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Sample records for clinical candida albicans

  1. Endoftalmite por Candida albicans Candida albicans endophthalmitis

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    Pedro Duraes Serracarbassa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve os aspectos epidemiológicos, histopatológicos e clínicos da endoftalmite endógena por Candida albicans. Apresenta ainda novos métodos diagnósticos e opções terapêuticas utilizadas no tratamento das infecções fúngicas intra-oculares, por meio de revisão bibliográfica.The author describes epidemiological, histopathological and clinical aspects of endogenous Candida albicans endophthalmitis. He also presents new diagnostic methods and therapeutical options to treat intraocular fungal infections, based on literature review.

  2. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates.

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    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  3. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

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    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo. C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources,in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants.

  4. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

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    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by ...

  5. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

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    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  6. In vitro effects of glycyrrhetinic acid on the growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

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    Pellati, Donatella; Fiore, Cristina; Armanini, Decio; Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio

    2009-04-01

    Compounds derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root have been used widely for centuries for their numerous therapeutic properties. The present study aimed to test the in vitro activity against Candida albicans strains of the compound 18-beta glycyrrhetinic acid (18-beta GA), derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza species. This antimicrobial activity was assessed using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method on C. albicans strains that were isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). The in vitro growth of the C. albicans strains was markedly reduced, in a pH-dependent manner, by relatively low doses (6.2 microg/mL) of 18-beta GA. The results demonstrate that 18-beta GA is a promising biological alternative for the topical treatment of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC). PMID:19067381

  7. Total Protein Profile and Drug Resistance in Candida albicans Isolated from Clinical Samples

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    Kamal Uddin Zaidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to assess the antifungal susceptibility of clinical isolates of Candida albicans and to evaluate its total protein profile based on morphological difference on drug resistance. Hundred and twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans from various clinical specimens were tested for susceptibility against four antifungal agents, namely, fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, and ketoconazole. A significant increase of drug resistance in clinical isolates of C. albicans was observed. The study showed 50% fluconazole and itraconazole resistance at 32 μg mL−1 with a MIC50 and MIC90 values at 34 and 47 and 36 and 49 μg mL−1, respectively. All isolates were sensitive to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. The SDS-PAGE protein profile showed a prevalent band of ~52.5 kDa, indicating overexpression of gene in 72% strains with fluconazole resistance. Since the opportunistic infections of Candida spp. are increasing along with drug resistance, the total protein profile will help in understanding the evolutionary changes in drug resistance and also to characterize them.

  8. Rapid detection of Candida albicans by polymerase spiral reaction assay in clinical blood samples

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    Xiaoqun eJiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2, a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non- C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional PCR to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/µl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/µl. Blood samples (n=122 were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing.

  9. Cyclosporine A decreases the fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentration of Candida albicans clinical isolates but not biofilm formation and cell growth.

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    Wibawa, T; Nurrokhman; Baly, I; Daeli, P R; Kartasasmita, G; Wijayanti, N

    2015-03-01

    Among the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most abundant species in humans. One of the virulent factors of C. albicans is its ability to develop biofilm. Biofilm forming microbes are characterized by decreasing of its susceptibility to antibiotics and antifungal. The fungicidal effect of fluconazole may be enhanced by cyclosporine A in laboratory engineered C. albicans strains. The aim of this work is to analyze the synergistic effect of cyclosporine A with fluconazole in C. albicans clinical isolates and the effect of cycolsporine A alone in the biofilm formation. Six fluconazole resistant and six sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates were analyzed for its minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs), biofilm formation, and cell growths. A semi-quantitative XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5- sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay was conducted to measure the biofilm formation. Cyclosporine A has synergistic effect with fluconazole that was shown by decreasing MICs of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. However, cyclosporine A alone did not influence the biofilm formation and cell growth of both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates. These results indicated that cyclosporine A might be a promising candidate of adjuvant therapy for fluconazole against both fluconazole resistant and sensitive C. albicans clinical isolates.

  10. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

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    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  11. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

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    Ariane Bruder-Nascimento; Carlos Henrique Camargo; Alessandro Lia Mondelli; Maria Fátima Sugizaki; Terue Sadatsune; Eduardo Bagagli

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Ca...

  12. Molecular mechanisms associated with Fluconazole resistance in clinical Candida albicans isolates from India.

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    Mane, Arati; Vidhate, Pallavi; Kusro, Chanchal; Waman, Vaishali; Saxena, Vandana; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Risbud, Arun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to azole antifungals is a significant problem in Candida albicans. An understanding of resistance at molecular level is essential for the development of strategies to tackle resistance and rationale design of newer antifungals and target-based molecular approaches. This study presents the first evaluation of molecular mechanisms associated with fluconazole resistance in clinical C.albicans isolates from India. Target site (ERG11) alterations were determined by DNA sequencing, whereas real-time PCRs were performed to quantify target and efflux pump genes (CDR1, CDR2, MDR1) in 87 [Fluconazole susceptible (n = 30), susceptible-dose dependent (n = 30) and resistant (n = 27)] C.albicans isolates. Cross-resistance to fluconazole, ketoconazole and itraconazole was observed in 74.1% isolates. Six amino acid substitutions were identified, including 4 (E116D, F145L, E226D, I437V) previously reported ones and 2 (P406L, Q474H) new ones. CDR1 over-expression was seen in 77.7% resistant isolates. CDR2 was exclusively expressed with CDR1 and their concomitant over-expression was associated with azole cross-resistance. MDR1 and ERG11 over-expression did not seem to be associated with resistance. Our results show that drug efflux mediated by Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters, especially CDR1 is the predominant mechanism of fluconazole resistance and azole cross-resistance in C. albicans and indicate the need for research directed towards developing strategies to tackle efflux mediated resistance to salvage azoles.

  13. High throughput multiplex-PCR for direct detection and diagnosis of dermatophyte species, Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in clinical specimen.

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    Vahidnia, Ali; Bekers, Wouter; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and validated a multiplex-PCR method for detection of dermatophyte spp., Candida albicans and parapsilosis for routine diagnostics. Our m-PCR showed excellent concordance with culture results in 475 clinical samples. Through the rapid diagnosis by our m-PCR, clinicians are able to initiate adequate antimycotic therapy much earlier.

  14. Effect of edible sesame oil on growth of clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

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    Ogawa, Toshiko; Nishio, Junko; Okada, Shinobu

    2014-07-01

    Elderly individuals are at increased risk of oral thrush (oral candidiasis) due to decreased saliva secretion. Due to their antimicrobial properties, edible oils can be effective natural agents for oral care. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of sesame oil, which is widely used for cooking in Asian countries, and two other edible oils on the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms of five clinical isolates of Candida albicans, a causative microorganism of oral thrush. We assessed the effect of each oil in concentrations of 0.078%, 0.156%, and 0.313% on growth of the mycelial forms of the clinical isolates over 24 hr using the crystal violet method. We also evaluated the effect of each oil on growth of the yeast forms by counting the number of viable yeast cells after culturing in the oils for 24 hr. Sesame oil inhibited the growth of both mycelial and yeast forms. Safflower and olive oil also inhibited the growth of both forms of C. albicans but to a lesser extent than sesame oil. The ability to inhibit the growth of the mycelial form correlated with sesame oil concentration. Roasting influenced growth inhibition ability and high-roasted sesame oil most effectively inhibited the yeast form. The growth inhibitory effect differed among the five isolates. We hypothesize that the sesamin and fatty acid components of sesame oil are involved in its antifungal activity.

  15. Proteolytic activity and cytokine up-regulation by non-albicans Candida albicans.

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    Nawaz, Ali; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Kari, Kirsti; Meurman, Jukka H

    2015-05-01

    Mouth is an important source of infections and oral infections such as Candida infections increase the risk of mortality. Our purpose was to investigate differences in proteolytic activity of non-albicans Candida albicans (non-albicans Candida) between clinical isolates and laboratory samples. The second aim was to assess the concentration of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α in saliva of patients with the non-albicans Candida and Candida-negative saliva samples. Clinical yeast samples from our laboratory were used for analyses. Candida strains were grown in YPG at 37 °C for 24 h in water bath with shaking. The activity of Candida proteinases of cell and cell-free fractions were analyzed by MDPF-gelatin zymography. The levels of IL-1β, IL-10, and TNF-α were measured from saliva with ELISA. The study showed differences in the proteolytic activity among the non-albicans Candida strains. C. tropicalis had higher proteolytic activity when compared to the other strains. Significant difference was found in salivary IL-1β levels between the non-albicans Candida and control strains (P albicans Candida strains. The increased IL-1β concentration may be one of the host response components associated with non-albicans Candida infection.

  16. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

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    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.

  17. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

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    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves. It became evident that, although both 32P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis

  18. Candida albicans skin abscess Abscesso de pele por Candida albicans

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    Felipe Francisco Tuon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous candidal abscess is a very rare infection even in immunocompromised patients. Some cases are reported when breakdown in the skin occurs, as bacterial cellulites or abscess, iatrogenic procedures, trauma and parenteral substance abuse. We describe a case of Candida albicans subcutaneous abscess without fungemia, which can be associated with central venous catheter.Abscesso subcutâneo por Candida é infecção muito rara mesmo em pacientes imunocomprometidos. Alguns casos são relatados quando ocorre dano na pele, como celulite bacteriana ou abscesso, procedimentos iatrogênicos, trauma e abuso de substância parenteral. Relatamos caso de abscesso subcutâneo por Candida albicans sem fungemia, que pode estar associado com cateter venoso central.

  19. Skin Immunity to Candida albicans.

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    Kashem, Sakeen W; Kaplan, Daniel H

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic commensal fungus that colonizes healthy human skin, mucosa, and the reproductive tract. C. albicans is also a predominantly opportunistic fungal pathogen, leading to disease manifestations such as disseminated candidiasis and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). The differing host susceptibilities for the sites of C. albicans infection have revealed tissue compartmentalization with tailoring of immune responses based on the site of infection. Furthermore, extensive studies of host genetics in rare cases of CMC have identified conserved genetic pathways involved in immune recognition and the response to the extracellular pathogen. We focus here on human and mouse skin as a site of C. albicans infection, and we review established and newly discovered insights into the cellular pathways that promote cutaneous antifungal immunity. PMID:27178391

  20. Multi-species biofilm of Candida albicans and non-Candida albicans Candida species on acrylic substrate

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    Apurva K Pathak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In polymicrobial biofilms bacteria extensively interact with Candida species, but the interaction among the different species of the Candida is yet to be completely evaluated. In the present study, the difference in biofilm formation ability of clinical isolates of four species of Candida in both single-species and multi-species combinations on the surface of dental acrylic resin strips was evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The species of Candida, isolated from multiple species oral candidiasis of the neutropenic patients, were used for the experiment. Organisms were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose broth with 8% glucose (SDB. Biofilm production on the acrylic resins strips was determined by crystal violet assay. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare in vitro biofilm formation for the individual species of Candida and its different multi-species combinations. RESULTS: In the present study, differences between the mean values of the biofilm-forming ability of individual species (C. glabrata>C. krusei>C. tropicalis>C. albicans and in its multi-species' combinations (the highest for C. albicans with C. glabrata and the lowest for all the four species combination were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study showed that biofilm-forming ability was found greater for non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCAC than for C. albicans species with intra-species variation. Presence of C. albicans in multi-species biofilms increased, whereas; C. tropicalis decreased the biofilm production with all other NCAC species.

  1. The Use of Chitosan to Enhance Photodynamic Inactivation against Candida albicans and Its Drug-Resistant Clinical Isolates

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    Tsuimin Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant Candida infection is a major health concern among immunocompromised patients. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI was introduced as an alternative treatment for local infections. Although Candida (C. has demonstrated susceptibility to PDI, high doses of photosensitizer (PS and light energy are required, which may be harmful to eukaryotic human cells. This study explores the capacity of chitosan, a polycationic biopolymer, to increase the efficacy of PDI against C. albicans, as well as fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates in planktonic or biofilm states. Chitosan was shown to effectively augment the effect of PDI mediated by toluidine blue O (TBO against C. albicans that were incubated with chitosan for 30 min following PDI. Chitosan at concentrations as low as 0.25% eradicated C. albicans; however, without PDI treatment, chitosan alone did not demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity within the 30 min of incubation. These results suggest that chitosan only augmented the fungicidal effect after the cells had been damaged by PDI. Increasing the dosage of chitosan or prolonging the incubation time allowed a reduction in the PDI condition required to completely eradicate C. albicans. These results clearly indicate that combining chitosan with PDI is a promising antimicrobial approach to treat infectious diseases.

  2. Assessment of antifungal activity of herbal and conventional toothpastes against clinical isolates of Candida albicans

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    Ghaleb Adwan; Yousef Salameh; Kamel Adwan; Ali Barakat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect the anticandidal activity of nine toothpastes containing sodium fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and herbal extracts as an active ingredients against 45 oral and non oral Candida albicans (C. albicans) isolates. Methods: The antifungal activity of these toothpaste formulations was determined using a standard agar well diffusion method. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical package, SPSS windows version 15, by applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc least square differences (LSD) method. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: All toothpastes studied in our experiments were effective in inhibiting the growth of all C. albicans isolates. The highest anticandidal activity was obtained from toothpaste that containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients, while the lowest activity was obtained from toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient. Antifungal activity of Parodontax toothpaste showed a significant difference (P< 0.001) against C. albicans isolates compared to toothpastes containing sodium fluoride or herbal products. Conclusions: In the present study, it has been demonstrated that toothpaste containing both herbal extracts and sodium fluoride as active ingredients are more effective in control of C. albicans, while toothpaste that containing monofluorophosphate as an active ingredient is less effective against C. albicans. Some herbal toothpaste formulations studied in our experiments, appear to be equally effective as the fluoride dental formulations and it can be used as an alternative to conventional formulations for individuals who have an interest in naturally-based products. Our results may provide invaluable information for dental professionals.

  3. Rapid detection and identification of Candida albicans and Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata in clinical specimens by species-specific nested PCR amplification of a cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (L1A1) gene fragment.

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    Burgener-Kairuz, P; Zuber, J P; Jaunin, P; Buchman, T G; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1994-08-01

    PCR of a Candida albicans cytochrome P-450 lanosterol-alpha-demethylase (P450-L1A1) gene segment is a rapid and sensitive method of detection in clinical specimens. This enzyme is a target for azole antifungal action. In order to directly detect and identify the clinically most important species of Candida, we cloned and sequenced 1.3-kbp fragments of the cytochrome P450-L1A1 genes from Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata and from Candida krusei. These segments were compared with the published sequences from C. albicans and Candida tropicalis. Amplimers for gene sequences highly conserved throughout the fungal kingdom were first used; positive PCR results were obtained for C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, Candida parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichosporon beigelii DNA extracts. Primers were then selected for a highly variable region of the gene, allowing the species-specific detection from purified DNA of C. albicans, T. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. The assay sensitivity as tested for C. albicans in seeded clinical specimens such as blood, peritoneal fluid, or urine was 10 to 20 cells per 0.1 ml. Compared with results obtained by culture, the sensitivity, specificity, and efficiency of the species-specific nested PCR tested with 80 clinical specimens were 71, 95, and 83% for C. albicans and 100, 97, and 98% for T. glabrata, respectively.

  4. Essential Oils, Silver Nanoparticles and Propolis as Alternative Agents Against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei Clinical Isolates.

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    Szweda, Piotr; Gucwa, Katarzyna; Kurzyk, Ewelina; Romanowska, Ewa; Dzierżanowska-Fangrat, Katarzyna; Zielińska Jurek, Anna; Kuś, Piotr Marek; Milewski, Sławomir

    2015-06-01

    Development of effective and safe therapeutic treatment of fungal infections remains one of the major challenge for modern medicine. The aim of presented investigation was to analyze the in vitro antifungal activity of selected essential oils, ethanolic extracts of propolis and silver nanoparticles dropped on TiO2 against azole-resistant C. albicans (n = 20), C. glabrata (n = 14) and C. krusei (n = 10) clinical isolates. Among tested essential oils, the highest activity has definitely been found in the case of the oil isolated from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia, with MIC and MFC values for all tested strains in the range of 0.0006-0.0097 % (v/v) and 0.0012-0.019 % (v/v), respectively. High activity was also observed for the Lemon, Basil, Thyme, Geranium and Clove (from buds) essential oils. Significant differences in fungicidal activity have been observed in the case of four tested propolis samples. Only one of them revealed high activity, with MFC values in the range from 0.156 to 1.25 % (v/v). Satisfactory fungicidal activity, against C. albicans and C. glabrata isolates, was also observed in the case of silver nanoparticles, however C. krusei isolates were mostly resistant. We also revealed that constituents of most of essential oils and propolis as well as silver nanoparticles are not substrates for drug transporters, which belong to the most important factors affecting resistance of Candida spp. clinical isolates to many of conventional antimycotics. To conclude, the results of our investigation revealed that essential oils, propolis and silver nanoparticles represent high potential for controlling and prevention candidiasis. PMID:25805904

  5. Tetracycline Effects on Candida Albicans Virulence Factors

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    Logan McCool; Hanh Mai; Michael Essmann; Bryan Larsen

    2008-01-01

    Object. To determine if tetracycline, previously reported to increase the probability of developing symptomatic vaginal yeast infections, has a direct effect on Candida albicans growth or induction of virulent phenotypes. Method. In vitro, clinical isolates of yeast were cultivated with sublethal concentrations of tetracycline and yeast cell counts, hyphal formation, drug efflux pump activity, biofilm production, and hemolysin production were determined by previously reported methods. Resul...

  6. Mutations in transcription factor Mrr2p contribute to fluconazole resistance in clinical isolates of Candida albicans.

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    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jin-Yan; Shi, Ce; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Lan; Xiang, Ming-Jie

    2015-11-01

    The Candida albicans zinc cluster proteins are a family of transcription factors (TFs) that play essential roles in the development of antifungal drug resistance. Gain-of-function mutations in several TFs, such as Tac1p, Mrr1p and Upc2p, have been previously well documented in azole-resistant clinical C. albicans isolates. Mrr2p (multidrug resistance regulator 2) is a novel TF controlling expression of the ABC transporter gene CDR1 and mediating fluconazole resistance. In this study, the relationship between naturally occurring mutations in MRR2 and fluconazole resistance in clinical C. albicans isolates was investigated. Among a group of 20 fluconazole-resistant clinical C. albicans and 10 fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans, 12 fluconazole-resistant isolates overexpressed CDR1 by at least two-fold compared with the fluconazole-susceptible isolates. Of these 12 resistant isolates, three (C7, C9, C15) contained 11 identical missense mutations, 6 of which occurred only in the azole-resistant isolates. The contribution of these mutations to CDR1 overexpression and therefore to fluconazole resistance was further verified by generating recombinant strains containing the mutated MRR2 gene. The mutated MRR2 alleles from isolate C9 contributed to an almost six-fold increase in CDR1 expression and an eight-fold increase in fluconazole resistance; the missense mutations S466L and T470N resulted in an increase in CDR1 expression of more than two-fold and a four-fold increase in fluconazole resistance. In contrast, the other four missense mutations conferred only two- to four-fold increases in fluconazole resistance, with no significant increase in CDR1 expression. These findings provide some insight into the mechanism by which MRR2 regulates C. albicans multidrug resistance.

