye Soo; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Chang, Chulhun L; Jang, Hee-Chang; Song, Eun Song; Kim, Soo Hyun; Shin, Myung-Geun; Suh, Soon-Pal; Ryang, Dong-Wook

    2013-05-01

    At present, the clinical breakpoints (CBPs) of both fluconazole and voriconazole are available only for 3 common Candida species in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) methods. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) were recently applied to both methods to detect the emergence of acquired resistance (i.e., non-wild-type isolates) among 5 common Candida species. We performed a nationwide study to determine the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates (BSIs) using both the CLSI and EUCAST methods. A total of 423 BSIs of 5 Candida species were collected from 8 hospitals. The azole susceptibilities were assessed on the basis of the species-specific CBPs and ECVs. Of the 341 BSIs of 3 common Candida species (i.e., C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis), 0.3% and 0.9%, 0.0% and 1.5% of isolates were categorized as fluconazole and voriconazole resistant according to the CLSI and EUCAST CBPs, respectively. Of 423 total BSIs, 1.4% and 2.6% had fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively; 1.0% and 2.1% had voriconazole MICs exceeding the ECVs according to the CLSI and EUCAST, respectively. Categorical agreement between the methods using ECVs was 98.3% for fluconazole and 98.3% for voriconazole. The EUCAST and CLSI methods using ECVs provide highly concordant results. Moreover, non-wild-type isolates with possibly acquired azole resistance were rare among the BSIs of 5 common Candida species in Korea.

  14. First report of Candida auris in America: Clinical and microbiological aspects of 18 episodes of candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Belinda; Melo, Analy S A; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Hernandez, Martin; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-10-01

    Characterization of a hospital outbreak of Candida auris candidemia that involved 18 critically ill patients in Venezuela. Bloodstream isolates of C. auris obtained from 18 patients admitted at a medical center in Maracaibo, between March, 2012 and July, 2013 were included. Species identification was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were subsequently typed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting (AFLP). Susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI. Clinical data were collected from all cases by using a standard clinical form. A total of 13 critically ill pediatric and 5 adult patients, with a median age of 26 days, were included. All were previously exposed to antibiotics and multiple invasive medical procedures. Clinical management included prompt catheter removal and antifungal therapy. Thirteen patients (72%) survived up to 30 days after onset of candidemia. AFLP fingerprinting of all C. auris isolates suggested a clonal outbreak. The isolates were considered resistant to azoles, but susceptible to anidulafungin and 50% of isolates exhibited amphotericin B MIC values of >1 μg/ml. The study demonstrated that C. auris is a multiresistant yeast pathogen that can be a source of health-care associated infections in tertiary care hospitals with a high potential for nosocomial horizontal transmission. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. CHROMagar Candida as the Sole Primary Medium for Isolation of Yeasts and as a Source Medium for the Rapid-Assimilation-of-Trehalose Test

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Melissa P.; Zinchuk, Riva; Larone, Davise H.

    2005-01-01

    The chromogenic medium BBL CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was evaluated as a sole primary medium for the isolation of yeasts from clinical specimens in which yeasts are the primary concern. Additionally, the reliability of the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose (RAT) test in yielding correct results with isolates taken from CAC was assessed. A total of 270 throat, urine, and genital (TUG) specimens were streaked onto CAC, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and Mycosel (MYC). A t...

  16. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488

  17. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dbora Oro; Andria Heissler; Eliandra Mirlei Rossi; Diane Scapin; Patrcia da Silva Malheiros; Everton Boff

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis. Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fluconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined. Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey (0.031 3 to 64 μg/mL) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil (0.0313 to 64 μg/mL) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (0.0313 to 64 μg/mL) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them. Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  18. Antifungal activity of natural compounds against Candida species isolated from HIV-positive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Débora; Oro; Andréia; Heissler; Eliandra; Mirlei; Rossi; Diane; Scapin; Patrícia; da; Silva; Malheiros; Everton; Boff

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum(C. zeylanicum) and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oils and honey against strains of Candida sp. from HIV-positive patients in order to subsidize new therapeutic strategies for candidiasis.Methods: The study evaluated the antifungal effect of natural antimicrobials against 30 strains of Candida sp. isolated from oral cavities in HIV-infected patients. Then, they were compared to the action of fl uconazole and amphotericin B. Antifungal susceptibility was evaluated by the broth macrodilution technique and the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimum fungicidal concentration were determined.Results: Among all antifungals evaluated in this study, amphotericin B was the one showing the best results; however, all compounds studied here showed inhibitory activities against isolates of Candida sp. Honey(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) demonstrated fungistatic activity inhibiting 70% of the isolates. C. zeylanicum essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) inhibited 93.3% of the Candida strains and Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil(0.031 3 to 64 μg/m L) was able to inhibit 73.3% of them.Conclusions: Therefore, all natural compounds evaluated in this study, especially C. zeylanicum essential oil, may become promising agents for oral candidiasis therapy including in HIV-positive patients.

  19. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  20. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  1. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Juan Wang; Dai Zhang; Zhao-Hui Liu; Wen-Xiang Wu; Hui-Hui Bai; Han-Yu Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background:Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life.The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with WC over 8 years.Methods:Species which isolated from patients with WC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media.Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document.SPSS software (version 14.0,Inc.,Chicago,IL,USA) was used for statistical analysis,involving statistical description and Chi-square test.Results:The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans,80.5% (n =1775) followed by C.glabrata,18.1% (n =400).Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]).Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species.C albicans:clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R);C.glabrata:miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R);Candida krusei:clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R).The susceptibility offluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period.Conclusions:Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of WC at present.The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp.isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time.

  2. Species Distribution and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Vulvovaginal Candida Isolates in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Juan; Zhang, Dai; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Wu, Wen-Xiang; Bai, Hui-Hui; Dong, Han-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) was a common infection associated with lifelong harassment of woman's social and sexual life. The purpose of this study was to describe the species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida species (Candida spp.) isolated from patients with VVC over 8 years. Methods: Species which isolated from patients with VVC in Peking University First Hospital were identified using chromogenic culture media. Susceptibility to common antifungal agents was determined using agar diffusion method based on CLSI M44-A2 document. SPSS software (version 14.0, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for statistical analysis, involving statistical description and Chi-square test. Results: The most common strains were Candida (C.) albicans, 80.5% (n = 1775) followed by C. glabrata, 18.1% (n = 400). Nystatin exhibited excellent activity against all species (<4% resistant [R]). Resistance to azole drugs varied among different species. C. albicans: clotrimazole (3.1% R) < fluconazole (16.6% R) < itraconazole (51.5% R) < miconazole (54.0% R); C. glabrata: miconazole (25.6% R) < clotrimazole (50.5% R) < itraconazole (61.9% R) < fluconazole (73.3% R); Candida krusei: clotrimazole (0 R) < fluconazole (57.7% R) < miconazole (73.1% R) < itraconazole (83.3% R). The susceptibility of fluconazole was noticeably decreasing among all species in the study period. Conclusions: Nystatin was the optimal choice for the treatment of VVC at present. The species distribution and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from patients with VVC had changed over time. PMID:27174323

  3. Isolation frequency of Candida present on the surfaces of mobile phones and handsx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordecka, Anna; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Łukaszuk, Cecylia; Kraszyńska, Bogumiła; Kułak, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    It is known that mobile phones may play a role in microorganism transmission. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the number of Candida genera/species isolated from samples collected from the surfaces of mobile phones and the hands of the staff as well as the preferred health-related behavior. The mycological evaluation included 175 mobile telephones and the hands of staff members at the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. We used the Count-Tact(TM) applicator, with CandiSelect (Bio-Rad). Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on mobile phones disinfection practices. Assessment of the preferred health-related behavior was based on The Multidemensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Out of 175 mobile phones, 131 (74.9 %) were colonized. Candida glabrata, C. albicans and C.krusei were isolated more frequently from the hand as well as phone surface. The mean number of Candida colonies was higher in samples collected from hand surfaces than mobile phone surfaces. No significant correlation was found between the preferred health-related behavior and the frequency of washing hands, the way of using a mobile phone, the number of colonies or the isolation frequency for the fungi collected from the surface of the phones and hands of their owners. Only 19.4 % of the participants cleaned the surface of their phones. The prevalence of mobile phone contamination by Candida is high in the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei were the dominant species in the samples collected from mobile phones and hands. These results pose the need to develop guidelines for mobile phone disinfection.

  4. Antifungal Susceptibility Test of 506 Clinical Candida Albicans Isolates to Fluconazole and Itraconazole In Vitro%白念珠菌506株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的体外药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景伟芳; 李春莉; 王惠平

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解白念珠菌临床株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的体外药物敏感性.方法 收集鉴定白念珠菌临床株,采用美国国家临床实验室标准化研究所CLSI(即以前的NCCLS)推荐的M27-A2微量肉汤稀释法,进行氟康唑和伊曲康唑的MIC值测定.结果 共收集白念珠菌506株,检测出氟康唑耐药株3株,剂量依赖性敏感株1株,耐药率为0.59%;伊曲康唑耐药株18株,剂量依赖性敏感株269株,耐药率为3.56%;其中1株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑交叉耐药.结论 白念珠菌对唑类药物有耐药及交叉耐药现象的发生;伊曲康唑耐药率高于氟康唑.%Objective To investigate the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates to fluconazole and itraconazole in vitro.Methods C. albicans was collected and identified from clinical isolates. M27-A2 Broth microdilution method, recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ( CLSI), was used to assess the susceptibility of clinical C. albicans to fluconazole and itraconazole. Results A total of 506 clinical C.albicans isolates were collected. Three of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, and one was susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole. The resistant rate was 0. 59%. Eighteen isolates were resistant to itraconazole, and 269 were susceptible-dose dependent to itraconazole. The resistant rate was 3.56%. There was one isolates presenting cross-resistant to both fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusion Some of the clinical C. albicans isolates do resist or cross-resist to antifungal azoles. The resistant rate of ltraconazole is higher than fluconazole.

  5. Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clade 1 with Oral Candida albicans Isolates in Patients with Untreated Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A.; Maguire, Rory; Cashin, Phillipa J.; Claffey, Noel; Flint, Stephen; Abdulrahim, Mohammed H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and cell density of Candida species in periodontal pockets, healthy subgingival sites, and oral rinse samples of patients with untreated periodontitis. Twenty-one periodontitis patients underwent sampling at two periodontitis sites, and 19/21 of these patients underwent sampling at one periodontally healthy site. Both paper point and curette sampling techniques were employed. The periodontitis patients and 50 healthy subjects were also sampled by oral rinse. Candida isolates were recovered on CHROMagar Candida medium, and representative isolates were identified. Candida spp. were recovered from 10/21 (46.7%) periodontitis patients and from 16/50 (32%) healthy subjects. C. albicans predominated in both groups and was recovered from all Candida-positive subjects. Candida-positive periodontitis patients yielded Candida from periodontal pockets with average densities of 3,528 and 3,910 CFU/sample from curette and paper point samples, respectively, and 1,536 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. The majority (18/19) of the healthy sites sampled from periodontitis patients were Candida negative. The 16 Candida-positive healthy subjects yielded an average of 279 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. C. albicans isolates were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if specific clonal groups were associated with periodontitis. MLST analysis of 31 C. albicans isolates from periodontitis patients yielded 19 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were novel. Eleven STs belonged to MLST clade 1. In contrast, 16 C. albicans isolates from separate healthy subjects belonged to 16 STs, with 4 isolates belonging to clade 1. The distributions of STs between both groups were significantly different (P = 0.04) and indicated an enrichment of C. albicans isolates in periodontal pockets, which warrants a larger study. PMID:22875886

  6. Enrichment of multilocus sequence typing clade 1 with oral Candida albicans isolates in patients with untreated periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; Maguire, Rory; Cashin, Phillipa J; Claffey, Noel; Flint, Stephen; Abdulrahim, Mohammed H; Coleman, David C

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and cell density of Candida species in periodontal pockets, healthy subgingival sites, and oral rinse samples of patients with untreated periodontitis. Twenty-one periodontitis patients underwent sampling at two periodontitis sites, and 19/21 of these patients underwent sampling at one periodontally healthy site. Both paper point and curette sampling techniques were employed. The periodontitis patients and 50 healthy subjects were also sampled by oral rinse. Candida isolates were recovered on CHROMagar Candida medium, and representative isolates were identified. Candida spp. were recovered from 10/21 (46.7%) periodontitis patients and from 16/50 (32%) healthy subjects. C. albicans predominated in both groups and was recovered from all Candida-positive subjects. Candida-positive periodontitis patients yielded Candida from periodontal pockets with average densities of 3,528 and 3,910 CFU/sample from curette and paper point samples, respectively, and 1,536 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. The majority (18/19) of the healthy sites sampled from periodontitis patients were Candida negative. The 16 Candida-positive healthy subjects yielded an average of 279 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. C. albicans isolates were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if specific clonal groups were associated with periodontitis. MLST analysis of 31 C. albicans isolates from periodontitis patients yielded 19 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were novel. Eleven STs belonged to MLST clade 1. In contrast, 16 C. albicans isolates from separate healthy subjects belonged to 16 STs, with 4 isolates belonging to clade 1. The distributions of STs between both groups were significantly different (P = 0.04) and indicated an enrichment of C. albicans isolates in periodontal pockets, which warrants a larger study.

  7. Genetic relatedness and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida albicans isolates from fungaemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Sousa, Inês; Correia, Alexandra; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2011-04-01

    A prospective study to assess fungaemia was conducted for 12 months at a Portuguese University Hospital. A total of 35 Candida albicans isolates obtained from 12 patients with fungaemia were compared by a multiplex PCR system using four microsatellite loci. Blood isolates were evaluated against concomitant isolates from urine, lower respiratory secretions and central venous catheters, as well as with successive isolates recovered from recurrent episodes of fungaemia. The data analyzed included the department of admission, underlying diseases and antifungal therapy. The susceptibility phenotypes of all isolates to amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined according to the CLSI M27-A3 protocol. We observed a high degree of similarity between successive blood isolates and between blood and concomitant isolates from other sites of the same patient. This is suggestive of the recurrence of fungaemia and was due to the same strain, possibly as a result of the failure of antifungal therapy. The genetic similarity observed between some strains isolated from different patients suggested the likelihood that they were hospital acquired. Distinct patients were infected by the same strain at different time periods, and an increase in antifungal resistance was observed over time for some of these strains. Hospital-acquired exogenous nosocomial infections can be associated with higher risks of antifungal resistance and need to be closely monitored. Particular attention should also be given to endogenous non-blood Candida isolates which can be critical in high risk patients, as they often can become invasive in immunodeficient individuals.

  8. Genome comparison of Candida orthopsilosis clinical strains reveals the existence of hybrids between two distinct subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryszcz, Leszek P; Németh, Tibor; Gácser, Attila; Gabaldón, Toni

    2014-05-01

    The Candida parapsilosis species complex comprises a group of emerging human pathogens of varying virulence. This complex was recently subdivided into three different species: C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis. Within the latter, at least two clearly distinct subspecies seem to be present among clinical isolates (Type 1 and Type 2). To gain insight into the genomic differences between these subspecies, we undertook the sequencing of a clinical isolate classified as Type 1 and compared it with the available sequence of a Type 2 clinical strain. Unexpectedly, the analysis of the newly sequenced strain revealed a highly heterozygous genome, which we show to be the consequence of a hybridization event between both identified subspecies. This implicitly suggests that C. orthopsilosis is able to mate, a so-far unanswered question. The resulting hybrid shows a chimeric genome that maintains a similar gene dosage from both parental lineages and displays ongoing loss of heterozygosity. Several of the differences found between the gene content in both strains relate to virulent-related families, with the hybrid strain presenting a higher copy number of genes coding for efflux pumps or secreted lipases. Remarkably, two clinical strains isolated from distant geographical locations (Texas and Singapore) are descendants of the same hybrid line, raising the intriguing possibility of a relationship between the hybridization event and the global spread of a virulent clone.

  9. Geographic Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility of the Newly Described Species Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis in Comparison to the Closely Related Species Candida parapsilosis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lockhart, Shawn R.; Messer, Shawn A.; Pfaller, Michael A.; Diekema, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species, having previously been grouped with the more prevalent species Candida parapsilosis. Current literature contains very little data pertaining to the distributions and antifungal susceptibilities of these Candida species. We determined the species and antifungal susceptibilities of 1,929 invasive clinical isolates from the ARTEMIS antifungal surveillance program collected between 2001 and 2006 and identified as C. pa...

  10. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  11. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Pitt Benedetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2% and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%. The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated.

  12. Analysis of the genetic diversity of Candida isolates obtained from diabetic patients and kidney transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Volmir Pitt; Savi, Daiani Cristina; Aluizio, Rodrigo; Adamoski, Douglas; Kava-Cordeiro, Vanessa; Galli-Terasawa, Lygia V; Glienke, Chirlei

    2016-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Candida have high genetic variability and are the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi in humans. In this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity among 120 isolates of Candida spp. obtained from diabetic patients, kidney transplant recipients and patients without any immune deficiencies from Paraná state, Brazil. The analysis was performed using the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and a partial sequence of 28S rDNA. In the phylogenetic analysis, we observed a consistent separation of the species C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis, however with low intraspecific variability. In the analysis of the C. albicans species, two clades were formed. Clade A included the largest number of isolates (91.2%) and the majority of isolates from GenBank (71.4%). The phylogenetic analysis showed low intraspecific genetic diversity, and the genetic polymorphisms between C. albicans isolates were similar to genetic divergence found in other studies performed with isolates from Brazil. This low genetic diversity of isolates can be explained by the geographic proximity of the patients evaluated. It was observed that yeast colonisation was highest in renal transplant recipients and diabetic patients and that C. albicans was the species most frequently isolated. PMID:27276363

  13. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC(T)27747) as the type strain.

  14. Incidence and Clinical Predictors of Ocular Candidiasis in Patients with Candida Fungemia

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    Ayesha Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the predictors of ocular candidiasis among patient with Candida fungemia. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with candidemia at the University of Kansas Medical Center during February 2000–March 2010. Data regarding patients’ demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and ophthalmology examination findings were collected. Results. A total of 283 patients with candidemia were enrolled. The mean age (± standard deviation was 55 ± 18 years; 66% were male. The most commonly isolated Candida species were C. albicans (54%, C. parapsilosis (20%, C. glabrata (13%, and C. tropicalis (8%. Only 144 (51% patients were evaluated by ophthalmology; however, the proportion of patients who were formally evaluated by an ophthalmologist increased during the study period (9%in 2000 up to 73%in 2010; P<0.0001. Evidence of ocular candidiasis was present in 18 (12.5% patients. Visual symptoms were reported by 5 of 18 (28% patients. In multivariable analysis, no predictors of ocular candidiasis were identified. Conclusions. The incidence of ocular candidiasis among patients with fungemia remains elevated. Most patients are asymptomatic and therefore all patients with candidemia should undergo fundoscopic examination to rule out ocular involvement.

  15. Clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Owen, Hanne Hoejris; Rasmussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal sarcoidosis is rare (0.5% of patients with sarcoidosis), the pathogenesis is unknown and the optimal treatment remains a matter of debate. We undertook this study to elucidate possible pathogenic factors in clinically isolated laryngeal sarcoidosis and to describe results...... of supraglottoplastic surgery. From 1995 to 2009, we identified six patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis of the larynx treated at Rigshospitalet. All patients were subjected to a panel of blood tests and MR scan of the head and neck. All patients had dyspnoea at admission, and five were subjected...... successful to maintain normal breathing. None of the many parameters examined--some previously having been found to be abnormal in sarcoidosis--were abnormal in the present cohort. We are therefore unable to elucidate the pathogenesis. The combined surgical approach re-established normal airway function...

  16. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Couzigou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast.

  17. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  18. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  19. Evaluation of virulence factors of Candida albicans isolated from HIV-positive individuals using HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Menezes, Ralciane; de Melo Riceto, Érika Bezerra; Borges, Aércio Sebastião; de Brito Röder, Denise Von Dolingër; dos Santos Pedroso, Reginaldo

    2016-06-01

    The colonization by Candida species is one of the most important factors related to the development of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate and discuss the phospholipase, proteinase, DNAse and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV individuals with high efficiency antiretroviral therapy. Seventy-five isolates of C. albicans obtained from saliva samples of patients with HIV and 41 isolates from HIV-negative individuals were studied. Haemolytic activity was determined in Sabouraud dextrose agar plates containing 3% glucose and 7% sheep red cells. Culture medium containing DNA base-agar, egg yolk, and bovine albumin were used to determine DNase, phospholipase and proteinase activities, respectively. All isolates from the HIV patients group had haemolytic activity, 98% showed phospholipase activity, 92% were positive for proteinase and 32% DNAse activity. Regarding the group of indivídios HIV negative, all 41 isolates presented hemolytic activity, 90.2% showed phospholipase and proteinase activity and 12.2% were positive for DNAse. The phospholipase activity was more intense for the group of HIV positive individuals. DNase production was more frequently observed in the group of HIV-positive individuals. The percentage of isolates having DNAse activity was also significantly different between the groups of patients not using any antiretroviral therapy, those using transcriptase inhibitors and those using transcriptase inhibitor and protease inhibitor in combination.

