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Sample records for clinical candida isolates

  1. Azasordarins: Susceptibility of Fluconazole-Susceptible and Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida spp. to GW 471558

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    Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Mellado, Emilia; Díaz-Guerra, Teresa M.; Monzón, Araceli; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro activity of the azasordarin GW 471558 was compared with those of amphotericin B, flucytosine, itraconazole, and ketoconazole against 177 clinical isolates of Candida spp. GW 471558 showed potent activity against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida tropicalis, even against isolates with decreased susceptibility to azoles. Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida guilliermondii are resistant to GW 471558 in vitro (MICs, >128 μg/ml).

  2. Species identification of Candida isolated from clinical specimens in a tertiary care hospital

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    lsmet Nigar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are responsible for various clinical manifestations from mucocutaneous overgrowth to blood stream infections especially in immunocompromized situations. Although C. albicans is the most prevalent species, high incidence of non-albicans Candida species with antifungal resistance are emerging which is posing a serious threat to the patients care.Objective: This study aimed to isolate and identify different species of Candida from different clinical specimens. Methods: A total of 100 different clinical specimens were studied of which 35 were oral swab, 28 were high vaginal swab, 15 were urine, 14 were nail, 04 were bronchoalveolar lavage and peritoneal fluid were 04. Among 100 clinical specimens, Candida isolates were identified in 64 specimens. Isolation of Candida species was done by primary culture in SDA. Subsequent identification of species were performed by germ tube test, subculture in chromo­genic agar medium and carbohydrate assimilation test with commonly used twelve sugars.Results: Out of 64 isolated Candida species, Candida albicans were 51.56% and the non-albicans Candida species were 48.44%. The most prevalent Candida species was C. albicans 33 (51.53% followed by C. tropicalis 17 (26.56%. C. glabrata 4 (6.25%, C. parapsilo­sis 4 (6.25%, C. krusei 3 (4.68% and C. guilliermondii 2 (3.2%. One of the isolated Candida species was unidentified.Conclusion: Though Candida albicans was found as the most common species, but non-albicans Candida species are appearing as emerging pathogens as well. Exposure to chemotherapy appeared to be the commonest predisposing factor for Candida infection followed by indwelling urinary catheter in situ for prolong period.

  3. Determination of antifungal susceptibility patterns among the clinical isolates of Candida species

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    Kamiar Zomorodian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida species are opportunistic yeasts that cause infections ranging from simple dermatosis to potentially life-threatening fungemia. The emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs has been increased in the past two decades. Aim: the present study we determined to find out the susceptibility profiles of clinical isolates of Candida species against four antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility testing of the yeasts was done in accordance with the proposed guidelines for antifungal disk diffusion susceptibility testing of yeasts based on the CLSI document M44-A. Results: A total of 206 yeast isolates were assessed. Among the evaluated Candida species, the highest rates of resistance to ketoconazole were seen in Candida glabrata (16.6% and Candida albicans (3.2%. Susceptibility and intermediate response to fluconazole were seen in 96.6% and 3.4% of the Candida isolates, respectively. A total of 19 (9.2% yeast isolates showed petite phenomenon including 11 C. glabrata, 3 C. albicans, 2 Candida dubliniensis and one isolate of each Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis. Conclusion: The high number of petite mutation in the isolated yeasts should be seriously considered since it may be one of the reasons of antifungal treatment failure.

  4. Antifungal potential of eugenyl acetate against clinical isolates of Candida species.

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    Musthafa, Khadar Syed; Hmoteh, Jutharat; Thamjarungwong, Benjamas; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the efficiency of eugenyl acetate (EA), a phytochemical in clove essential oil, against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of EA against Candida isolates were in the range between 0.1% and 0.4% (v/v). Spot assay further confirmed the susceptibility of Candida isolates to the compound upon treatment with respective 1 × MIC. Growth profile measured in time kill study evidence that the compound at 1 × MIC and 1/2 × MIC retarded the growth of Candida cells, divulging the fungicidal activity. Light microscopic observation demonstrated that upon treated with EA, rough cell morphology, cell damage, and fragmented patterns were observed in C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Furthermore, unusual morphological changes of the organism were observed in scanning electron microscopic study. Therefore, it is validated that the compound could cause cell damage resulting in the cell death of Candida clinical isolates. Eventually, the compound at sub-MIC (0.0125% v/v) significantly inhibited serum-induced germ tube formation by C. albicans. Eugenyl acetate inhibited biofilm forming ability of the organisms as well as reduced the adherence of Candida cells to HaCaT keratinocytes cells. In addition, upon treatment with EA, the phagocytic activity of macrophages was increased significantly against C. albicans (P Candida infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A diterpenoid taxodone from Metasequoia glyptostroboides with antimycotic potential against clinical isolates of Candida species.

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    Bajpai, V K; Park, Y-H; Kang, S C

    2015-03-01

    The increasing importance of clinical isolates of Candida species and emerging resistance of Candida species to current synthetic antifungal agents have stimulated the search for safer and more effective alternative drugs from natural sources. This study was directed towards exploring the antimycotic potential of a diterpenoid compound taxodone isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides against pathogenic isolates of Candida species. Antimycotic efficacy of taxodone was evaluated by disc diffusion assay, determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum fungicidal (MFC) concentrations, and cell viability assay. To confirm a partial antimycotic mode of action of taxodone, the efficacy of taxodone was determined by measuring the release of 260 nm absorbing materials from the selected Candida species as compared to control. The taxodone at the concentration of 400 μg/disc displayed potential antimycotic effect against the tested clinical and pathogenic isolates of Candida species as diameters of zones of inhibitions, which were found in the range of 11 ± 0.0 to 12.6 ± 0.5mm. The MIC and MFC values of taxodone against the tested clinical isolates were found in the range of 250 to 1000 and 500 to 2000μ g/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the MIC and MFC values of positive control (amphotericin B) against the tested Candida isolates were found in the range of 62.5 to 250 and 500 to 2000 μg/mL. On the viable counts of the tested fungal isolates, the taxodone exerted significant antimycotic effect. Elaborative study of partial mode of action conducted onto the release of 260nm materials (DNA and RNA) revealed potential detrimental effect of taxodone on the membrane integrity of the tested pathogens at MIC concentration. With respect to the antimycotic effect of taxodone against pathogenic and clinical isolates of Candida species, it might be confirmed that bioactive compound taxodone present in M. glyptostroboides holds therapeutic value of medicinal

  6. Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from cases of Vulvovaginitis in women referring to selected gynecological clinics

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    Batol Bonyadpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: About 20% of non-pregnant women aged 15 to 55 harbour Candida albicans in the vagina .the aimed to determine the Characterization of Candida Species Isolated from women with Vulvovaginitis candidates (VVC of reproductive ages. Methods: this descriptive study was conducted on 280 of who were selected for gathering samples by Purposive sampling based on their history and characteristics of vaginal discharges in 2009. Among these patients, 105 ones were diagnosed with candidiasis. The data were collected using demographic information form and disease symptoms. the species were differentiated using germ tube test, chrome agar test, and chlamidospore test. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16, using Descriptive Statistics Results: the prevalence of candida vaginitis was 9.3%.105 samples obtained from patients.. Chlamidospore was detected in 54.3% of the corn meal agar media. Besides, in chrome agar test, 41.9% of the samples turned into green representing candida albicans. In germ tube test, on the other hand, 70.5% of the samples were candida albicans, while 29.5% were candida non-albicans. Overall, The frequency of the Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and  the Candida Krusei were  66.6% , 219%  , 8.6% ,  and 2.9%, respectively. Conclusion: Candida albicans was the most common species leading to the Vulvovaginitis in patients with VCC while other species were at the secondary importance stages.Due to inaccurate diagnosis of the disease based on the clinical symptoms, fungal culture is recommended as a standard diagnostic method.

  7. Influence of culture conditions for clinically isolated non-albicans Candida biofilm formation.

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    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Ma, Su; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-11-01

    Non-albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. Moreover, they are adept at forming biofilms. This study analyzed biofilm formation of clinically isolated non-albicans Candida, including Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida parapsilosis under the influence of different growth media (RPMI 1640, YPD and BHI) and several culture variables (inoculum concentration, incubation period and feeding conditions). The results showed that culture conditions strongly influenced non-albicans Candida species biofilm formation. YPD and BHI resulted in larger amount of biofilm formation with higher metabolic activity of biofilms. Furthermore, the growth media seems to have varying effects on adhesion and biofilm development. Growth conditions may also influence biofilm formation, which was enhanced when starting the culture with a larger inoculum, longer incubation period and using a fed-batch system. Therefore, the potential influences of external environmental factors should be considered when studying the non-albicans Candida biofilms in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Occurrence and characterization of Candida nivariensis from a culture collection of Candida glabrata clinical isolates in Malaysia.

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    Tay, Sun Tee; Lotfalikhani, Azadeh; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Na, Shiang Ling; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species. This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital. C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method. There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate. This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  9. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

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    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  10. In vitro differential activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases of clinical isolates of Candida

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    Aurean D'Eça Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida yeasts are commensals; however, if the balance of normal flora is disrupted or the immune defenses are compromised, Candida species can cause disease manifestations. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of Candida, including the production of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro activity of phospholipases and acid proteinases in clinical isolates of Candida spp. METHODS: Eighty-two isolates from hospitalized patients collected from various sites of origin were analyzed. Phospholipase production was performed in egg yolk medium and the production of proteinase was verified in a medium containing bovine serum albumin. The study was performed in triplicate. RESULTS: Fifty-six (68.3% of isolates tested were phospholipase positive and 16 (44.4% were positive for proteinase activity. C. tropicalis was the species with the highest number of positive isolates for phospholipase (91.7%. Statistically significant differences were observed in relation to production of phospholipases among species (p<0,0001 and among the strains from different sites of origin (p=0.014. Regarding the production of acid protease, the isolates of C. parapsilosis tested presented a larger number of producers (69.2%. Among the species analyzed, the percentage of protease producing isolates did not differ statistically (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901 (χ2=1.9 p=0.5901. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of C. non-albicans and all C. albicans isolates were great producers of hydrolytic enzymes and, consequently, might be able to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  11. Synergistic anticandidal activity of menthol in combination with itraconazole and nystatin against clinical Candida glabrata and Candida krusei isolates.

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    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Shokri, Hojjatollah; Tari, Paria Samadi

    2017-06-01

    Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) and C. krusei are now emerging as serious hospital acquired infections in immunocompromised patients. Menthol, a terpenic compound, has been reported to have antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin against C. glabrata and C. krusei isolates. The effects of menthol along with itraconazole and nystatin, were evaluated by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M44-A and CLSI M27-A3 methods. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was determined for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations using the checkerboard method. The mean of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of menthol, nystatin and itraconazole were 53.2, 2.30 and 1.50 μg/ml for C. glabrata isolates and 121, 1.08 and 0.38 μg/ml for C. krusei isolates, respectively. Menthol in combination with itraconazole or nystatin exhibited the synergistic effects against all species of Candida tested. FICI values for menthol plus itraconazole and nystatin combinations ranged from 0.250 to 0.561 and 0.139 to 0.623 for C. glabrata isolates, and 0.182 to 0.750 and 0.188 to 0.760 for C. krusei, respectively. These results support the potential use of menthol as an anticandidal agent, and it can be used complementarily with other conventional antifungal agents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Genotyping of the MTL loci and susceptibility to two antifungal agents of Candida glabrata clinical isolates

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    María Teresa Lavaniegos-Sobrino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is the second most common isolate from bloodstream infections worldwide and is naturally less susceptible to the antifungal drug fluconazole than other Candida species. C. glabrata is a haploid yeast that contains three mating-type like loci (MTL, although no sexual cycle has been described. Strains containing both types of mating information at the MTL1 locus are found in clinical isolates, but it is thought that strains containing type a information are more common. Here we investigated if a particular combination of mating type information at each MTLlocus is more prevalent in clinical isolates from hospitalized patients in Mexico and if there is a correlation between mating information and resistance to fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. We found that while both types of information at MTL1 are equally represented in a collection of 64 clinical isolates, the vast majority of isolates contain a-type information at MTL2 and α-type at MTL3. We also found no correlation of the particular combination of mating type information at the three MTL loci and resistance to fluconazole.

  13. Cdr2p contributes to fluconazole resistance in Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The development of resistance to azole antifungals used in the treatment of fungal infections can be a serious medical problem. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanisms associated with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole in clinical isolates of Candida dubliniensis , showing evidence of the trailing growth phenomenon. The changes in membrane sterol composition were studied in the presence of subinhibitory fluconazole concentrations. Despite lanosterol and eburicol accumulating as the most prevalent sterols after fluconazole treatment, these ergosterol precursors still support growth of Candida isolates. The overexpression of ABC transporters was demonstrated by immunoblotting employing specific antibodies against Cdr1p and Cdr2p. The presence of a full-length 170 kDa protein Cdr1p was detected in two isolates, while a truncated form of Cdr1p with the molecular mass of 85 kDa was observed in isolate 966\\/3(2). Notably, Cdr2p was detected in this isolate, and the expression of this transporter was modulated by subinhibitory concentrations of fluconazole. These results suggest that C. dubliniensis can display the trailing growth phenomenon, and such isolates express similar molecular mechanisms like that of fluconazole-resistant isolates and can therefore be associated with recurrent infections.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

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    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  15. Whole Genome Sequence of the Heterozygous Clinical Isolate Candida krusei 81-B-5

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    Christina A. Cuomo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida krusei is a diploid, heterozygous yeast that is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. This species also is utilized for fermenting cocoa beans during chocolate production. One major concern in the clinical setting is the innate resistance of this species to the most commonly used antifungal drug fluconazole. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence and assembly for the first clinical isolate of C. krusei, strain 81-B-5, into 11 scaffolds generated with PacBio sequencing technology. Gene annotation and comparative analysis revealed a unique profile of transporters that could play a role in drug resistance or adaptation to different environments. In addition, we show that, while 82% of the genome is highly heterozygous, a 2.0 Mb region of the largest scaffold has undergone loss of heterozygosity. This genome will serve as a reference for further genetic studies of this pathogen.

  16. Speciation and antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida isolates from vaginitis patients attending STD Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    G Sasikala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Candidiasis is the most common vaginal infection affecting approximately 50–72% of women. Rapid identification of yeast isolates to species level is essential to optimize antifungal treatment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of various Candida species among vaginal candidiasis and to determine the antifungal susceptibility pattern of the isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 471 women who were clinically diagnosed to have vaginal candidiasis were included in the study. Out of 471 vaginitis patients, 91 were positive for Candida species. All the isolates were speciated comprising five species – C. albicans 42 (46.1%, C. krusei 5 (5.5%, C. glabrata 40 (43.9%, C. tropicalis 3 (3.3%, and C. gullermondi 1 (1.1%. Antifungal susceptibility testing result of all Candida isolates are 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, nystatin, flucytosine, econazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole. C. krusei isolates are showing 100% resistance to fluconazole. Discussion: In the present study, C. albicans is most common species 46.1% followed by C. glabarata. C. albicans adhere to vaginal, epithelial cells in significantly higher number than other Candida species. This could explain relative higher frequency of C. albicans in vaginal candidiasis. Conclusion: Presumptive identification followed by confirmation of Candida species helps to initiate early appropriate antifungal treatment, thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality.

  17. Species distribution and drug susceptibility of candida in clinical isolates from a tertiary care centre at Indore

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    N Pahwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an alarming increase in infections with multi-drug resistant bacteria leading to overuse of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which lead to overgrowth of Candida, thus enhancing its opportunity to cause disease. Candida are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Objective : The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. Materials and Methods : Two hundred and thirty-seven different clinical isolates of Candida were collected from patients visiting to a tertiary care centre of Indore from 2010 to 2012. Identification of Candida species as well as antifungal sensitivity testing was performed with Vitek2 Compact (Biomerieux France using vitek 2 cards for identification of yeast and yeast like organisms (ID-YST cards. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with Vitek2 "Fungal Susceptibility Card (AST YS01 kits respectively. Results : We found that the non-albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans in paediatric (60 year patients than other age group (4-18, 19-60 years patients and also in intensive care unit (ICU patients as compared to out patient department (OPD patients. Resistance rates for amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, itraconazole, and voriconazole were 2.9%, 5.9%, 0.0%, 4.2% and 2.5%%, respectively. All the strains of C. krusei were found resistant to fluconazole with intermediate sensitivity to flucytosine. Conclusion: Species-level identification of Candida and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed to achieve better clinical results.

  18. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

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    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Mechanisms of azole resistance in a clinical isolate of Candida tropicalis.

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    Vandeputte, Patrick; Larcher, Gérald; Bergès, Thierry; Renier, Gilles; Chabasse, Dominique; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2005-11-01

    Azole resistance has been insufficiently investigated in the yeast Candida tropicalis. Here we determined the molecular mechanisms responsible for azole resistance in a clinical isolate of this pathogenic yeast. Antifungal susceptibility testing performed by a disk diffusion method showed resistance or markedly decreased susceptibility to azoles, which was confirmed by determination of MICs. Considering the relationship between azole susceptibility and the respiration reported for other yeast species, the respiratory activity of this isolate was investigated. Flow cytometry using rhodamine 123 and oxygraphy demonstrated an increased respiratory activity, which was not linked to an overexpression or increased number of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Among previously described resistance mechanisms, an increased activity of efflux pumps was investigated by flow cytometry using rhodamine 6G. However, the efflux of rhodamine 6G was lower in the resistant isolate than in susceptible ones. Likewise, real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification of the expression of C. tropicalis MDR1 (CtMDR1), which encodes an efflux protein belonging to the major facilitator superfamily, did not show overexpression of this gene. In contrast, the resistant isolate overexpressed the CtERG11 gene coding for lanosterol 14alpha-demethylase. This was in agreement with the larger amount of ergosterol found in this isolate. Moreover, sequencing of CtERG11 showed a point mutation leading to a tyrosine substitution in the protein sequence, which might lead to decreased binding affinity for azoles. In conclusion, overexpression of CtERG11 associated with a missense mutation in this gene seemed to be responsible for the acquired azole resistance of this clinical isolate.

  20. In vitro activity of econazole in comparison with three common antifungal agents against clinical Candida strains isolated from superficial infections

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    Mahdi Abastabar

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that for Candida albicans isolates, miconazole and econazole had the best effect, but in non-albicans Candida species, itraconazole and miconazole displayed more activity than other antifungal agents.

  1. Hemólise produzida por Candida tropicalis isoladas de amostras clínicas Hemolysis produced by Candida tropicalis isolates from clinical samples

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    Emanuele Júlio Galvão de França

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Leveduras do gênero Candida são responsáveis pela maioria das infecções fúngicas em humanos. Candida tropicalis tem sido uma das mais comumente isoladas dentre as espécies não-albicans. O objetivo foi analisar a hemólise in vitro promovida por isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis provenientes de sangue e outras amostras clínicas de pacientes internados no Hospital Universitário da UEL, PR-Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foi avaliada a hemólise promovida por 28 isolados clínicos de C. tropicalis, sendo os isolados agrupados em classes de acordo com os níveis de hemólise. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos isolados de sangue apresentou hemólise fraca (+, enquanto as classes de hemólise forte (+++ e muito forte (++++ foram as predominantes nos isolados de outras amostras clínicas como urina, lesão de unha e secreção traqueal, embora não tenham sido detectadas diferenças estatísticas (p>0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Isolados de C. tropicalis, obtidos de diferentes amostras clínicas, apresentam capacidade de promover hemólise in vitro.INTRODUCTION: Yeasts belonging to the genus Candida are responsible for the majority of fungal infections in humans. Candida tropicalis has been one of most commonly isolated non-albicans species. To analyze in vitro hemolysis promoted by clinical isolates of C. tropicalis obtained from blood and other clinical samples from hospitalized patients at the University Hospital of Londrina State University, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The hemolysis promoted by 28 clinical isolates of C. tropicalis was evaluated, and the isolates were grouped into classes according to the hemolysis levels. RESULTS: The majority of the blood isolates showed weak hemolysis (+, while the classes of strong hemolysis (+++ and very strong hemolysis (++++ predominated among isolates from other clinical samples such as urine, nail lesions and tracheal secretions. However, no statistical differences were detected (p> 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Isolates of C

  2. Identification and susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida spp. to killer toxins

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    E. Robledo-Leal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although invasive infections and mortality caused by Candida species are increasing among compromised patients, resistance to common antifungal agents is also an increasing problem. We analyzed 60 yeasts isolated from patients with invasive candidiasis using a PCR/RFLP strategy based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS2 region to identify different Candida pathogenic species. PCR analysis was performed from genomic DNA with a primer pair of the ITS2-5.8S rDNA region. PCR-positive samples were characterized by RFLP. Restriction resulted in 23 isolates identified as C. albicans using AlwI, 24 isolates as C. parapsilosis using RsaI, and 13 as C. tropicalis using XmaI. Then, a group of all isolates were evaluated for their susceptibility to a panel of previously described killer yeasts, resulting in 75% being susceptible to at least one killer yeast while the remaining were not inhibited by any strain. C. albicans was the most susceptible group while C. tropicalis had the fewest inhibitions. No species-specific pattern of inhibition was obtained with this panel of killer yeasts. Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri and Wickerhamomyces anomalus were the strains that inhibited the most isolates of Candida spp.

  3. Antifungal activity of oligochitosans (short chain chitosans) against some Candida species and clinical isolates of Candida albicans: molecular weight-activity relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Sergey N; Lisovskaya, Svetlana A; Zelenikhin, Pavel V; Bezrodnykh, Evgeniya A; Shakirova, Diana R; Blagodatskikh, Inesa V; Tikhonov, Vladimir E

    2014-03-03

    A series of oligochitosans (short chain chitosans) prepared by acidic hydrolysis of chitosan and characterized by their molecular weight, polydispersity and degree of deacetylation were used to determine their anticandidal activities. This study has demonstrated that oligochitosans show a high fungistatic activity (MIC 8-512 μg/ml) against Candida species and clinical isolates of Candida albicans, which are resistant to a series of classic antibiotics. Flow cytometry analysis showed that oligochitosan possessed a high fungicidal activity as well. For the first time it was shown that even sub-MIC oligochitosan concentration suppressed the formation of C. albicans hyphal structures, cause severe cell wall alterations, and altered internal cell structure. These results indicate that oligochitosan should be considered as a possible alternative/additive to known anti-yeast agents in pharmaceutical compositions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. The aim of this study is collection and molecular identification of Candida species from gastroesophageal lesions among pediatrics in Isfahan, and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranges for clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 patients underwent endoscopy (130 specimens from gastritis and 70 samples from esophagitis were included in this study between April 2015 and November 2015. All specimens were subcultured on sabouraud dextrose agar, and genomic DNA of all strains was extracted using boiling method. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing of the ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region were used for the identification of all Candida strains. MIC ranges were determined for itraconazole (ITC, amphotericin B (AmB, and fluconazole (FLU by E-test. Results: Twenty of 200 suspected patients (10% were positive by direct microscopy and culture. Candida albicans was the most common species (60% followed by Candida glabrata (30%, Candida parapsilosis (5%, and Candida kefyr (5%. MIC ranges were determined for FLU (0.125–8 μg/mL, ITC (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, and AmB (0.008–0.75 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Every colonization of Candida species should be considered as a potentially factor of mucocutaneous candidiasis and should be treated with antifungal drugs.

  5. In vitro activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against Candida inconspicua clinical isolates as determined by the time-kill method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Zsuzsanna; Sóczó, Georgina; Miszti, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Candida inconspicua is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients possessing inherently decreased susceptibility to fluconazole. We determined the MICs and killing activity of fluconazole and amphotericin B against C. inconspicua clinical isolates as well as reference strain C. inconspicu...

  6. In vitro synergy of natamycin and voriconazole against clinical isolates of Fusarium, Candida, Aspergillus and Curvularia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sradhanjali, Swatishree; Yein, Bandana; Sharma, Savitri; Das, Sujata

    2018-01-01

    To determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of voriconazole and natamycin, alone and in combination, against the clinical isolates of Fungus and to evaluate the synergy between the drugs in an experimental in vitro study. In an experimental in vitro study, clinical isolates of Fusarium , Aspergillus , Candida and Curvularia spp were maintained on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and used for the study. The MICs of natamycin and voriconazole, used alone and in combination, were evaluated by checkerboard microdilution technique based on the standard protocol proposed by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. The interactions were assessed using the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) Index model. Tested with all the clinical isolates, the MICs ranged between 0.125 and 8 µg/mL both for natamycin and voriconazole. In descending order, maximum synergism (FIC ≤0.5) was observed in Candida spp (33.3%) followed by Curvularia spp and Fusarium spp (23.1%). Synergism was least for Aspergillus spp (22.2%). However, at 61.5% (8/13), maximum additive effect (>0.5-1) was observed in Aspergillus spp and minimum (33.3%, 2/6) in Candida spp. Indifference (FIC value >1 and≤4) was observed in 22.2% (2/9) of Aspergillus spp, 15.4% (2/13) of Fusarium spp, 33.3% (2/6) of Candida spp and 23.1% (3/13) of Curvularia spp. No cases of antagonism (FIC >4) were observed. Natamycin and voriconazole in combination demonstrated more effective antifungal activity than single-use in vitro treatment in all species tested, which implies that these combinations may be helpful in treating fungal keratitis. There was no antagonism between these two drugs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Species distribution and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of clinical Candida isolates in a Brazilian tertiary-care hospital over a 3-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Cristina Furlaneto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed at identifying Candida isolates obtained from blood, urine, tracheal secretion, and nail/skin lesions from cases attended at the Hospital Universitário de Londrina over a 3-year period and at evaluating fluconazole susceptibilities of the isolates. METHODS: Candida isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR using species-specific forward primers. The in vitro fluconazole susceptibility test was performed according to EUCAST-AFST reference procedure. RESULTS: Isolates were obtained from urine (53.4%, blood cultures (19.2%, tracheal secretion (17.8%, and nail/skin lesions (9.6%. When urine samples were considered, prevalence was similar in women (45.5% and in men (54.5% and was high in the age group >61 years than that in younger ones. For blood samples, prevalence was high in neonates (35% and advanced ages (22.5%. For nail and skin samples, prevalence was higher in women (71.4% than in men (28.6%. Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated in the hospital, but Candida species other than C. albicans accounted for 64% of isolates, including predominantly Candida tropicalis (33.2% and Candida parapsilosis (19.2%. The trend for non-albicans Candida as the predominant species was noted from all clinical specimens, except from urine samples. All Candida isolates were considered susceptible in vitro to fluconazole with the exception of isolates belonging to the intrinsically less-susceptible species C. glabrata. CONCLUSIONS: Non-albicans Candida species were more frequently isolated in the hospital. Fluconazole resistance was a rare finding in our study.

  8. Regression analysis and categorical agreement of fluconazole disk zone diameters and minimum inhibitory concentration by broth microdilution of clinical isolates of Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, P; Kashyap, B

    2017-06-01

    Rampant use of fluconazole in Candida infections has led to predominance of less susceptible non-albicans Candida over Candida albicans. The aim of the study was to determine if zone diameters around fluconazole disk can be used to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for clinical isolates of Candida species and vice versa. Categorical agreement between the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommended disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution method was sought for. Antifungal susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and Broth microdilution was done as per CLSI document M44-S3 and CLSI document M27-S4 for Candida isolates respectively. Regression analysis correlating zone diameters to MIC value was done. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated to determine correlation between disk zone diameters and MICs. Candida albicans (33.3%) was clearly outnumbered by other non-albicans species predominantly Candida tropicalis (42.5%) and Candida glabrata (18.4%). Ten percent of the strains were resistant to fluconazole by disk diffusion and 13% by broth microdilution. MIC range for Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis ranged from≤0.25-64μg/ml while that of Candida glabrata ranged from≤0.25-128μg/ml. Categorical agreement between disk diffusion and broth microdilution was 86.8%. Pearson's coefficient of correlation was -0.5975 indicating moderate negative correlation between the two variables. Zone sizes can be used to estimate the MIC values, although with limited accuracy. There should be a constant effort to upgrade the guidelines in view of new clinical data, and laboratories should make an active effort to incorporate them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. In vitro susceptibility of Candida albicans clinical isolates to eight antifungal agents in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zida, A; Yacouba, A; Bamba, S; Sangare, I; Sawadogo, M; Guiguemde, T; Kone, S; Traore, L K; Ouedraogo-Traore, R; Guiguemde, R T

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the infection Candida albicans infection worldwide has risen, and the incidence of resistance to traditional antifungal therapies is also increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro susceptibility of C. albicans clinical isolates to eight antifungal agents in Ouagadougou. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2015 at Yalgado Ouédraogo University Teaching Hospital. Two hundred seven strains have been isolated from 347 symptomatic patients received in different clinical services. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar supplemented with Cloramphenicol. Isolates were diagnosed as C. albicans using germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on Corn Meal Agar, and Api-Candida test (Biomérieux). Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method and isolates classified as susceptible, susceptible dose-dependent and resistant. Three hundred forty-seven (347) patients are included in this study. Two hundred and six (206) out of 347 collected samples (59.36%) were found positive for C. albicans. The strains were mostly isolated from vulvovaginal (49%) and oral infections (40.3%). The highest resistance rates of azoles were obtained with fluconazole (66.5%), itraconazole (52.3%) and ketoconazole (22.9%) when all clinical isolates were included. The resistance rates of fluconazole, itraconazole and ketoconazole remain highest for vulvovaginal and oral isolates. The rate of resistance to the polyene amphotericin B was 32.0% for all clinical isolates and was 56.4% for vulvovaginal strains. Resistance rate to nystatin was 6.3% for all clinical isolates. Cross-resistance analysis with data of all clinical strains revealed that the incidence of resistance to ketoconazole and itraconazole in fluconazole-resistant isolates was significantly higher than recorded for fluconazole-susceptible isolates. In vitro C. albicans antifungal susceptibility test in this study showed relatively high

  10. Expression of the CDR1 efflux pump in clinical Candida albicans isolates is controlled by a negative regulatory element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, Naseem Akhtar; Manoharlal, Raman; Saini, Preeti; Prasad, Tulika; Mukhopadhyay, Gauranga; Hoefer, Milan; Morschhaeuser, Joachim; Prasad, Rajendra

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to azole antifungal drugs in clinical isolates of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is often caused by constitutive overexpression of the CDR1 gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the ABC transporter superfamily. To understand the relevance of a recently identified negative regulatory element (NRE) in the CDR1 promoter for the control of CDR1 expression in the clinical scenario, we investigated the effect of mutation or deletion of the NRE on CDR1 expression in two matched pairs of azole-sensitive and resistant clinical isolates of C. albicans. Expression of GFP or lacZ reporter genes from the wild type CDR1 promoter was much higher in the azole-resistant C. albicans isolates than in the azole-susceptible isolates, reflecting the known differences in CDR1 expression in these strains. Deletion or mutation of the NRE resulted in enhanced reporter gene expression in azole-sensitive strains, but did not further increase the already high CDR1 promoter activity in the azole-resistant strains. In agreement with these findings, electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed a reduced binding to the NRE of nuclear extracts from the resistant C. albicans isolates as compared with extracts from the sensitive isolates. These results demonstrate that the NRE is involved in maintaining CDR1 expression at basal levels and that this repression is overcome in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates, resulting in constitutive CDR1 overexpression and concomitant drug resistance

  11. Phytochemical Analysis and Modulation of Antibiotic Activity by Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. (Malvaceae) in Multiresistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto Júnior, João T.; Morais, Selene M.; Martins, Clécio G.; Vieira, Larissa G.; Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B.; Carneiro, Joara N. P.; Machado, Antonio J. P.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The high incidence of fungal infections has led to the continuous search for new drugs. Extracts of Luehea paniculata, a tree of multiple medicinal uses, were evaluated for anti-Candida activity, as well as its modulator potential of the Fluconazole antibiotic. Chemical prospecting of ethanol extracts of leaf and bark was carried out, the quantification of total phenols and flavonoids, characterized by the HPLC-DAD technique. The rosmarinic acid and the vitexin flavonoid were observed as major constituents in ELELP and ESWELP, respectively. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated by the method of scavenging the free radical DPPH, and quercetin was used as standard, obtaining IC50 values: 0.341 (mg/mL) for ELELP and 0.235 (mg/mL) for ESWELP. The microdilution assay was performed for antifungal activity against strains of Candida albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations values ≥1024 μg/mL. In the modulator action of extracts on Fluconazole against multiresistant clinical isolates of Candida (subinhibitory concentration minimum of 128 μg/mL), a significant synergism was observed, indicating that the extracts potentiated the antifungal effect against C. tropicalis, where antioxidant flavonoids could be responsible. This is the first report about modifying activity of the antibiotic action of a species of the genus Luehea. PMID:25821822

  12. [Comparison between conventional methods, ChromAgar Candida® and PCR method for the identification of Candida species in clinical isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Barraza, Deyanira; Dávalos Martínez, Arturo; Flores-Padilla, Luis; Mendoza-De Elias, Roberto; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    2011-01-01

    The increase in the incidence of yeast species causing fungemia in susceptible immunocompromised patients in the last two decades and the low sensitivity of conventional blood culture has led to the need to develop alternative approaches for the early detection and identification of causative species. The aim of this study was to compare the usefulness of molecular testing by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional methods to identify clinical isolates of different species, using the ID32C ATB system (bioMérieux, France), chromogenic culture Chromagar Candida® (CHROMagar, France) and morphogenesis in corn meal agar. We studied 79 isolates, in which the most prevalent species using the system ID32C and PCR was C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C .krusei. PCR patterns obtained for the identification of clinical isolates were stable and consistent in the various independent studies and showed good reproducibility, concluding that PCR with species-specific primers that amplify genes ITS1 and ITS2 for rRNA or topoisomerase II primers is a very specific and sensitive method for the identification of C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. albicans, and with less specificity for C. tropicalis. Copyright © 2010 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. White-opaque Switching in Different Mating Type-like Locus Gene Types of Clinical Candida albicans Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hou-Min; Shimizu-Imanishi, Yumi; Tanaka, Reiko; Li, Ruo-Yu; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans (C. albicans) can become a pathogen causing superficial as well as life-threatening systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. Many phenotypic attributes contribute to its capacity to colonize human organs. In our study, 93 C. albicans isolates from patients of various candidiasis in a hospital of China were surveyed. We aimed to investigate the white-opaque (WO) switching competence, drug sensitivity, and virulence of mating type-like (MTL) a/α isolates. Methods: Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene and the MTL configuration were detected in all the isolates by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. White/opaque phenotype and doubling time of cell growth were determined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agent were measured using broth microdilution method. Results: Sixty-four isolates (69.6%) were classified to serotype A, 19 (20.6%) to serotype B, and 9 (9.8%) to serotype C. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates were divided into four different subgroups of ITS genotypes. Most of our clinical isolates were MTLa/α type, while 6.8% remained MTLa or MTLα type. The frequency of opaque phenotype was 71.0% (66 isolates). Following the guidelines of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3, all isolates were susceptible to caspofungin and a few (0.6–3.2%) of them showed resistance against amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. Conclusions: From these analyses, there were comparatively more C. albicans strains classified into serotype B, and the frequency of opaque phase strains was significant in the clinical isolates from China. Genetic, phenotypic, or drug susceptibility patterns were not significantly different from previous studies. MTLa/α isolates could also undergo WO switching which facilitates their survival. PMID:27824006

  14. Different Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates and lipase deficient strain trigger an altered cellular immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata eToth

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous human diseases can be associated with fungal infections either as potential causative agents or as a result of changed immune status due to a primary disease. Fungal infections caused by Candida species can vary from mild to severe dependent upon the site of infection, length of exposure and past medical history. Patients with impaired immune status are at increased risk for chronic fungal infections. Recent epidemiologic studies have revealed the increasing incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans species such as C. parapsilosis. Due to its increasing relevance we chose two distinct C. parapsilosis strains, to describe the cellular innate immune response towards this species. In the first section of our study we compared the interaction of CLIB 214 and GA1 cells with murine and human macrophages. Both strains are commonly used to investigate C. parapsilosis virulence properties. CLIB 214 is a rapidly pseudohyphae-forming strain and GA1 is an isolate that mainly exists in a yeast form. Our results showed, that the phagocyte response was similar in terms of overall uptake, however differences were observed in macrophage migration and engulfment of fungal cells. As C. parapsilosis releases extracellular lipases in order to promote host invasion we further investigated the role of these secreted components during the distinct stages of the phagocytic process. Using a secreted lipase deficient mutant strain and the parental strain GA1 individually and simultaneously, we confirmed that fungal secreted lipases influence the fungi’s virulence by detecting altered innate cellular responses.In this study we report that two isolates of a single species can trigger markedly distinct host responses and that lipase secretion plays a role on the cellular level of host pathogen interactions.

  15. The Use of Chitosan to Enhance Photodynamic Inactivation against Candida albicans and Its Drug-Resistant Clinical Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuimin Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Candida infection is a major health concern among immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI was introduced as an alternative treatment for local infections. Although Candida (C. has demonstrated susceptibility to PDI, high doses of photosensitizer (PS and light energy are required, which may be harmful to eukaryotic human cells. This study explores the capacity of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, to increase the efficacy of PDI against C. albicans, as well as fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates in planktonic or biofilm states. Chitosan was shown to effectively augment the effect of PDI mediated by toluidine blue O (TBO against C. albicans that were incubated with chitosan for 30 min following PDI. Chitosan at concentrations as low as 0.25% eradicated C. albicans; however, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity within the 30 min of incubation. These results suggest that chitosan only augmented the fungicidal effect after the cells had been damaged by PDI. Increasing the dosage of chitosan or prolonging the incubation time allowed a reduction in the PDI condition required to completely eradicate C. albicans. These results clearly indicate that combining chitosan with PDI is a promising antimicrobial approach to treat infectious diseases.

  16. Secreted aspartate proteinases, a virulence factor of Candida spp.: Occurrence among clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamal, P.; Dostál, Jiří; Raclavský, V.; Krylová, M.; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2004), s. 491-496 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZd NI6485 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Candida spp. * aspartate proteinases * RAPD typing Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.034, year: 2004

  17. Emerging azole resistance among Candida albicans from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequently isolated yeasts in clinical laboratories and accounts for up to 80 % of the yeasts recovered from sites of infection. The study was set out to determine antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to establish the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) to ...

  18. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravin Charles, M V; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-06-01

    In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  19. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  20. Clinical characteristics of the first cases of invasive candidiasis in China due to pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata isolates with delineation of their resistance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Meng Xiao,1,2,* Xin Fan,1–3,* Xin Hou,1,2,4,* Sharon CA Chen,5 He Wang,1,2 Fanrong Kong,5 Zi-Yong Sun,6,* Yun-Zhuo Chu,7 Ying-Chun Xu1,2 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Beijing Key Laboratory for Mechanisms Research and Precision Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Graduate School, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 5Center for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, ICPMR, New South Wales Health Pathology, Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chinese Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Echinocandin antifungal agents have become the first-line therapy for invasive candidiasis (IC in many countries. Despite their increasing use, resistance to this class of drug is, overall, still uncommon. Here, we report two patients from the People’s Republic of China with IC, one with infection caused by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida tropicalis and the other by pan-echinocandin-resistant Candida glabrata. We also describe the mechanisms of drug resistance of these isolates. The echinocandin-resistant C. glabrata isolate was cultured from ascitic fluid of a 46-year-old male patient with intra-abdominal IC developing after surgery in 2012. This patient had had no prior antifungal exposure. The echinocandin-resistant C. tropicalis isolate was cultured from chest drainage

  1. In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candida Isolates from Patients Suffering from Caries and Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Torre, Janire; Ortiz-Samperio, María Esther; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Marichalar-Mendia, Xabier; Eraso, Elena; Echebarria-Goicouria, María Ángeles; Aguirre-Urizar, José Manuel; Quindós, Guillermo

    2017-06-01

    Caries and chronic periodontitis are common oral diseases where a higher Candida colonization is reported. Antifungal agents could be adjuvant drugs for the therapy of both clinical conditions. The aim of the current study has been to evaluate the in vitro activities of conventional and new antifungal drugs against oral Candida isolates from patients suffering from caries and/or chronic periodontitis. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole, nystatin, posaconazole and voriconazole against 126 oral Candida isolates (75 Candida albicans, 18 Candida parapsilosis, 11 Candida dubliniensis, six Candida guilliermondii, five Candida lipolytica, five Candida glabrata, four Candida tropicalis and two Candida krusei) from 61 patients were tested by the CLSI M27-A3 method. Most antifungal drugs were highly active, and resistance was observed in less than 5% of tested isolates. Miconazole was the most active antifungal drug, being more than 98% of isolates susceptible. Fluconazole, itraconazole, and the new triazoles, posaconazole and voriconazole, were also very active. Miconazole, fluconazole and voriconazole have excellent in vitro activities against all Candida isolates and could represent suitable treatment for a hypothetically adjunctive therapy of caries and chronic periodontitis.

  2. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis in Mashhad, Iran by Use of MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

     Of the 65 isolates analyzed, 61 (93.8% were recognised by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and for four isolates (6.1% only not relabile identifications were achieved. In this study, the most frequently isolated species were Candida albicans (58.5%, followed by Candida tropicalis (16.9%, Candida glabrata (7.7%, Candida parapsilosis (7.7% and Candida guillermondii (3.1%.  Conclusion presented results demonstrate that the MALDI TOF mass spectrometry is a fast and reliable technique, and has the potential to replace conventional phenotypic identification of Candida species and other yeast strains routinely isolated in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  3. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto-Reductase in Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida Glabrata Determined by cDNA-AFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Heidari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida glabrata causes significant medical problems in immunocompromised patients. Many strains of this yeast are intrinsically resistant to azole antifungal agents, and treatment is problematic, leading to high morbidity and mortality rates in immunosuppressed individuals. The primary goal of this study was to investigate the genes involved in the drug resistance of clinical isolates of C. glabrata.Methods: The clinical isolates of C. glabrata were collected in an epidemiological survey of candidal infection inimmunocompromised patients and consisted of four fluconazole and itraconazole resistant isolates, two fluconazoleand itraconazole sensitive isolates, and C. glabrata CBS 138 as reference strain. Antifungal susceptibility patterns ofthe organisms were determined beforehand by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The potentialgene(s implicated in antifungal resistance were investigated using complementary DNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression of gene(s in resistant isolates as compared to sensitive and reference strains.Results and conclusions: The aldo-keto-reductase superfamily (AKR gene was upregulated in the resistant clinicalisolates as assessed by cDNA-AFLP. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed AKR mRNA expression approximately twice that seen in the sensitive isolates. Overexpression of the AKR gene was associated with increased fluconazole and itraconazole resistance in C. glabrata. The data suggest that upregulation of the AKR gene might give a new insight into the mechanism of azole resistance.

  4. Sequence variations and protein expression levels of the two immune evasion proteins Gpm1 and Pra1 influence virulence of clinical Candida albicans isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shanshan; Hipler, Uta-Christina; Münzberg, Christin; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans, the important human fungal pathogen uses multiple evasion strategies to control, modulate and inhibit host complement and innate immune attack. Clinical C. albicans strains vary in pathogenicity and in serum resistance, in this work we analyzed sequence polymorphisms and variations in the expression levels of two central fungal complement evasion proteins, Gpm1 (phosphoglycerate mutase 1) and Pra1 (pH-regulated antigen 1) in thirteen clinical C. albicans isolates. Four nucleotide (nt) exchanges, all representing synonymous exchanges, were identified within the 747-nt long GPM1 gene. For the 900-nt long PRA1 gene, sixteen nucleotide exchanges were identified, which represented synonymous, as well as non-synonymous exchanges. All thirteen clinical isolates had a homozygous exchange (A to G) at position 73 of the PRA1 gene. Surface levels of Gpm1 varied by 8.2, and Pra1 levels by 3.3 fold in thirteen tested isolates and these differences influenced fungal immune fitness. The high Gpm1/Pra1 expressing candida strains bound the three human immune regulators more efficiently, than the low expression strains. The difference was 44% for Factor H binding, 51% for C4BP binding and 23% for plasminogen binding. This higher Gpm1/Pra1 expressing strains result in enhanced survival upon challenge with complement active, Factor H depleted human serum (difference 40%). In addition adhesion to and infection of human endothelial cells was increased (difference 60%), and C3b surface deposition was less effective (difference 27%). Thus, variable expression levels of central immune evasion protein influences immune fitness of the human fungal pathogen C. albicans and thus contribute to fungal virulence.

  5. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional strains by using a broth dilution assay standardized according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A assay. Terbinafine was found to have an MIC of 1 μg/ml for reference C. albicans strains. For 259 clinical isolates, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of terbinafine was 1 μg/ml (fluconazole, 0.5 μg/ml), and the MIC90 was 4 μg/ml (fluconazole, 1 μg/ml). Terbinafine was highly active against Candida parapsilosis (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and showed potentially interesting activity against isolates of Candida dubliniensis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida humicola, and Candida lusitaniae. It was not active against the Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis isolates in this assay. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans were highly susceptible to terbinafine, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined. PMID:9593126

  6. Clinical Patterns of Candida Infections in Bombay

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    J Pratiba Dalal

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive cases of candidiasis in Bombay were studied. In each case the suspicion was confirmed by isolation typing of the Candida species. The clinical was as follows: vulvo-vaginitis 30%; intertrigo 18%; onychia and paronychia 12%; thrush 16%; generalised cutaneous candidasis 8%, enteritis 3%; bronchitis 12% and urinary tract infection 1%. When compared to a study carried out in Bombay in 1966, there was an increase in the frequency of disseminated cutaneous candidiasis and a reduction in the cases of intertrigo and onychia and paronychia.

  7. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 mu g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  8. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis are recently described species phenotypically indistinguishable from Candida parapsilosis . We evaluated phenotyping and molecular methods for the detection of these species among 79 unique blood culture isolates of the C. parapsilosis group obtained...

  9. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients. PMID:21483597

  10. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyada Ghufrana Nadeem

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. Material and methods: A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal–tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. Results: The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. Conclusion: The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  11. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-02-09

    Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal-tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  12. Epidemiology of Candida isolates from Intensive Care Units in Colombia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoa, Gabriel; Muñoz, Juan Sebastián; Oñate, José; Pallares, Christian José; Hernández, Cristhian; Villegas, María Virginia

    The frequency of Candida isolates as a cause of hospital infections has risen in recent years, leading to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The knowledge of the epidemiology of those hospital acquired fungal infections is essential to implement an adequate antifungal therapy. To describe the epidemiology of Candida infections in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) from a surveillance network in Colombia. Information was collected from the microbiology laboratories of 20 tertiary healthcare institutions from 10 Colombian cities using the Whonet® software version 5.6. A general descriptive analysis of Candida species and susceptibility profiles focusing on fluconazole and voriconazole was completed between 2010 and 2013, including a sub-analysis of healthcare associated infections (HAIs) during the last year. Candida isolates made up 94.5% of the 2680 fungal isolates considered, with similar proportions for Candida albicans and non-C. albicans Candida species (48.3% and 51.7%, respectively). Among the latter, Candida tropicalis (38.6%) and Candida parapsilosis (28.5%) were the most frequent species. Of note, among the blood isolates C. albicans was not the main species. Most of the species isolated were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. From the HAIs reported, 25.5% were caused by Candida; central line-associated bloodstream infection was the most common HAI (58.8%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding length of hospital stay and device days among HAIs. In ICUs of Colombia, non-C. albicans Candida species are as frequent as C. albicans, except in blood samples where non-C. albicans Candida isolates predominate. Further studies are needed to evaluate Candida associated risk factors and to determine its clinical impact. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Comparison of Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel and API® ID 32C commercial systems for the identification of Candida species isolated from clinical samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayibova, Ülkü; Dalyan Cılo, Burcu; Ağca, Harun; Ener, Beyza

    2014-07-01

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are one of the important causes of nosocomial infections, and several different types of yeasts, especially Candida species are increasingly recovered from immunocompromised patients. Since many of the yeasts are resistant to the commonly used antifungal agents, the introduction of appropriate therapy depends on rapid and accurate identification. The aims of this study were to compare the commercial identification systems namely API® ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) and Phoenix™ Yeast ID Panel (Becton Dickinson Diagnostics, USA) for the identification of Candida species and to evaluate the effect of morphological findings in the identification process. A total of 211 yeast strains isolated from different clinical samples (111 urine, 34 blood/vascular catheter, 27 upper/lower respiratory tract, 16 abscess/pus, 13 throat/vagina swabs and 10 sterile body fluids) of 137 patients hospitalized in Uludag University Health and Research Center between October 2013 to January 2014, were included in the study. Samples were cultured on blood agar, chromogenic agar (CHROMagar Candida, BD, USA) and Saboraud's dextrose agar (SDA), and isolated yeast colonies were evaluated with germ tube test and morphological examination by microscopy on cornmeal/Tween-80 agar. The isolates were identified as well by two commercial systems according to the manufacturers' recommendations. Discrepant results between the systems were tried to be resolved by using morphological characteristics of the yeasts. Of the isolates 159 were identified identical by both of the systems, and the concordance between those systems were estimated as 75.4%. According to the concordant identification, the most frequently isolated species was C.albicans (44.1%) followed by C.tropicalis (9.9%), C.glabrata (9.5%), C.parapsilosis (8.5%) and C.kefyr (8.1%). The concordance rate was 81.7% in identification of frequently isolated species (C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.parapsilosis, C.glabrata, C

  14. Comparative Study of Esterase and Hemolytic Activities in Clinically Important Candida Species, Isolated From Oral Cavity of Diabetic and Non-diabetic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahinia, Mahnaz; Poormohamadi, Farzad; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus as a chronic metabolic disease occurs in patients with partial or complete deficiency of insulin secretion or disorder in action of insulin on tissue. The disease is known to provide conditions for overgrowth of Candida species. Candida spp. cause candidiasis by many virulence factors such as esterase, hemolysin and phospholipase. This study aimed to compare esterase and hemolytic activity in various Candida species isolated from oral cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Swab samples were taken from 95 patients with diabetes (35 men and 60 women) and 95 normal persons (42 men and 53 women) and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Identification of isolated yeasts was performed by germ tube test, morphology on CHROMagar Candida medium, corn meal agar and ability to grow at 45°C. Hemolysin activity was evaluated using blood plate assay and esterase activity was determined using the Tween 80 opacity test. Different Candida species were isolated from 57 (60%) diabetic and 24 (25%) non-diabetic individuals. Esterase activity was detected in all Candida isolates. Only 21.6% of C. albicans from patients with diabetes had esterase activity as + 3, while it ranged from + 1 to + 2 in others. Hemolytic activity was determined in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata and C. krusei as 0.79, 0.58, 0.66 and 0.74, respectively. Hemolytic activity was significantly different in the two groups of diabetics and non-diabetics. Oral carriage of C. albicans in the diabetic group (n = 42; 66.7%) was significantly greater than the control group (n = 16; 57.1%). Esterase activity of C. albicans in diabetic group was higher than non-diabetic group. Although C. albicans remains the most frequently pathogenic yeast for human, but other species are increasing.