  7. Rapid detection of Candida albicans in clinical samples by DNA amplification of common regions from C. albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flahaut, M; Sanglard, D; Monod, M; Bille, J; Rossier, M

    1998-02-01

    Laboratory diagnosis based on genomic amplification methods such as PCR may provide an alternative and more sensitive method than conventional culture for the early detection of deep-seated candidiasis, an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. A novel method of DNA extraction from clinical samples based on treatment with proteinase K and isolation of DNA on a silica membrane was developed. The targets used for DNA amplification were the Candida albicans-secreted aspartic proteinase (SAP) genes, a multiple-gene family of at least seven members in C. albicans. A single pair of primers was designed in order to detect six of these SAP genes and, subsequently, to increase the sensitivity of the test. Detection of the PCR product by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was found to be as sensitive as Southern blotting with an SAP-labeled probe. The sensitivity of the assay was 1 cell/ml from serially diluted Candida cultures and 1 to 4 cells/ml from seeded blood specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of the present assay were tested in a retrospective study performed blindly with 156 clinical samples and were 100 and 98%, respectively, compared with the results of culture. For the subset of blood culture samples (n = 124), the sensitivity and the specificity were 100%. The two false-positive PCR samples came from patients treated with azole antifungal agents, indicating that PCR was probably able to detect damaged organisms that could not be recovered by culture.

  8. Candida albicans commensalism in the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, B Anne; d'Enfert, Christophe; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth

    2015-11-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic yeast species that often forms part of the commensal gastrointestinal mycobiota of healthy humans. It is also an important opportunistic pathogen. A tripartite interaction involving C. albicans, the resident microbiota and host immunity maintains C. albicans in its commensal form. The influence of each of these factors on C. albicans carriage is considered herein, with particular focus on the mycobiota and the approaches used to study it, models of gastrointestinal colonization by C. albicans, the C. albicans genes and phenotypes that are necessary for commensalism and the host factors that influence C. albicans carriage.

  9. Hyphal content determines the compression strength of Candida albicans biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, Ekaterina; Krom, Bastiaan P.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated human fungal pathogen among species causing biofilm-related clinical infections. Mechanical properties of Candida biofilms have hitherto been given no attention, despite the fact that mechanical properties are important for selection of treatment or d

  10. Oral candidiasis-adhesion of non-albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokor-Bratić Marija B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is an opportunistic infection caused primarily by Candida albicans. However, in recent years, species of non-albicans Candida have been implicated more frequently in mucosal infection. Candida species usually reside as commensal organisms and are part of normal oral microflora. Determining exactly how transformation from commensal to pathogen takes place and how it can be prevented is continuous challenge for clinical doctors. Candidal adherence to mucosal surfaces is considered as a critical initial step in the pathogenesis of oral candidiasis. Acrylic dentures, acting as reservoirs, play an important role in increasing the risk from Candida colonisation. Thus, this review discusses what is currently known about the adhesion of non-albicans Candida species of oral origin to buccal epithelial cells and denture acrylics.

  11. Hemolytic activity and production of germ tubes related to pathogenic potential of clinical isolates of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Guilhermetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We assessed the virulence factor profile and in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 27 hospital isolates of C. albicans; 19 of these were from infections (16 urinary and three blood, and the other eight were isolated from sites of colonization (two from hands of health professionals, and six from central venous catheters. The virulence factors assayed were germ tube formation and production of extracellular products (hemolysins, proteinases, and phospholipases. Susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B was determined by E-test. Regarding the virulence factors, the infection isolates produced significantly more hemolysin and germ tubes than the colonization isolates (p<0.05. There were no significant differences in the production of other factors between isolates from the two sources (p>0.05. Amphotericin B showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations for all the isolates. The highest resistance was observed for the azoles, especially in the clinical isolates. These results suggest that the capacity of C. albicans to produce hemolysins and germ tubes may be associated with its pathogenic potential. Colonization isolates may pose a high risk of nosocomial infection, especially when the yeasts show resistance to antifungals. Keywords: Nosocomial infection. Virulence. Candida albicans. Germ tube. Hemolysins. RESUMO Atividade hemolítica e produção de tubos germinativos relacionados ao potencial patogênico de isolados clínicos de Candida albicans O perfil de virulência e o de susceptibilidade in vitro aos antifúngicos de 27 amostras de C. albicans de origem hospitalar foi avaliado, sendo que 19 delas foram isoladas de infecções (16 urinárias e três sanguíneas e as outras oito foram isoladas de colonização (duas de mãos de profissionais da saúde e seis de cateter venoso central. Os seguintes fatores de virulência foram investigados: formação de tubo germinativo e produção de

  12. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  13. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-11-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on Candida albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions.

  14. Paradoxical antifungal activity and structural observations in biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Carla J; Bernardo, Stella M; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans have been reported, and key-hot spot mutations in the FKS1 gene, which encodes a major glucan synthase subunit, have been identified in these (caspofungin-resistant [CAS-R]) strains. Although these mutations result in phenotypic resistance to echinocandins in planktonic cells, there is little data on antifungal susceptibilities of CAS-R C. albicans strains within biofilms. Thus, we analyzed biofilms formed by 12 C. albicans CAS-R clinical strains in which we previously identified FKS1 hot-spot mutations and compared the sessile antifungal and paradoxical activity of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MICA). Biofilms were formed in a 96-well static microplate model and assayed using both tetrazolium-salt reduction and crystal violet assays, as well as examination by scanning electron microscopy. We first sought to assess biofilm formation and structure in these fks1 mutants and found that the biofilm mass and metabolic activities were reduced in most of the fks1 mutants as compared with reference strain SC5314. Structural analyses revealed that the fks1 mutant biofilms were generally less dense and had a clear predominance of yeast and pseudohyphae, with unusual "pit"-like cell surface structures. We also noted that sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ANID, CAS, and MICA were higher than planktonic MICs of all but one strain. The majority of strains demonstrated a paradoxical effect (PE) to particular echinocandins, in either planktonic or sessile forms. Overall, biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates demonstrated varied PEs to echinocandins and were structurally characterized by a preponderance of yeast, pseudohyphae, and pit-like structures.

  15. Paradoxical antifungal activity and structural observations in biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant Candida albicans clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, Carla J; Bernardo, Stella M; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-02-01

    Echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates of Candida albicans have been reported, and key-hot spot mutations in the FKS1 gene, which encodes a major glucan synthase subunit, have been identified in these (caspofungin-resistant [CAS-R]) strains. Although these mutations result in phenotypic resistance to echinocandins in planktonic cells, there is little data on antifungal susceptibilities of CAS-R C. albicans strains within biofilms. Thus, we analyzed biofilms formed by 12 C. albicans CAS-R clinical strains in which we previously identified FKS1 hot-spot mutations and compared the sessile antifungal and paradoxical activity of anidulafungin (ANID), caspofungin (CAS), and micafungin (MICA). Biofilms were formed in a 96-well static microplate model and assayed using both tetrazolium-salt reduction and crystal violet assays, as well as examination by scanning electron microscopy. We first sought to assess biofilm formation and structure in these fks1 mutants and found that the biofilm mass and metabolic activities were reduced in most of the fks1 mutants as compared with reference strain SC5314. Structural analyses revealed that the fks1 mutant biofilms were generally less dense and had a clear predominance of yeast and pseudohyphae, with unusual "pit"-like cell surface structures. We also noted that sessile minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to ANID, CAS, and MICA were higher than planktonic MICs of all but one strain. The majority of strains demonstrated a paradoxical effect (PE) to particular echinocandins, in either planktonic or sessile forms. Overall, biofilms formed by echinocandin-resistant clinical isolates demonstrated varied PEs to echinocandins and were structurally characterized by a preponderance of yeast, pseudohyphae, and pit-like structures. PMID:24576999

  16. Clinical and molecular characteristics of bloodstream infections caused by Candida albicans in children from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, M-H; Wang, S-H; Hsu, J-F; Lin, L-C; Chu, S-M; Huang, H-R; Chiang, M-C; Fu, R-H; Lu, J-J; Huang, Y-C

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the clinical and molecular characteristics of Candida albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) in children from a tertiary-level medical centre in Taiwan over a 9-year period from January 2003 to December 2011. We performed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate the genetic relatedness of these C. albicans BSI isolates. A total of 79 episodes of C. albicans BSI in 76 paediatric patients were identified, including 41 (51.9%) from the paediatric intensive care unit, 24 (30.4%) from the neonatal intensive care unit and 14 (17.7%) from general wards. More than half (59.5%) of these patients had underlying chronic co-morbidities, and the majority (94.9%) had a catheter or some other artificial device. All the isolates were susceptible to the antifungal agents tested. Only 32.9% (26/79) received effective antifungal agents within 24 h of onset of candidaemia. Twenty-five (31.6%) patients had persistent candidaemia (>3 days after the start of antifungal treatment) and candidaemia-attributable mortality rate was 22.8% (18/79). The 72 isolates available for MLST yielded 53 unique diploid sequence types (DSTs). Forty-five DSTs were singletons and eight DSTs were shared by 27 (37.5%) isolates. Seventy-one (98.6%) isolates were clustered within previously known clades. Based on the definition of two or more strains with shared DST occurring within a period of 90 days, 10.1% of the infections were categorized as nosocomial clusters, most commonly identified in the intensive care units. Although cluster-associated candidaemia was not associated with a higher mortality rate, none of the clusters were identified by the hospital infection control team.

  17. The Clinical Candidate VT-1161 Is a Highly Potent Inhibitor of Candida albicans CYP51 but Fails To Bind the Human Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, A. G. S.; Hull, C. M.; Parker, J. E.; Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W. J.; Moore, W. R.; Schotzinger, R. J.; Kelly, D. E.; Kelly, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    The binding and cytochrome P45051 (CYP51) inhibition properties of a novel antifungal compound, VT-1161, against purified recombinant Candida albicans CYP51 (ERG11) and Homo sapiens CYP51 were compared with those of clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. VT-1161 produced a type II binding spectrum with Candida albicans CYP51, characteristic of heme iron coordination. The binding affinity of VT-1161 for Candida albicans CYP51 was high (dissociation constant [Kd], ≤39 nM) an...

  18. Adaptive immune responses to Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are becoming increasingly prevalent in the human population and contribute to morbidity and mortality in healthy and immunocompromised individuals respectively. Candida albicans is the most commonly encountered fungal pathogen of humans, and is frequently found on the mucosal surfaces of the body. Host defense against C. albicans is dependent upon a finely tuned implementation of innate and adaptive immune responses, enabling the host to neutralise the invading fungus. Central to this protection are the adaptive Th1 and Th17 cellular responses, which are considered paramount to successful immune defense against C. albicans infections, and enable tissue homeostasis to be maintained in the presence of colonising fungi. This review will highlight the recent advances in our understanding of adaptive immunity to Candida albicans infections.

  19. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm.

  20. Molecular concordance of concurrent Candida albicans candidemia and candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Yen; Hung, Min-Hui; Shie, Shian-Sen; Su, Lin-Hui; Chen, Ke-Yuan; Ye, Jung-Jr; Chiang, Ping-Cheng; Leu, Hsieh-Shong; Huang, Ching-Tai

    2013-07-01

    The significance of candiduria remains unclear. We correlated Candida albicans candidemia with candiduria by molecular genotyping. 33 pairs of concurrent blood and urine C. albicans isolates from 31 adult (≥ 18 years) were genotyped with infrequent-restriction-site PCR. The molecular concordance rates of three major genotypes were 100% for I, 82% for II, and 71% for III. The molecular concordance between concurrent C. albicans candidemia and candiduria was frequent. Our findings substantiate the importance of candiduria in appropriate clinical context as the majority of our patients were from intensive care units.

  1. Resistance of Candida albicans biofilms to antifungal agents in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawser, S. P.; Douglas, L J

    1995-01-01

    Biofilms formed by Candida albicans on small discs of catheter material were resistant to the action of five clinically important antifungal agents as determined by [3H]leucine incorporation and tetrazolium reduction assays. Fluconazole showed the greatest activity, and amphotericin B showed the least activity against biofilm cells. These findings were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms.

  2. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Suhail; Khan Ziauddin; Asadzadeh Mohammad; Theyyathel Ajmal; Chandy Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. W...

  3. Sensitization of Candida albicans to terbinafine by berberine and berberrubine

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAM, PIKLING; KOK, STANTON HON LUNG; LEE, KENNETH KA HO; LAM, KIM HUNG; HAU, DESMOND KWOK PO; WONG, WAI YEUNG; BIAN, ZHAOXIANG; GAMBARI, ROBERTO; CHUI, CHUNG HIN

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, particularly observed in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans accounts for 50–70% of cases of invasive candidiasis in the majority of clinical settings. Terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug, has been used to treat fungal infections previously. It has fungistatic activity against C. albicans. Traditional Chinese medicines can be used as complementary medicines to conventional drugs to treat a variety of ailments and diseases. Berberine is a quaternary alkaloid isolated from the traditional Chinese herb, Coptidis Rhizoma, while berberrubine is isolated from the medicinal plant Berberis vulgaris, but is also readily derived from berberine by pyrolysis. The present study demonstrates the possible complementary use of berberine and berberrubine with terbinafine against C. albicans. The experimental findings assume that the potential application of these alkaloids together with reduced dosage of the standard drug would enhance the resulting antifungal potency. PMID:27073630

  4. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Ian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51, but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Methods Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. Results The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene (WSP1267 had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a loss of cell wall integrity, (b detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Conclusion Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new

  5. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jang-Gyu; Hong, Hyun-Sook [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Koh, Yoon-Woo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Kim, Hee-Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Pathology, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jung-Mi [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bucheon-Si, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  6. Candida albicans osteomyelitis of the cervical spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal osteomyelitis is a rare infection that usually develops in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, involvement of the cervical spine by Candida albicans is extremely rare; only three previous cases of Candida vertebral osteomyelitis have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis may be delayed due to nonspecific radiologic findings and a slow progression. We report the CT, MRI, bone scan, and PET-CT findings in a patient who developed Candida osteomyelitis, which was initially misdiagnosed as metastasis, at the atlas and axis following treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of E,E-Farnesol Secretion and the Clinical Characteristics of Candida albicans Bloodstream Isolates from Different Multilocus Sequence Typing Clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook-In; Shin, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kim, Jin; Kim, Joo Hee; Choi, Min Ji; Chung, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Kyungwon; Koo, Sun Hoe; Chang, Hyun Ha; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; d'Enfert, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), Candida albicans can be subdivided into 18 different clades. Farnesol, a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by C. albicans, is thought to play an important role in the development of C. albicans biofilms and is also a virulence factor. This study evaluated whether C. albicans bloodstream infection (BSI) strains belonging to different MLST clades secrete different levels of E,E-farnesol (FOH) and whether they have different clinical characteristics. In total, 149 C. albicans BSI isolates from ten Korean hospitals belonging to clades 18 (n = 28), 4 (n = 23), 1 (n = 22), 12 (n = 17), and other clades (n = 59) were assessed. For each isolate, the FOH level in 24-hour biofilms was determined in filtered (0.45 μm) culture supernatant using high-performance liquid chromatography. Marked differences in FOH secretion from biofilms (0.10-6.99 μM) were observed among the 149 BSI isolates. Clade 18 isolates secreted significantly more FOH than did non-clade 18 isolates (mean ± SEM; 2.66 ± 0.22 vs. 1.69 ± 0.10 μM; P albicans BSI isolates belonging to the most prevalent MLST clade (clade 18) in Korea are characterized by increased levels of FOH secretion and less severe illness.

  8. Detection of Candida albicans by mass spectrometric fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehm, Sarah; Schweinitz, Simone; Würzner, Reinhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2012-03-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most frequent causes of fungal infections in humans. Significant correlation between candiduria and invasive candidiasis has previously been described. The existing diagnostic methods are often time-consuming, cost-intensive and lack in sensitivity and specificity. In this study, the profile of low-molecular weight volatile compounds in the headspace of C. albicans-urine suspensions of four different fungal cell concentrations compared to nutrient media and urine without C. albicans was determined using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). At fungal counts of ≥1.5 × 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/ml signals at 45, 47 and 73 atomic mass units (amu) highly significantly increased. At fungal counts of albicans-urine suspensions of different fungal cell concentrations. PTR-MS represents a promising approach to rapid, highly sensitive and non-invasive clinical diagnostics allowing qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  9. White-opaque switching in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Lohse, Matthew B.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2009-01-01

    The human commensal yeast Candida albicans undergoes an epigenetic switch between two distinct types of cells, referred to as white and opaque. These two cell types differ in many respects, including their cell and colony morphologies, their metabolic states, their mating behaviors, their preferred niches in the host, and their interactions with the host immune system. Each of the two cell types is heritable for many generations and switching between them appears stochastic; however, environm...

  10. The parasexual lifestyle of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is both a prevalent human commensal and the most commonly encountered human fungal pathogen. This lifestyle is dependent on the ability of the fungus to undergo rapid genetic and epigenetic changes, often in response to specific environmental cues. A parasexual cycle in C. albicans has been defined that includes several unique properties when compared to the related model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Novel features include strict regulation of mating via a phenotypic switch, enhanced conjugation within a sexual biofilm, and a program of concerted chromosome loss in place of a conventional meiosis. It is expected that several of these adaptations co-evolved with the ability of C. albicans to colonize the mammalian host.

  11. Candida albicans adhesion to composite resin materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2009-09-01

    The adhesion of Candida albicans to dental restorative materials in the human oral cavity may promote the occurrence of oral candidosis. This study aimed to compare the susceptibility of 14 commonly used composite resin materials (two compomers, one ormocer, one novel silorane, and ten conventional hybrid composites) to adhere Candida albicans. Differences in the amount of adhering fungi should be related to surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the type of matrix. Cylindrical specimens of each material were made according to the manufacturers' instructions. Surface roughness R (a) was assessed by perthometer measurements and the degree of hydrophobicity by computerized contact angle analysis. Specimens were incubated with a reference strain of C. albicans (DMSZ 1386), and adhering fungi were quantified by using a bioluminometric assay in combination with an automated plate reader. Statistical differences were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess correlations. Median R (a) of the tested composite resin materials ranged between 0.04 and 0.23 microm, median contact angles between 69.2 degrees and 86.9 degrees . The two compomers and the ormocer showed lower luminescence intensities indicating less adhesion of fungi than all tested conventional hybrid composites. No conclusive correlation was found between surface roughness, hydrophobicity, and the amount of adhering C. albicans.

  12. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Bai; Xian-Hua Liu; Qing-Ying Tong

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA).METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogenfree mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer's patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer's patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA.RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced.Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased.CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specificpathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus.

  13. PREVALENCE OF BIOFILM PRODUCING MDR CANDIDA ALBICANS AND NON CANDIDA ALBICANS ISOLATE FROM MEDICAL DEVICES

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    P. Rajeswari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Totally 56% of occurrence was observed from 6 types of sources. Among them highest prevalence was observed from urinary catheter (68% next in line is intravenous tubes (66.66%, venflon needles (65%, and blood bags (53.33% respectively. Four types of Candida species were identified by using selective media and biochemical tests. The Candida albicans was predominant isolates in all sources especially in urinary catheter. In this study, 60.2% of non Candida albicans were observed. All isolates were subjected to antifungal stability test, 6 antifungal agents were used. Among the 6 antifungal agents Itraconazole had highly resistance activity and Fluconazole had highly sensitive activity against the isolates. The antifungal resistance of isolates were highly observed in non Candida albicans such as Candida tropicalis (83.3% and followed by Candida glabrata (74.5%. All isolates were have the ability to produce biofilm, among them 37.4% of isolates were strong biofilm producer and 100% of protease producing isolates were observed in the last part of the study.