  20. The prevalence and clinical significance of intraamniotic infection with Candida species in women with preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, W; Mazor, M; Wiznitzer, A

    1992-01-01

    Intraamniotic infection is considered a major etiologic factor of preterm birth. Positive amniotic fluid cultures are rarely contaminated with Candida species. The presence of this microorganism is associated with a poor pregnancy outcome. Out of 773 transabdominal amniocenteses performed in women presenting with preterm labor and intact membranes, 77 patients (9.9%) had positive amniotic fluid cultures and in 5 women (6.5%) Candida species were identified. On the other hand, 625 amniocenteses were performed in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes and 178 (28%) had positive cultures. Only in 4 patients was Candida isolated (2.2%) (P = 0.13 Fisher's exact test). The importance of early and accurate diagnosis of intraamniotic infection with Candida is pointed out. A transabdominal amniocentesis for microbiological examination is suggested for every woman presenting with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes and especially for those who conceived with a retained IUD or cervical cerclage.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  2. Wickerhamomyces queroliae sp. nov. and Candida jalapaonensis sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from Cerrado ecosystem in North Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Carlos A; Morais, Paula B; Lachance, Marc-André; Santos, Renata O; Melo, Weilan G P; Viana, Rodney H O; Bragança, Marcos A L; Pimenta, Raphael S

    2009-05-01

    Two novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces queroliae sp. nov. and Candida jalapaonensis sp. nov., were isolated, respectively, from larvae of Anastrepha mucronata (Diptera: Tephritidae) collected from ripe fruit of Peritassa campestris ('Bacupari', Hippocrateaceae) and from flowers of Centropogon cornutus (Campanulaceae) in the Cerrado ecosystem of the state of Tocantins, Brazil. Analysis of the D1/D2 large-subunit rRNA gene sequences placed W. queroliae in the Wickerhamomyces clade near Wickerhamomyces ciferri and Candida silvicultrix. Candida jalapaonensis belongs to the Wickerhamiella clade and is related to Candida drosophilae. The type strain of Wickerhamomyces queroliae is UFMG-05-T200.1(T) (=CBS 10936(T)=NRRL Y-48478(T)) and the type strain of Candida jalapaonensis is UFMG-03-T210(T) (=CBS 10935(T)=NRRL Y-48477(T)).

  3. Species distribution and susceptibility of Candida isolates from patient with vulvovaginal candidiasis in Southern China from 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X P; Fan, S R; Peng, Y T; Zhang, H P

    2014-06-01

    To determine the Candida species involved and the antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Candida organisms were cultured from samples obtained from patients with VVC at Gynecology Department of Peking University Shenzhen Hospital from April 2003 to September 2012. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using a commercial agar diffusion test. A total of 3181 yeasts isolates, mostly Candida, were obtained from 3141 patients with VVC. Two species of Candida were isolated from each of 40 patients (1.3%, 40/3141). C. albicans were the predominant Candida species (2705 strains, 85.0%) in VVC, followed by C. glabrata (337 strains, 10.6%), C. parapsilosis (49 strains, 1.5%), C. tropicalis (31 strains, 1.0%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (23 strains, 0.7%), C. krusei (15 strains, 0.5%), Candida famata (11 strains, 0.4%), Rhodotorula sp. (6 strains, 0.2%), and C. lusitaniae (2 strains, 0.1%). Antifungal susceptibility was tested in a total of 1942 strains from patients with VVC. All of the C. albicans isolates obtained were susceptible to nystatin. The resistant rate of C. albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, clotrimazole was 1.1% (18/1612), 2.2% (36/1612), 4.2% (68/1612), and 0.9% (14/1612). The resistant rate of non-albicans to fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, and clotrimazole was 11.8% (39/329), 2.5% (8/329), 1.8% (6/329), and 4.3% (14/329). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species isolated from this series of patients with VVC. Resistance of vaginal C. albicans isolates to antifungal agents was infrequent. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. First-time isolation of Candida dubliniensis from plaque and carious dentine of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneist, S; Borutta, A; Sigusch, B W; Nietzsche, S; Küpper, H; Kostrzewa, M; Callaway, A

    2015-08-01

    To determine those organisms of the genus Candida associated with dental caries by investigating samples from active carious lesions. Within the genus Candida, the species Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are capable of forming chlamydospores and germ tubes. Until it became possible in 1995 to differentiate between the two species taxonomically, C. dubliniensis was falsely identified as C. albicans. Whilst the importance of C. albicans for rapidly progressing early childhood caries (ECC) has been recognised, so far there have been only reports about C. dubliniensis in connection with children/mothers who have been infected with HIV or already developed AIDS. In the present study, C. dubliniensis was for the first time isolated from plaque and carious dentine of a healthy five-year-old boy. As part of the investigation, a number of samples were collected from individual children affected by active dental caries. Amongst the samples, one in particular indicated that Candida species might be involved. The patient was a five-year-old boy with ECC of the primary dentition, scheduled for restorative treatment under general anaesthesia. Before treatment, a salivary, plaque (region of 54/55) and soft carious dentine sample from the tooth 51 was taken before extraction. The counts of yeasts, lactobacilli (LB) and mutans streptococci were determined in the samples. The boy's dmft was 11, which was dominated by the d component. In the saliva of the boy, LB and mutans streptococci (MS) were detected. In plaque and carious dentine, MS and most interestingly C. dubliniensis were present. The yeasts were visualised in carious dentine by means of scanning electron micrographs. Plaque and carious dentine may be a further habitat of C. dubliniensis.

  5. Candida parapsilosis and candida guillermondii: Emerging pathogens in nail candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails. Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%. Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%. While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%, those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%, those of spp. were 20 (4.3% and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%. Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1% were men and 331 (70,9% were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of

  6. Microsatellite-based genotyping of Candida albicans isolated from patients with superficial candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazue; Hattori, Hisao; Adachi, Hidesada; Oshima, Ryosuke; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanaka, Reiko; Yaguchi, Takashi; Tomita, Yasushi; Akiyama, Masashi; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the genotype distribution of Candida albicans and the major genotypes involved in superficial candidiasis. The genotypes of C. albicans isolated from the infection sites of patients with superficial candidiasis (referred to as infection isolates) were analyzed by fragment analysis using 4 microsatellite markers (HIS3, CDC3, CAI and CAIII). Genotypes of the infection isolates were compared with those of C. albicans isolated from oral mucosa of non-candidiasis patients (referred to as oral isolates). Isolates of C. albicans showed 4 major genotypes for HIS3/CAI (" a " for 148 : 148 / 23 : 23," b " for 148 : 160 / 33 : 41," c " for 148 : 164 / 32 : 41 and " d " for 152 : 152 / 18 : 27). The genotypes " a "," b " and " d " were commonly found in oral (4.7, 8.8 and 7.6%, respectively) and infection (6.6, 9.2 and 15.4%, respectively) isolates. No isolates of genotype " c " were isolated from infection sites. The genotype " a " was found in the isolates from patients with genitalia candidiasis. Genotyping of multiple isolates from an individual patient showed that C. albicans from infection sites was genetically homogenous as compared with that of oral isolates, even in the same patient with candidiasis.

  7. Azole resistance in Candida spp. isolated from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil: an efflux-pump-mediated mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda S.N.; Paiva, Manoel A.N.; Sampaio, Célia M.S.; Castelo-Branco, Débora S.C.M.; Teixeira, Carlos E.C.; de Alencar, Lucas P.; Bandeira, Tereza J.P.G.; Monteiro, André J.; Cordeiro, Rossana A.; Pereira-Neto, Waldemiro A.; Sidrim, José J.C.; Moreira, José L.B.; Rocha, Marcos F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Since, there is no study reporting the mechanism of azole resistance among yeasts isolated from aquatic environments; the present study aims to investigate the occurrence of antifungal resistance among yeasts isolated from an aquatic environment, and assess the efflux-pump activity of the azole-resistant strains to better understand the mechanism of resistance for this group of drugs. For this purpose, monthly water and sediment samples were collected from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil, from March 2011 to February 2012. The obtained yeasts were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Of the 46 isolates, 37 were Candida spp., 4 were Trichosporon asahii, 3 were Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and 1 was Kodamaea ohmeri. These isolates were subjected to broth microdilution assay with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole, according to the methodology standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.03125–2 μg/mL, 0.0625 to ≥16 μg/mL, and 0.5 to ≥64 μg/mL, respectively, and 13 resistant azole-resistant Candida isolates were detected. A reduction in the azole MICs leading to the phenotypical reversal of the azole resistance was observed upon addition of efflux-pump inhibitors. These findings suggest that the azole resistance among environmental Candida spp. is most likely associated with the overexpression of efflux-pumps. PMID:26887224

  8. [In vitro biofilm formation and relationship with antifungal resistance of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and intrauterine device string samples of women with vaginal complaints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Seyda; Keçeli Özcan, Sema; Cınar, Selvi; Corakçı, Aydın; Calışkan, Eray

    2011-10-01

    Intrauterin device (IUD) application is a widely used effective, safe and economic method for family planning. However IUD use may cause certain changes in vaginal ecosystem and may disturb microflora leading to increased colonization of various opportunistic pathogen microorganisms. The aims of this study were (i) to detect the biofilm production characteristics of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples of women with IUDs, and (ii) to investigate the relationship between biofilm production and antifungal resistance. A total of 250 women (mean age: 34.4 ± 7.6 years) admitted to gynecology outpatient clinics with vaginal symptoms (discharge and itching) were included in the study. The patients have been implanted CuT380a type IUDs for a mean duration of 59.8 ± 42.4 months. Without removing IUD, string samples were obtained by cutting and simultaneous vaginal swab samples were also collected. Isolated Candida spp. were identified by conventional methods and API 20C AUX (BioMerieux, Fransa) system. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of fluconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B were determined by broth microdilution method according to the CLSI guidelines. Biofilm formation was evaluated by crystal violet staining and XTT-reduction assays, and the isolates which yielded positive results in both of the methods were accepted as biofilm-producers. In the study, Candida spp. were isolated from 33.2% (83/250) of the vaginal and 34% (85/250) of the IUD string samples, C.albicans being the most frequently detected species (54 and 66 strains for the samples, respectively). The total in vitro biofilm formation rate was 25% (21/83) for vaginal isolates and 44.7% (38/85) for IUD string isolates. Biofilm formation rate of vaginal C.albicans isolates was significantly lower than vaginal non-albicans Candida spp. (14.8% and 44.8%, respectively; p= 0.003). Biofilm formation rate of C.albicans strains isolated from vaginal and IUD string samples were found

  9. Whole genome sequencing of emerging multidrug resistant Candida auris isolates in India demonstrates low genetic variation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast that causes nosocomial fungaemia and deep-seated infections. Notably, the emergence of this yeast is alarming as it exhibits resistance to azoles, amphotericin B and caspofungin, which may lead to clinical failure in patients. The multigene phylogeny and amplified fragment length polymorphism typing methods report the C. auris population as clonal. Here, using whole genome sequencing analysis, we decipher for the first time that C. auris ...

  10. Real-World Experience with Echinocandin MICs against Candida Species in a Multicenter Study of Hospitals That Routinely Perform Susceptibility Testing of Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M. Hong; Shoham, Shmuel; Vazquez, Jose A.; Morris, Arthur J.; Pasculle, William A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Klinker, Kenneth P.; Carver, Peggy L.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; Chen, Sharon; Lam, Simon W.; Potoski, Brian A.; Clarke, Lloyd G.; Shields, Ryan K.; Clancy, Cornelius J.

    2014-01-01

    Reference broth microdilution methods of Candida echinocandin susceptibility testing are limited by interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs. Recently revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint MICs for echinocandin nonsusceptibility may not be valid for commercial tests employed in hospital laboratories. Indeed, there are limited echinocandin susceptibility testing data from hospital laboratories. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 9 U.S., Australian, and New Zealand hospitals that routinely tested Candida bloodstream isolates for echinocandin susceptibility from 2005 to 2013. Eight hospitals used Sensititre YeastOne assays. The Candida spp. were C. albicans (n = 1,067), C. glabrata (n = 911), C. parapsilosis (n = 476), C. tropicalis (n = 185), C. krusei (n = 104), and others (n = 154). Resistance and intermediate rates were ≤1.4% and ≤3%, respectively, for each echinocandin against C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Resistance rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were ≤7.5% and ≤5.6%, respectively. Caspofungin intermediate rates among C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates were 17.8% and 46.5%, respectively, compared to ≤4.3% and ≤4.4% for other echinocandins. Using CLSI breakpoints, 18% and 19% of C. glabrata isolates were anidulafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible and micafungin susceptible/caspofungin nonsusceptible, respectively; similar discrepancies were observed for 38% and 39% of C. krusei isolates. If only YeastOne data were considered, interhospital modal MIC variability was low (within 2 doubling dilutions for each agent). In conclusion, YeastOne assays employed in hospitals may reduce the interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs against Candida species that are observed between reference laboratories using CLSI broth microdilution methods. The significance of classifying isolates as caspofungin intermediate and anidulafungin/micafungin susceptible will

  11. Increased expression of virulence attributes in oral Candida albicans isolates from human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, Arati; Gaikwad, Shraddha; Bembalkar, Shilpa; Risbud, Arun

    2012-02-01

    Oral candidiasis caused by Candida albicans is recognized as one of the most frequent opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The overall severity and chronicity of oral candidiasis has been attributed exclusively to the HIV-induced immune deficiency of the affected individuals but not to the virulence factors of the pathogen, i.e. C. albicans. However, genotypic and phenotypic studies have suggested that HIV infection might be associated with preferential selection of C. albicans strains with altered virulence determinants, leading to colonization with Candida populations that are better able to cause disease in these immunologically compromised hosts. If this process of selection is indeed related to pathogenicity, it may be possible to measure alterations in different virulence factors produced by C. albicans in HIV-infected patients. To evaluate this hypothesis, the present work was undertaken to determine simultaneously the expression of five virulence factors in oral C. albicans isolates colonizing and infecting HIV-positive and -negative individuals. The significance of genotypes in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis was also elucidated. Oral swabs were collected from 335 consecutive individuals (210 HIV-positive and 125 HIV-negative). Virulence factors and genotypes were determined for all the C. albicans strains isolated. The results showed significantly increased expression of proteinase, phospholipase and haemolytic activities, as well as a greater ability to adhere, in isolates from HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals (Pvirulence factor expression in isolates colonizing or infecting HIV-positive individuals were seen. Genotype A was the predominant type (71.3 %); however, a relationship could not be established between the genotypes and the virulence factors, or with clinical infection. These data support the concept of preferential C. albicans strain selection with altered virulence

  12. Typing and antifungal susceptibility of the candida species isolated in geriatric patients at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Yılmaz Hancı

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study we aimed to detect, identification and distribution of the Candida species in blood and urine samples; and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream isolates in geriatric patients Methods: All Candida species isolated from blood and urine cultures samples of patients over than 65 years of during the period December 2011 -November 2014 in İzmir Tepecik Training and Research Hospital were enrolled in this study. For Candida species identification conventional methods, colony appearance in candida chromogenic agar and for some unidentified isolates API ID32C AUX (BioMérieux, France was used. Antifungal susceptibility testing of the isolates was performed with API ATB Fungus 3 (BioMérieux, France. Results: During the study period 681 Candida species were isolated in blood and urine samples of patients over than 65 years. When the sample species were evaluated, Candida species detected in 561(82.4% urine sample, and 120 (17.6% blood samples. Most isolated species were respectively detected C. albicans (47.0%, C.parapsilosis (16.0%, C.tropicalis (15.9%, C.glabrata (12.2%, C.kefy (3.7% and C.krusei (2.8%. C. albicans detected the most common in urine samples (51.7 %, on the other hand C.parapsilosis the most common species in blood samples (50.8%. In general surgery unit, C.tropicalis was found as the most common isolate. On the other hand C.albicans the most common species in the other units and services. C.parapsilosis rate in blood cultures increased with age. Antifungal susceptibility of the Candida bloodstream isolates were detected as 97.5% for flucytosine, 95.8% for amfotericin B, 82.5% for fluconazole, 91.7% for itraconazole and 77.5% for voriconazole. Conclusion: The most frequently isolated yeast species in blood and urinesamples of geriatric patients has been found C. albicans. C.parapsilosis especially frequently isolated from blood cultures and increasing the frequency with age. Voriconazole in Candida

  13. [Antifugal susceptibility testing and antifugal traditional Chinese medicines screening of oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Zhou, Zeng-Tong; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of pathogenic oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy to antifungal agents. To screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs by NCCLS M27-A2 method. Using YBC Test Kit to identify 20 clinical oral Candida isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The in vitro susceptibilities of 20 oral Candida spp. to 5-flucytosine (5-FC), itraconazole (ITR), fluconazole (FLU), the extracts of 6 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (caltrop, honeysuckle flower, dandelion, green tea, pine bark, red trefoil) and utility componets of 7 Chinese traditional and herbal drugs (sophorcarpidine, aloperine, archin, glycyrrhizic acid, glycosides of white peony root, glycosides of baikal skullcap root, hydrochloric berberine) were determined by NCCLS M27-A2 method. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all Candida spp. were 25%. All strains were sensitive to 5-flucytosine, 25% stains were resistant to fluconazole and 40% stains were resistant to itraconazole. In all agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs, glycosides of white peony root and hydrochloric berberine (C20H18CINO4) exhibited antifungal activity, especially to C. glabrates. The proportion of no-C. albicans in all oral Candida spp. isolated from head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy or chemotherapy was pretty high. NCCLS M27-A2 micro-dilution method is a reliable and reproducible method and can be used to screen antifugal agents from Chinese traditional and herbal drugs.

  14. Clinical importance of detection of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida albicans and actinomyces in Papanicolaou smears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdücü, N; Gönenç, G; Işçi, H; Yiğiter, A Başgül; Başsüllü, N; Dünder, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of Papanicolaou (pap) smears in the diagnosis of lower genital tract infections. A retrospective study was planned by reviewing charts of patients for trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, actinomyces, candida and nonspecific vaginitis. Charts of 9,080 patients were reviewed and 1,733 women had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection in the pap smear or had had a clinically treated lower genital tract infection. Only 33.5%, 30.4%, 43.3%, and 0% of patients with bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis, candida and actinomyces, respectively on pap smear were diagnosed and treated clinically. Postmenopausal patients had a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis infection and a lower rate of candida infection when compared to women of the reproductive age group. Patients using an intrauterine device for contraception had a statistically significantly increased rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection when compared to women using other contraceptive methods or those who were not using any contraception. Finding trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis and actinomyces infections in pap smears might be considered an indication for treatment without performing other diagnostic tests. Treatment of asymptomatic infections can prevent complications in selected patients. Candida can be a commensal bacteria in the vagina, therefore asymptomatic patients may not require treatment. Detection of a higher rate of trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection in IUD users shows that IUDs can increase the risk of vaginal infections and associated complications.

  15. Characteristics of Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, M

    2006-01-01

    The present research has investigated the molecular characterization of oral yeasts in healthy individuals from different dental clinical settings in the United Kingdom, and patients from the UK and Italy who were affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) to determine the impact of DM upon candidal infection of the mouth. In the present study of patients with DM from the UK and Italy a lower than expected incidence of oral candidal infections (7/249, 2.8%) was observed. The presence of oral yeasts a...

  16. Candida albicans bloodstream isolates in a German university hospital are genetically heterogenous and susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyke, Johanna; Martin, Ronny; Walther, Grit; Weber, Michael; Kaerger, Kerstin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Elias, Johannes; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    From an eight-year-span, 99 Candida bloodstream isolates were collected at the University Hospital Wuerzburg, Germany. In this study, all strains were analyzed using molecular and phenotypic typing methods. Confirmatory species identification revealed three isolates that were initially diagnosed as C. albicans to be actually C. dubliniensis. Two isolates contained a mixed culture of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in one of the specimens both species could be separated while it was not possible to recover C. albicans in the other sample. The remaining 95 C. albicans isolates were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analyses showed a highly heterogenous collection of strains, associated with many different clades and constituting a set of new diploid sequence types (DST). For all strains with identical DST, patient data were reviewed for potential nosocomial transmission. In addition, all isolates were tested for their susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. No clinically relevant resistance could be detected. Furthermore, these data underline that correlation between minimal inhibitory concentrations for caspofungin and anidulafungin is low.

  17. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  18. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  19. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  20. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Carola; Marangoni, Antonella; Laghi, Luca; Foschi, Claudio; Ñahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Calonghi, Natalia; Cevenini, Roberto; Vitali, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17) by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  1. First report of Candida auris in America: Clinical and microbiological aspects of 18 episodes of candidemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, B.; Melo, A.S.; Perozo-Mena, A.; Hernandez, M.; Francisco, E.C.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Colombo, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Characterization of a hospital outbreak of Candida auris candidemia that involved 18 critically ill patients in Venezuela. METHOD: Bloodstream isolates of C. auris obtained from 18 patients admitted at a medical center in Maracaibo, between March, 2012 and July, 2013 were included.