  15. Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by rolling circle amplification and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis David

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amino acid substitutions in the target enzyme Erg11p of azole antifungals contribute to clinically-relevant azole resistance in Candida albicans. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations would be an advantage as a screening tool to identify potentially-resistant strains and to track their movement. To complement DNA sequencing, we developed a padlock probe and rolling circle amplification (RCA-based method to detect a series of mutations in the C. albicans ERG11 gene using "reference" azole-resistant isolates with known mutations. The method was then used to estimate the frequency of ERG11 mutations and their type in 25 Australian clinical C. albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and in 23 fluconazole-susceptible isolates. RCA results were compared DNA sequencing. Results The RCA assay correctly identified all ERG11 mutations in eight "reference" C. albicans isolates. When applied to 48 test strains, the RCA method showed 100% agreement with DNA sequencing where an ERG11 mutation-specific probe was used. Of 20 different missense mutations detected by sequencing in 24 of 25 (96% isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility, 16 were detected by RCA. Five missense mutations were detected by both methods in 18 of 23 (78% fluconazole-susceptible strains. DNA sequencing revealed that mutations in non-susceptible isolates were all due to homozygous nucleotide changes. With the exception of the mutations leading to amino acid substitution E266D, those in fluconazole-susceptible strains were heterozygous. Amino acid substitutions common to both sets of isolates were D116E, E266D, K128T, V437I and V488I. Substitutions unique to isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility were G464 S (n = 4 isolates, G448E (n = 3, G307S (n = 3, K143R (n = 3 and Y123H, S405F and R467K (each n = 1. DNA sequencing revealed a novel substitution, G450V, in one isolate. Conclusion The sensitive RCA

  16. Molecular characterization of Candida isolates from intensive care unit patients, Krakow, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małek, Marianna; Paluchowska, Paulina; Bogusz, Bożena; Budak, Alicja

    Over the last decades, Candida species have emerged as important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. Nosocomial infections are mainly of endogenous origin. Nevertheless, some cases of exogenous candidiasis have also been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relatedness between Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei and Candida kefyr isolates recovered from intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A total of 132 Candida clinical isolates (62 C. albicans, 40 C. glabrata, 13 C. tropicalis, 11 C. krusei, 6 C. kefyr), obtained from specimens of endotracheal aspirate, urine and blood taken from patients of a tertiary hospital in Poland, were included in the study. Species identification was performed by PCR method and genetic relatedness was assessed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA assay (RAPD) with five primers. The RAPD analysis revealed high genetic diversity among the studied Candida isolates, indicating that most of the strains were from endogenous sources. Only two clonal strains of C. glabrata isolated from different patients were observed, suggesting a possible cross-transmission of these pathogens. Our study confirmed the high discriminatory power of the RAPD assay. This genotyping method can be applied to local epidemiological studies of Candida species. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical, microbiological, and experimental animal studies of Candida lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T J; Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Hurd, N J

    1989-01-01

    Candida lipolytica was recovered from six patients in three different clinical centers. The index isolate caused a persistent fungemia with catheter-associated Candida thrombophlebitis, the second isolate was from a polymicrobial sinusitis, and the remaining four isolates were involved in tissue colonization. These and 20 other isolates were consistent in their morphological and physiological characteristics. All formed true hyphae and blastoconidia on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and all assimilated glucose, glycerol, and erythritol. In a murine model of disseminated candidiasis, the index isolate that caused clinical fungemia caused no mortality and produced only two lesions on a kidney, as determined at necropsy. The nine isolates selected for in vitro antifungal susceptibility studies had intermediate susceptibilities to amphotericin B but were susceptible to ketoconazole. We conclude that C. lipolytica is a weakly virulent pathogen which may require an intravascular foreign body to cause fungemia. Images PMID:2745702

  18. prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of candida species isolated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Candida species isolated from HVS specimens were Candida albicans (n=19, 48.7%), Can- dida glabrata .... C test kits. The isolates were stored ... problem that causes significant morbidity and affects the .... from both urinary and high vaginal specimens followed by ... drugs that are used in the treatment of infec- tions due ...

  19. Antifungal activity of linalool in cases of Candida spp. isolated from individuals with oral candidiasis

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    I. J. Dias

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the antifungal activity of phytoconstituents from linalool on Candida spp. strains, in vitro, isolated from patients with clinical diagnoses of oral candidiasis associated with the use of a dental prosthesis. Biological samples were collected from 12 patients using complete dentures or removable partial dentures and who presented mucous with diffuse erythematous or stippled features, indicating a clinical diagnosis of candidiasis. To identify fungal colonies of the genus Candida, samples were plated onto CHROMagar Candida®. The antifungal activity of linalool, a monoterpene unsaturated constituent of basil oil, was performed using the broth microdilution technique. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, the two subsequent stronger concentrations and the positive controls were subcultured on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates to determine the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC. The experiments were performed in triplicate and nystatin was used as a positive control in all tests. Diagnoses of oral candidiasis were verified in eight patients (66.6% and the most prevalent fungal species was Candida albicans (37.5%, followed by Candida krusei (25.0%; and Candida tropicalis (4.2%. The best antifungal activity of linalool was observed on Candida tropicalis (MIC = 500 mg/mL, followed by Candida albicans (MIC = 1.000 mg/mL, and Candida krusei (MIC = 2.000 mg/mL.Under the study conditions and based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the Candida strains tested were susceptible to linalool.

  20. Aislamiento de Candida dubliniensis en distintos materiales clínicos: Análisis de métodos fenotípicos de diferenciación con Candida albicans Isolation of Candida dubliniensis in different clinical samples: Analysis of phenotypical methods to differenciate from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pineda

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de estimar la frecuencia de aislamientos de Candida dubliniensis en materiales clínicos en el Hospital de Infecciosas F. J. Muñiz, se identificaron 388 levaduras entre setiembre de 2005 y agosto de 2007. Doscientos doce aislamientos presentaban color verde en CHROMagar® y producían tubos germinativos y clamidoconidias en agarleche. Para diferenciar cuales de ellos correspondían a Candida albicans o a C. dubliniensis, se utilizaron distintos métodos fenotípicos y se evaluó la utilidad de cada técnica a fin de proponer un algoritmo de identificación simple, económico y confiable. Se estudió el color en 2 medios con sustratos cromogénicos, la producción de clamidoconidias en medios de Staib, agar tomate-zanahoria y agar-tabaco; en este último medio también se evaluaron las características macromorfológicas de las colonias; se evaluó la presencia de actividad lipolítica (medio-opacidad, capacidad de desarrollo a 45 °C y asimilación de D-xilosa. El 6,1% (13/212 aislamientos correspondió a C. dubliniensis (3,3% del total de levaduras. No se pudo diferenciar entre ambas especies por el color en los medios cromogénicos usados. Las pruebas que resultaron más sensibles y específicas fueron crecimiento a 45 °C, asimilación de D-xilosa, color y desarrollo en agar-tabaco. C. albicans produjo clamidoconidias en los 3 medios diferenciales, entre 11,6% y 15,1% de los casos. La presencia de lipasas se evidenció en el 95,6% de C. albicans pero 2 de las 13 cepas de C. dubliniensis también presentaron halo de opacidad. Consideramos que se deben usar, al menos, 3 métodos diferentes para discriminar entre estas levaduras ya que ninguna prueba es absolutamente sensible o específica.In order to estimate the frequence of Candida dubliniensis in clinical samples in F. J. Muñiz Infectious Diseases Hospital, a total of 388 yeasts from September 2005 to August 2007. There were 212 isolates which presented a green color on

  1. Genetic differences between avian and human isolates of Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2009-09-01

    When Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from seabird excrement and from humans in Ireland were compared by using multilocus sequence typing, 13 of 14 avian isolates were genetically distinct from human isolates. The remaining avian isolate was indistinguishable from a human isolate, suggesting that transmission may occur between humans and birds.

  2. Candida bloodstream infection: a clinical microbiology laboratory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, Júlia; Kristóf, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    The incidence of Candida bloodstream infection (BSI) has been on the rise in several countries worldwide. Species distribution is changing; an increase in the percentage of non-albicans species, mainly fluconazole non-susceptible C. glabrata was reported. Existing microbiology diagnostic methods lack sensitivity, and new methods need to be developed or further evaluation for routine application is necessary. Although reliable, standardized methods for antifungal susceptibility testing are available, the determination of clinical breakpoints remains challenging. Correct species identification is important and provides information on the intrinsic susceptibility profile of the isolate. Currently, acquired resistance in clinical Candida isolates is rare, but reports indicate that it could be an issue in the future. The role of the clinical microbiology laboratory is to isolate and correctly identify the infective agent and provide relevant and reliable susceptibility data as soon as possible to guide antifungal therapy.

  3. The essential oil of Allium sativum as an alternative agent against Candida isolated from dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Juache, Alejandro; Aranda-Romo, Saray; Bermeo-Escalona, Josué R; Gómez-Hernández, Araceli; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury; Sánchez-Vargas, Luis Octavio

    The colonization of the surfaces of dental prostheses by Candida albicans is associated with the development of denture stomatitis. In this context, the use of fluconazole has been proposed, but its disadvantage is microbial resistance. Meanwhile, the oil of Allium sativum has shown an effect in controlling biofilm formation by C. albicans. The objective of this study was to determine the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from rigid, acrylic-based partial or total dentures and to compare these agents' effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells. A total of 48 clinical isolates obtained from the acrylic surface of partial or complete dentures were examined, and the following species were identified: C. albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. For each isolate, the antifungal activities of the essential oil of A. sativum and fluconazole against both biofilm and planktonic cells were evaluated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 method. The isolates were also evaluated by semiquantitative XTT reduction. All planktonic Candida isolates were susceptible to the essential oil of A. sativum, whereas 4.2% were resistant to fluconazole. Regarding susceptibilities in biofilms, 43.8% of biofilms were resistant to A. sativum oil, and 91.7% were resistant to fluconazole. All planktonic cells of the different Candida species tested are susceptible to sativum oil, and the majority are susceptible to fluconazole. Susceptibility decreases in biofilm cells, with increased resistance to fluconazole compared with A. sativum oil. The essential oil of A. sativum is thus active against clinical isolates of Candida species obtained from dentures, with effects on both biofilm and planktonic cells in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of isavuconazole and comparator voriconazole against 2635 contemporary clinical Candida and Aspergillus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, K. M.T.; Hare, R. K.; Arendrup, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 Candida and 958 Aspergillus isolates from 2012 to 2014 with voriconazole as comparator. Methods Aspergillus isolates were screened for resistance using azole-agar. Aspergillus isolates that screened positive and all Candida...

  5. Prevalence of candida and non-candida yeasts isolated from patients with yeast fungal infections in Tehran labs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi SJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Infections caused by opportunistic yeasts such as Candida species, Trichosporon, Rhodotorula and Saccharomyces have increased in immunocompromis-ed patients and their identification is crucial as intrinsic and acquired resistance of some yeast species to antifungal agents are on the rise. The aim of this study was to identify the organisms to the species level in order to suggest accurate and effective antifungal therapies."n"nMethods: In this study that carried out in Tehran, Iran in 2009, 200 patients with yeast infection were medically examined and clinical specimens were prepared for direct examination and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Subsequently, the isolated yeast colonies were identified using various tests including culture on Corn Meal agar with Tween 80, CHROMagar Candida and casein agar. For the definite identification of organisms some biochemical tests were done based on carbohydrate assimilation by RapID Yeast Plus System kit, and, finally, a molecular method, PCR-RFLP, using Hpa II enzyme, was performed for the remaining unknown yeast species."n"nResults: A total of 211 yeast isolates were identified in 200 patients with yeast infections. The most frequent isolated yeasts were Candida albicans, 124 (58.77%, followed by Candida parapsilosis, 36 (17.06%, Candida tropicalis, 17 (8.06%, Candida glabrata, 13 (6.16%, Candida krusei, 8 (3.79%, Candida guilliermondii, 2 (0.96%, Trichosporon, 3 (1.14%, Rhodotorula, 1 (0.47%, Saccaromyces cerevisiae, 1 (0.47% and other

  6. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika; Sanglard, Dominique; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. → First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. → Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. → CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns encountered in using

  7. Overcoming the heterologous bias: An in vivo functional analysis of multidrug efflux transporter, CgCdr1p in matched pair clinical isolates of Candida glabrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puri, Nidhi; Manoharlal, Raman; Sharma, Monika [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Sanglard, Dominique [Institut de Microbiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Prasad, Rajendra, E-mail: rp47jnu@gmail.com [Membrane Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} First report to demonstrate an in vivo expression system of an ABC multidrug transporter CgCdr1p of C. glabrata. {yields} First report on the structure and functional characterization of CgCdr1p. {yields} Functional conservation of divergent but typical residues of CgCdr1p. {yields} CgCdr1p elicits promiscuity towards substrates and has a large drug binding pocket with overlapping specificities. -- Abstract: We have taken advantage of the natural milieu of matched pair of azole sensitive (AS) and azole resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida glabrata for expressing its major ABC multidrug transporter, CgCdr1p for structure and functional analysis. This was accomplished by tagging a green fluorescent protein (GFP) downstream of ORF of CgCDR1 and integrating the resultant fusion protein at its native chromosomal locus in AS and AR backgrounds. The characterization confirmed that in comparison to AS isolate, CgCdr1p-GFP was over-expressed in AR isolates due to its hyperactive native promoter and the GFP tag did not affect its functionality in either construct. We observed that in addition to Rhodamine 6 G (R6G) and Fluconazole (FLC), a recently identified fluorescent substrate of multidrug transporters Nile Red (NR) could also be expelled by CgCdr1p. Competition assays with these substrates revealed the presence of overlapping multiple drug binding sites in CgCdr1p. Point mutations employing site directed mutagenesis confirmed that the role played by unique amino acid residues critical to ATP catalysis and localization of ABC drug transporter proteins are well conserved in C. glabrata as in other yeasts. This study demonstrates a first in vivo novel system where over-expression of GFP tagged MDR transporter protein can be driven by its own hyperactive promoter of AR isolates. Taken together, this in vivo system can be exploited for the structure and functional analysis of CgCdr1p and similar proteins wherein the arte-factual concerns

  8. [Comparison of microdilution and disk diffusion methods for the detection of fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility against clinical Candida glabrata isolates and determination of changing susceptibility with new CLSI breakpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazırolan, Gülşen; Sarıbaş, Zeynep; Arıkan Akdağlı, Sevtap

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated species as the causative agent of Candida infections. However, in recent years, the isolation rate of non-albicans Candida species have increased. In many centers, Candida glabrata is one of the commonly isolated non-albicans species of C.glabrata infections which are difficult-to-treat due to decreased susceptibility to fluconazole and cross-resistance to other azoles. The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro susceptibility profiles of clinical C.glabrata isolates against fluconazole and voriconazole by microdilution and disk diffusion methods and to evaluate the results with both the previous (CLSI) and current species-specific CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) clinical breakpoints. A total of 70 C.glabrata strains isolated from clinical samples were included in the study. The identification of the isolates was performed by morphologic examination on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and assimilation profiles obtained by using ID32C (BioMérieux, France). Broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods were performed according to CLSI M27-A3 and CLSI M44-A2 documents, respectively. The results were evaluated according to CLSI M27-A3 and M44-A2 documents and new vs. species-specific CLSI breakpoints. By using both previous and new CLSI breakpoints, broth microdilution test results showed that voriconazole has greater in vitro activity than fluconazole against C.glabrata isolates. For the two drugs tested, very major error was not observed with disk diffusion method when microdilution method was considered as the reference method. Since "susceptible" category no more exists for fluconazole vs. C.glabrata, the isolates that were interpreted as susceptible by previous breakpoints were evaluated as susceptible-dose dependent by current CLSI breakpoints. Since species-specific breakpoints remain yet undetermined for voriconazole, comparative analysis was not possible for this agent. The results obtained

  9. Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by rolling circle amplification and DNA sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiping; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Wang, Bin; McNicholas, Paul; Pantarat, Namfon; Ellis, David; Xiao, Meng; Widmer, Fred; Chen, Sharon CA

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Amino acid substitutions in the target enzyme Erg11p of azole antifungals contribute to clinically-relevant azole resistance in Candida albicans. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations would be an advantage as a screening tool to identify potentially-resistant strains and to track their movement. To complement DNA sequencing, we developed a padlock probe and rolling circle amplification (RCA)-based method to detect a series of mutations in th...

  10. [Phenotypic and genotypic identification of Candida strains isolated as nosocomial pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Ergünay, Koray; Ozyurt, Mustafa; Ardıç, Nurittin; Hoşbul, Tuğrul; Haznedaroğlu, Tunçer

    2011-07-01

    Over the last decade, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections and antifungal agents used to treat these infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections among patients in intensive care units. One of the main goals of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of infectious Candida species isolated in our hospital and accordingly supply data for hospital infection (HI) control. The other aim of this study was to evaluate effectiveness and practical applicability of traditional and molecular methods used to identify Candida isolates to the species level. A total of 77 Candida strains that were isolated from various clinical specimens of 60 hospitalized patients (29 male, 24 female; 7 were children) were included in the study. Fifty-seven (74%) of those isolates were defined as HI agents according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. The most common Candida species identified as agents of HI were C.albicans (22; 38.6%), followed by C.tropicalis (14; 24.6%), C.parapsilosis (13; 22.8%), C.glabrata (7; 12.3%) and Candida spp. (1; 1.75%). It was determined that bloodstream (26; 45.6%) and urinary tract infections (24; 42.1%) were the most frequently encountered nosocomial infections caused by Candida species. In addition it was detected that the most frequent causative agent of bloodstream infections was C.parapsilosis (10; 38.5%) and of urinary tract infections was C.albicans (12; 50%). The evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of traditional phenotypic methods [germ tube formation, chlamydospore formation in corn meal agar, growth at 45°C, colony characteristics on CHROMagar Candida medium, carbohydrate assimilation properties detected by API ID 32C (BioMerieux, France) system] and some molecular techniques [polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using ITS-1, ITS-3 and ITS 4 primers, PCR-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), PCRRFLP

  11. Antifungals susceptibility pattern of Candida spp . isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest susceptibility of the isolates was seen for nystatin 62 (83.78%), ketoconazole 61 (82.43%) and fluconazole 60 (81.08%). Conclusion: Despite the noticeable resistance of Candida spp. isolates to miconazole and itraconazole, the results indicate that nystatin, ketoconazole and fluconazole are the drugs of choice ...

  12. Exoenzyme activity and possibility identification of Candida dubliniensis among Candida albicans species isolated from vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Maryam; Salari, Samira; Pakshir, Keyvan; Zomorodian, Kamiar

    2017-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or vaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection of the genitals causing inflammation, irritation, itching, and vaginal discharge. Common yeast infections are caused by the yeast species C. albicans. However, there are other species of Candida such as C. dubliniensis which are considered as the causative agents of this infection. Hydrolytic enzymes such as proteinase and coagulase are known as virulence factors. The aim of this study was the molecular confirmation and differentiation of C. dubliniensis among C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis by PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and the evaluation of proteinase and coagulase activities. A total of 100 C. albicans strains isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis referred to Shiraz medical clinics were enrolled in the study. All the isolates were primarily identified by conventional methods. PCR-RFLP method was used for the confirmation and identification of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. Moreover, in vitro proteinase and coagulase activities of these isolates were evaluated using bovine serum albumin media and classical rabbit plasma tube test. As a result, PCR-RFLP identified 100% of the isolates as C. albicans, and no C. dubliniensis could be identified in this study. 84% of the isolates showed proteinase activity, whereas coagulase activity was only detected in 5% of the isolates. This study reveals that C. dubliniensis plays no role in vaginal candidiasis in Iranian patients. Proteinase production could be an essential virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenicity, but coagulase activity has less potential in this matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Badiee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. Methods In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. Results The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846. The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95% and 4 μg/ml (96%; 1 μg/ml (95% and 8 μg/ml (95%; 0.5 μg/ml (99% and 19 μg/ml (98%; and 4 μg/ml (95% and 64 μg/ml (95%, respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P < 0.05. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the susceptibility patterns of Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  14. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran: comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-11-21

    Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran. In totally, 846 Candida species were isolated from more than 4000 clinical samples and identified by the API 20 C AUX system. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution method according to CLSI. The most frequent Candida species isolated from all patients was Candida albicans (510/846). The epidemiological cutoff value and percentage of wild-type species for amphotericin B and fluconazole in Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml (95%) and 4 μg/ml (96%); 1 μg/ml (95%) and 8 μg/ml (95%); 0.5 μg/ml (99%) and 19 μg/ml (98%); and 4 μg/ml (95%) and 64 μg/ml (95%), respectively. The MIC90 and epidemiological cutoff values to posaconazole in Candida krusei were 0.5 μg/ml. There were significant differences between infecting and colonizing isolates of Candida tropicalis in MIC 90 values of amphotericin B, and isolates of Candida glabrata in values of amphotericin B, caspofungin, and voriconazole (P Candida species (colonizing and infecting isolates) in immunocompromised patients are not the same and acquired resistance was seen in some species.

  15. Determination of Drug Susceptibility of Candida Strains Isolated From Patients With Recurrent Candida Vulvovaginitis and Investigation of Predisposing Factors of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minooeianhaghighi MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent Vulvovaginal Candidiasis RVVC(, which is mostly caused by Candida albicans C. albicans(, is the second common cause of genital tract infection in females. Th purpose of this research was to identify Candida isolates from RVVC, identify predisposing factors and determine antifungal effct of flconazole against Candida strains isolated from the patients. Methods: In this descriptive-laboratory study, 20 patients with confimed diagnosis of RVVC were selected. Yeast isolates were characterized using mycological standard methods, including culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar medium and CHROM agar, germ tube test and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR-RFLP( technique. Th susceptibility of Candida isolates against flconazole was determined by microdilution broth method. Results: Th average age of the patients was 29.43 ± 4.63 years. Candida albicans was obtained from 100% of the samples. Th most common clinical sign was vaginal discharge 60%( in females with positive culture. Statistical correlations were observed between parturition frequency and low RVVC occurrence as well as between the previous antifungal therapy and RVVC occurrence. Th mean minimum inhibitory concentration MIC( and minimum fungicidal concentration MFC( of flconazole against diffrent C. albicans strains was determined as 45.3863 µg/mL and 63 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: Due to the uncertainty of diagnosis of this disease according to clinical symptoms and also, due to the resistance of Candida species, using culture and molecular methods are recommended as standard methods of diagnosis.

  16. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  17. Study of strains of Candida spp. Isolated from catheters in UHC of Oran (Algeria): Identification and antifungal susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjelloul, M; Boucherit-Otmani, Z; Boucherit, K

    2016-09-01

    The increasing incidence of Candida spp., and the vital prognosis often compromise for patients with Candida species make urgent the exact knowledge of their distribution worldwide and exhaust action antifungals currently used in clinical. That why we carry out an epidemiological study of Candida species and testing their susceptibility against two antifungals: amphotericin B and caspofungin. Samplings of peripheral venous catheters (PVC) were carried out from during 8months on the services of Internal medicine, Surgery A and Neonatology of Oran's University Hospital Center (UHC). The study of the susceptibility of Candida species to antifungal agents was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI 2008). From 300 samples, 25 yeasts were isolated. The rate of colonization PVC was 8.33% by Candida spp. The most isolated strains were Candida parapsilosis with 64% of cases, followed by Candida albicans (12%) then 8% for Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. However, only 4% of isolates were Candida famata or Candida lusitaniae. Furthermore all isolated strains were susceptible to amphotericin B with Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) ranging from 0.25 to 1μg/mL. MIC obtained with caspofungin vary from 0.0625 to 2μg/mL for all strains. Moreover, one strain of C. krusei is resistant to caspofungin with a MIC superior to 8μg/mL. All though caspofungin is at least as effective as amphotericin B, it is better tolerated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Posttreatment Antifungal Resistance among Colonizing Candida Isolates in Candidemia Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, R H; Johansen, H K; Søes, L M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of intrinsic and acquired resistance among colonizing Candida isolates from patients after candidemia was investigated systematically in a 1-year nationwide study. Patients were treated at the discretion of the treating physician. Oral swabs were obtained after treatment. Species d...

  19. Performance of Chromogenic Candida agar and CHROMagar Candida in recovery and presumptive identification of monofungal and polyfungal vaginal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit; Ates, Aylin; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Demirhindi, Hakan

    2010-02-01

    Chromogenic Candida agar (OCCA) is a novel medium facilitating isolation and identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, as well as indicating polyfungal population in clinical samples. We compare the performance of OCCA, to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar (SCA). Vaginal swab samples from 392 women were simultaneously inoculated onto three study media. A total of 161 (41.1%) were found to be positive for fungi of which 140 (87%) were monofungal, and 21 (13%) polyfungal. One-hundred and fifty-seven samples (97.5%) were positive on CAC, 156 (96.9%) on OCCA, 148 (91.9%) on SCA and 144 (89.4%) samples were positive on all three media. The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX. The 182 isolates were C. albicans (n = 104), C. glabrata (n = 51), C. krusei (n = 7), C. tropicalis (n = 5), C. famata (n = 3), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. zeylanoides (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 4). Among the 21 polyfungal populations, 20 (95.2%) were detected in OCCA, 14 (66.7%) in CAC, and 13 (61.9%) in CAC and OCCA (P or=92.9% at 72 h. OCCA is more efficient and reliable for rapidly identifying C. albicans and polyfungal populations than CAC. However, CAC is more efficient for identifying C. krusei and C. tropicalis. A chromogenic agar with a higher isolation rate of yeasts and better detection of polyfungal populations than SCA, is suggested as a medium of first choice when available.

  20. Phospholipid analogue distributions of Iranian isolates of candida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, A.; Brucker, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse polar lipids of candida species isolated from Ahwas (Iran) by fast Atom bombardment mass spectrometry . Nine isolates of Candida Sp. were identified by growth at 45 d ig c , production of chlamydoconidia on cornmeal agar, colonial colour on CHROMagar Candida, germ tube production and ID 32 C kits. Then polar lipids were extracted from freeze-dried cultures and analysed using Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry. The most intense carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species anions were of m/z 281 (C 1 8 : 1 ) and m/z 515 (PA 23:2). However, the most intense carboxylate and phospholipid analogues in Candida Parapsilosis were 292 (Un) and 555 (PA 26:3), which differed from other yeasts. Isolates were grouped by single linkage clustering based on correlation coefficient for strain pairs calculated with carboxylate and phospholipid molecular species distributions. Fast Atom Bombardment Mass Spectrometry can differentiate the C. albicans based on analysis of polar lipid distributions.These findings support that differentiation between C. albicans and other species is possible based on polar lipids

  1. Biofilm antifungal susceptibility of Candida urine isolated from ambulatory patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora da Luz Becker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: the association between the biofilm formations an antifungal resistance has been suggested to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of several Candida species. Besides, studies have included invasive candidiasis from hospitalized patients; however there are few studies that evaluated the species distribution, antifungal susceptibility and biofilm formation of Candida species isolated from ambulatory patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether biofilm producing contributes to antifungal resistance in Candida isolates from urine sample obtained from ambulatory patients. Methods: During one year, 25 urine samples positive for yeast were collected, stored and plated on agar supplemented with chloramphenicol and Sabouread left at room temperature for 5 days for subsequent: 52% (13/25 were C. albicans, 36% (9/25 C. tropicalis, 8% (2/25 C. krusei and 4% (1/25 C. parapsilosis. Results: The ability to form biofilm was detected in 23 (92% of the yeast studied and 15.4% (2/13 of C. albicans were fluconazole (FLU and ketoconazole (KET resistant, while 11.1% (1/9 of C. tropicalis were ketoconazole resistant and were anidulafungin (ANI non-susceptible. Conclusion: our results showed the high capacity for biofilm formation among Candida isolates from ambulatory patients.

  2. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-01-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021

  3. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-09-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.

  4. Molecular identification of candida species isolated from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khanmohamadi

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Regarding to the results of this study, C. albicans was the most common Candida species, isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and approximately 30% of this infection causing by non-albicans species of Candida.

  5. Cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Daniella Renata; Sakita, Karina Mayumi; Akimoto-Gunther, Luciene Setsuko; Kioshima, Érika Seki; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to characterize cell damage caused by vaginal Candida albicans isolates from women with different symptomatologies. It was evaluated 12 clinical isolates of C. albicans from vaginal samples: 4 from asymptomatic women (AS), 4 from women with a single episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and 4 from women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). We evaluated the ability of C. albicans to adhere to human cervical cancer cells (SiHa), the yeast-SiHa cell interactions and cell damage. All of the clinical isolates presented a high adhesion capacity on SiHa cells. However, clinical isolates from symptomatic women (VVC and RVVC) had higher filamentation after contact (24 h) with SiHa cells and a greater capacity to cause cell damage (>80 %). Clinical isolates from symptomatic women had greater potential to invade SiHa cells, suggesting that they are more pathogenic than AS isolates.

  6. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vaginal candida isolates: the broth microdilution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi Rad M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection among immunocompetent, healthy women, and is caused by opportunistic yeasts that belong to genus Candida. In this study, we isolated and identified the Candida species in the vagina of patients who admitted in Gynecology Department of Mahdieh Hospital in Tehran, Iran to evaluate the in vitro activities of fluconazole, miconazole, itraconazole and flucytosine against 191 clinical Candida isolates by the NCCLS microdilution method."n"nMethods: 191 Candida were isolated from vaginal secretions and identified with conventional mycological methods in the diagnosis of Candida species. The identity of all strains was confirmed genotypically by multiplex PCR. In vitro susceptibility testing of vaginal Candida isolates was performed by the NCCLS broth microdilution method. The results were read at 48 h."n"nResults: Most C. albicans isolates (>90% were sensitive in vitro to the antifungal agents tested. Most C. glabrata isolates showed sensitivity to miconazole and then flucytosine while they were more resistant to Itraconazole and fluconazole. Many isolates of C. tropicalis were susceptible to miconazole and then fluconazole. They showed a little resistance to

  7. Oral rinse as a potential method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients

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    Desiana Radithia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida isolate is easily sampled from oral cavity by swabbing directly on the candidiasis lesion, to be smeared onto slides for direct examination or cultured in a growth medium. This method is by far the gold standard for defining candidiasis diagnosis. However it is difficult to apply on sensitive patients and almost impossible on patients showing no clinical appearance of oral candidiasis. AIDS patients are very prone to candida infection and have a tendency of repetitive infection involving mixed species. As many candida species show different susceptibility to anti-fungal agents, it is necessary to identify the species causing the infection in the management of oral candidiasis. Oral rinse is a suggested method to obtain candida isolate to be cultured for further analysis such as species identification. This method is simple and less risky on infection transmission as less tools are required in the procedure. Purpose: This study aimed to assess the application of oral rinse as an alternative method to culture Candida isolate from AIDS patients. Methods: A cross-sectional observative study was conducted in HIV/AIDS in-Patient Facility of Intermediate Care Unit for Infection Disease, Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Fourteen stadium 4 AIDS patients matching criteria were swabbed on 1/3-posterior of the tongue, and then given 10 ml phosphate buffer saline to rinse vigorously for 15 seconds. Both specimens were cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and colony growth was observed. Results: Candida colonies were able to grow from all 14 isolates (100% by both methods. Qualitatively, cultures from oral rinse specimens were more populated than cultures from swab specimens. Conclusion: Oral rinse is an applicable technique to obtain Candida species isolate. This technique is safe, easy, non-invasive, and needs less tools therefore less risky for HIV transmission.Latar belakang: Isolat Candida mudah diambil dengan cara mengusap lesi

  8. [Clinical features of invasive candidiasis and risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection in children: a multicenter study in Urumqi, China].

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    Ai Er Ken, Ai Bi Bai; Ma, Zhi-Hua; Xiong, Dai-Qin; Xu, Pei-Ru

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the clinical features of invasive candidiasis in children and the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection. A retrospective study was performed on 134 children with invasive candidiasis and hospitalized in 5 tertiary hospitals in Urumqi, China, between January 2010 and December 2015. The Candida species distribution was investigated. The clinical data were compared between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection. The risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection were investigated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 134 Candida strains were isolated from 134 children with invasive candidiasis, and non-albicans Candida (NAC) accounted for 53.0%. The incidence of invasive candidiasis in the PICU and other pediatric wards were 41.8% and 48.5% respectively. Sixty-eight patients (50.7%) had Candida bloodstream infection, and 45 patients (33.6%) had Candida urinary tract infection. There were significant differences in age, rate of use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, and incidence rates of chronic renal insufficiency, heart failure, urinary catheterization, and NAC infection between the patients with and without Candida bloodstream infection (Pcandidiasis is similar between the PICU and other pediatric wards. NAC is the most common species of invasive candidiasis. Candida bloodstream infection is the most common invasive infection. Younger age (1-24 months) and NAC infection are the risk factors for Candida bloodstream infection.

  9. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Salvia sclarea L. from Bulgaria against isolates of Candida species

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    Yana Hristova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of Salvia sclarea L., growing in Bulgaria, was analyzed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. A total of 52 different compounds were identified, representing 98.25% of total oil content. Linalyl acetate (56.88% and linalool (20.75% were determined as major essential oil constituents, followed by germacrene D (5.08% and β-cariophyllene (3.41%. Antifungal activities of clary sage essential oil and major compounds linalyl acetate and linalool against 30 clinical isolates, belonging to species Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis were evaluated. Essential oil characterized with stronger anticandidial activity in comparison with pure compounds.

  10. Molecular identification and distribution profile of Candida species isolated from Iranian patients.

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    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Ghahri, Mohammad; Shidfar, Mohammad Reza; Jalalizand, Nilufar; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-08-01

    A total of 855 yeast strains isolated from different clinical specimens, mainly nail (42%) and vulva-vagina (25%) were identified by a set of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP). Genomic DNA was extracted from fresh colonies using Whatman FTA Card technology. PCR assays were performed on the complete ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA-ITS) region for all isolates and species identification was carried out through their specific electrophoretic profiles after digestion with the enzyme MspI. Those isolates suspected as Candida parapsilosis group were then subjected to amplification of the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SADH) gene and restriction digestion with NlaIII enzyme. In total, 71.1% of the strains were obtained from females and 28.9% from males. The age group of 31-40 years consisted of the highest frequency of patients with candidiasis. Candida albicans was the predominant species (58.6%) followed by C. parapsilosis (11.0%), C. glabrata (8.3%), C. tropicalis (7.0%), C. kefyr (5.8%), C. krusei (4.4%), C. orthopsilosis (2.1%), and C. guilliermondii (0.6%). A few strains of C. lusitaniae, C. rugosa, C. intermedia, C. inconspicua, C. neoformans and S. cerevisiae were isolated. We could not identify 8 (0.9%) isolates. Candida albicans remains the most frequently species isolated from Iranian patients; however, the number of non-C. albicans Candida species looks to be increasing. The simple and reliable PCR-RFLP system used in the study has the potential to identify most clinically isolated yeasts.

  11. Phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida spp. isolates from vulvovaginitis in Iran.

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    Shirkhani, S; Sepahvand, A; Mirzaee, M; Anbari, K

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to characterize phospholipase and proteinase activities of Candida isolates from 82 vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and to study the relationship of these activities with vulvovaginitis. Totally 82 Candida isolates from vagina samples of VVC patients were randomly collected over the period between September and December 2014 from hospitalized patients at the general hospitals of Lorestan province, Iran. Isolates were previously identified by conventional mycological methods. The phospholipase and proteinase activities were evaluated by Egg yolk agar, Tween 80 opacity medium and agar plate methods. The most common Candida species was identified Candida albicans (n=34, 41.5%), followed by Candida famata (n=13, 15.8%), Candida tropicalis (n=11, 13.4%), and Candida parapsilosis (n=9, 11%). The most phospholipase activity was observed in Candida colliculosa (40%), followed by C. famata (38.5%), and Candida krusei (33.3%). The findings revealed that the correlation between phospholipase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.91). All Candida spp. exhibited considerable proteinase activity; so that 100% of C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, Candida kefyr, and Candida intermedia isolates produced high proteinase activity with Pz 4+ scores. There was a significant correlation between proteinase production by Candida spp. and the presence of VVC (P=0.009). The obtained findings revealed that Candida spp. isolates may produce both virulence factors, phospholipase and proteinase. Although the phospholipase production was only observed in <40% of the isolates; however there was a significant association between proteinase production by Candida spp. and VVC. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. FarnesoI beyond morphogenesis controI: effect in Non- Candida albicans Candida species

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    Martins, Margarida Isabel Barros Coelho; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Oliveira, Rosário

    2007-01-01

    Candididasis is one of the most important life-tbreatening opportunistic mycosis mainly occurring in individuais with impaired immunity. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungai isolate, an increase in Non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species is being reported. ln fact, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis are emerging as clinically relevant pathogens. So it is of great importance to study the mechanisms of infection b...

  13. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from the patients with vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Masahito; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige

    2016-02-01

    There have been the current Japanese data on susceptibility testing for Candida isolates from vaginal candidiasis. The in vitro activities of therapeutic antifungal drugs for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC); miconazole (MCZ), itraconazole (ITCZ), fluconazole (FLCZ), clotrimazole (CTZ), oxiconazole (OCZ), isoconazole (ICZ) and bifonazole (BFZ) against vaginal isolates. Fifty-four strains Candida albicans and 19 strains of Candida glabrata were evaluated using a broth microdilution method specified by Clinical Laboratories Standard Institute (CLSI) document M27-A3. The MIC90 of each drug, MCZ, ITCZ, FLCZ, CTZ, OCZ, ICZ and BFZ, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates were 0.25, 0.12, 1, 0.06, 0.12, 0.12 and 1 μg/ml and 1, 1, 8, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μg/ml respectively. The activities of these drugs, except for BFZ, against C. glabrata were lower than that of C. albicans. There was one azole-resistant isolate in C. glabrata of which MIC of FLCZ is > 64 μg/ml and this isolate had cross resistance to other antifungal drugs tested. These results suggest that antifungal drugs for treatment of VVC continues to have potent antifungal activities against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates from vaginitis. CTZ, OCZ and ICZ susceptibility of FLCZ low susceptibility C. glabrata are relatively higher than MCZ, ITCZ and FLCZ. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of Candida spp. in cervical-vaginal samples and the in vitro susceptibility of isolates

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    Tchana Martinez Brandolt

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is an infection of the genital mucosa caused by different species of the genus Candida. Considering the lack of data on this topic in the south of Brazil, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of Candida spp. in the cervical-vaginal mucosa of patients treated at a university hospital in southern Rio Grande do Sul, as well as the etiology and the susceptibility of the isolates against fluconazole, itraconazole, miconazole and nystatin. Samples were collected at the gynecology clinic of the Federal Hospital of the University of Rio Grande, and the isolates were identified using phenotypic and biochemical tests. The susceptibility analysis was performed according to the CLSI M27-A2 protocol. Of the 263 patients included, Candida spp. was isolated in 27%, corresponding to a prevalence of approximately 15% for both VVC and colonization. More than 60% of the isolates were identified as Candida albicans; C. non-albicans was isolated at a rate of 8.6% in symptomatic patients and 14.3% in asymptomatic patients. The prevalence of resistance against fluconazole and itraconazole was 42% and 48%, respectively; the minimal inhibitory concentration of miconazole ranged from 0.031 to 8 µg/mL, and that of nystatin ranged from 2 to >16 µg/mL. The high rate of resistance to triazoles observed in our study suggests the necessity of the association of laboratory exams to clinical diagnosis to minimize the practice of empirical treatments that can contribute to the development of resistance in the isolates.

  15. Competitive Fitness of Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Candida albicans Strains.

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    Popp, Christina; Hampe, Irene A I; Hertlein, Tobias; Ohlsen, Knut; Rogers, P David; Morschhäuser, Joachim

    2017-07-01

    The pathogenic yeast Candida albicans can develop resistance to the widely used antifungal agent fluconazole, which inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Resistance is often caused by gain-of-function mutations in the transcription factors Mrr1 and Tac1, which result in constitutive overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps, and Upc2, which result in constitutive overexpression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes. However, the deregulated gene expression that is caused by hyperactive forms of these transcription factors also reduces the fitness of the cells in the absence of the drug. To investigate whether fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates have overcome the fitness costs of drug resistance, we assessed the relative fitness of C. albicans isolates containing resistance mutations in these transcription factors in competition with matched drug-susceptible isolates from the same patients. Most of the fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the corresponding drug-susceptible isolates when grown in rich medium without fluconazole. On the other hand, some resistant isolates with gain-of-function mutations in MRR1 did not exhibit reduced fitness under these conditions. In a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis, three out of four tested fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates did not exhibit a significant fitness defect. However, all four fluconazole-resistant isolates were outcompeted by the matched susceptible isolates in a mouse model of gastrointestinal colonization, demonstrating that the effects of drug resistance on in vivo fitness depend on the host niche. Collectively, our results indicate that the fitness costs of drug resistance in C. albicans are not easily remediated, especially when proper control of gene expression is required for successful adaptation to life within a mammalian host. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. Characterization of Candida species isolated from cases of lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B J; Dey, S; Tamang, M D; Joshy, M E; Shivananda, P G; Brahmadatan, K N

    2006-01-01

    (1) To identify and characterize the Candida species isolates from lower respiratory tract infection. (2) to determine the rate of isolation of Candida species from sputum samples. This study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal from June 2002 to January 2003. A total of 462 sputum samples were collected from patients suspected lower respiratory tract infection. The samples were processed as Gram staining to find out the suitability of the specimen, cultured on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar (SDA) and also on blood agar and chocolate agar to identify the potential lower respiratory tract pathogens. For the identification of Candida, sputum samples were processed for Gram stain, culture, germ tube test, production of chlamydospore, sugar fermentation and assimilation test. For the identification of bacteria, Gram stain, culture, and biochemical tests were performed by standardized procedure. Out of 462 samples, 246 (53.24%) samples grew potential pathogens of lower respiratory tract. Among them Haemophilus influenzae 61(24.79%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae 57 (23.17%) were the predominant bacterial pathogens. Candida species were isolated from 30 samples (12.2%). The majority of Candida species amongst the Candida isolates were Candida albicans 21(70%) followed by Candida tropicalis 4(13.33%). Candida krusei 3(10%), Candida parapsilosis 1(3.33%) and Candida stellatoidea 1(3.33%). The highest rate of isolation of Candida was between the age of 71 and 80. Candida isolation from sputum samples is important as found in the present study in which Candida species were the third most common pathogen isolated from patients with lower respiratory tract infection.

  17. Molecular identification and in-vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from patients with onychomycosis

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    Keyvan Pakshir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Candida species are the most opportunistic fungi affecting the nails and resulting in onychomycosis. In this study, we identified and evaluated in-vitro susceptibility of the recovered isolates against fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VRC, and clotrimazole (CLT using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 document. Materials and Methods: From patients with either clinically or mycologically proven onychomycosis, 97 isolates comprising of seven Candida species were isolated, which were identified by both conventional and molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. In addition, Candida dubliniensis was confirmed by restriction endonuclease analysis. Antifungal susceptibility of each isolate against the three azoles applied in this study was determined using the CLSI microdilution reference method M27-A3. Results: Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species (n=44, followed by C. albicans (n=23, C. tropicalis (n=13, C. glabrata (n=7, C. krusei (n=6, C. guilliermondii (n=3, and C. dubliniensis (n=1. All the isolates were susceptible to CLT. VRC had lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values for the isolates compared to FLC. Geometric mean MIC values of VRC, FLC, and CLT for C. parapsilosis isolates were 0.07 µg/ml, 0.8 µg/ml, and 0.35 µg/ml, respectively. Collectively, all species exhibited greater susceptibility to VRC in comparison to C. albicans (P≤0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that non-albicans Candida species were the most common etiologic agents of non-dermatophyte onychomycosis. The major antifungal agents used in clinics to empirically treat yeast onychomycosis are FLC and CLT. Our data suggested that CLT is a better choice for the treatment of Candida onychomycosis, especially in drug resistant cases.

  18. Fungicidal efficacy of various honeys against fluconazole-resistant Candida species isolated from HIV+ patients with candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, H; Sharifzadeh, A

    2017-06-01

    Honey is well known to possess a broad spectrum of activity against medically important organisms. The purpose of this study was to assess the antifungal activity of different honeys against 40 fluconazole (FLU) resistant Candida species, including Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida glabrata, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Three honey samples were collected from northern (Mazandaran, A), southern (Hormozgan, B) and central (Lorestan, C) regions of Iran. A microdilution technique based on the CLSI, M27-A2 protocol was employed to compare the susceptibility of honeys "A", "B" and "C" against different pathogenic Candida isolates. The results showed that different Candida isolates were resistant to FLU, ranging from 64μg/mL to 512μg/mL. All of the honeys tested had antifungal activities against FLU-resistant Candida species, ranging from 20% to 56.25% (v/v) and 25% to 56.25% (v/v) for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs), respectively. Honey "A" (MIC: 31.59%, v/v) showed higher anti-Candida activity than honey "B" (MIC: 35.99%, v/v) and honey "C" (MIC: 39.2%, v/v). No statistically significant differences were observed among the mean MIC values of the honey samples (P>0.05). The order of overall susceptibility of Candida species to honey samples were; C. krusei>C. glabrata>C. tropicalis>C. albicans (P>0.05). In addition, the mean MICs of Candida strains isolated from the nail, vagina and oral cavity were 33.68%, 36.44% and 39.89%, respectively, and were not significantly different (P>0.05). Overall, varying susceptibilities to the anti-Candida properties of different honeys were observed with four FLU-resistant species of Candida. Further research is needed to assess the efficacy of honey as an inhibitor of candidal growth in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro Susceptibility of Fluconazole, Clotrimazole and Toucrium Polium Smoke Product on Candida Isolates of Vaginal Candidiasis

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    B Bonyadpour

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: It has been estimated that up to 75% of women in their child-bearing age have been affected by vulvovaginal candidiasis at least once in their life time. Almost 45% of women experience this infection two or more times. The antifungal azole group, in topical and oral forms, is the common way of therapy. Herbal products are often used for vulvovaginal therapy. Nowadays, Toucrium polium (TP products are being used as traditional medicine to reduce signs of Candida vaginitis. There is no study regarding to antifungal activity of TP smoke product in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the In vitro activity of TP smoke product against Candida, isolated from women with Candida vaginitis, compared with antifungal drugs which are ordinary used to cure Candida vaginitis. Materials & Methods: The present study was conducted at the University of Medical Sciences of Shiraz in 1387 (2008. During seven months, samples were taken from 450 patients suffering from urogenital infections and 105 Candida vaginitis were detected. Germ tube test was used for identification of fungal species. TP smoke product was prepared in suitable potency. Antifungal activity of fluconazole, clotrimazole and TP product were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Sterile blank disks were loaded by TP smoke product in potency of 10-240 microliter/disk. Inhibition zone around the disks were measured and compared with each other. Results: 105 Candida species were isolated from the patients. Candida species were identified by germ tube test as Candida albicans 74 (70.5% and Candida non-albicans 31(29.5%.The mean of inhibition zone around the clotrimazole disks was 22±5.39 along with one case of resistance. Forty seven species had resistance to fluconazole while 94% and 55.2.% of all samples were sensitive to clotrimazole and fluconazole respectively. All of the clinical isolates and standard Candida species were sensitive to TP smoke product

  20. Identification of Candida species isolated from vulvovaginitis using matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Majid; Kolecka, Anna; Boekhout, Teun; Zarrinfar, Hossein; Ghanbari Nahzag, Mohamad A; Badiee, Parisa; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Fata, Abdolmajid; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-12-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common problem in women. The purpose of this study was to identify Candida isolates by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) from women with vulvovaginitis that were referred to Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. This study was conducted on 65 clinical samples isolated from women that were referred to Ghaem Hospital. All specimens were identified using phenotyping techniques, such as microscopy and culture on Sabouraud dextrose agar and corn meal agar. In addition, all isolates were processed for MALDI-TOF MS identification. Out of the 65 analyzed isolates, 61 (94%) samples were recognized by MALDI-TOF MS. However, the remaining four isolates (6%) had no reliable identification. According to the results, C. albicans (58.5%) was the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. tropicalis (16.9%), C. glabrata (7.7%), C. parapsilosis (7.7%), and guilliermondii (3.1%). As the findings indicated, MALDI TOF MS was successful in the identification of clinical Candida species. C. albicans was identified as the most common Candida species isolated from the women with VVC. Moreover, C. tropicalis was the most common species among the non- albicans Candida species.

  1. Isolation and evaluation of Candida species and their association with CD4+ T cells counts in HIV patients with diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyeni, Ayobami; Olaniran, Olarinde; Odetoyin, Babatunde; Hassan-Olajokun, Rachel; Olopade, Bolatito; Afolayan, David; Adekunle, Oluwakayode

    2017-06-01

    Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria. We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved. One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated. Candida species were identified by standard techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from the patients using a structured questionnaire. The CD4 count was estimated using a single platform flow cytometer. Candida overgrowth was detected in 61 (39.5%) HIV patients, and diarrhoea was associated with candidiasis in the subjects (P=0.001). Candidiasis was commonly detected among subjects in the 29-39 years' age group. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm 2 (62.3%) was a risk factor for acquiring candidiasis among HIV patients (P=0.001). Candida albicans (65.6%) was the most frequently recovered species followed by Candida krusei (16.4%) and Candida tropicalis (14.8%). Candidiasis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV-patients in Ile-Ife. There is need for regular checks for opportunistic infections, including candidiasis in HIV patients to monitor disease progression and prevent subsequent complications.

  2. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from superficial candidiasis in outpatients in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M; Sadeghi, G; Zeinali, E; Alirezaee, M; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M; Amani, A; Mirahmadi, R; Tolouei, R

    2014-06-01

    Candidiasis is the most prevalent fungal infection affecting human and animals all over the world. This study represents the epidemiological aspects of superficial candidiasis in outpatients and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of etiologic Candida species. Clinical samples were taken from 173 patients including skin and nail scrapings (107; 61.8%), vaginal discharge (28; 16.2%), sputum (20; 11.6%), oral swabs (7; 4.0%), bronchoalveolar lavage (6; 3.5%) and 1 specimen (0.6%) of each eye tumor, gastric juice, urine, biopsy and urinary catheter and confirmed as candidiasis by direct microscopy, culture and histopathology. Susceptibility patterns of the isolated Candida species were determined using the disk diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Among 173 Candida isolates, C. albicans (72.3%) was the most prevalent species followed by C. parapsilosis (11.5%). Other identified species were C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. intermedia and C. sake. Majority of the Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole (95.4%) followed by 5-flucytosine (89.6%), voriconazole (78.6%) itraconazole (48.0%) and ketoconazole (42.8%). Caspofungin was the most potent antifungal drug against C. albicans (MICs; 0.062-1 μg/mL), ketoconazole for C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis (MICs; 0.031-0.25 μg/mL) and itraconazole for C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. guilliermondii (MICs; 0.031-1 μg/mL). This study reinforces the significance of superficial candidiasis as an important fungal infection with multiple clinical presentations. Our results further indicate that susceptibility testing to commonly used antifungals is crucial in order to select the appropriate therapeutic strategies which minimize complications while improving patients' life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Species distribution & antifungal susceptibility pattern of oropharyngeal Candida isolates from human immunodeficiency virus infected individuals

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    Partha Pratim Das

    2016-01-01

    Results: From the 59 culture positive HIV seropositive cases, 61 Candida isolates were recovered; Candidaalbicans (n=47, 77.0%, C. dubliniensis (n=9, 14.7%, C. parapsilosis (n=2, 3.2%, C. glabrata (n=2, 3.2%, and C. famata (n=1, 1.6%. Candida colonization in HIV-seropositive individuals was significantly higher than that of HIV-seronegative (control group. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed (n=6, 9.3% C. albicans isolates resistant to voriconazole and fluconazole by disk-diffusion method whereas no resistance was seen by Fungitest method. Interpretation & conclusions: C. albicans was the commonest Candida species infecting or colonizing HIV seropositive individuals. Oropharyngeal Candida isolates had high level susceptibility to all the major antifungals commonly in use. Increased level of immunosuppression in HIV-seropositives and drug resistance of non-albicans Candida species makes identification and susceptibility testing of Candida species necessary in different geographical areas of the country.