  14. Coaggregation of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans is Candida albicans strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzmi, Mohd Hafiz; Dashper, Stuart; Catmull, Deanne; Cirillo, Nicola; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Microbial interactions are necessarily associated with the development of polymicrobial oral biofilms. The objective of this study was to determine the coaggregation of eight strains of Candida albicans with Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus mutans. In autoaggregation assays, C. albicans strains were grown in RPMI-1640 and artificial saliva medium (ASM) whereas bacteria were grown in heart infusion broth. C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans were suspended to give 10(6), 10(7) and 10(8) cells mL(-1) respectively, in coaggregation buffer followed by a 1 h incubation. The absorbance difference at 620 nm (ΔAbs) between 0 h and 1 h was recorded. To study coaggregation, the same protocol was used, except combinations of microorganisms were incubated together. The mean ΔAbs% of autoaggregation of the majority of RPMI-1640-grown C. albicans was higher than in ASM grown. Coaggregation of C. albicans with A. naeslundii and/or S. mutans was variable among C. albicans strains. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that A. naeslundii and S. mutans coaggregated with C. albicans in dual- and triculture. In conclusion, the coaggregation of C. albicans, A. naeslundii and S. mutans is C. albicans strain dependent. PMID:26054855

  15. In Vitro Effect of Local Anesthetics on Candida albicans Germ Tube Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio Rodrigues

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was planned to clarify the in vitro effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolates from cases of clinical vaginal candidiasis.

  16. Sunflower seed husk agar: A new medium for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A sunflower ( Helianthus annuus seed husk agar medium has been developed and evaluated for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans on the basis of colony morphology and chlamydospore production. All C. dubliniensis isolates (n=40 produced rough colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores whereas 101 of 105 (96.2% C. albicans isolates produced smooth colonies with no evidence of chlamydospore production. Since this medium is free from oil droplets, chlamydospores can be examined with greater clarity by Dalmau plate technique. This medium provides a simple and cost-effective tool for the presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans and is particularly suited for clinical microbiology laboratories where biochemical or molecular methods for the differentiation of these two species are not available.

  17. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis induce different T-cell responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toth, A.; Csonka, K.; Jacobs, C.; Vagvolgyi, C.; Nosanchuk, J.D.; Netea, M.G.; Gacser, A.

    2013-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is the third most frequent cause of candidemia. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the human immunological response to C. parapsilosis. In this study, we compared the cytokine responses evoked by Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. C. parapsilosis-stimulate

  18. Candida albicans versus Candida dubliniensis: Why Is C. albicans More Pathogenic?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, Gary P

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related pathogenic yeast species. However, C. albicans is far more prevalent in human infection and has been shown to be more pathogenic in a wide range of infection models. Comparison of the genomes of the two species has revealed that they are very similar although there are some significant differences, largely due to the expansion of virulence-related gene families (e.g., ALS and SAP) in C. albicans, and increased levels of pseudogenisation in C. dubliniensis. Comparative global gene expression analyses have also been used to investigate differences in the ability of the two species to tolerate environmental stress and to produce hyphae, two traits that are likely to play a role in the lower virulence of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, these data suggest that C. dubliniensis is in the process of undergoing reductive evolution and may have become adapted for growth in a specialized anatomic niche.

  19. Codetection of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by PCR in urine samples in a low-risk population attended in a clinic first level in central Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Monteon, A; Gómez-Figueroa, F S; Ramos-Poceros, G; Guzmán-Gómez, D; Ramos-Ligonio, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans in low-risk patients treated at a first level clinic (primary health care represents the first level of contact of individuals, families, and the community with the system national health). Using a cross-sectional study in patients treated in clinical laboratory of the Sanitary District no. 7 of the city of Orizaba during the months June-July, 252 urine samples were collected for the identification of T. vaginalis and C. albicans by PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. We observed an overall prevalence of 23.41% (95% CI 22.10-24.72) for T. vaginalis and 38.88% (95% CI 37.73-40.03) for C. albicans. There was also presence of coinfection in 14.28% (95% CI 13.10-15.46), which was associated with the presence of pain. Most of the positive cases were observed in women house-maker (80%, 95% CI 50.36-48.98). The results of this study provide evidence that the majority of positive cases observed in the studied population are presented in an asymptomatic form and usually are not associated with any risk factor.

  20. Codetection of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by PCR in Urine Samples in a Low-Risk Population Attended in a Clinic First Level in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. López-Monteon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans in low-risk patients treated at a first level clinic (primary health care represents the first level of contact of individuals, families, and the community with the system national health. Using a cross-sectional study in patients treated in clinical laboratory of the Sanitary District no. 7 of the city of Orizaba during the months June-July, 252 urine samples were collected for the identification of T. vaginalis and C. albicans by PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the sociodemographic characteristics of the studied population. We observed an overall prevalence of 23.41% (95% CI 22.10–24.72 for T. vaginalis and 38.88% (95% CI 37.73–40.03 for C. albicans. There was also presence of coinfection in 14.28% (95% CI 13.10–15.46, which was associated with the presence of pain. Most of the positive cases were observed in women house-maker (80%, 95% CI 50.36–48.98. The results of this study provide evidence that the majority of positive cases observed in the studied population are presented in an asymptomatic form and usually are not associated with any risk factor.

  1. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cana [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Puk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  2. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic assay for identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans has been developed, until now. Accurate species identification requires the use of genotype-based techniques that are not routinely available in most clinical microbiology diagnostic laboratories. The present study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of a new test (the immunochromatographic membrane [ICM] albi-dubli test; SR2B, Avrille, France) to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. The organisms evaluated were strains whose identities had previously been confirmed by PCR tests and freshly isolated clinical strains and included 58 C. albicans isolates, 60 C. dubliniensis isolates, and 82 isolates belonging to other species of yeast. The ICM albi-dubli test is based on the principle of immunochromatographic analysis and involves the use of two distinct monoclonal antibodies that recognize two unrelated epitopes expressed by both species or specific to only one species. The assay requires no complex instrumentation for analysis and can be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Results are obtained within 2 h and 30 min and are easy to interpret. This evaluation demonstrated the good performance of this immunochromatographic test for C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHOROMagar Candida, and CandidaSelect, with sensitivities and specificities ranging from 93.1 to 100%. These parameters decreased, however, to 91.4% when the test was performed with yeast isolated

  3. Ocimum sanctum essential oil inhibits virulence attributes in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amber; Ahmad, Aijaz; Xess, Immaculata; Khan, Luqman A; Manzoor, Nikhat

    2014-03-15

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen which causes disease mainly in immunocompromised patients. Activity of hydrolytic enzymes is essential for virulence of C. albicans and so is the capacity of these cells to undergo transition from yeast to mycelial form of growth. Ocimum sanctum is cultivated worldwide for its essential oil which exhibits medicinal properties. This work evaluates the anti-virulence activity of O. sanctum essential oil (OSEO) on 22 strains of C. albicans (including a standard strain ATCC 90028) isolated from both HIV positive and HIV negative patients. Candida isolates were exposed to sub-MICs of OSEO. In vitro secretion of proteinases and phospholipases was evaluated by plate assay containing BSA and egg yolk respectively. Morphological transition from yeast to filamentous form was monitored microscopically in LSM. For genetic analysis, respective genes associated with morphological transition (HWP1), proteinase (SAP1) and phospholipase (PLB2) were also investigated by Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results were analyzed using Student's t-test. OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and had a significant inhibitory effect on extracellular secretion of proteinases and phospholipases. Expression profile of respective selected genes associated with C. albicans virulence by qRT-PCR showed a reduced expression of HWP1, SAP1 and PLB2 genes in cells treated with sub-inhibitory concentrations of OSEO. This work suggests that OSEO inhibits morphological transition in C. albicans and decreases the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the early stage of infection as well as down regulates the associated genes. Further studies will assess the clinical application of OSEO and its constituents in the treatment of fungal infections. PMID:24252340

  4. Medical treatment of a pacemaker endocarditis due to Candida albicans and to Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P M; Boissy, C; Gari-Toussaint, M; Foucher, R; Mondain, V; Vandenbos, F; le Fichoux, Y; Michiels, J F; Dellamonica, P

    2000-09-01

    We describe a case of pacemaker infection due to two fungal species: Candida albicans and C. glabrata. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a large vegetation on the intraventricular wires. Because of severe underlying diseases, surgery was believed to be contraindicated. The patient was treated using high dose of fluconazole, resulting in clinical improvement and negative blood cultures. However, 2 months later, the patient underwent a fatal stroke. At autopsy, a large vegetation was found only all along the wires. Postmortem culture of the infected material was positive for both C. albicans and C. glabrata. PMID:11023765

  5. Triclosan antagonizes fluconazole activity against Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, J

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg\\/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg\\/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes.

  6. Karyotyping of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata from patients with Candida sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klempp-Selb, B; Rimek, D; Kappe, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relatedness of Candida strains from patients suffering from Candida septicaemia by typing of Candida isolates from blood cultures and different body sites by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE using a contour-clamped homogenous electric field, CHEF). We studied 17 isolates of Candida albicans and 10 isolates of Candida glabrata from six patients. Four patients suffered from a C. albicans septicaemia, one patient from a C. glabrata septicaemia, and one patient had a mixed septicaemia with C. albicans and C. glabrata. Eight isolates from blood cultures were compared with 19 isolates of other sites (stool six, urine four, genital swab four, tip of central venous catheter three, tracheal secretion one, sputum one). PFGE typing resulted in 10 different patterns, four with C. albicans and six with C. glabrata. Five of the six patients had strains of identical PFGE patterns in the blood and at other sites. Seven isolates of a 58-year-old female with a C. glabrata septicaemia fell into five different PFGE patterns. However, they showed minor differences only, which may be due to chromosomal rearrangements within a single strain. Thus it appears, that the colonizing Candida strains were identical to the circulating strains in the bloodstream in at least five of six patients.

  7. Sputum Candida albicans presages FEV₁ decline and hospital-treated exacerbations in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H

    2010-11-01

    The role of Candida albicans in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway is underexplored. Considered a colonizer, few question its pathogenic potential despite high isolation frequencies from sputum culture. We evaluated the frequency and identified the strongest predictors of C albicans colonization in CF. Independent associations of colonization with clinical outcomes were determined, and the longitudinal effects of C albicans acquisition on BMI and FEV₁ were evaluated.

  8. Antifungal susceptibility and molecular typing of 115 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vulvovaginal candidiasis patients in 3 Shanghai maternity hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Zhang, Hongju; Tang, Zhenhua; Chen, Huifen; Gao, Jing; Yue, Chaoyan

    2016-05-01

    In our multicenter study, we studied the distribution of Candida species in vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and investigated antifungal susceptibility profile and genotype of Candida albicans in vaginal swab. A total of 115 Candida albicans strains were detected in 135 clinical isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration determinations showed that 83% and 81% of the 115 Candida albicans strains were susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) was applied to identify clonally related isolates from different patients at the local level. All tested strains were classified into genotype A (77.4%), genotype B (18.3%), and genotype C (4.3%). Genotype A was further classified into five subtypes and genotype B into two subtypes.Candida albicans was the dominant pathogen of vulvovaginal candidiasis, the majority belonging to genotype A in this study. Exposure to azoles is a risk factor for the emergence of azole resistance among Candida albicans isolated from VVC patients.

  9. Rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations in clinical Candida albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole by rolling circle amplification and DNA sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis David

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amino acid substitutions in the target enzyme Erg11p of azole antifungals contribute to clinically-relevant azole resistance in Candida albicans. A simple molecular method for rapid detection of ERG11 gene mutations would be an advantage as a screening tool to identify potentially-resistant strains and to track their movement. To complement DNA sequencing, we developed a padlock probe and rolling circle amplification (RCA-based method to detect a series of mutations in the C. albicans ERG11 gene using "reference" azole-resistant isolates with known mutations. The method was then used to estimate the frequency of ERG11 mutations and their type in 25 Australian clinical C. albicans isolates with reduced susceptibility to fluconazole and in 23 fluconazole-susceptible isolates. RCA results were compared DNA sequencing. Results The RCA assay correctly identified all ERG11 mutations in eight "reference" C. albicans isolates. When applied to 48 test strains, the RCA method showed 100% agreement with DNA sequencing where an ERG11 mutation-specific probe was used. Of 20 different missense mutations detected by sequencing in 24 of 25 (96% isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility, 16 were detected by RCA. Five missense mutations were detected by both methods in 18 of 23 (78% fluconazole-susceptible strains. DNA sequencing revealed that mutations in non-susceptible isolates were all due to homozygous nucleotide changes. With the exception of the mutations leading to amino acid substitution E266D, those in fluconazole-susceptible strains were heterozygous. Amino acid substitutions common to both sets of isolates were D116E, E266D, K128T, V437I and V488I. Substitutions unique to isolates with reduced fluconazole susceptibility were G464 S (n = 4 isolates, G448E (n = 3, G307S (n = 3, K143R (n = 3 and Y123H, S405F and R467K (each n = 1. DNA sequencing revealed a novel substitution, G450V, in one isolate. Conclusion The sensitive RCA

  10. 白色念珠菌引起抗菌药物相关性腹泻的临床检验特点分析%The clinical laboratory characteristic of Candida albicans caused antibiotic-associated diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹前芽; 刘国忠; 周遇秀

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical laboratory characteristic of Candida albicans caused antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) .Methods 100 cases of AAD were selected .Based on the results ,they were divided into Candida albicans group and non-Candida albicans group .The levels of sodium ,potassium ,fasting blood-glucose and albumin ,investigation of antimicrobial usage were compared in two groups .Results Candida albicans were detected in 42 cases .The levels of sodium ,potassium and fasting blood-glucose in the Candida albicans group were significantly higher than those in non-Candida albicans group(P<0 .01) ,and al-bumin were significantly lower than that in non-Candida albicans group(P< 0 .01) .The rate of two or more antibiotic usage in Candida albicans group was significantly higher than that in non-Candida albicans group(P<0 .05) .The drug resistance rates of fluconazole ,itraconazole ,voriconazole ,amphotericin B and flucytosine in Candida albicans group were significantly lower than those in non-Candida albicans group(P<0 .05) ,and the antibiotic sensitive rates of fluconazole ,itraconazole ,voriconazole ,amphotericin B and flucytosine in Candida albicans group were significantly higher than those in non-Candida albicans group(P<0 .05) .The drug resistance rates of vancomycin and macrodantin in Candida albicans group were significantly higher than those in non-Candida al-bicans group(P<0 .01) ,and the antibiotic sensitive rates of vancomycin and macrodantin in Candida albicans group were signifi-cantly lower than those in non-Candida albicans group(P<0 .01) .Conclusion For AAD cases ,the fecal culture can provide exper-imental basis for clinical treatment and avoid the abuse of antibiotics .%目的:分析白色念珠菌引起抗菌药物相关性腹泻(AAD)的临床检验特点。方法对100例AAD患者粪便标本进行细菌培养,根据所得结果分为白色念珠菌感染组和非白色念珠菌感染组,对比2组患者血钠、血钾、空

  11. The clinical candidate VT-1161 is a highly potent inhibitor of Candida albicans CYP51 but fails to bind the human enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, A G S; Hull, C M; Parker, J E; Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Moore, W R; Schotzinger, R J; Kelly, D E; Kelly, S L

    2014-12-01

    The binding and cytochrome P45051 (CYP51) inhibition properties of a novel antifungal compound, VT-1161, against purified recombinant Candida albicans CYP51 (ERG11) and Homo sapiens CYP51 were compared with those of clotrimazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole. VT-1161 produced a type II binding spectrum with Candida albicans CYP51, characteristic of heme iron coordination. The binding affinity of VT-1161 for Candida albicans CYP51 was high (dissociation constant [Kd], ≤ 39 nM) and similar to that of the pharmaceutical azole antifungals (Kd, ≤ 50 nM). In stark contrast, VT-1161 at concentrations up to 86 μM did not perturb the spectrum of recombinant human CYP51, whereas all the pharmaceutical azoles bound to human CYP51. In reconstitution assays, VT-1161 inhibited Candida albicans CYP51 activity in a tight-binding fashion with a potency similar to that of the pharmaceutical azoles but failed to inhibit the human enzyme at the highest concentration tested (50 μM). In addition, VT-1161 (MIC = 0.002 μg ml(-1)) had a more pronounced fungal sterol disruption profile (increased levels of methylated sterols and decreased levels of ergosterol) than the known CYP51 inhibitor voriconazole (MIC = 0.004 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, VT-1161 weakly inhibited human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4, suggesting a low drug-drug interaction potential. In summary, VT-1161 potently inhibited Candida albicans CYP51 and culture growth but did not inhibit human CYP51, demonstrating a >2,000-fold selectivity. This degree of potency and selectivity strongly supports the potential utility of VT-1161 in the treatment of Candida infections. PMID:25224009

  12. Hydrophobic interaction in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis adherence to various denture base resin materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Minagi, S; Miyake, Y; Inagaki, K; Tsuru, H; Suginaka, H

    1985-01-01

    The effects of hydrophobicities of substrate surfaces on microbial adherence were examined by using Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis and 21 denture base resin materials. With increasing surface free energy of resin plates, increasing adherence of C. albicans and decreasing adherence of C. tropicalis were observed. The surface free energy of C. albicans is higher than that of all resin material surfaces, and C. tropicalis has surface free energy lower than that of all materials used. In...

  13. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis.

  14. Performance comparison of phenotypic and molecular methods for detection and differentiation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suhail

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is the most pathogenic Candida species but shares many phenotypic features with Candida dubliniensis and may, therefore, be misidentified in clinical microbiology laboratories. Candidemia cases due to C. dubliniensis are increasingly being reported in recent years. Accurate identification is warranted since mortality rates are highest for C. albicans infections, however, C. dubliniensis has the propensity to develop resistance against azoles more easily. We developed a duplex PCR assay for rapid detection and differentiation of C. albicans from C. dubliniensis for resource-poor settings equipped with basic PCR technology and compared its performance with three phenotypic methods. Methods Duplex PCR was performed on 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species previously identified by assimilation profiles on Vitek 2 ID-YST system. Typical morphologic characteristics on simplified sunflower seed agar (SSA, and reaction with a commercial (Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test were also performed. The assay was further applied on 239 clinical yeast and yeast-like fungi and results were confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA. Results The results of duplex PCR assay for 122 germ tube positive and 12 germ tube negative isolates of Candida species were comparable to their identification by Vitek 2 ID-YST system, colony characteristics on SSA and latex agglutination test. Application of duplex PCR also correctly identified all 148 C. albicans and 50 C. dubliniensis strains among 239 yeast-like fungi. Conclusions The data show that both, duplex PCR and Bichro-Dubli are reliable tests for rapid (within few hours identification of clinical yeast isolates as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans. However, duplex PCR may be applied directly on clinical yeast isolates for their identification as C. dubliniensis or C. albicans as it does not require prior

  15. Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Edelmann, Anke; Krüger, Monika; SCHMID, JAN

    2005-01-01

    Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection.