  2. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  3. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  4. Caspofungin-induced in-vitro post-antifungal effect and its impact on adhesion related traits of oral Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna Nishantha Bandara; Chandy, Rachel; Khan, Zia Uddin; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC) and denture acrylic surfaces (DAS), germ tube (GT) formation and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are all virulence traits involved in the pathogenicity of Candida. Post-antifungal effect (PAFE) also have a bearing on pathogenicity and virulence of Candida. Candida dubliniensis is associated with oral and systemic candidosis, which can be managed with caspofungin. There is no published information on caspofungin-induced PAFE and its impact on adhesion traits of C. dubliniensis isolates. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the in vitro duration of PAFE on 20 C. dubliniensis isolates following transient exposure to caspofungin. Furthermore the impacts of caspofungin-induced PAFE on adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH of these isolates were also determined. After establishing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of caspofungin, C. dubliniensis isolates were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations (×3 MIC) of caspofungin for 1 hr. Thereafter the duration of PAFE, adhesion to BEC and DAS, GT formation and CSH were determined by previously described in-vitro assays. MIC (μg/mL) of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin ranged from 0.004 to 0.19. Caspofungin-induced mean PAFE on C. dubliniensis isolates was 2.17 hr. Exposure to caspofungin suppressed the ability of C. dubliniensis isolates to adhere to BEC and DAS, form GT and CSH by 69.97%, 71.95%, 90.06% and 32.29% (P < 0.001 for all), respectively. Thus, transient exposure of C. dubliniensis isolates to caspofungin produces an antifungal effect not only by suppressing its growth but also by altering its adhesion traits. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Virulence factors of Candida albicans isolates from the oral cavities of HIV-1-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tatiany O A; Gillet, Luciana C S; Menezes, Sílvio A F; Feitosa, Rosimar N M; Ishak, Marluísa O G; Ishak, Ricardo; Marques-da-Silva, Sílvia H; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

    2013-06-01

    The present study assessed the phenotypic aspects of oral-cavity Candida albicans isolates from 300 HIV-1- positive patients, relating the most commonly investigated virulence factors (enzyme typing and germ-tube formation) to the most common morphotypes. The samples were seeded into specific media for isolation and subsequent identification using the automated Vitek 2 system. The following assays were performed for phenotypic characterization: morphotyping, germ-tube formation and enzyme typing. Out of 300 collected samples, 144 tested positive for yeasts of the Candida genus, 98 (32.7 %) of which were identified as C. albicans. The latter samples were attributed to seven different morphotypes; the three most common morphotypes were 7208 (49 %), 7308 (14.3 %) and 3208 (13.3 %). All of the C. albicans isolate samples formed germ tubes and produced the enzymes proteinase and phospholipase, with an activity classified as intermediate to high. Due to the identification of virulence factors among the analyzed samples, monitoring of HIV-1-positive patients colonized by different morphotypes must be established because these morphotypes are extremely pathogenic and can trigger severe fungal infections.

  6. Multilocus sequence typing of Candida tropicalis shows clonal cluster enrichment in azole-resistant isolates from patients in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Shi, Ce; Liu, Jin-Yan; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Yue; Xiang, Ming-Jie

    2016-10-01

    To explore the putative correlation between the multilocus sequence types (MLST) and antifungal susceptibility of clinical Candida tropicalis isolates in Mainland China. Eighty-two clinical C. tropicalis isolates were collected from sixty-nine patients at Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, from July 2012 to February 2015, and antifungal susceptibility tests were performed. Genetic profiles of those 82 isolates (30 azole-resistant and 52 azole-susceptible) were characterised by multilocus sequence typing. Phylogenetic analysis of the data was conducted with the clustering method, using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) and the minimal spanning tree algorithm. MLST clonal clusters were analysed using the eBURST V3 package. Of the six gene fragments identified in multilocus sequence typing, SAPT4 presented the highest typing efficiency, whereas SAPT2 was the least efficient. Of the 44 diploid sequence types (DSTs) differentiated, 32 DSTs and 12 genotypes were identified as new to the C. tropicalis DST database. Twenty (45.45%) of the 44 DSTs were assigned to seven major groups based on eBURST analysis. Of these, Group 6, which contained DST 376, DST 505, DST 506 and DST 507, accounted for 76.7% of the 30 azole-resistant isolates. However, the genetic relationships among the azole-susceptible isolates were relatively decentralised. This MLST analysis of the putative correlation between the MLST types and antifungal susceptibility of clinical C. tropicalis isolates in Mainland China shows that DSTs 376, 505, 506 and 507 are closely related azole-resistant C. tropicalis clones.

  7. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida Isolates with the EUCAST Methodology, a New Method for ECOFF Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletiadis, J; Curfs-Breuker, I; Meis, J F; Mouton, J W

    2017-04-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 1,099 molecularly identified clinical Candida isolates against 8 antifungal drugs were determined using the EUCAST microdilution method. A new simple, objective, and mathematically solid method for determining epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) was developed by derivatizing the MIC distribution and determining the derivatized ECOFF (dECOFF) as the highest MIC with the maximum second derivative. The dECOFFs were similar (95% agreement within 1 dilution) to the EUCAST ECOFFs. Overall, low non-wild-type/resistance rates were found. The highest rates were found for azoles with C. parapsilosis (2.7 to 9.8%), C. albicans (7%), and C. glabrata (1.7 to 2.3%) and for echinocandins with C. krusei (3.3%), C. albicans (1%), and C. tropicalis (1.7%). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Evaluation of a Reformulated CHROMagar Candida

    OpenAIRE

    Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Brenner, Troy M.; Romagnoli, Mark; Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Merz, William G.; Falkler, William A.; Timothy F. Meiller

    2001-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a differential culture medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically important yeasts. Recently the medium was reformulated by Becton Dickinson. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the new formula of CHROMagar against the original CHROMagar Candida for recovery, growth, and colony color with stock cultures and with direct plating of clinical specimens. A total of 90 stock yeast isolates representing nine yeast species, including ...

  9. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  10. Candida ciferrii: clinical and microbiological features of an emerging pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gentile, L; Bouchara, J P; Cimon, B; Chabasse, D

    1991-01-01

    The authors report six cases of toenail onyxis due to an unusual yeast species, Candida ciferrii. For half of these cases, direct microscopical examination showed the presence of blastospores and pseudo-to-true mycelium, demonstrating the parasitic transition of the fungus. In light of the literature and of their own experience, the authors suggest that C. ciferrii could be an etiological agent of onychomycosis, particularly for elderly patients with extensive trophic disorders.

  11. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; Borghi, Elisa; Balbino, Stella; Cirasola, Daniela; De Giglio, Osvalda; Perdoni, Federica; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Morace, Giulia; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3) guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6%) as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA) between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis) to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis), were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin resistance, and it

  12. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovero, Grazia; Borghi, Elisa; Balbino, Stella; Cirasola, Daniela; De Giglio, Osvalda; Perdoni, Federica; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Morace, Giulia; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2) and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3) guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4%) were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6%) as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA) between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis) to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis), were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin resistance, and it

  13. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Lovero

    Full Text Available The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4% were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6% as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis, were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin

  14. Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Souza Mattei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  15. Characterization of mitochondrial DNA in various Candida species: isolation, restriction endonuclease analysis, size, and base composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C S; Meyer, S A

    1991-01-01

    A practical and effective method for the extraction of mitochondrial DNA from Candida species was developed. Zymolyase was used to induce yeast protoplasts, and mitochondrial DNA was extracted from DNase I-treated mitochondrial preparations. Restriction endonuclease analyses of mitochondrial DNAs from 19 isolates representing seven species of Candida (C. albicans, C. kefyr, C. lusitaniae, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. shehatae, and C. tropicalis) and Lodderomyces elongisporus revealed different cleavage patterns that appeared to be specific for the species. Few common restriction fragments were evident. The genome sizes of the mitochondrial DNAs ranged from 26.4 to 51.4 kilobase pairs, and the guanine-plus-cytosine contents ranged from 20.7 to 36.8 mol%. There was no correlation between the base compositions of nuclear and mitochondrial DNAs. Eight isolates of C. parapsilosis, including the type culture, and an ascosporogenous strain of L. elongisporus, which was once proposed as the teleomorph of C. parapsilosis, had similar mitochondrial DNA molecular sizes (30.2 and 28.8 kilobase pairs); however, restriction endonuclease patterns of these organisms were distinct. These data provide additional support for discrimination of these two species. The results of our experiments demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA analyses may provide useful criteria for the differentiation of yeast species.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in Candida parapsilosis isolates from a U.S. surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Nina T; Pham, Cau D; Cleveland, Angela A; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2015-02-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the second or third most common cause of candidemia in many countries. The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends fluconazole as the primary therapy for C. parapsilosis candidemia. Although the rate of fluconazole resistance among C. parapsilosis isolates is low in most U.S. institutions, the resistance rate can be as high as 7.5%. This study was designed to assess the mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in 706 incident bloodstream isolates from U.S. hospitals. We sequenced the ERG11 and MRR1 genes of 122 C. parapsilosis isolates with resistant (30 isolates; 4.2%), susceptible dose-dependent (37 isolates; 5.2%), and susceptible (55 isolates) fluconazole MIC values and used real-time PCR of RNA from 17 isolates to investigate the regulation of MDR1. By comparing these isolates to fully fluconazole-susceptible isolates, we detected at least two mechanisms of fluconazole resistance: an amino acid substitution in the 14-α-demethylase gene ERG11 and overexpression of the efflux pump MDR1, possibly due to point mutations in the MRR1 transcription factor that regulates MDR1. The ERG11 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found in 57% of the fluconazole-resistant isolates and in no susceptible isolates. The MRR1 SNPs were more difficult to characterize, as not all resulted in overexpression of MDR1 and not all MDR1 overexpression was associated with an SNP in MRR1. Further work to characterize the MRR1 SNPs and search for overexpression of other efflux pumps is needed.

  17. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  18. Identification of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swab by phenotypic methods and multiplex PCR in Duhok, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Basheer Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are the second most common cause of vulvovaginitis worldwide. The purpose of this study was to identify the species of vaginal Candida isolates by using phenotypic and Multiplex PCR techniques. Methods: 91 isolates from patients admitted to Azadi hospital and Maternity hospital in Duhok city were collected. The vaginal swab specimens were inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Colonies were then sub cultured on Chromogenic Candida agar. Genomic DNA extraction was performed using a Genomic DNA Extraction kit. For rapid identification of Candida spp., specific primers based on the genomic sequence of DNA topoisomerase 11 of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis I, C. parapsilosis II, C. guilliermondi, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. kefyr and C. glabrata, C. tropicalis I, C. tropicalis II, C. lusitaniae were used. The multiplex PCR products were separated by electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gel, visualized by staining with ethidium bromide, and photographed. Results: 4 Candida species, namely C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei and C. tropicalis were distinguished by Chromogenic Candida agar on the basis of colony colour and morphology. PCR with the primer mixes yielded 7 different sized of PCR products corresponding to C. albicans, C. guilliermondii, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. kefyr, C. krusei and C. tropicalis II. The analysis revealed C. glabrata and C. albicans were the most common species isolated with the percentage 40% and 30% respectively. Conclusions: This study concluded that phenotypic characteristics on selective agar medium such as chromogenic candida agar are useful for presumptive identification of Candiada spp. with the support of molecular method such as multiplex PCR. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3211-3216

  19. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Umiker, Nicole L.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO2, ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a......, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO2 in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (103-104 cfu/ml) along with lower...

  20. Candida sp. yeast solubilizing phosphate isolated from soil in Wamena Biological Garden, Papua

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    ATIT KANTI

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty isolates of yeast were isolated from soil of Wamena Biological Garden. Out of 20 isolates tested, 3 isolates were able to increase solubility of Ca3(PO42, as indicated by formation of clearing zone surrounding growing colonies. Nutrient of media, which was mainly contained of glucose (20%, were metabolically converted into of either biomass or and metabolic product that may have cause a change of pH profile, and biomass during cell cultivation. Conversely, pH of media decreased during cell cultivation, and that may have cause acceleration of Ca3(PO42 dissolution, which have resulted in an increased of ortho-fosfat in the bulk solution during cell growth. The three isolates having ability of accelerating Ca3(PO42 dissolution belonging to genera of Candida. The three isolates have ability to solubilize about 5-6 mg/L-P, with phosphomonoesterase activity of about 0.10-0.65 unit. Ecological incentive of Fosfat solubilizing yeasts in soil ecosystem are enormous, among other is provision of available P for plant growth and for other soil microorganism.

  1. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, CSP; Chu, FCS; Leung, WK; Jin, LJ; Samaranayake, LP; Siu, SC

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation pat...

  2. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    OpenAIRE

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch; Fabíola Silveira-Gomes; Renata Antunes Esteves; Simone Soares Pedrosa; Ely Simone Cajueiro Gurgel; Alberto Cardoso Arruda; Silvia Helena Marques-da-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demo...

  3. Influence of different susceptibility testing methods and media on determination of the relevant fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations for heavy trailing Candida isolates with low-high phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Sehnaz; Sancak, Banu; Hascelik, Gulsen; Arikan, Sevtap

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the incidence of trailing growth with fluconazole in 101 clinical Candida isolates (49 C. albicans and 52 C. tropicalis) and tried to establish the convenient susceptibility testing method and medium for fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. MICs were determined by CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest methods on RPMI-1640 agar supplemented with 2% glucose (RPG) and on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 2% glucose and 0.5 μg ml(-1) methylene blue (GMB). BMD and Etest MICs were read at 24 and 48 h, and susceptibility categories were compared. All isolates were determined as susceptible with BMD, Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB at 24 h. While all isolates were interpreted as susceptible at 48 h on Etest-RPG and Etest-GMB, one C. albicans isolate was interpreted as susceptible-dose dependent (S-DD) and two C. tropicalis isolates were interpreted as resistant with BMD. On Etest-RPG, trailing growth caused widespread microcolonies within the inhibition zone and resulted in confusion in MIC determination. On Etest-GMB, because of the nearly absence of microcolonies within the zone of inhibition, MICs were evaluated more easily. We conclude that, for the determination of fluconazole MICs of trailing Candida isolates, the Etest method has an advantage over BMD and can be used along with this reference method. Moreover, GMB appears more beneficial than RPG for the fluconazole Etest. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. A review of Candida species causing blood stream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of candidemia has been on a rise worldwide. The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in general and of candidemia in particular has changed in the past three decades because of a variety of factors like the AIDS epidemic, increased number of patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for transplantation and the increasing use of antimicrobials in the hospital setups and even in the community. The important risk factors for candidemia include use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, cancer chemotherapy, mucosal colonization by Candida species, indwelling vascular catheters like central venous catheters, etc. More than 90% of the invasive infections due to Candida species are attributed to five species-Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. However, the list of new species of Candida isolated from clinical specimens continues to grow every year. Early diagnosis and proper treatment is the key for management of candidemia cases.

  5. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  6. Antifungal activity of the primycin complex and its main components A1, A2 and C1 on a Candida albicans clinical isolate, and their effects on the dynamic plasma membrane changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virág, Eszter; Belagyi, Joseph; Kocsubé, Sándor; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Pesti, Miklós

    2013-02-01

    The in vitro antifungal activities of the macrolide lactone antibiotic complex primycin (PC) and its main components, A1 (50%), A2 (7.3%) and C1 (13%), against the opportunistic pathogenic fungus Candida albicans 33erg(+)were determined by microdilution testing. The MIC(100) (the minimal concentration required for 100% growth inhibition) values found, A2 (2 μg ml(-1)), PC (32 μg ml(-1)), A1 (32 μg ml(-1)) and C1 (64 μg ml(-1)), suggested that the biological activity of PC is highly dependent on the proportions of its constituents. In vivo measurements of the biophysical properties of plasma membranes were carried out by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods, using the spin probe 5-(4,4-dimethyloxazolidine-N-oxyl)stearic acid. Conventional EPR measurements demonstrated altered phase transition temperatures (Tm) of the plasma membrane of strain 33erg(+) as a consequence of treatment with PC or its constituents: for cells treated with 128 μg ml(-1) PC, A1, A2 or C1 for 15 min, Tm was 17, 21, 14.5 and 15 °C, respectively; that is significantly higher than the Tm of untreated cells, 12 °C. The molecular motions of the near-surface hydrophobic region of the plasma membrane, estimated by saturation transfer EPR spectroscopy, reflected changes in the membrane phases after the treatment. Two physiological membrane phases were detected in control samples: liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered, characterized by molecular movements ∼10(-6)-10(-8) s and ≥10(-9) s. The cells treated with the investigated compounds showed the strong presence of a non-physiological gel phase additional to the above phases, characterized by movements ≤10(-5) s.

  7. [Molecular epidemiologic surveillance and antifungal agent sensitivity of Candida albicans isolated from anesthesia intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülay, Zeynep; Ergon, Cem; Ozkütük, Aydan; Yücesoy, Mine; Biçmen, Meral

    2002-01-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICU) are at risk of nosocomial infections. The incidence of nosocomial fungal infections has increased in parallel with the increase of nosocomial infections. Candida albicans is the most frequent pathogenic species among the fungi. The aim of this study was to make an epidemiological surveillance of C. albicans urine isolates which were isolated from patients who were hospitalized in ICU between June 2000 and October 2001 by antifungal susceptibility testing and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. For this purpose, 38 C. albicans which were isolated from 29 patients were investigated for amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility with the microdilution method. The range of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amphotericin B was between 0.25-1 microgram/ml and MIC50 value was 0.5 microgram/ml and none of the isolates had high (MIC > 1 microgram/ml) MIC values. The MIC values for fluconazole varied between 0.25-16 micrograms/ml and MIC50 value was 1 microgram/ml. While none of the isolates was resistant to fluconazole, two isolates were detected as dose dependent susceptible. RAPD analysis was performed with two different primers in order to investigate clonal relationship, and 22 patterns were detected with one of the primers and 24 patterns were detected with the other. In conclusion, it is thought that the origin of the C. albicans urine isolates were mostly endogenous but exogenous spread might also be considered as isolates that were clonally related were isolated from different patients at the same time interval.

  8. Molecular Tools for Cryptic "Candida" Species Identification with Applications in a Clinical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefania; Vera Garate, Maria Veronica; Guerrero, Sergio; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    "Candida" spp. includes more than 160 species but only 20 species pose clinical problems. "C. albicans" and "C. parapsilosis" account for more than 75% of all the fungemias worldwide. In 1995 and 2005, one "C. albicans" and two "C. parapsilosis"-related species were described, respectively. Using…

  9. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

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    Mohammad Asadzadeh

    Full Text Available Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp, C. orthopsilosis (109 bp, C. metapsilosis (217 bp and L. elongisporus (258 bp were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380 by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380 were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361, C. orthopsilosis (n = 15, C. metapsilosis (n = 1 and L. elongisporus (n = 3 by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1 comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10

  10. 环介导等温扩增快速检测临床假丝酵母菌属方法建立与应用%Establishment and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of clinical isolates of Candida spp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁勇; 汪一萍; 应建飞; 俞燕红; 贺明阳

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立一种环介导等温扩增(LAMP)反应,根据假丝酵母菌属 D1~ D226S rDNA 保守区域设计通用引物,直接对临床标本进行假丝酵母菌属检测。方法根据假丝酵母属的特异 D1~ D226S rDNA 基因序列比对后的相对保守区设计特异引物,分别提取5种假丝酵母菌、临床对照菌株以及临床标本 DNA ,然后以 LAMP 技术扩增,并对白色假丝酵母菌孢子悬液进行系列梯度稀释检测,确定最低检测限。结果5种假丝酵母菌直接提取 DNA 经 LAMP 和 PCR 方法检测均为阳性;30份经培养证实假丝酵母菌属感染标本,经 LAMP 检测有27份标本阳性,阳性检出率为90.0%;另10份临床对照标本和11种非假丝酵母菌属来源 DNA 样本经 LAMP 方法检测后结果均为阴性,无非特异性反应发生;LAMP 最低检测限达到103 CFU /ml 。结论结果证明 LAMP 是一种简便、快速、特异和敏感的检测方法,可以检测临床和环境标本中的常见假丝酵母菌属。%OBJECTIVE To establish the loop-mediated isothermal amplification for direct detection of Candida spp in clinical samples by designing universal primers on the basis of conserved region of D ~ D2 26S rDNA of Candida spp .METHODS The specific primers were designed from the relative conservation region of the published sequence of D1-D2 26S rDNA genes of the Candida sp p ,then the genomic DNA was extracted from five species of Candida spp ,clinical control strains ,and clinical specimens and was amplified by using loop-mediated isothermal amplifica-tion ,and the serial dilutions were carried out for the spore suspensions of Candida albicans so as to determine the minimum detection limit .RESULTS The loop-mediated isothermal amplification and PCR assays obtained positive results for the DNA that was directly extracted from the five species of Candida sp p .Of 30 specimens that were proved infected with Candida sp p through culture

  11. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

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    Eric Monroy-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC. The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes and azole resistance genes MDR1 and CDR1 were performed using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. All strains were sensitive to nystatin and 38 (97.4% and 37 (94.9% were resistant to ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. ALS1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1, LIP2, LIP4, LIP6, LIP7, LIP9, LIP10, and PLB1-PLB2 were present in all strains; SAP1 was identified in 37 (94.8% isolates, HWP1 in 35 (89.7%, ALS3 in 14 (35.8%, and CDR1 in 26 (66.6%. In nearly all of the strains, ALS1, HWP1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1–LIP10, PLB1, and PLB2 were expressed, whereas CDR1 was expressed in 20 (51.3% and ALS3 in 14 (35.8%. In our in vitro model of infection with C. albicans, the clinical strains showed different expression profiles of virulence genes in association with the azole resistance gene CDR1. The results indicate that the strains that infect Mexican patients suffering from VVC are highly virulent and virtually all are insensitive to azoles.