  4. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, Retno; SahBandar, Ivo N.; Theelen, Bart; Hagen, Ferry; Poot, Ge; Meis, Jacques F.; Rozalyani, Anna; Sjam, Ridhawati; Widodo, Djoko; Djauzi, Samsuridjal; Boekhout, Teun

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavueonazole and

  6. Candida nivariensis isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient suffering from oropharyngeal candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuningsih, R.; SahBandar, IN; Theelen, B.; Hagen, F.; Poot, G.; Meis, J.F.; Rozalyani, A.; Sjam, R.; Widodo, D.; Djauzi, S.; Boekhout, T.

    2008-01-01

    Candida nivariensis was isolated from an Indonesian human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient who suffered from oropharyngeal candidiasis and was identified with molecular tools. Our isolate demonstrated low MICs to amphotericin B, flucytosine, posaconazole, caspofungin, and isavuconazole and

  7. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AND YEAST-LIKE FUNGI OF THE GENUS CANDIDA, ISOLATED FROM ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fomina NS; Fomin OO

    2012-01-01

    The results of the spectrum of microorganisms, which are the causative agents of infectious complications of the oral cavity in patients with oncological pathology are presented in the article. The sensitivity of isolated clinical strains of microorganisms to antibiotics, antifungal, antiseptic decasan, miramistin, gorosten, septefril is shown. The results of antiseptic resistance formation to staphylococci and Candida to dekasan, miramistin, septefril, gorosten are described.

  8. Novel Polymorphic Multilocus Microsatellite Markers to Distinguish Candida tropicalis Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Fan

    Full Text Available Candida tropicalis is an important pathogen. Here we developed and evaluated a polymorphic multilocus microsatellite scheme employing novel genetic markers for genotyping of C. tropicalis. Using 10 isolates from 10 unique (separate patients to screen over 4000 tandem repeats from the C. tropicalis genome (strain MYA-3404, six new candidate microsatellite loci (ctm1, ctm3, ctm8, ctm18, ctm24 and ctm26 were selected according to amplification success, observed polymorphisms and stability of flanking regions by preliminary testing. Two known microsatellite loci CT14 and URA3 were also studied. The 6-locus scheme was then tested against a set of 82 different isolates from 32 patients. Microsatellite genotypes of isolates from the same patient (two to five isolates per patient were identical. The six loci produced eight to 17 allele types and identified 11 to 24 genotypes amongst 32 patients' isolates, achieving a discriminatory power (DP of 0.76 to 0.97 (versus 0.78 for both CT14 and URA3 loci, respectively. Testing of a combination of only three loci, ctm1, ctm3 and ctm24, also achieved maximum typing efficiency (DP = 0.99, 29 genotypes. The microsatellite typing scheme had good correlation compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although was slightly less discriminatory. The new six-locus microsatellite typing scheme is a potentially valuable tool for genotyping and investigating microevolution of C. tropicalis.

  9. 40 CFR 180.1144 - Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Candida oleophila isolate I-182... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1144 Candida oleophila isolate I-182; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Candida oleophila isolate I-182, when used as a post-harvest biological fungicide...

  10. Typing of Candida isolates from patients with invasive infection and concomitant colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Bergmann, O.; Jensen, Irene Møller

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between colonizing and invasive isolates from patients with candidaemia. Molecular typing was performed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found MLST to be sufficient for typing Candida isolates, and that......We investigated the relationship between colonizing and invasive isolates from patients with candidaemia. Molecular typing was performed using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We found MLST to be sufficient for typing Candida isolates...

  11. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oils extract from Origanum floribundum Munby, Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. against Candida albicans isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, S; Djebir, S; Bentorki, A A; Gouri, A; Hadef, Y; Benakhla, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to limit the antibiotic use in mastitis treatment and to find other alternatives. The antifungal activity of the essential oils from Origanum floribundum Munby., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. is studied in the present work against a Candida albicans reference strain and ten C. albicans isolated strains from bovine clinical mastitis. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. Their chromatographic analysis was performed with a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). Antifungal activities of essential oils were investigated by macrobroth method of dilution in tubes to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC 80%). Analysis of the essential oil showed chemical profile dominated by thymol (50.47 and 62.41%) and P-cymene (24.22 and 15.51%) in the oregano and the thyme respectively, 1, 8-cineol (31.50%) and α-pinene (18.33%) in Rosemary. The three essential oils revealed highly effective anticandidal activity, with an MIC of 80% values ranged from 15.02 to 31.08μg/mL. These results suggest that essential oils studied can be real alternatives in the control of mastitis fungi but deserving studies more in-depth and detailed on their application in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Virulence of oral Candida isolated from HIV-positive women with oral candidiasis and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owotade, Foluso J; Patel, Mrudula

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the virulence of oral Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women with and without oral candidiasis. Candida species were isolated from 197 women, and their virulence attributes were measured. Of the 197 women, 117 (59.4%) carried Candida. Of these, 15 (12.8%) had symptoms of oral candidiasis. Among highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive patients, 33% were diagnosed with oral candidiasis, whereas 5.9% were asymptomatic carriers (P oral candidiasis had higher levels of Candida (P = .02) than asymptomatic carriers. There was no difference in the CD4 counts and the virulence attributes of Candida from both the groups. This study indicates that oral candidiasis is mainly caused by high counts of C. albicans and suggests the importance of therapies targeting Candida counts in the oral cavity even in patients on HAART to reduce the development of infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Facultative Sterol Uptake in an Ergosterol-Deficient Clinical Isolate of Candida glabrata Harboring a Missense Mutation in ERG11 and Exhibiting Cross-Resistance to Azoles and Amphotericin B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Bader, Oliver; Weig, Michael; Gross, Uwe; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Kelly, Diane E.

    2012-01-01

    We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 μg ml−1, respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that CG156 was a sterol 14α-demethylase (Erg11p) mutant, wherein 14α-methylated intermediates (lanosterol was >80% of the total) were the only detectable sterols. ERG11 sequencing indicated that CG156 harbored a single-amino-acid substitution (G315D) which nullified the function of native Erg11p. In heterologous expression studies using a doxycycline-regulatable Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 strain, wild-type C. glabrata Erg11p fully complemented the function of S. cerevisiae sterol 14α-demethylase, restoring growth and ergosterol synthesis in recombinant yeast; mutated CG156 Erg11p did not. CG156 was culturable using sterol-free, glucose-containing yeast minimal medium (glcYM). However, when grown on sterol-supplemented glcYM (with ergosta 7,22-dienol, ergosterol, cholestanol, cholesterol, Δ7-cholestenol, or desmosterol), CG156 cultures exhibited shorter lag phases, reached higher cell densities, and showed alterations in cellular sterol composition. Unlike comparator isolates (harboring wild-type ERG11) that became less sensitive to FLC and VRC when cultured on sterol-supplemented glcYM, facultative sterol uptake by CG156 did not affect its azole-resistant phenotype. Conversely, CG156 grown using glcYM with ergosterol (or with ergosta 7,22-dienol) showed increased sensitivity to AMB; CG156 grown using glcYM with cholesterol (or with cholestanol) became more resistant (MICs of 2 and >64 μg AMB ml−1, respectively). Our results provide insights into the consequences of sterol uptake and metabolism on growth and antifungal resistance in C. glabrata. PMID:22615281

  15. Typing and virulence factors of food-borne Candida spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina

    2018-08-20

    Food-borne yeasts, excluding yeasts used as starter cultures, are commonly considered as food spoilage microorganisms. However, the incidence of non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) infections has increased considerably over the past two decades. Although 15 Candida species are frequently identified as pathogens, a threat to human from food-borne Candida is poorly recognized. In the present study food-borne NCAC were characterized for the virulence factors, known to be associated with yeast pathogenicity. All food-borne strains in planktonic forms and 89% in biofilm structures represented biotypes established for C. albicans, and 61% demonstrated hemolytic activity. 56-94% of food-borne isolates formed biofilms on glass and biomaterials at a level comparable to clinical C. albicans. Nine out of eighteen tested food-borne NCAC strains (C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. famata, C. colliculosa, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis) showed similarity to clinical C. albicans in terms of their biotypes and the tested virulence factors, allocating them in a group of risk of potential pathogens. However, their capacity to grow at 37 °C seems to be the preliminary criterion in the study of potential virulence of food-borne yeasts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Species distribution and antifungal susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates from a public tertiary teaching hospital in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnge, P; Okeleye, B I; Vasaikar, S D; Apalata, T

    2017-05-15

    Candida species are the leading cause of invasive fungal infections, and over the past decade there has been an increased isolation of drug resistant Candida species. This study aimed to identify the species distribution of Candida isolates and to determine their unique antifungal susceptibility and resistance patterns. During a cross-sectional study, 209 Candida isolates (recovered from 206 clinical samples) were collected and their species distribution was determined using ChromAgar Candida. The Vitek-2 system (Biomerieux, South Africa) was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to azoles (fluconazole, voriconazole), echinocandins (caspofungin, micafungin), polyenes (amphotericin B) and flucytosine. Four species of Candida were isolated, of which C. albicans was the most frequent, isolated in 45.4% (95/209) of the isolates, followed by C. glabrata: 31.1% (65/209). The MICs of the different antifungal drugs varied amongst the species of Candida. From the 130 isolates tested for MICs, 90.77% (112/130) were susceptible to all antifungal drugs and 6.9% (9/130) of the isolates were multi-drug resistant. C. dubliniensis (n=2) isolates were susceptible to all the above mentioned antifungal drugs. There was no significant difference in species distribution amongst clinical specimens and between patients' genders (P>0.05). An increase in MIC values for fluconazole and flucytosine towards the resistance range was observed. To our knowledge, this is the first report on surveillance of Candida species distribution and antifungal susceptibility at a public tertiary teaching hospital in Eastern Cape, South Africa.

  17. [Molecular epidemiology and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from urine samples of patients in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksekkaya, Serife; Fındık, Duygu; Arslan, Uğur

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility and molecular epidemiology of Candida strains (Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata) isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Identification of the isolates was done according to microscopic morphology (chlamydospor, blastospor, pseudohyphae and true hyphae) on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and carbohydrate assimilation patterns (API ID 32C bioMérieux, France). Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by in vitro broth microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). To investigate the clonal relationship of the isolates, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was performed by using Cnd3 primer. Of the 56 Candida isolates minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values for amphotericin B were 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.125 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.125-1 µg/ml, 0.25 and 1 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. Fluconazole MIC ranges, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.25-4 µg/ml, 0.25 and 0.5 µg/ml for C.albicans, 0.25-16 µg/ml, 0.5 and 1 µg/ml for C.tropicalis and 0.5-64 µg/ml, 8 and 16 µg/ml for C.glabrata, respectively. For amphotericin B, none of the isolates had high MIC values (MIC > 1 µg/ml). While one of the C.glabrata isolates was resistant to fluconazole (MIC ≥ 64 µg/ml), one C.tropicalis and two C.glabrata isolates were dose-dependent susceptible (MIC: 16-32 µg/ml). The results of RAPD analysis indicated an exogenous spread from two clones for C.albicans, one clone for C.glabrata and one clone for C.tropicalis. This study underlines the importance of molecular epidemiological analysis of clinical samples together with hospital environmental samples in terms of Candida spp. To determine the exogenous origin for the related strains and to prevent

  18. Study of Inhibitory Effect of Echinops cephalotes on Candida Spp. Isolated from Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Heshmati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Candida spp. has been considered as the agents of acute and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Objectives The aim of current study was the evaluation of antifungal activity of Echinops cephalotes (Leaves and stem, manna plant against species of Candida isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Materials and Methods In this research study identification of clinical isolates (50 cases was inducted to the species level by means of conventional mycological methods, morophology on corn meal agar and chromogenic agar, germ tube production and biochemical methods. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of E. cephalotes was studied against isolated Candida using agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. Results Candida spp. which isolated from patients was C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. The inhibition zone of ethanolic extract was 16.6, 13.3, 14, and 22 mg/mL respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for most the cases were 15.6 mg/mL. The inhibition zone of aqueous extract was 16.8, 16.7, 15 and 15 mg/mL respectively. MIC for most the cases were 15.6-31.2 mg/mL. The inhibition zone of methanolic extract was 15.4, 13.2, 12 and 18 respectively. MIC for most of the cases was 7.8 mg/mL. Among the different extracts, ethanolic extract has the highest and aqueous extract has the lowest anti-Candida activity. Ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous extracts of trehala manna did not show any antifungal activity. Conclusions This research is the first study on antifungal activity of E. cephalotes. Hence, this plant may be used further as medicinal plant against Candida spp.

  19. Speciation of Candida isolates obtained from diarrheal stool

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    Beena Uppal

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Candida diarrhea was mostly seen in individuals younger than 12 years, most commonly caused by C. krusei. Resistance to fluconazole was high. A rising resistance to amphotericin B is alarming. Speciation of Candida is important to see the difference in antifungal susceptibility in different species.

  20. Candida species isolated from different body sites and their antifungal susceptibility pattern: Cross-analysis of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Fazii, Paolo; Traini, Tonino; Cellini, Luigina; Di Giulio, Mara

    2017-08-01

    Candida species are regular commensal in humans, but-especially in immunocompromised patients-they represent opportunistic pathogens giving rise to systemic infection. The aim of the present work was to isolate and characterize for their antifungal profile Candida species from different body sites and to analyze the biofilms produced by C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates. Eighty-one strains of Candida species from 77 patients were identified. Epidemiological study showed that the most isolated species were C. albicans (44), C. glabrata (13) and C. parapsilosis (13) mainly from Hematology, Infectious Diseases, Medicine, Neonatology and Oncology Divisions, the majority of the biological samples were swabs (44) and blood cultures (16). The analysis of the biofilm formation was performed at 24 and 48-hours comparing resistant and susceptible strains of C. albicans to resistant and susceptible strains of C. glabrata. Candida albicans has a greater ability to form biofilm compared to C. glabrata, both in the susceptible and resistant strains reaching maturity after 24 hours with a complex structure composed of blastospores, pseudohyphae, and hyphae embedded in a matrix. On the contrary, C. glabrata biofilm was composed exclusively of blastospores that in the resistant strain, after 24 hours, were organized in a compact multilayer different to the discontinuous structure observed in the susceptible analyzed strains. In conclusion, the increasing of the incidence of Candida species infection together with their emerging drug resistance also related to the biofilm forming capability underline the need to monitor their distribution and susceptibility patterns for improving the surveillance and for a correct management of the infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An in vitro study of antifungal drug susceptibility of Candida species isolated from human immunodeficiency virus seropositive and human immunodeficiency virus seronegative individuals in Lucknow population Uttar Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Mohammad Shafi; Sreedar, Gadiputi; Shukla, Abhilasha; Gupta, Prashant; Rehan, Ahmad Danish; George, Jiji

    2015-01-01

    Candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive patients, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenic forms and gradual colonization of non-albicans in patients with advanced immunosuppression leads to resistance for azole group of antifungal drugs with high rate of morbidity and mortality. To isolate the Candida species and determine of antifungal drug susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B, and clotrimazolein HIV seropositive and control individuals, with or without clinical oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). Includes samples from faucial region of 70 subjects with and without clinical candidiasis in HIV seropositive and controls were aseptically inoculated onto Sabaraud's Dextrose Agar media and yeasts were identified for the specific species by Corn Meal Agar, sugar fermentation and heat tolerance tests. Antifungal drug susceptibility of the isolated species was done against above-mentioned drugs by E-test and disc diffusion method. The commonly isolated species in HIV seropositive and controls were Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis Candida guilliermondii and Candida dubliniensis isolated only in HIV seropositive patients. Susceptibility against selected antifungal drugs was observed more in HIV-negative individuals whereas susceptible dose-dependent and resistance were predominant in HIV-positive patients. Resistance is the major problem in the therapy of OPC, especially in HIV seropositive patients due to aggressive and prolonged use of antifungal agents, therefore, our study emphasizes the need for antifungal drug susceptibility testing whenever antifungal treatment is desired, especially in HIV-infected subjects.

  2. A comparative investigation of azole susceptibility in Candida isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2017-08-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) affect millions of women and are typically treated with azoles. We know little about azole susceptibility of Candida species from VVC versus RVVC patients, and nothing about African isolates. We have investigated the susceptibility of Candida isolates from Ghana to fluconazole, itraconazole and/or voriconazole. The percentage of Candida albicans isolates showing susceptibility was significantly lower in RVVC than VVC patients. Isolates of Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis showed a similar trend. For Candida glabrata there was no observed difference. The data indicate a decreased susceptibility in selected Candida species from RVVC patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Determination of some virulence factors of Candida spp. isolated from locally produced cheese in Diyala Governorate-Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Jawdat Fadihl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced cheese which called (Gibin Al arab is one of the most common dairy products in Iraq, it has an economic importance and great social value. This research aimed to identify yeast species from locally produced cheese (Gibin Al Arab in Diyala city which traditionally made and sold in markets of old town in Baquba, and study some of virulence factors (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production of yeasts belong to genus of Candida . All cheese samples showed contamination with varying number of yeast, total 88 yeast isolates obtained from 70 cheese samples, they were Geotrichum candidum(20.5%, Rhodotorela species(19.4%, Candida parapsilosis (18%, Candida albicans (13.6%, Candida  tropicalis (10.5%, Candida krusei (8%, Saccharomyces cerevisice (3.3% and mixed yeast (un identified at rate of (6.7%. Species of Candida formed half of the total isolates and the most prevalent isolate of Candida spp. was Candida parapsilosis .According to the results determining of  (Esterase production, Phospholipase and Hemolytic production as a virulence factors identifying Candida spp. these activities referred that all isolates of Candida spp. show one or more of these activities and that isolates of  medically important species Candida albicans were the most virulent isolates. this referred to the importance of take attention about consuming of such types of dairy products and need for applying more hygienic measures during handling, processing of milk and form of storage and/or selling of cheese.

  4. BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AND YEAST-LIKE FUNGI OF THE GENUS CANDIDA, ISOLATED FROM ONCOLOGICAL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina NS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the spectrum of microorganisms, which are the causative agents of infectious complications of the oral cavity in patients with oncological pathology are presented in the article. The sensitivity of isolated clinical strains of microorganisms to antibiotics, antifungal, antiseptic decasan, miramistin, gorosten, septefril is shown. The results of antiseptic resistance formation to staphylococci and Candida to dekasan, miramistin, septefril, gorosten are described.

  5. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    OpenAIRE

    Baradkar V; Mathur M; Kumar S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore for...

  6. Molecular identification of Candida species isolated from cases of neonatal candidemia using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeela Fatima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida spp. is an emerging cause of bloodstream infections worldwide. Delay in speciation of Candida isolates by conventional methods and resistance to antifungal drugs in various Candida species are responsible for the increase in morbidity and mortality due to candidemia. Hence, the rapid identification of Candida isolates is very important for the proper management of patients with candidemia. Aims: The aim was to re-evaluate the identification of various Candida spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP and to evaluate the accuracy, speed, and cost of phenotypic methodology versus PCR-RFLP. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Ninety consecutive clinical isolates of seven Candida species, isolated from blood of neonates and identified by routine phenotypic methods, were re-evaluated using universal primers internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and ITS4 for PCR amplification and Msp I restriction enzyme for RFLP. Statistical Analysis Used: Kappa test for agreement. Results: The results of PCR-RFLP were 100% in agreement with those obtained using conventional phenotypic methods. Identification could be achieved within 3 work days by both the methods. Our routine methods proved to be cost effective than PCR-RFLP. Conclusions: We can continue with our routine phenotypic methods and PCR-RFLP can be used for periodic quality control or when conventional methods fail to identify a species.

  7. Detection of phospholipase activity of Candida albicans and non albicans isolated from women of reproductive age with vulvovaginal candidiasis in rural area

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    S R Fule

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is most common accounting for 17 to 39% of symptomatic women. Both Candida albicans and non albicans Candida species are involved in VVC. Amongst various virulence factors proposed for Candida, extracellular phospholipases is one of the virulence factor implicated in its pathogenicity. With this background the present study was carried out to find the prevalence of different Candida species and to detect phospholipase producing strains isolated from symptomatic women with VVC. Materials and Methods: At least two vaginal swabs from 156 women of reproductive age with abnormal vaginal discharge were collected. Direct microscopy and Gram′s stained smear examined for presence of budding yeast and pseudo mycelia followed by isolation and identification of Candida species. Extracellular phospholipase activity was studied by inoculating all isolates on Sabouraud′s dextrose egg yolk agar (SDA medium. Results: Of the 156 women with curdy white discharge alone or in combination with other signs, 59 (37.82% women showed laboratory evidence of VVC. A total of 31 (52.54% women had curdy white discharge followed by 12 (20.33% with other signs and symptoms. C. albicans (62.59% and non albicans Candida (37.28% in a ratio of 1.68:1 were isolated. Of the 37 strains of C. albians 30 (81.08% showed the enzyme activity. Seventeen (56.66% strains showed higher Pz value of < 0.70 (++++. Conclusion: Although there may be typical clinical presentation of Candidiasis. all the patients did not show laboratory evidence of infection. Pregnancy was found to be major risk factor for development of VVC. C. albicans was prevalent species but non albicans species were also frequently isolated. Extracellular phospholipase activity was seen in C. albicans and not in non albicans Candida isolates.

  8. Donor Derived Candida stellimalicola in a Clinical Specimen: Preservation Fluid Contamination During Pancreas Procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Damien; Huguenin, Antoine; Tisserand, Elodie; Reiter, Véronique; Morelon, Emmanuel; Badet, Lionel; Villena, Isabelle; Wallon, Martine; Toubas, Dominique

    2017-07-05

    We report here a case of possible donor-derived Candida stellimalicola infection after pancreas transplantation. Candida stellimalicola, an environmental non-filamentous yeast, was isolated from both the peritoneal fluid of the graft donor and the preservation fluid of the transplanted pancreas. Interestingly, this strain exhibited high minimum inhibitory concentrations to azoles. These results justified the use of echinocandins as therapy instead of fluconazole. This switch permitted a favorable outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. stellimalicola from clinical samples and therefore the first reported case of a possible human infection. This case report highlights the need for standardized microbiological procedures in solid organ transplant settings. Moreover, it underlines the importance of using molecular identification technique when routine techniques do not allow successful identification of the pathogen. It is of utmost importance to determine sensitivity profile, even in the absence of species-level identification, because resistance to fluconazole is not uncommon, especially in emergent species.

  9. Antimycotic potential of a diterpenoid taxoquinone against Candida species isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides

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    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to confirm the antimycotic potential of a diterpenoid compound taxoquinone, isolated from Metasequoia glyptostroboides against pathogenic isolates of Candida species. The taxoquinone (100 μg/disc displayed potential anticandidal effect against Candia albicans KBN06P00076, KBN06P00074, C. glabrata KBN06P00066, KBN06P00068, C. tropicalis KBN06P00682, KBN06P00058, C. parapsilosis KBN06P00060, KBN06P00055, and C. guilliermondii KBN06P00492 and KBN06P00867 as a diameter of zones of inhibition, found in the range of 10 ± 0.6 to 13 ± 1.1 mm. The minimum inhibitory and minimum fungicidal concentrations of taxoquinone against the tested clinical isolates were found in the range of 125 to 500 and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. On the viable counts of the tested fungal isolates, the taxoquinone evoked a remarkable anticandidal effect. Elaborative study of SEM revealed potential detrimental effect of taxoquinone on the morphology of C. parapsilosis KBN06P00060 at MIC concentration. These findings confirmed therapeutic potential of taxoquinone.

  10. Colonization and antifungals susceptibility patterns of Candida species isolated from hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs.

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    Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, Ali; Navid, Mojgan; Torabizadeh, Mehdi; Mazdarani, Shahnam

    2015-07-01

    Several studies have shown that there are an increasing in invasive candidiasis during 2-3 last decades. Although, Candida albicans is considered as the most common candidiasis agents, other non-albicans such as C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis were raised as infectious agents. Resistance to fluconazole among non-albicans species is an important problem for clinicians during therapy and prophylaxis. The aim of current study was to detect the Candida species from hospitalized neonatal and children in intensive care units (ICUs) and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). In addition, the susceptibility of isolated agents were also evaluated against three antifungals. In the present study 298 samples including 98 blood samples, 100 urines and 100 swabs from oral cavity were inoculated on CHROMagar Candida. Initial detection was done according to the coloration colonies on CHROMagar Candida . Morphology on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and growth at 45°C were confirmed isolates. Amphotericin B, fluconazole and terbinafine (Lamisil) were used for the susceptibility tests using microdilution method. In the present study 21% and 34% of urines and swabs from oral cavity were positive for Candida species, respectively. The most common species was C. albicans (62.5%) followed by C. tropicalis (15.6%), C. glabrata (6.3%) and Candida species (15.6%). Our study indicated that the most tested species of Candida, 70.3% were sensitive to fluconazole at the concentration of ≤8 μg/mL. Whereas 9 (14.1%) of isolates were resistant to amphotericine B at ≥8 μg/mL. This study demonstrates the importance of species identification and antifungals susceptibility testing for hospitalized patients in ICUs and NICUs wards.

  11. Método de difusión con discos para la determinación de sensibilidad a fluconazol en aislamientos de Candida spp Disk diffusion method for fluconazole susceptibility testing of Candida spp. isolates

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    L. Rodero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 1193 aislamientos clínicos para estandarizar y evaluar un método de difusión con discos de fluconazol de lectura visual, que permita detectar levaduras sensibles al antifúngico. Las especies analizadas fueron: Candida albicans (n=584, Candida parapsilosis (n=196, Candida tropicalis (n=200, Candida glabrata (n=113, Candida krusei (n=50, Candida spp. y otras levaduras oportunistas (n=50. Los discos fueron manufacturados en el INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". Se midieron los halos de inhibición del crecimiento producidos por fluconazol y la concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM por el método de referencia M27-A2 modificado por EUCAST. Se establecieron los valores de corte del método de difusión en: ≥16 mm para levaduras sensibles a fluconazol (CIM ≤ 8 µg/ml, entre 9 y 15 mm para sensibles dependientes de la dosis (CIM = 16-32 mg/ml y ≤ 8 mm para resistentes (CIM ≥ 64 µg/ml. El método de difusión tuvo 94,7% de concordancia con el de referencia, con 0,2% de errores very major y 0,3% de errores major. La reproducibilidad inter e intralaboratorio fue muy buena. Para detectar aislamientos sensibles a fluconazol, este método resulta confiable y de bajo costo; sin embargo, es conveniente que los aislamientos con halos ≤ 15 mm sean reevaluados por el método de referencia.In order to standardize and evaluate a disk diffusion method with visual reading to detect in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeast, 1193 clinical isolates were tested. These included 584 Candida albicans, 196 Candida parapsilosis, 200 Candida tropicalis, 113 Candida glabrata, 50 Candida krusei and 50 Candida spp. and other opportunistic yeasts. The disks were manufactured in the INEI-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán". The disk diffusion method results were compared to MIC results obtained by the reference CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution method modified by EUCAST. The interpretative breakpoints for in vitro susceptibility testing of fluconazole

  12. Retrospective analysis of mortality and Candida isolates of 75 patients with candidemia: a single hospital experience

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    Hirano R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ryuichi Hirano,1 Yuichi Sakamoto,2 Kumiko Kudo,1 Motoki Ohnishi31Department of Pharmacy, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 2Laboratory Medicine and Blood transfusion, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, Japan; 3General Medicine, Aomori Prefectural Central Hospital, Aomori, JapanAbstract: The mortality rate for candidemia is approximately 30%–60%. However, prognostic factors in patients with candidemia have not yet been elucidated in detail. The aim of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors for candidemia using the mortality rate and Candida isolates of patients with candidemia. Seventy-five patients with candidemia were analyzed between January 2007 and December 2013. The main outcome of this study was the 30-day mortality rate after the diagnosis of candidemia. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score (APACHE II score was measured in 34 patients (45.3%. Odds ratios (ORs for death due to candidemia were analyzed using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis. Twenty (26.6% patients died within 30 days of being diagnosed with candidemia. Non-survivors had a significantly higher APACHE II score (n=7, mean; 18.9±4.5 than that of survivors (n=27, mean; 14.0±5.0. Advanced age (OR =1.1, 95% confidence interval =1.01–1.23, P=0.04 was a significant risk factor for a high mortality rate, whereas removal of a central venous catheter (OR =0.03, 95% confidence interval =0.002–0.3, P=0.01 was associated with a lower mortality rate. Seventy-six Candida spp. were isolated from blood cultures: Candida albicans 28 (36.8%, Candida parapsilosis 23 (30.2%, Candida guilliermondii 16 (21.0%, Candida glabrata four (5.2%, Candida tropicalis two (2.6%, and Candida spp. three (3.9% that could not be identified. C. parapsilosis was the most frequently isolated species in younger patients (<65 years, whereas C. albicans was the most frequently isolated in elderly patients (≥65 years

  13. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in Tehran, Iran.

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    Sharifynia, Somayeh; Falahati, Mehraban; Akhlaghi, Lame; Foroumadi, Alireza; Fateh, Roohollah

    2017-01-01

    Rapid and accurate identification and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates are crucial to determine suitable antifungal drugs for the treatment of patients with vulvovaginitis candidiasis. Vaginal samples were collected from 150 women with suspicious vaginal candidiasis, and then cultured on Sabouraoud's Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol to isolate Candida species. After identification of Candida isolates using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, antifungal susceptibility testing of four azolic antifungal drugs was carried out using broth microdilution method according to the CLSI M27-A3. Candida species were isolated from eighty suspected patients (61.79%). The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (63.75%). Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole was observed in 27.5% and 23.75% of Candida isolates, respectively, and only 2% of Candida isolates were resistant to miconazole. Interestingly, resistance to fluconazole in C. albicans was more than other Candida species. The results indicated that therapy should be selected according to the antifungal susceptibility tests for the prevention of treatment failure and miconazole therapy can be considered as the best therapeutic choice in the management of vulvovaginitis.

  14. Molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in Tehran, Iran

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    Somayeh Sharifynia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid and accurate identification and evaluation of antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates are crucial to determine suitable antifungal drugs for the treatment of patients with vulvovaginitis candidiasis. Materials and Methods: Vaginal samples were collected from 150 women with suspicious vaginal candidiasis, and then cultured on Sabouraoud's Dextrose Agar with chloramphenicol to isolate Candida species. After identification of Candida isolates using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, antifungal susceptibility testing of four azolic antifungal drugs was carried out using broth microdilution method according to the CLSI M27-A3. Results: Candida species were isolated from eighty suspected patients (61.79%. The most common pathogen was Candida albicans (63.75%. Resistance to fluconazole and ketoconazole was observed in 27.5% and 23.75% of Candida isolates, respectively, and only 2% of Candida isolates were resistant to miconazole. Interestingly, resistance to fluconazole in C. albicans was more than other Candida species. Conclusion: The results indicated that therapy should be selected according to the antifungal susceptibility tests for the prevention of treatment failure and miconazole therapy can be considered as the best therapeutic choice in the management of vulvovaginitis.

  15. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods

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    Sahar Kianipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Materials and Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Results: Fifty-nine (49.2% yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6% of C. albicans/dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4% of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9% were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Conclusion: Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  16. Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Species Isolated from Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples Using Genotypic and Phenotypic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kianipour, Sahar; Ardestani, Mohammad Emami; Dehghan, Parvin

    2018-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is a newly diagnosed species very similar to Candida albicans phenotypically and first discovered in the mouth of people with AIDS in 1995. Among the different phenotypic and genotypic methods, a cost-effective method should be selected which makes it possible to differentiate these similar species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism with MspI enzyme and the Duplex-PCR method were done by DNA extraction using boiling. The sequencing of the amplified ribosomal region was used to confirm the C. dubliniensis species. Direct examination and colony count of the yeasts were applied for bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and the growth rate of the yeasts were studied at 45°C. To understand the ability formation of chlamydoconidia in yeast isolates, they were separately cultured on the sunflower seed agar, wheat flour agar, and corn meal agar media. Fifty-nine (49.2%) yeast colonies were identified from the total of 120 BAL specimens. Twenty-nine isolated yeasts; including 17 (58.6%) of C. albicans / dubliniensis complex and 12 (41.4%) of nonalbicans isolates produced pseudohypha or blastoconidia in direct smear with a mean colony count of 42000 CFU/mL. C. albicans with the frequency of 15 (42.9%) were the most common isolated yeasts, whereas C. dubliniensis was identified in two nonHIV patients. Sequencing of the replicated gene fragment is the best method for identifying the yeasts, but the determination of the species by phenotypic methods such as the creation of chlamydoconidia in sunflower seeds agar and wheat flour agar media can be cost-effective, have sensitivity and acceptable quality.

  17. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus toyonensis VU-DES13, isolated from Folsomia candida (Collembola: Entomobryidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.K.S.; de Boer, T.E.; Agamennone, V.; Zaagman, N.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roelofs, T.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present here the draft genome of Bacillus toyonensis VU-DES13, which was isolated from the midgut of the soil-living springtail Folsomia candida. Previous research revealed the presence of gene clusters for the biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites, including -lactam antibiotics, in the

  18. Multicenter Brazilian Study of Oral Candida Species Isolated from Aids Patients

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    Priscilla de Laet Sant'Ana

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis continues to be considered the most common opportunistic disease in Aids patients. This study was designed to investigate species distribution, serotype and antifungal susceptibility profile among Candida spp. isolated from the oral cavity of Aids patients recruited from six Brazilian university centers. Oral swabs from 130 Aids patients were plated onto CHROMagar Candida medium and 142 isolates were recovered. Yeast isolates were identified by classical methods and serotyped using the Candida Check® system-Iatron. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed according to the NCCLS microbroth assay. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species (91%, and 70% of the isolates belonged to serotype A. We detected 12 episodes of co-infection (9%, including co-infection with both serotypes of C. albicans. Non-albicans species were isolated from 12 episodes, 50% of them exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Otherwise, only 8 out 130 isolates of C. albicans exhibited DDS or resistance to azoles. Brazilian Aids patients are infected mainly by C. albicans serotype A, most of them susceptible to all antifungal drugs.

  19. [Distribution of Candida species in vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Berna; Yazici, Vesile; Aydin, Neriman

    2005-07-01

    Identification of Candida species is important to guide treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis which is seen frequently and needs long-term therapy due to recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Candida isolated from vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium in the laboratory diagnosis. Samples from 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed as vaginitis have been analysed in our laboratory. Colonies appeared on CHROMagar Candida media after 48 hours of incubation at 35 degrees C were evaluated for their colors and characteristics. Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, growth on corn meal Tween 80 agar and when necessary also by API 20 C AUX commercial kit. A total of 84 Candida strains were isolated from 80 patients. Two different Candida species have been isolated from four (5%) of the samples. Among Candida strains isolated, 45 (53.6%) were C. albicans, 29 (34.5%) C. glabrata, 7 (8.3%) C. krusei, and 3 (3.6%) C. kefyr. All of the C. albicans and six of the seven C. krusei isolates have been identified correctly by CHROMagar Candida medium. These results showed that C. albicans is still the most frequently isolated species from vaginal samples. It was concluded that CHROMagar Candida medium is useful for identification of colonies due to frequently seen Candida species and also in differentiation of multiple Candida species grown on the same culture.

  20. Speciation and susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from vaginal discharge

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    Swapna Muthusamy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a normal commensal that takes the role of a pathogen under compromised conditions. Increased longevity of human life and immunocompromised conditions together paves the way for the increase in opportunistic infections like candidiasis. Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common cause of vaginal discharge next to Chlamydia.1 VVC is the leading cause of abnormal vaginal discharge due to microbial causes. Untreated VVC is a possible risk factor for acquisition of HIV.2 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including VVC can reduce the transmission of HIV since STIs and HIV have the common mode of transmission and one enhances the risk of infection with the other. Early diagnosis and treatment of candidiasis can reduce the pregnancy related morbidity

  1. Clinical aspects of Candida species carriage in saliva of xerotomic subjects.

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    Torres, S R; Peixoto, C B; Caldas, D M; Silva, E B; Magalhães, F A C; Uzeda, M; Nucci, M

    2003-10-01

    In order to investigate the clinical factors that might influence the diversity and the degree of Candida species carriage in saliva, we conducted a cross-sectional study with 133 patients with complaints of xerostomia. Anamnesis, oral examination and collection of chewing-stimulated whole saliva were performed. The samples of saliva were kept refrigerated until they were plated onto CHROMagar Candida; cfu were counted and Candida species were identified by standard methods. There was a high prevalence of mixed Candida colonization. No relationship was found between total Candida cfu counts and variables like gender, age, place of origin, underlying diseases, exposure to medications (except antibiotics), daily habits and salivary flow rates. Oral candidiasis, antibiotic exposure and dental prosthesis wearing were associated with relatively high Candida counts in saliva. Low salivary flow rates predisposed to intense colonization by C. albicans and C. parapsilosis.

  2. Female genital tract bacterial coisolates with Candida albicans in patients without clinical vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monif, G R; Carson, H J

    1998-01-01

    In vitro, Candida albicans has demonstrated the ability to inhibit replication of selected bacteria. Little information exists on the impact of C. albicans on the vaginal bacterial flora in vivo. The purpose of this study is to identify the coexisting bacterial flora when C. albicans is isolated from vaginal cultures submitted to a hospital-based testing facility for reasons other than vulvovaginitis. All specimens (240) received from ambulatory care clinics over a six-month period were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and Candida species. Those specimens submitted for cervicitis, vaginitis, or vaginal discharge and those from which yeasts other than C. albicans were isolated were eliminated. To control for sample biases, a subgroup composed of all pregnant women for whom cultures were done as screening procedures was similarly studied. Chi-square analyses, comparing the prevalence of individual bacteria isolated with and without the presence of C. albicans, were done for all study populations using SPSS for Windows software (1994). Two hundred and forty consecutive specimens were bacteriologically analyzed. Of the 220 vaginal samples used in the study, C. albicans was isolated in 44 instances (20%). Neither the presence of the lactobacilli nor the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis markedly influenced the isolation rate of C. albicans. The group B streptococci had a greater probability of coisolation when C. albicans was present (27.3% verses 16%), but this was not statistically significant (P aerobic bacilli was reduced in the presence of C. albicans (30/176 [17.1%] versus 6/44 [13.6%]), this reduced incidence was not statistically significant. Isolation data of the subgroup of pregnant women supported these observations. Within the limitations of the study, statistically, the data suggests that an inverse relationship exists between the presence of C. albicans and recovery of Peptostreptococcus and anaerobic gram-positive cocci and bacilli.

  3. First report of Candida auris in America: Clinical and microbiological aspects of 18 episodes of candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Belinda; Melo, Analy S A; Perozo-Mena, Armindo; Hernandez, Martin; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2016-10-01

    Characterization of a hospital outbreak of Candida auris candidemia that involved 18 critically ill patients in Venezuela. Bloodstream isolates of C. auris obtained from 18 patients admitted at a medical center in Maracaibo, between March, 2012 and July, 2013 were included. Species identification was confirmed by ITS rDNA sequencing. Isolates were subsequently typed by amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting (AFLP). Susceptibility testing was performed according to CLSI. Clinical data were collected from all cases by using a standard clinical form. A total of 13 critically ill pediatric and 5 adult patients, with a median age of 26 days, were included. All were previously exposed to antibiotics and multiple invasive medical procedures. Clinical management included prompt catheter removal and antifungal therapy. Thirteen patients (72%) survived up to 30 days after onset of candidemia. AFLP fingerprinting of all C. auris isolates suggested a clonal outbreak. The isolates were considered resistant to azoles, but susceptible to anidulafungin and 50% of isolates exhibited amphotericin B MIC values of >1 μg/ml. The study demonstrated that C. auris is a multiresistant yeast pathogen that can be a source of health-care associated infections in tertiary care hospitals with a high potential for nosocomial horizontal transmission. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation frequency of Candida present on the surfaces of mobile phones and handsx.

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    Kordecka, Anna; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Łukaszuk, Cecylia; Kraszyńska, Bogumiła; Kułak, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    It is known that mobile phones may play a role in microorganism transmission. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the number of Candida genera/species isolated from samples collected from the surfaces of mobile phones and the hands of the staff as well as the preferred health-related behavior. The mycological evaluation included 175 mobile telephones and the hands of staff members at the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. We used the Count-Tact(TM) applicator, with CandiSelect (Bio-Rad). Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on mobile phones disinfection practices. Assessment of the preferred health-related behavior was based on The Multidemensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Out of 175 mobile phones, 131 (74.9 %) were colonized. Candida glabrata, C. albicans and C.krusei were isolated more frequently from the hand as well as phone surface. The mean number of Candida colonies was higher in samples collected from hand surfaces than mobile phone surfaces. No significant correlation was found between the preferred health-related behavior and the frequency of washing hands, the way of using a mobile phone, the number of colonies or the isolation frequency for the fungi collected from the surface of the phones and hands of their owners. Only 19.4 % of the participants cleaned the surface of their phones. The prevalence of mobile phone contamination by Candida is high in the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei were the dominant species in the samples collected from mobile phones and hands. These results pose the need to develop guidelines for mobile phone disinfection.

  5. Synergistic effects of tacrolimus and azole antifungal compounds in fluconazole-susceptible and fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolates

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    Laura Bedin Denardi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro interaction between tacrolimus (FK506 and four azoles (fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole against thirty clinical isolates of both fluconazole susceptible and -resistant Candida glabrata were evaluated by the checkerboard microdilution method. Synergistic, indifferent or antagonism interactions were found for combinations of the antifungal agents and FK506. A larger synergistic effect was observed for the combinations of FK506 with itraconazole and voriconazole (43%, followed by that of the combination with ketoconazole (37%, against fluconazole-susceptible isolates. For fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata, a higher synergistic effect was obtained from FK506 combined with ketoconazole (77%, itraconazole (73%, voriconazole (63% and fluconazole (60%. The synergisms that we observed in vitro, notably against fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata isolates, are promising and warrant further analysis of their applications in experimental in vivo studies.

  6. Enrichment of Multilocus Sequence Typing Clade 1 with Oral Candida albicans Isolates in Patients with Untreated Periodontitis

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    McManus, Brenda A.; Maguire, Rory; Cashin, Phillipa J.; Claffey, Noel; Flint, Stephen; Abdulrahim, Mohammed H.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and cell density of Candida species in periodontal pockets, healthy subgingival sites, and oral rinse samples of patients with untreated periodontitis. Twenty-one periodontitis patients underwent sampling at two periodontitis sites, and 19/21 of these patients underwent sampling at one periodontally healthy site. Both paper point and curette sampling techniques were employed. The periodontitis patients and 50 healthy subjects were also sampled by oral rinse. Candida isolates were recovered on CHROMagar Candida medium, and representative isolates were identified. Candida spp. were recovered from 10/21 (46.7%) periodontitis patients and from 16/50 (32%) healthy subjects. C. albicans predominated in both groups and was recovered from all Candida-positive subjects. Candida-positive periodontitis patients yielded Candida from periodontal pockets with average densities of 3,528 and 3,910 CFU/sample from curette and paper point samples, respectively, and 1,536 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. The majority (18/19) of the healthy sites sampled from periodontitis patients were Candida negative. The 16 Candida-positive healthy subjects yielded an average of 279 CFU/ml from oral rinse samples. C. albicans isolates were investigated by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine if specific clonal groups were associated with periodontitis. MLST analysis of 31 C. albicans isolates from periodontitis patients yielded 19 sequence types (STs), 13 of which were novel. Eleven STs belonged to MLST clade 1. In contrast, 16 C. albicans isolates from separate healthy subjects belonged to 16 STs, with 4 isolates belonging to clade 1. The distributions of STs between both groups were significantly different (P = 0.04) and indicated an enrichment of C. albicans isolates in periodontal pockets, which warrants a larger study. PMID:22875886

  7. Presence of Different Candida Species at Denture Wearers With Type 2 Diabetes and Clinically Healthy Oral Mucosa-Pilot Study

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    Petrović Sanja Matić

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of different Candida spp. at diabetics and nondiabetics wearing dentures without clinical signs of Denture Stomatitis (DS and to study if some local and systematic factors are confounders for harboring Candida at these subjects. Material and Methods: Total of 60 subjects wearing partial or complete upper acrylic denture having at least half of palatal mucosa covered by denture were selected and stratified into three experimental groups: systematically health subjects; patients with diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes (T2D and good glycoregulation; and T2D subjects with poorly regulated blood sugar level. Cotton swab samples were obtained from each patient from hard palate mucosa and denture surface. Swab cultures were made on Sabouraud dextrose agar and ChromAgar Media for distinciton of various Candida spp. Density growth was also measured. Results: Frequency of Candida spp. findings were similar between groups. At healthy subjects, only C.albicans was detected. At diabetics, C.albicans was the most common isolated species, followed by C.glabrata and C.tropicalis. Negative finding of yeasts on palatal mucosa, but positive on denture surface were detected at all groups, with the highest frequency (33.4% at diabetics with poor glycoregulation. Denture surface was heavier colonized than hard palate mucosa. Duration of diabetes in years were only independent predictors for harboring Candida spp. at denture surface (Exp B=1.186, CI=1.047-1.344, p=0.007. Conclusions: Prosthesis of denture wearers without DS may serve as reservoir of Candida spp. Presence of more pathogenic and resistant non-albicans species are related to diabetics, even without clinical signs of DS.

  8. In vitro antifungal susceptibility to six antifungal agents of 229 Candida isolates from patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, M; McCullough, M J; Polonelli, L; Conti, S; Al-Karaawi, Z M; Vescovi, P; Porter, S R

    2006-06-01

    The most common antifungal drugs in current clinical use for the treatment of oral candidosis are polyenes and azoles, mainly used topically. Poor glycaemic control in association with other local factors, such as the presence of oral dental prostheses, salivary pH, salivary flow rate and tobacco habits, may lead to the development of oral candidosis. Topical antifungal agents are frequently used to prevent the development of candidal infections in patients with poor metabolic control, particularly in the elderly wearing dentures. The aim of this study was to assess the antifungal susceptibility of Candida isolates to six antifungal agents using a commercially available kit, Fungitest. The isolated were collected from patients affected by diabetes mellitus from two different geographic localities (London, UK, and Parma, Italy) and from a group of healthy non-diabetic subjects. No differences in antifungal susceptibility to the six agents tested were observed between Candida isolates from diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. However, differences were observed between the two geographically different diabetes mellitus populations. Oral yeast isolates from diabetes mellitus patients in the UK more often displayed resistance or intermediate resistance to fluconazole (P=0.02), miconazole (Pdiabetes mellitus patients in Italy. In addition, more C. albicans isolates were found in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects that were susceptible to fluconazole (P=0.0008 and P=0.01, respectively) than non-albicans isolates. The difference in the antifungal resistance of isolates from the two populations of diabetes mellitus patients may be related to differences in the therapeutic management of candidal infections between the two centres.

  9. Epidemiology and Antifungal Susceptibility of Bloodstream Candida Isolates in Quebec: Report on 453 Cases between 2003 and 2005

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    Guy St-Germain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between May 2003 and April 2005, a population-based surveillance of Candida bloodstream infections was conducted in Quebec. A total of 453 episodes of candidemia (464 yeast isolates from 54 participating hospitals were studied.

  10. [Correlation between clinical characteristics and mycological tests in the vulvovaginitis by Candida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón García, Rafael; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Amancio Chassin, Octavio; Basurto Kuba, Erich; Araiza, Javier; Romero Cabello, Raúl

    2007-02-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Candida sp is one of the most frequent infections. To culture and to identify the fungi related to clinical manifestations of patients based on a suspected diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. A prospective, transversal and comparative study was performed on 181 women older than 18 years with vulvovaginitis by Candida sp. A correlation was made between the clinical characteristics of this entity and mycological tests such as direct examination and cultures. The direct exam or fresh vaginal exam and cervical sample was positive for the different microscopic forms of Candida (blastoconidia, pseudohyphye or pseudomycelia) in 60.8% (110 women); at the same time that cultures were positive for Candida sp in 51.9% (94 patients). The direct examination and the cultures of vaginal and cervical exudate are mandatory tests for diagnosis of Candida sp in women with vulvovaginitis.

  11. Isolation and primary structural analysis of two conjugated polyketone reductases from Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, A R; Akond, M A; Kita, K; Kataoka, M; Shimizu, S

    2001-12-01

    Two conjugated polyketone reductases (CPRs) were isolated from Candida parapsilosis IFO 0708. The primary structures of CPRs (C1 and C2) were analyzed by amino acid sequencing. The amino acid sequences of both enzymes had high similarity to those of several proteins of the aldo-keto-reductase (AKR) superfamily. However, several amino acid residues in the putative active sites of AKRs were not conserved in CPRs-C1 and -C2.

  12. Comparison of enzymatic activities in different Candida species isolated from women with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatahinia, M; Halvaeezadeh, M; Rezaei-Matehkolaei, A

    2017-06-01

    Comparing the activities of secreted enzymes in different fungal species can improve our understanding of their pathogenic role. Secretion of various enzymes by Candida species has been considered for determination of their virulence in different Candida infections including vulvovaginitis. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the activity of secreted enzymes in Candidia strains isolated from women suspected to vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and referred to some health centers in Khuzestan, Southwestern Iran. The vaginal secretion samples were taken by swap from 250 suspected women with symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis and cultured on CHROMagar Candida medium. Identification of the isolated Candida from culture positive samples performed by the color of colonies and some standard mycological procedures. Activities of phospholipase, hemolysin-α, hemolysin-β, esterase and proteinase were measured in vitro by standard laboratory protocols. The enzymatic activity index (EAI) was calculated for each enzyme in accordance to relevant protocols. Totally in eighty cases (32%), a Candida strain was isolated which found to be as 52 (65%) Candida albicans; 12 (15%) C. glabrata; 10 (12.5%) C. dubliniensis; 4 (5%) C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis species (each=1; 1.3%). Among C. albicans strains, 89.1% produced all studied enzymes, while 86% of C. glabrata strains failed to produce proteinase and phospholipase. The EAIs in decreasing order were as hemolysin-β=0.2895, hemolysin-α=0.5420, esterase=0.5753, proteinase=0.7413, and phospholipase=0.7446, respectively. Activity of phospholipase, esterase and proteinase secreted by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis were significantly more than those released by C. glabrata and C. krusei, while 86% of C. glabrata strains did not show esterase activity. On the other hand, the activity rates of hemolysin α and β among all studied isolates were almost similar. In the present study, the prevalence

  13. Co-isolation of Trichosporon inkin and Candida parapsilosis from a scalp white piedra case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taj-Aldeen, Saad J; Al-Ansari, Hamda I; Boekhout, Teun; Theelen, Bart

    2004-02-01

    White piedra is a rare fungal infection of the hair shaft characterized by small, firm, irregular white-brown nodules. The infection is caused by basidiomycetous yeasts in the genus Trichosporon. We report a case of a 28-year-old female patient who acquired the infection in Qatar. In this case, the scalp was the only site affected, but infection at that site was extensive. The hair had a Saccharomyces-like yeast odor and appeared to be beaded, with light-brown nodules of varying sizes up to 2 mm long. Trichosporon sp. accompanied by Candida parapsilosis grew out along hair shafts planted in primary isolation media. Molecular identification of the Trichosporon carried out by analyzing the 26S ribosomal gene gave a 100% match with Trichosporon inkin, a major cause of pubic white piedra. The patient was treated with daily applications of ketoconazole shampoo followed by econazole shampoo and cream, and was considered clinically and mycologically cured after 2 months. Novel findings in the present case are the first identification of T. inkin as an agent of scalp white piedra, and the heavy outgrowth of C. parapsilosis from the concretions, although in the latter case it is not clear if the co-occurring yeast was etiologically contributory to the pathogenesis of the white piedra.