  16. Morphological and physiological changes induced by contact-dependent interaction between Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Batbileg; Cen, Lujia; Agnello, Melissa; Shi, Wenyuan; He, Xuesong

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans and Fusobacterium nucleatum are well-studied oral commensal microbes with pathogenic potential that are involved in various oral polymicrobial infectious diseases. Recently, we demonstrated that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 coaggregates with C. albicans SN152, a process mainly mediated by fusobacterial membrane protein RadD and Candida cell wall protein Flo9. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential biological impact of this inter-kingdom interaction. We found that F. nucleatum ATCC 23726 inhibits growth and hyphal morphogenesis of C. albicans SN152 in a contact-dependent manner. Further analysis revealed that the inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis is mediated via RadD and Flo9 protein pair. Using a murine macrophage cell line, we showed that the F. nucleatum-induced inhibition of Candida hyphal morphogenesis promotes C. albicans survival and negatively impacts the macrophage-killing capability of C. albicans. Furthermore, the yeast form of C. albicans repressed F. nucleatum-induced MCP-1 and TNFα production in macrophages. Our study suggests that the interaction between C. albicans and F. nucleatum leads to a mutual attenuation of virulence, which may function to promote a long-term commensal lifestyle within the oral cavity. This finding has significant implications for our understanding of inter-kingdom interaction and may impact clinical treatment strategies. PMID:27295972

  17. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Altunhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolismdisorder. The frequency of sepsis significantlyincreases in patients with galactosemia. The most commonagent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungusin patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candidais an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive careunits especially in newborns with underlying risk factorssuch as prematurity and low birth weight. Although themost common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. coli in caseswith galactosemia, it should be kept in mind that candidamay also be causative agent of sepsis and meningitis inthese patients even though there is no underlying risk factor.Also the clinical and laboratory findings of candidiasismay be obscure. For this reason, especially in newborncandida meningitis, the index of suspicion should be kepthigh for early diagnosis and treatment. In such patientscerebrospinal fluid analysis, culture and brain imagingshould be done necessarily, because early diagnosis andtreatment will be life saving. In this article we reported agalactosemia case with the diagnosis of meningitis andCandida albicans grown in his blood culture derived onthe fourth day of admission to clinic.Key words: Candida albicans, galactosemia, meningitis,newborn, sepsis

  18. The effect of Streptococcus mutans and Candida glabrata on Candida albicans biofilms formed on different surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Pereira-Cenci; D.M. Deng; E.A. Kraneveld; E.M.M. Manders; A.A. Del Bel Cury; J.M. ten Cate; W. Crielaard

    2008-01-01

    Although Candida containing biofilms contribute to the development of oral candidosis, the characteristics of multi-species Candida biofilms and how oral bacteria modulate these biofilms is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between Candida albicans and either C

  19. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Brenda A; McGovern, Eleanor; Moran, Gary P; Healy, Claire M; Nunn, June; Fleming, Pádraig; Costigan, Colm; Sullivan, Derek J; Coleman, David C

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  20. Microbiological screening of Irish patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy reveals persistence of Candida albicans strains, gradual reduction in susceptibility to azoles, and incidences of clinical signs of oral candidiasis without culture evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McManus, Brenda A

    2011-05-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) are prone to chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, which is often treated with azoles. The purpose of this study was to characterize the oral Candida populations from 16 Irish APECED patients, who comprise approximately half the total number identified in Ireland, and to examine the effect of intermittent antifungal therapy on the azole susceptibility patterns of Candida isolates. Patients attended between one and four clinical evaluations over a 5-year period, providing oral rinses and\\/or oral swab samples each time. Candida was recovered from 14\\/16 patients, and Candida albicans was the only Candida species identified. Interestingly, clinical diagnosis of candidiasis did not correlate with microbiological evidence of Candida infection at 7\\/22 (32%) clinical assessments. Multilocus sequence typing analysis of C. albicans isolates recovered from the same patients on separate occasions identified the same sequence type each time. Fluconazole resistance was detected in isolates from one patient, and isolates exhibiting a progressive reduction in itraconazole and\\/or fluconazole susceptibility were identified in a further 3\\/16 patients, in each case correlating with the upregulation of CDR- and MDR-encoded efflux pumps. Mutations were also identified in the ERG11 and the TAC1 genes of isolates from these four patients; some of these mutations have previously been associated with azole resistance. The findings suggest that alternative Candida treatment options, other than azoles such as chlorhexidine, should be considered in APECED patients and that clinical diagnosis of oral candidiasis should be confirmed by culture prior to the commencement of anti-Candida therapy.

  1. New aniline blue dye medium for rapid identification and isolation of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, M C; Fung, D Y; Grant, R; White, J.; Brown, T

    1991-01-01

    Organic dyes have long been used in diagnostic microbiology to differentiate species by color reactions. We studied the ability of a new noninhibitory medium, YM agar containing 0.01% aniline blue WS dye, Colour Index 42780 (YMAB), to identify Candida albicans among 1,554 yeast specimens obtained from seven clinical laboratories. Appropriate American Type Culture Collection and other characterized strains served as controls. A total of 487 of the clinical strains were identified as C. albican...

  2. Emergence of non-albicans Candida species and antifungal resistance in intensive care unit patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Kaur; Megh Singh Dhakad; Ritu Goyal; Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of candidiasis and the antifungal susceptibility profile of Candida species isolated from the intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: The study used a qualitative descriptive design. Relevant samples depending on organ system involvement from 100 ICU patients were collected and processed. Identification and speciation of the isolates was conducted by the biochemical tests. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out as per CLSI-M27-A3 document. Results: Ninety Candida isolates were isolated from the different clinical samples:urine (43.3%), tracheal aspirate (31.1%), urinary catheter (12.2%), endotracheal tube (7.8%), abdominal drains (3.3%), sputum (2.2%). The incidence of candidiasis caused by non-albicans Candida (NAC) species (63.3%) was higher than Candida albicans (36.7%). The various NAC species were isolated as: Candida tropicalis (41.1%), Candida glab-rata (10%), Candida parapsilosis (6.7%), Candida krusei (3.3%) and Candida kefyr (2.2%). The overall isolation rate of Candida species from samples was 53.3%. Anti-fungal susceptibility indicated that 37.8%and 7.8%of the Candida isolates were resistant to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Conclusions: Predominance of NAC species in ICU patients along with the increasing resistance being recorded to fluconazole which has a major bearing on the morbidity and management of these patients and needs to be further worked upon.

  3. Prospective evaluation of the chromogenic medium CandiSelect 4 for differentiation and presumptive identification of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; de Hoog, G Sybren; Cornelissen, Akke; Lyu, Qian; Mou, Lili; Liu, Taohua; Cao, Yu; Vatanshenassan, Mansoureh; Kang, Yingqian

    2016-02-01

    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeasts is a crucial step in timely and appropriate antifungal therapy. For diagnostics in the clinical laboratory, simplified alternatives to barcoding are needed. CandiSelect 4 (CS4) medium, a chromogenic medium for isolation of clinical yeasts, allows routine recognition of Candida albicans and presumptive identification of Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. We evaluated an extension of this method with 46 non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) and 7 Malassezia species. The medium supported growth of all species tested and a wide diversity of cultural types were observed. Colony colours were in violet, turquoise (including green and blue), or white tinges. Eight NCAC species produced violet pigmentation similar to that of C. albicans. Most NCAC species, including C. glabrata and C. tropicalis were distributed in the turquoise group. Malassezia species were invariably blue.

  4. Interactions Between Candida albicans and Host Interações entre Candida albicans e Hospedeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane De Rossi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans can cause grave infections in patients who are immunocompromised by diseases, by surgery, or by immunesupresive therapy. The high levels of morbidity and mortality resulting from those infections in hospitalized patients show that C. albicans became a prominent human pathogen. Although the host immune system is the major factor balancing the transition from commensalisms to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans by phagocytic cells, which present receptors Toll-like 4, dectin–1 associated to receptors Toll-like2 and mannose receptors. The cytokine IL-10 (IL-10 produced by phagocytes has a crucial role on susceptibility of host fungal infection, whereas IL-10 produced by regulatory T cells is mainly responsible by commensalisms. In contrast, productions of tumour necrosis factor - α (TNF-α, interleukin–1 β (lL-1 β, (IL-6 and (Il-12 provided protective cell–mediated immunity. The interferon-γ produced by natural killer and TH1 cells stimulates migration of phagocytes and major efficacy on destruction of fungi. In epithelial cells from mucosas the NOD-like receptors and defensins-β cytoplasmatic prevent the translocation of C. albicans from microbiota to tissues, which are modulated by IL-1 β, Il-17 and Il-22 cytokines. to pathogenicity, several virulence attributes expressed by C. albicans, such as adhesion factors, phenotypic switching, dimorphic behavior, and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes, might contribute to the persistence of colonization as well as the development of symptomatic episodes. Host defense against candidiasis relies mainly on the ingestion and elimination of C. albicans

  5. Association of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae colonization or infection with Candida isolation and selection of non-albicans species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Spiliopoulou, Anastasia; Fligou, Fotini; Manolopoulou, Patroula; Spiliopoulou, Iris; Vrettos, Theofanis; Dodou, Vasiliki; Filos, Kriton S; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Marangos, Markos; Christofidou, Myrto

    2014-11-01

    Clinical specimens from 565 patients hospitalized in 2 intensive care units (ICUs A and B) during a 28-month period were cultured on appropriate media for isolation of Candida. Forty-nine (9%) patients had at least a Candida spp.-positive sample. Candida albicans was the predominant species isolated from 26 (53%) patients. Seventeen patients (3%) developed candidemia. Multivariate analysis showed that obesity, female gender, hospitalization during summer months, admission at ICU B, parenteral nutrition, administration of metronidazole, transplantation, and KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) infection were independently associated with Candida spp. isolation. Candidemia was associated with cortisone administration, KPC-Kp infection, and presence of colostomy or abdominal catheter. Administration of fluconazole was a protective factor for both Candida spp. isolation and infection, leading to selection of Candida non-albicans species. Among several risk factors, KPC-Kp infection and colonization are identified as statistically significant factors associated with Candida isolation, especially of non-albicans species.

  6. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  7. Investigation of minor species Candida africana, Candida stellatoidea and Candida dubliniensis in the Candida albicans complex among Yaoundé (Cameroon) HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngouana, Thierry K; Krasteva, Donika; Drakulovski, Pascal; Toghueo, Rufin K; Kouanfack, Charles; Ambe, Akaba; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric; Boyom, Fabrice F; Mallié, Michèle; Bertout, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Minor species of the Candida albicans complex may cause overestimation of the epidemiology of C. albicans, and misidentifications could mask their implication in human pathology. Authors determined the occurrence of minor species of the C. albicans complex (C. africana, C. dubliniensis and C. stellatoidea) among Yaoundé HIV-infected patients, Cameroon. Stool, vaginal discharge, urine and oropharyngeal samples were analysed by mycological diagnosis. Isolates were identified by conventional methods and mass spectrometry (MS; carried out by the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation time-of-flight MS protocol). Candida albicans isolates were thereafter submitted to the PCR amplification of the Hwp1 gene. The susceptibility of isolates to antifungal drugs was tested using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M27-A3 protocol. From 115 C. albicans obtained isolates, neither C. dubliniensis nor C. stellatoidea was observed; two strains of C. africana (422PV and 448PV) were identified by PCR electrophoretic profiles at 700 bp. These two C. africana strains were vaginal isolates. The isolate 448PV was resistant to ketoconazole at the minimal inhibitory concentration of 2 μg ml(-1), and showed reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B at 1 μg ml(-1). This first report on C. africana occurrence in Cameroon brings clues for the understanding of the global epidemiology of this yeast as well as that of minor species of the C. albicans complex.

  8. Candida albicans keratitis in an immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammed J Hassan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available H Mohammed J Hassan1, Theocharis Papanikolaou2, Georgios Mariatos1, Amany Hammad3, Hala Hassan41Ophthalmology Department, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, South Yorkshire, England, UK; 2Ophthalmology Department, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 3Ophthalmology Department, Rotherham Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, England, UK; 4Corneal and External Disease Service, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, England, UKPurpose: When investigating a case of unexplained corneal ulceration, we need to think of fungal infection and any predisposing factors.Methods: A case study of a corneal ulceration in a patient who was HIV positive with a devastating visual outcome.Results: Therapeutic corneal graft was necessary due to corneal perforation. Immunocompromised state of patient was retrospectively diagnosed.Conclusions: Candida albicans keratitis is an opportunistic infection of a compromised cornea, and sometimes unknowingly compromised host, which can be initially misdiagnosed. Despite intensive antifungal therapy, occasionally patients require corneal grafting to improve vision, and before it is possible to establish an accurate diagnosis.Keywords: fungal keratitis, corneal perforation, keratoplasty, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV

  9. The ABCs of Candida albicans Multidrug Transporter Cdr1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Banerjee, Atanu; Khandelwal, Nitesh Kumar; Dhamgaye, Sanjiveeni

    2015-12-01

    In the light of multidrug resistance (MDR) among pathogenic microbes and cancer cells, membrane transporters have gained profound clinical significance. Chemotherapeutic failure, by far, has been attributed mainly to the robust and diverse array of these proteins, which are omnipresent in every stratum of the living world. Candida albicans, one of the major fungal pathogens affecting immunocompromised patients, also develops MDR during the course of chemotherapy. The pivotal membrane transporters that C. albicans has exploited as one of the strategies to develop MDR belongs to either the ATP binding cassette (ABC) or the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class of proteins. The ABC transporter Candida drug resistance 1 protein (Cdr1p) is a major player among these transporters that enables the pathogen to outplay the battery of antifungals encountered by it. The promiscuous Cdr1 protein fulfills the quintessential need of a model to study molecular mechanisms of multidrug transporter regulation and structure-function analyses of asymmetric ABC transporters. In this review, we cover the highlights of two decades of research on Cdr1p that has provided a platform to study its structure-function relationships and regulatory circuitry for a better understanding of MDR not only in yeast but also in other organisms. PMID:26407965

  10. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  11. MOLECULAR TYPING OF Candida albicans ISOLATES FROM HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Souza Bonfim-Mendonca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: The majority of nosocomial fungal infections are caused by Candida spp. where C. albicans is the species most commonly identified. Molecular methods are important tools for assessing the origin of the yeasts isolated in hospitals. Methods: This is a study on the genetic profifiles of 39 nosocomial clinical isolates of C. albicans using two typing methods: random amplifified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and microsatellite, two different primers for each technique were used. Results: RAPD provided 10 and 11 different profiles with values for SAB of 0.84 ± 0.126 and 0.88 ± 0.08 for primers M2 and P4, respectively. Microsatellite using two markers, CDC3 and HIS3, allowed the observation of six and seven different alleles, respectively, with combined discriminatory power of 0.91. Conclusions: Although genetic variability is clear, it was possible to identify high similarity, suggesting a common origin for at least a part of isolates. It is important to emphasize that common origin was proven from yeasts isolated from colonization (urine, catheter or endotracheal secretions and blood culture from the same patient, indicating that the candidemia must have started from a site of colonization. The combination of RAPD and microsatellite provides a quick and efficient analysis for investigation of similarity among nosocomial isolates of C. albicans.

  12. In vivo Models for Candida Albicans Biofilms Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenrui Gu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm is a common mode of fungal growth in clinical infection. In the mode of biofilm, Candida albicans tends to display high resistance to body immunity and antimicrobial agents, which has a significant impact on mortality. Biofilm models are essential tools to better understand the mechanisms of formation and resistance. Compared to in vitro models, in vivo models can better take into account the host immune system and are indispensable for the study of medical device related infection. The aim of this review is to summarize information related to the reported in vivo models of C. albicans biofilms, analyze the operating process and application of them, and compare their advantages and limitations. A literature search was performed from databases in Medline (PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Google scholar by applying some related search terms. The articles related to agriculture, ecology, and synthetic work and those using languages other than English have been excluded. The bibliographies of papers relating to the review subject were also searched for further relevant references. According to the common sites of C. albicans infection; three kinds of in vivo models are discussed in this review: oral mucosa model, vaginal mucosa model and implanted catheter model. The former two models can demonstrate the structure and composition of biofilms growing on the mucosa, and implanted catheter model represents different kinds of medical devices. To expedite the success of new treatments of infection, further refinement of in vivo models is an urgent need.

  13. 侵袭性念珠菌感染者IgA抗体检测的临床意义%Clinical significance of detection of IgA antibody in diagnosis of invasive Candida albicans from cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶伟成

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect serum IgA antibody to Candida albicans in cancer patietns by using ELBA method and evaluate its clinical significance in cancer patients with invasive Candida albicans. Methods ELISA and 1-3- β -D-glucan methods were used for detection of Candida albicans from 28 cancer patients confirmed infected with Candida albicans by culture,60 cancer patients positive for Candida albicans by culture but not confirmed and 30 healthy controls. Results The IgA antibody positive rates in cancer patients infected with Candida albicans,patients without infected with Candida albicans and the controls were 100.0%(28/28),3.3%(2/60) and 0.0%(0/30) by ELISA,while the IgA positive,rates were 100.0%(28/28),1.7%(l/60)and 0 (0/30) by 1-3-β -D-glucan method. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA 100.0% and 97.8% ,and thaqt of 1-3-β-D-glucan method were 100.0% and 98.9% .without showing significant difference (P>0.05). Conclusion Detection of serum antibody to Candida albicans is a feasible way for diagnosis of cases suspected with invasive Candida albicans infection.%目的 采用ELISA法检测血清中白色念珠菌IgA抗体,评价其肿瘤患者临床应用价值.方法 以ELISA法和1-3-β -D-葡聚糖法对培养阳性确诊患者28例、培养阳性非确诊患者60例和健康体检者30人分别进行检测分析.结果 白色念珠菌培养阳性确诊患者和培养阳性非确诊患者及健康对照者3组ELISA法检测IgA抗体检出率分别为:100.0%(28/28)、3.3%(2/60)和0.0%(0/30); 1-3-β -D-葡聚糖法IgA抗体检出率分别为:100.0% (28/28)、1.7%(1/60)和0.0%(0/30).ELISA法的灵敏度和特异性分别为100.0%和97.8%,与1-3-β -D-葡聚糖法的100.0%和98.9%比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对怀疑侵袭性念珠菌感染的患者,检测血清中IgA抗体是一种有应用前景的诊断方法.

  14. EVALUATION OF VITEK 2 SYSTEM FOR CLINICAL IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BJECTIVES 1. To evaluate the Vitek 2 system for clinical identification of Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility test; 2. To study the incidence of various types of Candida species in this part of Tamilnadu. METHODS Samples collected from different wards were subjected for culture, isolation and identification of Candida Species and Antifungal Susceptibility testing by Vitek System. Vitek 2 test was carried out in Apollo Specialty Hospital Lab Services, Madurai. The cost per test is Rs. 200 (Subsidized rate. The expenses for the lab tests (Vitek were borne by the author himself. RESULTS 124 samples were collected from urine, sputum, blood, pus and wounds. Candida albicans formed 43% of the samples. Among the 57% of Non-Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis formed 42%, Candida krusei formed 6%, Candida guilliermondii formed 4%, Candida inconspicua, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, Candida rugosa and Candida lusitaniae formed 1% each. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. CONCLUSION Candida tropicalis was identified as the most common Candida non-albicans species. Candida albicans and C. tropicalis showed high sensitivity to Voriconazole, Flucytosine, Amphotericin B and Fluconazole. This study was helpful to treat Candida albicans and Non-Candida albicans species patients accurately and earlier by Vitek method.

  15. Interactions of Candida albicans with host epithelial surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Williams

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic, fungal pathogen of humans that frequently causes superficial infections of oral and vaginal mucosal surfaces of debilitated and susceptible individuals. The organism is however, commonly encountered as a commensal in healthy individuals where it is a component of the normal microflora. The key determinant in the type of relationship that Candida has with its host is how it interacts with the epithelial surface it colonises. A delicate balance clearly exists between the potentially damaging effects of Candida virulence factors and the nature of the immune response elicited by the host. Frequently, it is changes in host factors that lead to Candida seemingly changing from a commensal to pathogenic existence. However, given the often reported heterogeneity in morphological and biochemical factors that exist between Candida species and indeed strains of C. albicans, it may also be the fact that colonising strains differ in the way they exploit resources to allow persistence at mucosal surfaces and as a consequence this too may affect the way Candida interacts with epithelial cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of some of the possible interactions that may occur between C. albicans and host epithelial surfaces that may in turn dictate whether Candida removal, its commensal persistence or infection follows.