  12. High Virulence and Antifungal Resistance in Clinical Strains of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Pérez, Eric; Paniagua-Contreras, Gloria Luz; Rodríguez-Purata, Pamela; Vaca-Paniagua, Felipe; Vázquez-Villaseñor, Marco; Díaz-Velásquez, Clara; Uribe-García, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Antifungal resistance and virulence properties of Candida albicans are a growing health problem worldwide. To study the expression of virulence and azole resistance genes in 39 clinical strains of C. albicans, we used a model of infection of human vaginal epithelial cells with C. albicans strains isolated from Mexican women with vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). The strains were identified by PCR amplification of the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of rRNA. The detection and expression of virulence genes and azole resistance genes MDR1 and CDR1 were performed using PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. All strains were sensitive to nystatin and 38 (97.4%) and 37 (94.9%) were resistant to ketoconazole and fluconazole, respectively. ALS1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1, LIP2, LIP4, LIP6, LIP7, LIP9, LIP10, and PLB1-PLB2 were present in all strains; SAP1 was identified in 37 (94.8%) isolates, HWP1 in 35 (89.7%), ALS3 in 14 (35.8%), and CDR1 in 26 (66.6%). In nearly all of the strains, ALS1, HWP1, SAP4–SAP6, LIP1–LIP10, PLB1, and PLB2 were expressed, whereas CDR1 was expressed in 20 (51.3%) and ALS3 in 14 (35.8%). In our in vitro model of infection with C. albicans, the clinical strains showed different expression profiles of virulence genes in association with the azole resistance gene CDR1. The results indicate that the strains that infect Mexican patients suffering from VVC are highly virulent and virtually all are insensitive to azoles. PMID:28058052

  13. In Vitro Pharmacodynamics of Anidulafungin and Caspofungin against Candida glabrata Isolates, Including Strains with Decreased Caspofungin Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Cota, Jason; Carden, Michael; Graybill, John R.; Najvar, Laura K.; Burgess, David S.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of anidulafungin and caspofungin against Candida glabrata were evaluated. MICs, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), and IC90 values for anidulafungin were lower than those for caspofungin for 16 of 18 strains tested. Anidulafungin has potent in vitro activity against C. glabrata that is maintained against isolates with elevated caspofungin MICs.

  14. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  15. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  16. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

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    Nakamura Celso

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI, 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R-diol (AZA, and 24(R,S,25-epiminolanosterol (EIL, against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including

  17. Cell wall proteinaceous components in isolates of Candida albicans and non-albicans species from HIV-infected patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ribot, J L; Kirkpatrick, W R; McAtee, R K; Revankar, S G; Patterson, T F

    1998-09-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) remains a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. Candida albicans is the most frequent causative agent of OPC. However, non-albicans spp. are being increasingly isolated. Candidal cell wall proteins and mannoproteins play important roles in the biology and patogenesis of candidiasis. In the present study, we have analyzed the proteinaceous components associated with cell wall extracts from C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida pseudotropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida rugosa obtained from HIV-infected patients with recurrent OPC. Cell wall proteinaceous components were extracted with beta-mercaptoethanol and analyzed using electrophoresis, immunoblotting (with antisera generated against C. albicans cell wall components, and with serum samples and oral saline rinses from patients with OPC), and lectin-blotting (concanavalin A) techniques. Numerous molecular species were solubilized from the various isolates. Major qualitative and quantitative differences in the polypeptidic and antigenic profiles associated with the cell wall extracts from the different Candida spp. were discernible. Some of the antibody preparations generated against C. albicans cell wall components were able to recognize homologous materials present in the extracts from non-albicans spp. Information on cell wall antigens of Candida species may be important in the therapy and prevention of HIV-related OPC.

  18. Evaluation of CLSI M44-A2 disk diffusion and associated breakpoint testing of caspofungin and micafungin using a well-characterized panel of wild-type and fks hot spot mutant Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Park, Steven; Brown, Steven; Pfaller, Michael; Perlin, David S

    2011-05-01

    Disk diffusion testing has recently been standardized by the CLSI, and susceptibility breakpoints have been established for several antifungal compounds. For caspofungin, 5-μg disks are approved, and for micafungin, 10-μg disks are under evaluation. We evaluated the performances of caspofungin and micafungin disk testing using a panel of Candida isolates with and without known FKS echinocandin resistance mechanisms. Disk diffusion and microdilution assays were performed strictly according to CLSI documents M44-A2 and M27-A3. Eighty-nine clinical Candida isolates were included: Candida albicans (20 isolates/10 mutants), C. glabrata (19 isolates/10 mutants), C. dubliniensis (2 isolates/1 mutant), C. krusei (16 isolates/3 mutants), C. parapsilosis (14 isolates/0 mutants), and C. tropicalis (18 isolates/4 mutants). Quality control strains were C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and C. krusei ATCC 6258. The correlations between zone diameters and MIC results were good for both compounds, with identical susceptibility classifications for 93.3% of the isolates by applying the current CLSI breakpoints. However, the numbers of fks hot spot mutant isolates misclassified as being susceptible (S) (very major errors [VMEs]) were high (61% for caspofungin [S, ≥11 mm] and 93% for micafungin [S, ≥14 mm]). Changing the disk diffusion breakpoint to S at ≥22 mm significantly improved the discrimination. For caspofungin, 1 VME was detected (a C. tropicalis isolate with an F76S substitution) (3.5%), and for micafungin, 10 VMEs were detected, the majority of which were for C. glabrata (8/10). The broadest separation between zone diameter ranges for wild-type (WT) and mutant isolates was seen for caspofungin (6 to 12 mm versus -4 to 7 mm). In conclusion, caspofungin disk diffusion testing with a modified breakpoint led to excellent separation between WT and mutant isolates for all Candida species.

  19. Isolation and Selection of Anti-Candida albicans Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

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    Monthon LERTCANAWANICHAKUL

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The forty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB were obtained from various fermented foods. The cross streak plate method was used to preliminary screen for antimicrobial activity. LAB were isolated by selective medium, Mann Rogosa Sharpe (MRS. Most of the isolates showed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 517, Bacillus subtilis TISTR 008, Micrococcus luteus TISTR 884, Escherichia coli TISTR 887, Pseudomonas aeruginosa TISTR 781, and Candida albicans DMST 5239. Only sterile culture supernatant of isolate No. L14, later identified as Lactococcus lactis, showed antifungal activity by means of agar well diffusion assay. The activity was stable during heat treatment and was retained even after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 minutes. Maximum activity was observed at pH values between 2.5-4.0, and was lost at higher pH values. The anti-C. albicans activity was fully regained after readjustment of the pH to the initial value (pH 3.5.

  20. Clinical study on thermography, as modern investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosif, Laura; Preoteasa, Cristina Teodora; Murariu-Măgureanu, Cătălina; Preoteasa, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is an infectious inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, with frequent recurrences. The aim of this study was to assess the use of infrared thermography as investigation method for Candida-associated denture stomatitis (as inflammatory disorder of the maxillary denture bearing area), by comparing disease and non-disease groups. An observational study was conducted on maxillary edentulous patients treated by acrylic dentures, with and without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Diagnostic test methods used were clinical examination for denture stomatitis and conventional microbiological culture method for oral candidiasis. Thermography analysis of the maxillary denture bearing area was made using the ThermaCAM PM350 infrared camera (Inframetrics, Flir Systems) and ThermaGram Pro 95 software, data being acquired by usage of standard protocol of thermographic registrations. The sample included 52 patients, 21 with and 31 without Candida-associated denture stomatitis. The temperature of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area was found to be statistically significantly higher in Candida-associated denture stomatitis (mean 36.20°C), compared to healthy oral mucosa (mean 34.85°C). The thermal threshold value of 35.44°C was identified as best differentiating a pathological from normal state of the maxillary mucosa corresponding to the denture bearing area. In conclusion, infrared thermography, a rapid non-invasive investigation method, has the premises to bring valuable data in inflammatory disorders of the maxillary denture bearing area, as Candida-associated denture stomatitis that may be used for screening, diagnostic or monitoring purposes.

  1. Molecular typing of Candida albicans strains isolated from nosocomial candidemia Tipificação molecular de espécies de Candida albicans isoladas de candidemia hospitalar

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    Maria Luiza Moretti Branchini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have been recognized as important microorganisms responsible for nosocomial fungemia. Six blood-stream and two intravenous central catheter C. albicans strains were isolated from eight patients and studied by electrophoretic karyotyping of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven chromosomal DNA profiles were identified. Two patients showed isolates with the same profile, suggesting nosocomial transmission. Karyotyping of C. albicans revealed an excellent discriminatory power among the isolates and may therefore be useful in the study of nosocomial candidemia.Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido reconhecidas como importantes causadoras de fungemias hospitalares. Foram estudados os DNA cromossômicos de oito cepas de C. albicans, obtidas de oito pacientes com fungemia hospitalar, por cariotipagem eletroforética através de "pulsed-field gel electrophoresis". As cepas foram obtidas pelo isolamento da levedura em seis hemoculturas e duas infecções relacionadas ao uso de cateter intra-venoso central. Foram identificados sete perfis de DNA cromossômico. Dois pacientes mostraram cepas com o mesmo perfil de DNA sugerindo transmissão nosocomial. A cariotipagem eletroforética revelou excelente capacidade discriminatória entre os isolados sendo útil no estudo das candidemias hospitalares.

  2. [Investigation of the correlation between biofilm forming ability of urinary Candida isolates with the use of urinary catheters and change of antifungal susceptibility in the presence of biofilm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Hacer; Gülmez, Dolunay

    2016-04-01

    Frequency of Candida species causing urinary tract infections is increasing, and this increase is outstanding in nosocomial urinary tract infections especially in intensive care units. The ability of biofilm formation that is contributed to the virulence of the yeast, plays a role in the pathogenesis of biomaterial-related infections and also constitutes a risk for treatment failure. The aims of this study were to compare biofilm forming abilities of Candida strains isolated from urine cultures of patients with and without urinary catheters, and to investigate the change of antifungal susceptibility in the presence of biofilm. A total of 50 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures of 25 patients with urinary catheters (10 C.tropicalis, 6 C.glabrata, 4 C.albicans, 4 C.parapsilosis, 1 C.krusei) and 25 without urinary catheters (8 C.tropicalis, 6 C.albicans, 4 C.krusei, 3 C.parapsilosis, 2 C.kefyr, 1 C.glabrata, 1 C.lusitaniae) were included in the study. Biofilm forming ability was tested by Congo red agar (CRA) and microplate XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction methods. Fluconazole (FLU) and amphotericin B (AMP-B) susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by reference microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for planktonic cells and by XTT reduction assay in case of biofilm presence. Biofilm formation was detected in 12 (24%) by CRA and 50 (100%) of the isolates by XTT reduction method. None of the C.albicans (n= 10) and C.tropicalis (n= 18) strains were detected as biofilm positive by CRA, however, these strains were strongly positive by XTT reduction method. No statistically significant correlation was detected between the presence of urinary catheter and biofilm forming ability of the isolate (p> 0.05). This might be caused by the advantage of biofilm forming strains in adhesion to bladder mucosa at the initial stages of infection. For all of the isolates in

  3. Caspofungin Etest susceptibility testing of Candida species: risk of misclassification of susceptible isolates of C. glabrata and C. krusei when adopting the revised CLSI caspofungin breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Pfaller, Michael A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of caspofungin Etest and the recently revised CLSI breakpoints. A total of 497 blood isolates, of which 496 were wild-type isolates, were included. A total of 65/496 susceptible isolates (13.1%) were misclassified as intermediate (I) or resistant (R). Such misclassifications were most commonly observed for Candida krusei (73.1%) and Candida glabrata (33.1%). The revised breakpoints cannot be safely adopted for these two species.

  4. Molecular Identification of Candida Albicans Isolated From the Oncology Patients at Four University Hospitals in Mazandaran Province (2005-6

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    H. Karami, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Early detection of Candida species in body site could improve the survival of the immunosuppressed patients by allowing the initiation of specific treatment while the fungal biomass is still low. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida albicans isolated from the oncology patients by molecular methods.Materials and Methods: Sixty two of Candida albicans isolated identified by phenotypic methods (color of colony on CHROMagar medium, germ-tube formation in horse serum, chlamydospore formation on Cornmeal agar with 1% Tween 80. DNA was extracted by using a glass bead/phenol- chloroform method. The oligonucleotide primer pairs (NL1/NL4 were used to amplify a 620-bp fragment of D1/D2 region of large submit (26s ribosomal DNA gene. PCR-products were electrophoresed in a 1.5% agarose gel. Eighteen PCR-amplified products sequenced and results were evaluated by online BLAST software. Multiple sequence alignment was performed by using online CLUSTAL-W (version 1.83 software.Results: The BLAST search revealed that all of products were Candida albicans. All sequences showed >99% similarity when compared with known reference sequences at the Gene-Bank. Four different strains were obtained of albicans species, including: AA 1622b (13 samples, 24698 (3 samples, TA 62 (1samples and 551 FC (1 sample. A total of 131 nucleotide exchange sites were revealed.Conclusion: The dominant species by phenotypic approaches was Candida albicans. In addition, identification of Candida albicans by (26S rDNA sequencing was 100% concordant to the results obtained by the phenotypic metho

  5. [Comparative study of the Candida albicans genotypes isolated from immunocompromised patients and health carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnovale, S; Elias Costa, M R; Relloso, S; Negroni, R; Negroni, M B; Iovannitti, C

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare Candida albicans strain genotype isolates from oral cavity of immunocompromised patients due to different immunologic impairments with apparently normal carriers. Four populations were studied: 1) HIV positive hospitalized patients, 2) HIV negative immunocompromised patients (leukemia, lymphoma, organ transplant recipients), 3) drug addicts prior to AIDS pandemia in Argentina, 4) apparently normal carriers. DNA extracted was digested with the enzyme Eco RI, electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose membrane and hybridized with the 27A probe labelled with 32P. The comparison between the profiles obtained permitted the differentiation of 16 genotypes. The distribution of the strains led to the conclusion that: a) all the isolated strains from AIDS patients were closely related and distributed in only three genotypes (1, 3, 11); b) a major genetic relationship between the isolates from AIDS patients and HIV negative immunocompromised patients was observed; c) strains from carriers showed a minor genetic similarity with those obtained from AIDS patients; d) characteristic profiles belonging to any of the studied groups were not found; e) significant genomic changes have not been observed during the last twenty years.

  6. Outcome of experimental rat vaginitis by Candida albicans isolates with different karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Campa, Daniele; Arancia, Silvia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; de Bernardis, Flavia; Senesi, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans isolates with different genomic background, designed as b and c karyotypes, have been previously shown to differentially modulate their response to macrophage candidacidal activity. While b-type isolates were susceptible to intracellular killing, strains with c karyotype survived upon internalization and were able to replicate inside macrophages. Furthermore, it was also shown that c type strains escape microglial cell mediated growth inhibition, suggesting that these strains form a more virulent cluster. In this report, the pathogenicity exerted by C. albicans isolates with b and c karyotypes was analyzed in vivo using a model of experimental rat vaginitis. Although both types induced infection, c-type-infected animals suffered from more persistent vaginitis, confirming the higher virulence potential the c karyotype exerted in vivo. The analysis of fungal cells recovered from vaginal fluids of infected animals indicated that c-type was more prone to undergo morphogenesis and to express SAP2 than b-type; these different traits may account for the differences observed in the outcome of experimental rodent vaginitis induced by the two C. albicans karyotypes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Formulation of mayonnaise with the addition of a bioemulsifier isolated from Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer M; Stamford, Tânia L M; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Stamford, Thayza Christina M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants have a number of industrial applications due their diverse properties, such as emulsification, foaming, wetting, and surface activity. The aim of the present study was to produce a biosurfactant from Candida utilis and employ it in the formulation of a mayonnaise. The biosurfactant was produced in a mineral medium supplemented with glucose and canola waste frying oil at 150 rpm for 88 h. The product was biologically tested on rats and in different formulations of mayonnaise, which were submitted to microbiological evaluations. The biosurfactant was added to the diet of the rats for 21 days. Greater consumption was found of the experimental diet. Moreover, no changes were found in the liver or kidneys of the animals, demonstrating the absence of a toxic effect from the biosurfactant. Six different formulations of mayonnaise were prepared and tested regarding stability with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum (combined and isolated) after 30 days of refrigeration. The most stable formulation with the best quality was obtained with combination of guar gum and the isolated biosurfactant, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms. In conclusion, the potential and innocuousness of the biosurfactant isolated from C. utilis indicates its safe use in food emulsions.

  8. Formulation of mayonnaise with the addition of a bioemulsifier isolated from Candida utilis

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    Jenyffer M. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants have a number of industrial applications due their diverse properties, such as emulsification, foaming, wetting, and surface activity. The aim of the present study was to produce a biosurfactant from Candida utilis and employ it in the formulation of a mayonnaise. The biosurfactant was produced in a mineral medium supplemented with glucose and canola waste frying oil at 150 rpm for 88 h. The product was biologically tested on rats and in different formulations of mayonnaise, which were submitted to microbiological evaluations. The biosurfactant was added to the diet of the rats for 21 days. Greater consumption was found of the experimental diet. Moreover, no changes were found in the liver or kidneys of the animals, demonstrating the absence of a toxic effect from the biosurfactant. Six different formulations of mayonnaise were prepared and tested regarding stability with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum (combined and isolated after 30 days of refrigeration. The most stable formulation with the best quality was obtained with combination of guar gum and the isolated biosurfactant, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms. In conclusion, the potential and innocuousness of the biosurfactant isolated from C. utilis indicates its safe use in food emulsions.

  9. High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidnia, Ali; Bekers, Wouter; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and validated a multiplex-PCR method for detection of dermatophyte spp., Candida albicans and parapsilosis for routine diagnostics. Our m-PCR showed excellent concordance with culture results in 475 clinical samples. Through the rapid diagnosis by our m-PCR, clinicians are able to initiate adequate antimycotic therapy much earlier.

  10. Nosocomial Bloodstream Infection Due to Candida spp. in China: Species Distribution, Clinical Features, and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Du, Mingmei; Chen, Liang-An; Liu, Yunxi; Liang, Zhixin

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the distribution of Candida spp., predictors of mortality, and effects of therapeutic measures on outcomes of nosocomial bloodstream infection (BSI) due to Candida spp. This retrospective, population-based study enrolled adult patients with Candida nosocomial BSI from January 2010 to December 2014 in one tertiary care hospital. The demographics, comorbidities, species distribution, risk factors, and effects of antifungal treatment were assessed. In total, 190 episodes of Candida BSI were identified. The most prevalent species was C. albicans (38.9 %), followed by C. parapsilosis (23.2 %) and C. tropicalis (20.5 %). In vitro susceptibility testing showed that 88.9 % of Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole. The 30-day hospital mortality was 27.9 %, while the early mortality (within 7 days) was 16.3 %. In a multivariate regression analysis, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score [odds ratio (OR) 1.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.080-1.390; P = 0.002] and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 15.35; 95 % CI 2.391-98.502; P = 0.004) were independently correlated with early mortality. Severe sepsis or septic shock (OR 24.75; 95 % CI 5.099-120.162; P < 0.001) was an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality, while proven catheter-related candidemia (OR 0.16; 95 % CI 0.031-0.810; P = 0.027) was a positive factor for 30-day mortality. Early central venous catheter removal and adequate antifungal treatment were closely related to decreased mortality in patients with primary candidemia. The proportion of candidemia caused by C. albicans was lower than that caused by non-albicans species. The severity of illness influenced early mortality, and the origin of the central venous catheter remarkably affected 30-day mortality.