  14. Amphotericin B and caspofungin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a critically ill patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Mikkel; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Heslet, Lars

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consecutive Candida glabrata isolates recovered from a patient in an intensive care unit were resistant to amphotericin B (minimum inhibitory concentration, up to 32 mu g/mL; determined by Etest [AB Biodisk]). Analyses at the national reference laboratory showed that some isolates were...... also resistant to azoles and caspofungin. In this study, 4 isolates were studied thoroughly using susceptibility assays and a mouse model and to determine clonality. METHODS: Different broth microdilution tests, Etests, and time-kill studies for antifungals were performed in different media. Three...... isolates obtained from nonrelated patients, and a reference strain. RESULTS: The murine model indicated that 1 isolate was resistant to amphotericin B, 1 had intermediate susceptibility, and 1 was fully susceptible. Two of the 3 isolates were resistant to caspofungin. Microdilution methods did not reliably...

  15. Candida xinjiangensis sp. nov., a new anamorphic yeast species isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Dian-Peng; Yang, Sen; Zhang, Qing-Wen

    2017-03-01

    Three yeast strains designated as S44, XF1 and XF2, respectively, were isolated from Scolytus scheryrewi Semenov of apricot tree in Shule County, Xinjiang, China, and were demonstrated to be a new member of the genus Candida by sequence comparisons of 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. BLASTn alignments on NCBI showed that the similarity of 26S rRNA gene sequences of S44 (type strain) to all sequences of other Candida yeasts was very low (≦93 %). The phylogenetic tree based on the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain and ITS region sequences revealed that the strain S44 is closely related to C. blattae, C. dosseyi, C. pruni, C. asparagi, C. fructus and C. musae. However, the strain S44 is distinguished from these Candida species by the physiological characteristics. Moreover, the strain S44 formed typical pseudohyphae when grown on cornmeal agar at 25 °C for 7 days, but did not form ascospores in sporulation medium for 3-4 weeks. Therefore, the name Candida xinjiangensis is proposed for the novel species, with S44 (=KCTC T 27747) as the type strain.

  16. Isolation of Candida species from the oral cavity and fingertips of complete denture wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaral, Suresh; Desai, Raviraj G; Kamble, Vikas; Patil, Anand Kumar G

    2014-11-01

    Wearing a dental prosthesis is known to increase oral candidal colonization and predispose the wearer to oral candidosis. Denture wearers frequently use fingers to take the prosthesis out of their mouth. Oral Candida, if present may contaminate wearer's finger. The objective of this study was to investigate the simultaneous candidal colonization of oral cavity and fingertips of complete denture wearers. A total of 25 apparently healthy male subjects who had worn complete dentures for at least 1 year were selected. Information about each patient's denture age, denture hygiene, handling, and wearing habits, and hand washing habits after denture handling were be obtained. Intraoral examination of all the patients was done. For microbiological examination samples were collected from the fingertip and oral rinse of each patient. Candida species were identified with use of germ tube test and commercially available yeast identification system. Data was statistically analyzed. Significance was set at p < 0.05. It was found that frequency of hand washing, denture handling and denture stomatitis with respect to fingertip candidal isolation was not statistically significant. But poor denture hygiene and denture stomatitis with respect to oral candidal colonization was statistically significant. Denture wearers with oral Candida had a higher prevalence of Candida contamination on their fingers. Patients with removable prostheses should be informed about the importance of proper prosthesis and personal hygiene and the possibility of microbial contamination of the hands and other parts of the body.

  17. Identification and Determination of Drug Resistant of Candida species isolated from Hospital Acquired Infections

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    Kambiz Diba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Currently, the use of antifungal azole group and yeasts resistant to these drugs is increasing. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the yeasts obtained from candidiasis patients and furthermore determining thier antifungal resistance. Methods: In the present descriptive study, infections samples were collected from 256 patients with suspected nosocomial candidiasis, then direct exam and culture were performed. Yeast colonies were identified using phenotypic methods, polymerase chain reaction method and enzyme digestion. Data were analyzed using Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Of sixty isolated yeast, thirty-seven cases of Candida albicans (61.6%, seven cases of C. krusei and C. glabrata (11.6% each, five cases of C. dubliniensis (8.3% and four cases of C. tropicalis (6.6% were indicated. The study showed that the sensitivity of C. albicans and C. cruise species to amphotericin B was negligible in disk diffusion and very sensitve in microdilution. Conclusion: Inspite of the results of antifungal susceptibility test of strains studied did not show high resistance, but screening for drug-resistant Candida isolates in Candida infection by disk diffusion and microdilution methods for new cases of drug resistance is reasonable.

  18. Candida isolates in tertiary hospitals in northeastern Brazil Isolados de Candida em hospital terciário no nordeste do Brasil

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    Sylvia Lemos Hinrichsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida is an opportunistic pathogen that affects highrisk patients who are either immunocompromised or critically ill and is associated with almost 80% of all nosocomial fungal infections, representing the major cause of fungemia with high mortality rates (40%. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidemia and among the non-albicans species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are the most frequent agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in two tertiary hospitals in Recife, Northeastern Brazil. It began by surveying all positive Candida cultures processed by the microbiology laboratory from September 2003 to September 2006. The cultures, originated from various types of biological material (blood, urine, tracheal, catheter and others, were processed by Vitec® system (Biomerieux SA, France. A total of 1.279 (hospital A: 837; hospital B: 442 sample isolates were positive for Candida. The most frequent species in both hospitals were: C. albicans (367, C. tropicalis (363, C. parapsilosis (147, C. glabrata (81, C. krusei (30 and C. guillermondii (14. The isolates were obtained from 746 hospitalized patients. A total of 221 positive hemocultures were detected in 166 different patients in both hospitals, and 113 (68.1% of these patients with positive hemocultures presented Candida in other body sites.This study shows thatCandida non-albicans was the main isolated agent and evidences the importante of C. tropicalis in nosocomial fungal infections.Candida é um patógeno oportunista que afeta pacientes de alto risco que estão também imunocomprometidos ou criticamente doentes, estando associada a quase 80% de todos os casos de infecções fúngicas nosocomiais, representando a maior causa de fungemia com alta taxa de mortalidade (40%. Candida albicans é a principal causa de candidemia e dentre as espécies não-albicans a C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. tropicalis são os agentes mais

  19. Simple, Low-Cost Detection of Candida parapsilosis Complex Isolates and Molecular Fingerprinting of Candida orthopsilosis Strains in Kuwait by ITS Region Sequencing and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmad, Suhail; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Sweih, Noura; Khan, Ziauddin

    2015-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis has now emerged as the second or third most important cause of healthcare-associated Candida infections. Molecular studies have shown that phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates represent a complex of three species, namely, C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis. Lodderomyces elongisporus is another species phenotypically closely related to the C. parapsilosis-complex. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, low cost multiplex (m) PCR assay for species-specific identification of C. parapsilosis complex isolates and to study genetic relatedness of C. orthopsilosis isolates in Kuwait. Species-specific amplicons from C. parapsilosis (171 bp), C. orthopsilosis (109 bp), C. metapsilosis (217 bp) and L. elongisporus (258 bp) were obtained in mPCR. Clinical isolates identified as C. parapsilosis (n = 380) by Vitek2 in Kuwait and an international collection of 27 C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates previously characterized by rDNA sequencing were analyzed to evaluate mPCR. Species-specific PCR and DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA were performed to validate the results of mPCR. Fingerprinting of 19 clinical C. orthopsilosis isolates (including 4 isolates from a previous study) was performed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Phenotypically identified C. parapsilosis isolates (n = 380) were identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto (n = 361), C. orthopsilosis (n = 15), C. metapsilosis (n = 1) and L. elongisporus (n = 3) by mPCR. The mPCR also accurately detected all epidemiologically unrelated C. parapsilosis complex and L. elongisporus isolates. The 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates obtained from 16 patients were divided into 3 haplotypes based on ITS region sequence data. Seven distinct genotypes were identified among the 19 C. orthopsilosis isolates by AFLP including a dominant genotype (AFLP1) comprising 11 isolates recovered from 10 patients. A

  20. Multilocus Sequence Typing of Pathogenic Candida albicans Isolates Collected from a Teaching Hospital in Shanghai, China: A Molecular Epidemiology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Junhao; Gao, Qian; Chen, Min; Zhu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of Candida albicans is important for studying the population structure and epidemiology of this opportunistic yeast, such as population dynamics, nosocomial infections, multiple infections and microevolution. The genetic diversity of C. albicans has been rarely studied in China. In the present study, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was used to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure of 62 C. albicans isolates collected from 40 patients from Huashan Hospital in Shanghai, China. A total of 50 diploid sequence types (DSTs) were identified in the 62 C. albicans isolates, with 41 newly identified DSTs. Based on cluster analysis, the 62 isolates were classified into nine existing clades and two new clades (namely clades New 1 and New 2). The majority of the isolates were clustered into three clades, clade 6 (37.5%), clade 1 (15.0%) and clade 17 (15.0%). Isolates of clade New 2 were specifically identified in East Asia. We identified three cases of potential nosocomial transmission based on association analysis between patients’ clinical data and the genotypes of corresponding isolates. Finally, by analyzing the genotypes of serial isolates we further demonstrated that the microevolution of C. albicans was due to loss of heterozygosity. Our study represents the first molecular typing of C. albicans in eastern China, and we confirmed that MLST is a useful tool for studying the epidemiology and evolution of C. albicans. PMID:25919124

  1. Two missense mutations, E123Q and K151E, identified in the ERG11 allele of an azole-resistant isolate of Candida kefyr recovered from a stem cell transplant patient for acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Couzigou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first cloning and nucleotide sequencing of an ERG11 allele from a clinical isolate of Candida kefyr cross-resistant to azole antifungals. It was recovered from a stem cell transplant patient, in an oncohematology unit exhibiting unexpected high prevalence of C. kefyr. Two amino acid substitutions were identified: K151E, whose role in fluconazole resistance was already demonstrated in Candida albicans, and E123Q, a new substitution never described so far in azole-resistant Candida yeast.

  2. Hichrom candida agar for identification of Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baradkar, V P; Mathur, M; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  3. Hichrom candida agar for identification of candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baradkar V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%; C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%, C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%, C. tropicalis (100 and 100% and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55% respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  4. Incidence and Clinical Predictors of Ocular Candidiasis in Patients with Candida Fungemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence and the predictors of ocular candidiasis among patient with Candida fungemia. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with candidemia at the University of Kansas Medical Center during February 2000–March 2010. Data regarding patients’ demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and ophthalmology examination findings were collected. Results. A total of 283 patients with candidemia were enrolled. The mean age (± standard deviation was 55 ± 18 years; 66% were male. The most commonly isolated Candida species were C. albicans (54%, C. parapsilosis (20%, C. glabrata (13%, and C. tropicalis (8%. Only 144 (51% patients were evaluated by ophthalmology; however, the proportion of patients who were formally evaluated by an ophthalmologist increased during the study period (9%in 2000 up to 73%in 2010; P<0.0001. Evidence of ocular candidiasis was present in 18 (12.5% patients. Visual symptoms were reported by 5 of 18 (28% patients. In multivariable analysis, no predictors of ocular candidiasis were identified. Conclusions. The incidence of ocular candidiasis among patients with fungemia remains elevated. Most patients are asymptomatic and therefore all patients with candidemia should undergo fundoscopic examination to rule out ocular involvement.

  5. Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diba, Kambiz; Namaki, Atefeh; Ayatolahi, Haleh; Hanifian, Haleh

    2012-01-01

    Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  6. Azole resistance in Candida spp. isolated from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil: an efflux-pump-mediated mechanism

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    Raimunda S.N. Brilhante

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since, there is no study reporting the mechanism of azole resistance among yeasts isolated from aquatic environments; the present study aims to investigate the occurrence of antifungal resistance among yeasts isolated from an aquatic environment, and assess the efflux-pump activity of the azole-resistant strains to better understand the mechanism of resistance for this group of drugs. For this purpose, monthly water and sediment samples were collected from Catú Lake, Ceará, Brazil, from March 2011 to February 2012. The obtained yeasts were identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Of the 46 isolates, 37 were Candida spp., 4 were Trichosporon asahii, 3 were Cryptococcus laurentii, 1 Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and 1 was Kodamaea ohmeri. These isolates were subjected to broth microdilution assay with amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole, according to the methodology standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of amphotericin B, itraconazole, and fluconazole were 0.03125–2 µg/mL, 0.0625 to ≥16 µg/mL, and 0.5 to ≥64 µg/mL, respectively, and 13 resistant azole-resistant Candida isolates were detected. A reduction in the azole MICs leading to the phenotypical reversal of the azole resistance was observed upon addition of efflux-pump inhibitors. These findings suggest that the azole resistance among environmental Candida spp. is most likely associated with the overexpression of efflux-pumps.

  7. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media ...

  8. Thinking beyond the Common Candida Species: Need for Species-Level Identification of Candida Due to the Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Jackson, Brendan R; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Candida species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Because much of the treatment for Candida infections is empirical, some institutions do not identify Candida to species level. With the worldwide emergence of the multidrug-resistant species Candida auris , identification of Candida to species level has new clinical relevance. Species should be identified for invasive candidiasis isolates, and species-level identification can be considered for selected noninvasive isolates to improve detection of C. auris . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida in the Clinical Laboratory: how to do it, when to do it, and how to interpret it

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    Esther Manso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the management of fungaemia have occurred in the last decade with increased use of fluconazole prophylaxis, of empirical treatment and of echinocandins as first-line agents for documented disease. The emergence of drug resistance in fungal pathogens has a profound impact on human health given limited number of antifungal drugs. Antifungal resistance in Candida may be either intrinsic or acquired and may be encountered in the antifungal drug exposed but also the antifungal drug naïve patient The variation in resistance rates between centers emphasizes that it is essential to have knowledge of the local Candida species distribution and antifungal resistance rates to guide initial therapy for Candida BSI. Moreover, all Candida isolates from blood and normally sterile sites should be identified to the species level. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing have developed breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values that are now established for Candida spp. Clinical microbiology laboratories will be employed commercial susceptibility assays, rather than reference broth microdilution methods and comparative studies are particularly important. Vitek 2®, Etest® and Sensititre YeastOne® provided a high degree of essential agreement and comparable sensitivity and specificity to BMD-RPMI for identifying resistance to azole and echinocandins in Candida spp.

  10. Identification, Typing, Antifungal Resistance Profile, and Biofilm Formation of Candida albicans Isolates from Lebanese Hospital Patients

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    Ibrahim Bitar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As leading opportunistic fungal pathogens identification and subtyping of Candida species are crucial in recognizing outbreaks of infection, recognizing particularly virulent strains, and detecting the emergence of drug resistant strains. In this study our objective was to compare identification of Candida albicans by the hospitals through the use of conventional versus identification based on the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer and to assess biofilm forming capabilities, drug resistance patterns and correlate these with MLST typing. ITS typing revealed a 21.2% hospital misidentification rate. Multidrug resistance to three drugs out of four tested was detected within 25% of the isolates raising concerns about the followed treatment regimens. Drug resistant strains as well as biofilm formers were phylogenetically related, with some isolates with significant biofilm forming capabilities being correlated to those that were multidrug resistant. Such isolates were grouped closely together in a neighbor-joining tree generated by MLST typing indicating phylogenetic relatedness, microevolution, or recurrent infection. In conclusion, this pilot study gives much needed insight concerning C. albicans isolates circulating in Lebanese hospitals and is the first study of its kind correlating biofilm formation, antifungal resistance, and evolutionary relatedness.

  11. Candida spp. AISLADAS EN PACIENTES CON VULVOVAGINITIS DE COMUNIDADES RURALES DEL MUNICIPIO CARIPE, ESTADO MONAGAS, VENEZUELA, 2014 | Candida spp. ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VULVOVAGINITIS OF RURAL COMMUNITIES FROM CARIPE MUNICIPALITY, MONAGAS STATE, VENEZUELA, 2014

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    Druvic Lemus-Espinoza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated patients with symptomatic vaginal fungal infection in a rural area of Caripe Municipality, Monagas state, Venezuela, aiming to identify the species involved and their sensibility to antimicotics. Identification of species of Candida yeast was made with the use of CHROMagar Candida® and API AUX 20®. Additionally, in vitro susceptibility to fluconazole was evaluated by the agar diffusion method (CLSI, M44-A2. The prevalence of vaginal candidiasis was 23/86 cases (26.7% among women 15 to 60 years. Candida albicans was the most common species among patients (39.1%. However, other isolated agents within the same genus Candida dominated (65.2% and were identified: Complex C. glabrata (4/23; 17.4%, C. tropicalis (4/23; 17.4%, Complex C. parapsilosis (3/23; 13.1%, C.guilliermondii (2/23; 8.7%, C. krusei (1/23; 4.3% and one episode of mixed infection with C. albicans and C. krusei (1/23. No statistical difference was observed between symptoms; vulvovaginal erythema occurred in all infected women. More than half of the yeasts (15/23 were sensitive to fluconazole. In this population sample, isolates of C. albicans and C. guilliermondii were 100% sensitive to fluconazole, while the C. krusei strain (1/23 isolated from a mixed infection was resistant to this antimicotic. Other species, like C. tropicalis (4/23, C. glabrata (2/23 and Complex C. parapsilosis (1/23 showed dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole. In gynecological evaluations of patients from rural or urban communities, with clinical picture of micotic vulvovaginitis, a microbiological study of vaginal secretions should be implemented.

  12. Isolation and identification of a Candida digboiensis strain from an extreme acid mine drainage of the Lignite Mine, Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh J; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2009-12-01

    An extremely acidic mine drainage (AMD) water sample was collected in 1998 and 2008 from Panandhro lignite mine, Gujarat, India. The yeast isolated from this sample was identified using mini API identification system, as a member of genus Candida. The major cellular fatty acids detected by FAME from the isolate are C(16:0) and C(18:2) (cis 9,12)/C(18:0alpha) as 25.23 and 19.5%, respectively. The isolate was identified as Candida digboiensis by 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis and designated as Candida digboiensis SRDyeast1. Phylogenetic analysis using D1/D2 variable domains showed that the closest relative of this strain is Candida blankii with 3% divergence. This organism has been reported for the first time from the lignite mine AMD sample, and for cellular fatty acid analysis. This yeast is able to survive in the AMD sample preserved at 10-42 degrees C temperature since last 10 years along with iron oxidizing microorganisms. It can grow in the presence of 40% glucose, 10% NaCl and in the pH range of 1 to 10. The isolate is capable of producing enzymes like protease and lipase. This isolate differs from the type strain Candida digboiensis in as many as six physiological and metabolic characteristics.

  13. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  14. Isolation of the alkane inducible cytochrome P450 (P450alk) gene from the yeast Candida tropicalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gene for the alkane-inducible cytochrome P450, P450alk, has been isolated from the yeast Candida tropicalis by immunoscreening a λgt11 library. Isolation of the gene has been identified on the basis of its inducibility and partial DNA sequence. Transcripts of this gene were i...

  15. Candida species distribution and fluconazole susceptibility of blood isolates at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Giseli C. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Candidemia is a bloodstream infection produced by Candida genus yeasts. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology and the fluconazole susceptibility in Candida species isolated from patients at a regional hospital in Passo Fundo, RS. Methods: Records from the laboratory were used to identify patients with positive blood cultures for Candida between 2010 and 2011. The in vitro activity of fluconazole was determined using the disk diffusion method. Results: Were analyzed 24 positive blood cultures for Candida and found a 54.16% mortality rate. C. albicans was the most prevalent species, followed by C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. For susceptibility to fluconazole, C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis showed 100% sensitivity. However, C. krusei was 100% resistant; and C. glabrata, 50% resistant. Conclusion: The high mortality and fluconazole resistance rates emphasize the importance of the diagnosis of candidemia in a hospital environment.

  16. Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Souza Mattei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  17. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  18. Microbiological Screening of Irish Patients with Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis-Ectodermal Dystrophy Reveals Persistence of Candida albicans Strains, Gradual Reduction in Susceptibility to Azoles, and Incidences of Clinical Signs of Oral Candidiasis without Culture Evidence▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A.; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P.; Healy, Claire M.; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy. PMID:21367996

  19. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  20. Molecular Identification and Echinocandin Susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis Complex Bloodstream Isolates in Italy, 2007-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Lovero

    Full Text Available The Candida parapsilosis group encompasses three species: C. parapsilosis, C. orthopsilosis, and C. metapsilosis. Here, we describe the incidence and echinocandin susceptibility profile of bloodstream isolates of these three species collected from patients admitted to an Italian university hospital from 2007 to 2014. Molecular identification of cryptic species of the C. parapsilosis complex was performed using polymerase chain reaction amplification of the gene encoding secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, followed by digestion with the restriction enzyme BanI. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using the broth microdilution method according to European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST EDef 7.2 and Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI M27-A3 guidelines, and the results were compared with those obtained using the E-test and Sensititre methods. Of the 163 C. parapsilosis complex isolates, 136 (83.4% were identified as C. parapsilosis, and 27 (16.6% as C. orthopsilosis. The species-specific incidences were 2.9/10,000 admissions for C. parapsilosis and 0.6/10,000 admissions for C. orthopsilosis. No resistance to echinocandins was detected with any of the methods. The percent essential agreement (EA between the EUCAST and E-test/Sensititre methods for anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin susceptibility was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 95.6/97.8, 98.5/88.2, and 93.4/96.3; C. orthopsilosis, 92.6/92.6, 96.3/77.8, and 63.0/66.7. The EA between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods was, respectively, as follows: C. parapsilosis, 99.3/100, 98.5/89.0, and 96.3/98.5; C. orthopsilosis, 96.3/92.6, 100/81.5, and 92.6/88.9. Only minor discrepancies, ranging from 16.9% (C. parapsilosis to 11.1% (C. orthopsilosis, were observed between the CLSI and E-test/Sensititre methods. In conclusion, this epidemiologic study shows a typical C. parapsilosis complex species distribution, no echinocandin

  1. Prevalence, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. isolated from bloodstream infections in a tertiary care hospital in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Heliara Maria Spina; Cardoso, Bárbara; Vitali, Lucia Helena; Coelho, Harnoldo Colares; Martinez, Roberto; Ferreira, Márcia Eliana da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Candida spp. are responsible for 80% of all systemic fungal infections and are associated with high mortality rates. This study characterised 79 bloodstream isolates of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. orthopsilosis, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis from patients in a Brazilian hospital. The susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole and voriconazole was determined; virulence factor production was assessed based on haemolysin, phospholipase and proteinase activities, and the patients' clinical characteristics were analysed. C. albicans was the predominant species (44%), followed by C. glabrata (19%), C. tropicalis (19%), C. parapsilosis (14%) and C. orthopsilosis (4%). The candidemia incidence was 1.52 per 1000 admissions, and the crude mortality rate was 52%. One C. albicans isolate was resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. Moreover, 20.2%, 2.5% and 3.8% of the isolates exhibited dose-dependent susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin, respectively. In conclusion, although the C. glabrata incidence was higher than that usually described in Brazil, its increase was previously observed in studies conducted worldwide. Furthermore, the azole resistance of the C. albicans isolate could be due to previous exposure to these antifungals. These results highlight the importance of epidemiological studies and will facilitate an improved understanding of candidemia in the studied hospital. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Genetic relatedness among vaginal and anal isolates of Candida albicans from women with vulvovaginal candidiasis in north-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Paulo de Medeiros, Mariana; Vieira de Melo, Ana Patrícia; Gonçalves, Sarah Santos; Milan, Eveline Pipolo; Chaves, Guilherme Maranhão

    2014-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most common causes of vaginitis and affects about 75% of women of reproductive age. In order to better understand the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this disease, we evaluated genetic relatedness among 62 clinical isolates of Candida albicans sequentially obtained from the anus and vagina of patients with sporadic and recurrent VVC. Evaluation of patients' demographic and clinical data, direct examination, and colony forming units (c.f.u.) counts of vaginal and anal samples were also performed. The genotypes of strains were determined with ABC genotyping and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Genotype A was the most prevalent (93.6%), followed by genotype C (6.4%), whereas genotype B was not found. We found the maintenance of the same ABC genotype, regardless of the body site of each patient. Most of the vaginal strains suffered microevolution, whereas most of the anal strains were replaced during the period of study. Vaginal and anal isolates of C. albicans obtained simultaneously from the same patient showed the same ABC genotype and high genetic similarity as determined by RAPD. Genotype A seemed to be dominant in both vaginal and anal isolates of patients with VVC. Our results corroborate the hypothesis that there are 'substrains' of the C. albicans vaginal clone successfully established, which dominate in an apparently random manner over the course of time. It is suggested that the anal reservoir constitutes a possible source for vaginal infection in most of the cases. © 2014 The Authors.

  3. Molecular screening for Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis among Danish Candida parapsilosis group blood culture isolates: proposal of a new RFLP profile for differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Bruun, Brita; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2010-01-01

    . Isolates with RFLP patterns distinct from C. parapsilosis were characterized by sequence analysis of the ITS1-ITS2, 26S rRNA (D1/D2) and SADH regions. Restriction patterns for the 3 species with each of 610 restriction enzymes were predicted in silico using 12 available sequences. By PCR-RFLP of the SADH......, respectively. This was confirmed using the reference strains and 79 clinical isolates. In conclusion, reliable discrimination was obtained by PCR-RFLP profile analysis of the SADH gene after digestion with NlaIII but not with BanI. C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis are involved in a small but significant...

  4. Longitudinal genotyping of Candida dubliniensis isolates reveals strain maintenance, microevolution, and the emergence of itraconazole resistance.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fleischhacker, M

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the population structure of 208 Candida dubliniensis isolates obtained from 29 patients (25 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and 4 HIV negative) as part of a longitudinal study. The isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR) and then genotyped using the Cd25 probe specific for C. dubliniensis. The majority of the isolates (55 of 58) were unique to individual patients, and more than one genotype was recovered from 15 of 29 patients. A total of 21 HIV-positive patients were sampled on more than one occasion (2 to 36 times). Sequential isolates recovered from these patients were all closely related, as demonstrated by hybridization with Cd25 and genotyping by PCR. Six patients were colonized by the same genotype of C. dubliniensis on repeated sampling, while strains exhibiting altered genotypes were recovered from 15 of 21 patients. The majority of these isolates demonstrated minor genetic alterations, i.e., microevolution, while one patient acquired an unrelated strain. The C. dubliniensis strains could not be separated into genetically distinct groups based on patient viral load, CD4 cell count, or oropharyngeal candidosis. However, C. dubliniensis isolates obtained from HIV-positive patients were more closely related than those recovered from HIV-negative patients. Approximately 8% (16 of 194) of isolates exhibited itraconazole resistance. Cross-resistance to fluconazole was only observed in one of these patients. Two patients harboring itraconazole-resistant isolates had not received any previous azole therapy. In conclusion, longitudinal genotyping of C. dubliniensis isolates from HIV-infected patients reveals that isolates from the same patient are generally closely related and may undergo microevolution. In addition, isolates may acquire itraconazole resistance, even in the absence of prior azole therapy.

  5. The anthraquinones rubiadin and its 1-methyl ether isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata reduces Candida tropicalis biofilms formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Juliana; da Silva, María Angel; Cabrera, José Luis; Montoya, Susana C Núñez; Paraje, María Gabriela

    2016-11-15

    Candida tropicalis is increasingly becoming among the most commonly isolated pathogens causing fungal infections with an important biofilm-forming capacity. This study addresses the antifungal effect of rubiadin (AQ1) and rubiadin 1-methyl ether (AQ2), two photosensitizing anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from Heterophyllaea pustulata, against C. tropicalis biofilms, by studying the cellular stress and antioxidant response in two experimental conditions: darkness and irradiation. The combination with Amphotericin B (AmB) was assayed to evaluate the synergic effect. Biofilms of clinical isolates and reference strain of Candida tropicalis were treated with AQs (AQ1 or AQ2) and/or AmB, and the biofilms depletion was studied by crystal violet and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). The oxidant metabolites production and the response of antioxidant defense system were also evaluated under dark and irradiation conditions, being the light a trigger for photo-activation of the AQs. The Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) were detected by the reduction of Nitro Blue Tetrazolium test, and Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI) by the Griess assay. ROS accumulation was also detected inside biofilms by using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe, which was visualized by CSLM. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the total antioxidant capacity of biofilms were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The minimun inhibitory concentration for sessile cells (SMIC) was determined for each AQs and AmB. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated for the combinations of each AQ with AmB by the checkerboard microdilution method. Biofilm reduction of both strains was more effective with AQ1 than with AQ2. The antifungal effect was mediated by an oxidative and nitrosative stress under irradiation, with a significant accumulation of endogenous ROS detected by CSLM and an increase in the SOD activity. Thus, the prooxidant-antioxidant balance was

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and the correlation between triazoles susceptibility: Results from a five-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, J; Xu, J; Wang, T

    2018-06-01

    Candida spp. is a common cause of invasive fungal disease. The aim of this study was to examine the susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole and explore the correlation between triazoles susceptibility. The antifungal susceptibility in the present study was measured by ATB Fungus 3 method, and the potential relationship was examined by obtaining the correlation of measured minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Candida spp. isolates. A total of 2099 clinical isolates of Candida spp. from 1441 patients were analyzed. The organisms included 1435 isolates of Candida albicans, 207 isolates of Candida glabrata, 65 isolates of Candida parapsilosis, 31 isolates of Candida krusei, 268 isolates of Candida tropicalis. Voriconazole and itraconazole were more active than fluconazole and against Candida spp. in vitro. The fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole MIC 90 (MIC for 90% of the isolates) for all Candida spp. isolates was 4mg/L, 1mg/L and 0.25mg/L, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the fluconazole MIC s for Candida spp. isolates and this for voriconazole (R 2 =0.475; P<0.01) and itraconazole (R 2 =0.431; P<0.01). Voriconazole MICs for the Candida spp. isolates also correlated with those for itraconazole (R 2 =0.401; P<0.01). These observations suggest that the in vitro susceptibility of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole exhibits a moderate correlation. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Prevalence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis in caries-free and caries-active children in relation to the oral microbiota-a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmad, A; Auschill, T M; Dakhel, R; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Heumann, C; Hellwig, E; Arweiler, N B

    2016-11-01

    The correlation between caries and the oral prevalence of Candida spp. in children is contradictory in literature. Thereby, authors focused on Candida albicans as the most isolated Candida species from the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare caries-free and caries-bearing children regarding their oral carriage of Candida spp. Twenty-six caries-free (CF group) and 26 caries-active children (CA group) were included into this study. Three different types of specimens were assessed, saliva and plaque, and in the case of caries, infected dentine samples were microbiologically analyzed for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and their counts. Special attention was given to the differentiation between C. albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Additionally, different biochemical tests, VITEK 2 (VITEK®2, bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Etoile, France) and 16S and 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing, were applied for identification. The detection of C. albicans did not differ between the CF and CA groups. C. dubliniensis was never detected in any specimen of the CF group, but occurred in one quarter of the CA group (27 % in plaque, 23 % in saliva), thus leading to a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p oral Candida species-is an important determinant for identifying etiological factors of dental caries in children.

  8. Identification and antifungal susceptibility of Candida species isolated from the urine of patients in a university hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to identify Candida spp. isolated from candiduria episodes at a tertiary hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil, and to determine their susceptibility profiles to antifungal compounds. From May 2011 to April 2012, Candida spp. isolated from 106 adult patients with candiduria admitted to the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul were evaluated. Both, species identification and susceptibility testing with fluconazole-FLC, voriconazole-VRC, and amphotericin B-AmB were carried out using the Vitek 2. To discriminate species of the C. parapsilosis complex, a RAPD-PCR technique using the RPO2 primer was performed. From the total of 106 isolates, 42 (39.6% C. albicans and 64 (60.4% Candida non-albicans (CNA - 33 C. tropicalis, 18 C. glabrata, 5 C. krusei, 4 C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, 2 C. kefyr, 1 C. lusitaniae, and 1 C. guilliermondii were identified. All isolates were susceptible to AmB and VRC, whereas all C. glabrata isolates presented either resistance (5.6% or dose-dependent susceptibility (94.4% to FLC. The study of Candida spp. and their resistance profiles may help in tailoring more efficient therapeutic strategies for candiduria.

  9. Isolation of Candida dubliniensis for the first time in Cali, Colombia, and its identification with phenotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, María Inés; Suárez, Blanca Lynne; Caicedo, Luz Dary

    2009-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis is an emerging pathogenic yeast isolated mainly from the oral cavity of HIV-infected patients. The close phenotypic and genotypic relationship between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis has led to incorrectly identifying isolates of C. dubliniensis as C. albicans. The oral cavities of 107 diabetic patients were studied in Cali, Colombia, and 72 colonies of Candida, with shades of green on CHROMagar Candida culture media, were obtained. Various phenotypic tests were carried out, which included germ tube formation and production of chlamydospores on corn meal Agar. Additionally, growth studies were carried out at 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C and on Sabouraud agar with 6.5%, sodium chloride. Identification of C. dubliniensis with these tests was confirmed with API 20C Aux. We identified 65 and 7 colonies of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, respectively. This is the first time that C. dubliniensis is identified with phenotypic methods in Colombia.

  10. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    2018-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast isolates,

  11. Candida neustonensis sp. nov., a novel ascomycetous yeast isolated from the sea surface microlayer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu; Liu, Shiu-Mei

    2010-01-01

    A new ascomycetous yeast species, Candida neustonensis is proposed in this study based on four strains (SN92(T), SN47, SJ22, SJ25) isolated from sea surface microlayer in Taiwan. These four yeast strains were morphologically, physiologically and phylogenetically identical to each other. No sexual reproduction was observed on 5% malt extract agar, corn meal agar, V8 agar, McClary's acetate agar and potato-dextrose agar. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene places C. neustonensis as a member of the Pichia guilliermondii clade, it also reveals that the phylogenetically closest relatives of C. neustonensis are C. fukuyamaensis (4.4% divergence), C. xestobii (4.4% divergence) and P. guilliermondii (4.5% divergence). C. neustonensis also is clearly distinguished from other known species in the P. guilliermondii clade based on the results of physiology tests. From these comparison analyses, the following novel yeast species is proposed: Candida neustonensis sp. nov., with strain SN92(T) (= BCRC 23108(T) = JCM 14892(T) = CBS 11061(T)) as the type strain.

  12. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-01-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates w...

  13. First experience of Candida non-albicans isolates with high antibiotic resistance pattern caused oropharyngeal candidiasis among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enayatollah Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, oropharyngeal Candidiasis is a serious infection among cancer patients. The isolated Candida spp. were resistant to common antifungal agents, which may lead to longer hospital stay, more expensive/toxic drugs and higher mortality. Therefore, interval surveillance is necessary in developing institutional guidelines.

  14. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, P.; Badali, H.; Boekhout, T.; Diba, K.; Moghadam, A.G.; Hossaini Nasab, A.; Jafarian, H.; Mohammadi, R.; Mirhendi, H.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Shamsizadeh, A.; Soltani, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  15. ISOLATION OF THE CANDIDA TROPICALIS GENE FOR P450 LANOSTEROL DEMETHYLASE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN SACCAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have isolated the gene for cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14-demethylase (14DM) from the yeast Candida tropicalis. This was accomplished by screening genomic libraries of strain ATCC750 in E. coli using a DNA fragment containing the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae 14DM gene. Identi...

  16. Study of the prevalence and association of ocular chlamydial conjunctivitis in women with genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans attending outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between chlamydial conjunctivitis and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Candida albicans, in addition to the possible relationship between cultured bacterial pathogens and oculogenital chlamydial infection. This study was performed on 100 (50 symptomatic and 50 asymptomatic) women attending the Gynecological and Obstetric outpatient clinic of Alzahra hospital, Alazhar University. Simultaneously a conjunctival swab was taken from these patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was done on DNA extracted from both vaginal and conjunctival swab samples. Culture for both vaginal and conjunctival swabs was also done. Candida albicans was the predominant organism isolated by culture in 20% and 40% of conjunctival and vaginal swabs respectively. By the PCR method, ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was present in 60% of symptomatic women, while genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was present in 30% of symptomatic women. The results of this method also indicated that 25/50 (50%) vaginal swabs were positive with PCR for Candida albicans versus 15/50 (30%) were PCR positive in conjunctival swab. Mycoplasma genitalium was present in only 10% of vaginal swabs. Concomitant oculogenital PCR positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis and Candida albicans were 30% and 28% respectively. Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis was associated with genital Chlamydia trachomatis in a high percentage of women followed by Candida albicans. Cultured bacterial organisms do not play a role in enhancement of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

  17. Direct identification and recognition of yeast species from clinical material by using albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, C; Freydiere, A M; Gille, Y

    1996-02-01

    Two chromogenic media, Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates, were compared with a reference medium, Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar, and standard methods for the identification of yeast species. This study involved 951 clinical specimens. The detection rates for the two chromogenic media for polymicrobial specimens were 20% higher than that for the Sabouraud-chloramphenicol agar plates. The rates of identification of Candida albicans for Albicans ID and CHROMagar Candida agar plates were, respectively, 37.0 and 6.0% after 24 h of incubation and 93.6 and 92.2% after 72 h of incubation, with specificities of 99.8 and 100%. Furthermore, CHROMagar Candida plates identified 13 of 14 Candida tropicalis and 9 of 12 Candida krusei strains after 48 h of incubation.

  18. In vitro post-antifungal effect (PAFE) elicited by chlorhexidine gluconate on oral isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Ellepola, Arjuna N.B.; Samaranayake, Lakshman P.

    2011-01-01

    The post-antifungal effect (PAFE) is defined as the suppression of growth that persists following brief exposure of yeasts and other fungi to antimycotics and subsequent removal of the drug. There is no data available on the PAFE of chlorhexidine gluconate on oral isolates of Candida albicans. As chlorhexidine gluconate is by far the commonest antiseptic mouth wash prescribed in dentistry, the main aim of this investigation was to measure the PAFE of 10 oral isolates of C. albicans following ...

  19. Molecular Tools for Cryptic "Candida" Species Identification with Applications in a Clinical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefania; Vera Garate, Maria Veronica; Guerrero, Sergio; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    "Candida" spp. includes more than 160 species but only 20 species pose clinical problems. "C. albicans" and "C. parapsilosis" account for more than 75% of all the fungemias worldwide. In 1995 and 2005, one "C. albicans" and two "C. parapsilosis"-related species were described, respectively. Using…

  20. Formulation of mayonnaise with the addition of a bioemulsifier isolated from Candida utilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenyffer M. Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants have a number of industrial applications due their diverse properties, such as emulsification, foaming, wetting, and surface activity. The aim of the present study was to produce a biosurfactant from Candida utilis and employ it in the formulation of a mayonnaise. The biosurfactant was produced in a mineral medium supplemented with glucose and canola waste frying oil at 150 rpm for 88 h. The product was biologically tested on rats and in different formulations of mayonnaise, which were submitted to microbiological evaluations. The biosurfactant was added to the diet of the rats for 21 days. Greater consumption was found of the experimental diet. Moreover, no changes were found in the liver or kidneys of the animals, demonstrating the absence of a toxic effect from the biosurfactant. Six different formulations of mayonnaise were prepared and tested regarding stability with the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose and guar gum (combined and isolated after 30 days of refrigeration. The most stable formulation with the best quality was obtained with combination of guar gum and the isolated biosurfactant, with an absence of pathogenic microorganisms. In conclusion, the potential and innocuousness of the biosurfactant isolated from C. utilis indicates its safe use in food emulsions.

  1. Antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida species isolated from the immunocompromised patients admitted to ten university hospitals in Iran : comparison of colonizing and infecting isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Boekhout, Teun; Diba, Kambiz; Moghadam, Abdolkarim Ghadimi; Hossaini Nasab, Ali; Jafarian, Hadis; Mohammadi, Rasoul; Mirhendi, Hossein; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Shamsizadeh, Ahmad; Soltani, Jafar

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antifungal susceptibility testing is a subject of interest in the field of medical mycology. The aim of the present study were the distributions and antifungal susceptibility patterns of various Candida species isolated from colonized and infected immunocompromised patients admitted to

  2. β-Glucan induces reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils to improve the killing of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonça

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is among the most prevalent vaginal diseases. Candida albicans is still the most prevalent species associated with this pathology, however, the prevalence of other Candida species, such as C. glabrata, is increasing. The pathogenesis of these infections has been intensely studied, nevertheless, no consensus has been reached on the pathogenicity of VVC. In addition, inappropriate treatment or the presence of resistant strains can lead to RVVC (vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrent. Immunomodulation therapy studies have become increasingly promising, including with the β-glucans. Thus, in the present study, we evaluated microbicidal activity, phagocytosis, intracellular oxidant species production, oxygen consumption, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, and the release of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-8 (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra in neutrophils previously treated or not with β-glucan. In all of the assays, human neutrophils were challenged with C. albicans and C. glabrata isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. β-glucan significantly increased oxidant species production, suggesting that β-glucan may be an efficient immunomodulator that triggers an increase in the microbicidal response of neutrophils for both of the species isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis. The effects of β-glucan appeared to be mainly related to the activation of reactive oxygen species and modulation of cytokine release.

  3. Comparison of Candida species isolated from children with and without early childhood caries: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Beena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood caries (ECC is characterized by the presence of one or more decayed, missing (due to caries, or filled teeth surfaces in any primary tooth, in a child below 6 years of age. Although ECC is primarily associated with high levels of maternal Streptococcus mutans, there has been an increased interest in finding the relationship between oral fungal flora and dental caries. Objective: The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the Candida species and to compare the candidal isolates in children with ECC and without ECC. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on children below 6 years of age, who were categorized into ECC and non-ECC groups of fifty children each. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs and were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Candidal colonies were isolated, species identified and virulence factors tested for both ECC and non-ECC groups. Results: The candidal carriage among the ECC children was found to be 84%, which was significantly higher than the non-ECC group of 24%. Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC were isolated in both ECC and non-ECC groups. Phospholipase production was significantly high in ECC group whereas hemolysin production and germ tube formation showed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: A significant correlation was found between the presence of Candida and ECC. NAC also plays an important role in the development of ECC. The virulence factors such as phospholipase may be responsible for the pathogenicity of Candida in the development of ECC.

  4. Estudo da incidência de amostras clínicas do gênero Candida isoladas de diversos sítios anatômicos = Study of the incidence of clinical samples belonging to the genus Candida obtained from different anatomic sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Furlaneto-Maia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A candidíase, principal infecção fúngica do ser humano, é provocada por leveduras do gênero Candida, que fazem parte da microbiota endógena e exógena do corpo humano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença das espécies de Candida spp, em diversos sítiosanatômicos. Um total de 90 amostras clínicas foram isoladas em ágar Sabouraud contendo antibióticos e identificadas em meio cromogênico CHROMagar Candida®. Deste total, 58 amostras foram provenientes de secreção vaginal, 17 de raspado de unha, 8 de escarro e 7 deraspado de pele. Das amostras de secreção vaginal, 89% corresponderam a espécie C. albicans, seguido de espécies de Candida não-albicans, sendo 5,1% de C. krusei e 1,7% de C. glabrata, C. tropicalis e Candida sp., individualmente. Para as amostras isoladas de raspado de pele não foi observada prevalência de C. albicans (28%. As espécies Candida não-albicans corresponderam a 70% das amostras, sendo distribuídas em C. glabrata (14%, C. krusei (28% e demais espécies de Candida (28%. A prevalência de espécies Candida não-albicans foi também observada para as amostras isoladas de raspado de unha, sendo que 29% foram caracterizadas como C. glabrata, 23% C. krusei e Candida sp., individualmente e 11% de C. tropicalis. Amostras de C. albicans, isoladas neste sítio anatômico, representaram somente 11%. Em amostras obtidas de escarro foi observada somente duas espécies, com prevalência de C. albicans (75% seguida de C. tropicalis (25%. As amostras identificadas como C. albicans em meio CHROMagar Candida®, foram confirmadas quanto ao crescimento a 42ºC e pelo emprego da técnica de seminested PCR.Candidiasis is the main human fungal infection caused by yeasts of the genus Candida which are part of endogenous microflora of thehuman body. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of Candida species obtained from different infection processes. A total of 90 clinical samples were isolated in

  5. The production of arabitol by a novel plant yeast isolate Candida parapsilosis 27RL-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordowska-Wiater Monika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polyalcohol arabitol can be used in the food and pharmaceutical industries as a natural sweetener, a dental caries reducer, and texturing agent. Environmental samples were screened to isolate effective yeast producers of arabitol. The most promising isolate 27RL-4, obtained from raspberry leaves, was identified genetically and biochemically as Candida parapsilosis. It secreted 10.42– 10.72 g l-1 of product from 20 g l-1 of L-arabinose with a yield of 0.51 - 0.53 g g-1 at 28°C and a rotational speed of 150 rpm. Batch cultures showed that optimal pH value for arabitol production was 5.5. High yields and productivities of arabitol were obtained during incubation of the yeast at 200 rpm, or at 32°C, but the concentrations of the polyol did not exceed 10 g l-1. In modified medium, with reduced amounts of nitrogen compounds and pH 5.5-6.5, lower yeast biomass produced a similar concentration of arabitol, suggesting higher efficiency of yeast cells. This strain also produced arabitol from glucose, with much lower yields. The search for new strains able to successfully produce arabitol is important for allowing the utilization of sugars abundant in plant biomass.

  6. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Umiker, Nicole L.; Arneborg, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO2, ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a......, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO2 in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (103-104 cfu/ml) along with lower...... populations of Saccharomyces (red grape juice and red wine incubated at two temperatures, 15 C and 21 C. Although Saccharomyces quickly dominated fermentations in grape juice, B1b and Q2 grew and eventually reached populations >105 cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth...

  7. Species-Specific and Drug-Specific Differences in Susceptibility of Candida Biofilms to Echinocandins: Characterization of Less Common Bloodstream Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simitsopoulou, Maria; Peshkova, Pavla; Tasina, Efthymia; Katragkou, Aspasia; Kyrpitzi, Daniela; Velegraki, Aristea; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida species other than Candida albicans are increasingly recognized as causes of biofilm-associated infections. This is a comprehensive study that compared the in vitro activities of all three echinocandins against biofilms formed by different common and infrequently identified Candida isolates. We determined the activities of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MFG) against planktonic cells and biofilms of bloodstream isolates of C. albicans (15 strains), Candida parapsilosis (6 strains), Candida lusitaniae (16 strains), Candida guilliermondii (5 strains), and Candida krusei (12 strains) by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. Planktonic and biofilm MICs were defined as ≥50% fungal damage. Planktonic cells of all Candida species were susceptible to the three echinocandins, with MICs of ≤1 mg/liter. By comparison, differences in the MIC profiles of biofilms in response to echinocandins existed among the Candida species. Thus, C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii biofilms were highly recalcitrant to all echinocandins, with MICs of ≥32 mg/liter. In contrast, the MICs of all three echinocandins for C. albicans and C. krusei biofilms were relatively low (MICs ≤ 1 mg/liter). While echinocandins exhibited generally high MICs against C. parapsilosis biofilms, MFG exhibited the lowest MICs against these isolates (4 mg/liter). A paradoxical growth effect was observed with CAS concentrations ranging from 8 to 64 mg/liter against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis biofilms but not against C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, or C. guilliermondii. While non-albicans Candida planktonic cells were susceptible to all echinocandins, there were drug- and species-specific differences in susceptibility among biofilms of the various Candida species, with C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii exhibiting profiles of high MICs of the three echinocandins. PMID:23529739

  8. Pathogenic characteristics of Candida albicans isolated from oral cavities of denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothibe, J V; Patel, M

    2017-09-01

    Candida albicans cause opportunistic infections including oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. It has an ability to cause infection due to its virulence factors. This study investigated the pathogenic characteristics of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavities of healthy subjects and two vulnerable groups, denture wearers and cancer patients wearing oral prostheses. Oral rinse samples were collected and cultured for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of Candida. Twenty strains of C. albicans isolated from the healthy individuals and denture wearers and, 14 strains isolated from the cancer patients were selected and their pathogenic characteristics were measured. The results of the study groups were compared using a Scheffe test for pairwise comparison and a chi square test. Denture wearer and cancer patients with prostheses carried significantly higher number (p production were significantly higher in the strains from denture wearers. In addition, high number of isolates from the denture wearers produced phospholipase and proteinase (85% and 80% respectively) compared to the strains from normal subjects (25% and 60% respectively). Only the germ tube formation and adherence ability were significantly higher in the strains from the cancer patients with prostheses (p = 0.05 and p oral cavity and prostheses is important in the prevention of colonization of Candida and the development of oral candidiasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  10. Evaluation of Caspofungin Susceptibility Testing by the New Vitek 2 AST-YS06 Yeast Card Using a Unique Collection of FKS Wild-Type and Hot Spot Mutant Isolates, Including the Five Most Common Candida Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astvad, Karen M; Perlin, David S; Johansen, Helle K

    2013-01-01

    FKS mutant isolates associated with breakthrough or failure cases are emerging in clinical settings. Discrimination of these from wild-type (wt) isolates in a routine laboratory setting is complicated. We evaluated the ability of caspofungin MIC determination using the new Vitek 2 AST-Y06 yeast...... susceptibility card to correctly identify the fks mutants from wt isolates and compared the performance to those of the CLSI and EUCAST reference methods. A collection of 98 Candida isolates, including 31 fks hot spot mutants, were included. Performance was evaluated using the FKS genotype as the "gold standard...

  11. Identification of Candida species by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of intergenic spacer regions of ribosomal DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D W; Wilson, M J; Lewis, M A; Potts, A J

    1995-01-01

    The PCR was used to amplify a targeted region of the ribosomal DNA from 84 Candida isolates. Unique product sizes were obtained for Candida guilliermondii, Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata, and Candida pseudotropicalis. Isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida stellatoidea, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei could be identified following restriction digestion of the PCR products.

  12. An Update on Candida tropicalis Based on Basic and Clinical Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida tropicalis has emerged as one of the most important Candida species. It has been widely considered the second most virulent Candida species, only preceded by C. albicans. Besides, this species has been recognized as a very strong biofilm producer, surpassing C. albicans in most of the studies. In addition, it produces a wide range of other virulence factors, including: adhesion to buccal epithelial and endothelial cells; the secretion of lytic enzymes, such as proteinases, phospholipases, and hemolysins, bud-to-hyphae transition (also called morphogenesis) and the phenomenon called phenotypic switching. This is a species very closely related to C. albicans and has been easily identified with both phenotypic and molecular methods. In addition, no cryptic sibling species were yet described in the literature, what is contradictory to some other medically important Candida species. C. tropicalis is a clinically relevant species and may be the second or third etiological agent of candidemia, specifically in Latin American countries and Asia. Antifungal resistance to the azoles, polyenes, and echinocandins has already been described. Apart from all these characteristics, C. tropicalis has been considered an osmotolerant microorganism and this ability to survive to high salt concentration may be important for fungal persistence in saline environments. This physiological characteristic makes this species suitable for use in biotechnology processes. Here we describe an update of C. tropicalis, focusing on all these previously mentioned subjects. PMID:29081766

  13. Antifungal Effects of Gold Nanoparticles Conjugated Fluconazole against Fluconazole Resistant Strains of Candida albicans Isolated From Patients with Chronic Vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Memarian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A number of women with volvuvaginal candidiasis suffer from certain chronic and recurrent types of this infection that affect their quality of life. Meanwhile, increased use of antifungal drugs, especially azoles, for treatment of chronic candidiasis is an important factor for incidence of drug resistance in Candida isolates from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to investigate anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole to develop better drugs for treatment of patients with candidal vaginitis, especially its chronic type. Methods: After collection of 300 vaginal swab specimens and culture and isolation of primary colonies and determination of Candida species, fluconazole resistant strains of Candida albicans were detected using disc diffusion. Finally, antifungal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole and fluconazole were compared by broth microdilution. Results: Only one fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans was isolated from patients (MIC=64µg/ml. The results obtained from drug susceptibility test showed that this strain was sensitive to gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole (MIC=2µg/ml. Conclusion: Given the optimal anticandidal effects of gold nanoparticles conjugated fluconazole on resistant strains of C. albicans, a suitable compound with great anticandidal properties may be achieved in the future.