  16. Characterization of extracellular nucleotide metabolism in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Lisa; Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Gonçalves, Teresa; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent agent of human disseminated fungal infection. Ectophosphatase and ectonucleotidase activities are known to influence the infectious potential of several microbes, including other non-albicans species of Candida. With the present work we aim to characterize these ecto-enzymatic activities in C. albicans. We found that C. albicans does not have a classical ecto-5'-nucleotidase enzyme and 5'AMP is cleaved by a phosphatase instead of exclusively by a nucleotidase that also can use 3'AMP as a substrate. Moreover, these enzymatic activities are not dependent on secreted soluble enzymes and change when the yeast cells are under infection conditions, including low pH, and higher temperature and CO2 content.

  17. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  18. The synthesis and synergistic antifungal effects of chalcones against drug resistant Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Hua; Dong, Huai-Huai; Zhao, Fei; Wang, Jie; Yan, Fang; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Jin, Yong-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    To identify effective and low toxicity synergistic antifungal compounds, 24 derivatives of chalcone were synthesized to restore the effectiveness of fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC80) and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of the antifungal synergist fluconazole were measured against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans. This was done via methods established by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI). Of the synthesized compounds, 2'-hydroxy-4'-methoxychalcone (8) exhibited the most potent in vitro (FICI=0.007) effects. The structure activity relationship of the compounds are then discussed. PMID:27210436

  19. Dental Caries in Rats Associated with Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Klinke, Thomas; Guggenheim, Bernhard; Klimm, Wolfgang; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In addition to occasional opportunistic colonization of the oral mucosa, Candida albicans is frequently found in carious dentin. The yeast’s potential to induce dental caries as a consequence of its pronounced ability to produce and tolerate acids was investigated. Eighty caries-active Osborne-Mendel rats were raised on an ampicillin-supplemented diet and exposed to C. albicans and/or Streptococcus mutans, except for controls. Throughout the 28-day test period, the animals were offered the mo...

  20. Blood group glycolipids as epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, B J; Douglas, L J

    1996-01-01

    The role of glycosphingolipids as possible epithelial cell receptors for Candida albicans was examined by investigating the binding of biotinylated yeasts to lipids extracted from human buccal epithelial cells and separated on thin-layer chromatograms. Binding was visualized by the addition of 125I-streptavidin followed by autoradiography. Five C. albicans strains thought from earlier work to have a requirement for fucose-containing receptors all bound to the same three components in the lipi...

  1. Expression of surface hydrophobic proteins by Candida albicans in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Glee, P M; Sundstrom, P; Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    Candida albicans modulates cell surface hydrophobicity during growth and morphogenesis in vitro. To determine if surface hydrophobicity is expressed during pathogenesis, we generated a polyclonal antiserum against yeast hydrophobic proteins. The antiserum was then used for indirect immunofluorescence analysis of tissues from mice colonized and chronically infected with C. albicans. Results demonstrated that yeast hydrophobic proteins are exposed on fungal cells present in host tissues. The po...

  2. Improved assay for surface hydrophobic avidity of Candida albicans cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; LeMelle, W G

    1990-01-01

    A simple method that distinguishes among hydrophobic avidity levels of highly hydrophobic isolates of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans is described. This method involves mixing polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations with a constant concentration of yeast cells and plotting the data in accordance with the Langmuir isotherm equation. A 10-fold difference between the C. albicans isolates with the lowest and highest avidity (KH) values was found. This method may also demonstra...

  3. Candida albicans specializations for iron homeostasis: from commensalism to virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Noble, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a fungal commensal-pathogen that persistently associates with its mammalian hosts. Between the commensal and pathogenic lifestyles, this microorganism inhabits host niches that differ markedly in the levels of bioavailable iron. A number of recent studies have exposed C. albicans specializations for acquiring iron from specific host molecules in regions where iron is scarce, while also defending against iron-related toxicity in regions where iron occurs in surfeit. Togethe...

  4. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Toprak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration.

  5. Multilocus sequence typing confirms synonymy but highlights differences between Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, M.D.; Boekhout, T.; Odds, F.C.

    2008-01-01

    We used multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) to investigate 35 yeast isolates representing the two genome-sequenced strains plus the type strain of Candida albicans, four isolates originally identified as Candida stellatoidea type I and 28 representing type strains of other species now regarded as syn

  6. Performance of commercial latex agglutination tests for the differentiation of Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chryssanthou, E; Fernandez, V; Petrini, B

    2007-11-01

    Candida dubliniensis is phenotypically similar to Candida albicans and may therefore be underdiagnosed in the clinical microbiology laboratory. The performance of Bichro-Dubli latex agglutination test for rapid species identification of C. dubliniensis was prospectively evaluated on 111 vaginal and 118 respiratory isolates. These had presumptively been identified as C. albicans/C. dubliniensis by their green colonies on CHROMagar Candida plates. Bichro-Dubli test identifed 2 (1.8%) vaginal and 6 (5.1%) respiratory isolates as C. dubliniensis. The test was also positive for 37 C. dubliniensis control strains characterised by 18S-28S DNA-sequencing. Bichro-Dubli test is thus a sensitive and accurate tool for rapid diagnostics in routine laboratories. PMID:18092961

  7. Evaluation of Bichro-Dubli Fumouze to distinguish Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahand, Ismail H; Moragues, María D; Robert, Raymond; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2006-06-01

    We have evaluated the ability of the Bichro-Dubli Fumouze (Fumouze Diagnostics, Levallois-Perret, France) latex agglutination test to identify colonies of Candida dubliniensis grown on different media. The test was positive for 103 of 106 isolates of C. dubliniensis and negative for Candida albicans and other Candida species studied. The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 97.1% and 100%, respectively. The test is very rapid, simple, and reliable giving the same results independently of whether the colonies are grown previously on Sabouraud dextrose agar, CHROMagar Candida medium, Candida ID2 medium, or CHROMagar-Pal's medium. PMID:16529902

  8. 泌尿系感染假丝酵母菌的临床特点及耐药性分析%Clinical ditrilation and resistance of infection candida albicans in urinary tract infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷毅; 刘晓薇; 姚林霞; 张玉娟

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinical character and drug resistance of Candida albicans in urinary tract infection,and to provide recommodation for reasonable selection of antibiotics.Methods The related clinical datas,including drug sensitivity tests of Candida albicans infection in hospitalized urinary tract infection from Januany 2011 to December 2013,were analyzed retrospectively.Results A total of 268 strains of Candida albicans were isoloted from 1688 samples of urine culture form urinary tract infection patients specimen,accounted for 15.87%,most of Candida tropicalis them were (52.6%),Candida albicans was 61 strais (22.76%),candida krysei was 26 strais (9.70%),candida glabrata was 19 strais (7.09%),All Candida albicans strains revealed a highest susceptibility rate to amphoterien B according to drug sensitivity tests invitro.The drug resistant rate to 5-fluorocytosine 、fluconazole 、ITC caconazole were 38.43% 、76.49% 、73.88% 、74.25%.Conclusions Candida albicans is one of the most common pathogens proceed from urinary tract infection and should be further detected and its results will guide us to use drugs appropriately and prevent infection effectively in Clinic practice.%目的 了解泌尿系感染假丝酵母菌菌株分布及耐药现状,为临床合理选择抗菌药物提供依据.方法 回顾性调查2011年10月~ 2013年12月本院住院患者泌尿系发生假丝酵母菌感染的相关资料及药敏结果.结果 从送检的1688份泌尿系感染患者的尿培养标本中共分离268株假丝酵母菌,检出率为15.87%,菌种以热带假丝酵母菌为主,占52.6%,其次为白色假丝酵母菌61株,占22.76%,克柔假丝酵母菌26株,占9.70%,光滑假丝酵母菌为19株,占7.09%.所有菌株体外药敏实验对两性曲霉B100%敏感,对5-氟胞嘧啶、氟康唑、伊曲康唑、酮康唑的耐药率分别是38.43%、76.49%、73.88%、74.25%.结论 假丝酵母菌是泌尿系发生感染

  9. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucrose–nystatin consentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, and 10%.Growth inhibition of C. albicans was determined by the inhibition zone of xylitol + nystatin on C. albicans culture media (in vitro Results: The result of study was the inhibitory consentration of xylitol-nystatin to inhibit Candida albicans growth was 3%-10%. Conclusion: The study showed that combination of xylitol and nystation could inhibit the growth of Candida albicans.Latar belakang: Pertumbuhan Candida albicans dapat dikontrol dengan menggunakan antijamur seperti nistatin. Penggunakan antijamur saja tidak cukup untuk mengontrol Candida albicans, namun perlu pula mengontrol asupan gula dengan menggunakan xylitol. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan konsentrasi hambat optimal xylitol-nistatin dalam pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian in vitro menggunakan uji antimikroba pengenceran serial dengan xylitol-nistatin dan nystatin-sukrosa konsentrasi 1%, 3 %, 5 %, 7%, 9%, dan 10%. Daya hambat pertumbuhan C. albicans diukur dari zona hambat xylitol + nistatin pada media kultur C. albicans (in vitro Hasil: Konsentrasi penghambatan xylitol-nistatin untuk menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans adalah 3-10%. Simpulan: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kombinasi xylitol dan nystation bisa menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans.

  10. Daya hambat xylitol dan nistation terhadap pertumbuhan Candida albicans (in vitro) (Inhibition effect of xylitol and nistatin combination on Candida albicans growth (in vitro))

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kartimah Djajusman; Udijanto Tedjosasongko; Irmawati Irmawati

    2014-01-01

    Background: The growth of Candida albicans can be controlled by using antifungal such as nystatin. These days we found that using antifungal is not enough to control Candida albicans, we also have to control the intake of sugar by using xylitol. Purpose: Purpose of the study was to determine the optimal inhibitory concentration of xylitol-nystatin in the Candida albicans growth. Methods: This was an in-vitro study using an antimicrobial test of serial dilution with xylitol-nystatin and sucros...

  11. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  12. Efficacy of the clinical agent VT-1161 against fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Sobel, J D; Lilly, E A; Fidel, P L

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC) remain major health problems for women. VT-1161, a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor which has potent antifungal activity against fluconazole-sensitive Candida albicans, retained its in vitro potency (MIC50 of ≤0.015 and MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml) against 10 clinical isolates from VVC or RVVC patients resistant to fluconazole (MIC50 of 8 and MIC90 of 64 μg/ml). VT-1161 pharmacokinetics in mice displayed a high volume of distribution (1.4 liters/kg), high oral absorption (73%), and a long half-life (>48 h) and showed rapid penetration into vaginal tissue. In a murine model of vaginal candidiasis using fluconazole-sensitive yeast, oral doses as low as 4 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced the fungal burden 1 and 4 days posttreatment (P fluconazole (MIC of 64 μg/ml) but fully sensitive in vitro to VT-1161 was used. When an isolate partially sensitive to VT-1161 (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml) and moderately resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 8 μg/ml) was used, VT-1161 remained efficacious, whereas fluconazole was efficacious on day 1 but did not sustain efficacy 4 days posttreatment. Both agents were inactive in treating an infection with an isolate that demonstrated weaker potency (MICs of 2 and 64 μg/ml for VT-1161 and fluconazole, respectively). Finally, the plasma concentrations of free VT-1161 were predictive of efficacy when in excess of the in vitro MIC values. These data support the clinical development of VT-1161 as a potentially more efficacious treatment for VVC and RVVC.

  13. Efficacy of the clinical agent VT-1161 against fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans in a murine model of vaginal candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, E P; Hoekstra, W J; Schotzinger, R J; Sobel, J D; Lilly, E A; Fidel, P L

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and recurrent VVC (RVVC) remain major health problems for women. VT-1161, a novel fungal CYP51 inhibitor which has potent antifungal activity against fluconazole-sensitive Candida albicans, retained its in vitro potency (MIC50 of ≤0.015 and MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml) against 10 clinical isolates from VVC or RVVC patients resistant to fluconazole (MIC50 of 8 and MIC90 of 64 μg/ml). VT-1161 pharmacokinetics in mice displayed a high volume of distribution (1.4 liters/kg), high oral absorption (73%), and a long half-life (>48 h) and showed rapid penetration into vaginal tissue. In a murine model of vaginal candidiasis using fluconazole-sensitive yeast, oral doses as low as 4 mg/kg VT-1161 significantly reduced the fungal burden 1 and 4 days posttreatment (P < 0.0001). Similar VT-1161 efficacy was measured when an isolate highly resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 64 μg/ml) but fully sensitive in vitro to VT-1161 was used. When an isolate partially sensitive to VT-1161 (MIC of 0.12 μg/ml) and moderately resistant to fluconazole (MIC of 8 μg/ml) was used, VT-1161 remained efficacious, whereas fluconazole was efficacious on day 1 but did not sustain efficacy 4 days posttreatment. Both agents were inactive in treating an infection with an isolate that demonstrated weaker potency (MICs of 2 and 64 μg/ml for VT-1161 and fluconazole, respectively). Finally, the plasma concentrations of free VT-1161 were predictive of efficacy when in excess of the in vitro MIC values. These data support the clinical development of VT-1161 as a potentially more efficacious treatment for VVC and RVVC. PMID:26124165

  14. Development of a membrane based detection of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Catarina Guerreiro Silva de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado integrado em Engenharia Biomédica e Biofísica , apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Candida é uma família de fungos, normalmente, presente na flora gastrointestinal, nos orgãos genitais, no sistema respiratório e na pele de pessoas saudáveis e, até determinada quantidade, não trazem nenhum risco. Apenas 17 espécies de Candida podem ser consideradas como patogénicas para o ser humano e, dentro deste grupo, Candida albicans é a esp...

  15. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms.

  16. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. PMID:27261732

  17. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Adetumbi, M; Javor, G T; Lau, B H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of aqueous garlic extract on the macromolecular synthesis of Candida albicans was studied. Protein and nucleic acid syntheses were inhibited to the same extent as growth, but lipid synthesis was completely arrested. Blockage of lipid synthesis is likely an important component of the anticandidal activity of garlic.

  18. PERTUMBUHAN CANDIDA ALBICANS PADA PERMUKAAN POLIESTER EBP-2421

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati Siswomihardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acrylic resin has been the only polymeric material for denture base for many years. One of the requirements for an ideal polymeric denture base material. It should be resistant to bacterial growth. The growth of Candida albicans on the surface of dentures is a concern for many denture wearers. This organism often is associated with denture stomatitis. A preliminary study showed polyester EBP-2421, a polymeric material for statues can also be manipulated to denture base. This research examined the growth of Candida albicans on the surface of EBP-2421. Research was carried out on strips of polyester EBP-2421 and Selton acrylic resin. Strips were contaminated with Candida albicans for 24 hours. Examinations on polyester EBP-2421 and acrylic resin immersed in saliva significantly differ from the not immersed strips (p<0,05. The lowest frequency were Candida albicans adhered on stripes of polyester EBP-2421 immersed in saliva. This result related with the fact that polyester EBP-2421 has smoother surface topography than acrylic resin.

  19. Al-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans inhibits Candida albicans biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachtiar, Endang W.; Bachtiar, Boy M.; Jarosz, Lucja M.; Amir, Lisa R.; Sunarto, Hari; Ganin, Hadas; Meijler, Michael M.; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2014-01-01

    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (Al

  20. Synergistic activity of rabbit granulocyte peptides against Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, R I; Szklarek, D; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E

    1986-01-01

    Rabbit granulocytes contain six antimicrobial peptides that are structurally homologous to the human neutrophil "defensins." NP-5, a rabbit defensin, lacks significant activity against Candida albicans. Nevertheless, its addition to submicromolar concentrations of rabbit NP-1, NP-2, or NP-3a potentiates their candidacidal effect. Thus, granulocyte defensins can act synergistically against potential pathogens.

  1. Host defence against disseminated and invasive Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Alouise Gabrielle

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating disseminat

  2. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  3. Candida albicans interface infection after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sedaghat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical features of interface Candida keratitis after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK, may imitate rejection or crystalline keratopathy. We report here an 18-year-old woman presented with red eye, 4 months after undergoing DALK. Slit lamp examination revealed keratic precipitates (KPs and cojunctival injection. She was prescribed corticosteroid treatment for endothelial rejection by another ophthalmologist because of misdiagnosis, but suffered a recurrence of symptoms after reduction of the corticosteroid treatment. At that time, she was referred to our office. The recurrence persisted despite antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Ten days after treatment with interface irrigation with amphotericin, the infiltration and hypopyon were resolved. Topical steroid was added after 3 months of antifungal monotherapy. Irrigant cultures confirmed the presence of Candida albicans. The corneal graft appeared semi-clear with no signs of infection at 17-month follow-up. We recommend a close follow-up and a timely intervention to prevent the need for more invasive treatment such as penetrating keratoplasty.

  4. Macrophage phagocytosis of Candida albicans. An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEINFELD Ilan

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of macrophages in relation to fungi and the various utilized methodologies, the authors established an in vitro model to evaluate macrophage phagocytosis of Candida albicans. Activated macrophages were obtained from the peritoneal cavity of isogenic mice (A/Sn. Two different strains of Candida albicans serotype A and serotype B with different levels of pathogenicity in vivo and other similar characteristics were utilized in the study. Several microscopic fields containing about 200 macrophages were counted. The percentage of macrophages phagocytizing at least one viable or nonviable yeast cell determined an average number of phagocytized yeasts. Neutral red and fluorescein diacetate plus ethidium bromide were used for staining. It is possible to conclude that this is an efficient model related to the used methodology. The average number of yeasts in both strains were similar when inside macrophages, and there was a higher percentage of C. albicans serotype A phagocytosis, which was not experimentally pathogenic in vivo.

  5. Gymnemic acids inhibit hyphal growth and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindsamy Vediyappan

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic and polymorphic fungal pathogen that causes mucosal, disseminated and invasive infections in humans. Transition from the yeast form to the hyphal form is one of the key virulence factors in C. albicans contributing to macrophage evasion, tissue invasion and biofilm formation. Nontoxic small molecules that inhibit C. albicans yeast-to-hypha conversion and hyphal growth could represent a valuable source for understanding pathogenic fungal morphogenesis, identifying drug targets and serving as templates for the development of novel antifungal agents. Here, we have identified the triterpenoid saponin family of gymnemic acids (GAs as inhibitor of C. albicans morphogenesis. GAs were isolated and purified from Gymnema sylvestre leaves, the Ayurvedic traditional medicinal plant used to treat diabetes. Purified GAs had no effect on the growth and viability of C. albicans yeast cells but inhibited its yeast-to-hypha conversion under several hypha-inducing conditions, including the presence of serum. Moreover, GAs promoted the conversion of C. albicans hyphae into yeast cells under hypha inducing conditions. They also inhibited conidial germination and hyphal growth of Aspergillus sp. Finally, GAs inhibited the formation of invasive hyphae from C. albicans-infected Caenorhabditis elegans worms and rescued them from killing by C. albicans. Hence, GAs could be useful for various antifungal applications due to their traditional use in herbal medicine.