  11. Candida auris sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi; Hasumi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2009-01-01

    A single strain of a novel ascomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Candida was isolated from the external ear canal of an inpatient in a Japanese hospital. Analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain, nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS region sequences, and chemotaxonomic studies indicated that this strain represents a new species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Candida ruelliae and Candida haemulonii in the Metschnikowiaceae clade. This strain grew well at 40 degrees C, but showed slow and weak growth at 42 degrees C. The taxonomic description of Candida auris sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM15448T= CBS10913T= DSM21092T).

  12. Antifungal suscepitibility profile of candida spp. oral isolates obtained from denture wearers Perfil de sensibilidade antifungica de isolados de candida sp obtidos de usuários de prótese total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Lyon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition that occurs in denture wearers and is frequently associated with Candida yeasts. Antifungal susceptibility profiles have been extensively evaluated for candidiasis patients or immunosupressed individuals, but not for healthy Candida carriers. In the present study, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, terbinafine and 5-flucytosin were tested against 109 oral Candida spp. isolates. All antifungal agents were effective against the samples tested except for terbinafine. This work might provide epidemiological information about Candida spp. drug susceptibility in oral healthy individuals.A estomatite protética é uma condição inflamatória que ocorre em usuários de prótese total e está frequentemente associada a leveduras do gênero Candida, Os perfis de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos têm sido extensivamente estudados em pacientes com candidíase ou em indivíduos imunossuprimidos, mas não em portadores sadios de Candida. No presente estudo, fluconazol, itraconazol, voriconazol, terbinafina e 5-flucitosina foram testados contra 109 isolados orais de Candida spp. Todos os agentes antifúngicos mostraram-se eficazes contra as amostras avaliadas, exceto a Terbinafina. O presente trabalho pode fornecer dados epidemiológicos com relação à susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de Candida spp em indivíduos com saúde oral.

  13. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  14. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia de Souza; Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine da Silva Ribeiro; Negri, Melyssa; Lima, Nayara Cristina Alves de; Fiorini, Adriana; Hatanaka, Elaine; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent). Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  15. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  16. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit(ICU) patients.Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed.Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests.Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document.Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples: urine(43.3%), tracheal aspirate(31.1%), urinary catheter(12.2%), endotracheal tube(7.8%),abdominal drains(3.3%), sputum(2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by nonalbicans Candida(NAC) species(63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans(36.7%).The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis(41.1%), Candida glabrata(10%), Candida parapsilosis(6.7%), Candida krusei(3.3%) and Candida kefyr(2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Antifungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8% and 7.8% of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively.Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  17. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Antifungal Activity of Some Natural Essential Oils against Candida Species Isolated from Blood Stream Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is a part of normal microflora of human body and exists as an opportunistic pathogen as it attacks immunocompromised patients. Aims and Objectives: Candida is the most commonly isolated organism from blood stream infections. Fluconazole is the major antifungal drug used for treatment of Candida. Resistance to fluconazole has been increasing in recent years so there should be search of some other alternative. To find out these alternatives, anti candidial activity of some natural essential oils was studied. Materials and Methods: In the present study nine Candida strains isolated from blood stream infections were collected from National Culture Collection of Pathogenic Fungi (N.C.C.P.F. P.G.I.M.E.R Chandigarh India and the antifungal activity of some natural essential oils such as lemongrass oil, coconut oil, almond oil and clove oil was checked by using agar diffusion method. Result: All oils have shown a significantly anti-candidal activity. However, the antifungal activity was maximum in lemongrass oil. Conclusion: Our study may help to design new chemotherapeutic strategies against Candidal infections.

  19. Comparison of Candida species isolated from children with and without early childhood caries: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Beena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is characterized by the presence of one or more decayed, missing (due to caries, or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth, in a child below 6 years of age. Although ECC is primarily associated with high levels of maternal Streptococcus mutans, there has been an increased interest in finding the relationship between oral fungal flora and dental caries. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the Candida species and to compare the candidal isolates in children with ECC and without ECC. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on children below 6 years of age, who were categorized into ECC and non-ECC groups of fifty children each. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs and were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Candidal colonies were isolated, species identified and virulence factors tested for both ECC and non-ECC groups. Results: The candidal carriage among the ECC children was found to be 84%, which was significantly higher than the non-ECC group of 24%. Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC were isolated in both ECC and non-ECC groups. Phospholipase production was significantly high in ECC group whereas hemolysin production and germ tube formation showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A significant correlation was found between the presence of Candida and ECC. NAC also plays an important role in the development of ECC. The virulence factors such as phospholipase may be responsible for the pathogenicity of Candida in the development of ECC.

  20. Pre-clinical development of antifungal susceptibility test methods for the testing of the novel antifungal agent E1210 versus Candida: comparison of CLSI and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Watanabe, Naoaki; Castanheira, Mariana; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N

    2011-11-01

    To compare European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) methods for testing the novel antifungal E1210 against a recent collection of 102 clinical isolates of Candida spp. Candida isolates (102) were tested by CLSI and EUCAST methods; 21 Candida albicans, 20 Candida glabrata, 25 Candida parapsilosis, 24 Candida tropicalis and 12 Candida krusei, including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates. CLSI and EUCAST MIC endpoints of 50% and 100% inhibition were determined using visual reading at 24 and 48 h of incubation and spectrophotometric reading at 24 h of incubation, respectively. E1210 CLSI MIC results ranged from ≤0.008 to only 1 mg/L (excluding C. krusei) depending on species, duration of incubation and endpoint criteria (EC). E1210 was not active against C. krusei (MIC(50) >16 mg/L). Overall essential agreement (EA; ±2 doubling dilutions) between the 24 and 48 h CLSI readings was 100% and 97.6% using the 50% and 100% inhibition EC, respectively. Slightly more trailing growth at 48 h was observed with the 100% inhibition EC. Comparison of the 50% and 100% endpoints at 24 h of incubation showed an overall EA of 100%. Comparison of CLSI and EUCAST read at 24 h of incubation and either 50% or 100% inhibition revealed an EA of 97.8% using the 50% inhibition EC and 88.9% using the 100% inhibition EC. E1210 was found to have potent in vitro activity against Candida spp. when tested by both CLSI and EUCAST BMD methods, with the highest overall EA (97.8%) obtained when E1210 MIC results were read after 24 h of incubation using a partial inhibition EC.

  1. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates collected from oral cavities of HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, D V; Melhem, M S C; Martins, M A; Souza, L R; Kacew, S; Szeszs, M W; Carvalho, L R; Pimenta-Rodrigues, M V; Berghs, H A M; Mendes, R P

    2012-12-01

    At present, few data are available on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates from HIV-infected individuals. The C. parapsilosis complex comprises three species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Fifteen of 318 Candida isolates were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex isolates was 4.7 %, 2.2 % being identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2.5 % as C. metapsilosis, while no C. orthopsilosis was isolated. This is believed to be the first study that has identified isolates of C. metapsilosis obtained from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), ketoconazole (KTC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC) and caspofungin (CASPO). Although isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to FLC, isolates of C. metapsilosis showed a tendency for higher MICs (≥1.0 µg ml(-1)). Based upon the frequency of candidiasis and the fact that certain isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex respond differently to FLC therapy, our data may be of therapeutic relevance with respect to susceptibility and potential resistance to specific antifungal agents. Our data suggest that C. metapsilosis can be a human commensal; its importance as a pathogen has yet to be confirmed.

  2. The Susceptibility Patterns of Candida Species Isolated From Urine Samples to Posaconazole and Caspofungin

    OpenAIRE

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; REZAEI-MATEHKOLAEI, Ali; Ghanavati, Fataemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Candiduria is a rising condition among hospitalized patients and Candida albicans is the most common recovered agent. However, non-albicans Candida species (NACs) such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis are also important. Although most Candida species especially C. albicans are sensitive to routinely used antifungals, an increasing trend in resistance has been observed among NACs. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to detect the susceptibility...

  3. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  4. Systemic neonatal candidosis: the karyotyping of Candida albicans strains isolated from neonates and health-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdeljelil, J; Ben Saida, N; Saghrouni, F; Fathallah, A; Boukadida, J; Sboui, H; Ben Said, M

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans has become an important cause of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of the present study was to compare C. albicans strains isolated from neonates (NN) suffering from systemic candidosis and from nurses in order to determine the relatedness between NN and health workers' strains. Thirty-one C. albicans strains were isolated from 18 NN admitted to the NICU of the neonatology service of Farhat Hached Hospital of Sousse, Tunisia and suffering from systemic candidosis, together with five strains recovered from nurses suffering from C. albicans onychomycosis. Two additional strains were tested, one from an adult patient who developed a systemic candidosis and the second from an adult with inguinal intertrigo. All strains were karyotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with a CHEF-DR II system. Analysis of PFGE patterns yielded by the 38 strains tested led to the identification of three pulsotypes that were designated I, II and III, and consisted of six chromosomal bands with a size ranging from 700 to >2500 kbp. The most widespread was the pulsotype I, which was shared by 17 NN and the five nurses' strains. The identity between NN and nurses' strains is very suggestive of a nosocomial acquisition from health-workers.

  5. Phenotype and genotype of Candida albicans strains isolated from pregnant women with recurrent vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, C M; Paula, C R; Mazzocato, T S; Franceschini, S

    1997-01-01

    Fourteen out of 80 pregnant women receiving prenatal care presented signs and symptoms of recurrent vaginal candidiasis. Candida albicans strains were isolated from 12 patients (85.7%), and these were submitted to morphotyping (morphological characteristics of the colony), antifungal typing (pattern of sensitivity to amphotericin B, 5-fluorcytosine, myconazole, ketoconazole and fluconazole) and genotyping (electrophoretic migration of DNA fragments digested with EcoRI and HinfI). Alteration of morphotype and antifungal type was observed in 50% of the patients, but the genotype of the strains isolated from the same patients at different times was identical in all subjects. The predominant morphotypes presented continuous fringes and the basic changes observed among antifungal types was the emergence of strains resistant to myconazole, which was the drug used for the treatment of the first episode of vaginitis. We conclude that recurrent vaginal candidasis is caused by the persistence of a single yeast genotype that undergoes morphological and behavioral changes in the presence of antifungal agents due to the selective pressure to which it is submitted.

  6. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Susanne L; Umiker, Nicole L; Arneborg, Nils; Edwards, Charles G

    2009-12-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO(2), ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO(2) in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (10(3)-10(4)cfu/ml) along with lower populations of Saccharomyces (10(5)cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth and quickly died in contrast to Q2 which survived >40 days after inoculation. B1b grew well in wine incubated at 21 degrees C while slower growth was observed at 15 degrees C. Neither Q2 nor Q3 produced 4-ethyl-phenol or 4-ethyl-guaiacol, unlike B1b. However, lower concentrations of volatile phenols were present in wine incubated at 15 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C.

  7. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M.J.; Lewis, M A; Potts, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  8. [Evaluation of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method in the identifi cation of Candida species isolated from blood cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydemir, Gonca; Koç, Ayşe Nedret; Atalay, Mustafa Altay

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, increased number of patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, received immunosuppressive therapy and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics that can lead an increase in the incidence of systemic candidiasis. In these patients, the most common clinical manifestation is candidemia. Since the identification of Candida species isolated from blood cultures is time consuming by conventional (morphological and biochemical) methods, rapid, reliable and accurate methods are needed. For this purpose novel systems have been developed to identify the agent directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA FISH) method for the identification of Candida species by comparing with the conventional methods. A total of 50 patients who were admitted to Erciyes University Medical Faculty Hospital clinics and followed with prediagnosis of systemic fungal infections whose blood cultures were positive for the yeasts between July 2011 and July 2012 were included in the study. The conventional identification of Candida isolates was performed by considering macroscopic and microscopic morphology, germ tube test, cycloheximide sensitivity, urease activity and carbohydrate assimilation patterns with API 20C AUX (bioMerieux, France) test. PNA FISH method was conducted by the use of a commercial kit namely Yeast Traffic Light(®) PNA FISH (AdvanDx, USA). According to morphological and biochemical characteristics (conventional methods), 19 (38%) out of 50 Candida isolates were identified as C.albicans, 12 (24%) as C.glabrata, five (10%) as C.parapsilosis, five (10%) as C.kefyr, four (8%) as C.krusei, two (4%) as C.guilliermondii, two (4%) as C.tropicalis and one (2%) as C.lusitaniae. On the other hand, 24 (48%) of the isolates were identified as C.albicans/C.parapsilosis (with green fluorescence), 16 (32%) as C.glabrata/C.krusei (with red fluorescence) and one (%2) as C.tropicalis (with yellow

  9. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  10. Susceptibility to 5-fluorocytosine and prevalence of serotype in 402 Candida albicans isolates from the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, R L; BENNETT,J.E.; Scholer, H J; Wall, M; Polak, A.; Stevens, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Candida albicans isolates from 402 patients with no prior history of treatment with 5-fluorocytosine were collected at five medical centers from different areas of the United States. Isolates could be separated into four groups based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to 5-fluorocytosine. Group I isolates (60%) had MICs less than or equal to 12.5 micrograms/ml after 7 days, whereas groups II (22%), III (14%), and IV (4%) demonstrated MICs greater than 12.5 micrograms/ml on days...

  11. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lurdete Maria Rocha Gauch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Methods Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. Results The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. Conclusions The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed.

  12. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  13. Antifungal susceptibility testing of clinical isolates of fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus funmigates to posaconazole%耐氟康唑念珠菌和耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉对泊沙康唑的敏感性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪洁; 万哲; 李若瑜; 刘伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定耐氟康唑念珠菌和耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉临床分离株对泊沙康唑的敏感性。方法参照美国临床实验室标准化研究所制定的 M27-A3和 M38-A2方案,测定从临床获得的11株耐氟康唑的念珠菌和3株耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉对泊沙康唑的 MIC 值。结果对于氟康唑耐药的念珠菌,泊沙康唑的 MIC 范围是0.125~1μg/ mL。对于伊曲康唑耐药烟曲霉,泊沙康唑的 MIC 范围是0.06~0.5μg/ mL。结论11株耐氟康唑的念珠菌和3株耐伊曲康唑烟曲霉均对泊沙康唑有效。%Objective To determine the in vitro susceptibility of fluconazole( FLU)-resistant Candida spp. and itraconazole (ITC)-resistant Aspergillus spp. to posaconazole(POS). Methods The MICs of FLU,ITC,voriconazole(VRC)and POS were determined according to CLSI M27-A3 and M38-A2 methods in eleven isolates of Candida spp. and three isolates of Aspergillus spp. Results MICs of FLU,ITC,VRC and POS against FLU-resistant Candida spp. were 64 μg/ mL,0. 5 ~ 16 μg/ mL,0. 25 ~ 2 μg/mL and 0. 125 ~ 1 μg/ mL. And MICs of ITC,VRC and POS against ITC-resistant Aspergillus spp. were ﹥ 16 μg/ mL,1 ~ 2 μg/ mL and 0. 25 ~ 0. 5 μg/ mL. Conclusion POS is effective to FLU-resistant Candida spp. and ITC-resistant Aspergillus spp. in vitro .

  14. Evaluation of caries-associated virulence of biofilms from Candida albicans isolated from saliva of pediatric patients with sickle-cell anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Brighenti,Fernanda Lourenção; Medeiros, Amanda Coelho; Bruno Mello MATOS; RIBEIRO,Zulene Eveline Abreu; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi

    2014-01-01

    A previous study demonstrated that the amount of Candida spp. in saliva is higher in children with sickle-cell disease. The results from a recent study demonstrate its participation in the etiology of dental caries. Objective This study assessed caries-associated virulence (production of acid, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and metabolic activity) of biofilms from Candida albicans isolated from saliva of patients with sickle-cell anemia in comparison to isolates obtained from matc...

  15. A multi-centric Study of Candida bloodstream infection in Lima-Callao, Peru: Species distribution, antifungal resistance and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Lourdes; Bustamante, Beatriz; Huaroto, Luz; Agurto, Cecilia; Illescas, Ricardo; Ramirez, Rafael; Diaz, Alberto; Hidalgo, Jose

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of candidemia is increasing in developing countries. Very little is known about the epidemiology of candidemia in Peru. The aim of this study is to describe the incidence, microbiology, clinical presentation and outcomes of Candida bloodstream infections in three Lima-Callao hospitals. Candida spp. isolates were identified prospectively at participant hospitals between November 2013 and January 2015. Susceptibility testing for amphotericin B, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and anidulafungin was performed using broth microdilution method. Clinical information was obtained from medical records and evaluated. We collected information on 158 isolates and 157 patients. Median age of patients was 55.0 yrs., and 64.1% were males. Thirty-eight (24.2%) episodes of candidemia occurred in those candidemia by center ranged between 1.01 and 2.63 cases per 1,000 admissions, with a global incidence of 2.04. Only 28.1% of cases received treatment within 72 hrs. of diagnosis. Overall, the 30-day survival was 60.4% (treated subjects, 67.4%; not-treated patients, 50.9%). We found a very high proportion of non-albicans Candida species. Despite this, the decreased susceptibility/resistance to fluconazole was only 13.3% and not seen in the other antifungals. Overall, the incidence of candidemia mortality was high when compared to other international studies. It is possible, that the delay in initiating antifungal treatment contributed to the elevated mortality rate, in spite of low antifungal resistance.

  16. Comparison of species-level identification and antifungal susceptibility results from diagnostic and reference laboratories for bloodstream Candida surveillance isolates, South Africa, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P

    2016-11-01

    From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P Candida species other than C. albicans, under-reported fluconazole resistance for C. parapsilosis and over-reported fluconazole resistance for C. albicans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Study of Candida Bloodstream Infections in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients and Susceptibility Profile of the Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya S. Rajmane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased incidence of fungal infections in the past two decades has been overwhelming. Despite the fact that invasive fungal infections are still under-diagnosed and underreported, bloodstream infection due to Candida is now being recognized as an important public health problem especially in ICU patients with considerable morbidity, mortality and health care costs. Objective: To study the incidence, risk factors and antifungal susceptibility of Candida bloodstream infection in our hospital. Material and Methods: In the present study, the blood samples were collected from patients admitted in Surgical ICU. Samples were processed and antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was performed using standard protocol. Results: Out of total 93 patients, 14 (15.05% were positive for candidemia with equal distribution of both C. albicans and nonalbicans Candida spp. The risk factors associated with candidemia showing statistical significance were length of ICU stay > 7 days, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheters and uncontrolled diabetes. Among the patients with candidemia the mortality rate was 78.57 %. Resistance to Amphotericin B was seen in 33.33 % isolates of C. tropicalis and 100 % isolates of C. rugosa. 33.33 % of C. tropicalis and 50 % of C. rugosa showed dose dependent susceptibility to Fluconazole. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and antifungal susceptibility testing is very important in the treatment of candidemia for reducing the mortality rate.

  18. In vitro efficacy of 5 antifungal agents against Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis as determined by time-kill methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Szabó Zsuzsanna (1973-) (biológus, biológia-kémia szakos középiskolai tanár); Szilágyi Judit (1984-) (környezettudományi vegyész); Tavanti, Ariana; Kardos Gábor (1974-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobiológus); Rozgonyi Ferenc; Bayegan, Sedigh (1980-) (népegészségügyi szakember, egészségfejlesztő); Majoros László (1966-) (szakorvos, klinikai mikrobológus)

    2009-01-01

    Killing activity of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and 5-fluorocytosine was determined against 6 Candida parapsilosis, 3 Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 Candida metapsilosis clinical isolates. After 24 h, 1 of 6 C. parapsilosis, 1 of 3 C. orthopsilosis, and 3 of 4 C. metapsilosis isolates were killed at 1 to 4 ?g/mL (1?8? MIC) amphotericin B. The remaining isolates were killed by 2 to 4 ?g/mL amphotericin B after 48 h. Fluconazole was fungistatic at ?1? MIC (0....

  19. Prevalence and exoenzyme secretion by Candida albicans isolates from oral and vaginal mucosas of HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Mariceli Araujo; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Gambale, Walderez; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2004-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the prevalence and the aetiology of forms of mucosal fungal infections of HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. Candida albicans was the predominate specie isolated from both groups of patients, with remarkable proportion of isolation from symptomatic women. All 239 C. albicans isolates, regardless of their source, showed activity of proteinase and phospholipase. It was verified that isolates with particularly higher levels of exoenzymes production were significantly more common in HIV-positive patients. However, isolates obtained from the HIV-positive patients in use of HAART, with protease inhibitor, presented lower levels of these exoenzymes, similar to the levels observed in the isolates from HIV-negative patients.