  14. Candida halmiae sp. nov., Geotrichum ghanense sp. nov. and Candida awuaii sp. nov., isolated from Ghanaian cocoa fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    During an investigation of the microbiology of Ghanaian cocoa fermentations, a number of yeast isolates with unusual pheno- and genotypic properties representing three possible novel species were isolated. Members of Group A divided by multilateral budding and ascospores were not produced. Group B...

  15. Susceptibility of Candida albicans Isolated from Blood to Wickerhamomyces anomalous Mycocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Ana Paula; Persel, Cristiane; Serafin, Cleber Fernando; de Cássia Garcia Simão, Rita; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2016-12-01

    The occurrence of infections caused by Candida albicans in developed and developing countries and their resistance to some available antifungal drugs have been viewed as causing a great problem to human health worldwide. In order to find new researched molecules, there are some mycoses secreted by yeasts, especially mycocins produced by Wickerhamomyces anomalus with a broad antimicrobial spectrum of activity. Thus, this trial aimed at evaluating mycocins' activity obtained from environmental W. anomalus cell wall compared to thirty C. albicans strains isolated from blood. Mycocins were extracted from cell walls of three W. anomalus strains (WA40, WA45, and WA92). The 400 μg mL -1 concentration of WA40M1, WA45M2, and WA92M3 mycocin extracts showed the following respective activity results: 96.6, 96.6, and 90.0 % C. albicans strains. WA45M2 and WA92M3 mycocin extracts showed some activity in 3.3 % of C. albicans strains at 50 μg mL -1 concentration. Mycocins extracted from cell walls of three W. anomalus strains named as WA40, WA45, and WA92 showed antifungal activity compared to C. albicans and low degree of hemolysis.

  16. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  17. Removal of Heavy Metals from Synthesis Industrial Wastewater Using Local Isolated Candida Utilis and Aspergillus Niger as Bio-Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Safaa Abd Alrasool Ali

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass filter of Candida Utilis which isolated from food sample in Baghdad local market and Aspergillus Niger which isolated from Baghdad soil used to biosorption heavy metals from synthesis industrial wastewater. two bio-filters were designed as cylindrical Perspex with height 10cm, diameter 3cm as a shell and inside their are layers of Sponge were prepare as the size of diameter of the cylindrical filter with thickness of 2cm arrange inside it, biomass production were 6 g of ...

  18. Rapid identification of bacteria and candida using pna-fish from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures: a retrospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris Dana M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH is a rapid and established method for identification of Candida sp., Gram positive, and Gram negative bacteria from positive blood cultures. This study reports clinical experience in the evaluation of 103 positive blood cultures and 17 positive peritoneal fluid cultures from 120 patients using PNA-FISH. Our study provides evidence as to potential pharmaceutical cost savings based on rapid pathogen identification, in addition to the novel application of PNA-FISH to peritoneal fluid specimens. Methods Identification accuracy and elapsed time to identification of Gram positives, Gram negatives, and Candida sp., isolated from blood and peritoneal fluid cultures were assessed using PNA-FISH (AdvanDx, as compared to standard culture methods. Patient charts were reviewed to extrapolate potential pharmaceutical cost savings due to adjustment of antimicrobial or antifungal therapy, based on identification by PNA-FISH. Results In blood cultures, time to identification by standard culture methods for bacteria and Candida sp., averaged 83.6 hours (95% CI 56.7 to 110.5. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 11.2 hours (95% CI 4.8 to 17.6. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 98.8% (83/84, 95% CI 93.5% to 99.9% as compared to culture. In peritoneal fluid, identification of bacteria by culture averaged 87.4 hours (95% CI −92.4 to 267.1. Identification by PNA-FISH averaged 16.4 hours (95% CI −57.3 to 90.0. Overall PNA-FISH identification accuracy was 100% (13/13, 95% CI 75.3% to 100%. For Candida sp., pharmaceutical cost savings based on PNA-FISH identification could be $377.74/day. For coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, discontinuation of vancomycin could result in savings of $20.00/day. Conclusions In this retrospective study, excellent accuracy of PNA-FISH in blood and peritoneal fluids with reduced time to identification was observed, as compared to

  19. Rapid and reliable MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification of Candida non-albicans isolates from bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcrano, Giovanna; Iula, Dora Vita; Vollaro, Antonio; Tucci, Alessandra; Cerullo, Monica; Esposito, Matilde; Rossano, Fabio; Catania, Maria Rosaria

    2013-09-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) fingerprinting has recently become an effective instrument for rapid microbiological diagnostics and in particular for identification of micro-organisms directly in a positive blood culture. The aim of the study was to evaluate a collection of 82 stored yeast isolates from bloodstream infection, by MALDI-TOF MS; 21 isolates were identified also directly from positive blood cultures and in the presence of other co-infecting micro-organisms. Of the 82 isolates grown on plates, 64 (76%) were correctly identified by the Vitek II system and 82 (100%) by MALDI-TOF MS; when the two methods gave different results, the isolate was identified by PCR. MALDI-TOF MS was unreliable in identifying two isolates (Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis) directly from blood culture; however, direct analysis from positive blood culture samples was fast and effective for the identification of yeast, which is of great importance for early and adequate treatment. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of Virulence Factors In vitro, Resistance to Osmotic Stress and Antifungal Susceptibility of Candida tropicalis Isolated from the Coastal Environment of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuza-Alves, Diana L.; de Medeiros, Sayama S. T. Q.; de Souza, Luanda B. F. C.; Silva-Rocha, Walicyranison P.; Francisco, Elaine C.; de Araújo, Maria C. B.; Lima-Neto, Reginaldo G.; Neves, Rejane P.; Melo, Analy S. de Azevedo; Chaves, Guilherme M.

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been developed regarding human health risks associated with the recreational use of beaches contaminated with domestic sewage. These wastes contain various micro-organisms, including Candida tropicalis. In this context, the objective of this study was to characterize C. tropicalis isolates from the sandy beach of Ponta Negra, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, regarding the expression of in vitro virulence factors, adaptation to osmotic stress and susceptibility to antifungal drugs. We analyzed 62 environmental isolates and observed a great variation among them for the various virulence factors evaluated. In general, environmental isolates were more adherent to human buccal epithelial cells (HBEC) than C. tropicalis ATCC13803 reference strain, and they also showed increased biofilm production. Most of the isolates presented wrinkled phenotypes on Spider medium (34 isolates, 54.8%). The majority of the isolates also showed higher proteinase production than control strains, but low phospholipase activity. In addition, 35 isolates (56.4%) had high hemolytic activity (hemolysis index > 0.55). With regard to C. tropicalis resistance to osmotic stress, 85.4% of the isolates were able to grow in a liquid medium containing 15% sodium chloride. The strains were highly resistant to the azoles tested (fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole). Fifteen strains were resistant to the three azoles tested (24.2%). Some strains were also resistant to amphotericin B (14 isolates; 22.6%), while all of them were susceptible for the echinocandins tested, except for a single strain of intermediate susceptibility to micafungin. Our results demonstrate that C. tropicalis isolated from the sand can fully express virulence attributes and showed a high persistence capacity on the coastal environment; in addition of showing high minimal inhibitory concentrations to several antifungal drugs used in current clinical practice, demonstrating that environmental isolates may

  1. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  2. Genomic and Phenotypic Variation in Morphogenetic Networks of Two Candida albicans Isolates Subtends Their Different Pathogenic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Cavalieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from commensalism to pathogenicity of Candida albicans reflects both the host inability to mount specific immune responses and the microorganism’s dimorphic switch efficiency. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing and microarray analysis to investigate the genomic determinants of the phenotypic changes observed in two C. albicans clinical isolates (YL1 and YQ2. In vitro experiments employing epithelial, microglial, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were thus used to evaluate C. albicans isolates interaction with first line host defenses, measuring adhesion, susceptibility to phagocytosis, and induction of secretory responses. Moreover, a murine model of peritoneal infection was used to compare the in vivo pathogenic potential of the two isolates. Genome sequence and gene expression analysis of C. albicans YL1 and YQ2 showed significant changes in cellular pathways involved in environmental stress response, adhesion, filamentous growth, invasiveness, and dimorphic transition. This was in accordance with the observed marked phenotypic differences in biofilm production, dimorphic switch efficiency, cell adhesion, invasion, and survival to phagocyte-mediated host defenses. The mutations in key regulators of the hyphal growth pathway in the more virulent strain corresponded to an overall greater number of budding yeast cells released. Compared to YQ2, YL1 consistently showed enhanced pathogenic potential, since in vitro, it was less susceptible to ingestion by phagocytic cells and more efficient in invading epithelial cells, while in vivo YL1 was more effective than YQ2 in recruiting inflammatory cells, eliciting IL-1β response and eluding phagocytic cells. Overall, these results indicate an unexpected isolate-specific variation in pathways important for host invasion and colonization, showing how the genetic background of C. albicans may greatly affect its behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Based on this approach, we

  3. Rresence of different Candida species at denture wearers with type 2 diabetes and clinically healthy oral mucosa: Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Matić-Petrović, Sanja; Barać, Milena; Kuzmanović-Pfićer, Jovana; Radunović, Milena; Jotić, Aleksandra; Pucar, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Background/Aim: The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of different Candida spp. at diabetics and nondiabetics wearing dentures without clinical signs of Denture Stomatitis (DS) and to study if some local and systematic factors are confounders for harboring Candida at these subjects. Material and Methods: Total of 60 subjects wearing partial or complete upper acrylic denture having at least half of palatal mucosa covered by denture were selected and stratified into three experimental...

  4. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshami, Issam; Alharbi, Ahmed E

    2014-02-01

    To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract. In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  5. Susceptibility to antifungal agents and enzymatic activity of Candida haemulonii and Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis isolated from soft corals on the Brazilian reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Danielle M; Heidrich, Daiane; Paulino, Gustavo V B; de Oliveira Alves, Karine; Dalbem, Paula T; de Oliveira, Caroline F; Andrade, Zélia M M; Silva, Carolini; Correia, Monica D; Scroferneker, Maria Lúcia; Valente, Patricia; Landell, Melissa Fontes

    2016-12-01

    Candida is a common fungus with the capacity to cause infections in humans. However, most studies have concentrated on clinical isolates and little is known about the identity, ecology and drug resistance of free living species/strains. Here, we isolate eight strains of Candida haemulonii and four strains of Cutaneotrichosporon dermatis from three marine cnidarian zoanthids species (Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Zoanthus sociatus) collected from Brazilian coral reefs. Strains were identified by sequencing of the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA and ITS region. We tested these environmental isolates for their capacity to grow in media with increasing concentration of NaCl, capacity to grow in different temperatures, enzymatic activity and antifungal susceptibility. For C. haemulonii, all strains strongly produced gelatinase, esterase and albuminase and were either able to express lipase, phospholipase and keratinase, but not express urease and DNase. The strains were able to grow at 37 °C, but not at 39 °C, and except for LMS 40, all of them could grow in a 10 % NaCl medium. All isolates were resistant to all antifungals tested, with exception for ketoconazole and tioconazole (MIC = 2 µg/mL). For C. dermatis, all strains could grow at 39 °C and could not express phospholipase, keratinase or gelatinase. However, all were capable of expressing urease, lipase and esterase. Three out of four strains could grow in a 10 % NaCl medium, but none grew in a 30 % NaCl medium. The strains showed high values of minimal inhibitory concentration. LMPV 90 was resistant to tioconazole, terbinafine, fluconazole and posaconazole, and LMS 38 was resistant to all antifungal agents tested. We discuss the characterization of C. haemulonii and C. dermatis as a possible emerging pathogen due to its animal-related enzymatic arsenal and antifungal resistance.

  6. Evaluation of the Effects of Incubation Temperature and Ph On the Susceptibility of Candida Albicans Isolates to Ketoconazole Invitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Katiraee

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis, as an opportunistic infection, is caused by the Candida species. Although Candida albicans is classified in the body as an endogenic flora, it plays an important role in creating Candida related diseases. Candida vulvovaginitis in pregnant women, diabetes mellitus patients and those using multiple antibiotics and contraceptive drugs demonstrates the high resistance of the organism against conventional medication. On the other hand, recurrent vaginitis disintegrates the long-term process of treatment in majority of the patients. The present research was done with the aim of determining the optimum conditions for susceptibility testing before retreatment of patients. Methods: 10 isolates of Candida albicans obtained from 31 suspected patients suffering from recurrent Candida vaginitis were incubated with ketoconazole at two pH of 7.2 and 5.5 and two temperatures of 35ºC and 27ºC. The Microdilution broth test technique was used. The RPMI 1640 medium within the 96 well microplates with range of 12 tests was used to determine the MIC50 , MIC90 and MFC of the drug. Results: The obtained MIC50, MIC90 and MFC for ketoconazole at these conditions (T=35ºC and pH=7.2 were 0.25 to 1 µg/ml, 1 to 4 µg/ml and 64 to ≥ 512 µg/ml respectively, while these values at 27ºC, pH 5.5 were 1 to 8 µg/ml, 8 to 64 µg/ml and 512 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, at 35ºC and pH 5.5 the values were 1 to 8 µg/ml, 4 to 32 µg/ml, 256 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, while at 27ºC and pH 7.2 the values were 1 to 2 µg/ml, 8 to 32 µg/ml, 128 to ≥ 512 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The obtained results confirmed that conditions with temperature of 35ºC and pH 7.2 resulted in better treatment outcomes than other conditions.

  7. Update on clinically isolated syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenot, Éric

    2015-04-01

    Optic neuritis, myelitis and brainstem syndrome accompanied by a symptomatic MRI T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity and T1 hypointensity are highly suggestive of multiple sclerosis (MS) in young adults. They are called "clinically isolated syndrome" (CIS) and correspond to the typical first multiple sclerosis (MS) episode, especially when associated with other asymptomatic demyelinating lesions, without clinical, radiological and immunological sign of differential diagnosis. After a CIS, the delay of apparition of a relapse, which corresponds to the conversion to clinically definite MS (CDMS), varies from several months to more than 10 years (10-15% of cases, generally called benign RRMS). This delay is generally associated with the number and location of demyelinating lesions of the brain and spinal cord and the results of CSF analysis. Several studies comparing different MRI criteria for dissemination in space and dissemination in time of demyelinating lesions, two hallmarks of MS, provided enough substantial data to update diagnostic criteria for MS after a CIS. In the last revision of the McDonald's criteria in 2010, diagnostic criteria were simplified and now the diagnosis can be made by a single initial scan that proves the presence of active asymptomatic lesions (with gadolinium enhancement) and of unenhanced lesions. However, time to conversion remains highly unpredictable for a given patient and CIS can remain isolated, especially for idiopathic unilateral optic neuritis or myelitis. Univariate analyses of clinical, radiological, biological or electrophysiological characteristics of CIS patients in small series identified numerous risk factors of rapid conversion to MS. However, large series of CIS patients analyzing several characteristics of CIS patients and the influence of disease modifying therapies brought important information about the risk of CDMS or RRMS over up to 20 years of follow-up. They confirmed the importance of the initial MRI pattern of

  8. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  9. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of oral candida species from Iranian HIV infected patients

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    Katiraee F

    2012-05-01

    Results: Candida albicans (50.2% was the most frequent isolated yeast, followed by C. glabrata (22%. Non-Candida albicans species were isolated from 71 (61% positive cultures. 25.7% of Candida albicans isolates were resistant to fluconazole (MIC≥64 µg/ml as were 21.9% and 16.4% to ketoconazole and clotrimazole (MIC>0.125 µg/ml, respectively. Resistance to polyene antifungals including amphotericin B and nystatin, and caspofungin were scarce. 57.7% of candida glabrata isolates were resistant to fluconazole, 31% to ketoconazole and 35% to clotrimazole. Conclusion: Screening for antifungal resistant candida isolates by disk diffusion or broth dilution methods in clinical laboratories is an ideal surveillance measure in the management of oral thrush in patients with HIV/AIDS. Although nystatin is widely used in clinical practice for HIV positive patients, there was no evidence of enhanced resistance to it. Regarding no resistance to caspofungin, its administration is suggested.

  10. Antimicrobial Effect of Bacteriocin produced Pediococcus pentosaceus on some clinical isolates

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    Nehad A. Taher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available About 10 isolates of Pediococcus sp were isolated from different cheese made in Iraq, These isolates were identified morphologically and biochemically and Api20 kit, thus there was only 6 isolate were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus (60%.In this study, we investigate, the effect of crude Bacteriocin from Pediococcus pentosaceus on 30 clinical isolates (5 E.coli, 5 Klepsiella pneumoniae, 5 Staphylococcus aureus, 5 Pseudomonas aeroginosa, 5 Bacillus subtilis, 5 Candida albicans. The protein concentration of this Bacteriocin was measured 67mg\\ml by Bradford method and used as (1:2 by vol during the measuring the antimicrobial activity against the above clinical isolates by two methods wells and  agar plug assay. The results showed that  the inhibitory activity of this Bacteriocin was higher by wells method than agar pluq assay against Gram–positive bacteria or Gram-negative bacteria and yeast under this study.

  11. Evaluation of chromogenic media and seminested PCR in the identification of Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daef, Enas; Moharram, Ahmed; Eldin, Salwa Seif; Elsherbiny, Nahla; Mohammed, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Identification of Candida cultured from various clinical specimens to the species level is increasingly necessary for clinical laboratories. Although sn PCR identifies the species within hours but its cost-effectiveness is to be considered. So there is always a need for media which help in the isolation and identification at the species level. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of different chromogenic media and to compare the effectiveness of the traditional phenotypic methods vs. seminested polymerase chain reaction (sn PCR) for identification of Candida species. One hundred and twenty seven Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens were identified by conventional methods, four different chromogenic media and sn PCR. HiCrome Candida Differential and CHROMagar Candida media showed comparably high sensitivities and specificities in the identification of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei. CHROMagar Candida had an extra advantage of identifying all C. parapsilosis isolates. CHROMagar-Pal’s medium identified C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei with high sensitivities and specificities, but couldn’t identify C. glabrata or C. parapsilosis. It was the only medium that identified C. dubliniensis with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Biggy agar showed the least sensitivities and specificities. The overall concordance of the snPCR compared to the conventional tests including CHROMAgar Candida in the identification of Candida species was 97.5%. The use of CHROMAgar Candida medium is an easy and accurate method for presumptive identification of the most commonly encountered Candida spp. PMID:24948942

  12. Mini-chromosomes among danish Candida glabrata isolates originated through two different mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, K. M.; Ishchuk, O.; Hellborg, L.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 201 strains of the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata from patients, mainly suffering from systemic infection, at Danish hospitals during 1985 – 1999. Our analysis showed that these strains were closely related but exhibited large karyotype polymorphism. Nine strains contained mini-chr...

  13. Evaluation of Etest and macrodilution broth method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida sp strains isolated from oral cavities of AIDS patients

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    SILVA Maria do Rosário R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of the Etest and the reference broth macrodilution susceptibility test for fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin B was performed with 59 of Candida species isolated from the oral cavities of AIDS patients. The Etest method was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions, and the reference method was performed according to National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards document M27-A guidelines. Our data showed that there was a good correlation between the MICs obtained by the Etest and broth dilution methods. When only the MIC results at ± 2 dilutions for both methods were considered, the agreement rates were 90.4% for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B and 84.6% for fluconazole of the C. albicans tested. In contrast, to the reference method, the Etest method classified as susceptible three fluconazole-resistant isolates and one itraconazole-resistant isolate, representing four very major errors. These results indicate that Etest could be considered useful for antifungal sensitivity evaluation of yeasts in clinical laboratories.

  14. Antifungal susceptibility testing of vulvovaginal Candida species among women attending antenatal clinic in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar

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    Khan M

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Khan,1 Jawad Ahmed,2 Amina Gul,3 Aamer Ikram,1 Farida Khurram Lalani1 1Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, National University of Management Sciences, CMH Rawalpindi, Rawalpindi, Pakistan; 2Department of Microbiology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Microbiology, Khyber Medical College, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is considered as a pervasive gynecological problem among women worldwide. Owing to this fact, in the current study, we aimed at assessing the prevalence rate of Candida spp. causing VVC in symptomatic pregnant women and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Methods: This study was carried out in the tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar during the period of July 1, 2016 to December 31, 2016. The study group included 450 pregnant women in the age group of 17–44 years with symptoms of excessive vaginal discharge, pain and pruritis. In all, 108 pregnant women were culture positive for Candida. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST was conducted on specimens against various azoles and polyene F group of antifungals. Results: Out of 108 Candida spp. isolated from vaginal swabs, there were 45 (41.7% Candida albicans, 18 (16.7% Candida tropicalis, 18 (16.7% Candida krusei, 16 (14.8% Candida glabrata and 11 (10.2% Candida dubliniensis. According to age distribution, 27 years was the mean age. Pregnancy trimester distribution among patients was as follows: 21 (19.4% patients were in their first trimester, 65 (60.2% patients were in their second trimester and 22 (20.4% patients were in the third trimester. Susceptibility of fluconazole was determined as follows: 33.3% of the Candida isolates were sensitive, 4.6% were susceptible dose dependent (SDD and 62% were resistant. Susceptibility of Candida spp. with respect to nystatin in patients with VVC was as follows: 25% were

  15. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

    1995-01-01

    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  16. Identification of Candida species isolated from cows suffering mastitis in four Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.A. Sartori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A mastite representa um dos problemas mais sérios que afetam as fazendas de gado leiteiro. As mastites clínica e subclínica em bovinos, devido a leveduras, são causadas principalmente por espécies do gênero Candida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar quais espécies dessa levedura estavam presentes em amostras de leite obtidas da glândula mamária de vacas apresentando mastite. Um total de 428 amostras de leite foi coletado nos estados de São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul. A identificação foi realizada por meio de critérios fenotípicos e fisiológicos. Foi possível isolar seis espécies de Candida em 55 (12,8% das amostras. As espécies mais frequentes foram C. krusei (34,6%, C. parapsilosis (25,4%, C. tropicalis (18,2% e C. albicans (12,8%. Esses resultados sugerem que outras espécies de Candida, além da C. albicans, possuem um papel importante em mastites micóticas em vacas.

  17. Candida ethanolica n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybárová, J; Stros, F; Kocková-Kratochvílová, A

    1980-01-01

    A new yeast, Candida ethanolica, isolated from industrial fodder yeast cultivated on synthetic ethanol as the only source of carbon, originally designated III-5 and III-6, is described. This species differs from all recently accepted Candida species in not assimilating nitrate, not producing urease and not fermenting sugars.

  18. The in vitro and in vivo efficacy of fluconazole in combination with farnesol against Candida albicans isolates using a murine vulvovaginitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozó, Aliz; Domán, Marianna; Majoros, László; Kardos, Gábor; Varga, István; Kovács, Renátó

    2016-11-01

    Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule that inhibits biofilm formation in Candida albicans. Previous in vitro data suggest that, in combination with certain antifungals, farnesol may have an adjuvant anti-biofilm agent. However, the in vivo efficacy of farnesol is very questionable. Therefore, the in vitro and in vivo activity of fluconazole combined with farnesol was evaluated against C. albicans biofilms using fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) determination, time-kill experiments and a murine vulvovaginitis model. The median biofilm MICs of fluconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates ranged between 4 -> 512 mg/L and 150-300 μM for fluconazole and farnesol, respectively. These values were 512 -> 512 mg/L and > 300 μM for fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates. Farnesol decreased the median MICs of fluconazole by 2-64-fold for biofilms. Based on FICI, synergistic interaction was observed only in the case of the sessile SC5314 reference strain (FICIs: 0.16-0.27). In time-kill studies, only the 512 mg/L fluconazole and 512 mg/L fluconazole + 75 μM farnesol reduced biofilm mass significantly at each time point in the case of all isolates. The combination reduced the metabolic activity of biofilms for all isolates in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Our findings revealed that farnesol alone was not protective in a murine vulvovaginitis model. Farnesol was not beneficial in combination with fluconazole for fluconazole-susceptible isolates, but partially increased fluconazole activity against one fluconazole-resistant isolate, but not the other one.

  19. Characterization of Candida spp. isolated from vaginal fluid: identification, antifungal susceptibility, and virulence profile - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.13557

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha Inez Estivalet Svidzinski

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 101 (20.0% yeast samples were isolated from vaginal fluids of 504 non-hospitalized patients in Maringá, Paraná State, Brazil and Candida albicans was more frequent specie (93.1% identified by seminested PCR method. All the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and nystatin, and 93.1% of them were susceptible to fluconazole. The acid proteinase, hemolytic and phospholipase activities were observed in 99.0, 90.0, and 88.0% of Candida spp., respectively. Around 67.0% of the strains had adherence indexes of 0.5 to 1.5 yeasts by Vero cell, and most of them showed a hydrophilic profile. Correlation studies indicated hydrophilic yeasts presented higher adherence index, proteinase, and phospholipase activities; and a positive correlation between all enzymes was also observed. In addition, the isolates with high hemolytic activity were less susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B. These results of Candida prevalence and antifungal susceptibility corroborate with literature’s datas and correlation between virulence factors and MIC values suggest Candida isolates from vaginal fluid less susceptible to antifungal and with higher extracellular enzymes production can be more virulent to cause tissue damage.  

  20. Visual Analysis of DNA Microarray Data for Accurate Molecular Identification of Non-albicans Candida Isolates from Patients with Candidemia Episodes

    OpenAIRE

    De Luca Ferrari, Michela; Ribeiro Resende, Mariângela; Sakai, Kanae; Muraosa, Yasunori; Lyra, Luzia; Gonoi, Tohru; Mikami, Yuzuru; Tominaga, Kenichiro; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Zaninelli Schreiber, Angelica; Trabasso, Plinio; Moretti, Maria Luiza

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a visual slide-based DNA microarray for the identification of non-albicans Candida spp. was evaluated. Among 167 isolates that had previously been identified by Vitek 2, the agreement between DNA microarray and sequencing results was 97.6%. This DNA microarray platform showed excellent performance.

  1. Heteroresistance to Fluconazole Is a Continuously Distributed Phenotype among Candida glabrata Clinical Strains Associated with In Vivo Persistence

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    Ronen Ben-Ami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida glabrata causes persistent infections in patients treated with fluconazole and often acquires resistance following exposure to the drug. Here we found that clinical strains of C. glabrata exhibit cell-to-cell variation in drug response (heteroresistance. We used population analysis profiling (PAP to assess fluconazole heteroresistance (FLCHR and to ask if it is a binary trait or a continuous phenotype. Thirty (57.6% of 52 fluconazole-sensitive clinical C. glabrata isolates met accepted dichotomous criteria for FLCHR. However, quantitative grading of FLCHR by using the area under the PAP curve (AUC revealed a continuous distribution across a wide range of values, suggesting that all isolates exhibit some degree of heteroresistance. The AUC correlated with rhodamine 6G efflux and was associated with upregulation of the CDR1 and PDH1 genes, encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC transmembrane transporters, implying that HetR populations exhibit higher levels of drug efflux. Highly FLCHRC. glabrata was recovered more frequently than nonheteroresistant C. glabrata from hematogenously infected immunocompetent mice following treatment with high-dose fluconazole (45.8% versus 15%, P = 0.029. Phylogenetic analysis revealed some phenotypic clustering but also variations in FLCHR within clonal groups, suggesting both genetic and epigenetic determinants of heteroresistance. Collectively, these results establish heteroresistance to fluconazole as a graded phenotype associated with ABC transporter upregulation and fluconazole efflux. Heteroresistance may explain the propensity of C. glabrata for persistent infection and the emergence of breakthrough resistance to fluconazole.

  2. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The widely used ATB FUNGUS 3 automated readings in China and its misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles: challenges for developing countries' clinical microbiology labs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development in the clinical microbiology diagnostic assays presents more challenges for developing countries than for the developed world, especially in the area of test validation before the introduction of new tests. Here we report on the misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles using the ATB FUNGUS 3 (bioMérieux, La Balme-les Grottes, France) with automated readings in China to highlight the dangers of introducing a diagnostic assay without validation. ATB FUNGUS 3 is the most commonly used commercial antifungal susceptibility testing method in China. An in-depth analysis of data showed higher levels of resistance to azoles when ATB FUNGUS 3 strips were read automatically than when read visually. Based on this finding, the performance of ATB FUNGUS 3, read both visually and automatically, was evaluated by testing 218 isolates of five clinically important Candida species, using broth microdilution (BMD) following CLSI M27-A3 as the gold-standard. The overall essential agreement (EA) between ATB visual readings and BMD was 99.1%. In contrast, the ATB automated readings showed higher discrepancies with BMD, with overall EA of 86.2%, and specifically lower EA was observed for fluconazole (80.7%), voriconazole (77.5%), and itraconazole (73.4%), which was most likely due to the trailing effect of azoles. The major errors in azole drug susceptibilities by ATB automated readings is a concern in China that can result in misleading clinical antifungal drug selection and pseudo high rates of antifungal resistance. Therefore, the ATB visual reading is generally recommended. In the meantime, we propose a practical algorithm to be followed for ATB FUNGUS 3 antifungal susceptibility for Candida spp. before the improvement in the automated reading system.

  4. The widely used ATB FUNGUS 3 automated readings in China and its misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles: challenges for developing countries' clinical microbiology labs.

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    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available The rapid development in the clinical microbiology diagnostic assays presents more challenges for developing countries than for the developed world, especially in the area of test validation before the introduction of new tests. Here we report on the misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles using the ATB FUNGUS 3 (bioMérieux, La Balme-les Grottes, France with automated readings in China to highlight the dangers of introducing a diagnostic assay without validation. ATB FUNGUS 3 is the most commonly used commercial antifungal susceptibility testing method in China. An in-depth analysis of data showed higher levels of resistance to azoles when ATB FUNGUS 3 strips were read automatically than when read visually. Based on this finding, the performance of ATB FUNGUS 3, read both visually and automatically, was evaluated by testing 218 isolates of five clinically important Candida species, using broth microdilution (BMD following CLSI M27-A3 as the gold-standard. The overall essential agreement (EA between ATB visual readings and BMD was 99.1%. In contrast, the ATB automated readings showed higher discrepancies with BMD, with overall EA of 86.2%, and specifically lower EA was observed for fluconazole (80.7%, voriconazole (77.5%, and itraconazole (73.4%, which was most likely due to the trailing effect of azoles. The major errors in azole drug susceptibilities by ATB automated readings is a concern in China that can result in misleading clinical antifungal drug selection and pseudo high rates of antifungal resistance. Therefore, the ATB visual reading is generally recommended. In the meantime, we propose a practical algorithm to be followed for ATB FUNGUS 3 antifungal susceptibility for Candida spp. before the improvement in the automated reading system.

  5. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-15

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections.

  6. INVERTASE FROM A CANDIDA STELLATA STRAIN ISOLATED FROM GRAPE: PRODUCTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

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    Cristiane Abe Gargel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invertases are enzymes which hydrolyze the sucrose and are widely employed in food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the screening of autochthonous grape yeasts from Brazil was carried out in order to investigate their invertase production potential. Yeasts belonging to Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Sporidiobolus, Issatchenkia, Candida, Cryptococcus and Pichia genera were analyzed by submerged fermentation (SbmF using sucrose as substrate. Among them, Candida stellata strain (N5 strain was selected as the best producer (10.6 U/ml after 48 hours of SbmF. This invertase showed optimal activity at pH 3.0 and 55°C, demonstrating appropriate characters for application in several industrial processes, which includes high temperatures and acid pHs. In addition, this invertase extract presented tolerance to low concentrations of ethanol, suggesting that it could also be suitable for application at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. These data provide promising prospects of the use of this new invertase in food and ethanol industry.

  7. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

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    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  8. Identification, antifungal resistance profile, in vitro biofilm formation and ultrastructural characteristics of Candida species isolated from diabetic foot patients in Northern India

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    D Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. Materials and Methods: A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g. Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test. For molecular identification, conserved portion of the 18S rDNA region, the adjacent internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1 and a portion of the 28S rDNA region were amplified, using the ITS1 and ITS2 primers. Antifungal susceptibility against voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B was determined by standard broth microdilution method. Biofilm formation was studied in three steps. First, on the surface of wells of microtiter plates followed by quantification of growth by fungal metabolism measurement. Finally, biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: Fungal aetiology was found in 75 patients (48.38%. All were identified as Candida species (100%. The prevalence of different species was Candida tropicalis (34.6%, Candida albicans (29.3%, Candida krusei (16.0%, Candida parapsilosis (10.6%, Candida glabrata (9.33%. All were susceptible to amphotericin B (100%. On microtiter plate, all the isolates were viable within 48 h showing biofilms. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm increased with cellular mass, especially in the first 24 h. On SEM, majority showed budding yeast form. Conclusion: Non-albicans Candida spp. with potential biofilm forming ability are emerging as a predominant cause of diabetic foot ulcers.

  9. Identification, antifungal resistance profile, in vitro biofilm formation and ultrastructural characteristics of Candida species isolated from diabetic foot patients in Northern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D; Banerjee, T; Chakravarty, J; Singh, S K; Dwivedi, A; Tilak, R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are a serious cause of diagnostic and therapeutic concern. The following study was undertaken to determine the fungal causes of diabetic foot ulcers, with their phenotypic and genotypic characterisation. A total of 155 diabetic foot ulcers were studied for 1 year. Deep tissue specimen was collected from the wounds, and crushed samples were plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol (0.05 g). Identification was done by growth on cornmeal agar, germ tube formation and urease test. For molecular identification, conserved portion of the 18S rDNA region, the adjacent internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and a portion of the 28S rDNA region were amplified, using the ITS1 and ITS2 primers. Antifungal susceptibility against voriconazole, fluconazole and amphotericin B was determined by standard broth microdilution method. Biofilm formation was studied in three steps. First, on the surface of wells of microtiter plates followed by quantification of growth by fungal metabolism measurement. Finally, biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fungal aetiology was found in 75 patients (48.38%). All were identified as Candida species (100%). The prevalence of different species was Candida tropicalis (34.6%), Candida albicans (29.3%), Candida krusei (16.0%), Candida parapsilosis (10.6%), Candida glabrata (9.33%). All were susceptible to amphotericin B (100%). On microtiter plate, all the isolates were viable within 48 h showing biofilms. The metabolic activity of cells in the biofilm increased with cellular mass, especially in the first 24 h. On SEM, majority showed budding yeast form. Non-albicans Candida spp. with potential biofilm forming ability are emerging as a predominant cause of diabetic foot ulcers.

  10. Investigation of the Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Vital Factors of Isolated Candida albicans in Patients with Vulvovaginal Candidiasis In Vitro

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    J Alipoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: In recent decades, nanotechnology has been developing in medical field, and most of the nanoparticles are highly valuable in hygienic care. Vulvovaginitis is an infectious disease giving rise to problem in genital tract and Candida albicans is the main cause of Vulvovaginitis.   Methods: In this study, laboratory effect of gold nanoparticles has been investigated on Candida albicans isolates obtained from patients with Vulvovaginitis. Candida spp. isolates were obtained from 200 patients referring to medical diagnostic laboratory in Isfahan city during 2013, and identified using mycological methods including germ tube, clamydoconidia formation, and culturing on chrom agar media. Antifungal effect of gold nanoparticles was evaluated in concentration of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 ppm on Candida isolates using well diffusion and microdilution methods. Fluconazole was used as a positive control and results were analyzed by SPSS15 software using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and average differences analysis tests.   Results: The most averages of clear zone diameter for gold nanoparticle were 18, 15, 12 millimeter, respectively. Minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentration of gold nanoparticle was determined 6.25, 12.5 ppm and for fluconazole were 50.25±19.48 and 100.50±38.96, respectively. Based on obtained results antifungal activity of gold nanoparticle was dependent to concentration.   Conclusion: In current study, inhibitory effect of gold nanoparticles was evaluated against microorganism. Although the laboratories findings are promising, more investigation should be conducted for therapeutic standardization.

  11. A chronic hemodialysis patient with isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis caused by non-albicans Candida: a rare case and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hao; Huang, Myo-Ming; Yeih, Dong-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Hou, Yi-Chou

    2017-09-06

    Isolated pulmonary valve infective endocarditis caused by Candida is rare in chronic hemodialysis patients. The 2009 Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines suggest the combined use of surgery and antibiotics to treat candidiasis; however, successful nonsurgical treatment of Candida endocarditis has been reported. A 63-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease was admitted to our hospital after experiencing disorientation for 5 days. The patient was permanently bedridden because of depression, and denied active intravenous drug use. She received maintenance hemodialysis through a tunneled-cuffed catheter. An initial blood culture grew Candida guilliermondii without other bacteria. Subsequent blood cultures and tip culture of tunneled-cuffed catheter also grew C. guilliermondii, even after caspofungin replaced fluconazole. A 1.2-cm mobile mass was observed on the pulmonary valve. Surgical intervention was suggested, but the family of the patient declined because of her multiple comorbidities. The patient was discharged with a prescription of fluconazole, but she died soon after. Our patient is the first case with isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis caused by C. guilliermondii in patients with uremia. Hematologic disorders, in addition to long-term central venous catheter use, prolonged antibiotic intravenous injection, and congenital cardiac anomaly, predispose to the condition. The diagnosis "isolated" pulmonary IE is difficult, and combing surgery with antifungal antibiotics is the appropriate therapeutic management for Candida related pulmonary IE.

  12. Comparison between E-test and CLSI broth microdilution method for antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans oral isolates Comparação entre E-test e o método da microdiluição do CLSI para teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos de isolados orais de Candida albicans

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    Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty Candida albicans isolated from oral candidosis patients and 30 C. albicans isolated from control individuals were studied. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed for amphotericin B, fluconazole, 5-flucytosine and itraconazole through the Clinical and Laboratorial Standards Institute (CLSI reference method and E test system. The results obtained were analyzed and compared. MIC values were similar for the strains isolated from oral candidosis patients and control individuals. The agreement rate for the two methods was 66.67% for amphotericin B, 53.33% for fluconazole, 65% for flucytosine and 45% for itraconazole. According to our data, E test method could be an alternative to trial routine susceptibility testing due to its simplicity. However, it can not be considered a substitute for the CLSI reference method.Trinta Candida albicans isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e 30 Candida albicans isoladas de indivíduos controle foram estudadas. Testes de susceptibilidade in vitro foram realizados com anfotericina B, fluconazol, 5-flucitosina e itraconazol pelo método do Clinical and Laboratorial Standars Institute (CLSI e por E-test. Os resultados obtidos foram analisados e comparados. Os valores de CIM foram semelhantes para amostras isoladas de pacientes portadores de candidose oral e indivíduos controle. A concordância entre os dois métodos foi de 66,7% para a anfotericina B, 53,33% para o fluconazol, 65% para a flucitosina e 45% para o itraconazol. De acordo com estes resultados, o método do E-test poderia ser uma alternativa para a triagem de casos de rotina pela sua simplicidade. Entretanto, este método não pode ser considerado como um substituto para o método de referência do CLSI.

  13. Advances in Candida detection platforms for clinical and point-of-care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Coarsey, Chad; Esiobu, Nwadiuto; Memic, Adnan; Vyas, Jatin Mahesh; Shafiee, Hadi; Asghar, Waseem

    2016-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis remains one of the most serious community and healthcare-acquired infections worldwide. Conventional Candida detection methods based on blood and plate culture are time-consuming and require at least 2–4 days to identify various Candida species. Despite considerable advances for candidiasis detection, the development of simple, compact and portable point-of-care diagnostics for rapid and precise testing that automatically performs cell lysis, nucleic acid extraction, purification and detection still remains a challenge. Here, we systematically review most prominent conventional and nonconventional techniques for the detection of various Candida species, including Candida staining, blood culture, serological testing and nucleic acid-based analysis. We also discuss the most advanced lab on a chip devices for candida detection. PMID:27093473

  14. Isolation of L-methionine-enriched mutant of a methylotrophic yeast, Candida boidinii No.2201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tani, Y.; Lim, W.J.; Yang, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Six strains of methylotrophic yeast were examined for production of L-methionine-enriched cells. Candida boidinii (kloeckera sp.) No. 2201,which accumulated 0.54 mg/g-dry cell weight (DCW) of free L-methionine (pool methionine), was selected as the parental strain for breeding L-methionine-rich mutants. Ethionine-resistant mutants were derived from the strain by UV irradiation. A mutant strain, E500-78,which was resistant to 500 μg/ml of DL-ethionine, accumulated 6.02 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine. The culture conditions for mutant strain E500-78 to increase pool methionine accumulation were optimized. As a result, the mutant strain accumulated 8.80 mg/g-DCW of pool methionine and contained 16.02 mg/g-DCW total methionine

  15. [The in vitro antifungal activities of fluconazole against pathogenic yeasts recently isolated from clinical specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, H; Igari, J; Kume, H; Abe, M; Oguri, T; Kanno, H; Kawakami, S; Okuzumi, K; Fukayama, M; Ito, A; Kawata, K; Uchida, K

    1997-09-01

    The emergence of Candida albicans resistance to azole antifungal agents have been reported in the U. S. and Europe. We examined the in vitro antifungal activities of fluconazole against clinical isolates collected by seven investigators in three years to examine if a tendency existed toward the development of azole-resistance among fungal isolates in Japan. The following results were obtained: 1. Sensitivities to fluconazole (FLCZ) were determined for yeast-like fungi, including 113 strains isolated in 1993, 149 strains isolated in 1994 and 205 strains isolated in 1995. No significant differences in sensitivities in the three years were detected. 2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of FLCZ were 0.1-0.78 microgram/ml for C. albicans and 3.13-25 micrograms/ml for C. glabrata. Strains with 25 micrograms/ml of FLCZ's MIC were detected; two strains of C. krusei and one strain each of C. krusei, Trichospron beigelii and Hansenula anomala. No strains with higher than 50 micrograms/ml MIC of FLCZ were detected. 3. In vitro activities of FLCZ were compared between clinical strains isolated between 1993 and 1995 and clinical strains isolated before the marketing of FLCZ (up to December 1987) or clinical yeasts isolated between 1991 and 1992. No significant differences were observed, suggesting that no tendency existed toward azole resistance among fungal strains examined.

  16. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

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    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  17. The epidemiology of Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis in an Iranian patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi Rad, M; Zafarghandi, S; Abbasabadi, B; Tavallaee, M

    2011-04-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common infection among women worldwide. According to previous epidemiological studies, Candida albicans is the most common species of Candida. The prevalence of non-Candida species, however, is increasing. Identification of Candida species among the population will not only help health professionals to choose suitable antifungal treatments, but also prevent development of drug resistance. The aim of this study was to identify, using chromogenic agar medium, the Candida species associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis among a sample of the Iranian population. In a prospective cohort study during a two year period from March 2006 to March 2008, swab samples of vaginal discharge/secretion were taken from 200 patients admitted to the gynecology clinic of Mahdieh Hospital (Tehran, Iran) with a clinical presentation suggestive of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The isolates obtained were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and chromogenic agar medium. Candida species were also identified by germ tube formation in serum, chlamydospore production on Corn Meal Agar and carbohydrate absorption using the API 20C-AUX kit. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire investigating the risk factors associated with candidiasis. An assessment of the different species of recurrent and non-recurrent candidiasis was also made. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to analyze the data. A total of 191 isolates were obtained from 175 vaginal specimens. Candida albicans accounted for 67% of the strains including single and mixed infections. The other identified species were Candida glabrata (18.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.8%), Candida krusei (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (1.6%), and Candida guilliermondii (0.5%) respectively. Mixed infection with two or more species of Candida was seen in 10.3% of patients. The most common mixed cause was the combination of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. Participants who were sexually active

  18. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

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    Bahk, Yong Whee [Sung-Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); O, Joo Hyun [Kangnam St. Mary' s Hospital, Catholic University Medical School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis.

  19. PET-CT manifestation of Candida esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahk, Yong Whee; O, Joo Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (moniliasis) is the most common infection of the gullet and has generally been attributed to as a complication of immune suppressed state. However, as the current case. Holt found the disease to occur in 3 of his 13 patients without predisposing condition. Predisposing factors other than immune deficient conditions include aplastic anemia, alcoholism and Parkinson's disease and age, diabetes mellitus, and disruption of mucosal integrity. Growing prevalence of Candida esophagitis in recent years is accounted for by an increase in the number of patients with organ transplantation, malignancy and AIDS as well as populrization of endoscopy. Microorganisms that reached the esophagus in oral secretions are rarely cultured from the esophageal surface. Of many species C. albicans is the most common offender although C. tropicalis has also been isolated with high prevalence, particularly in the patients with cancer and disseminated candidiasis. Clinically, the patients with Candida esophagitis seek medical care for esophageal or retrosternal pain, dysphagia or distress. Candida esophagitis may be the extension from oropharyngeal infection but in the majority the esophagus is the sole site of infection. The middle and lower thirds of the esophagus are more typically affected than the upper third. Diagnosis can be indicated by double contrast esophagography or endoscopy and confirmed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) stain or biopsy. It is to be noted that the more presence of Candida in smear or cultured specimen cannot indict Candida as definitive offender. Differential diagnosis includes herpes simplex infection, cytomegalovirus infection, reflux esophagitis or radiation esophagitis

  20. Candida albicans isolated from urine: Phenotypic and molecular identification, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility

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    Laura Wiebusch

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: C. albicans isolates from urine have a high capacity for virulence and can be associated with infectious processes. Furthermore, the high percentage of isolates resistant to itraconazole is important because this antifungal agent is commonly used to treat fungal infections in the hospital environment.

  1. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

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    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  2. Directed mutagenesis in Candida albicans: one-step gene disruption to isolate ura3 mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.; Miller, S.M.; Kurtz, M.B.; Kirsch, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A method for introducing specific mutations into the diploid Candida albicans by one-step gene disruption and subsequent UV-induced recombination was developed. The cloned C. albicans URA3 gene was disrupted with the C. albicans ADE2 gene, and the linearized DNA was used for transformation of two ade2 mutants, SGY-129 and A81-Pu. Both an insertional inactivation of the URA3 gene and a disruption which results in a 4.0-kilobase deletion were made. Southern hybridization analyses demonstrated that the URA3 gene was disrupted on one of the chromosomal homologs in 15 of the 18 transformants analyzed. These analyses also revealed restriction site dimorphism of EcoRI at the URA3 locus which provides a unique marker to distinguish between chromosomal homologs. This enabled us to show that either homolog could be disrupted and that disrupted transformants of SGY-129 contained more than two copies of the URA3 locus. The A81-Pu transformants heterozygous for the ura3 mutations were rendered homozygous and Ura- by UV-induced recombination. The homozygosity of a deletion mutant and an insertion mutant was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Both mutants were transformed to Ura+ with plasmids containing the URA3 gene and in addition, were resistant to 5-fluoro-orotic acid, a characteristic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ura3 mutants as well as of orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase mutants of other organisms

  3. Medium composition influence on Biotin and Riboflavin production by newly isolated Candida sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Gaby Tiemi; Macedo, Juliana Alves; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2011-07-01

    Complex B vitamins as Biotin and Riboflavin are required by living organisms, not only for growth but also for metabolite production, and the feed market classifies them as growth promoters. Since Brazil will soon be one of the world's biggest animal protein producers, feed production is a large consumer of vitamins and micronutrients. The industry requires 10 mg riboflavin/0.2 mg biotin per kilogram of feed; a ratio of 40 ~ 50:1. Although few studies have been conducted specifically on riboflavin production using factorial design and surface response method as an optimization strategy, it is a common practice in biotechnology with many research reports available. However, there are no reports on the use of statistical design for biotin production. This study set out to evaluate medium composition influence on biotin and riboflavin production using a statistical design. There are no studies relating biotin and riboflavin production by Candida sp LEB 130. In this preliminary study to improve the simultaneous production of biotin and riboflavin, the maximum riboflavin/biotin ratio of 8.3 μg/mL was achieved with medium component concentrations of: sucrose 30 g/L, KH2PO4 2 g/L, MgSO4 1 g/L and ZnSO4 0.5mL/L.

  4. Comparison of the Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system with CLSI microdilution for antifungal susceptibility testing of fluconazole and voriconazole against Candida spp., using new clinical breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Diekema, Daniel J; Procop, Gary W; Rinaldi, Michael G

    2013-09-01

    A commercially available, fully automated yeast susceptibility test system (Vitek 2; bioMérieux, Marcy d'Etoile, France) was compared in 3 different laboratories with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference microdilution (BMD) method by testing 2 quality control strains, 10 reproducibility strains, and 425 isolates of Candida spp. against fluconazole and voriconazole. Reference CLSI BMD MIC endpoints and Vitek 2 MIC endpoints were read after 24 hours and 9.1-27.1 hours incubation, respectively. Excellent essential agreement (within 2 dilutions) between the reference and Vitek 2 MICs was observed for fluconazole (97.9%) and voriconazole (96.7%). Categorical agreement (CA) between the 2 methods was assessed using the new species-specific clinical breakpoints (CBPs): susceptible (S) ≤2 μg/mL, susceptible dose-dependent (SDD) 4 μg/mL, and resistant (R) ≥8 μg/mL for fluconazole and Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis and ≤32 μg/mL (SDD), ≥64 μg/mL (R) for Candida glabrata; S ≤0.12 μg/mL, SDD 0.25-0.5 μg/mL, R ≥1 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, and ≤0.5 μg/mL (S), 1 μg/mL (SDD), ≥2 μg/mL (R) for Candida krusei. The epidemiological cutoff value (ECV) of 0.5 μg/mL for voriconazole and C. glabrata was used to differentiate wild-type (WT; MIC ≤ ECV) from non-WT (MIC > ECV) strains of this species. Due to the lack of CBPs for the less common species, the ECVs for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively, were used for Candida lusitaniae (2 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida dubliniensis (0.5 μg/mL and 0.03 μg/mL), Candida guilliermondii (8 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL), and Candida pelliculosa (4 μg/mL and 0.25 μg/mL) to categorize isolates of these species as WT and non-WT. CA between the 2 methods was 96.8% for fluconazole and 96.5% for voriconazole with less than 1% very major errors and 1.3-3.0% major errors. The Vitek 2 yeast susceptibility system

  5. Effect of 2-Phenylethanol as Antifungal Agent and Common Antifungals (Amphotericin B, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole) on Candida Species Isolated from Chronic and Recurrent Cases of Candidal Vulvovaginitis.

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    Majdabadi, Niloufar; Falahati, Mehraban; Heidarie-Kohan, Fariba; Farahyar, Shirin; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Ashrafi-Khozani, Mahtab; Razavi, Tandis; Mohammadnejad, Sina

    2018-04-01

    The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol are clearly visible through its intervention in Candida morphogenesis. Chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, however, does not respond to this standard experimental therapy; therefore, the study presented in this article investigated the effect of common antifungal drugs (amphotericin B [AMB], fluconazole [FLU], and itraconazole [ITC]), in combination with 2-phenylethanol, on the Candida species isolated from cases of chronic and recurrent vulvovaginitis, thereby allowing the recommendation of a more appropriate treatment option. Forty isolates from patients with chronic and recurrent vaginal candidiasis were investigated in this experimental study. The specimens were examined by direct microscopy, culturing, and PCR to identify the species. The antifungal effects of 2-phenylethanol and conventional drugs, both alone and in combination, were determined in duplicate. Finally, the findings were analyzed. In this study, 40 strains of Candida species were identified, whose agents were Candida albicans (95%) and Candida africana (5%). After 48 h, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) range of the 2-phenylethanol was 800-3,200 μg/mL. Also, in the final study on the MIC levels of common antifungal drugs, AMB (0.42 μg/mL) had the lowest MIC, FLU (40.51 μg/mL) had the highest MIC, and the combination of ITC and 2-phenylethanol had the lowest fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of any of the combinations (FICI range, 0.26-1.03). Combining FLU and ITC with 2-phenylethanol can effectively increase their antifungal effect.