  6. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shulong; Fu, Yingyuan, E-mail: yingyuanfu@126.com; Wu, Xiuzhen; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Jing; Zeng, Xiaoping; Kuang, Nanzhen; Zeng, Yurong

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca{sup 2+} concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited {sup 3}H-UdR, {sup 3}H-TdR and {sup 3}H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca{sup 2+} concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca{sup 2+}–Mg{sup 2+} ATPase, increasing

  7. Baicalin prevents Candida albicans infections via increasing its apoptosis rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Baicalin increases the ratio of the G0/G1 stages and C. albicans apoptosis. • Baicalin decreases the proliferation index of C. albicans. • Baicalin inhibits the biosynthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in C. albicans. • Baicalin depresses Succinate Dehydrogenase and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase in C. albicans. • Baicalin increases the endocytic free Ca2+ concentration in C. albicans. - Abstract: Background: These experiments were employed to explore the mechanisms underlying baicalin action on Candida albicans. Methodology and principal findings: We detected the baicalin inhibition effects on three isotope-labeled precursors of 3H-UdR, 3H-TdR and 3H-leucine incorporation into C. albicans using the isotope incorporation technology. The activities of Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome oxidase (CCO) and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, the cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as the ultrastructure of C.albicans were also tested. We found that baicalin inhibited 3H-UdR, 3H-TdR and 3H-leucine incorporation into C.albicans (P < 0.005). The activities of the SDH and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase of C.albicans in baicalin groups were lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). Ca2+ concentrations of C. albicans in baicalin groups were much higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). The ratio of C.albicans at the G0/G1 stage increased in baicalin groups in dose dependent manner (P < 0.01). There were a significant differences in the apoptosis rate of C.albicans between baicalin and control groups (P < 0.01). After 12–48 h incubation with baicalin (1 mg/ml), C. albicans shown to be markedly damaged under transmission electron micrographs. Innovation and significance: Baicalin can increase the apoptosis rate of C. albicans. These effects of Baicalin may involved in its inhibiting the activities of the SDH and Ca2+–Mg2+ ATPase, increasing cytosolic Ca2+ content and damaging the ultrastructure of C. albicans

  8. Postantifungal Effect of Micafungin against the Species Complexes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Micafungin is an effective antifungal agent useful for the therapy of invasive candidiasis. Candida albicans is the most common cause of invasive candidiasis; however, infections due to non-C. albicans species, such as Candida parapsilosis, are rising. Killing and postantifungal effects (PAFE) are important factors in both dose interval choice and infection outcome. The aim of this study was to determinate the micafungin PAFE against 7 C. albicans strains, 5 Candida dubliniensis, 2 Candida Africana, 3 C. parapsilosis, 2 Candida metapsilosis and 2 Candida orthopsilosis. For PAFE studies, cells were exposed to micafungin for 1 h at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8 μg/ml. Time-kill experiments (TK) were conducted at the same concentrations. Samples were removed at each time point (0-48 h) and viable counts determined. Micafungin (2 μg/ml) was fungicidal (≥ 3 log10 reduction) in TK against 5 out of 14 (36%) strains of C. albicans complex. In PAFE experiments, fungicidal endpoint was achieved against 2 out of 14 strains (14%). In TK against C. parapsilosis, 8 μg/ml of micafungin turned out to be fungicidal against 4 out 7 (57%) strains. Conversely, fungicidal endpoint was not achieved in PAFE studies. PAFE results for C. albicans complex (41.83 ± 2.18 h) differed from C. parapsilosis complex (8.07 ± 4.2 h) at the highest tested concentration of micafungin. In conclusion, micafungin showed significant differences in PAFE against C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes, being PAFE for the C. albicans complex longer than for the C. parapsilosis complex.

  9. Short peptides allowing preferential detection of Candida albicans hyphae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Hani E J; Pölderl, Antonia; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2015-09-01

    Whereas the detection of pathogens via recognition of surface structures by specific antibodies and various types of antibody mimics is frequently described, the applicability of short linear peptides as sensor molecules or diagnostic tools is less well-known. We selected peptides which were previously reported to bind to recombinant S. cerevisiae cells, expressing members of the C. albicans Agglutinin-Like-Sequence (ALS) cell wall protein family. We slightly modified amino acid sequences to evaluate peptide sequence properties influencing binding to C. albicans cells. Among the selected peptides, decamer peptides with an "AP"-N-terminus were superior to shorter peptides. The new decamer peptide FBP4 stained viable C. albicans cells more efficiently in their mature hyphal form than in their yeast form. Moreover, it allowed distinction of C. albicans from other related Candida spp. and could thus be the basis for the development of a useful tool for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

  10. Rat indwelling urinary catheter model of Candida albicans biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Jeniel E; Brooks, Erin G; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R

    2014-12-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract.

  11. Yeasts isolated from Algerian infants's feces revealed a burden of Candida albicans species, non-albicans Candida species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, Hamza Ait; Ceugniez, Alexandre; Bendali, Farida; Cudennec, Benoit; Drider, Djamel

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at showing the yeast diversity in feces of Algerian infants, aged between 1 and 24 months, hospitalized at Bejaia hospital (northeast side of the country). Thus, 20 colonies with yeast characteristics were isolated and identified using biochemical (ID32C Api system) and molecular (sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region) methods. Almost all colonies isolated (19 strains) were identified as Candida spp., with predominance of Candida albicans species, and one strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Screening of strains with inhibitory activities unveiled the potential of Candida parapsilosis P48L1 and Candida albicans P51L1 to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Further studies performed with these two Candida strains revealed their susceptibility to clinically used antifungal compounds and were then characterized for their cytotoxicity and hemolytic properties. On the other hand, Saccharomyces cerevisiae P9L1 isolated as well in this study was shown to be devoid of antagonism but resulted safe and overall usable as probiotic.

  12. AI-2 of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Inhibits Candida albicans Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang W. Bachtiar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative bacterium, and Candida albicans, a polymorphic fungus, are both commensals of the oral cavity but both are opportunistic pathogens that can cause oral diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a quorum-sensing molecule called autoinducer-2 (AI-2, synthesized by LuxS, that plays an important role in expression of virulence factors, in intra- but also in interspecies communication. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AI-2 based signaling in the interactions between C. albicans and A. actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans adhered to C. albicans and inhibited biofilm formation by means of a molecule that was secreted during growth. C. albicans biofilm formation increased significantly when co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans luxS, lacking AI-2 production. Addition of wild-type-derived spent medium or synthetic AI-2 to spent medium of the luxS strain, restored inhibition of C. albicans biofilm formation to wild-type levels. Addition of synthetic AI-2 significantly inhibited hypha formation of C. albicans possibly explaining the inhibition of biofilm formation. AI-2 of A. actinomycetemcomitans is synthesized by LuxS, accumulates during growth and inhibits C. albicans hypha- and biofilm formation. Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between bacteria and fungi may provide important insight into the balance within complex oral microbial communities.

  13. In vitro activity of eugenol against Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Miao; Du, Minquan; Fan, Mingwen; Bian, Zhuan

    2007-03-01

    Most manifestations of candidiasis are associated with biofilm formation occurring on the surfaces of host tissues and medical devices. Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated causative pathogen of candidiasis, and the biofilms display significantly increased levels of resistance to the conventional antifungal agents. Eugenol, the major phenolic component of clove essential oil, possesses potent antifungal activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eugenol on preformed biofilms, adherent cells, subsequent biofilm formation and cell morphogenesis of C. albicans. Eugenol displayed in vitro activity against C. albicans cells within biofilms, when MIC(50) for sessile cells was 500 mg/L. C. albicans adherent cell populations (after 0, 1, 2 and 4 h of adherence) were treated with various concentrations of eugenol (0, 20, 200 and 2,000 mg/L). The extent of subsequent biofilm formation were then assessed with the tetrazolium salt reduction assay. Effect of eugenol on morphogenesis of C. albicans cells was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the effect of eugenol on adherent cells and subsequent biofilm formation was dependent on the initial adherence time and the concentration of this compound, and that eugenol can inhibit filamentous growth of C. albicans cells. In addition, using human erythrocytes, eugenol showed low hemolytic activity. These results indicated that eugenol displayed potent activity against C. albicans biofilms in vitro with low cytotoxicity and therefore has potential therapeutic implication for biofilm-associated candidal infections. PMID:17356790

  14. Candida albicans escapes from mouse neutrophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Niemiec, Maria J; Röhm, Marc;

    2013-01-01

    is the most widely used model organism. Neutrophils are essential immune cells to prevent opportunistic mycoses. To explore potential differences between the rodent infection model and the human host, we compared the interactions of C. albicans with neutrophil granulocytes from mice and humans. We revealed......, growth and subsequent escape of C. albicans are blocked inside human neutrophils. According to our findings, this blockage in human neutrophils might be a result of higher levels of MPO activity and the presence of α-defensins. We therefore outline differences in antifungal immune defense between humans...

  15. Comparison of the hemolytic activity between C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce enzymes, such as hemolysins, is an important virulence factor for the genus Candida.The objective of this study was to compare the hemolytic activity between C. albicansand non-albicans Candida species. Fifty strains of Candida species, isolated from the oral cavity of patients infected with HIV were studied. The isolates included the following species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. dubliniensis, C. norvegensis, C. lusitaniae, and C. guilliermondii. Hemolysin production was evaluated on Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol, blood, and glucose. A loop-full of pure Candidaculture was spot-inoculated onto plates and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 h in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Hemolytic activity was defined as the formation of a translucent halo around the colonies. All C. albicansstrains that were studied produced hemolysins. Among the non-albicans Candidaspecies, 86% exhibited hemolytic activity. Only C. guilliermondiiand some C. parapsilosis isolates were negative for this enzyme. In conclusion, most non-albicans Candidaspecies had a similar ability to produce hemolysins when compared to C. albicans.

  16. Emergence of non-albicans candida species in neonatal candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Juyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida species are one of the most common causes of blood stream infections among neonates and account for 9-13% of such infections. Although Candida albicans remains the most common fungal isolate from neonatal candidemia, longitudinal studies have detected a shift towards non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Aim: To examine the prevalence and epidemiology of candidemia among infants admitted to our hospital. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 548 neonates and only those which yielded pure growth of Candida spp. were included in the study. The isolates were identified as per standard mycological techniques and antifungal susceptibility (AFS was done by disc diffusion method. Results: Of the total 132 neonates included in the study, NAC species were responsible for 80.30% cases with C. parapsilosis (25.0% and C. tropicalis (21.97% as the most predominant species; whereas 19.70% of cases were caused by C. albicans. AFS results revealed that 65.91, 73.49, and 96.21% isolates were sensitive to fluconazole (FLK, itraconazole (ITR, and amphotericin B (AMB, respectively. Conclusion: Candidemia in neonates is an ominous prognostic sign and is an important entity in our hospital. Strict infection control strategies, appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures such as prophylactic antifungal use and a restrictive policy of antibiotic use should be implemented.

  17. The proteolytic potential of Candida albicans in human saliva supplemented with glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, L P; Hughes, A; MacFarlane, T W

    1984-02-01

    The production of proteases by Candida albicans in batch cultures of human saliva supplemented with glucose was investigated with two clinical strains of Candida and both individual and pooled samples of whole saliva from volunteers. Salivary proteolysis during a 48-h period was estimated by biochemical and isoelectric focusing techniques. Candidal growth in saliva was associated with acid production and salivary proteolysis and there was a highly significant positive correlation between these two activities. Neither candidal growth nor proteolysis was observed in glucose-free control samples and with one strain of Candida cultured in the saliva of one individual. Isotachophoretic analysis of culture liquor showed a significant increase in acetate and pyruvate ions. The oral cavity provides niches that have a low pH and are periodically supplemented with dietary carbohydrates. The acidic proteases of C. albicans may play a role in the pathogenesis of oral candidoses. PMID:6363704

  18. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles in combination with nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Gorup, Luiz F; de Camargo, Emerson R; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, Debora B; Henriques, Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms. The results of this study suggest that the combination of SN with NYT or CHG may have clinical implications in the treatment of denture stomatitis. However, further studies are needed before recommending the use of these drugs safely in clinical situations. PMID:23773119

  19. The inhibitory activity of linalool against the filamentous growth and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Lai, Wen-Lin; Chuang, Kuei-Chin; Lee, Meng-Hwan; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2013-07-01

    Candida spp. are part of the natural human microbiota, but they also represent important opportunistic human pathogens. Biofilm-associated Candida albicans infections are clinically relevant due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. In this study, we investigated the ability of linalool to inhibit the formation of C. albicans biofilms and reduce existing C. albicans biofilms. Linalool exhibited antifungal activity against C. albicans ATCC 14053, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mM. Sub-MIC concentrations of linalool also inhibited the formation of germ tubes and biofilms in that strain. The defective architecture composition of C. albicans biofilms exposed to linalool was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The expression levels of the adhesin genes HWP1 and ALS3 were downregulated by linalool, as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of CYR1 and CPH1, which encode components of the cAMP-PKA and MAPK hyphal formation regulatory pathways, respectively, were also suppressed by linalool, as was the gene encoding their upstream regulator, Ras1. The expression levels of long-term hyphae maintenance associated genes, including UME6, HGC1, and EED1, were all suppressed by linalool. These results indicate that linalool may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of candidiasis associated with medical devices because it interferes with the morphological switch and biofilm formation of C. albicans.

  20. Neutrophil activation by Candida glabrata but not Candida albicans promotes fungal uptake by monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Seána; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Bauer, Laura; Lehnert, Teresa; Brandes, Susanne; Häder, Antje; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-09-01

    Candida albicans and Candida glabrata account for the majority of candidiasis cases worldwide. Although both species are in the same genus, they differ in key virulence attributes. Within this work, live cell imaging was used to examine the dynamics of neutrophil activation after confrontation with either C. albicans or C. glabrata. Analyses revealed higher phagocytosis rates of C. albicans than C. glabrata that resulted in stronger PMN (polymorphonuclear cells) activation by C. albicans. Furthermore, we observed differences in the secretion of chemokines, indicating chemotactic differences in PMN signalling towards recruitment of further immune cells upon confrontation with Candida spp. Supernatants from co-incubations of neutrophils with C. glabrata primarily attracted monocytes and increased the phagocytosis of C. glabrata by monocytes. In contrast, PMN activation by C. albicans resulted in recruitment of more neutrophils. Two complex infection models confirmed distinct targeting of immune cell populations by the two Candida spp.: In a human whole blood infection model, C. glabrata was more effectively taken up by monocytes than C. albicans and histopathological analyses of murine model infections confirmed primarily monocytic infiltrates in C. glabrata kidney infection in contrast to PMN-dominated infiltrates in C. albicans infection. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the human opportunistic fungi C. albicans and C. glabrata are differentially recognized by neutrophils and one outcome of this differential recognition is the preferential uptake of C. glabrata by monocytes.

  1. Global transcriptome sequencing identifies chlamydospore specific markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Palige

    Full Text Available Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2 which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  2. Global Transcriptome Sequencing Identifies Chlamydospore Specific Markers in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Palige, Katja

    2013-04-15

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are pathogenic fungi that are highly related but differ in virulence and in some phenotypic traits. During in vitro growth on certain nutrient-poor media, C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are the only yeast species which are able to produce chlamydospores, large thick-walled cells of unknown function. Interestingly, only C. dubliniensis forms pseudohyphae with abundant chlamydospores when grown on Staib medium, while C. albicans grows exclusively as a budding yeast. In order to further our understanding of chlamydospore development and assembly, we compared the global transcriptional profile of both species during growth in liquid Staib medium by RNA sequencing. We also included a C. albicans mutant in our study which lacks the morphogenetic transcriptional repressor Nrg1. This strain, which is characterized by its constitutive pseudohyphal growth, specifically produces masses of chlamydospores in Staib medium, similar to C. dubliniensis. This comparative approach identified a set of putatively chlamydospore-related genes. Two of the homologous C. albicans and C. dubliniensis genes (CSP1 and CSP2) which were most strongly upregulated during chlamydospore development were analysed in more detail. By use of the green fluorescent protein as a reporter, the encoded putative cell wall related proteins were found to exclusively localize to C. albicans and C. dubliniensis chlamydospores. Our findings uncover the first chlamydospore specific markers in Candida species and provide novel insights in the complex morphogenetic development of these important fungal pathogens.

  3. Silicone colonization by non-Candida albicans Candida species in the presence of urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Williams, David; Azeredo, Joana

    2010-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infections and 80 % are related to the use of urinary catheters. Furthermore, Candida species are responsible for around 15 % of UTIs and an increasing involvement of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species (e.g. Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis) has been recognized. Given the fact that silicone is frequently used in the manufacture of urinary catheters, the aim of this work was to compare both the adhesion and biofilm formation on silicone of different urinary clinical isolates of NCAC species (i.e. C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis) in the presence of urine. Several clinical isolates of NCAC species recovered from patients with UTIs, together with reference strains of each species, were examined. Adhesion and biofilm formation were performed in artificial urine and the biofilm biomass was assessed by crystal violet staining. Hydrophobicity and surface charge of cells was determined by measuring contact angles and zeta potential, respectively. The number of viable cells in biofilms was determined by enumeration of c.f.u. after appropriate culture. The biofilm structure was also examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that all isolates adhered to silicone in a species- and strain-dependent manner with C. parapsilosis showing the lowest and C. glabrata the highest levels of adhesion. However, these differences in adhesion abilities cannot be correlated with surface properties since all strains examined were hydrophilic and exhibited a similar zeta potential. Despite a higher number of cultivable cells being recovered after 72 h of incubation, stronger biofilm formation was not observed and CLSM showed an absence of extracellular polymeric material for all isolates examined. In summary, this work demonstrated that all tested NCAC species were able to adhere to and survive on silicone in the presence of urine. Furthermore, C

  4. The expression of genes involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis biofilms exposed to fluconazole.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2009-03-01

    The expression of the ERG1, ERG3, ERG7, ERG9, ERG11 and ERG25 genes in response to incubation with fluconazole and biofilm formation was investigated using reverse-transcription PCR and real-time PCR in Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis clinical isolates. The viability of biofilm was measured using an 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Expression of the ERG11 gene was found to be low or moderate and it was regulated by fluconazole addition more so than by biofilm formation. Very low or non-detectable expression of ERG1, ERG7 and ERG25 genes was detected in C. albicans. The expression of the ERG9 increased in the presence of fluconazole in some isolates. Following incubation with fluconazole, formation of biofilm by C. dubliniensis was coupled with up-regulation of the ERG3 and ERG25 genes as have been observed previously in C. albicans. Planktonic cells of both Candida species released from biofilm displayed similar resistance mechanisms to fluconazole like attached cells. The XTT reduction assay and CSLM revealed that although incubation with fluconazole decreased the biofilm thickness, these were still comprised metabolically active cells able to disseminate and produce biofilm. Our data indicate that biofilm represents a highly adapted community reflecting the individuality of clinical isolates.

  5. Phenotypic consequences of LYS4 gene disruption in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Iwona; Kur, Krzysztof; Laforce-Nesbitt, Sonia S; Pulickal, Anoop S; Bliss, Joseph M; Milewski, Sławomir

    2014-08-01

    A BLAST search of the Candida Genome Database with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LYS4 sequence known to encode homoaconitase (HA) revealed ORFs 19.3846 and 19.11327. Both alleles of the LYS4 gene were sequentially disrupted in Candida albicans BWP17 cells using PCR-based methodology. The null lys4Δ mutant exhibited lysine auxotrophy in minimal medium but was able to grow in the presence of l-Lys and α-aminoadipate, an intermediate of the α-aminoadipate pathway, at millimolar concentrations. The presence of d-Lys and pipecolic acid did not trigger lys4Δ growth. The C. albicans lys4Δ mutant cells demonstrated diminished germination ability. However, their virulence in vivo in a murine model of disseminated neonatal candidiasis appeared identical to that of the wild-type strain. Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference in fungal burden of infected tissues between the strains.