  20. Enzymatic activity profile of a Brazilian culture collection of Candida albicans isolated from diabetics and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitá, Paula Volpato; Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Pavarina, Ana Cláudia; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-06-01

    The secretion of hydrolytic enzymes is a fundamental virulence factor of Candida albicans to develop disease. The objective of this study was to characterise the virulence of 148 clinical isolates of C. albicans from oral candidiasis by assessing the expression of phospholipase (PL) and secreted aspartyl proteinase (SAP). Isolates were obtained from healthy subjects (HS) and diabetics (DOC) and non-diabetics with oral candidiasis (NDOC). An aliquot (5 μl) of each cell suspension was inoculated on PL and SAP agar plates and incubated. Enzymes secretion was detected by the formation of an opaque halo around the colonies and enzymatic activity (PZ) was determined by the ratio between colony diameter and colony diameter plus the halo zone. Statistical comparisons were made by a one-way anova followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). The clinical sources of C. albicans had significant effect (P < 0.001) on the PZ values of both enzymes. For PL, clinical isolates from NDOC and DOC had highest enzymatic activity than those from HS (P < 0.05), with no significant differences between them (P = 0.506). For SAP, C. albicans from NDOC showed the lower enzymatic activity (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between isolates from HS and DOC (P = 0.7051). C. albicans isolates from NDOC and DOC patients showed an increased production of PL.

  1. Clinical Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates cannot cross the epithelial barrier in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Llopis, Silvia; Jespersen, Lene; Fernández-Espinar, Teresa; Querol, Amparo

    2012-06-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce human infections in immunodeficient patients. Previously it has been shown that the administration of S. cerevisiae clinical isolates can lead to systemic infections, reaching several organs in murine systems. In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae clinical isolates in an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. The results showed that, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans, S. cerevisiae was not able to cross the intestinal barrier. We concluded that S. cerevisiae can only perform opportunistic or passive crossings when epithelial barrier integrity is previously compromised.

  2. Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    During an investigation of the microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations, a number of yeast isolates with unusual pheno- and genotypic properties representing three possible novel species were isolated. Members of Group A divided by multilateral budding and ascospores were not produced. Group B...

  3. Biodegradation of aniline by Candida tropicalis AN1 isolated from aerobic granular sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhan Wang; Guanyu Zheng; Shimei Wang; Dewei Zhang; Lixiang Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Aniline-degrading microbes were cultivated and acclimated with the initial activated sludge collected from a chemical wastewater treatment plant.During the acclimation processes,aerobic granular sludge being able to effectively degrade aniline was successfully formed,from which a preponderant bacterial strain was isolated and named as ANi.Effects of factors including pH,temperature,and second carbon/nitrogen source on the biodegradation of aniline were investigated.Results showed that the optimal conditions for the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1 were at pH 7.0 and 28-35°C.At the optimal pH and temperature,the biodegradation rate of aniline could reach as high as 17.8 mg/(L.hr) when the initial aniline concentration was 400 mg/L.Further studies revealed that the addition of 1 g/L glucose or ammonium chloride as a second carbon or nitrogen source could slightly enhance the biodegradation efficiency from 93.0% to 95.1%-98.5%.However,even more addition of glucose or ammonium could not further enhance the biodegradation process but delayed the biodegradation of aniline by the strain AN1.Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 26S rDNA sequences,the strain AN1 was identified as Candida tropicalis.

  4. Biodegradation of Basic Violet 3 by Candida krusei isolated from textile wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deivasigamani, Charumathi; Das, Nilanjana

    2011-11-01

    Basic Violet 3 (BV) belongs to the most important group of synthetic colorants and is used extensively in textile industries. It is considered as xenobiotic compound which is recalcitrant to biodegradation. As Candida krusei could not use BV as sole carbon source, experiments were conducted to study the effect of cosubstrates on decolorization of BV in semi synthetic medium using glucose, sucrose, lactose, maltose, yeast extract, peptone, urea and ammonium sulphate. Maximum decolorization (74%) was observed in media supplemented with sucrose. Use of sugarcane bagasse extract as sole nutrient source showed 100% decolorization of BV within 24 h under optimized condition. UV-visible, FTIR spectral analysis and HPLC analysis confirmed the biodegradation of BV. Six degradation products were isolated and identified. We propose the biodegradation pathway for BV which occurs via stepwise reduction and demethylation process to yield mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-demethylated BV species which was degraded completely. The study of the enzymes responsible for decolorization showed the activities of lignin peroxidase, lacasse, tyrosinase, NADH-DCIP reductase, MG reductase and azoreductase in cells before and after decolorization. A significant increase in activities of NADH-DCIP reductase and laccase was observed in the cells after decolorization. The yeast C. krusei could show the ability to decolorize the textile dye BV using inexpensive source like sugarcane bagasse extract for decolorization.

  5. Antifungal susceptibility and distribution of Candida spp. isolates from the University Hospital in the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Araujo de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hospital infections caused by Candida spp. are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients, particularly those that are critically ill or immunocompromised. In this study, the distribution of Candida species in isolates from the University Hospital of the Federal University at Grande Dourados and their in vitro susceptibility to antifungal drugs were analyzed. Methods Yeasts were phenotypically identified using classical methodologies. Antifungal susceptibility tests to amphotericin B and fluconazole were performed using the broth microdilution technique. Results A total of 50 Candida isolates were obtained from hospitalized patients during the study period. We analyzed yeast isolates from urine (n=31; 62%, blood (n=12; 24%, and tracheal secretions (n=7; 14%. The following Candida species were identified: C. tropicalis (n=21; 42%, C. albicans (n=18; 36%, C. glabrata (n=10; 20%, and C. krusei (n=1; 2%. Antifungal susceptibility tests demonstrated that C. albicans was susceptible to both antifungal agents. However, 31.2% of the non-C. albicans Candida isolates displayed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, and 3.1% were resistant to amphotericin B. Conclusions In contrast to previous reports, our results indicated that C. tropicalis was the most commonly isolated yeast species among the hospital patients. The predominance of non-C. albicans Candida infections confirms the importance of species-level identification for implementing appropriate antifungal therapies.

  6. Removal of Heavy Metals from Synthesis Industrial Wastewater Using Local Isolated Candida Utilis and Aspergillus Niger as Bio-Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa Abd Alrasool Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass filter of Candida Utilis which isolated from food sample in Baghdad local market and Aspergillus Niger which isolated from Baghdad soil used to biosorption heavy metals from synthesis industrial wastewater. two bio-filters were designed as cylindrical Perspex with height 10cm, diameter 3cm as a shell and inside their are layers of Sponge were prepare as the size of diameter of the cylindrical filter with thickness of 2cm arrange inside it, biomass production were 6 g of ...

  7. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 1

  8. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  9. Molecular and phenotypic identification of Candida isolates from pregnant women in Ogbomoso, Southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Abidemi Nurat

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: The combine uses of chromogenic agar and PCR have the advantage of efficient differentiation and identification of Candida species. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 317-322

  10. Lipase Gene Expression of Resistant and Sensitive Candida Albicans to Fluconazole Isolated from Patients Suffering from Oral Candidiasis and Vaginal Candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NasrollahiOmran, A. (PhD

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: With the development of drug resistance in strains of fungi, there is a considerable resistance of Candida albicans strains to fluconazole. Molecular studies are developing to determine the relationship of such a drug resistance with the increased gene expression of enzymes produced in drug-resistant Candida isolates. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between extracellular lipase gene (LIP8 expression of Candida albicans isolated from candidiasis and sensitivity or resistance to fluconazole. Material and Methods: Drug susceptibility of Candida albicans was performed in oral and vaginal candidiasis to determine the proportion of strains sensitive or resistant to fluconazole using NCCLS method. To evaluate and compare the expression of these genes in the susceptible and resistant strains, RT real-time PCR reaction was used. Results: Of 46 Candida albicans, 20 were susceptible, 12 were semi-susceptible and 14 were resistant to fluconazole. By using PCR reaction, the results showed that the expression of this gene in fluconazole-susceptible isolates was moderate, while it was high in the isolates resistant to fluconazole. Conclusion: The results of lipase gene (LIP8 expression showed that the additional expression of some genes of the enzymes responsible for virulence of Candida may also play a role in resistance to fluconazole.

  11. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  12. 假丝酵母菌尿路感染临床观察及耐药性分析%Analysis of the distribution and antibiotic resistance of Candida isolated from patients with urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程卯袁; 夏冰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacterial distribution and drug resistance of Candida obtained from patients with urinary tract infection,so as to provide references for reasonable clinical use of antibiotics.Methods Urine specimens were cultured in Uricult and susceptibility test was performed with ATB-Fungus strip.A retrospective analysis was performed on the urine culture results from Jan 2008 to Dec 2012 by WHONET 5.6 software.Results A total of 273 strains were isolated,among which there were Candida albicans (37.4%),Candida glabrata (28.9%) and Candida tropicalis (27.8%) ; Most of the isolates came from ICU (58),urinary surgery (50) and internal medicine (49).Amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine had a strong antibacterial activity against Candida albicans,Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata with the susceptibility rates not less than 98.6% ; and the susceptibility rate to voriconazole was no less than 86.3%.Conclusion Candida albicans is predominant pathogen in urinary tract infection,followed by Candida glabrata and then Candida tropicalis.Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine maintain strong antibacterial activities to Candida,and they are the first choice for treating Candida infections.Antifungal agents should be used scientifically and reasonably according the results of Candida culture and susceptibility test.%目的 调查和分析尿路感染假丝酵母菌的分布及耐药情况,为临床合理选用抗菌药物提供依据.方法 尿液采用经典型浸片Uricult培养,使用ATB-Fungus板条进行药敏试验,利用WHONET 5.6对浙江萧山医院2008年1月至2012年12月间尿培养分离菌株及药敏结果进行回顾性分析.结果 共分离出假丝酵母菌273株,其中白假丝酵母菌占37.4%,光滑假丝酵母菌28.9%、热带假丝酵母菌27.8%;临床分离数量以ICU(58)最多,其次为泌尿外科(50)和内科(49).药敏结果显示:两性霉素B、5-氟胞嘧啶对白假丝酵母菌、热带假丝酵母菌和光滑

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam Alshami; Ahmed E Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract.Methods:In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  14. Pulsed light for the inactivation of fungal biofilms of clinically important pathogenic Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Mary; Andrade Fernandes, Joao Paulo; Rowan, Neil

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are naturally found as biofilm communities more than planktonic free-floating cells; however, planktonic culture remains the current model for microbiological studies, such as disinfection techniques. The presence of fungal biofilms in the clinical setting has a negative impact on patient mortality, as Candida biofilms have proved to be resistant to biocides in numerous in vitro studies; however, there is limited information on the effect of pulsed light on sessile communities. Here we report on the use of pulsed UV light for the effective inactivation of clinically relevant Candida species. Fungal biofilms were grown by use of a CDC reactor on clinically relevant surfaces. Following a maximal 72 h formation period, the densely populated biofilms were exposed to pulsed light at varying fluences to determine biofilm sensitivity to pulsed-light inactivation. The results were then compared to planktonic cell inactivation. High levels of inactivation of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms were achieved with pulsed light for both 48 and 72 h biofilm structures. The findings suggest that pulsed light has the potential to provide a means of surface decontamination, subsequently reducing the risk of infection to patients. The research described herein deals with an important aspect of disease prevention and public health.

  15. Evaluation of the Effects of Incubation Temperature and Ph On the Susceptibility of Candida Albicans Isolates to Ketoconazole Invitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Katiraee

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis, as an opportunistic infection, is caused by the Candida species. Although Candida albicans is classified in the body as an endogenic flora, it plays an important role in creating Candida related diseases. Candida vulvovaginitis in pregnant women, diabetes mellitus patients and those using multiple antibiotics and contraceptive drugs demonstrates the high resistance of the organism against conventional medication. On the other hand, recurrent vaginitis disintegrates the long-term process of treatment in majority of the patients. The present research was done with the aim of determining the optimum conditions for susceptibility testing before retreatment of patients. Methods: 10 isolates of Candida albicans obtained from 31 suspected patients suffering from recurrent Candida vaginitis were incubated with ketoconazole at two pH of 7.2 and 5.5 and two temperatures of 35ºC and 27ºC. The Microdilution broth test technique was used. The RPMI 1640 medium within the 96 well microplates with range of 12 tests was used to determine the MIC50 , MIC90 and MFC of the drug. Results: The obtained MIC50, MIC90 and MFC for ketoconazole at these conditions (T=35ºC and pH=7.2 were 0.25 to 1 µg/ml, 1 to 4 µg/ml and 64 to ≥ 512 µg/ml respectively, while these values at 27ºC, pH 5.5 were 1 to 8 µg/ml, 8 to 64 µg/ml and 512 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, at 35ºC and pH 5.5 the values were 1 to 8 µg/ml, 4 to 32 µg/ml, 256 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, while at 27ºC and pH 7.2 the values were 1 to 2 µg/ml, 8 to 32 µg/ml, 128 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that conditions with temperature of 35ºC and pH 7.2 resulted in better treatment outcomes than other conditions.

  16. Clinical and molecular characteristics of bloodstream infections caused by Candida albicans in children from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M-H; Wang, S-H; Hsu, J-F; Lin, L-C; Chu, S-M; Huang, H-R; Chiang, M-C; Fu, R-H; Lu, J-J; Huang, Y-C

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of Candida albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) in children from a tertiary-level medical centre in Taiwan over a 9-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the genetic relatedness of these C. albicans BSI isolates. A total of 79 episodes of C. albicans BSI in 76 paediatric patients were identified, including 41 (51.9%) from the paediatric intensive care unit, 24 (30.4%) from the neonatal intensive care unit and 14 (17.7%) from general wards. More than half (59.5%) of these patients had underlying chronic co-morbidities, and the majority (94.9%) had a catheter or some other artificial device. All the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal agents tested. Only 32.9% (26/79) received effective antifungal agents within 24 h of onset of candidaemia. Twenty-five (31.6%) patients had persistent candidaemia (>3 days after the start of antifungal treatment) and candidaemia-attributable mortality rate was 22.8% (18/79). The 72 isolates available for MLST yielded 53 unique diploid sequence types (DSTs). Forty-five DSTs were singletons and eight DSTs were shared by 27 (37.5%) isolates. Seventy-one (98.6%) isolates were clustered within previously known clades. Based on the definition of two or more strains with shared DST occurring within a period of 90 days, 10.1% of the infections were categorized as nosocomial clusters, most commonly identified in the intensive care units. Although cluster-associated candidaemia was not associated with a higher mortality rate, none of the clusters were identified by the hospital infection control team.

  17. Isolation of Candida spp from vaginal microbiota of healthy canine females during estrous cycle Isolamento de Candida spp da microbiota vaginal de fêmeas caninas hígidas durante o ciclo estral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlete Brum Cleff

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts are commensal organisms found in the skin, genital and gastrointestinal tracts, and other mucosa in mammalians. Candida spp has been frequently isolated from domestic and sylvan animals. Yeast isolation from vaginal mucus is frequent in women, especially of Candida genus. In canine females, however, studies about vaginal fungal microbiota are rare and the connection with estrous cycle is unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate yeast 5 of Candida genus from healthy canine females and identify the isolated species, establishing their connection with estrous cycle phases. Two hundred twenty-four samples taken from vaginal mucus of 14 canine females were analyzed in this study. Candida spp was observed in 83 (37% from these samples; nine samples were taken in proestrus, 14 in oestrus, 31 in dioestrus, 24 in anoestrus and five samples were obtained during pregnancy. Candida parapsilosis the most frequently isolated specie (21.7%, followed by C. guillermondii (8.4%, C. kefir (6% and C. albicans (4.8%. We concluded that Candida spp is a commion component of healthy canine females' vaginal microbiota, and isolation varies according to the estrous cycle phase.As leveduras são organismos comensais da pele, trato genital e gastrointestinal, e de outras mucosas de mamíferos. O gênero Candida vem sendo isolado freqüentemente de animais domésticos e silvestres. O isolamento de Candida spp da mucosa vaginal de mulheres é freqüente, porém na espécie canina são escassos os estudos referentes à microbiota fúngica vaginal, especialmente do gênero candida, não se tendo conhecimento de sua relação com o ciclo reprodutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo isolar leveduras do gênero Candida em fêmeas caninas hígidas e identificar as espécies isoladas, relacionando-as com as diferentes fases do ciclo estral. Foram analisadas 224 amostras obtidas da mucosa vaginal de 14 fêmeas caninas. Candida spp foi observada em 83 (37

  18. Routine use of CHROMagar Candida medium for presumptive identification of Candida yeast species and detection of mixed fungal populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Declerck, Philippe; Cimon, Bernard; Planchenault, Claire; de Gentile, Ludovic; Chabasse, Dominique

    1996-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of the new differential culture medium CHROMagar Candida for routine investigation of clinical specimens. METHODS: During a whole year, 6150 clinical samples were plated on CHROMagar Candida medium. After incubation, the green colonies were considered to be Candida albicans. The colonies of other colors were identified using Bichrolatex-krusei, or by their assimilation pattern on ID 32C test strips and their morphology on rice cream-agar-Tween. RESULTS: Among the 6150 clinical samples, 1643 were positive for fungi. Aspergillus fumigatus and Geotrichum sp. were the predominant filamentous fungi isolated. Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (1274 of the positive samples; 77.5%), and Candida glabrata was the second most common yeast isolated (174 positive samples; 10.6%). Other yeast species were detected at lower frequencies, mainly Candida tropicalis (3.8%), Candida krusei (2.7%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2.7%) and Candida kefyr (2.3%), and 16 samples revealed a lipophilic species, Malassezia furfur. Mixed fungal populations accounted for 14.7% of the positive samples. Two or more yeast species were detected in 206 of the 242 specimens containing mixed fungal populations, and five yeast species were detected in one sample. Additionally, we did not observe significant differences in the isolation of yeasts or filamentous fungi from the 366 samples simultaneously plated on CHROMagar Candida and Sabouraud dextrose agar. Close agreement between the two culture media was observed for 89.9% of these samples. CONCLUSIONS: CHROMagar Candida medium was shown to be extremely helpful in a routine clinical mycology service, facilitating the detection of mixed cultures of yeasts and allowing direct identification of C. albicans, as well as rapid presumptive identification of the other yeasts: C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei and S. cerevisiae. This chromogenic medium thus appears to be suitable as a primary culture medium

  19. Interlaboratory variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST methods: should the clinical laboratory be testing this agent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel-Ingroff, A; Arendrup, M C; Pfaller, M A; Bonfietti, L X; Bustamante, B; Canton, E; Chryssanthou, E; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Dannaoui, E; Fothergill, A; Fuller, J; Gaustad, P; Gonzalez, G M; Guarro, J; Lass-Flörl, C; Lockhart, S R; Meis, J F; Moore, C B; Ostrosky-Zeichner, L; Pelaez, T; Pukinskas, S R B S; St-Germain, G; Szeszs, M W; Turnidge, J

    2013-12-01

    Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source, stock solution solvent, powder storage time length and temperature, and MIC determination testing parameters) were examined as a potential cause of such unprecedented variability, a single specific cause was not identified. Therefore, it seems highly likely that the use of the CLSI species-specific caspofungin CBPs could lead to reporting an excessive number of wild-type (WT) isolates (e.g., C. glabrata and C. krusei) as either non-WT or resistant isolates. Until this problem is resolved, routine testing or reporting of CLSI caspofungin MICs for Candida is not recommended; micafungin or anidulafungin data could be used instead.

  20. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  1. Antiproliferation of Berberine in Combination with Fluconazole from the Perspectives of Reactive Oxygen Species, Ergosterol and Drug Efflux in a Fluconazole-Resistant Candida tropicalis Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Jing; Shi, GaoXiang; Wang, TianMing; Wu, DaQiang; Wang, ChangZhong

    2016-01-01

    Candida tropicalis has emerged as an important pathogenic fungus in nosocomial infections due to its recalcitrant resistance to conventional antifungal agents, especially to fluconazole (FLC). Berberine (BBR) is a bioactive herbal-originated alkaloids and has been reported to possess antifungal functions against C. albicans. In this paper, we tried to figure out the antifungal mechanisms of BBR and/or FLC in a clinical C. tropicalis isolate 2006. In the microdilution test, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BBR was found 16 μg/mL with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) 0.13 in C. tropicalis 2006. The synergism of BBR and FLC was also confirmed microscopically. After the treatments of BBR and/or FLC, the studies revealed that (i) FLC facilitated BBR to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) FLC enhanced the intranuclear accumulation of BBR, (iii) BBR decreased the extracellular rhodamine 123 (Rh123) via inhibiting efflux transporters, (iv) FLC assisted BBR to reduce ergosterol content, and (v) BBR in combined with FLC largely downregulated the expressions of Candida drug resistance 1 (CDR1) and CDR2 but impact slightly multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), and upregulate the expression of ergosterol 11 (ERG11). These results suggested that BBR could become a potent antifungal drug to strengthen FLC efficacy in FLC-resistant C. tropicalis via ROS increase, intracellular BBR accumulation, ergosterol decrease and efflux inhibition. PMID:27721812

  2. Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris Misidentified as Candida haemulonii: Characterization by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing and Its Antifungal Susceptibility Profile Variability by Vitek 2, CLSI Broth Microdilution, and Etest Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kathuria, S.; Singh, P.K.; Sharma, C.; Prakash, A.; Masih, A.; Kumar, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Chowdhary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes a wide spectrum of infections, especially in intensive care settings. We investigated C. auris prevalence among 102 clinical isolates previously identified as Candida haemulonii or Candida famata by the Vitek 2 system. Internal transcribed spa

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris Misidentified as Candida haemulonii: Characterization by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing and Its Antifungal Susceptibility Profile Variability by Vitek 2, CLSI Broth Microdilution, and Etest Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kathuria, S.; Singh, P.K.; Sharma, C.; Prakash, A.; Masih, A.; Kumar, A.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Chowdhary, A.