  6. CHARACTERISATION OF YEASTS ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SAMPLES WITH EMPHASIS ON RISK FACTORS AND CLINICAL OUTCOME OF CRYPTOCOCCAL INFECTION IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Zevita Venisha Furtado

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Over the past decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of reports of systemic and mucosal yeast infections. These infections have a direct impact on the choice of empiric antifungal therapy and clinical outcome. The aim of the study is to determine the risk factors and characterisation of the yeasts from various clinical specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a prospective study, a total of 200 yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens were processed and identified up to species level by germ tube test, growth on corn meal agar, sugar fermentation and assimilation test, India ink preparation, urease test and Candida differential agar. The demographic data and risk factors were recorded. Statistical Analysis- The data was analysed in terms of frequency percentage. RESULTS Candida species was the most predominant (97% among the yeasts. Majority of the isolates were C. tropicalis (44% followed by C. albicans (34%, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, C. dubliniensis, C. kefyr and Trichosporon asahii. Diabetes, broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, prematurity, malignancy, steroids and AIDS were the risk factors. CONCLUSION There is increase in prevalence of non-albicans Candida species and increase in incidence of disseminated cryptococcosis in HIV seropositive patients. Thus, early isolation and speciation will aid the clinicians to institute proper antifungal therapy, thus decreasing morbidity and mortality.

  7. In vitro anti-Candida activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors against fluconazole-resistant strains and their activity against biofilm-forming isolates.

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    Costa Silva, Rose Anny; da Silva, Cecília Rocha; de Andrade Neto, João Batista; da Silva, Anderson Ramos; Campos, Rosana Sousa; Sampaio, Letícia Serpa; do Nascimento, Francisca Bruna Stefany Aires; da Silva Gaspar, Brenda; da Cruz Fonseca, Said Gonçalves; Josino, Maria Aparecida Alexandre; Grangeiro, Thalles Barbosa; Gaspar, Danielle Macedo; de Lucena, David Freitas; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Cavalcanti, Bruno Coêlho; Nobre Júnior, Hélio Vitoriano

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown broad antifungal activity of the classic antidepressants selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This fact, combined with the increased cross-resistance frequency of the genre Candida regarding the main treatment today, fluconazole, requires the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In that context, this study aimed to assess the antifungal potential of fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine against fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. planktonic cells, as well as to assess the mechanism of action and the viability of biofilms treated with fluoxetine. After 24 h, the fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. strains showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the ranges of 20-160 μg/mL for fluoxetine, 10-20 μg/mL for sertraline, and 10-100.8 μg/mL for paroxetine by the broth microdilution method (M27-A3). According to our data by flow cytometry, each of the SSRIs cause fungal death after damaging the plasma and mitochondrial membrane, which activates apoptotic signaling pathways and leads to dose-dependant cell viability loss. Regarding biofilm-forming isolates, the fluoxetine reduce mature biofilm of all the species tested. Therefore, it is concluded that SSRIs are capable of inhibit the growth in vitro of Candida spp., both in planktonic form, as biofilm, inducing cellular death by apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from the rhizome of Javanese turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) against Candida albicans biofilms.

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    Rukayadi, Yaya; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the activity of xanthorrhizol isolated from Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on Candida albicans biofilms at adherent, intermediate, and mature phase of growth. C. albicans biofilms were formed in flat-bottom 96-well microtiter plates. The biofilms of C. albicans at different phases of development were exposed to xanthorrhizol at different concentrations (0.5 µg/mL-256 µg/mL) for 24 h. The metabolic activity of cells within the biofilms was quantified using the XTT reduction assay. Sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) were determined at 50% and 80% reduction in the biofilm OD₄₉₀ compared to the control wells. The SMIC₅₀ and SMIC₈₀ of xanthorrhizol against 18 C. albicans biofilms were 4--16 µg/mL and 8--32 µg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the activity of xanthorrhizol in reducing C. albicans biofilms OD₄₉₀ was dependent on the concentration and the phase of growth of biofilm. Xanthorrhizol at concentration of 8 µg/mL completely reduced in biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at adherent phase, whereas 32 µg/mL of xanthorrhizol reduced 87.95% and 67.48 % of biofilm referring to XTT-colorimetric readings at intermediate and mature phases, respectively. Xanthorrhizol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro and therefore might have potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.

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    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-12-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  10. [Emerging pathogen: Candida kefyr (Kluvyeromyces marxianus)].

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    Çuhadar, Tuğba; Kalkancı, Ayşe

    2017-10-01

    In the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital Candida kefyr was isolated from different clinical samples as 5.3% in 2016 and in 2017 this rate increased to 9.3% which was nearly two-fold and this has drawn our attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the special characteristics, antifungal susceptibility and virulence properties of C.keyfr species. Germ tube, corn meal-tween 80 agar morphology and carbohydrate assimilation profiles on ID32C yeast identification system were used for the diagnosis of Candida species. In this study, DNA sequencing was performed using ITS1 and ITS4 primers amplifying fungal gene between 5.8S and 18S regions of rRNA. Antifungal susceptibility was performed using M27A microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole were determined. MIC distribution, MIC50 and MIC90 values and geometric mean (GM) were detected. The existence of virulence factors caseinase, secreted aspartyl proteinase, esterase and phospholipase were investigated in vitro. A total of 865 Candida species were isolated from different clinical samples in the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital in 2016. Among them, 46 (5.3%) were C.kefyr. In the first four months of 2017, 30 (9.3%) C.kefyr were identified among 320 Candida isolates. Ten isolates which have shown atypical morphology on corn meal agar were selected. Among these 10 isolates, nine of them were identified as C.kefyr by using ID32C system and DNA sequencing method. Amphotericin B MIC value was 2 µg/ml for one isolate, and fluconazole MIC value was 8 µg/ml for another isolate among 46 isolates. Among the 30 isolates of the year 2017, one of them presented MIC value for fluconazole as 8 µg/ml. No marked antifungal resistance was detected in our isolate group. Caseinase was positive in one C.kefyr isolate, and

  11. [Susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B of isolates of Candida spp. Experience of a university health network, between 2004 and 2010].

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    Porte, Lorena; León, Pilar; Gárate, Cynthia; Guzmán, Ana María; Labarca, Jaime; García, Patricia

    2012-04-01

    To describe antifungal susceptibility testing surveillance (December 2004-September 2010) in Candida spp., for amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, at the Laboratorio de Microbiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. The study was performed utilizing E test and included yeasts from invasive origin and isolates in which antifungal susceptibility testing was asked for by the patient's physician. The yeasts were mainly recovered from urine samples (n: 64), blood cultures (n: 51) and secretions (n: 24). Two hundred ninety three isolates were studied: C. albicans (38%), C. glabrata (30%), C. tropicalis (11%), C. parapsilosis (10%), C. krusei (4%) and others (7%). All Candida species were 100% susceptible to amphotericin B, except C. krusei (1/12). Fluconazole's global susceptibility in C. albicans was 91.8%, but 100% in isolates from blood cultures versus 76% in isolates from urine. C. tropicalis was 93.9% susceptible to fluconazole, C. parapsilosis, 90% and C. glabrata 30.3%. C. krusei had no susceptible isolates to fluconazole. Voriconazole resistance was mainly present in C. glabrata (11.5%). We recommend the study of antifungal susceptibility in isolates from invasive origin, selected urine strains and C. glabrata. Fluconazole remains effective in C. albicans from blood.

  12. The Effect of Gold Nano Particles Compared to Dioxide Titanium Nano Particles on Vital Factors of Isolated Candida albicans in Patients with Oral Candidiasis in Vitro

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    Ladan Rahimzadeh Torabi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Oral Candidiasis is fungal infection that affects the oral cavity. Oral infections caused by yeast of the genus Candida and particularly Candida albicans (oral candidiasis have been recognized throughout recorded history. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the antifungal effects of gold nanoparticles and dioxide titanium nanoparticles on patients with Oral Candidiasis patients. This review is to give the reader a contemporary overview of oral candidiasis, the organisms involved, and the management strategies that are currently employed or could be utilized in the future. Methods This experimental study has been done in Isfahan city totally with 56 numbers of patients suffering from Candidiasis in groups of different ages from hospitals and laboratories The resulted from swap in Sabouraud Dexteros agar and finally with complementary experiments 56 isolated Candida albicans (oral Candidiasis detected and grew in culture milieu then gold nanoparticles (10 nanometers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10 - 15 nanometers in different consistencies add to this milieu and the least density of halting and the least density of killing fungi for different suspension thinness containing Candida albicans. The data were analyzed by spss 15 version software. Results The results showed that gold nanoparticles have a good anticandidial effects and can be used to treat infections of Candida, it is recommended that further research considered the effects of different infections candidiasis in In vitro condition. Conclusions Using gold nanoparticles with 10 nanometer diameters have high antifungal effect on oral candidiasis and its function has been proved. In current study halting effect of gold nanoparticles on micro-organisms experimented in different densities was observed.

  13. Increased cefepime MIC for enterobacteriacae clinical isolates.

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    Najafi, Narges; Alikhani, Ahmad; Babamahmoudi, Farhang; Davoudi, Alireza; Ghasemiyan, Roya; Aliyan, Shahriar; Shoujaiifar, Arman

    2013-01-01

    Background : Cefepime was used as empirical treatment in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) induced by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of cefepime against microorganism causing VAP in Mazandaran, North of Iran. This study was performed on VAP patients diagnosed with clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) scores in ICU of two hospitals. For each patient suspected of having VAP, quantitative culture of endotracheal aspiration (QEA) was performed and MIC was determined by micro dilution test. Data were collected and analyzed. Thirty- five cases of enterobacteriaceae were isolated orderly including E coli 13, P. aeruginosa 11, Enterobacter 7 and K. pneumonia 4 cases. All the isolated E. coli, Enterobacter and Klebsiella, 54.5% of P. aeruginosa isolated were fully resistant to cefepime. The results of this study show that cefepime is not a reasonable choice for empirical treatment of nosocomial pneumonia and VAP.

  14. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral ulcers in children under chemotherapy: clinical characteristics and their relation with Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 and Candida albicans.

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    Sepúlveda, Ester; Brethauer, Ursula; Rojas, Jaime; Fernández, Eduardo; Le Fort, Patricia

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of oral ulcers in pediatric oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy and their relation with the presence of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 and Candida albicans. The sample consisted of 20 ulcerative lesions from 15 children treated with chemotherapy in the Pediatric Service of the Regional Hospital of Concepción, Chile. Two calibrated clinicians performed clinical diagnosis of the ulcers and registered general data from the patients (age, general diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, and number of days after chemotherapy) and clinical characteristic of the ulcers: number, size, location, presence or absence of pain and inflammatory halo, edge characteristics, and exudate type. Additional to clinical diagnosis, culture for Candida albicans (C) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 was performed. Ten ulcers occurred in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, five in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia and five in patients with other neoplastic diseases. Eight ulcers were HSV (+) / C (-), 6 HSV (-) / C (-), 4 HSV (+) / C (+) and 2 HSV (-) / C (+). Preferential location was the hard palate. Most lesions were multiple, painful, with inflammatory halo, irregular edges and fibrinous exudate. The average size was 6,5 millimeters, and the mean number of days after chemotherapy was 7.5 days. Oral ulcers in children with oncological diseases did not present a specific clinical pattern. They were strongly associated with HSV.

  16. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

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    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  17. Antifungal resistance of candida isolates obtained from various specimens of intensive care unit patients

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    Habibe Çolak Pirinççioğlu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study; we aimed to determine the identificationof yeasts from the samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit of DiyarbakırEducation and Research Hospital and also we aimed toperform the antifungal susceptibility testing of yeasts.Materials and methods: Antifungal susceptibility test resultsof yeasts that isolated from 25 blood, 24 urine, 3sputum and 3 peritoneal fluid samples of the patients thatcome from Anesthesia Intensive Care Unit to our laboratoryduring the period December 2009 - Septemberl/2010were evaluated.The yeasts identified by germ tube test, cornmeal tween80 and VITEC 2 Compact® (Biomerieux, France yeastidentification system. The antifungal susceptibility testswere performed for amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazoleand voriconazole by using VITEC 2 Compact®(Biomerieux, France system.Results: 56.36% of the yeasts were determined asC.albicans which was the most common yeast followedby; C.parapsilosis (30.9%, C.tropicalis (10.6%,C.tropicalis (5.45%, C.dubliniensis (3,63%, C.glabrata(1.81% and C.guilliermondi (1.81%. According to theresults of antifungal susceptibility tests, the resistancerate for fluconazole and variconazole were 1.81% and3.63% respectively. However no resistance were detectedagainst amphotericin B and flucytosine.Conclusions: Our results shows that C.albicans is themost common yeast isolated from the patients at intensivecare unit in our hospital. Increased resistance to fluconazolewhich is frequently used for empirical treatmentdemostrates importance of antifungal susceptibility tests.

  18. Differences in exoenzyme production and adherence ability of Candida spp. isolates from catheter, blood and oral cavity Diferenças na produção de exoenzimas e habilidade de aderência entre isolados de espécies de Candida provenientes do cateter, sangue e cavidade bucal

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    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase and proteinase production and the ability of adhesion to buccal epithelial cells (BEC of 112 Candida isolates originated from oral cavity of HIV infected patients and from blood and catheter of intensive care unit patients were investigated. The proteinase production was detected by inoculation into bovine serum albumin (BSA agar and the phospholipase activity was performed using egg yolk emulsion. A yeast suspension of each test strain was incubated with buccal epithelial cells and the number of adherence yeast to epithelial cells was counted. A percentage of 88.1% and 55.9% of Candida albicans and 69.8% and 37.7% of non-albicans Candida isolates produced proteinase and phospholipase, respectively. Non-albicans Candida isolated from catheter were more proteolytic than C. albicans isolates. Blood isolates were more proteolytic than catheter and oral cavity isolates while oral cavity isolates produced more phospholipase than those from blood and catheter. C. albicans isolates from oral cavity and from catheter were more adherent to BEC than non-albicans Candida isolates, but the adhesion was not different among the three sources analyzed. The results indicated differences in the production of phospholipase and proteinase and in the ability of adhesion to BEC among Candida spp. isolates from different sources. This study suggests that the pathogenicity of Candida can be correlated with the infected site.A produção de proteinase e fosfolipase e habilidade de adesão à célula epitelial bucal de 112 isolados de Candida originadas da cavidade bucal de pacientes infectados pelo HIV e de sangue e cateter de pacientes hospitalizados foram investigados. A produção de proteinase foi detectada por inoculação em ágar soro albumina bovina e a atividade de fosfolipase foi realizada usando emulsão de gema de ovo. A suspensão de levedura de cada isolado foi incubada com célula epitelial e o número de leveduras aderidas a c

  19. Candida Species Prevalence Profile in HIV Seropositive Patients from a Major Tertiary Care Hospital in New Delhi, India

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    Monika Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida is a common opportunistic pathogen during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease progression. Changes in the clinical severity of candidiasis and the Candida species prevalence profile may be a reflection of immunological changes in HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document the changing pattern of Candida species prevalence profile in HIV seropositive patients from a tertiary care hospital in North India. One hundred and twenty HIV seropositive subjects were recruited for Candida microbial screening. Clinical specimens including blood, oral swabs, expectorated or induced sputum/bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and urine were collected depending on the patient’s symptoms. A total of 128 Candida isolates were obtained from 88 cases and 7 different Candida species were identified. C. albicans (50% was the most common species isolated followed by C. glabrata (17% and C. dubliniensis (12.5%. Other species isolated were C. parapsilosis (7.8%, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (4.6% each, and C. kefyr (3%. Strong clinical suspicion along with optimal sampling of an accurate diagnosis of Candida species involved would go a long way in decreasing the morbidity associated with non-albicans Candida species.

  20. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women

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    Luciene Setsuko Akimoto Gunther

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. METHODS: The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7% had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years, regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. RESULTS: In the non-diabetic group (controls, total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8% women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8% (P = 0.000. The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66% than colonized (33.33% women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51. CONCLUSION: We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  1. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Luciene Setsuko Akimoto; Martins, Helen Priscila Rodrigues; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  2. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

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    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  3. Efficacy of the clinical agent VT-1161 against fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.

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    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Sobel, J D; Lilly, E A; Fidel, P L

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC) remain major health problems for women. VT-1161, a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor which has potent antifungal activity against fluconazole-sensitive Candida albicans, retained its in vitro potency (MIC50 of ≤0.015 and MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml) against 10 clinical isolates from VVC or RVVC patients resistant to fluconazole (MIC50 of 8 and MIC90 of 64 μg/ml). VT-1161 pharmacokinetics in mice displayed a high volume of distribution (1.4 liters/kg), high oral absorption (73%), and a long half-life (>48 h) and showed rapid penetration into vaginal tissue. In a murine model of vaginal candidiasis using fluconazole-sensitive yeast, oral doses as low as 4 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced the fungal burden 1 and 4 days posttreatment (P < 0.0001). Similar VT-1161 efficacy was measured when an isolate highly resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 64 μg/ml) but fully sensitive in vitro to VT-1161 was used. When an isolate partially sensitive to VT-1161 (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml) and moderately resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 8 μg/ml) was used, VT-1161 remained efficacious, whereas fluconazole was efficacious on day 1 but did not sustain efficacy 4 days posttreatment. Both agents were inactive in treating an infection with an isolate that demonstrated weaker potency (MICs of 2 and 64 μg/ml for VT-1161 and fluconazole, respectively). Finally, the plasma concentrations of free VT-1161 were predictive of efficacy when in excess of the in vitro MIC values. These data support the clinical development of VT-1161 as a potentially more efficacious treatment for VVC and RVVC. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Antifungal effects of Lavandula binaludensis and Cuminum cyminum essential oils against Candida albicans strains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Minooeianhaghighi, M H; Sepehrian, L; Shokri, H

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC), which affects approximately 5% of women of reproductive age, is defined as 4 or more episodes of symptomatic Candida vaginitis within a year. The purposes of this study were to determine the chemical compositions and antifungal susceptibility of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) and Lavandula binaludensis (L. binaludensis) essential oils and their combination against Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains isolated from patients with RVVC. C. albicans isolates were identified via germ tube test, CHROMagar and RapID Yeast Plus System. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The broth microdilution method was used as antifungal susceptibility test (CLSI-M27-A3). The GC-MS analysis allowed 13 components to be determined; the main components of C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils were γ-terpinene (21.07%) and 1,8-cineole (71.56%), respectively. L. binaludensis and C. cyminum oils were effective in inhibiting C. albicans growth at mean concentrations of 7.91±1.61μg/mL and 8.00±1.89μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the combination of C. cyminum with L. binaludensis oils were more active causing inhibition in all C. albicans isolates, with concentrations varying from 3.90 to 11.71μg/mL (mean value: 7.22±1.69μg/mL). The results suggested the potential substitution of the antifungal chemicals by C. cyminum and L. binaludensis essential oils as natural inhibitors to control the growth of the most important pathogenic Candida species and alternative therapies for RVVC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The prevalence of genital Candida species among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health center in North-west Nigeria

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    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a common genital tract infection that affects the quality of life in many women. It is more prevalent in pregnancy and may lead to complications. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of VVC among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in North-West Nigeria and to emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment. Subjects and Methods: This is a 2-month cross-sectional study performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in association with the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto in North-Western Nigeria. It involved pregnant women at various periods of gestation presenting with vaginitis and selected by simple random sampling. A pair of high vaginal swabs was collected aseptically from the study subjects which was used for Gram's staining and inoculation into Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA. The samples were then cultured according to standard procedures on sterile SDA. Infection with Candida species was diagnosed by microscopy of a saline wet mount, Gram-stained smear and colony growth on SDA. Results: Of the 288 pregnant women sampled, 175 were positive for candidiasis giving a prevalence rate of 60.8%. The ages of the women ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean of 26.8 (standard deviation ± 4.93. Pregnant women aged 26–30 years recorded the highest prevalence of 37.1% (65/175. The multigravidae were more affected 41.7% (120/288 than the primigravidae 19.1% (55/288. VVC showed a progressive increase with trimester of pregnancy. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated in 73.7% of the women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of VVC among pregnant women in our institution. There is need to educate the women on genital hygiene and practice of regular screening for candidiasis in our antenatal program.

  6. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

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    Vijay eKumar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6 was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27-37°C, pH 8-10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v. The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6 lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6 can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6 showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6

  7. Limitations of the Current Microbial Identification System for Identification of Clinical Yeast Isolates

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    Kellogg, James A.; Bankert, David A.; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    1998-01-01

    The ability of the rapid, computerized Microbial Identification System (MIS; Microbial ID, Inc.) to identify a variety of clinical isolates of yeast species was compared to the abilities of a combination of tests including the Yeast Biochemical Card (bioMerieux Vitek), determination of microscopic morphology on cornmeal agar with Tween 80, and when necessary, conventional biochemical tests and/or the API 20C Aux system (bioMerieux Vitek) to identify the same yeast isolates. The MIS chromatographically analyzes cellular fatty acids and compares the results with the fatty acid profiles in its database. Yeast isolates were subcultured onto Sabouraud dextrose agar and were incubated at 28°C for 24 h. The resulting colonies were saponified, methylated, extracted, and chromatographically analyzed (by version 3.8 of the MIS YSTCLN database) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Of 477 isolates of 23 species tested, 448 (94%) were given species names by the MIS and 29 (6%) were unidentified (specified as “no match” by the MIS). Of the 448 isolates given names by the MIS, only 335 (75%) of the identifications were correct to the species level. While the MIS correctly identified only 102 (82%) of 124 isolates of Candida glabrata, the predictive value of an MIS identification of unknown isolates as C. glabrata was 100% (102 of 102) because no isolates of other species were misidentified as C. glabrata. In contrast, while the MIS correctly identified 100% (15 of 15) of the isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the predictive value of an MIS identification of unknown isolates as S. cerevisiae was only 47% (15 of 32), because 17 isolates of C. glabrata were misidentified as S. cerevisiae. The low predictive values for accuracy associated with MIS identifications for most of the remaining yeast species indicate that the procedure and/or database for the system need to be improved. PMID:9574676

  8. Clinical strains of Lactobacillus reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans and protect Galleria mellonella against experimental candidiasis.

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    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Dos Santos Velloso, Marisol; Figueiredo, Lívia Mara Alves; Martins, Carolina Pistille; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2018-05-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can grow as yeast or filaments, depending on the environmental conditions. The filamentous form is of particular interest because it can play a direct role in adherence and pathogenicity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three clinical strains of Lactobacillus on C. albicans filamentation as well as their probiotic potential in pathogen-host interactions via an experimental candidiasis model study in Galleria mellonella. We used the reference strain Candida albicans ATCC 18804 and three clinical strains of Lactobacillus: L. rhamnosus strain 5.2, L. paracasei strain 20.3, and L. fermentum strain 20.4. First, the capacity of C. albicans to form hyphae was tested in vitro through association with the Lactobacillus strains. After that, we verified the ability of these strains to attenuate experimental candidiasis in a Galleria mellonella model through a survival curve assay. Regarding the filamentation assay, a significant reduction in hyphae formation of up to 57% was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of the Lactobacillus strains, compared to a control group composed of only C. albicans. In addition, when the larvae were pretreated with Lactobacillus spp. prior to C. albicans infection, the survival rate of G. mellonela increased in all experimental groups. We concluded that Lactobacillus influences the growth and expression C. albicans virulence factors, which may interfere with the pathogenicity of these microorganisms.

  9. Stratum corneum lipid liposome-encapsulated panomycocin: preparation, characterization, and the determination of antimycotic efficacy against Candida spp. isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in an in vitro human vaginal epithelium tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgü, Fatih; Bayram, Günce; Tosun, Kübra; İzgü, Demet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a liposomal lyophilized powder formulation of panomycocin was developed for therapeutic purposes against vulvovaginal candidiasis which affects 80% of women worldwide. Panomycocin is a potent antimycotic protein secreted by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus NCYC 434. This study involved the preparation of panomycocin-loaded stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs), characterization of the SCLLs, and determination of antimycotic efficacy of the formulation against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical vaginal isolates in a human vaginal epithelium tissue model. The encapsulation and loading efficiencies of SCLLs were 73% and 76.8%, respectively. In transmission electron microscopy images, the SCLLs appeared in the submicron size range. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed that the SCLLs had uniform size distribution. Zeta potential measurements revealed stable and positively charged SCLLs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, no irreversible interactions between the encapsulated panomycocin and the SCLLs were detected. The SCLLs retained >98% of encapsulated panomycocin in aqueous solution up to 12 hours. The formulation was fungicidal at the same minimum fungicidal concentration values for non-formulated pure panomycocin when tested on an in vitro model of vaginal candidiasis. This is the first study in which SCLLs and a protein as an active ingredient have been utilized together in a formulation. The results obtained in this study led us to conduct further preclinical trials of this formulation for the development of an effective topical anti-candidal drug with improved safety.

  10. Candida auris

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  11. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Infections Due to Candida Species

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    Yeser Karaca Derici

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Although urinary tract infections often caused by bacteria, fungal etiology is detected in a significant number of infections in which Candida is the leading cause. In this study we aimed to evaluate the distribution of Candida strains isolated from urine samples in our hospital. Material and Method: Candida species were identified based on germ tube test, colony morphology on chrom agar Candida (Biomerieux, France and API ID32C AUX (Biomerieux, France commercial kit. Data were analyzed with SPSS 15.0 software for data analysis. Results: During March 2011-March 2014 a total of 109662 urine cultures were evaluated and 24364 samples revealed significant growth. Of the significant growth detected 24364 (22% samples 1096 (4.5% were defined as yeasts. The isolates most frequently detected in this study were C. albicans (50.5%, C. tropicalis (15.9%, C. glabrata (12.7%, C. parapsilosis (7.2%, C. kefyr (5.8%, C. krusei (5.5%. The highest yeast growth was observed in anesthesia intensive care unit. Discussion: In our study, the most frequently isolated species of yeast in the urine was C. albicans. Determination of Candida species and their clinical distributions in hospitals is very important in terms of giving direction to the treatment and measures to be taken.

  12. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

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    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  13. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant Women and its Importance for Candida Colonization of Newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisova, Liliya G; Chokoeva, Anastasia A; Amaliev, Georgi I; Petleshkova, Penka V; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka М; Krasteva, Maya B; Uchikova, Ekaterina H; Kouzmanov, Andrei H; Ivanova, Zoya V

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the second most common cause of vaginitis worldwide (after bacterial candidiasis). Maternal vulvovaginal candidiasis is a major risk factor for Candida colonization and infection of the infant where prognosis depends on different predisposing factors. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and the etiological structure of vulvovaginal candidiasis in pregnant women and its impact on Candida colonization of newborns. Samples of vaginal secretions from 80 healthy pregnant women who were clinically suspicious for Candida vaginitis were collected within 48 hours before delivery. Samples for probable Candida colonization from the oral mucosa and feces were collected from their newborns within 47-72 hours after birth. Samples were plated on Sabouraud agar, followed by species identification by API Candida yeast assay. Twenty-three (28.75 ± 5.06%) of the evaluated pregnant women were positive for Candida spp. Positive samples for Candida colonization were found in 18 (22.22 ± 4.62%) of the examined 81 newborns (one pair of twins) from mothers who were clinically suspicious for vaginal candidiasis. Isolates of the newborns were 100% identical to those of the mothers' vaginal secretion. Candida albicans was the predominant species identified in the pregnant women (91.67 ± 0.06%) and in the neonates (83.33±8.78%).

  14. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study

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    Beena Shino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early childhood caries (ECC is associated with early colonisation and high levels of cariogenic microorganisms. With C. albicans being one of those, there is a need to determine the effectiveness of various chemotherapeutic agents against it. The study is aimed at isolating Candida species in children with ECC and at studying the antifungal effect of coconut oil, probiotics, Lactobacillus, and 0.2% chlorhexidine on C. albicans in comparison with ketoconazole. Materials and Methods. Samples were collected using sterile cotton swabs, swabbed on the tooth surfaces from children with ECC of 3 to 6 yrs and streaked on Sabouraud dextrose agar (HI Media plates and incubated in a 5% CO2 enriched atmosphere at 37°C for 24 hours. Candida was isolated and its susceptibility to probiotics, chlorhexidine, ketoconazole, and coconut oil was determined using Disc Diffusion method. Results. The mean zone of inhibition for chlorhexidine was 21.8 mm, whereas for coconut oil it was 16.8 mm, for probiotics it was 13.5 mm, and for ketoconazole it was 22.3 mm. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (Chi-square value 7.42, P value 0.06. Conclusion. Chlorhexidine and coconut oil have shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole.

  15. Molecular analysis and dimorphism of azole-susceptible and resistant Candida albicans isolates Análise molecular e dimorfismo de isolados de Candida albicans suscetíveis e resistentes aos azólicos

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    Carolina Rodrigues Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Candida albicans is responsible for superficial or systemic infections known as candidiasis, which may be found in infected tissue as unicellular budding yeasts, hyphae, or pseudohyphae. In this study, the effects of both fluconazole and itraconazole antifungal agents on the hyphal formation and genotypic characterization of C. albicans isolates classified as either susceptible or resistant were investigated. METHODS: The hyphal production of five C. albicans isolates under the action of antifungal agents was investigated by culturing yeast on growth medium and on hyphal induction medium. The genotypic characterization was carried out for 13 isolates of C. albicans using the random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR method. RESULTS: The dimorphism analysis showed that the hyphal formation was higher in resistant than in the susceptible isolates to both azoles. The RAPD-PCR method identified the formation of two different groups. In group A, four resistant and two susceptible isolates were clustered, and in group B, one resistant and six susceptible isolates were clustered. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that hyphal formation was higher in resistant isolates in the presence of azole drugs, we confirmed that the hyphal production is closely related to susceptibility to azoles. These drugs may affect the morphogenesis of C. albicans depending on their susceptibility to these drugs. In relation to RAPD-PCR, most resistant isolates classified in group A and susceptible isolates in group B demonstrated that this method presented a similar standard between the two groups, suggesting that by this technique, a strong correlation between genotypes and fluconazole-resistant samples may be found.INTRODUÇÃO: Candida albicans é responsável por infecções superficiais ou sistêmicas conhecidas como candidíase, encontrada em tecidos infectados na forma de leveduras brotantes unicelulares, hifas ou pseudohifas. Neste

  16. The European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) survey of candidaemia in Italy: in vitro susceptibility of 375 Candida albicans isolates and biofilm production.

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    Tortorano, Anna Maria; Prigitano, Anna; Biraghi, Emanuela; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of 375 Candida albicans bloodstream isolates recovered during the European Confederation of Medical Mycology survey of candidaemia performed in Lombardia, Italy and to test the ability to form biofilm. In vitro susceptibility to flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin was performed by broth microdilution following the NCCLS guidelines. Biofilm production was measured using the XTT reduction assay in 59 isolates selected as representative of different patterns of susceptibility to flucytosine and azoles. MICs (mg/L) at which 90% of the strains were inhibited were < or =0.25 for flucytosine, 0.25 for caspofungin, 4 for fluconazole and 0.06 for itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. Flucytosine resistance was detected in five isolates and was associated with serotype B in 2/29 and serotype A in 3/346. Resistance to fluconazole was detected in 10 isolates; nine of these exhibited reduced susceptibility to the other azoles. Among the 10 patients with fluconazole-resistant C. albicans bloodstream infection, only one, an AIDS patient, had been previously treated with fluconazole. Biofilm production was observed in 23 isolates (39%) and was significantly associated with serotype B. No relationship was detected with the pattern of antifungal susceptibility. Resistance is uncommon in C. albicans isolates recovered from blood cultures, while biofilm production is a relatively frequent event. Periodic surveillance is warranted to monitor the incidence of in vitro antifungal resistance as well as of biofilm production.

  17. with Candida spp. aetiology in women

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    Hanna Tomczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%, C. glabrata (31%, C. tropicalis (6%, C. krusei (3%. In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  18. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

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    Antonella Marangoni

    Full Text Available The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli, in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml, against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  19. In vitro activity of Spirulina platensis water extract against different Candida species isolated from vulvo-vaginal candidiasis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Micucci, Matteo; Nahui Palomino, Rogers Alberto; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Vitali, Beatrice; Camarda, Luca; Mandrioli, Mara; De Giorgio, Marta; Aldini, Rita; Corazza, Ivan; Chiarini, Alberto; Cevenini, Roberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    The high incidence of vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, combined with the growing problems about azole resistance and toxicity of antifungal drugs, highlights the need for the development of new effective strategies for the treatment of this condition. In this context, natural compounds represent promising alternatives. The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, a blue-green alga, exhibits antimicrobial activities against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, only few data about the antifungal properties of Spirulina platensis are available and its potential toxic effects have not been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of a fully-characterized water extract of Spirulina platensis against 22 strains of Candida spp. Prior to considering its potential topical use, we both investigated whether the extract exerted target activities on guinea pig uterine smooth muscle, and the impact of Spirulina platensis on the dominant microorganisms of the vaginal microbiota (i.e., lactobacilli), in order to exclude possible adverse events. By means of a broth microdilution assay, we found that the microalga extract possesses good antifungal properties (MIC: 0.125-0.5 mg/ml), against all the Candida species with a fungicidal activity. At the concentrations active against candida, Spirulina platensis did not modify the spontaneous basic waves pattern of uterine myometrium as underlined by the absence of aberrant contractions, and did not affect the main health-promoting bacteria of the vaginal ecosystem. Finally, we evaluated the selectivity index of our extract by testing its cytotoxicity on three different cell lines and it showed values ranging between 2 and 16. Further in vivo studies are needed, in particular to evaluate the use of control-release formulations in order to maintain Spirulina platensis concentrations at anti-Candida active doses but below the toxic levels found in the present work.

  20. In vitro synergism of a water insoluble fraction of Uncaria tomentosa combined with fluconazole and terbinafine against resistant non-Candida albicans isolates.

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    Moraes, Renata Cougo; Carvalho, Anderson Ramos; Lana, Aline Jacobi Dalla; Kaiser, Samuel; Pippi, Bruna; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Ortega, George González

    2017-12-01

    Uncaria tomentosa D.C. (Rubiaceae) has several biological activities, including activity against resistant Candida strains. The synergistic interaction with terbinafine or fluconazole can be an important alternative to overcome this resistance. The potential synergy between a water insoluble fraction (WIF) from Uncaria tomentosa bark and the antifungals terbinafine (TRB) and fluconazole (FLZ) against non-Candida albicans resistant strains was investigated. TRB and FLZ, alone and combined with WIF, were tested by the checkerboard procedure using the micro-dilution technique against seven isolates of Candida glabrata and C. krusei. The molecular interactions occurring outside the cell wall were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The checkerboard inhibitory assay demonstrated synergy for WIF:TRB and WIF:FLZ combinations, respectively. The best synergistic cell damage was demonstrated unequivocally for the associations of WIF and TRB (1.95:4.0 μg/mL) and WIF and FLZ (1.95:8.0 μg/mL). The comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the antifungal alone, and in combination with WIF, allows recognizing clear differences in 3000, 1600, 1400, and 700-800 cm -1 bands. Additionally, modifications on TRB and FLZ thermograms were clearly noticed after their combination with WIF. DSC and infrared analysis demonstrated intermolecular interactions between WIF and either TRB or FLZ. Hence, quite likely the synergistic effect is related to interaction events occurring outside the cell wall between antifungal and cat's claw proanthocyanidins. A direct action on the cell wall is suggested, without connection with the ABC efflux pump mechanism.

  1. Microbicidal activity of neutrophils is inhibited by isolates from recurrent vaginal candidiasis (RVVC) caused by Candida albicans through fungal thioredoxin reductase.

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    Ratti, Bianca Altrão; Godoy, Janine Silva Ribeiro; de Souza Bonfim Mendonça, Patrícia; Bidóia, Danielle Lazarin; Nakamura, Tânia Ueda; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Lopes Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine; Estivalet Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez; de Oliveira Silva, Sueli

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is characterized by an infection of the vulva and vagina, mainly caused by Candida albicans, a commensal microorganism that inhabits the vaginal, digestive, and respiratory mucosae. Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects approximately 75% of women, and 5% develop the recurrent form (RVVC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether neutrophils microbicidal response is triggered when activated with RVVC isolates caused by C. albicans. Our results showed that RVVC isolates induced neutrophil migration but significantly decrease the microbicidal activity of neutrophils, compared with VVC and ASS isolates. The microbicidal activity of neutrophils is highly dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). However, this isolate induced detoxification of ROS/RNS produced by neutrophils, reflected by the high level of thiol groups and by the oxygen consumption. Therefore, RVVC isolates induced biochemical changes in the inflammatory response triggered by neutrophils, and these effects were mainly related to the detoxification of ROS/RNS through the thioredoxin reductase (TR), a key antioxidant enzyme in fungi. This might be one of the resistance mechanisms triggered by RVVC caused by C. albicans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of the newly isolated ω-oxidizing yeast Candida sorbophila DS02 and its potential applications in long-chain dicarboxylic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heeseok; Sugiharto, Yohanes Eko Chandra; Lee, Seunghoon; Park, Gyuyeon; Han, Changpyo; Jang, Hyeran; Jeon, Wooyoung; Park, Heejoon; Ahn, Jungoh; Kang, Kyungbo; Lee, Hongwoen

    2017-08-01

    α, ω-Dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) are multipurpose chemicals widely used in polymers, perfumes, plasticizers, lubricants, and adhesives. The biotransformation of DCAs from alkanes and fatty acids by microorganisms has attracted recent interest, since synthesis via chemical oxidation causes problems in terms of the environment and safety. We isolated an ω-oxidizing yeast from a wastewater disposal facility of a petrochemical factory by chemostat enrichment culture. The haploid strain identified as Candida sorbophila DS02 grew on glucose and dodecane, exhibiting greater cell shrinkage on the latter. In flask cultures with mixed alkanes (C10-16) and fatty acid methyl esters (C10-16), DS02 used mixed alkanes simultaneously unlike Candida tropicalis and Yarrowia lipolytica and showed high substrate resistance. In flask cultures with acrylic acid-a known inhibitor of β-oxidation-DS02 produced 0.28 g/l dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) from dodecane, similar to wild-type C. tropicalis ATCC 20336. In fed-batch fermentation, DS02 produced 9.87 g/l DDDA, which was 5.7-fold higher than wild-type C. tropicalis. These results suggest that C. sorbophila strain DS02 has potential applications for the large-scale production of DCA.

  3. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de crianças de uma creche da prefeitura de Fortaleza Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the buccal mucosa of children of a day-care center of the city hall of Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2005-02-01

    %-45% followed by C. tropicalis (31%, C. guilliermondi (17%, C. glabrata (4.5% and C. stellatoidea (1,5%. Considering enzymatic activitie of Candida albicans strains, 20% produced proteinasis and 33% produced phospholipasis. Candida albicans isolated from children mouth mucous from a public day care center in Fortaleza presented a weak enzymatic activity. This finding leads to the conclusion that those strains seem to be of low virulence.

  4. Echinocandin failure case due to a yet unreported FKS mutation in Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Rewes, Annika

    Echinocandins are the preferred therapy for invasive infections due to Candida krusei. We present here a case of clinical failure involving C. krusei with a characteristic FKS1 hot spot mutation not previously reported in C. krusei that was isolated after 14 days of treatment. Anidulafungin MICs...... were elevated by ≥5 dilution steps above the clinical breakpoint but by only 1 step for a Candida albicans isolate harboring the corresponding mutation, suggesting a notable species-specific difference in the MIC increase conferred by this mutation....

  5. Echinocandin Failure Case Due to a Previously Unreported FKS1 Mutation in Candida krusei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Rewes, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Echinocandins are the preferred therapy for invasive infections due to Candida krusei. We present here a case of clinical failure involving C. krusei with a characteristic FKS1 hot spot mutation not previously reported in C. krusei that was isolated after 14 days of treatment. Anidulafungin MICs...... were elevated by ≥5 dilution steps above the clinical breakpoint but by only 1 step for a Candida albicans isolate harboring the corresponding mutation, suggesting a notable species-specific difference in the MIC increase conferred by this mutation....

  6. Simple method for screening .I.Candida./I. species isolates for the presence of secreted proteinases: a tool for the prediction of successful inhibitory treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Hamal, P.; Pavlíčková, Libuše; Souček, Milan; Ruml, T.; Pichová, Iva; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 2 (2003), s. 712-716 ISSN 0095-1137 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/01/0831; GA MZd NI6485; GA MZd NI6190 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Candida albicans * Candida tropicalis * Candida parapsilosis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.489, year: 2003

  7. The Antifungal Inhibitory Concentration Effectiveness Test From Ethanol Seed Arabica Coffee (Coffea arabica) Extract Against The Growth Of Candida albicans Patient Isolate With In Vitro Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satria Rakatama, Adam; Pramono, Andri; Yulianti, Retno

    2018-03-01

    Candida albicans are the most frequent cause of Vulvovaginalis Candidiasis infection. Its treatment using antifungal drugs, are oftenly caused side effects. The reduction of C.albicans growth and the reduction of antifungal drugs side effect, were our main purposed. Our study objective is determine the effectiveness of inhibitory power of arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. The type of this research is experimental research. Kirby-bauer method with the Saboraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media was used in this experiment. Inhibitory zone was observed around the disc, to determine the inhibitory power. The results showed that the inhibitory zone was formed on arabica coffee seed ethanol extract on 10%, 20%, 40%, and 80% concentration. Kruskal-Wallis test results (pthe concentration groups tested against the treatment group. The inhibitory zone was formed because of biochemical compound in arabica coffee seed such as caffeine, phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. Inhibitory zone in C.albicans patient isolates were smaller compared with C.albicans ATCC 90028 as gold standard. This showed that the virulence of C.albicans from patients isolates were higher. We concluded that arabica coffee seed ethanol extract could inhibiting the growth of C.albicans patient isolates. Optimization of coffee seed ethanol extract to obtain maximum active ingredients still needs to be done. This knowledge is expected to be used for the beginning manufacturer antifungal drug from natural product.

  8. Epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants

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    Aqel Kamal F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that Candida colonization contributes to increasing invasion of candidiasis in hospitalized neonates. Few studies investigated the epidemiology and risk factors of Candida colonization among hospitalized and non-hospitalized infants. This prospective study investigated the major epidemiological characteristics of Candida species colonizing oral and rectal sites of Jordanian infants. Methods Infants aged one year or less who were examined at the pediatrics outpatient clinic or hospitalized at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan, were included in this study. Culture swabs were collected from oral and rectal sites and inoculated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All Candida isolates were confirmed by the Remel RapID yeast plus system, and further investigated for specific virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility MIC using E-test. Genotyping of C. albicans isolates was determined using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD analysis method. Results A total of 61/492 (12.4% infants were colonized with Candida species by either their oral/rectal sites or both. Rectal colonization was significantly more detected than oral colonization (64.6% verses 35.4%, particularly among hospitalized infants aged more than one month. The pattern and rates of colonization were as follows: C. albicans was the commonest species isolated from both sites and accounted for 67.1% of all isolates, followed by C.kefyr (11.4%, each C. tropicalis and C. glabrata (8.9% and C. parapsilosis (3.8%. A various rates of Candida isolates proved to secrete putative virulence factors in vitro; asparatyl proteinase, phospholipase and hemolysin. C. albicans were associated significantly (P Candida species. All Candida isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin, whereas 97% of Candida species isolates were susceptible to fluconazole using E-test. The genetic similarity of 53 C. albicans isolates as demonstrated by dendrogram

  9. The significance of Candida in the human respiratory tract: our evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kathryn M; Huffnagle, Gary B; Dickson, Robert P

    2017-04-01

    Candida is an opportunistic pathogen and the most commonly isolated fungal genus in humans. Though Candida is often detected in respiratory specimens from humans with and without lung disease, its significance remains undetermined. While historically considered a commensal organism with low virulence potential, the status of Candida as an innocent bystander has recently been called into question by both clinical observations and animal experimentation. We here review what is currently known and yet to be determined about the clinical, microbiological and pathophysiological significance of the detection of Candida spp. in the human respiratory tract. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of FEMS 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Toxinas killer e produção de enzimas por Candida albicans isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer Killer toxin sensitiviy and production of enzymes by Candida albicans isolated from the oral mucosa of patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elida Elias de Oliveira

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Infecções oportunistas da cavidade bucal são primariamente causadas por fungos do gênero Candida e freqüentemente ocorrem em pacientes com câncer que estão sobtratamento quimioterápico e antibacteriano. De 44 amostras coletadas da mucosa oral de pacientes com câncer, observou-se o isolamento de 25 leveduras do gênero Candida em cultivo realizado em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose. Foram identificados Candida albicans em 24 (96% isolados e C. krusei em 1 (4%. As características fenotípicas das amostras de Candida albicans mostraram que todos os isolados foram fortemente proteolíticos, capazes de produzir fosfolipases e possuíam os biotipos caracterizados como 811(95,8% e 511 (4,2% em relação a susceptibilidade às toxinas killer.Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8% yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96% and 1 as C. krusei (4%. The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8% and 511 (4.2% in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins.

  11. Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniela; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates.

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    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host's immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as

  14. Identification of Candida spp. in the oral cavity in patients with malignant diseases

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    Glažar Irena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Oral candidiasis frequently causes discomfort in patients treated for malignant diseases, acting as well as a potential source of systemic infection. This disease may present itself through different clinical manifestations of both acute or chronic type. The aim of this study was to identify different Candida species from oral cavities of patients suffering from malignant diseases. Methods. Thirty patients admitted to the hospital for diagnostics/treatment of malignant diseases were included in this investigation. All subjects had visible changes of oral mucosa in the form of pseudomembranes and inflammation corresponding to oral candidiasis. Control group included 30 non-hospitalized patients diagnosed with candidiasis. Diagnosis of oral candidiasis was confirmed in all patients by microbiological analysis of tongue swabs. For microbiota identification, three different tests were used: germination test, fungal growth test on corn meal agar, and biochemical identification with commercially available ID 32 C kit (bio-Merieux, Marcy-l´Etoile, France. Results. Out of 30 isolates collected from hospitalized patients, 90% was related to Candida albicans, 7% was identified as Candida kefyr, and 3% as Candida famata. In samples collected from non-hospitalized controls, we isolated Candida albicans in 90% of the cases, in 7% Candida kefyr, while in 3% we identified Candida glabrata. Conclusion. Based on this investigation, oral candidiasis in patients treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy is mainly caused by Candida albicans. It is to be expected that Candida albicans will remain the most significant causative agent of oral candidasis, although we must bear in mind the possibility of other pathogenic species.

  15. The importance of genus Candida in human samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić-Miličević Gordana M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbiology is a rapidly changing field. As new researches and experiences broaden our knowledge, changes in the approach to diagnosis and therapy have become necessary and appropriate. Recommended dosage of drugs, method and duration of administration, as well as contraindications to use, evolve over time all drugs. Over the last 2 decades, Candida species have emerged as causes of substantial morbidity and mortality in hospitalized individuals. Isolation of Candida from blood or other sterile sites, excluding the urinary tract, defines invasive candidiasis. Candida species are currently the fourth most common cause of bloodstream infections (that is, candidemia in U.S. hospitals and occur primarily in the intensive care unit (ICU, where candidemia is recognized in up to 1% of patients and where deep-seated Candida infections are recognized in an additional 1 to 2% of patients. Despite the introduction of newer anti-Candida agents, invasive candidiasis continues to have an attributable mortality rate of 40 to 49%; excess ICU and hospital stays of 12.7 days and 15.5 days, respectively, and increased care costs. Postmortem studies suggest that death rates related to invasive candidiasis might, in fact, be higher than those described because of undiagnosed and therefore untreated infection. The diagnosis of invasive candidiasis remains challenging for both clinicians and microbiologists. Reasons for missed diagnoses include nonspecific risk factors and clinical manifestations, low sensitivity of microbiological culture techniques, and unavailability of deep tissue cultures because of risks associated with the invasive procedures used to obtain them. Thus, a substantial proportion of invasive candidiasis in patients in the ICU is assumed to be undiagnosed and untreated. Yet even when invasive candidiasis is diagnosed, culture diagnosis delays treatment for 2 to 3 days, which contributes to mortality. Interventions that do not rely on a specific

  16. Distribution of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species in oral candidiasis patients: Correlation between cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muadcheingka, Thaniya; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen

    2015-06-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to study the prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida (NAC) species from oral candidiasis patients and evaluate the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and biofilm forming capacity of the clinical isolates Candida species from oral cavity. This study identified a total of 250 Candida strains isolated from 207 oral candidiasis patients with PCR-RFLP technique. CSH value, total biomass of biofilm and biofilm forming ability of 117 oral Candida isolates were evaluated. C. albicans (61.6%) was still the predominant species in oral candidiasis patients with and without denture wearer, respectively, followed by C. glabrata (15.2%), C. tropicalis (10.4%), C. parapsilosis (3.2%), C. kefyr (3.6%), C. dubliniensis (2%), C. lusitaniae (2%), C. krusei (1.6%), and C. guilliermondii (0.4%). The proportion of mixed colonization with more than one Candida species was 18% from total cases. The relative CSH value and biofilm biomass of NAC species were greater than C. albicans (poral isolates NAC species had biofilm forming ability, whereas 78% of C. albicans were biofilm formers. Furthermore, the significant difference of relative CSH values between biofilm formers and non-biofilm formers was observed in the NAC species (poral cavity was gradually increasing. The possible contributing factors might be high cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability. The relative CSH value could be a putative factor for determining biofilm formation ability of the non-albicans Candida species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Widely Used ATB FUNGUS 3 Automated Readings in China and Its Misleading High MICs of Candida spp. to Azoles: Challenges for Developing Countries' Clinical Microbiology Labs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Li; Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kudinha, Timothy; Mao, Lei-Li; Zhao, Hao-Ran; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development in the clinical microbiology diagnostic assays presents more challenges for developing countries than for the developed world, especially in the area of test validation before the introduction of new tests. Here we report on the misleading high MICs of Candida spp. to azoles using the ATB FUNGUS 3 (bioMérieux, La Balme-les Grottes, France) with automated readings in China to highlight the dangers of introducing a diagnostic assay without validation. ATB FUNGUS 3 is the m...

  18. Genetic characteristics of Japanese clinical Listeria monocytogenes isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Miya

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne illnesses through consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Although 135-201annual listeriosis cases have been estimated in Japan, the details regarding the clinical isolates such as infection source, virulence level, and other genetic characteristics, are not known. In order to uncover the trends of listeriosis in Japan and use the knowledge for prevention measures to be taken, the genetic characteristics of the past human clinical isolates needs to be elucidated. For this purpose, multilocus tandem-repeat sequence analysis (MLTSA and multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (MVLST were used in this study. The clinical isolates showed a variety of genetically distant genotypes, indicating they were from sporadic cases. However, the MVLST profiles of 7 clinical isolates were identical to those of epidemic clone (EC I isolates, which have caused several serious outbreaks in other countries, suggesting the possibility that they have strong virulence potential and originated from a single outbreak. Moreover, 6 Japanese food isolates shared their genotypes with ECI isolates, indicating that there may be risks for listeriosis outbreak in Japan. This is the first investigational study on genetic characteristics of Japanese listeriosis isolates. The listeriosis cases happened in the past are presumably sporadic, but it is still possible that some isolates with strong virulence potential have caused listeriosis outbreaks, and future listeriosis risks also exist.