  6. Oxidative stress of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy inhibits Candida albicans virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy; Prates, Renato Araujo; Tegos, George P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Simões Ribeiro, Martha

    2011-03-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) is based on the principal that microorganisms will be inactivated using a light source combined to a photosensitizing agent in the presence of oxygen. Oxidative damage of cell components occurs by the action of reactive oxygen species leading to cell death for microbial species. It has been demonstrated that PACT is highly efficient in vitro against a wide range of pathogens, however, there is limited information for its in vivo potential. In addition, it has been demonstrated that sublethal photodynamic inactivation may alter the virulence determinants of microorganisms. In this study, we explored the effect of sublethal photodynamic inactivation to the virulence factors of Candida albicans. Methylene Blue (MB) was used as photosensitizer for sublethal photodynamic challenge on C. albicans associated with a diode laser irradiation (λ=660nm). The parameters of irradiation were selected in causing no reduction of viable cells. The potential effects of PACT on virulence determinants of C. albicans cells were investigated by analysis of germ tube formation and in vivo pathogenicity assays. Systemic infection was induced in mice by the injection of fungal suspension in the lateral caudal vein. C. albicans exposed to sublethal photodynamic inactivation formed significantly less germ tube than untreated cells. In addition, mice infected with C. albicans submitted to sublethal PACT survived for a longer period of time than mice infected with untreated cells. The oxidative damage promoted by sublethal photodynamic inactivation inhibited virulence determinants and reduced in vivo pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  7. Comparative genomics of the fungal pathogens Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jackson, Andrew P

    2009-12-01

    Candida dubliniensis is the closest known relative of Candida albicans, the most pathogenic yeast species in humans. However, despite both species sharing many phenotypic characteristics, including the ability to form true hyphae, C. dubliniensis is a significantly less virulent and less versatile pathogen. Therefore, to identify C. albicans-specific genes that may be responsible for an increased capacity to cause disease, we have sequenced the C. dubliniensis genome and compared it with the known C. albicans genome sequence. Although the two genome sequences are highly similar and synteny is conserved throughout, 168 species-specific genes are identified, including some encoding known hyphal-specific virulence factors, such as the aspartyl proteinases Sap4 and Sap5 and the proposed invasin Als3. Among the 115 pseudogenes confirmed in C. dubliniensis are orthologs of several filamentous growth regulator (FGR) genes that also have suspected roles in pathogenesis. However, the principal differences in genomic repertoire concern expansion of the TLO gene family of putative transcription factors and the IFA family of putative transmembrane proteins in C. albicans, which represent novel candidate virulence-associated factors. The results suggest that the recent evolutionary histories of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis are quite different. While gene families instrumental in pathogenesis have been elaborated in C. albicans, C. dubliniensis has lost genomic capacity and key pathogenic functions. This could explain why C. albicans is a more potent pathogen in humans than C. dubliniensis.

  8. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECT OF EDIBLE MUSHROOM EXTRACT ON CANDIDA ALBICANS GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccola Edneia A. de Souza

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of edible mushrooms, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pholiota nameko, Macrolepiota bonaerensis and Agaricus blazei, were tested for their potential to inhibit the in vitro growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Only L. edodes had a fungistatic effect on this human pathogen. The inhibitory compound was produced intra and extracellularly in submersed L. edodes culture, and was also present in fresh and dehydrated mushroom basidiocarps. The fungistatic compound was heat sensitive and lost activity after 72 hours.

  9. Interleukin 17-Mediated Host Defense against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Sparber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is part of the normal microbiota in most healthy individuals. However, it can cause opportunistic infections if host defenses are breached, with symptoms ranging from superficial lesions to severe systemic disease. The study of rare congenital defects in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis led to the identification of interleukin-17 (IL-17 as a key factor in host defense against mucosal fungal infection. Experimental infections in mice confirmed the critical role of IL-17 in mucocutaneous immunity against C. albicans. Research on mouse models has also contributed importantly to our current understanding of the regulation of IL-17 production by different cellular sources and its effector functions in distinct tissues. In this review, we highlight recent findings on IL-17-mediated immunity against C. albicans in mouse and man.

  10. Candida albicans mutant construction and characterization of selected virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaung, T E; Albertyn, J; Pohl, C H; Köhler, Gerwald

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is a diploid, polymorphic yeast, associated with humans, where it mostly causes no harm. However, under certain conditions it can cause infections ranging from superficial to life threatening. This ability to become pathogenic is often linked to the immune status of the host as well as the expression of certain virulence factors by the yeast. Due to the importance of C. albicans as a pathogen, determination of the molecular mechanisms that allow this yeast to cause disease is important. These studies rely on the ability of researchers to create deletion mutants of specific genes in order to study their function. This article provides a critical review of the important techniques used to create deletion mutants in C. albicans and highlights how these deletion mutants can be used to determine the role of genes in the expression of virulence factors in vitro.

  11. Candida albicans susceptibility to lactoperoxidase-generated hypoiodite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium and UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: In vivo, lactoperoxidase produces hypothiocyanite (OSCN- from thiocyanate (SCN- in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; in vitro, iodide (I- can be oxidized into hypoiodite (OI- by this enzyme. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro the anti-Candida effect of iodide versus thiocyanate used as lactoperoxidase substrate to prevent Candida biofilms development. Candida albicans ATCC 10231 susceptibility upon both peroxidase systems was tested in three different experimental designs: (i in a liquid culture medium, (ii in an interface model between solid culture medium and gel containing the enzymic systems, (iii in a biofilm model onto titanium and acrylic resin. Yeast growth in liquid medium was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm. Material-adherent yeast biomass was evaluated by the tetrazolium salt MTT method. The iodide-peroxidase system has been shown to inhibit Candida biofilm formation at lower substrate concentrations (~200 fold less H2O2 donor and for longer incubation periods than the thiocyanate-peroxidase system. In conclusion, efficiency of lactoperoxidase-generated OI- to prevent C. albicans biofilm development allows refining iodine antifungal use in ex vivo conditions.Keywords: denture, iodide, oral, peroxidase, saliva, titanium

  12. Functional genomics identifies type I interferon pathway as central for host defense against Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, Sanne P.; Ng, Aylwin; Kumar, Vinod; Johnson, Melissa D.; Plantinga, Theo S.; van Diemen, Cleo; Arts, Peer; Verwiel, Eugene T. P.; Gresnigt, Mark S.; Fransen, Karin; van Sommeren, Suzanne; Oosting, Marije; Cheng, Shih-Chin; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Hoischen, Alexander; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Scott, William K.; Perfect, John R.; van der Meer, Jos W. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Netea, Mihai G.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen causing mucosal and systemic infections. However, human antifungal immunity remains poorly defined. Here by integrating transcriptional analysis and functional genomics, we identified Candida-specific host defence mechanisms in humans. Candid

  13. Investigation of ERG11 gene expression among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans: first report from an Iranian referral paediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, M; Mamishi, S; Pourakbari, B; Mahmoudi, S; Ashtiani, M T; Sadeghi, R H; Yadegari, M H

    2015-01-01

    The multiplicity of mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungal agents has been described. As fluconazole-resistant clinical Candida albicans isolates that constitutively over-express ERG11 have been identified in previous studies, the aim of this study is to investigate this molecular mechanism involved in fluconazole resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates. Fluconazole susceptibility testing was carried out on clinical isolates of Candida spp. obtained from hospitalised children in an Iranian referral children's hospital. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to differentiate Candida spp. The resistant C. albicans isolates were subjected to RT-qPCR using primers that identify ERG11 gene expression. Of the 142 Candida spp. isolates studied, C. albicans was the most predominant isolate, occurring in 68.3% (97/142) of the patients. According to the CLSI method, the majority of the C. albicans isolates (91.7%, 89/97), categorised as susceptible (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≤8 μg/mL), five isolates were considered resistant (MIC ≤64 μg/mL) and three had dose-dependent susceptibility (MIC = 8.16-32 μg/mL). The ERG11 gene in the five fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates was upregulated 4.15-5.84-fold relative to the ATCC 10231 control strain. In this study, the expression of ERG11 was upregulated in all the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans isolates. There are limited data on the antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp. as well as the molecular mechanism of azole resistance in Iran, especially for isolates causing infections in children. Therefore, the surveillance of antifungal resistance patterns and investigation of other mechanisms of azole resistance in all Candida spp. isolates is recommended.

  14. A novel immune evasion strategy of candida albicans: proteolytic cleavage of a salivary antimicrobial peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Meiller

    Full Text Available Oropharyngeal candidiasis is an opportunistic infection considered to be a harbinger of AIDS. The etiologic agent Candida albicans is a fungal species commonly colonizing human mucosal surfaces. However, under conditions of immune dysfunction, colonizing C. albicans can become an opportunistic pathogen causing superficial or even life-threatening infections. The reasons behind this transition, however, are not clear. In the oral cavity, salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate defense system in the prevention of microbial colonization. Histatin-5 specifically has exhibited potent activity against C. albicans. Our previous studies have shown histatin-5 levels to be significantly reduced in the saliva of HIV+ individuals, indicating an important role for histatin-5 in keeping C. albicans in its commensal stage. The versatility in the pathogenic potential of C. albicans is the result of its ability to adapt through the regulation of virulence determinants, most notably of which are proteolytic enzymes (Saps, involved in tissue degradation. In this study, we show that C. albicans cells efficiently and rapidly degrade histatin-5, resulting in loss of its anti-candidal potency. In addition, we demonstrate that this cellular activity is due to proteolysis by a member of the secreted aspartic proteases (Sap family involved in C. albicans pathogenesis. Specifically, the proteolysis was attributed to Sap9, in turn identifying histatin-5 as the first host-specific substrate for that isoenzyme. These findings demonstrate for the first time the ability of a specific C. albicans enzyme to degrade and deactivate a host antimicrobial peptide involved in the protection of the oral mucosa against C. albicans, thereby providing new insights into the factors directing the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogen, with important clinical implications for alternative therapy. This report characterizes the

  15. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra da Silva Dantas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen.

  16. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Wang; Li-Hua Huang; Ji-Xue Zhao; Man Wei; Hua Fang; Dan-Yang Wang; Hong-Fa Wang; Ji-Gang Yin; Mei Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans (C. albicans) from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance. Methods:Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected. Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans (2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced. Results:Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2%were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8%and 4.2%were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total, 27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dose-dependent isolates. Among them, Y132H, A114S, and Y257H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464S and F72S also has been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified. Conclusions:Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azole-resistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions (T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  17. ERG11 mutations associated with azole resistance in Candida albicans isolates from vulvovaginal candidosis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin; Wang; Li-Hua; Huang; Ji-Xue; Zhao; Man; Wei; Hua; Fang; Dan-Yang; Wang; Hong-Fa; Wang; Ji-Gang; Yin; Mei; Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the azole susceptibility of Candida albicans(C.albicans)from vulvovaginal candidosis patients and to analyze the relationship between ERG11 gene mutations in these isolates and azole resistance.Methods: Three hundred and two clinical isolates of Candida species were collected.Azole susceptibility was tested in vitro in microdilution studies. The ERG11 genes of 17 isolates of C. albicans(2 susceptibles, 5 dose-dependent resistants and 10 resistants) were amplified and sequenced.Results: Of the 302 isolates collected, 70.2% were C. albicans, of which 8.5%, 3.8% and4.2% were resistant to fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. In total,27 missense mutations were detected in ERG11 genes from resistant/susceptible dosedependent isolates. Among them, Y132 H, A114 S, and Y257 H substitutions were most prevalent and were known to cause fluconazole resistance. G464 S and F72 S also have been proved to cause fluconazole resistance. Two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) in hotspot regions were identified.Conclusions: Twenty seven mutations in the ERG11 gene were identified in azoleresistant C. albicans isolates, which indicated a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidosis. The relationship of two novel substitutions(T285A, S457P) with fluconazole resistance needs to be further verified by site-directed mutagenesis.

  18. Antifungal activities of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. bark extracts against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara Sitapha; KPOROU KOUASSI ELISEE; Djaman Allico Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous and hydroacoholic extracts from bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae). In vitro antifungal activity of all the extracts was done by agar slant double dilution method. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus clinically important strains were used for the study. ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. Antifungal activity was determinated by evaluating of antifung...

  19. Characterization of plant-derived saponin natural products against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey J Coleman; Okoli, Ikechukwu; Tegos, George P.; Holson, Edward B.; Wagner, Florence F.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen capable life-threatening disseminated infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Resistance to many clinically used antifungal agents has created a need to identify and develop a new generation of compounds for therapeutic use. A compound screen to identify potential antifungal natural products was undertaken, identifying 12 saponins, some of which have not been previously described. In the Caenorhabditis elegans model, some sap...

  20. Preparation of Candida albicans Biofilms Using an in vivo Rat Central Venous Catheter Model

    OpenAIRE

    Taff, Heather T; Marchillo, Karen; Andes, David R.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo biofilms grown on medical devices are necessary to understand the interactions of the fungal biofilm and the host environment in which it is most commonly found. This protocol describes a way to grow Candida albicans biofilms on the interior lumen of central venous catheters surgically implanted into rats, which mimics quite well the clinical cases of biofilms found on human central venous catheters. These infected catheters can then be studied via a multitude of different experiments...

  1. Inborn errors of mucocutaneous immunity to Candida albicans in humans: a role for IL-17 cytokines?

    OpenAIRE

    Puel, Anne; Picard, Capucine; Cypowyj, Sophie; Lilic, Desa; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    The various clinical manifestations of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) often result from acquired T-cell immunodeficiencies. More rarely, CMC results from inborn errors of immunity, the recent dissection of which has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of mucocutaneous immunity to Candida albicans. CMC may accompany various other infectious diseases in patients with almost any broad and profound T-cell primary immunodeficiency. By contrast, CMC is one of the few key infections in p...

  2. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  3. A Human-Curated Annotation of the Candida albicans Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent sequencing and assembly of the genome for the fungal pathogen Candida albicans used simple automated procedures for the identification of putative genes. We have reviewed the entire assembly, both by hand and with additional bioinformatic resources, to accurately map and describe 6,354 genes and to identify 246 genes whose original database entries contained sequencing errors (or possibly mutations that affect their reading frame. Comparison with other fungal genomes permitted the identification of numerous fungus-specific genes that might be targeted for antifungal therapy. We also observed that, compared to other fungi, the protein-coding sequences in the C. albicans genome are especially rich in short sequence repeats. Finally, our improved annotation permitted a detailed analysis of several multigene families, and comparative genomic studies showed that C. albicans has a far greater catabolic range, encoding respiratory Complex 1, several novel oxidoreductases and ketone body degrading enzymes, malonyl-CoA and enoyl-CoA carriers, several novel amino acid degrading enzymes, a variety of secreted catabolic lipases and proteases, and numerous transporters to assimilate the resulting nutrients. The results of these efforts will ensure that the Candida research community has uniform and comprehensive genomic information for medical research as well as for future diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  4. A chemometric approach for prediction of antifungal activity of some benzoxazole derivatives against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to promote and facilitate prediction of antifungal activity of the investigated series of benzoxazoles against Candida albicans. The clinical importance of this investigation is to simplify design of new antifungal agents against the fungi which can cause serious illnesses in humans. Quantitative structure activity relationship analysis was applied on nineteen benzoxazole derivatives. A multiple linear regression (MLR procedure was used to model the relationships between the molecular descriptors and the antifungal activity of benzoxazole derivatives. Two mathematical models have been developed as a calibration models for predicting the inhibitory activity of this class of compounds against Candida albicans. The quality of the models was validated by the leave-one-out technique, as well as by the calculation of statistical parameters for the established model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172012 i br. 172014

  5. Clinical analysis of Candida albicans infection in acute exacerbations of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease%慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期白色念珠菌感染临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉香; 赵美华; 高中度

    2010-01-01

    Objective To find out the risk factors in lung infection,clinical features and therapeutic of candida albicans infection in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Methods 50 cases of AECOPD with Candida albicans infection were retrospectively analyzed,comparing with 50 cases without fungal infection.The risk factors in lung infection,clinical features and therapeutic of Candida albicans infection were analyzed and calculated.The former for the test group,the latter as a control group.Results The average age of the patients in the test group,was 66.6 years old,75% of total cases were in the merger of consciousness,serum albumin lower than 28 g/L( 50% ),average usage time of antibiotics more than 14 days (75 % ),glucocorticoid was used significantly higher than control group (83.3%).Conclusion If the merger of consciousness,low serum albumin,antimicrobial drug use is too long,the glucocorticoids used in patients with AECOPD,candida albicans infection were increased,but the age and sex had no impactiou obviously.The patients with basic diseases such as diabetes,cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease,cancer,malignancy or chronic renal insufficiency were combined with high rates of candida albicans infection.%目的 探讨慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)肺部白色念珠菌感染的易患因素、和治疗.方法 本文收集我科2007年1月至2009年12月住院治疗的AECOPD合并肺部真菌感染及未肺部真菌感染病例各50例,前者为试验组,后者为对照组,观察两组患者的易患因素和治疗情况.结果 试验组患者平均年龄66.6岁,75%合并意识障碍,50%血清白蛋白低于28g/L,75%抗菌素平均使用时间超过14 d,83.3%使用糖皮质激素明显高于对照组.结论 若AECOPD患者合并意识障碍、血清白蛋白低下、抗菌药物使用过长、使用糖皮质激素者则白色念珠菌染机会明显增多,与发病年龄及性别关系不明显,有糖尿病、及心脑血管

  6. Streptococcus gordonii glucosyltransferase promotes biofilm interactions with Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Ricker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida albicans co-aggregates with Streptococcus gordonii to form biofilms and their interactions in mucosal biofilms may lead to pathogenic synergy. Although the functions of glucosyltransferases (Gtf of Mutans streptococci have been well characterized, the biological roles of these enzymes in commensal oral streptococci, such as S. gordonii, in oral biofilm communities are less clear. Objective: The objective of this work was to explore the role of GtfG, the single Gtf enzyme of S. gordonii, in biofilm interactions with C. albicans. Design: Biofilms were grown under salivary flow in flow cells in vitro, or under static conditions in 96 well plates. A panel of isogenic S. gordonii CH1 gtfG mutants and complemented strains were co-inoculated with C. albicans strain SC5314 to form mixed biofilms. Biofilm accretion and binding interactions between the two organisms were tested. Biofilms were quantified using confocal microscopy or the crystal violet assay. Results: The presence of GtfG enhanced dual biofilm accretion, and sucrose supplementation further augmented dual biofilm formation, pointing to a role of newly synthesized glucans. GtfG also promoted binding to C. albicans preformed biofilms. Soluble α-1,6-glucans played a role in these interactions since: 1 a strain producing only soluble glucans (CH107 formed robust dual biofilms under conditions of salivary flow; and 2 the dual biofilm was susceptible to enzymatic breakdown by dextranase which specifically degrades soluble α-1,6-glucans. Conclusion: Our work identified a novel molecular mechanism for C. albicans and S. gordonii biofilm interactions, mediated by GtfG. This protein promotes early biofilm binding of S. gordonii to C. albicans which leads to increased accretion of streptococcal cells in mixed biofilms. We also showed that soluble glucans, with α-1,6-linkages, promoted inter-generic adhesive interactions.

  7. Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2014-04-01

    Typically, the onset of candidiasis is characterised by the appearance of a biofilm of Candida albicans, which is associated with several diseases including oral candidiasis in young and elderly people. The objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth. In the present investigation, the fungicidal activity of AMB was established using the cell viability 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB required to inhibit the fungal growth was determined. Simultaneously, the antibiofilm activity of AMB was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The study revealed that 2 mg ml(-1) of AMB exhibited higher fungicidal activity than 3.3 mg ml(-1) of terbinafine, one of most common commercial antifungals. A MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) was determined for AMB to interfere with C. albicans growth. Furthermore, AMB was found to be effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of C. albicans and exerted its fungicidal activity against the fungal cells interspersed in the preformed biofilm. The study suggests a potential role of the mucolytic agent, AMB, as an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of oral candidiasis.