    2015-01-01

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes a wide spectrum of infections, especially in intensive care settings. We investigated C. auris prevalence among 102 clinical isolates previously identified as Candida haemulonii or Candida famata by the Vitek 2 system. Internal transcribed spa

  4. Candida konsanensis sp. nov., a new yeast species isolated from Jasminum adenophyllum in Thailand with potentially carboxymethyl cellulase-producing capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarawan, Somporn; Mahakhan, Polson; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Vichitphan, Kanit; Vichitphan, Sukanda; Sawaengkaew, Jutaporn

    2013-08-01

    A new yeast species (KKU-FW10) belonging to the Candida genus was isolated from Jasminum adenophyllum in the Plant Genetic Conservation Project under The Royal Initiative of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn area, Chulabhorn Dam, Konsan district within Chaiyaphum province in Thailand. The strain was identified via analysis of nucleotide sequences from the D1/D2 domain of 26S ribosomal DNA and based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. The sequence obtained from yeast isolate KKU-FW10 was 97 percent identical to that of Candida chanthaburiensis (GenBank accession number AB500861.1), with 506/517 (nucleotides identity/total nucleotides) matching nucleotides, nine substitutions and two gaps being detected. This species belonged to the Candida clade. Regarding morphological characteristics, isolate KKU-FW10 presents cream-colored butyrous colonies, vegetative reproduction through budding and, round cells without filaments or ascospores. The major ubiquinone detected was Q-9. The above results suggest that isolate KKU-FW10 is a new member of the genus Candida, and the name Candida konsanensis is proposed for this yeast. The type strain of the new species is KKU-FW10(T) (= BCC 52588(T), = NBRC 109082(T), = CBS 12666(T)). In addition, this KKU-FW10 could potentially produce 58.24 Units/ml of carboxymethyl cellulase when it was cultured in YP broth containing 1.0 % carboxymethyl cellulose for 24 h.

  5. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini...

  6. Small chromosomes among Danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Khadija Mohamed; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Hellborg, Linda

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 192 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985–1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained small...

  7. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini...

  8. Evaluation of Etest and macrodilution broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida sp strains isolated from oral cavities of AIDS patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA Maria do Rosário R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the Etest and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test for fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B was performed with 59 of Candida species isolated from the oral cavities of AIDS patients. The Etest method was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the reference method was performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines. Our data showed that there was a good correlation between the MICs obtained by the Etest and broth dilution methods. When only the MIC results at ± 2 dilutions for both methods were considered, the agreement rates were 90.4% for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B and 84.6% for fluconazole of the C. albicans tested. In contrast, to the reference method, the Etest method classified as susceptible three fluconazole-resistant isolates and one itraconazole-resistant isolate, representing four very major errors. These results indicate that Etest could be considered useful for antifungal sensitivity evaluation of yeasts in clinical laboratories.

  9. Phenotypical characterization of Candida spp. isolated from crop of parrots (Amazona spp. Caracterização fenotípica de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios (Amazona spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata G. Vieira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to characterize Candida isolates from crop of parrots. Forty baby parrots of genus Amazona, species aestiva and amazonica that were apprehended from wild animal traffic were used: 18 presented ingluvitis and 22 other alterations, but showing general debilitation. Samples were seeded on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol after be obtained by the introduction of urethral probe through the esophagus. Based on morphology and biochemical reactions (API 20C Candida was confirmed; it was still searched the production of proteinase and phospholipase, virulence factors for Candida species. Candida spp. were isolated from 57.5% parrots, being 72.2% from birds with ingluvitis and 45.5% from without ones. Twenty-five strains of Candida were isolated, 60% and 40%, respectively from parrots with and without ingluvitis, and were speciated: 28% C. humicola, 24% C. parapsilosis, 20% C. guilliermondii, 20% C. famata, and 8% C. albicans. These results demonstrate that C. albicans is not the most frequent species isolated, and it is the first report that shows C. guilliermondii, C. famata, and C. humicola causing infection in parrots. Many isolates presented filamentation (76%, 100% produced proteinase and 68% phospholipase. The observation of Candida spp. producing virulence factors reinforce the pathogenic role of these yeasts in the cases studied.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar cepas de Candida spp. isoladas de inglúvio de papagaios. Foram utilizados 40 papagaios do gênero Amazona, espécies aestiva e amazonica, apreendidos de tráfico de animais selvagens: 18 apresentavam ingluvite e 22 outras alterações, mas todos mostrando sinais de debilitação geral. Colheram-se as amostras clínicas através da introdução de sonda uretral no esôfago dos animais e estas foram semeadas em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. A identificação das espécies de Candida foi baseada em caracter

  10. Phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, C S P; Chu, F C S; Leung, W K; Jin, L J; Samaranayake, L P; Siu, S C

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to biotype and characterize phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities of oral Candida albicans isolates from 210 Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and 210 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Seventy-six and 50 C. albicans isolates were obtained from type 2 DM patients and controls, respectively, using the oral rinse technique. The isolates were characterized with a biotyping system based on enzyme profiles, carbohydrate assimilation patterns and boric acid resistance of the yeasts, and the isolates were further tested for in vitro phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities. The major biotypes of C. albicans isolates from the type 2 DM and control groups were A1R (42.1 %) and J1R (36.0 %), respectively. Significantly higher proteinase and haemolytic activities were found in the isolates from the type 2 DM group (P or =10 years of DM history than those with DM patients than in those from male counterparts (PCandida isolates taken from DM patients.

  11. Killer behavior within the Candida parapsilosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo-Leal, Efrén; Elizondo-Zertuche, Mariana; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Treviño-Rangel, Rogelio de J; García-Maldonado, Nancy; Adame-Rodríguez, Juan M; González, Gloria M

    2014-11-01

    A group of 29 isolates of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto, 29 of Candida orthopsilosis, and 4 of Candida metapsilosis were assayed for the presence of killer activity using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26609 as a sensitive strain. All C. metapsilosis isolates showed killer activity at 25 °C while strains of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto or C. orthopsilosis did not exhibit this activity. Sensitivity to killer toxins was evaluated using a set of previously reported killer strains of clinical origin. Only 11 isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex were inhibited by at least one killer isolate without resulting in any clear pattern, except for C. parapsilosis sensu stricto ATCC 22019, which was inhibited by every killer strain with the exception of C. parapsilosis and Candida utilis. The lack of sensitivity to killer activity among isolates of the genus Candida suggests that their toxins belong to the same killer type. Differentiation of species within the C. parapsilosis complex using the killer system may be feasible if a more taxonomically diverse panel of killer strains is employed.

  12. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008-0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%-100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%-100.0% among Aspergillus spp. The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  13. Ten-year study of species distribution and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida bloodstream isolates at a Brazilian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfietti, L X; Szeszs, M W; Chang, M R; Martins, M A; Pukinskas, S R B S; Nunes, M O; Pereira, G H; Paniago, A M M; Purisco, S U; Melhem, M S C

    2012-12-01

    To describe the incidence and susceptibility profile of Candida bloodstream infections in a tertiary-care hospital, we performed a retrospective observational study from 1998 to 2007. Comorbidities and risk factors were compiled from all cases. In vitro susceptibility testing to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and amphotericin B was performed for 100 isolates, and caspofungin was tested for C. parapsilosis complex. In a ten-year evaluation of candidemias, 44 % were caused by C. albicans, and species of the C. parapsilosis complex were the second most frequent agents (37 %). Other species presented lower incidences (C. tropicalis, 13 %, C. glabrata, 5 %, and C. krusei, 1 %). Neither C. dubliniensis nor C. metapsilosis were observed in this study. C. orthopsilosis (3 %) and C. parapsilosis stricto sensu (34 %) were also found. Species distribution was independent of catheterization, mechanical ventilation, or previous use of antifungals or corticoids. Parenteral nutrition administration was strongly related to C. glabrata infection, and the highest mortality (80 %) was observed in patients infected by this species. All C. albicans isolates showed high susceptibility to all tested drugs. However, two C. parapsilosis stricto sensu isolates presented high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (4 mg/L each) to fluconazole, and one exhibited voriconazole MIC of 0.25 mg/L, highlighting the cross-resistance to these azoles. All isolates of C. tropicalis and C. glabrata showed no resistance to any drug tested. No difference was noted between C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis susceptibilities to caspofungin. Our results suggest that resistance to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and caspofungin in Brazilian Candida bloodstream isolates is still uncommon.

  14. Frequency of the Paradoxical Effect Measured Using the EUCAST Procedure with Micafungin, Anidulafungin, and Caspofungin against Candida Species Isolates Causing Candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, Laura Judith; Escribano, Pilar; Sánchez-Carrillo, Carlos; Bouza, Emilio; Guinea, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    We report data on the frequency of the paradoxical effect of echinocandins against Candida spp. (n = 602 incident isolates) using the EUCAST definitive document EDef 7.2 procedure. The paradoxical effect for one or more echinocandins was observed in 16% of the isolates. However, differences between species were found, and the paradoxical effect was more common in Candida tropicalis (P < 0.001). Caspofungin was the drug in which the paradoxical effect was most common, followed by anidulafungin and micafungin (P < 0.001). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Rapid detection and identification of Candida albicans and Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata in clinical specimens by species-specific nested PCR amplification of a cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (L1A1) gene fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgener-Kairuz, P; Zuber, J P; Jaunin, P; Buchman, T G; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1994-08-01

    PCR of a Candida albicans cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (P450-L1A1) gene segment is a rapid and sensitive method of detection in clinical specimens. This enzyme is a target for azole antifungal action. In order to directly detect and identify the clinically most important species of Candida, we cloned and sequenced 1.3-kbp fragments of the cytochrome P450-L1A1 genes from Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata and from Candida krusei. These segments were compared with the published sequences from C. albicans and Candida tropicalis. Amplimers for gene sequences highly conserved throughout the fungal kingdom were first used; positive PCR results were obtained for C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii DNA extracts. Primers were then selected for a highly variable region of the gene, allowing the species-specific detection from purified DNA of C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. The assay sensitivity as tested for C. albicans in seeded clinical specimens such as blood, peritoneal fluid, or urine was 10 to 20 cells per 0.1 ml. Compared with results obtained by culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the species-specific nested PCR tested with 80 clinical specimens were 71, 95, and 83% for C. albicans and 100, 97, and 98% for T. glabrata, respectively.

  16. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity.

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    Bertini, Alessia; De Bernardis, Flavia; Hensgens, Lambert A M; Sandini, Silvia; Senesi, Sonia; Tavanti, Arianna

    2013-03-01

    Retrospective studies indicate that Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis each represents 1-10% of the infections/colonisations attributed to C. parapsilosis by conventional biochemical tests. Little is known on the virulence properties of these fungi and on their role in the establishment/progression of the infection. In this study, the adhesive properties of clinical isolates belonging to the 'psilosis' species were assessed in an in vitro model of co-incubation with human buccal epithelial cells (HBECs). Ectophosphatase activity was also measured for all isolates, since the activity of this enzyme has previously been linked to adhesion properties in C. parapsilosis. The results indicate that whilst C. parapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis strains showed similar adhesion abilities, C. metapsilosis isolates displayed a significantly lower ability to adhere to HBECs (Porthopsilosis has a comparable behaviour to C. parapsilosis, whilst C. metapsilosis seems to possess a reduced virulence potential.

  17. 伤口分泌物中1640株病原菌主要种类及药敏结果分析%Analysis of distribution and drug resistance spectrum of 1 640 clinical bacteria and candida isolates from wound secretion specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芮勇宇; 王前; 裘宇容

    2009-01-01

    的了解南方医院近3年患者伤口分泌物中病原菌主要种类及耐药谱,为合理使用抗生素提供依据.方法 大多数细菌的鉴定和药敏试验利用BD Phoenix仪,少数利用手工鉴定和K-B法药敏试验.念珠菌利用显色平板分离和鉴定,K-B法药敏试验.数据分析用WHONET5.4软件.结果 1 640株细菌念珠菌主要种类为铜绿假单胞菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠埃希菌、粪肠球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、溶血葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌.G-杆菌中耐药率较低的为亚胺培南、头孢哌酮/舒巴坦、哌拉西林-他唑巴坦和阿米卡星.大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌产超广谱β-内酰胺酶(ESBLs)的检出率为35.2%和32.3%.G+球菌对万古霉素和替考拉宁的敏感率为100.0%,对其他抗生素的耐药率均较高.金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、溶血葡萄球菌和腐生葡萄球菌甲氧西林耐药率分别为33.8%、81.9%、80.9%和79.7%.念珠菌对两性霉素B和制菌霉素的耐药率均为0.0%. 结论南方医院患者伤口分泌物中大肠埃希菌和肺炎克雷伯菌产ESBLs比例、非发酵G-杆菌碳青霉烯类耐药率、葡萄球菌属甲氧西林耐药率均较高,应加强抗生素的合理使用.%Objective To investigate distribution and drug resistance spectrum of bacteria and candida isolates from wound secretion specimens in local region for using antibiotic reasonably. Methods Most bacteria isolates were identified with BD Phoenix,a few were identified with handy work and K-B method. Candida isolates were identified with color display plates and K-B method. WHONET5.4 was applied for analysis. Results The common isolates in 1 640 strains were P. aeruginosa,S, aureu,E, coli,E, faecalis,S, epidermidis,A.baumannii,S.haemolyticus,and C. albicans. In gram negative bacillus,lower resistant rates of antibiotics were Imipenem, Cefoperazone/Sulbactam, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, and Amikacin. The incidences of E.coli and

  18. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

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    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  19. CHROMagar Candida as the sole primary medium for isolation of yeasts and as a source medium for the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Melissa P; Zinchuk, Riva; Larone, Davise H

    2005-03-01

    The chromogenic medium BBL CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was evaluated as a sole primary medium for the isolation of yeasts from clinical specimens in which yeasts are the primary concern. Additionally, the reliability of the rapid-assimilation-of-trehalose (RAT) test in yielding correct results with isolates taken from CAC was assessed. A total of 270 throat, urine, and genital (TUG) specimens were streaked onto CAC, Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and Mycosel (MYC). A total of 69 blood culture broths that were smear positive for yeast were streaked onto CAC and SDA. A 1-h RAT test (NCCLS M35-A) was performed simultaneously on isolates from CAC and SDA. A total of 112 TUG specimens yielded yeast colonies (CAC, 111 colonies; IMA, 105; SDA, 103; MYC, 91). The 69 blood culture yeasts grew on both CAC and SDA. Mixed cultures of yeasts were detected on 11 CAC plates but were unrecognized on other media. Colonies suspected of being C. glabrata on 32 CAC plates were all RAT test positive and confirmed to be C. glabrata; of 59 colonies with various characteristics of color and morphology on CAC, none were RAT positive, and all were conventionally identified as yeasts other than C. glabrata (sensitivity and specificity, 100%). The same isolates from SDA tested for RAT produced six false negatives and no false positives (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 100%). The results show that CAC can be used as the sole primary medium for recovery of yeasts from clinical specimens. Additionally, isolates grown on CAC yield excellent results with the RAT test utilized in this study.

  20. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states

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    L.C.A. Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A mastite representa um dos problemas mais sérios que afetam as fazendas de gado leiteiro. As mastites clínica e subclínica em bovinos, devido a leveduras, são causadas principalmente por espécies do gênero Candida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar quais espécies dessa levedura estavam presentes em amostras de leite obtidas da glândula mamária de vacas apresentando mastite. Um total de 428 amostras de leite foi coletado nos estados de São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. A identificação foi realizada por meio de critérios fenotípicos e fisiológicos. Foi possível isolar seis espécies de Candida em 55 (12,8% das amostras. As espécies mais frequentes foram C. krusei (34,6%, C. parapsilosis (25,4%, C. tropicalis (18,2% e C. albicans (12,8%. Esses resultados sugerem que outras espécies de Candida, além da C. albicans, possuem um papel importante em mastites micóticas em vacas.

  1. The widely used ATB FUNGUS 3 automated readings in China and its misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles: challenges for developing countries' clinical microbiology labs.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The rapid development in the clinical microbiology diagnostic assays presents more challenges for developing countries than for the developed world, especially in the area of test validation before the introduction of new tests. Here we report on the misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles using the ATB FUNGUS 3 (bioMérieux, La Balme-les Grottes, France with automated readings in China to highlight the dangers of introducing a diagnostic assay without validation. ATB FUNGUS 3 is the most commonly used commercial antifungal susceptibility testing method in China. An in-depth analysis of data showed higher levels of resistance to azoles when ATB FUNGUS 3 strips were read automatically than when read visually. Based on this finding, the performance of ATB FUNGUS 3, read both visually and automatically, was evaluated by testing 218 isolates of five clinically important Candida species, using broth microdilution (BMD following CLSI M27-A3 as the gold-standard. The overall essential agreement (EA between ATB visual readings and BMD was 99.1%. In contrast, the ATB automated readings showed higher discrepancies with BMD, with overall EA of 86.2%, and specifically lower EA was observed for fluconazole (80.7%, voriconazole (77.5%, and itraconazole (73.4%, which was most likely due to the trailing effect of azoles. The major errors in azole drug susceptibilities by ATB automated readings is a concern in China that can result in misleading clinical antifungal drug selection and pseudo high rates of antifungal resistance. Therefore, the ATB visual reading is generally recommended. In the meantime, we propose a practical algorithm to be followed for ATB FUNGUS 3 antifungal susceptibility for Candida spp. before the improvement in the automated reading system.

  2. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

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    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of fluconazole in combination with farnesol against Candida albicans isolates using a murine vulvovaginitis model.

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    Bozó, Aliz; Domán, Marianna; Majoros, László; Kardos, Gábor; Varga, István; Kovács, Renátó

    2016-11-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Previous in vitro data suggest that, in combination with certain antifungals, farnesol may have an adjuvant anti-biofilm agent. However, the in vivo efficacy of farnesol is very questionable. Therefore, the in vitro and in vivo activity of fluconazole combined with farnesol was evaluated against C. albicans biofilms using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, time-kill experiments and a murine vulvovaginitis model. The median biofilm MICs of fluconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates ranged between 4 -> 512 mg/L and 150-300 μM for fluconazole and farnesol, respectively. These values were 512 -> 512 mg/L and > 300 μM for fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates. Farnesol decreased the median MICs of fluconazole by 2-64-fold for biofilms. Based on FICI, synergistic interaction was observed only in the case of the sessile SC5314 reference strain (FICIs: 0.16-0.27). In time-kill studies, only the 512 mg/L fluconazole and 512 mg/L fluconazole + 75 μM farnesol reduced biofilm mass significantly at each time point in the case of all isolates. The combination reduced the metabolic activity of biofilms for all isolates in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Our findings revealed that farnesol alone was not protective in a murine vulvovaginitis model. Farnesol was not beneficial in combination with fluconazole for fluconazole-susceptible isolates, but partially increased fluconazole activity against one fluconazole-resistant isolate, but not the other one.

  4. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

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    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  5. Identificação molecular e suscetibilidade antifúngica de Candida parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará, Brasil Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis isolates in Ceará, Brazil

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    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Candida parapsilosis é a segunda ou terceira levedura mais isolada de hemoculturas em várias partes do mundo. É um patógeno comumente isolado no Brasil e no Ceará. Apresenta capacidade de formar biofilmes em cateteres e outros dispositivos médicos e esses fatores contribuem para a disseminação dessa levedura. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e avaliar a suscetibilidade aos antifúngicos de C. parapsilosis isoladas de amostras de sangue e urina de pacientes atendidos em hospitais no Ceará. MÉTODOS: Foram isoladas e identificadas 57 cepas de C. parapsilosis. As cepas foram identificadas por testes fenotípicos e moleculares. A suscetibilidade foi avaliada pelo método de microdiluição em caldo (protocolo do Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute [CLSI] M27-A3. Foram avaliados cinco antifúngicos (anfotericina B, caspofungina, fluconazol, itraconazol e voriconazol. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÃO: As cepas foram identificadas como C. parapsilosis por testes fenotípicos e confirmadas pelos testes moleculares. Quanto ao perfil de sensibilidade, elas se mostraram sensíveis aos antifúngicos testados, sendo a resistência ainda um fenômeno raro entre cepas de C. parapsilosis isoladas no Ceará.INTRODUCTION: C. parapsilosis is the second or third most isolated yeast from blood cultures in various parts of the world. It is a commonly isolated pathogen in Brazil and Ceará. C. parapsilosis is liable to form biofilms on catheters and other medical devices, which contributes to the spread of this yeast. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and assess the antifungal susceptibility of C. parapsilosis isolates from blood and urine samples collected from patients in hospitals in Ceará. METHODS: We isolated and identified 57 strains of C. parapsilosis. The strains were identified by phenotypic and molecular tests. The susceptibility to antifungals was assessed by broth microdilution (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute

  6. In vitro antimicrobial properties of coconut oil on Candida species in Ibadan, Nigeria.

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    Ogbolu, D O; Oni, A A; Daini, O A; Oloko, A P

    2007-06-01

    The emergence of antimicrobial resistance, coupled with the availability of fewer antifungal agents with fungicidal actions, prompted this present study to characterize Candida species in our environment and determine the effectiveness of virgin coconut oil as an antifungal agent on these species. In 2004, 52 recent isolates of Candida species were obtained from clinical specimens sent to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Their susceptibilities to virgin coconut oil and fluconazole were studied by using the agar-well diffusion technique. Candida albicans was the most common isolate from clinical specimens (17); others were Candida glabrata (nine), Candida tropicalis (seven), Candida parapsilosis (seven), Candida stellatoidea (six), and Candida krusei (six). C. albicans had the highest susceptibility to coconut oil (100%), with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 25% (1:4 dilution), while fluconazole had 100% susceptibility at an MIC of 64 microg/mL (1:2 dilution). C. krusei showed the highest resistance to coconut oil with an MIC of 100% (undiluted), while fluconazole had an MIC of > 128 microg/mL. It is noteworthy that coconut oil was active against species of Candida at 100% concentration compared to fluconazole. Coconut oil should be used in the treatment of fungal infections in view of emerging drug-resistant Candida species.