  19. Rapid and Accurate Molecular Identification of the Emerging Multidrug-Resistant Pathogen Candida auris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordalewska, Milena; Zhao, Yanan; Lockhart, Shawn R; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Berrio, Indira; Perlin, David S

    2017-08-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial and invasive infections associated with high mortality. C. auris is commonly misidentified as several different yeast species by commercially available phenotypic identification platforms. Thus, there is an urgent need for a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper, we present fast, robust, easy-to-perform and interpret PCR and real-time PCR assays to identify C. auris and related species: Candida duobushaemulonii , Candida haemulonii , and Candida lusitaniae Targeting rDNA region nucleotide sequences, primers specific for C. auris only or C. auris and related species were designed. A panel of 140 clinical fungal isolates was used in both PCR and real-time PCR assays followed by electrophoresis or melting temperature analysis, respectively. The identification results from the assays were 100% concordant with DNA sequencing results. These molecular assays overcome the deficiencies of existing phenotypic tests to identify C. auris and related species. Copyright © 2017 Kordalewska et al.

  20. Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Sachu, Arun; Mohan, Karthika; Vinod, Vivek; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, Shamsul

    Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37°C and 42°C after 24 and 48h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24h while at 48h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42°C. We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panghal, Manju; Kaushal, Vivek; Yadav, Jaya P

    2011-05-20

    Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University,Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T. foenum graecum) showed

  2. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a) isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b) assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%), Escherichia coli (15.62%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%), Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%), Proteus mirabilis (3.6%), Proteus vulgaris (4.2%) and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%), Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%). Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5%) were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R. communis and T

  3. Investigation of Association between Slime Production by Candida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the susceptibilities of fluconazole and voriconazole based on slime production by Candida spp. Methods: Candida strains (115) isolated in the period between January 2011 and January 2012 were included in this study. ... Yıldırım Beyazıt Training Hospital, were included in this study. Candida ...

  4. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical yeast isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Dzajic, Esad; Knudsen, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast yeast identification is important when treating patients with invasive fungal disease as susceptibility to antifungal agents is highly species related. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) provides a powerful tool with a clear potential...... spectra output, all 13 isolates were correctly identified, resulting in an overall identification performance of 92%. No misidentifications occurred with the two systems. Of the routine isolates one laboratory identified 99/99 (100%) and 90/99 (91%) to species level by Saramis/Axima and conventional...... identification, respectively, whereas the other laboratory identified 83/98 (85%) to species level by both BioTyper/Bruker and conventional identification. Both MALDI-TOF-MS systems are fast, have built-in databases that cover the majority of clinically relevant Candida species, and have an accuracy...

  5. Cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapirattanakul, Jinthana; Takashima, Yukiko; Tantivitayakul, Pornpen; Maudcheingka, Thaniya; Leelataweewud, Pattarawadee; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo

    2017-09-01

    In Streptococcus mutans, a Gram-positive pathogen of dental caries, several surface proteins are anchored by the activity of sortase enzyme. Although various reports have shown that constructed S. mutans mutants deficient of sortase as well as laboratory reference strains with a sortase gene mutation have low cariogenic potential, no known studies have investigated clinical isolates with sortase defects. Here, we examined the cariogenic properties of S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects as well as caries status in humans harboring such defective isolates. Sortase-defective clinical isolates were evaluated for biofilm formation, sucrose-dependent adhesion, stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation, acid production, and acid tolerance. Additionally, caries indices of subjects possessing such defective isolates were determined. Our in vitro results indicated that biofilm with a lower quantity was formed by sortase-defective as compared to non-defective isolates. Moreover, impairments of sucrose-dependent adhesion and stress-induced dextran-dependent aggregation were found among the isolates with defects, whereas no alterations were seen in regard to acid production or tolerance. Furthermore, glucan-binding protein C, a surface protein anchored by sortase activity, was predominantly detected in culture supernatants of all sortase-defective S. mutans isolates. Although the sortase-defective isolates showed lower cariogenic potential because of a reduction in some cariogenic properties, deft/DMFT indices revealed that all subjects harboring those isolates had caries experience. Our findings suggest the impairment of cariogenic properties in S. mutans clinical isolates with sortase defects, though the detection of these defective isolates seemed not to imply low caries risk in the subjects harboring them. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of a new T2 Magnetic Resonance assay for rapid detection of emergent fungal pathogen Candida auris on clinical skin swab samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, D Joseph; Bentz, Meghan L; Welsh, Rory M; Litvintseva, Anastasia P

    2018-06-25

    Candida auris is a multidrug-resistant pathogenic yeast whose recent emergence is of increasing public-health concern. C. auris can colonize multiple body sites, including patients' skin, and survive for weeks in the healthcare environment, facilitating patient-to-patient transmission and fueling healthcare-associated outbreaks. Rapid and accurate detection of C. auris colonization is essential for timely implementation of infection control measures and prevent transmission. Currently, axilla/groin composite swabs, used to assess colonization status, are processed using a culture-based method that is sensitive and specific but requires 14 days. This delay limits the opportunity to respond and highlights the need for a faster alternative. The culture-independent T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2MR) system is a rapid diagnostic platform shown to detect target pathogens of interest from unprocessed blood samples in T2 assay was evaluated for screening of the skin surveillance samples. Inclusivity and limit of detection of the T2 C. auris assay were assessed with spiked samples in a representative skin flora background. The T2 C. auris assay recognized isolates from each of the 4 known clades of C. auris and consistently detected cells at 5 CFU/mL. Finally, 89 clinical axilla/groin swab samples were processed with the T2 C. auris assay. The culture-based diagnostic assay was used as a gold standard to determine performance statistics including sensitivity (0.89) and specificity (0.98). Overall, the T2 C. auris assay performed well as a rapid diagnostic and could help expedite the detection of C. auris in patient skin swabs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity of HIV-positive patients at Fortaleza, Ceará Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida albicans isolado da cavidade oral de pacientes HIV-positivos em Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and other species are usually involved in opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunological deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The virulence mechanisms by which this yeast expresses its pathogenicity include adherence patterns, ability to form pseudomycelia and production of extracellular enzymes, among others. The objective of this research was to verify the frequency of Candida and the production of proteinase and phospholipase in 52 strains of Candida albicans from the oral cavity of patients infected by HIV treated at Hospital São José, AIDS reference and training center in Fortaleza, Ceará. Samples were collected of patients, with or without oral lesions characteristic of candidosis. From 100 patients, 80% presented positivity for Candida: 65% (52 were identified as C. albicans, 27.5% (22 as C. tropicalis, 2.5% (2 as C. glabrata, 2.5% (2 as C. krusei and 2.5% (2 as C. guilliermondii. Among the strains of C. albicans isolated from the oral cavity, proteinase and phospholipase were detected in 69.2% and 73%, respectively. The results suggested that C. albicans was the most frequent species observed, with intermediate expression of proteinase and phospholipase.Candida albicans e outras espécies são usualmente envolvidas em infecções de pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS. Os mecanismos de virulência pelos quais a levedura expressa sua patogenicidade incluem padrões de aderência, habilidade por formar pseudomicélio, produção de enzimas extracelulares e outros. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a freqüência de Candida e a produção de proteinase e fosfolipase em 52 cepas de Candida albicans da cavidade oral de pacientes infectados pelo HIV atendidos no Hospital São José, hospital de referência e centro de treinamento em AIDS em Fortaleza, Ceará. Neste trabalho foram coletadas amostras de pacientes com ou sem lesões características de candidose. Dos cem pacientes 80

  8. Multidrug-Resistant Candida haemulonii and C. auris, Tel Aviv, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Berman, Judith; Novikov, Ana; Bash, Edna; Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Zakin, Shiri; Maor, Yasmin; Tarabia, Jalal; Schechner, Vered; Adler, Amos; Finn, Talya

    2017-01-01

    Candida auris and C. haemulonii are closely related, multidrug-resistant emerging fungal pathogens that are not readily distinguishable with phenotypic assays. We studied C. auris and C. haemulonii clinical isolates from 2 hospitals in central Israel. C. auris was isolated in 5 patients with nosocomial bloodstream infection, and C. haemulonii was found as a colonizer of leg wounds at a peripheral vascular disease clinic. Liberal use of topical miconazole and close contact among patients were ...

  9. Detection of Polish clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates resistant to triazoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrot, Urszula; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2018-01-01

    We studied the presence of triazole resistance of 121 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates collected in two Polish cities, Warsaw and Wrocław, to determine if resistance is emerging in our country. We identified five itraconazole resistant isolates (4.13%) carrying the TR34/L98H alteration...

  10. Detection of Amp C Beta Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 81 consecutive non repetitive clinical isolates of Escherichia coli (n=40) and Klebsiella spp. (n=41) were screened for AmpC production by disc diffusion method using cefoxitin (30 Zg) disc and confirmed by inhibitor based test using boronic acid as inhibitor. A total of 16 E.coli isolates (40%) and 16 Klebsiella ...

  11. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, C.; Pomes, R.; Nombela, C.

    1990-01-01

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species

  12. Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Geographically Diverse Clinical Human Isolates of Leptospira▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ressner, Roseanne A.; Griffith, Matthew E.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Pimentel, Guillermo; Miller, R. Scott; Mende, Katrin; Fraser, Susan L.; Galloway, Renee L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2008-01-01

    Although antimicrobial therapy of leptospirosis has been studied in a few randomized controlled clinical studies, those studies were limited to specific regions of the world and few have characterized infecting strains. A broth microdilution technique for the assessment of antibiotic susceptibility has been developed at Brooke Army Medical Center. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibilities of 13 Leptospira isolates (including recent clinical isolates) from Egypt, Thailand, Nicarag...

  13. Planktonic growth and biofilm formation profiles in Candida haemulonii species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lívia S; Oliveira, Simone S C; Souto, Xênia M; Branquinha, Marta H; Santos, André L S

    2017-10-01

    Candida haemulonii species complex have emerged as multidrug-resistant yeasts able to cause fungemia worldwide. However, very little is known regarding their physiology and virulence factors. In this context, planktonic growth and biofilm formation of Brazilian clinical isolates of Candida haemulonii (n = 5), Candida duobushaemulonii (n = 4), and Candida haemulonii var. vulnera (n = 3) were reported. Overall, the fungal planktonic growth curves in Sabouraud dextrose broth reached the exponential phase in 48 h at 37°C. All the clinical isolates formed biofilm on polystyrene in a time-dependent event, as judged by the parameters evaluated: biomass (crystal violet staining), metabolic activity (XTT reduction), and extracellular matrix (safranin incorporation). No statistically significant differences were observed when the average measurements among the three Candida species were compared regarding both planktonic and biofilm lifestyles; however, typical isolate-specific differences were clearly noticed in fungal growth kinetics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Antimicrobial Potential of Momordica charantia L. against Multiresistant Standard Species and Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Filho, José Hardman Sátiro de; Lima, Rennaly de Freitas; Medeiros, Ana Claudia Dantas de; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potential in vitro of Momordica charantia L. against the microorganisms of clinical interest (standard strains and multiresistant isolates) in order to aggregate scientific information in relation to its use as a therapeutic product. M. charantia L. plant material was acquired in municipality of Malta, Paraiba, Brazil. The extract was obtained through maceration, filtration and then concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator, resulting in a dough, and was then dried in an oven for 72 hours at 40°C. Antimicrobial action of ethanolic extract of seed M. charantia L. was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against standard strains of bacteria, isolates multiresistant bacteria and Candida species, by microdilution in broth method. All organisms were sensitive to the extract, being considered strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC/MFC charantia L. showed strong antimicrobial potential, with bactericidal and fungicidal profile, there is the prospect to constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the control of infections, particularly in multiresistant strains. The use of medicinal plants in treatment of infectious processes have an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.

  15. Stability of candida albicans over long and short term storage in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Candida albicans are widely isolated fungal yeast agents from clinical samples. ... water,Chromagar plate,mineral oil overlay and brain heart infusion broth plus 10% glycerol at -20OC.Recovery rates were determined at six months,12 months and 18 months by sub-culturing onto sabouraud dextrose agar.

  16. Extracellular phospholipase production of oral Candida albicans isolates from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, denture wearers and healthy individuals following brief exposure to polyene, echinocandin and azole antimycotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjuna N.B. Ellepola

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Candida albicans is the primary causative agent of oral candidosis, and one of its key virulent attributes is considered to be its ability to produce extracellular phospholipases that facilitate cellular invasion. Oral candidosis can be treated with polyenes, and azoles, and the more recently introduced echinocandins. However, once administered, the intraoral concentration of these drugs tend to be sub-therapeutic and rather transient due to factors such as the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intra-orally, the pathogenic yeasts may undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs. We, therefore, evaluated the phospholipase production of oral C. albicans isolates following brief exposure to sub-therapeutic concentrations of the foregoing antifungals. Materials and methods Fifty C. albicans oral isolates obtained from smokers, diabetics, asthmatics using steroid inhalers, partial denture wearers and healthy individuals were exposed to sub-therapeutic concentrations of nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole and fluconazole for one hour. Thereafter the drugs were removed and the phospholipase production was determined by a plate assay using an egg yolk-agar medium. Results The phospholipase production of these isolates was significantly suppressed with a percentage reduction of 10.65, 12.14, 11.45 and 6.40% following exposure to nystatin, amphotericin B, caspofungin and ketoconazole, respectively. This suppression was not significant following exposure to fluconazole. Conclusions Despite the sub-therapeutic, intra oral, bioavailability of polyenes, echinocandins and ketoconazole, they are likely to produce a persistent antifungal effect by suppressing phospholipase production, which is a key virulent attribute of this common pathogenic yeast.

  17. [Inhibitory effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-xiang; Xia, Dan; Shi, Gao-xiang; Shao, Jing; Wang, Tian-ming; Tang, Chuan-chao; Wang, Chang-zhong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of butyl alcohol extract of Baitouweng decoction ( BAEB) on yeast-to-hyphae transition of Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in alkaline pH. Serial 2-fold dilution assay was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of Baitouweng decoction extracts against C. albicans isolates from VVC, XTT assay was applied to determine the metabolic activity of C. albicans hypha treated by BAEB for 6 h. The morphological change of C. albicans treated by BAEB was inspected at different pH by inverted microscope, fluorescence microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Solid agar plate and semi-solid agar were utilized to evaluate colony morphology and invasive growth of C. albicans, respectively. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was adopted to observe the expressions of hyphae-specific genes including HWP1, ALS3, CSH1, SUN41 and CaPDE2. The MIC of BAEB against C. albicans is less than that of other extracts; hyphae grow best at pH 8. 0; 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB could inhibit formation of hyphae and influence colony morphology. When treated by 512 mg · L(-1) and 1,024 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became smooth; while by 0 and 256 mg · L(-1) BAEB, the colonies became wrinkled. In semi-solid agar, the length of hyphae decreased steadily as the concentration of BAEB lowered. The expression of HWP1, ALS3, CSHl, SUN41 were downregulated by 5.12, 4.26, 3.2 and 2.74 folds, and CaPDE2 was upregulated by 2.38 fold. BAEB could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans isolates from VVC in alkaline pH.

  18. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients Candida na saliva de pacientes hemofílicos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maranhão Pereira

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.Hemofilia é uma alteração hemorrágica hereditária comum, entretanto pouco se sabe a respeito da microbiota oral destes indivíduos. O objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a presença de Candida e identificar as suas espécies na saliva de hemofílicos, correlacionando os resultados com fatores clínicos que possam influenciar a presença deste fungo. Foram avaliados 86 hemofílicos do Hemocentro/UNICAMP e 43 indivíduos saudáveis. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a anamnese, exame clínico intra-oral e coleta de saliva de forma não estimulada. A quantificação e identificação das espécies de Candida foram realizadas nas amostras de saliva. Candida estava presente em 64% dos hemofílicos e em 44% dos indivíduos saudáveis. C. albicans representou 65% e 68% das esp

  19. Antifungal Activity of 14-Helical β-Peptides against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms of Candida Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Raman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections and treatment is further complicated by the formation of drug resistant biofilms, often on the surfaces of implanted medical devices. In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections by other pathogenic Candida species such as C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis has increased. Amphiphilic, helical β-peptide structural mimetics of natural antimicrobial α-peptides have been shown to exhibit specific planktonic antifungal and anti-biofilm formation activity against C. albicans in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that β-peptides are also active against clinically isolated and drug resistant strains of C. albicans and against other opportunistic Candida spp. Different Candida species were susceptible to β-peptides to varying degrees, with C. tropicalis being the most and C. glabrata being the least susceptible. β-peptide hydrophobicity directly correlated with antifungal activity against all the Candida clinical strains and species tested. While β-peptides were largely ineffective at disrupting existing Candida biofilms, hydrophobic β-peptides were able to prevent the formation of C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis biofilms. The broad-spectrum antifungal activity of β-peptides against planktonic cells and in preventing biofilm formation suggests the promise of this class of molecules as therapeutics.

  20. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M.; van Helden, Paul D.; van der Merwe, Ruben G.; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L.; Tabb, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  1. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Heunis, Tiaan

    2017-08-18

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ~9% of all total coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e. large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  2. Proteogenomic Investigation of Strain Variation in Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunis, Tiaan; Dippenaar, Anzaan; Warren, Robin M; van Helden, Paul D; van der Merwe, Ruben G; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C; Pain, Arnab; Sampson, Samantha L; Tabb, David L

    2017-10-06

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis consists of a large number of different strains that display unique virulence characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing has revealed substantial genetic diversity among clinical M. tuberculosis isolates, and elucidating the phenotypic variation encoded by this genetic diversity will be of the utmost importance to fully understand M. tuberculosis biology and pathogenicity. In this study, we integrated whole-genome sequencing and mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) to reveal strain-specific characteristics in the proteomes of two clinical M. tuberculosis Latin American-Mediterranean isolates. Using this approach, we identified 59 peptides containing single amino acid variants, which covered ∼9% of all coding nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants detected by whole-genome sequencing. Furthermore, we identified 29 distinct peptides that mapped to a hypothetical protein not present in the M. tuberculosis H37Rv reference proteome. Here, we provide evidence for the expression of this protein in the clinical M. tuberculosis SAWC3651 isolate. The strain-specific databases enabled confirmation of genomic differences (i.e., large genomic regions of difference and nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants) in these two clinical M. tuberculosis isolates and allowed strain differentiation at the proteome level. Our results contribute to the growing field of clinical microbial proteogenomics and can improve our understanding of phenotypic variation in clinical M. tuberculosis isolates.

  3. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  4. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marol Serhat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  5. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-10-29

    The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  6. Quinolones Resistance And R-Plasmids Of Clinical Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There has been reported incidence in the emergence of. Quinolones resistance in clinical isolates in Nigeria and the level in resistance has been on the increase. Objective: To determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids profiles of 67 clinical Pseudomonas species from a teaching hospital ...

  7. Circulating tumor cell isolation and diagnostics: toward routine clinical use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolpe, van de A.; Pantel, K.; Sleijfer, S.; Terstappen, L.W.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    From February 7–11, 2011, the multidisciplinary Lorentz Workshop Circulating Tumor Cell (CTC) Isolation and Diagnostics: Toward Routine Clinical Use was held in Leiden (The Netherlands) to discuss progress and define challenges and potential solutions for development of clinically useful circulating

  8. Plausible exploitation of Jatropha de-oiled seed cake for lipase and phytase production and simultaneous detoxification by Candida parapsilosis isolated from poultry garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannoju, Balakrishna; Ganapathiwar, Swaruparani; Nunavath, Hanumalal; Sunkar, Bindu; Bhukya, Bhima

    2017-02-01

    Jatropha de-oiled seed cake was explored to utilize as a basic nutrient source for Candida parapsilosis, isolated from poultry garbage and selected based on the production of lipase and phytase enzymes under submerged fermentation. At optimized parameters under solid-state fermentation, lipase and phytase activities were recorded as 1056.66±2.92 and 833±2.5U/g of substrate (U/g), respectively. Besides enzyme production, complete elimination of phorbol esters and significant phytate reduction from 6.51±0.01 to 0.43±0.01g/100g of seed cake were noted after 3days incubation. Curcin and trypsin inhibition activity were reduced significantly from 26.33±0.43 to 0.56±0.02mg/100g and 229.33±2.02 to 11.66±0.28U/g, respectively after 5days incubation. Saponins were reduced from 5.56±0.19 to 1.95±0.01g/100g of seed cake after 7days incubation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Solís, Sandra E; Rueda-Gordillo, Florencio; Rojas-Herrera, Rafael A

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans has a variety of virulence factors, including secreted aspartyl proteases, which are determinant factors in the pathogenesis of this yeast in immunocompromised patients. Proteinase activity was identified in C. albicans strains isolated from the oral cavity of immunocompromised patients with cancer, diabetes and HIV+, with oral candidiasis and in healthy subjects. Two hundred and fifty C. albicans strains were analyzed, distributed in 5 different groups: patients with cancer, diabetes, HIV+, with oral candidiasis and healthy subjects. Proteolytic activity was identified in 46% of the strains from cancer patients, 54% from HIV+ patients, 60% from diabetics, 70% from oral candidiasis patients, and 42% from healthy subjects. Activity was higher in strains from immunocompromised and oral candidiasis patients than in healthy subjects. Differences were observed between the candidiasis-healthy, candidiasis-HIV+, and diabetic-healthy groups. No differences were observed between the oral candidiasis, diabetes and cancer patients, between the diabetes and HIV+ patients, or between the cancer patients, HIV+ patients and healthy subjects. The present results suggest that although secreted aspartyl proteases are important in the pathogenesis of C. albicans, their activity depends on host conditions. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Sequential application of NaHCO3, CaCl2 and Candida oleophila (isolate 13L) affects significantly Penicillum expansum growth and the infection degree in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinu, M G; Pani, G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; Ladu, G; D'Hallewin, G

    2011-01-01

    The employment of biocontrol agents to restrain postharvest pathogens is an encouraging approach, although, efficacy and consistency are still below those of synthetic pesticides. Up to date, the 'integrated control strategy' seems to be the most promising way to overcome this gap. Here, we report the feasibility to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum in apples by a 2 min, single or sequential, immersion in water with an antagonistic yeast (Candida oleophila, isolate '13L'), 2% NaHCO3 (SBC) or 1% CaCl2. The treatments were carried out, on appels cv 'Miali' either un-wounded, wounded or wound-pathogen inoculated and then stored at 2 degrees C for 30 d followed by a 6 d simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C or alternatively stored only for 7 d at 20 degrees C. As a general role, the best results were attained when CaCl2 was applied with the yeast or when preceded by the SBC treatment. When the wounding and inoculation took place 24 h before the treatment, the latter application sequence of the two salts was three times more effective compared to the treatment with the sole antagonist, and one time when performed 24 h after the treatment. Interestingly, apples immersed in the sole 2% SBC solution had the highest percentage of decay during storage and when inoculated before moving to the simulated marketing period at 20 degrees C.

  11. Antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans isolated from oral mucosa of patients with cancer Suscetibilidade de Candida albicans a antifúngicos: cepas isoladas da mucosa bucal de pacientes com câncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino João da COSTA

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of oral infections due to opportunistic fungi in immunocompromised patients, needs a new evaluation of the drugs in use. The susceptibility in vitro of Candida albicans strains from the oral mucosa of cancer patients to amphotericin B, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were evaluated. A dilution technique in YNB agar or subculture on Sabouraud agar was utilised for MIC or MFC determinations. With this methodology, the best fungicidal drug for C.albicans collected from the oral mucosa of 40 cancer patients, divided in two groups: one treated by radiotherapy and the other not, the best results were obtained with amphotericin B, presenting low values of MIC compared to azoles and MFC values. However it is important to take into consideration the utilisation in vivo of this polyenic antibiotic and the possible toxic levels necessary to achieve good results. The coexistence of other fungi and the local conditions must also be pondered with these patients, who are mostly undergoing radiotherapy. In order to achieve better results without undesirable consequences, higher levels of MIC are expected with the daily clinical use of new drugs.O crescente número de infecções fúngicas bucais em pacientes imunocomprometidos tem estimulado a pesquisa de drogas mais eficientes. Procuramos, assim, avaliar a suscetibilidade in vitro de cepas de Candida albicans de pacientes com câncer submetidos ou não a radioterapia frente às seguintes drogas: anfotericina B, cetoconazol, miconazol e itraconazol. A técnica de diluição em ágar YNB e o subcultivo em AS foram respectivamente utilizados para determinação da CIM (Concentração Inibitória Mínima e da CFM (Concentração Fungicida Mínima. Com esta metodologia, a droga que mostrou melhor atividade antifúngica para cepas de C. albicans isoladas de qualquer dos grupos de pacientes foi a anfotericina B, apresentando baixos valores de CIM em comparação aos az

  12. ALS1 and ALS3 gene expression and biofilm formation in Candida albicans isolated from vulvovaginal candidiasis

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    Shahla Roudbarmohammadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results attained indicated that there is an association between the expression of ALS1 and ALS3 genes and fluconazole resistance in C. albicans. A considerable percent of the isolates expressing the ALS1 and ALS3 genes may have contributed to their adherence to vagina and biofilm formation.

  13. Isolation and characterization of three distinct forms of lipases from Candida rugosa produced in solid state fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailas Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Three distinct forms (Lip A, Lip B and Lip C of extra-cellular lipases (EC- 3.1.1.3, produced by Candida rugosa in solid state fermentation (SSF were purified and characterised. SSF was carried out in glass columns using coconut oil cake and wheat bran. The enzyme was purified from the aqueous extract of fermented matter by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, ultra-filtration and gel filtration using Sephadex-200 to a 43-fold purification and 64.35-mg/ml specific activity. SDS-PAGE of purified enzyme revealed three distinct bands, indicating the existence of three iso-forms, Lip A, Lip B and Lip C with apparent molecular weight about 64,000, 62,000 and 60,000 Da, respectively. All the three iso-forms were optimally active at 35-40ºC and pH 7-8. They showed marked differences in their Km values with different saturated and unsaturated triacyl glycerols. Ag++ and Hg++ strongly inhibited enzyme activity of all the iso-forms, Mn++ has no effect and Ca++ and Mg++ enhanced the activity. EDTA also strongly inhibited the enzyme activities of iso-forms. However, activities of all the three lipases were completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors such as 3,4-dichloroisocoumarin, pefabloc and partially by phenylmethanesulphonyl fluoride. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the purification and characterisation of C. rugosa lipase iso-forms from solid cultures. These lipase iso-forms with diverse characteristics produced in solid cultures may find potential application in biomedical field.Três formas distintas (Lip A, Lip B e Lip C de lipases extracelulares (EC- 3,1,1,3, produzidas por Candida rugosa em fermentação no estado sólido (SSF foram purificadas e caracterizadas. A fermentação foi realizada em colunas de vidro usando como substrato bolo de óleo de coco e o farelo de trigo. O enzima obtida no extrato aquoso do material fermentado foi precipitada com do sulfato de do amônio, dialisada , ultra

  14. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fusidic acid resistance among staphylococci strains isolated from clinical specimens

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    Özcan Deveci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate in vitrosusceptibility of fusidic acid to clinic isolates of staphylococci.Materials and methods: The forty-one coagulase negativestaphylococci (CNS and 18 Staphylococcus aureusstrains isolated from various clinical specimens were includedin this study. Staphylococci isolates were identifiedby conventional methods such as colony morphologyonto medium, gram staining, catalase and coagulasetests. According to “Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI” criteria, antimicrobial susceptibility testingof isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s disk diffusionmethod.Results: The seventy-two percent of the isolated S.aureuswere defined as methicillin sensitive-S.aureus (MSSA,28% of the isolated S.aureus were defined as methicillinresistant-S.aureus (MRSA. The difference among fusidicacid susceptibility rates of MSSA and MRSA strains wasnot statistically significant (p=0.305. The twenty-nine percentof the isolated CNS were defined as methicillin sensitive-CNS (MS-CNS, 71% of the isolated CNS were definedas methicillin resistant-CNS (MR-CNS. There wasno statistically significant difference between MS-CNSand MR-CNS strains for fusidic acid susceptibility rates(p=0.490. But the difference among fusidic acid susceptibilityrates of CNS and S.aureus strains was statisticallysignificant (p<0.001. CNS strains were found more resistancethan S.aureus strains for fusidic acid.Conclusion: In this study, the resistance rates weredetected to increase for fusidic acid along with methicillinresistance. Among CNS isolates, fusidic acid resistancerates were significantly more elevated than that forS.aureus. Fusidic acid remains as an alternative in thetreatment of infections due to staphylococci.

  16. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  17. Epidemiology, Clinical Characteristics, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profiles of Human Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, Melanie L; Lainhart, William; Burnham, C A

    2018-03-01

    The veterinary pathogens in the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) are increasingly recognized as causes of human infection. Shared features between SIG and Staphylococcus aureus may result in the misidentification of SIG in human clinical cultures. This study examined the clinical and microbiological characteristics of isolates recovered at a tertiary-care academic medical center. From 2013 to 2015, 81 SIG isolates were recovered from 62 patients. Patients were commonly ≥50 years old, diabetic, and/or immunocompromised. Documentation of dog exposure in the electronic medical record was not common. Of the 81 SIG isolates, common sites of isolation included 37 (46%) isolates from wound cultures and 17 (21%) isolates from respiratory specimens. Although less common, 10 (12%) bloodstream infections were documented in 7 unique patients. The majority of SIG (65%) isolates were obtained from polymicrobial cultures. In comparison to S. aureus isolates from the same time period, significant differences were noted in proportion of SIG isolates that were susceptible to doxycycline (74% versus 97%, respectively; P SIG isolates. All MR isolates detected by an oxacillin disk diffusion test would have been misclassified as methicillin susceptible using a cefoxitin disk diffusion test. Thus, SIG is recovered from human clinical specimens, and distinction of SIG from S. aureus is critical for the accurate characterization of MR status in these isolates. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome. METHODS: All episodes of Candida isolated from the central nervous system were identified by searching our laboratory database. Review of the cases was performed by means of a retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Eleven episodes of Candida CSF infection following neurosurgery were identified over a 12-year period. Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated (n = 8, 73%). All infections were associated with foreign intracranial material, nine with external ventricular drains (82%), one with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, one with a lumbar drain, and one with Gliadel wafers (1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosurea). Fluconazole or liposomal amphotericin B were the most common anti-fungal agents used. The mortality rate identified in our series was 27%. CONCLUSIONS: Candida infection following neurosurgery remains a relatively rare occurrence but one that causes significant mortality. These are complex infections, the management of which benefits from a close liaison between the clinical microbiologist and neurosurgeon. Prompt initiation of antifungal agents and removal of infected devices offers the best hope of a cure.

  19. [Identification of Candida dubliniensis strains using heat tolerance tests, morphological characteristics and molecular methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevtap; Darka, Ozge; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Günalp, Ayfer

    2003-01-01

    Described in 1995, Candida dubliniensis is a novel Candida species closely related to Candida albicans due primarily to its ability to produce germ tube and chlamydospores. Given these phenotypic similarities between the two species, C. dubliniensis cannot be readily distinguished from Candida albicans by routine laboratory work-up. We explored the frequency of isolation of C. dubliniensis among 213 strains previously defined as C. albicans based on their ability to produce germ tube. The test isolates were initially examined for their morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar, inability to grow at 45 degrees C, and the biochemical assimilation profile (ID 32C system, bioMerieux, France). Among all, 2 (0.9%) of the isolates were identified as C. dubliniensis based on the production of numerous chlamydospores in chains on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of growth at 45 degrees C. The assimilation profile of these isolates was found to be in accordance with this identification. In an effort to confirm the identification, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were carried out by using the C. dubliniensis specific primer set, DUBF and DUBR. Both of the isolates yielded C. dubliniensis-specific 288 base pair amplification products, confirming the previous identification obtained with the initial screening tests. The isolates were found to be susceptible to fluconazole and itraconazole, and generated amphotericin B minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.5-1 microgram/ml by NCCLS M27-A2 microdilution method. These data suggest that the isolation rate of C. dubliniensis among our clinical isolates is low. The morphological features on cornmeal tween 80 agar and the lack of ability to grow at 45 degrees C appear as reliable, cheap, and practical screening tests in initial identification of C. dubliniensis among germ tube-producing Candida strains.

  20. [Evaluation of a rapid trehalase test for the identification of Candida glabrata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirdar, Sevin; Gültekin, Berna; Evcil, Gonca; Ozkütük, Aydan; Sener, Asli Gamze; Aydin, Neriman

    2009-04-01

    Candida species which cause local infections, may also lead to fatal systemic infections. The increasing incidence of non-albicans Candida, especially fluconazole susceptible or resistant dose-dependent C. glabrata, increased the importance of rapid and accurate species level identification for Candida. Rapid and correct identification of C. glabrata is essential for the initiation of the appropriate antifungal therapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the rapid trehalase test in the diagnosis of C. glabrata isolates. A total of 173 Candida strains isolated from various clinical specimens and identified according to germ tube test, growth on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and the colony morphologies on Mast-CHROMagar Candida medium (Mast Diagnostics, UK), were included to the study. The identification of non-albicans Candida species were also confirmed by API 20CAUX (BioMerieux, France) system. Accordingly 86 (50%) of the isolates were identified as C. glabrata, 48 (28%) C. albicans, 17 (10%) C. krusei, 13 (8%) C. tropicalis, 5 (3%) C. parapsilosis, 3 (2%) C. kefyr and 1 (1%) Cutilis. In order to detect the presence of trehalase enzyme in Condida strains, all isolates were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing 4% glucose and then one yeast colony was emulsified in 50 microl of citrate buffer containing 4% (wt/vol) trehalose for 3 h at 37 degrees C. Presence of glucose which emerged after the action of trehalase on trehalose, was detected by a commercial "urinary glucose detection dipstick" (Spinreacta, Spain). All C. glabrata strains yielded positive result by trehalase test. None C. glabrata isolates were found negative by trehalase test except for one strain of C. tropicalis. In this study, the trehalase test allowed identification of C. globrata with 100% sensitivity and 98.9% specificity. It was concluded that trehalase test is a rapid, cost-effective and simple test that can be used for the accurate identification of C. glabrata.

  1. Onycholysis caused by Candida Krusei

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    Rao S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Onycholysis caused by Candida krusei is rare. A 21 years old male patient presented with grayish discolouration and elevation of all fingernails since one year. Patient was refractory to treatment with fluconazole. Potassium hydroxide preparation of subungual debris revealed fungal elements. Growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was identified by cultural characteristics, morphotyping, microscopy and biochemical tests as Candida krusei. The isolate was resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin-B but susceptible to nystatin and clotrimazole. Patient responded well to clotrimazole and terbinafine.

  2. Molecular detection of candida species from hospitalized patient’s specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardoso, José Luis; Martínez-Rivera, María Ángeles; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; López-Martínez, Rubén; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca

    To identify the most frequent Candida species in specimens from patients hospitalized in different medical centers of Mexico City, with suspected fungal infection. Specimens were grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar at 28°C for 72 h. In addition, DNA was extracted. Isolates were grown on CHROMagar Candida™, at 37°C for 48 h. The molecular identification was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for four species. Eighty one specimens were processed and included: bronchial lavage, pleural, cerebrospinal, peritoneal, ascites and bile fluids; blood, sputum, bone marrow, oro-tracheal cannula and ganglion. By culture, 30 samples (37%) were positive, and by PCR, 41 (50.6%). By PCR, the frequency of species was: Candida albicans 82.9%, Candida tropicalis 31.7%, Candida glabrata 24.4%, and Candida parapsilosis 4.9%. In 34.1% of specimens a species mixture was detected suggesting a co-infection: Two species in five specimens (C. albicans-C tropicalis and C. albicans-C glabrata), and three species in three specimens (C. albicans-C. glabrata-C. tropicalis). The PCR is an useful tool for detection the most common Candida species causing infection in hospitalized patients, it avoids the requirement of culture weather we start from clinical specimen and it favors the early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Copyright: © 2017 SecretarÍa de Salud

  3. The impact of real life treatment strategies for Candida peritonitis-A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubler, S; Laun, M; Koch, C; Hecker, A; Weiterer, S; Siegler, B H; Röhrig, R; Weigand, M A; Lichtenstern, C

    2017-07-01

    Candida species are commonly detected isolates from abdominal foci. The question remains as to who would benefit from early empiric treatment in cases of Candida peritonitis. This study collected real-life data on critically ill patients with Candida peritonitis to estimate the relevance of the chosen treatment strategy on the outcome of these patients. One hundred and thirty-seven surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with intra-abdominal invasive Candidiasis were included in the study. Fifty-six patients did not get any antifungal agent. Twenty-nine patients were empirically treated, and 52 patients were specifically treated. In the group without, with empiric and with specific antifungal treatment, the 30-day mortality rate was 33.9, 48.3 and 44.2 respectively. Candida albicans was the most frequently found species. Seven patients in the specific treatment group and one patient in the empiric treatment group emerged with candidaemia. Age, leucocyte count, APACHE II Score and acute liver failure were independent predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with Candida peritonitis. Not all patients with Candida peritonitis received antifungal treatment in real clinical practice. Patients with higher morbidity more often got antifungals. Early empirical therapy has not been associated with a better 30-day mortality. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Antibacterial activity in spices and local medicinal plants against clinical isolates of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nafisa Hassan; Faizi, Shaheen; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2011-08-01

    Development of resistance in human pathogens against conventional antibiotic necessitates searching indigenous medicinal plants having antibacterial property. Twenty-seven medicinal plants used actively in folklore, ayurvedic and traditional system of medicine were selected for the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity for this study. Eleven plants chosen from these 27 are used as spices in local cuisine. Evaluation of the effectiveness of some medicinal plant extracts against clinical isolates. Nonedible plant parts were extracted with methanol and evaporated in vacuo to obtain residue. Powdered edible parts were boiled three times and cooled in sterile distilled water for 2 min each and filtrate collected. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plant extracts and filtrates/antibiotics was evaluated against clinical isolates by microbroth dilution method. Water extract of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae) buds, methanol extracts of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) and Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) leaves and Peganum harmala L. (Nitrariaceae) seeds had MIC ranges of 31.25-250 µg/ml. S. aromaticum inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. F. carica and O. europaea inhibited growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. pyogenes whereas P. harmala was effective against S. aureus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Candida albicans. Ampicillin, velosef, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline and ceftazidime, cefotaxime, cefepime, which are used as control, had MIC ≥ 50 and 1.5 µg/ml, respectively, for organisms sensitive to extracts. Mono/multiextract from identified plants will provide an array of safe antimicrobial agents to control infections by drug-resistant bacteria.

  5. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...

  6. Typing Candida albicans oral isolates from healthy Brazilian schoolchildren using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis reveals two highly polymorphic taxa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fabiano Gomes Boriollo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of C. albicans oral isolates from 75 healthy schoolchildren from eight schools located in different geographic areas of Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was established using isoenzymes marker (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis - MLEE and cluster analysis. Patterns of monoclonal and polyclonal oral colonization by C. albicans within and between groups of schoolchildren were identified. However, significant divergence between the observed and the expected genotypic frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test was not detected in the geographically adjacent groups, suggesting the hypothesis that populations of healthy schoolchildren do not correspond to the selection factor (differential survival of strains. Two highly polymorphic and distantly genetically related taxa (A and B were identified within the total population of yeasts, each contained subgroups (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1 and B2 and clusters of moderately related strains (from I to X, suggesting the existence of strains restricted or not to certain groups of geographically limited, healthy students. However, the coexistence of identical strains in healthy schoolchildren from the same school (geographically related reinforces the hypothesis of oral transmission, where the sources of propagation could be explored. Furthermore, this could also be used in current and retrospective analyses of C. albicans isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, in order to detect commensal or potentially pathogenic yeast groups, predominantly in candidiasis, and in the development of strategies to prevent transmission or human propagation.

  7. Typing Candida albicans oral isolates from healthy brazilian schoolchildren using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis reveals two highly polymorphic taxa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Spolidorio, Denise Madalena Palomari; Barros, Letizia Monteiro; Bassi, Rodrigo Carlos; Garcia, José Antonio Dias; Costa, Ana Maria Duarte Dias; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro; Höfling, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The genetic diversity of C. albicans oral isolates from 75 healthy schoolchildren from eight schools located in different geographic areas of Piracicaba city, São Paulo state, Brazil, was established using isoenzymes marker (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis – MLEE) and cluster analysis. Patterns of monoclonal and polyclonal oral colonization by C. albicans within and between groups of schoolchildren were identified. However, significant divergence between the observed and the expected genotypic frequencies (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test) was not detected in the geographically adjacent groups, suggesting the hypothesis that populations of healthy schoolchildren do not correspond to the selection factor (differential survival) of strains. Two highly polymorphic and distantly genetically related taxa (A and B) were identified within the total population of yeasts, each contained subgroups (A1, A2, A3, A4, B1 and B2) and clusters of moderately related strains (from I to X), suggesting the existence of strains restricted or not to certain groups of geographically limited, healthy students. However, the coexistence of identical strains in healthy schoolchildren from the same school (geographically related) reinforces the hypothesis of oral transmission, where the sources of propagation could be explored. Furthermore, this could also be used in current and retrospective analyses of C. albicans isolated from immunocompetent and immunocompromised people, in order to detect commensal or potentially pathogenic yeast groups, predominantly in candidiasis, and in the development of strategies to prevent transmission or human propagation. PMID:24031720

  8. Antibiotic Susceptibilities and Serotyping of Clinical Streptococcus Agalactiae Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altay Atalay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. Material and Methods: One hundred thirty one S. agalactiae strains isolated from the clinical samples were included in the study. Of the strains, 99 were isolated from urine, 20 from soft tissue, 10 from blood and 2 from vaginal swab. Penicillin G and ceftriaxone susceptibilities of GBS were determined by the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities to erythromycin, clindamycin, vancomycin and tetracycline were determined by the Kirby-Bauer method according to CLSI criteria. Serotyping was performed using the latex aglutination method using specific antisera (Ia, Ib, II-VIII. Results: While in 131 GBS strains, serotypes VII and VIII were not detected, the most frequently isolated serotypes were types Ia (36%, III (30.5% and II (13% respectively. Serotype Ia was the most frequently seen serotype in all samples. All GBS isolates were susceptible to penicilin G, ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Among the strains, tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin resistance rates were determined as 90%, 14.5%, and 13% respectively. Conclusion: Penicillin is still the first choice of treatment for the infections with all serotypes of S. agalactiae in Turkey.

  9. Adherence of Candida to complete denture surfaces in vitro: A comparison of conventional and CAD/CAM complete dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fouzan, Afnan F; Al-Mejrad, Lamya A; Albarrag, Ahmed M

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the adhesion of Candida albicans to the surfaces of CAD/CAM and conventionally fabricated complete denture bases. Twenty discs of acrylic resin poly (methyl methacrylate) were fabricated with CAD/CAM and conventional procedures (heat-polymerized acrylic resin). The specimens were divided into two groups: 10 discs were fabricated using the CAD/CAM procedure (Wieland Digital Denture Ivoclar Vivadent), and 10 discs were fabricated using a conventional flasking and pressure-pack technique. Candida colonization was performed on all the specimens using four Candida albicans isolates. The difference in Candida albicans adhesion on the discs was evaluated. The number of adherent yeast cells was calculated by the colony-forming units (CFU) and by Fluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference in the adhesion of Candida albicans to the complete denture bases created with CAD/CAM and the adhesion to those created with the conventional procedure. The CAD/CAM denture bases exhibited less adhesion of Candida albicans than did the denture bases created with the conventional procedure ( P CAD/CAM procedure for fabricating complete dentures showed promising potential for reducing the adherence of Candida to the denture base surface. Clinical Implications. Complete dentures made with the CAD/CAM procedure might decrease the incidence of denture stomatitis compared with conventional dentures.

  10. Determination of biofilm production by Candida tropicalis isolated from hospitalized patients and its relation to cellular surface hydrophobicity, plastic adherence and filamentation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán-Ladero, M A; Blanco-Blanco, M T; Hurtado, C; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Blanco, M T; Gómez-García, A C

    2013-09-01

    Candida tropicalis is an emerging virulent species. The aim of this study is to determine the biofilm-forming ability of 29 strains of C. tropicalis isolated from inpatients, and to examine its relation with other virulence factors such as cellular surface hydrophobicity (CSH), immediate (15 min, IA) and late (24 h, LA) plastic adherence and filamentation ability. The study was performed in parallel using two incubation temperatures - 37 and 22 °C - to determine the effect of growth temperature variations on these pathogenic attributes of C. tropicalis. Biofilm formation (BF) was measured by optical density (OD) and by XTT reduction (XTT); Slime index (SI), which includes growth as a correction factor in BF, was calculated in both methods. All strains were hydrophobic and adherent - at 15 min and 24 h - at both temperatures, with higher values for 22 °C; the adhered basal yeast layer appears to be necessary to achieve subsequent development of biofilm. Filamentation ability varied from 76.2% of strains at 37 °C to 26.6% at 22 °C. All C. tropicalis strains were biofilm producers, with similar results obtained using OD determination and XTT measurement to evaluation methods; SI is useful when good growth is not presented. BF at 37 °C was similar at 24 h and 96 h incubation; conversely, at 22 °C, the highest number of biofilm-producing strains was detected at 96 h. CSH is an important pathogenic factor which is involved in adherence, is influenced by the filamentation of yeast, and plays a critical role in BF. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of uropathogenic bacteria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics has been on increase and responsible for increased mortality and morbidity among patients. Clinical isolates (22) of uropathogenic bacteria comprising Escherichia coli, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococcus aureus were tested for susceptibility to standard ...

  12. Multiple antimicrobial resistance in bacterial isolates from clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 545 clinical specimens (pus, blood, urine, and stool) and environmental specimens (air sample, saline solution, nasal swabs etc) were cultured for isolation and identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Out of these, 356(65%) specimens yielded one or more bacterial strains. Frequent ...

  13. Antimicrobial Resistance Trend of Bacteria from Clinical Isolates: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For decades, antimicrobials have proven useful for the treatment of bacterial infections. However, the immergence of antimicrobial resistance has become a major challenge to public health in many countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from clinical sources.

  14. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  15. Evaluation of the frequency of Candida spp. in hospitalized and non-hospitalized subjects

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    J. N. Vieira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Candida species between a non-hospitalized and a hospitalized population. For this purpose, samples of saliva were sampled through sterile swabs, moistened in peptone water and rubbed in the oral cavity of 140 individuals, from which, 70 were hospitalized patients from the Medical Clinic of a Teaching Hospital and the other 70 were non-hospitalized subjects. All saliva samples were plated in Sabouraud Dextrose agar added with Chloramphenicol and incubated at 36 °C for 48 hours. The morphology identification was performed through macroscopic and microscopic characterization, the CHROMagar Candida medium and the VITEK® system Yeast Biochemical Card (bio Mérieux SA, France. The results showed a colonization of Candida spp. in 85.7% the hospitalized individuals, where the species found were C. albicans (60%, C. tropicalis (23.4%, C. krusei (3.3% and Candida spp. (13.3%. In the non-hospitalized individuals the colonization by Candida spp was 47.1%, and the species found were: C. albicans (45.5%, C.krusei (9.1%, C. guilliermondii (9.1% %, C. tropicalis (3.0%, C. famata (3.0% and Candida spp. (30.3%. In spite of their presence in oral cavity in both groups, Candida spp. was more frequently isolated in hospitalized individuals, who were 6.73 times more likely to have this fungus in the oral cavity and were 3.88 times more likely to have Candida albicans.

  16. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Sana; Jamil, Naz; Saad, Uzma; Hafiz, Saleem; Siddiqui, Sualleha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida albicansin patients with funguria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Patients’ urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candidaspecies was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6%) were male patients and 85 (29.4%) were female patients, with 165 (57.1%) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9%) from the in-patients. Five species of Candidawere found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1%) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9%) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8%) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8%) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4%) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2%). In the present study, 30.1% patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis(60.9%), followed by other non-albicansCandida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candidaas a major cause of candiduria.

  17. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants against clinical isolates of oral cancer cases

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    Kaushal Vivek

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppression of immune system in treated cancer patients may lead to secondary infections that obviate the need of antibiotics. In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the occurrence of secondary infections in immuno-suppressed patients along with herbal control of these infections with the following objectives to: (a isolate the microbial species from the treated oral cancer patients along with the estimation of absolute neutrophile counts of patients (b assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity medicinal plants against the above clinical isolates. Methods Blood and oral swab cultures were taken from 40 oral cancer patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of Regional Cancer Institute, Pt. B.D.S. Health University, Rohtak, Haryana. Clinical isolates were identified by following general microbiological, staining and biochemical methods. The absolute neutrophile counts were done by following the standard methods. The medicinal plants selected for antimicrobial activity analysis were Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav., Asparagus racemosus Willd., Balanites aegyptiaca L., Cestrum diurnum L., Cordia dichotoma G. Forst, Eclipta alba L., Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng. , Pedalium murex L., Ricinus communis L. and Trigonella foenum graecum L. The antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants was evaluated by modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. MIC and MFC were investigated by serial two fold microbroth dilution method. Results Prevalent bacterial pathogens isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (23.2%, Escherichia coli (15.62%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.5%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.37%, Klebsiella pneumonia (7.81%, Proteus mirabilis (3.6%, Proteus vulgaris (4.2% and the fungal pathogens were Candida albicans (14.6%, Aspergillus fumigatus (9.37%. Out of 40 cases, 35 (87.5% were observed as neutropenic. Eight medicinal plants (A. tenuifolius, A. racemosus, B. aegyptiaca, E. alba, M. koenigii, P. murex R

  18. Molecular identification of clinical Nocardia isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash M; Honnavar, Prasanna; Kaur, Harsimran; Samanta, Palash; Ray, Pallab; Ghosh, Anup; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2015-10-01

    The epidemiology of nocardiosis is evolving with increasing number of Nocardia spp. causing human infection. In recent years, molecular techniques have been used to identify Nocardia spp. There are limited data available on the spectrum of Nocardia spp. isolated from clinical samples in India. Here, a molecular study was carried on 30 clinical isolates maintained in our National Culture Collection to evaluate the techniques used for identifying the agents. The isolates were identified by sequencing two promising genes: the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65. Both hsp65 and the 16S rRNA gene could reliably identify 90 % of Nocardia isolates, i.e. N. farcinica, N. cyriacigeorgica, N. brasiliensis, N. otitidiscaviarum, N. amamiensis and N. pneumoniae. The mean percentage dissimilarity of sequence identification was higher using the hsp65 gene (4 %, range 0-7.9 %) compared with the 16S rRNA gene (2.3 %, range 0-8.9 %). Two isolates that showed ambiguous results in both the short segment of the 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences could be resolved by sequencing a larger fragment (∼1000 bp) of the 16S rRNA gene. Both of these isolates were identified as N. beijingensis with similarities of 99.8 and 100 % compared with the standard strain. Genotyping of N. cyriacigeorgica strains was performed using hsp65 gene sequences and compared with previously described genotypes. Our N. cyriacigeorgica isolates belonged to genotype 1 (n = 4) and genotype 2 (n = 2). The present study highlights a wide spectrum of Nocardia spp. in India and emphasizes the need for molecular techniques for identification to the species level.

  19. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluranti J. Obisesan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32±11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p<0.0001. The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere.

  2. Phenotypic Detection of Genitourinary Candidiasis among Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Attendees in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obisesan, Oluranti J.; Olowe, Olugbenga A.; Taiwo, Samuel S.

    2015-01-01

    The management of genitourinary candidiasis (GC) is fraught with challenges, especially, in an era of increasing antifungal resistance. This descriptive cross-sectional study conducted between May 2013 and January 2014 determined the prevalence and characteristics of GC and the species of Candida among 369 attendees of a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) clinic of Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. Appropriate urogenital specimen collected from each attendee was examined by microscopy and culture for Candida, with preliminary species identification by CHROMAgar Candida and confirmation by Analytical Profile Index (API) 20C AUX. The age range of attendees was 1-80 years, mean age was 36.32 ± 11.34 years, and male to female ratio was 1 to 3. The prevalence of genitourinary candidiasis was 47.4%, with 4.9% in males and 42.5% in females (p < 0.0001). The age groups 31–45 and 16–30 have the highest prevalence of 23.3% and 16.8%, respectively. The species of Candida recovered include Candida glabrata 46.9%, Candida albicans 33.7%, Candida dubliniensis 9.7%, Candida tropicalis 5.7%, Candida krusei 1.7%, Candida lusitaniae 1.7%, and Candida utilis 0.6%. This study reported non-C. albicans Candida, especially C. glabrata, as the most frequently isolated species in GC, contrary to previous studies in this environment and elsewhere. PMID:26064140

  3. Candida albicans isoladas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down: ocorrência e inibição do crescimento por Streptomyces sp Candida albicans isolated from buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome: occurrence and growth inhibition by Streptomyces sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Gonçalves Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparação entre a presença de leveduras de Candida na cavidade bucal de crianças sem e com síndrome de Down mostrou-se estatisticamente significante no caso de crianças afetadas por esta cromossomopatia, tornando-as mais predispostas à candidíase bucal, provavelmente favorecida pelas alterações anátomo-fisiológicas da boca em decorrência da trissomia do cromossomo 21. Recidivas constantes de candidíase bucal em crianças portadoras desta alteração cromossômica levou a busca de prováveis alternativas terapêuticas. Visando determinar a atividade antifúngica de Streptomyces sp isolados de diferentes solos brasileiros, 5 cepas foram testadas frente a Candida albicans, oriundas da cavidade bucal de crianças com síndrome de Down. Observou-se que os isolados apresentaram uma diversidade de tamanho dos halos (9-31mm de diâmetro de inibição de crescimento das leveduras, sugerindo uma possível utilização em terapêutica antifúngica.Comparison of the presence of Candida yeasts in the buccal cavity of children without and with Down's syndrome showed a statistically significant difference in the case of children that were affected by this chromosomopathy, rendering them more predisposed to buccal candidiasis, probably due to anatomicophysiologic alterations of the mouth resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21. Constant recurrence of buccal candidiasis in children with this chromosomal alteration lead to the search for a possible therapeutic alternative. Seeking to determine the antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp isolated from various Brazilian soils, 5 strains have been tested for Candida albicans isolated from the buccal cavity of children with Down's syndrome. It was observed that the isolate presented a diversity in the size of the halos (9-31mm in diameter of growth inhibition of the yeasts, suggesting a possible use as a therapeutic antifungal.

  4. The efficacy of disinfectants on abattoirs’ Candida albicans isolates in Niger Delta region [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/R96jeA

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    Oluwayemisi A Olorode

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of common disinfectants- these are (parachlorometaxylenol dettol, savlon purit and jik (sodium hypochlorite on Candida albicans isolated from displaying and cutting tables in five different abattoirs in Port Harcourt (Niger Delta region; the abattoirs include Trans Amadi, Agip, Woji, Rumuokoro, and Rumuodara. This research was carried out between January 2005 and June 2006. Swab samples were collected from abattoirs cutting tables with sterile swab sticks and immediately transferred and cultured in the laboratory on a selective medium Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA. The disinfectants’ concentrations were prepared at 10%, 20%, 40%, and 70%, in triplicates and the mean values calculated. 0.5 Mc Farland turbidity method of standardization and Agar diffusion method were used for disinfectants testing of the isolates. Statistical analysis of the data showed no significant difference in the effectiveness of these disinfectants at (p<0.05. In conclusion, this study has shown that savlon and dettol were the most potent antimicrobial agents at 10% concentration on Candida albicans isolates when compared with purit and jik in this study, hence they are good sanitizing agents to be applied on the abattoirs cutting tables, before meat products can be displayed for sale.

  5. Clinical evaluation of isolated abutment teeth in removable partial dentures

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    Zarrati S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Nowadays, removable partial dentures are applied to patients who are not able to use dental implants or fixed prosthesis. Although based on the studies the users of removable partial dentures are in the risk of plaque accumulation and unacceptable changes such as gingivitis, periodontitis and mobility in abutment tooth. It is not clear whether the negative effects of removable partial dentures are more on the isolated teeth which are a kind of abutment adjacent to endentulous area in both sides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical condition of isolated abutment teeth without splinting in comparison to control abutment from the aspects of B.O.P (bleeding on probing, mobility, pocket depth and gingivitis."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prepared questionnaires were filled out by 50 patients who received removable partial dentures in department of removable prosthodontics of dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients had isolated abutment tooth and did not have any systemic disease. The obtained data were analyzed. Using Wilcoxon, exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis test."nResults: B.O.P (P=0.004, pocket depth (P=0.035, and mobility (P<0.001 in isolated abutments were more than those in control abutments, but there were not significant differences in the degree of caries (P=0.083 and gingivitis (P=0.07."nConclusion: This study showed that clinical condition of isolated abutments is worse than that of control abutments. More attention should be paid to healthiness of isolated teeth without splinting and periodic follow ups should be done in these cases.

  6. In vitro and in vivo activity of a novel antifungal small molecule against Candida infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sze Wah Wong

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC 0.2-1.6 µg/ml. In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use.

  7. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Jamil, N.; Hafiz, S.; Siddiqui, S.; Saad, U.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of Candida albicans in patients with funguria. Study Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Patients urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candida species was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Results: Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6 percentage) were male patients and 85 (29.4 percentage) were female patients, with 165 (57.1 percentage) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9 percentage) from the in-patients. Five species of Candida were found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1 percentage) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9 percentage) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8 percentage) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8 percentage) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4 percentage) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2 percentage). Conclusion: In the present study, 30.1 percentage patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis (60.9 percentage), followed by other non-albicans Candida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candida as a major cause of candiduria. (author)

  8. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

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    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  10. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts: Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, T.; Aslani, N.; Ahangarkani, F.; Meyabadi, M.F.; Hagen, F.; Meis, J.F.; Boekhout, T.; Kolecka, A.; Badali, H.

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  11. Candida infanticola and Candida spencermartinsiae yeasts : Possible emerging species in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shokohi, Tahereh; Aslani, Narges; Ahangarkani, Fatemeh; Meyabadi, Masoumeh Fatahi; Hagen, Ferry; Meis, Jacques F.; Boekhout, Teun; Kolecka, Anna; Badali, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Opportunistic infections due to Candida species occur frequently especially in intensive care settings. We investigated the prevalence of Candida species among 65 clinical specimens obtained from 200 cancer patients by phenotypic and molecular (ITS sequencing and AFLP) methods. Among the 65 yeast

  12. Leveduras do gênero Candida isoladas de sítios anatomicamente distintos de profissionais militares em Cuiabá (MT, Brasil Species of Candida isolated from anatomically distinct sites in military personnel in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil

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    Diniz Pereira Leite Júnior

    2011-08-01

    membranes; however emerging species have changed this epidemiological profile. The ability to colonize different anatomical sites has been associated with the pathogenicity of Candida when environmental conditions are particularly favorable. In the case of hot, humid climates, the attrition suffered by the skin and weakened immune defenses may result in yeasts becoming pathogenic rather than commensal organisms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to diagnose yeast infections in military personnel and to evaluate the frequency of these infections in the individuals evaluated. METHODS: The clinical material analyzed was seeded in duplicate in Sabouraud dextrose agar (Difco™ and Mycosel medium (Difco™. The etiological agents were identified by observing the germ tubes, microculture and physiological characteristics, assimilation of carbon sources (auxanogram and fermentation of carbon sources (zymogram. RESULTS: Of a total of 197 patients evaluated, 91 (46.2% had episodes of candidiasis. The genitocrural region was the most commonly affected area (47.7% followed by the interdigital regions (between the toes or fingers (27.8%. Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and emergent species such as Candida krusei and Candida guilliermondii were found. CONCLUSIONS: In the work environment, having to use shoes and uniforms for extended periods of time, in addition to stress and perspiration, were considered predisposing factors for the development of fungal infections.

  13. In Vitro Susceptibility Test of Different Clinical Isolates against Ceftriaxone

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    Syed Hakim Masood

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Because of the prevailing penicillin resistance in microorganisms, broad spectrum cephalosporins are used empirically specially in developing countries. The aim of this study is to determine the susceptibility pattern of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens against third generation cephalosporin-ceftriaxone to explore the existing effectiveness of this antibiotic.Methods: 180 clinical isolates of different gram positive and gram negative pathogens including P.mirabilis, S. typhi P.aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and Klebsiella were collected from blood and urine samples of in-patients. 30 isolates of all species were tested against each of six brands of ceftriaxone using in vitro sensitivity tests by disc diffusion method (NCCLS criteria. The susceptibility limit was ≥21 mm zone of inhibition, while moderately susceptible was considered at 20-14 mm, and those isolates which showed >13 mm or no zone of inhibition were resistant to this antibacterial drug.Results: Ceftriaxone was found most effective against S. aureus. While 96.1% of the isolates showed susceptibility towards ceftriaxone, followed by E. coli (95%, P. aeruginosa (92.7%, K. pneumonia (89.4% and S. typhi (87.2%. P. mirabilis showed lowest susceptibility amongst all the test organisms (83.8%.Conclusion: Ceftriaxone can be used as a drug of choice in infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, P. aurigenosa, K. pneumonia and S. typhi. However, it should be used with other antimicrobial agents in order to increase its effectiveness against P. mirabilis.

  14. Characterization of integrons in Burkholderia cepacia clinical isolates

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    Linda Furlanis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia cepacia is an opportunistic pathogen able to colonize the airways of Cystic Fibrosis (CF patients, frequently developing chronic infections. In 20% of cases these infections cause severe and poorly controlled pathological situations because of the intrinsic antibiotic resistance expressed by the microorganism. CF patients are often subjected to antibiotic therapy: this facilitates the acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants by the infecting bacteria. Integrons are mobile genetic elements that are widespread in bacterial populations and favor the acquisition of gene cassettes coding for these determinants.The presence of class 1 integrons was investigated by PCR with primers specific for the 5’ and 3’ ends in Burkholderia isolates recovered from patients in treatment at the CF center of Friuli Venezia Giulia. The same integron, carrying an uncommon allelic form (Ib of the aacA4 gene in its cassette array and conferring resistance to some aminoglycosides, was found in two independent isolates (different RAPD profiles infecting two different patients. In both isolates the integron was carried by plasmids and was still present 3 and 6 years later the first finding. Despite the exchange of integrons between bacterial pathogens is fully described, these items were not frequently found in Burkholderia isolates. Although the clinical relevance of the integron we identified is low (a single gene cassette encoding a widespread resistance,we feel concerned that these genetic elements begin to circulate in this bacterial species, as this could make more and more troublesome the treatment of infections notoriously difficult to eradicate.

  15. Genotyping of clinical isolates of Acanthamoeba genus in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carolina; Reyes-Batlle, María; Ysea, María Alejandra Vethencourt; Pérez, Mónica V Galindo; de Rondón, Carmen Guzmán; Paduani, Anaibeth J Nessi; Pérez, Angelyseb Dorta; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; de Galindo, María Virginia Pérez; de Suárez, Eva Pérez; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    Free-living amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus are opportunistic pathogens distributed worldwide. Strains included in this genus are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and a sight-threating keratitis in humans and other animals. In this study, 550 clinical samples which were collected between 1984 and 2014 from different patients with suspected infections due to Acanthamoeba were initially screened for the presence of this amoebic genus at the Laboratorio de Amibiasis-Escuela de Bioanálisis at the Universidad Central de Venezuela. Samples were cultured in 2% Non-Nutrient agar plates seeded with a layer of heat killed Escherichia coli. From the 550 clinical samples included in this study, 18 of them were positive for Acanthamoeba genus after culture identification. Moreover, positive samples were confirmed after amplification of the Diagnostic Fragment 3 (DF3) of the Acanthamoeba18S rDNA genus and sequencing was carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Furthermore, the pathogenic potential of the strains was checked by performing thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays. Sequencing of the DF3 region resulted in the identification of genotype T4 in all the isolated strains. Moreover, most isolates were thermotolerant or both thermotolerant and osmotolerant and thus were classified as potentially pathogenic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization at the genotype level of Acanthamoeba strains in Venezuela.

  16. Communication between hospitals and isolated aboriginal community health clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, G; Currie, B J

    1999-04-01

    This study described the communication dynamics, identified problems and recommended changes to improve patient follow-up and communication between Royal Darwin Hospital (RDH) and isolated Aboriginal community health clinics (CHC) in the Northern Territory (NT). In 1995, staff interviews were conducted and an audit of isolated Aboriginal patients' RDH discharge summaries (DS). Eighteen per cent of RDH DSs never arrived in CHCs. DSs were often prepared late and more likely to be in CHC records if written on time and if the referral source was specified. Interviews revealed discontent between CHCs and RDH regarding: communication, DS documentation, the supply of discharge medication, as well as different hospital and community perceptions of Aboriginies' reliability to carry a DS and CHC desire for patients to be given DSs at discharge. Aboriginal patients should be given a DS at discharge and resident medical officers should be educated as to the function and importance of the DS. In 18 months following this study, RDH appointed unit-based Aboriginal health workers and a policy was produced for written communication between hospital and CHCs, as well as a discharge planning manual for Aboriginal communities. Projects investigating communication between hospitals and isolated Aboriginal clinics and patient follow-up may result in significant policy changes concerning these processes.

  17. Clinical and genetic aspects of familial isolated pituitary adenomas

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    Vladimir Vasilev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenomas represent a group of functionally diverse neoplasms with relatively high prevalence in the general population. Most occur sporadically, but inherited genetic predisposing factors are increasingly recognized. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is a recently defined clinical entity, and is characterized by hereditary presentation of pituitary adenomas in the absence of clinical and genetic features of syndromic disease such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 and Carney complex. Familial isolated pituitary adenoma is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and accounted for approximately 2-3% of pituitary tumors in some series. Germline mutations in the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are identified in around 25% of familial isolated pituitary adenoma kindreds. Pituitary adenomas with mutations of the aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene are predominantly somatotropinomas and prolactinomas, but non-functioning adenomas, Cushing disease, and thyrotropinoma may also occur. These tumors may present as macroadenomas in young patients and are often relatively difficult to control. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations occur in >10% of patients with sporadic macroadenomas that occur before 30 years of age, and in >20% of children with macroadenomas. Genetic screening for aryl-hydrocarbon interacting protein gene mutations is warranted in selected high-risk patients who may benefit from early recognition and follow-up.

  18. Candida infective endocarditis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddley, J. W.; Benjamin, D. K.; Patel, M.; Miró, J.; Athan, E.; Barsic, B.; Bouza, E.; Clara, L.; Elliott, T.; Kanafani, Z.; Klein, J.; Lerakis, S.; Levine, D.; Spelman, D.; Rubinstein, E.; Tornos, P.; Morris, A. J.; Pappas, P.; Fowler, V. G.; Chu, V. H.; Cabell, C.; DraGordon, David; Devi, Uma; Spelman, Denis; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Kauffman, Carol; Bradley, Suzanne; Armstrong, William; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Giamarellou, Helen; Lerakis, Stamatios; del Rio, Ana; Moreno, Asuncio; Mestres, Carlos A.; Pare, Carlos; Garcia de la Maria, Cristina; de Lazzario, Elisa; Marco, Francesc; Gatell, Jose M.; Miro, Jose M.; Almela, Manel; Azqueta, Manuel; Jimenez-Exposito, Maria Jesus; de Benito, Natividad; Perez, Noel; Almirante, Benito; Fernandez-Hidalgo, Nuria; de Vera, Pablo Rodriguez; Tornos, Pilar; Falco, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716

  19. Isolation and antibiogram of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli isolates from clinical and subclinical cases of bovine mastitis

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    Nihar Nalini Mohanty,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the continuous change in the pattern of drug resistance showed by different mastitogenic organisms, isolated from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis.Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using 150 milk samples received from various clinical and subclinical cases, from which the causative organisms were isolated and subjected to in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test.Results: The bacteriological analysis of the samples indicated the presence of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms followed by isolation of isolates like Staphylococcus, E. coli, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Klebsiella. The in vitro sensitivity of Staphylococcus, E. coli and Streptococcus isolates revealed that they were more sensitive towards newer antimicrobials like Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin.Conclusion: The prevalence of Staphylococcus was found to be maximum followed by Streptococcus and E. coli among the isolated organisms. Levofloxacin and Enrofloxacin were found to be most effective against the targeted isolates.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of Dialium guineense (Wild.) stem bark on some clinical isolates in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajubu, Fa; Akpan, I; Ojo, DA; Oluwalana, Sa

    2012-01-01

    The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but also more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative sources of antimicrobials. Dialium guineense is a shrub of the family Leguminosae. Its stem bark is used for the treatment of cough, toothache, and bronchitis. Despite the acclaimed efficacy of D guineense, there is no scientific evidence in its support. This work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of D guineense in vitro against some clinical isolates. D guineense stem bark was collected and 50 gm of air-dried and powdered stem bark of the plant was soaked for 72 hours in 1 l of each of the six solvents used in this study. Each mixture was refluxed, agitated at 200 rpm for 1 hour, filtered using Whatman No. 1 filter paper and, finally, freeze dried. The extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using the agar diffusion method. The highest percentage yield of 23.2% was obtained with ethanol. Phytochemical screening showed that D guineense contains anthraquinone, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts revealed a broad spectrum of activity, with Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureusa showing the greatest zones of inhibition (18.0 mm). Only Candida albicans among the fungi tested was inhibited by the extract. The greatest zone of inhibition among the fractions was 16.0 mm. D guineense exhibited bactericidal activity at the 7th and 9th hours against Streptococcus pneumoniae and S. aureus 25923 while the 10th hour against S. typhi and C. albicans. The greatest activity was noted against S pneumoniae, where there was reduced viable cell count after 6 hours of exposure. Stem bark extract of D guineense (Wild.) has the potential to be developed into an antimicrobial

  1. In vitro activity of ivermectin against Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates

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    Shoaib Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ivermectin is an endectocide against many parasites. Though being a macrocyclic lactone, its activity against bacteria has been less known, possibly due to the fact that micromolar concentrations at tissue levels are required to achieve a therapeutic effect. Among pathogenic bacteria of major medical significance, Staphylococcus aureus cause a number of diseases in a wide variety of hosts including humans and animals. It has been attributed as one of the most pathogenic organisms. The emergence of methicillin resistance has made the treatment of S. aureus even more difficult as it is now resistant to most of the available antibiotics. Thus, search for alternate anti-staphylococcal agents requires immediate attention. Methods Twenty-one clinical isolates of S. aureus were isolated from bovine milk collected from Lahore and Faisalabad Pakistan. Different anthelmintics including levamisole, albendazole and ivermectin were tested against S. aureus to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations. This was followed-up by growth curve analysis, spot assay and time-kill kinetics. Results The results showed that ivermectin but not levamisole or albendazole exhibited a potent anti-staphylococcal activity at the concentrations of 6.25 and 12.5 μg/ml against two isolates. Interestingly, one of the isolate was sensitive while the other was resistant to methicillin/cefoxitin. Conclusions Our novel findings indicate that ivermectin has an anti-bacterial effect against certain S. aureus isolates. However, to comprehend why ivermectin did not inhibit the growth of all Staphylococci needs further investigation. Nevertheless, we have extended the broad range of known pharmacological effects of ivermectin. As pharmacology and toxicology of ivermectin are well known, its further development as an anti-staphylococcal agent is potentially appealing.

  2. Candida guilliermondii as the aetiology of candidosis Candida guilliermondii como agente de candidose

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    Alessandro Comarú Pasqualotto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida guilliermondii is one of the components of human microbiota. This yeast has been infrequently associated with human infections, which may be related to its low pathogenicity. The aim of this study was to provide clinical and epidemiological data for patients infected with C. guilliermondii at Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brazil. From October 1997 to October 2003, C. guilliermondii was isolated from clinical samples from 11 patients. Three patients were excluded because the isolation of the yeast represented colonisation. Specimens from the eight patients included in the study corresponded to blood (n = 5, ascitis fluid (n = 2, and oesophagus biopsy (n = 1. Three patients (37.5% had major immunosuppressed conditions, including solid organ transplantation, AIDS, and leukaemia. Previous use of antibiotics occurred in 87.5%. Main invasive medical procedures were central venous catheter (50.0%, abdominal surgery (25.0%, and peritoneal dialysis (50.0%. No susceptibility data was obtained. Although risk factors for candidaemia were similar amongst patients infected by with C. guilliermondii or other Candida species, mortality associated with C. guilliermondii was significantly lower.Candida guilliermondii é um dos componentes da microbiota humana e infecções associadas com esta levedura têm sido incomuns, o que pode ser atribuído a sua baixa patogenicidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi documentar aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos em pacientes que tiveram C. guilliermondii isolada a partir de amostras biológicas. O estudo foi conduzido na Santa Casa Complexo Hospitalar, Brasil. Durante outubro de 1997 e outubro de 2003, C. guilliermondii foi isolada de 11 pacientes, três dos quais foram excluídos por se apresentarem apenas colonizados. Espécimes clínicos corresponderam a sangue (n = 5, líquido de ascite (n = 2 e biópsia de esôfago (n = 1. Três pacientes eram imunodeprimidos, incluindo transplante de órgãos sólidos, SIDA e

  3. Freqüência e atividade enzimática de Candida spp. na cavidade oral de pacientes diabéticos do serviço de endocrinologia de um hospital de Fortaleza-CE Frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. oral cavity of diabetic patients of the service of endocrinology of a hospital of Fortaleza-CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2007-08-01

    identified (Candida tropicalis, Candida guillermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei. The objective of this work was to evaluate frequency and enzymatic activity of Candida spp. in the oral cavity of diabetic patients taken care in the service of endocrinology of the University Hospital Walter Cantídio of the Federal University of the Ceará. Samples had been collected of 48 diabetic patients, men and women, with various situations of glicemic control. Clinical materials had been collected with aid of swab and harvested in plates of Petri contend Sabouraud agar dextrose with cloranfenicol and incubated to 37°C. The grown were identified by the used classic tests in mycology. In the following, these Candida strains were submitted to tests to detect phospholipase and proteinase enzymes. Of these, 15 samples (31,35% presented positive culture for the genera Candida. The species more frequent was C. albicans with 80%, followed by C. tropicalis (13.3% and C. guilliermondii (6.7%. Asfor the research on the enzymatic activity of Candida sp. it was observed that 86.6% presented activity of proteinase and 80% of phospholipase. It was concluded with these results that C. albicans is more frequent and that Candida spp. isolated species have strong enzymatic activity.

  4. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

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    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  5. Isolation and Characterization of a Catabolite Repression-Insensitive Mutant of a Methanol Yeast, Candida boidinii A5, Producing Alcohol Oxidase in Glucose-Containing Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Yasuyoshi; Sawai, Tohru; Tani, Yoshiki

    1987-01-01

    Mutants exhibiting alcohol oxidase (EC 1.1.3.13) activity when grown on glucose in the presence of methanol were found among 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutants derived from a methanol yeast, Candida boidinii A5. One of these mutants, strain ADU-15, showed the highest alcohol oxidase activity in glucose-containing medium. The growth characteristics and also the induction and degradation of alcohol oxidase were compared with the parent strain and mutant strain ADU-15. In the parent strain, initia...

  6. Differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts by analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled polypeptide profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.D.; Choo, K.B.; Tsai, W.C.; Jen, T.M.; Yeh, J.Y.; Han, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for differential identification of Candida species and other yeasts based on autoradiographic analysis of protein profiles of [ 35 S]methionine-labeled cellular proteins separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Using ATCC strains as references, protein profile analysis showed that different Candida and other yeast species produced distinctively different patterns. Good agreement in results obtained with this approach and with other conventional systems was observed. Being accurate and reproducible, this approach provides a basis for the development of an alternative method for the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens

  7. Isolamento de Candida spp. no mamilo de lactantes do Banco de Leite Humano da Universidade Federal do Ceará e teste de susceptibilidade a antifúngicos Candida ssp. isolation in the breastfeeding mothers' nipples from the human milk bank at the Universidade Federal do Ceará and susceptibilities to the antifungal agents tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2004-10-01

    susceptibilities to the main used antifungal agents in candidiasis. The samples were collected from the wounds in the nipples and grown in Sabouraud agar at 37°C for 72 hours. They were identified by mycology tests. Proteinasis, phospholipase and hialuronidase tests were also made. Amphotericin B and fluconazole susceptibility tests, too. From the 29 samples, 13 (44. 8% of the total presented growth; 11 (84.6% of them were Candida albicans; 01 (7.7% of them was C. stellatoidea and 01 (7.7% of them was C. guilliermondii. The C. albicans enzymatic activities were: 100% of strains produced phospholipase; 64% produced hialuronidase and none of the strains produced proteolytic activity. The tested yeasts were susceptive to the antifungal agents tested with minimum inhibitory concentration - 0.125 - 0.5mug/ml for amphotericin B and 2 - 4mug/ml for fluconazol. All the C. albicans strains isolated from the breastfeeding mothers' nipples showed the phospholipase enzyme which can be an important virulence factor. They presented excellent susceptibilities to the antifungal agents tested.

  8. Invasive candidiasis due to Candida norvegensis in a liver transplant patient: case report and literature review

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    Maria Musso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida norvegensis is an emerging fluconazole-resistant pathogen isolated in most cases from skin and mucous membranes of immunocompromized patients. Documented invasive candidiasis (IC due to C. norvegensis has been rarely reported, thus the clinical features of patients at risk for this pathogen are poorly defined. We report a liver transplant patient who developed IC due to C. norvegensis and review other cases of C. norvegensis IC published in the literature.

  9. Adhesion, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity, and antifungal planktonic susceptibility: relationship among Candida spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Dias, Ana; Miranda, Isabel M.; Branco, Joana; Monteiro-Soares, Matilde; Pina-Vaz, Cid?lia; Rodrigues, Ac?cio G.

    2015-01-01

    We have performed the characterization of the adhesion profile, biofilm formation, cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) and antifungal susceptibility of 184 Candida clinical isolates obtained from different human reservoirs. Adhesion was quantified using a flow cytometric assay and biofilm formation was evaluated using two methodologies: XTT and crystal violet assay. CSH was quantified with the microbial adhesion to hydrocarbons test while planktonic susceptibility was assessed accordingly the C...

  10. Sputum Candida albicans presages FEV₁ decline and hospital-treated exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2010-11-01

    The role of Candida albicans in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway is underexplored. Considered a colonizer, few question its pathogenic potential despite high isolation frequencies from sputum culture. We evaluated the frequency and identified the strongest predictors of C albicans colonization in CF. Independent associations of colonization with clinical outcomes were determined, and the longitudinal effects of C albicans acquisition on BMI and FEV₁ were evaluated.

  11. Antifungal Effect of Novel 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone against Candida strains

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    Monika Staniszewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antifungal activity of novel a 2-bromo-2-chloro-2-(4-chlorophenylsulfonyl-1-phenylethanone (compound 4. The synthesis of compound 4 was commenced from sodium 4-chlorobenzene sulfinate and the final product was obtained by treatment of β-chloro β-keto-sulfone with sodium hypobromite. The sensitivity of sixty three clinical isolates belonging to the most relevant Candida species towards compound 4 using the method M27-A3 was evaluated. We observed among most of the clinical strains of C. albicans MIC ranging from 0.00195 to 0.0078 µg/mL. Compound 4 at 32 μg/mL exhibited fungicidal activity against nine Candida strains tested using the MFC assay. Compound 4 displayed anti-Candida activity (with clear endpoint against 22% of clinical strains of Candida. Under compound 4, Candida susceptibility and tolerance, namely paradoxical effect (PG, was found for only two clinical isolates (C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis and reference strain 14053 using both M27-A3 and MFC method. We found that compound 4 does not induce toxicity in vivo against larvae of Galleria mellonella (≥97% survival and it displays reduced toxicity on mammalian cells in vitro (Candida strains.

  12. Angular cheilitis: A clinical and microbial study

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    Nirima Oza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of the present study was to examine clinical types and microbiological flora isolated from angular chelitis. Materials and Methods: An eroded and/or erythematous, with or without fissure formation, nonvesicular lesion radiating from the angle of the mouth was considered to be angular chelitis. A sample of the present study comprised of 40 patients having unilateral or bilateral angular chelitis and 20 healthy individuals without any lip lesions. Clinical examination was done. In both test and control groups, the sample for microbial analysis was obtained from angle of the mouth. Results: Clinically, four types of angular cheilitis lesions were found, Type I, II, III, and IV. The most common type of lesion found was Type I lesion. Microorganisms isolated from the lesion were Staphylococcus aureus, Candida or Streptococci in 33 (82.5% cases either in pure culture or mixed culture. Among these 33 patients, S. aureus was found in 25 (75.5% cases, Candida in 16 (48.4% cases, and Streptococci in 5 (13.5% cases, respectively. Out of 16 cases positive for Candida, in 13 cases further isolation of Candida was possible. Candida albicans was found in 6 cases and Candida stellastodia in 7 cases. In majority of the dentulous and edentulous patients, S. aureus showed profuse growth. Conclusions: There are microorganisms associated with angular cheilitis.

  13. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira,Claudio Maranhão; Pires,Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa,Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior,Osvaldo; Almeida,Oslei Paes de

    2004-01-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to an...

  14. Analysis of gene evolution and metabolic pathways using the Candida Gene Order Browser

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, David A

    2010-05-10

    Abstract Background Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Recent sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of Candida genomic data. We have developed the Candida Gene Order Browser (CGOB), an online tool that aids comparative syntenic analyses of Candida species. CGOB incorporates all available Candida clade genome sequences including two Candida albicans isolates (SC5314 and WO-1) and 8 closely related species (Candida dubliniensis, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Lodderomyces elongisporus, Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia stipitis, Candida guilliermondii and Candida lusitaniae). Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also included as a reference genome. Results CGOB assignments of homology were manually curated based on sequence similarity and synteny. In total CGOB includes 65617 genes arranged into 13625 homology columns. We have also generated improved Candida gene sets by merging\\/removing partial genes in each genome. Interrogation of CGOB revealed that the majority of tandemly duplicated genes are under strong purifying selection in all Candida species. We identified clusters of adjacent genes involved in the same metabolic pathways (such as catabolism of biotin, galactose and N-acetyl glucosamine) and we showed that some clusters are species or lineage-specific. We also identified one example of intron gain in C. albicans. Conclusions Our analysis provides an important resource that is now available for the Candida community. CGOB is available at http:\\/\\/cgob.ucd.ie.

  15. Candida species from oral cavity of HIV-infected children exhibit reduced virulence factors in the HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maristela Barbosa; Lima de Amorim, Elaine; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira; Alexandre da Rocha Curvelo, José; de Oliveira Martins, Karol; Capillé, Cauli Lima; Maria de Araújo Soares, Rosangela; Barbosa de Araújo Castro, Gloria Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess, in vitro, the biofilm viability and the phospholipase and protease production of Candida spp. from the saliva of HIV infected children and healthy controls, and to correlate the results with the use of medical data. A total of 79 isolates were analyzed: 48 Candida albicans isolates (33/15) and 20 Candida parapsilosis sensu lato complex isolates (12/8) (from HIV/control patients, respectively), and 8 Candida krusei, 1 Candida tropicalis, 1 Candida dubliniensis and 1 Candida guilliermondii from HIV patients. The XTT (2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) reduction assay analyzed the biofilm viability. Phospholipase and protease assays were performed using the egg yolk and Bovine Serum Albumin agar plate methods, respectively. All isolates were able to form biofilm with cell viability. Quantitatively, Candida isolates from both groups presented a similar ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). The biofilm viability activity was higher in C. albicans isolates than in non-albicans Candida isolates (p Candida spp. isolates from HIV-positive children presented higher phospholipase production, in vitro they exhibited reduced virulence factors compared to isolates from healthy individuals. This finding may enlighten the role played by immunosuppression in the modulation of Candida virulence attributes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 exhibit strong antifungal effects against vulvovaginal candidiasis-causing Candida glabrata isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, S Y; Cheah, Y K; Seow, H F; Sandai, D; Than, L T L

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates the antagonistic effects of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 against vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC)-causing Candida glabrata. Growth inhibitory activities of Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains against C. glabrata were demonstrated using a spot overlay assay and a plate-based microtitre assay. In addition, these probiotic lactobacilli strains also exhibited potent candidacidal activity against C. glabrata, as demonstrated by a LIVE/DEAD yeast viability assay performed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The metabolic activities of all C. glabrata strains were completely shut down in response to the challenges by the probiotic lactobacilli strains. In addition, both probiotic lactobacilli strains exhibited strong autoaggregation and coaggregation phenotypes in the presence of C. glabrata, which indicate that these lactobacilli strains may exert their probiotic effects through the formation of aggregates and, thus the consequent prevention of colonization by C. glabrata. Probiotic Lact. rhamnosus GR-1 and Lact. reuteri RC-14 strains exhibited potent antagonistic activities against all of the tested C. glabrata strains. These lactobacilli exhibited antifungal effects, including those attributed to their aggregation abilities, and their presence caused the cessation of growth and eventual cell death of C. glabrata. This is the first study to report on the antagonistic effects of these probiotic lactobacilli strains against the non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species C. glabrata. © 2015 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Evaluation of Susceptibility of Strains of Candida Albicans Isolated from AIDS Patients to Fluconazole and Determination of CDR2 Resistance Gene in Resistant Strains by RT-PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Farahbakhsh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, opportunistic fungi especially Candida albicans are the most common cause of life-threatening infections in immunodeficiency patients. Increasing Azole-resistant strains of C.albicans are a main problem in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CDR2 gene in C.albicans azole resistant strains, isolated from AIDS patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis by RT-PCR method. Materials & Methods: The present experimental study was conducted at Tarbiat Modares University of Medical Sciences in 2009. C. albicans isolates from HIV infected patients were identified by standard procedures, including germ tube formation, clamidospor and color of colonies on CHROM agar. At first, susceptibility of C. albicans isolates was assessed by disk diffusion agar technique. Then, CDR2 resistance gene was analyzed by RT-PCR and electrophoresis of the PCR products. Finally, patterns of the resulted bands were compared with standard fluconazole resistant strains. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: The results of drug sensitivity of 66 C. albicans isolates from AIDS patients revealed that 62.6% were susceptible, 8.6% were susceptible-dose dependent (SDD and 28.7% were resistant. In RT-PCR analysis, 6% of patients had the CDR2 gene. Conclusion: The use of phenotypic methods like disk diffusion agar, which is cheaper, along with genotypic methods, like RT-PCR, which provide the possibility of studying the mechanism of drug resistance, is recommended.

  18. MRI criteria for MS in patients with clinically isolated syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montalban, X.; Tintore, M.; Swanton, J.

    2010-01-01

    neurologists and neuroradiologists. In some circumstances, several MRI examinations are needed to achieve an accurate and prompt diagnosis. This provides an incentive for continued efforts to refine the incorporation of MRI-derived information into the diagnostic workup of patients presenting with a clinically...... isolated syndrome. Within the European multicenter collaborative research network that studies MRI in MS (MAGNIMS), a workshop was held in London in November 2007 to review information that may simplify the existing MS diagnostic criteria, while maintaining a high specificity that is essential to minimize...... false positive diagnoses. New data that are now published were reviewed and discussed and together with a new proposal are integrated in this position paper. Neurology(R) 2010;74:427-434...

  19. Candida albicans importance to denture wearers. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Zdanavičienė, Eglė; Žilinskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic oral fungal infections have spred, especially in denture wearers. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually associated with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, due to its high virulence, ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management strategies of Candida-associated denture stomatitis commonly encountered in dental practice.

  20. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32 P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  1. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  2. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid and hyaluronic acid on the growth of vulvovaginal Candida albicans and other yeasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Stevan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans and non-albicans strains of 18-β glycyrrhetinic acid (18-β GA and hyaluronic acid (HA, both alone and in combination. This antimicrobial activity was assessed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS method on Candida strains that were isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC. Results. Our results demonstrate that the anti-Candida activity is independent from antifungal susceptibility level and the fact that the growth inhibition is stronger at acidic pH level makes the two drugs a promising biological alternative for the topical treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC and RVVC. Conclusions. Furthermore, the reduction of both budding cells formation and germ tube elongation, on mammalian cell monolayers, may explain the observed growth inhibition and suggest a decreased virulence, respectively.

  3. Antibiotic resistance and virulence traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, I U; Hargreaves, M; Huygens, F

    2012-07-01

    This study compared virulence and antibiotic resistance traits in clinical and environmental Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates. E. faecalis isolates harboured a broader spectrum of virulence determinants compared to E. faecium isolates. The virulence traits Cyl-A, Cyl-B, Cyl-M, gel-E, esp and acm were tested and environmental isolates predominantly harboured gel-E (80% of E. faecalis and 31.9% of E. faecium) whereas esp was more prevalent in clinical isolates (67.8% of E. faecalis and 70.4% of E. faecium). E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from water had different antibiotic resistance patterns compared to those isolated from clinical samples. Linezolid resistance was not observed in any isolates tested and vancomycin resistance was observed only in clinical isolates. Resistance to other antibiotics (tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin) was detected in both clinical and water isolates. Clinical isolates were more resistant to all the antibiotics tested compared to water isolates. Multi-drug resistance was more prevalent in clinical isolates (71.2% of E. faecalis and 70.3% of E. faecium) compared to water isolates (only 5.7% E. faecium). tet L and tet M genes were predominantly identified in tetracycline-resistant isolates. All water and clinical isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin contained mutations in the gyrA, parC and pbp5 genes. A significant correlation was found between the presence of virulence determinants and antibiotic resistance in all the isolates tested in this study (pantibiotic resistant enterococci, together with associated virulence traits, in surface recreational water could be a public health risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Thapsia villosa Essential Oil against Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia, Aspergillus and Dermatophyte Species

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    Eugénia Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essential oil (EO of Thapsia villosa (Apiaceae, isolated by hydrodistillation from the plant’s aerial parts, was analysed by GC and GC-MS. Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5% and methyleugenol (35.9%, were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs were measured according to the broth macrodilution protocols by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The EO, limonene and methyleugenol displayed low MIC and MFC (minimum fungicidal concentration values against Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, dermatophytes, and Aspergillus spp. Regarding Candida species, an inhibition of yeast–mycelium transition was demonstrated at sub-inhibitory concentrations of the EO (MIC/128; 0.01 μL/mL and their major compounds in Candida albicans. Fluconazole does not show this activity, and the combination with low concentrations of EO could associate a supplementary target for the antifungal activity. The association of fluconazole with T. villosa oil does not show antagonism, but the combination limonene/fluconazole displays synergism. The fungistatic and fungicidal activities revealed by T. villosa EO and its main compounds, associated with their low haemolytic activity, confirm their potential antimicrobial interest against fungal species often associated with human mycoses.

  5. Comparison of duplex PCR and phenotypic analysis in differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans from oral samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Asanga; Weerasekera, Manjula; Dilhari, Ayomi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Bulugahapitiya, Uditha; Fernando, Neluka; Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2017-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis shares a wide range of phenotypic characteristics with Candida albicans including a common trait called germ tube positivity. Hence, laboratory differentiation of these two species is cumbersome. Duplex PCR analyses for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis was performed directly on DNA extracted from a total of 122 germ tube positive isolates derived from 100 concentrated oral rinse samples from a random cohort of diabetics attending a clinic in Sri Lanka. These results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA of the yeasts. Performance efficacy of duplex PCR was then compared with phenotypic identification using a standard battery of phenotypic tests. Of the 122 germ tube positive isolates three were identified by duplex PCR as C. dubliniensis and the remainder as C. albicans. On the contrary, when the standard phenotypic tests, sugar assimilation and chlamydospore formation, were used to differentiate the two species 13 germ tube positive isolates were erroneously identified as C. dubliniensis. Duplex PCR was found to be rapid, sensitive and more specific than phenotypic identification methods in discriminating C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. This is also the first report on the oral carriage of C. dubliniensis in a Sri Lankan population.

  6. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheniffer Fornari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15–25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile.

  7. Susceptibility and molecular characterization of Candida species from patients with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Gheniffer; Vicente, Vania Aparecida; Gomes, Renata Rodrigues; Muro, Marisol Dominguez; Pinheiro, Rosangela Lameira; Ferrari, Carolina; Herkert, Patricia Fernanda; Takimura, Marcos; Carvalho, Newton Sérgio de; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis affects women of reproductive age, which represents approximately 15-25% of vaginitis cases. The present study aimed to isolate and characterize yeast from the patients irrespective of the presentation of clinical symptoms. The isolates were subjected to in vitro susceptibility profile and characterization by molecular markers, which intended to assess the distribution of species. A total of 40 isolates were obtained and identified through the CHROMagar, API20aux and by ITS and D1/D2 regions sequencing of DNAr gene. Candida albicans strains were genotyped by the ABC system and the isolates were divided into two genotypic groups. The identity of the C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. kefyr and Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates was confirmed by the multilocus analysis. The strains of Candida, isolated from patients with complications, were found to be resistant to nystatin but sensitive to fluconazole, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, as observed by in vitro sensitivity profile. The isolates from asymptomatic patients, i.e., the colonized group, showed a dose-dependent sensitivity to the anti-fungal agents, fluconazole and amphotericin B. However, the isolates of C. albicans that belong to distinct genotypic groups showed the same in vitro susceptibility profile. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  8. Elevated Chitin Content Reduces the Susceptibility of Candida Species to Caspofungin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Louise A.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The echinocandin antifungal drugs inhibit synthesis of the major fungal cell wall polysaccharide β(1,3)-glucan. Echinocandins have good efficacy against Candida albicans but reduced activity against other Candida species, in particular Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii. Treatment of Candida albicans with a sub-MIC level of caspofungin has been reported to cause a compensatory increase in chitin content and to select for sporadic echinocandin-resistant FKS1 point mutants that also have elevated cell wall chitin. Here we show that elevated chitin in response to caspofungin is a common response in various Candida species. Activation of chitin synthesis was observed in isolates of C. albicans, Candida tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii and in some isolates of Candida krusei in response to caspofungin treatment. However, Candida glabrata isolates demonstrated no exposure-induced change in chitin content. Furthermore, isolates of C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii which were stimulated to have higher chitin levels via activation of the calcineurin and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways had reduced susceptibility to caspofungin. Isolates containing point mutations in the FKS1 gene generally had higher chitin levels and did not demonstrate a further compensatory increase in chitin content in response to caspofungin treatment. These results highlight the potential of increased chitin synthesis as a potential mechanism of tolerance to caspofungin for the major pathogenic Candida species. PMID:23089748

  9. Infección por especies de Candida durante los cuidados intensivos neonatales Infection caused by Candida species during the neonatal intensive care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Roig Álvarez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba, con el incremento de la supervivencia de los recién nacidos menores de 1500 g, pueden ser cada vez más frecuentes los aislamientos de especies de Candida en las unidades de cuidados intensivos neonatales. Con el objetivo de actualizar los temas relacionados con la problemática mundial de la infección neonatal por especies de Candida, los criterios diagnósticos y el manejo terapéutico, se realizó una revisión dirigida fundamentalmente a especialistas en neonatología. Se constató que las especies que más se aíslan en los neonatos son las Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis y C. tropicalis. El cuadro clínico es inespecífico y suele presentarse entre la segunda y tercera semanas de la vida. Los hallazgos de laboratorio clínico son también equívocos. El diagnóstico de certeza se establece por el aislamiento del hongo en sitios estériles como la sangre, el líquido cefalorraquídeo, el fluido pericárdico o mediante biopsia de tejido. El tratamiento curativo de primera línea contra la candidiasis invasiva en los neonatos continúa siendo el anfotericin B. En estos pacientes es de suma importancia retirar los catéteres vasculares profundos ante sospechas y en el momento de la confirmación de la infección.In Cuba, with the rise of the survival of newborn infants with a birth weight under 1500 g, the isolations of Candida species in the neonatal intensive care units may be increasingly frequent. To update the topics related to the world problems of neonatal infection due to Candida species, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic management, it was made a review directed mainly to Neonatology specialists. It was confirmed that the most isolated species in infants are Candida albicans, C. Glabrata, C. Parapsilosis, and C. Tropicalis. The clinical picture is not specific, and it may appear between the second and third weeks of life. The clinical laboratory findings are also equivocal. The accurate diagnosis is made by

  10. Molecular identification of Candida dubliniensis isolated from oral lesions of HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in São Paulo, Brazil Identificação molecular de amostras de Candida dubliniensis isoladas de lesões orais de pacientes HIV positivos e negativos em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Kleber Chavasco

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida dubliniensis is a new, recently described species of yeast. This emerging oral pathogen shares many phenotypic and biochemical characteristics with C. albicans, making it hard to differentiate between them, although they are genotypically distinct. In this study, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to investigate the presence of C. dubliniensis in samples in a culture collection, which had been isolated from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with oral erythematous candidiasis. From a total of 37 samples previously identified as C. albicans by the classical method, two samples of C. dubliniensis (5.4% were found through the use of PCR. This study underscores the presence of C. dubliniensis, whose geographical and epidemiological distribution should be more fully investigated.Candida dubliniensis é uma nova espécie recentemente descrita. Este patógeno oral emergente compartilha muitas características fenotípicas e bioquímicas com C. albicans dificultando assim a diferenciação entre elas. As mesmas, porém, mostram-se genotipicamente distintas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar, pela técnica de PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction, a possível presença de C. dubliniensis dentre amostras isoladas de candidose oral eritematosa, provenientes de pacientes HIV positivos e HIV negativos. Em um total de 37 amostras identificadas anteriormente, por método clássico, como C. albicans encontramos duas amostras de C. dubliniensis (5,4% utilizando a técnica do PCR. Esta técnica mostrou-se útil, prática e com identificação taxonômica mais acurada.

  11. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  13. Multidrug-Resistant Candida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-01-01

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance...... can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients....... Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites...

  14. Study on chemical analysis, antioxidant and in vitro antifungal activities of essential oil from wild Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds growing in area of Argan Tree of Morocco against clinical strains of Candida responsible for nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdadi, A; Hamdouch, A; Oukacha, A; Moutaj, R; Gharby, S; Harhar, H; El Hadek, M; Chebli, B; Idrissi Hassani, L M

    2015-12-01

    To study the composition, the antioxidant activity and the in vitro antifungal action anti-Candida species of essential oils extracted from seeds of Vite xagnus-castus L. The essential oils were extracted using Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity was analyzed using the DPPH free radical-scavenging method. Susceptibility tests for Candida albicans (12), C. dubliniensis (1), C. glabrata (3), C. krusei (3), C. parapsilosis (6), C. lusitaniae (1), C. famata (1) and C. tropicalis (3) were expressed as inhibition zone by the disc-diffusion method and as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) by the broth macrodilution method, compared to amphotricin B and fluconazol as standard drugs. Major components were: 1,8-cineole (19.61%), sabinene (14.57%), α-pinene (9.76%), β-farnesene (6.04%), β-caryophyllene oxide (5.83%) and β-caryophyllene (5.02%). A low antioxidant activity was found (IC50=1.072mg/ml), but it can be exploited. V. agnus-castus seeds essential oils disosed a 35-58mm zone of inhibition (mean: 49mm) against all 30 isolates tested. In broth macrodilution method, all the tested Candida species were susceptible to the essential oils and this activity was concentration-dependent. MIC values varied from 0.13 to 2.13mg/ml V. agnus-castus seeds essential oils. Results of this study indicated that the oils of plant origin could be used as potential anti-Candida species causative agents of nosocomial infections. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. The natural antifungal substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they may represent alternative therapies for candidiasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-08-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  16. Incidence and Speciation of Candida Species among Non-gravid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the incidence and speciation of Candida species among non-gravid young females, using commercially available chromogenic Candida speciation media (CHROM agar) for the identification/speciation of medically important yeast and yeastlike organisms in a routine clinical mycology laboratory.

  17. Oral candida infection among HIV patients at Kilimanjaro Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    candida infection in HIV positive patients and investigate the relationship between oral manifestations ... and prescription at Child Centred Family Care Clinic at KCMC for a period of 12 months. .... et al., 2013) compared candida colonization in asymptomatic HIV patients and control. .... Journal of Dental Research, Dental.

  18. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  19. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces toxytricini Fz94 against Candida albicans ATCC 10231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheir DH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients worldwide. Biofilm formation by Candida species is a significant virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. Keeping in view the importance of Streptomyces' metabolites, the present study was initiated during the bioprospecting programme of Egyptian Streptomyces carried by the authors since 2013. Native Streptomyces isolates were recovered from soil samples collected from different governorates. Antifungal activity of forty isolates of Streptomyces were performed against planktonic (free cells of C. albicans ATCC 10231 and resistant clinical Candida isolates. Streptomyces isolates showed high inhibition activity against free cells of Candida were further assayed against biofilm of C. albicans reference strain. The most active Streptomyces sp. (no.6 was identified phenotypically, biochemically and by using 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained were compared with those deposited in the GenBank Database and registered with accession number KM052378 as S. toxytricini Fz94. Screening of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract capability in prevention and destruction of C. albicans reference strain biolfilm was assessed by resazurin dye adopted technique. In the pre-exposure scheme, the lowest concentration of 5 gL-1 showed biofilm viability inhibition of 92% after 120 min, while Ketoconazole® gave 90 % inhibition at concentration of 2 gL-1. In post exposure, the concentration of S. toxytricini Fz94 extract 7gL-1 caused 82 % inhibition of biofilms viability after 120 min, while Ketoconazole did not show any destruction capability. The cytotoxicity of S. toxytricini Fz94 crude extract results showed that it was nontoxic at 10 gL-1. S. toxytricini Fz94 is maintained in the Fungarium of Arab Society for Fungal Conservation (ASFC with accession number FSCU-2017-1110.

  20. Detection and antifungal susceptibility testing of oral Candida dubliniensis from human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunchanur Sneha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Candida dubliniensis, an opportunistic yeast that has been implicated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV may be under-reported due to its similarity with Candida albicans. Resistance to Fluconazole is often seen in C. dubliniensis isolates from clinical specimens. Aims: To know the prevalence of C. dubliniensis in OPC in patients infected with HIV and their antifungal susceptibility pattern. Settings and Design: One hundred and thirty-two HIV seropositive individuals and 50 healthy controls were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Two oral swabs were collected from the site of the lesion from 132 HIV-infected patients. Oral rinse was obtained from 50 healthy controls. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (SDA medium and on HiCrome Candida Differential Agar (CHROM agar medium. Isolates were speciated by standard tests. Dark green-colored, germ tube positive isolates, which failed to grow at 420C and negative for xylose assimilation were identified as C. dubliniensis. Antifungal susceptibility test was performed by Macro broth dilution technique (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines. Results and Conclusions: From 132 patients, 22 (16.3% C. dubliniensis were isolated; samples from healthy controls did not reveal their presence. Antifungal susceptibility test showed