  7. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

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    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  8. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

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    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  9. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

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    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  10. Comparison of commercial methods and the CLSI broth microdilution to determine the antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex bloodstream isolates from three health institutions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

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    Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena G; Barbedo, Leonardo S; Oliveira, Manoel M E; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely M

    2014-08-01

    Two commercial methods, the Etest and Vitek 2, were compared with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method to determine the susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, voriconazole, and itraconazole. One-hundred bloodstream isolates of C. parapsilosis complex from three hospitals in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, between 1998 and 2006 were analyzed. C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (61 %) was the predominant species, followed by C. orthopsilosis (37 %) and C. metapsilosis (2 %). Most isolates were susceptible to the tested drugs. However, one C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolate was considered resistant for amphotericin B. The essential agreement was 100 % between the methods, except for itraconazole (96.3 %). The categorical agreement varied for fluconazole and itraconazole by Etest and for amphotericin B and fluconazole by Vitek 2. This study reinforces the suitability of the commercial methods in routine clinical microbiology laboratories for antifungal susceptibility testing.

  11. Advances in Candida detection platforms for clinical and point-of-care applications

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    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Coarsey, Chad; Esiobu, Nwadiuto; Memic, Adnan; Vyas, Jatin Mahesh; Shafiee, Hadi; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis remains one of the most serious community and healthcare-acquired infections worldwide. Conventional Candida detection methods based on blood and plate culture are time-consuming and require at least 2–4 days to identify various Candida species. Despite considerable advances for candidiasis detection, the development of simple, compact and portable point-of-care diagnostics for rapid and precise testing that automatically performs cell lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification and detection still remains a challenge. Here, we systematically review most prominent conventional and nonconventional techniques for the detection of various Candida species, including Candida staining, blood culture, serological testing and nucleic acid-based analysis. We also discuss the most advanced lab on a chip devices for candida detection. PMID:27093473

  12. Rapid detection of Candida albicans in clinical samples by DNA amplification of common regions from C. albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase genes.

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    Flahaut, M; Sanglard, D; Monod, M; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods such as PCR may provide an alternative and more sensitive method than conventional culture for the early detection of deep-seated candidiasis, an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. A novel method of DNA extraction from clinical samples based on treatment with proteinase K and isolation of DNA on a silica membrane was developed. The targets used for DNA amplification were the Candida albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase (SAP) genes, a multiple-gene family of at least seven members in C. albicans. A single pair of primers was designed in order to detect six of these SAP genes and, subsequently, to increase the sensitivity of the test. Detection of the PCR product by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found to be as sensitive as Southern blotting with an SAP-labeled probe. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 cell/ml from serially diluted Candida cultures and 1 to 4 cells/ml from seeded blood specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of the present assay were tested in a retrospective study performed blindly with 156 clinical samples and were 100 and 98%, respectively, compared with the results of culture. For the subset of blood culture samples (n = 124), the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. The two false-positive PCR samples came from patients treated with azole antifungal agents, indicating that PCR was probably able to detect damaged organisms that could not be recovered by culture.

  13. Appearance of colonies of Prototheca on CHROMagar Candida medium.

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    Casal, M; Linares, M J; Solís, F; Rodríguez, F C

    1997-01-01

    The microorganisms capable of producing opportunist infections include the yeast-like organisms of the genus Candida, and the unicellular algae of the genus Prototheca, which share common features and can, therefore, lead to confusion. Their colonies are almost identical and they grow in the same culture media used routinely in mycology. CHROMagar Candida is a new chromogenic differential isolation medium that facilitates the presumptive differentiation of some of the most clinically important yeast-like organisms. To our knowledge, the use of CHROMagar Candida with Prototheca spp. has not been reported in the literature. This report describes the growth of 151 strains of Prototheca on CHROMagar Candida compared to the growth of a total of 326 well-characterized yeast organisms of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, and Saccharomyces. It is clinically relevant to note that algae of the genus Prototheca (P. wickerhamii, P. zopfii, and P. stagnora) and of the genus Candida parapsilosis produced similar cream-colored colonies on CHROMagar Candida medium. Based on their growth on CHROMagar, a new species of Candida is described, C. zeylanoides, which has blue-green colonies. The colonies of two species of Trichosporon are also differentiated: the blue-green colonies of T. beigelii and the pink colonies of T. capitatum.

  14. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

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    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  15. Elevated aspartic proteinase secretion and experimental pathogenicity of Candida albicans isolates from oral cavities of subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bernardis, F; Chiani, P; Ciccozzi, M; Pellegrini, G; Ceddia, T; D'Offizzi, G; Quinti, I; Sullivan, P A; Cassone, A

    1996-01-01

    Isolates of Candida albicans from the oral cavities of subjects at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or uninfected controls were examined for (i) production of aspartic proteinase(s), a putative virulence-associated factor(s); (ii) the presence in the fungal genome of two major genes (SAP1 and SAP2) of the aspartic proteinase family; and (iii) experimental pathogenicity in a murine model of systemic infection. It was found that the fungal isolates from symptomat...

  16. Cell surface hydrophobicity of oral Candida dubliniensis isolates following limited exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellepola, Arjuna N B; Joseph, Bobby K; Khan, Z U

    2013-01-01

    Candidal adhesion has been implicated as the initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis and cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) has been implicated in adhesion to mucosal surfaces. Candida dubliniensis is an opportunistic pathogen associated with recurrent oral candidiasis. Chlorhexidine gluconate is by far the commonest antiseptic mouth wash prescribed in dentistry. At dosage intervals the intraoral concentration of this antiseptic fluctuates considerably and reaches sub-therapeutic levels due to the dynamics of the oral cavity. Hence, the organisms undergo only a limited exposure to the antiseptic during treatment. The impact of this antiseptic following such exposure on CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates has not been investigated. Hence, the main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of brief exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate on the CSH of C. dubliniensis isolates. Twelve oral isolates of C. dubliniensis were briefly exposed to three sub-therapeutic concentrations of 0.005%, 0.0025% and 0.00125% chlorhexidine gluconate for 30 min. Following subsequent removal of the drug, the CSH of the isolates was determined by a biphasic aqueous-hydrocarbon assay. Compared with the controls, exposure to 0.005% and 0.0025% chlorhexidine gluconate suppressed the relative CSH of the total sample tested by 44.49% (P 0.05), four isolates of the group were significantly affected. These findings imply that exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of chlorhexidine gluconate may suppress CSH of C. dublinienis isolates, thereby reducing its pathogenicity and highlights further the pharmacodynamics of chlorhexidine gluconate.

  17. 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Moore, C; Novak-Frazer, L; Rautemaa, V; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Järvinen, A; Bowyer, P; Tjäderhane, L; Rautemaa, R

    2014-04-01

    The amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. Low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. It has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. The aim was to test the efficacy of HICA against Candida and Aspergillus species. Efficacy of HICA against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five Candida and three Aspergillus species with variable azole antifungal sensitivity profiles was tested using a microdilution method. The concentrations were 18, 36 and 72 mg ml(-1) . Growth was determined spectrophotometrically for Candida isolates and by visual inspection for Aspergillus isolates, viability was tested by culture and impact on morphology by microscopy. HICA of 72 mg ml(-1) was fungicidal against all Candida and Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus terreus isolates. Lower concentrations were fungistatic. Aspergillus flavus was not inhibited by HICA. HICA inhibited hyphal formation in susceptible Candida albicans and A. fumigatus isolates and affected cell wall integrity. In conclusion, HICA has broad antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus at concentrations relevant for topical therapy. As a fungicidal agent with broad-spectrum bactericidal activity, it may be useful in the topical treatment of multispecies superficial infections.

  18. Using ammonium-tolerant yeast isolates: Candida halophila and Rhodotorula glutinis to treat high strength fermentative wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q; Yang, M; Hei, L; Zheng, S

    2003-03-01

    Two ammonium-tolerant yeast strains were isolated from sludge samples contaminated with monosodium glutamate manufacturing wastewater and were identified as Candida haplophila and Rhodotorula glutinis. The tolerance of the two yeast isolates to ammonia and their chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal perfomances were evaluated under batch and bench-scale conditions. The mixture of the two isolates was found to grow well in an artificial medium containing 25% (NH4)2SO4 and could effectively remove COD from monosodium glutamate wastewater even when the concentrations of NH4+-N and free NH3-N reached as high as 18,977 and 879 mg l(-1) respectively. A fixed-bed yeast reactor, which was initially inoculated with the yeast mixture, permitted a constant COD removal rate of over 80% during a period of near 2-month continuous running even when the influent COD was increased from 8,000 to 25,000 mg l(-1). The effluent was accompanied with suspended solids (SS) of over 4,500 mg l(-1), which was mainly composed of yeast cells and could be considered as a source of animal forage additive. The residual COD of effluents from the yeast reactor could be further reduced to under 500 mg l(-1) by a combination process of activated sludge treatment and coagulation technologies.

  19. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  20. GENOTYPING Candida albicans FROM CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA AND NON-CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA SHOWS NO ENRICHMENT OF MULTILOCUS SEQUENCE TYPING CLADES BUT ENRICHMENT OF ABC GENOTYPE C IN CANDIDA LEUKOPLAKIA

    OpenAIRE

    MC MANUS, BRENDA; Coleman, David

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leu...

  1. Genotyping Candida albicans from Candida Leukoplakia and Non-Candida Leukoplakia Shows No Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades but Enrichment of ABC Genotype C in Candida Leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H Abdulrahim; Brenda A McManus; Stephen R Flint; David C Coleman

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakias are histopathologically-diagnosed as Candida leukoplakia or non-Candida leukoplakia by the presence or absence of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. Candida leukoplakia lesions have significantly increased malignant potential. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species associated with oral leukoplakia and may contribute to malignant transformation of Candida leukoplakia. To date, no detailed population analysis of C. albicans isolates from oral leukoplakia pati...

  2. Characterization of Cell Wall Proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Clinical Isolates Elucidates Hsp150p in Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang-Hung Hsu

    Full Text Available The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been described as an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen. Fungal cell wall mannoproteins have been demonstrated to be involved in adhesion to inert surfaces and might be engaged in virulence. In this study, we observed four clinical isolates of S. cerevisiae with relatively hydrophobic cell surfaces. Yeast cell wall subproteome was evaluated quantitatively by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We identified totally 25 cell wall proteins (CWPs from log-phase cells, within which 15 CWPs were quantified. The abundance of Scw10p, Pst1p, and Hsp150p/Pir2p were at least 2 folds higher in the clinical isolates than in S288c lab strain. Hsp150p is one of the members in Pir family conserved in pathogenic fungi Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. Overexpression of Hsp150p in lab strain increased cell wall integrity and potentially enhanced the virulence of yeast. Altogether, these results demonstrated that quantitative cell wall subproteome was analyzed in clinical isolates of S. cerevisiae, and several CWPs, especially Hsp150p, were found to be expressed at higher levels which presumably contribute to strain virulence and fungal pathogenicity.

  3. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  4. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  5. Progress in Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Candida spp. by Use of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Broth Microdilution Methods, 2010 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida has been standardized and refined and now may play a useful role in managing Candida infections. Important new developments include validation of 24-h reading times for all antifungal agents and the establishment of species-specific epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) for the systemically active antifungal agents and both common and uncommon species of Candida. The clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole, voriconazole, and the echinocandins have been revised to provide species-specific interpretive criteria for the six most common species. The revised CBPs not only are predictive of clinical outcome but also provide a more sensitive means of identifying those strains with acquired or mutational resistance mechanisms. This brief review serves as an update on the new developments in the antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida spp. using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth microdilution (BMD) methods. PMID:22740712

  6. [Antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida species to triazole: application of new CLSI species-specific clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values for characterization of antifungal resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabıçak, Nilgün; Alem, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing has newly introduced species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for fluconazole and voriconazole. When CBPs can not be determined, wild-type minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions are detected and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) provide valuable means for the detection of emerging resistance. The aim of this study is to determine triazole resistance patterns in Candida species by the recently revised CLSI CBPs. A total of 140 Candida strains isolated from blood cultures of patients with invasive candidiasis hospitalized in various intensive care units in Turkey and sent to our reference laboratory between 2011-2012, were included in the study. The isolates were identified by conventional methods, and susceptibility testing was performed against fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, by the 24-h CLSI broth microdilution (BMD) method. Azole resistance rates for all Candida species were determined using the new species-specific CLSI CBPs and ECVs criteria, when appropriate. The species distribution of the isolates were as follows; C.parapsilosis (n= 31 ), C.tropicalis (n= 26 ), C.glabrata (n= 21), C.albicans (n= 18), C.lusitaniae (n= 16), C.krusei (n= 16), C.kefyr (n= 9), C.guilliermondii (n= 2), and C.dubliniensis (n= 1). According to the newly determined CLSI CBPs for fluconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis [susceptible (S), ≤ 2 µg/ml; dose-dependent susceptible (SDD), 4 µg/ml; resistant (R), ≥ 8 µg/ml], and C.glabrata (SDD, ≤ 32 µg/ml; R≥ 64 µg/ml) and for voriconazole and C.albicans, C.parapsilosis, C.tropicalis (S, ≤ 0.12 µg/ml; SDD, 0.25-0.5 µg/ml; R, ≥ 1 µg/ml), and C.krusei (S, ≤ 0.5 µg/ml; SDD, 1 µg/ml; R, ≥ 2 µg/ml), it was found that three of C.albicans, one of C.parapsilosis and one of C.glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, while two of C.albicans and two of C

  7. MFS transporters of Candida species and their role in clinical drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Redhu, Archana; Shah, Abdul H; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and MFS (major facilitator superfamily) exporters, belonging to two different superfamilies, are one of the most prominent contributors of multidrug resistance (MDR) in yeast. While the role of ABC efflux pump proteins in the development of MDR is well documented, the MFS transporters which are also implicated in clinical drug resistance have not received due attention. The MFS superfamily is the largest known family of secondary active membrane carriers, and MFS exporters are capable of transporting a host of substrates ranging from small molecules, including organic and inorganic ions, to complex biomolecules, such as peptide and lipid moieties. A few of the members of the drug/H(+) antiporter family of the MFS superfamily function as multidrug transporters and employ downhill transport of protons to efflux their respective substrates. This review focuses on the recent developments in MFS of Candida and highlights their role in drug transport by using the example of the relatively well characterized promiscuous Mdr1 efflux pump of the pathogenic yeast C. albicans.

  8. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Candida Species Isolated from HIV-Positive Patients Recruited at a Public Hospital in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terças, Ana L. G.; Marques, Sirlei G.; Moffa, Eduardo B.; Alves, Márcia B.; de Azevedo, Conceição M. P. S.; Siqueira, Walter L.; Monteiro, Cristina A.

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies. Patients were included in research if they were HIV-positive, above 18 years of age and after obtaining their written consent. CHROMagar®Candida and the automated ViteK-2®system were used to isolate and identify Candida spp., respectively. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using the ViteK-2®system, complemented with the Etest®, using the drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Oropharyngeal candidiasis had a high prevalence in these hospitalized AIDS patients (83%), and the most prevalent species was Candida albicans (56%). Antifungal susceptibility test showed that 64.7% of the Candida spp. were susceptible, 11.8% were dose-dependent sensitive, and 23.5% were resistant. All the Candida krusei and Candida famata isolates and two of Candida glabrata were resistant to fluconazole. Most of AIDS patients presented oropharyngeal candidiasis and C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species. The results showed high variability in resistance among isolated species and indicates the need to identify the Candida spp. involved in the infection and the need to test antifungal susceptibility as a guide in drug therapy in patients hospitalized with AIDS. This is the first relate about AIDS patients monitoring in a public hospital in São Luís concerning the precise identification and establishing of

  9. Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris Misidentified as Candida haemulonii: Characterization by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and DNA Sequencing and Its Antifungal Susceptibility Profile Variability by Vitek 2, CLSI Broth Microdilution, and Etest Method

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant yeast that causes a wide spectrum of infections, especially in intensive care settings. We investigated C. auris prevalence among 102 clinical isolates previously identified as Candida haemulonii or Candida famata by the Vitek 2 system. Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing confirmed 88.2% of the isolates as C. auris, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) easily separated all related...

  10. Isolation of Klebsiella terrigena from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podschun, R; Ullmann, U

    1992-04-01

    In a three-year survey conducted from 1988 to 1990 Klebsiella isolates from human clinical specimens were subjected to additional tests to identify any Klebsiella terrigena strains. Ten strains of Klebsiella terrigena (0.4%) were found among 2355 indole-negative Klebsiella isolates. Most of the isolates were recovered from the respiratory tract. In the API20EC system almost exclusively biotypes no. 1777771 and 1777671 were observed. Serotyping revealed capsule types K2, K5 and K18 in two strains each. In antibiotic susceptibility tests the strains were shown to be comparable in sensitivity to Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  11. Differentiation of Candida species obtained from nosocomial candidemia using RAPD-PCR technique Diferenciação de espécies de Candida obtidas de candidemia nosocomial pela técnica de RAPD-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Maia Valério

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen strains of the genus Candida were isolated from catheter, urine and surgical wounds from individual patients of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Ten strains were characterized as Candida albicans, two as Candida glabrata, and one as Candida parapsilosis. Isolates were evaluated for molecular relatedness by random amplified polymorphic DNA technique using 15 primers. The analysis of the genomic DNA obtained revealed a low intraspecific polymorphism and did not allow for the differentiation between strains of the same species obtained from distinct clinical sources (catheter, urine and surgical wounds. The RAPD profiles generated were able to differentiate among the species of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata strains isolated in this study.Treze amostras de leveduras do gênero Candida foram isoladas de catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas de pacientes da Santa Casa de Misericórida de Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil. Dez amostras foram identificadas como Candida albicans, duas como Candida glabrata e uma como Candida parapsilosis. Os isolados foram avaliados quanto ao perfil molecular pela técnica de amplificação aleatória de DNA polimórfico utilizando 15 iniciadores. A análise do DNA genômico obtido revelou um baixo polimorfismo intraespecífico e não permitiu a diferenciação entre amostras da mesma espécie obtidas a partir de diferentes espécimes clínicos (catéter, urina e feridas cirúrgicas. Os perfis de RAPD obtidos foram capazes de diferenciar entre as espécies Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis e Candida glabrata isoladas neste estudo.

  12. Real-World Experience with Echinocandin MICs against Candida Species in a Multicenter Study of Hospitals That Routinely Perform Susceptibility Testing of Bloodstream Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Eschenauer, Gregory A.; Nguyen, M Hong; Shoham, Shmuel; Jose A. Vazquez; Morris, Arthur J.; Pasculle, William A.; Kubin, Christine J.; Klinker, Kenneth P.; Carver, Peggy L.; Hanson, Kimberly E.; Chen, Sharon; Lam, Simon W.; Potoski, Brian A.; Clarke, Lloyd G.; Ryan K Shields

    2014-01-01

    Reference broth microdilution methods of Candida echinocandin susceptibility testing are limited by interlaboratory variability in caspofungin MICs. Recently revised Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint MICs for echinocandin nonsusceptibility may not be valid for commercial tests employed in hospital laboratories. Indeed, there are limited echinocandin susceptibility testing data from hospital laboratories. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study of 9 U.S., Aus...

  13. Development of a novel, simple and rapid molecular identification system for clinical Candida species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deak, R.; Bodia, L.; Aarts, H.J.M.; Maraz, A.

    2004-01-01

    Identification of clinical yeast isolates causing candidiasis is routinely performed by commercial yeast identification systems based on biochemical, morphological and physiological tests. These systems require 3-5 days and the proportion of identifications that a