  8. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu G Tafesse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  9. Histone deacetylase-mediated morphological transition in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jueun; Lee, Ji-Eun; Lee, Jung-Shin

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen, which switches its morphology from single-cell yeast to filament through the various signaling pathways responding to diverse environmental cues. Various transcriptional factors such as Nrg1, Efg1, Brg1, Ssn6, and Tup1 are the key components of these signaling pathways. Since C. albicans can regulate its transcriptional gene expressions using common eukaryotic regulatory systems, its morphological transition by these signaling pathways could be linked to the epigenetic regulation by chromatin structure modifiers. Histone proteins, which are critical components of eukaryotic chromatin structure, can regulate the eukaryotic chromatin structure through their own modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. Recent studies revealed that various histone modifications, especially histone acetylation and deacetylation, participate in morphological transition of C. albicans collaborating with well-known transcription factors in the signaling pathways. Here, we review recent studies about chromatin-mediated morphological transition of C. albicans focusing on the interaction between transcription factors in the signaling pathways and histone deacetylases.

  10. Effects of ambroxol on Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, Hernandez-Delgadillo; José, Martínez-Sanmiguel Juan; Isela, Sánchez-Nájera Rosa; Claudio, Cabral-Romero

    2014-04-01

    Typically, the onset of candidiasis is characterised by the appearance of a biofilm of Candida albicans, which is associated with several diseases including oral candidiasis in young and elderly people. The objective of this work was to investigate the in vitro fungicidal activity as well as the antibiofilm activity of ambroxol (AMB) against C. albicans growth. In the present investigation, the fungicidal activity of AMB was established using the cell viability 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Also the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMB required to inhibit the fungal growth was determined. Simultaneously, the antibiofilm activity of AMB was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. The study revealed that 2 mg ml(-1) of AMB exhibited higher fungicidal activity than 3.3 mg ml(-1) of terbinafine, one of most common commercial antifungals. A MIC of 1 mg ml(-1) was determined for AMB to interfere with C. albicans growth. Furthermore, AMB was found to be effective in inhibiting the biofilm formation of C. albicans and exerted its fungicidal activity against the fungal cells interspersed in the preformed biofilm. The study suggests a potential role of the mucolytic agent, AMB, as an interesting therapeutic alternative in the treatment of oral candidiasis. PMID:24224742

  11. Zebrafish Egg Infection Model for Studying Candida albicans Adhesion Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Zhi Chen

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is associated with 30-40% mortality in severely immunocompromised patients. Among the causal agents, Candida albicans is the dominant one. Various animal models have been developed for investigating gene functions in C. albicans. Zebrafish injection models have increasingly been applied in elucidating C. albicans pathogenesis because of the conserved immunity, prolific fecundity of the zebrafish and the low costs of care systems. In this study, we established a simple, noninvasive zebrafish egg bath infection model, defined its optimal conditions, and evaluated the model with various C. albicans mutant strains. The deletion of SAP6 did not have significant effect on the virulence. By contrast, the deletion of BCR1, CPH1, EFG1, or TEC1 significantly reduced the virulence under current conditions. Furthermore, all embryos survived when co-incubated with bcr1/bcr1, cph1/cph1 efg1/efg1, efg1/efg1, or tec1/tec1 mutant cells. The results indicated that our novel zebrafish model is time-saving and cost effective.

  12. Commensal Protection of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobials by Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric F.; Tsui, Christina; Kucharíková, Sona; Andes, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving fungi and bacteria, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and tend to be challenging to treat. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus specifically are considered leading opportunistic fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on catheters and indwelling medical devices. However, the impact of mixed-species biofilm growth on therapy remains largely understudied. In this study, we investigated the influence of C. albicans secreted cell wall polysaccharides on the response of S. aureus to antibacterial agents in biofilm. Results demonstrated significantly enhanced tolerance for S. aureus to drugs in the presence of C. albicans or its secreted cell wall polysaccharide material. Fluorescence confocal time-lapse microscopy revealed impairment of drug diffusion through the mixed biofilm matrix. Using C. albicans mutant strains with modulated cell wall polysaccharide expression, exogenous supplementation, and enzymatic degradation, the C. albicans-secreted β-1,3-glucan cell wall component was identified as the key matrix constituent providing the bacteria with enhanced drug tolerance. Further, antibody labeling demonstrated rapid coating of the bacteria by the C. albicans matrix material. Importantly, via its effect on the fungal biofilm matrix, the antifungal caspofungin sensitized the bacteria to the drugs. Understanding such symbiotic interactions with clinical relevance between microbial species in biofilms will greatly aid in overcoming the limitations of current therapies and in defining potential new targets for treating polymicrobial infections. PMID:27729510

  13. Increased Filamentous Growth of Candida albicans in Simulated Microgravity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sara D. Altenburg; Sheila M. Nielsen-Preiss; Linda E. Hyman

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of simulated microgravity (SMG)-induced changes in the pathogenicity of microorganisms is important for success of long-term spaceflight. In a previous study using the high aspect ratio vessel bioreactor, we showed that the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae underwent a significant phenotypic response when grown in modeled microgravity, which was reflected in the analysis of gene expression profiles. In this study, we establish that Candida albicans responds to SMG in a similar fashion, demonstrating that there is a conserved response among yeast to this environmental stress. We also report that the growth of C. albicans in SMG results in a morphogenic switch that is consistent with enhanced pathogenicity. Specifically, we observed an increase in filamentous forms of the organism and accompanying changes in the expression of two genes associated with the yeasthyphal transition. The morphological response may have significant implications for astronauts' safety, as the fungal pathogen may become more virulent during spaceflight.

  14. Low virulent oral Candida albicans strains isolated from smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Izidoro, Ana Claudia Santos; Semprebom, Andressa Marafon; Baboni, Fernanda Brasil; Rosa, Rosimeire Takaki; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera; Rosa, Edvaldo Antonio Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    It is widely accepted that tabagism is a predisposing factor to oral candidosis and cumulate data suggest that cigarette compounds may increase candidal virulence. To verify if enhanced virulence occurs in Candida albicans from chronic smokers, a cohort of 42 non-smokers and other of 58 smokers (all with excellent oral conditions and without signs of candidosis) were swabbed on tong dorsum and jugal mucosa. Results showed that oral candidal loads do not differ between smoker and non-smokers. Activities of secreted aspartyl-protease (Sap), phospholipase, chondroitinase, esterase-lipase, and haemolysin secretions were screened for thirty-two C. albicans isolates. There were detected significant increments in phospholipasic and chondroitinasic activities in isolates from non-smokers. For other virulence factors, no differences between both cohorts were achieved. PMID:21924704

  15. Pengaruh Perendaman Basis Gigitiruan Resin Akrilik Polimerisasi Panas Dalam Ekstrak Kayu Manis Terhadap Jumlah Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Siahaan, Grace Asima

    2015-01-01

    Resin akrilik polimerisasi panas merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan dalam proses pembuatan basis gigitiruan. Bahan ini memilik sifat kemis dan biologis yang berhubungan dengan pembentukan koloni Candida albicans .Terbentuknya koloni Candida albicans pada basis gigitiruan akan mengakibatkan terjadinya denture stomatitis pada pasien pemakai gigitiruan. Oleh karena itu, dokter gigi memiliki tanggung jawab memberikan instruksi kepada pasien agar menjaga kebersihan gigitiruan dan kebersihan ron...

  16. Activation and binding of C3 by Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Kozel, T R; Brown, R R; Pfrommer, G S

    1987-01-01

    Interaction with components of the complement system is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of infection by Candida albicans. The key role of C3 as an opsonic ligand and as an element in amplification of complement activation led us to examine several factors that influence the activation and binding of C3 cleavage fragments to the yeast. Activation and binding of C3 were determined by use of normal human serum containing 125I-labeled C3. Incubation of yeast-phase cells in 20% serum led t...

  17. Effect of tyrosol on adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Arias, Laís Salomão; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Barbosa, Debora Barros; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2015-09-01

    The prevention of adhesion of Candida cells to acrylic surfaces can be regarded as an alternative to prevent denture stomatitis. The use of quorum sensing molecules, such as tyrosol, could potentially interfere with the adhesion process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of tyrosol on adhesion of single and mixed cultures of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata to acrylic resin surfaces. Tyrosol was diluted in each yeast inoculum (10(7) cells/ml in artificial saliva) at 25, 50, 100, and 200 mM. Then, each dilution was added to wells of 24-well plates containing the acrylic specimens, and the plates were incubated at 37°C for 2 h. After, the effect of tyrosol was determined by total biomass quantification, metabolic activity of the cells and colony-forming unit counting. Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) was used as a positive control. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Holm-Sidak post hoc test (α = 0.05). The results of total biomass quantification and metabolic activity revealed that the tyrosol promoted significant reductions (ranging from 22.32 to 86.16%) on single C. albicans and mixed cultures. Moreover, tyrosol at 200 mM and CHG significantly reduced (p Candida adhesion to acrylic resin, and further investigations are warranted to clarify its potential against Candida infections.

  18. 糖尿病并发白色念球菌口炎的临床诊断及治疗方案%Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment Regimen for Diabetes Complicated by Candida Albicans Stomatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立敏; 张庆俊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze and investigate the clinical diagnosis method and treatment regimen for the treatment of diabetes complicated by Candida albicans stomatitis so as to provide more reference for clinical treatment of the disease. Methods One hundred cases with diabetes complicated by Candida albicans stomatitis (diabetes group) admitted in our hospital and other sixty cases without diabetes in the Department of Oral Medicine(control group) were selected. Both groups were given corresponding di-agnosis and effective treatment. Results In the diabetes group, the positive rate of detection of oral Candida albicans was 22.00%, obviously higher than 6.67%of the control group, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the clinical symptoms(denture stomatitis, angular stomatitis and other mucosal congestion, atrophy symptoms) of most pa-tients significantly reduced, lingual papilla basically returned to normal. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of diabetes com-plicated by Candida albicans stomatitis are not significant, so in order to improve the clinical diagnosis and treatment effect, the medical staff should strengthen the study of the clinical symptoms of the patients comprehensively, and take positive and effective treatment.%目的:分析探讨糖尿病并发白色念球菌口炎的临床诊断方法及治疗方案,为临床治疗糖尿病并发白色念球菌口炎患者提供更多的参考依据。方法选取该院收治的糖尿病并发白色念球菌口炎患者100例(糖尿病组),同时选取口腔内科无糖尿病普通患者60例(对照组),对两组患者给与相应诊断并做出有效治疗。结果糖尿病组患者口腔白色念珠菌检测阳性率为22.00%,对照组口腔白色念珠菌检测阳性率为6.67%,糖尿病组明显高于对照组,两组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);经过治疗,多数患者临床症状(义齿性口炎、口角炎等粘

  19. Control of Candida albicans Metabolism and Biofilm Formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Phenazines

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Diana K.; Grahl, Nora; Okegbe, Chinweike; Dietrich, Lars E. P.; Jacobs, Nicholas J.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida albicans has developmental programs that govern transitions between yeast and filamentous morphologies and between unattached and biofilm lifestyles. Here, we report that filamentation, intercellular adherence, and biofilm development were inhibited during interactions between Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the action of P. aeruginosa-produced phenazines. While phenazines are toxic to C. albicans at millimolar concentrations, we found that lower concentra...

  20. Study of Candida Albicans Vaginitis Model in Kunming Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhuo; KONG Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    The model of vaginal candidiasis in Kunming mice was constructed in order to search for the optima construction conditions and provide an economic animal model of Candida albicans (C.albicans) vaginitis. Estrogen benzoate (E2) was given to mice at different concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 0.05 mg/mouse (4 levels) beginning 72 h prior to vaginal inoculation, then mice were inoculated intravaginally with various concentrations of stationary-phase C. albicans blastoconidia (ATCC90028) (5 levels) in 20 μL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) in each F2 level. General state,scores of genital pathology, the hyphae and vaginal fungal burden (CFU) in vaginal lavage fluid, the hydrops rate of uterus and vaginal tissues for pathological section in mice were observed and obtained at day 2, 4, 7, 14 and 21 after inoculation. The results showed the infection rate in mice was related to the dosage of E2 and concentration of C. albicans blastoconidia. Additionally there was better cross-effect between the two treated factors. The infection rate was about 80% on the day 4,and could reach 100% on the day 7 until the end of experiment after inoculated intravaginally in groups of E2I3, E2 0.025 mg/mouse injected hypodermically and inoculated intravaginally with 5×104 C. albicans blastoconidia, and large amount of hyphae and blastoconidia could be observe in superficial layer tissue and canal of vaginal by PAS. From the results in our experiment it was concluded that E2I3 was the optima construction condition in kunming mice.

  1. Evaluation of a Rapid Immunochromatographic Assay for Identification of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

    OpenAIRE

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Grimaud, Linda; David, Sandrine; Sullivan, Derek J.; Coleman, David C.; Ponton, Jose; Robert, Raymond

    2004-01-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first established as a novel yeast species in 1995. It is particularly associated with recurrent episodes of oral candidosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, but it has also been detected at other anatomical sites and at a low incidence level in non-HIV-infected patients. It shares so many phenotypic characteristics with C. albicans that it is easily misidentified as such. No rapid, simple, and commercial test that allows differentiation betwee...

  2. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tularat Sookto; Theerathavaj Srithavaj; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Boonyanit Thaweboon; Binit Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods: Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey’s test was used for multiple comparisons. Results: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna; Shilpa Patel; Madhusudan Astekar Sundarrao; Ravindra Setru Veerabhadrappa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additio...

  4. Assessing the potential of four cathelicidins for the management of mouse candidiasis and Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Liu, Xuelian; Wang, Chen; Qiao, Xue; Wu, Sijin; Wang, Hui; Feng, Lan; Wang, Yipeng

    2016-02-01

    As the most common fungal pathogen of humans, severe drug resistance has emerged in the clinically isolated Candida albicans, which lead to the urgency to develop novel antifungal agents. Here, four our previously characterized cathelicidins (cathelicidin-BF, Pc-CATH1, Cc-CATH2, Cc-CATH3) were selected and their antifungal activities against C. albicans were evaluated in vitro and in vivo using amphotericin B and LL-37 as control. Results showed that all four cathelicidins could eradicate standard and clinically isolated C. albicans strains with most MIC values ranging from 1 to 16 μg/ml, in less than 0.5 h revealed by time-kill kinetic assay. Four peptides only exhibited slight hemolytic activity with most HC50 > 200 μg/ml, and retained potent anti-C. albicans activity at salt concentrations below and beyond physiological level. In animal experiment, 50 mg/kg administration of the four cathelicidins could significantly reduce the fungal counts in a murine oral candidiasis model induced by clinically isolated C. albicans. The antibiofilm activity of cathelicidin-BF, the most potent among the five peptides was evaluated, and result showed that cathelicidin-BF strongly inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 20 μg/ml. Furthermore, cathelicidin-BF also exhibited potent anti-C. albicans activity in established biofilms as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Structure-function analyses suggest that they mainly adopt an α-helical conformations, which enable them to act as a membrane-active molecule. Altogether, the four cathelicidins display great potential for antifungal agent development against candidiasis. PMID:26656137

  5. Manipulation of Host Diet To Reduce Gastrointestinal Colonization by the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsalus, Kearney T W; Tornberg-Belanger, Stephanie N; Matthan, Nirupa R; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Kumamoto, Carol A

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal drugs prevents C. albicans-associated mortalities. C. albicans provides a clinically relevant system for studying the relationship between diet and the microbiota as it relates to commensalism and pathogenicity. As a first step toward a dietary intervention to reduce C. albicans GI colonization, we investigated the impact of dietary lipids on murine colonization by C. albicans. Coconut oil and its constituent fatty acids have antifungal activity in vitro; we hypothesized that dietary coconut oil would reduce GI colonization by C. albicans. Colonization was lower in mice fed a coconut oil-rich diet than in mice fed diets rich in beef tallow or soybean oil. Switching beef tallow-fed mice to a coconut oil diet reduced preexisting colonization. Coconut oil reduced colonization even when the diet also contained beef tallow. Dietary coconut oil also altered the metabolic program of colonizing C. albicans cells. Long-chain fatty acids were less abundant in the cecal contents of coconut oil-fed mice than in the cecal contents of beef tallow-fed mice; the expression of genes involved in fatty acid utilization was lower in C. albicans from coconut oil-fed mice than in C. albicans from beef tallow-fed mice. Extrapolating to humans, these findings suggest that coconut oil could become the first dietary intervention to reduce C. albicans GI colonization. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. C. albicans is part of the normal gut flora, but when a patient's immune system is compromised, it can leave the gut and cause infections. By reducing the amount of C. albicans in the gut of susceptible

  6. HIV aspartyl protease inhibitors as promising compounds against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    André; Luis; Souza; dos; Santos

    2010-01-01

    Cells of Candida albicans(C.albicans) can invade humans and may lead to mucosal and skin infections or to deep-seated my coses of almost all inner organs,especially in immunocompromised patients.In this context,both the host immune status and the ability of C.albicans to modulate the expression of its virulence factors are relevant aspects that drive the candidal susceptibility or resistance;in this last case,culminating in the establishment of successful infection knownas candidiasis.C.albicans possesses a potent arma-mentarium consisting of several virulence moleculesthat help the fungal cells to escape of the host immuneresponses.There is no doubt that the secretion of aspartyl-type proteases,designated as Saps,are one of the major virulence attributes produced by C.albicans cells,since these hydrolytic enzymes participate in a wide range of fungal physiological processes as well as in different facets of the fungal-host interactions.For these reasons,Saps clearly hold promise as new potential drug targets.Corroborating this hypothesis,the introduction of new anti-human immunodeficiency virus drugs of the as party l protease inhibitor-type(HIV PIs) have emerged as new agents for the inhibition of Saps.The introduction of HIV PIs has revolutionized the treatment of HIV disease,reducing opportunistic infections,especially candidiasis.The attenuation of candidal infections in HIV-infected individuals might not solely have resulted from improved immunological status,but also as a result of direct inhibition of C.albicans Saps.In this article,we review updates on the beneficial effects of HIV PIs against the human fungal pathogen C.albicans,focusing on the effects of these compounds on Sap activity,growth behavior,morphological architecture,cellular differentiation,fungal adhesion to animal cells and abiotic materials,modulation of virulence factors,experimental candidiasis infection,and their synergistic actions with classical antifungal agents.

  7. Potent Synergy between Spirocyclic Pyrrolidinoindolinones and Fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premachandra, Ilandari Dewage Udara Anulal; Scott, Kevin A; Shen, Chengtian; Wang, Fuqiang; Lane, Shelley; Liu, Haoping; Van Vranken, David L

    2015-10-01

    A spiroindolinone, (1S,3R,3aR,6aS)-1-benzyl-6'-chloro-5-(4-fluorophenyl)-7'-methylspiro[1,2,3a,6a-tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-3,3'-1H-indole]-2',4,6-trione, was previously reported to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against Candida albicans. A diastereomer of this compound was synthesized, along with various analogues. Many of the compounds were shown to enhance the antifungal effect of fluconazole against C. albicans, some with exquisite potency. One spirocyclic piperazine derivative, which we have named synazo-1, was found to enhance the effect of fluconazole with an EC50 value of 300 pM against a susceptible strain of C. albicans and going as low as 2 nM against some resistant strains. Synazo-1 exhibits true synergy with fluconazole, with an FIC index below 0.5 in the strains tested. Synazo-1 exhibited low toxicity in mammalian cells relative to the concentrations required for antifungal synergy.

  8. Distribution of Candida albicans genotypes among family members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stevens, D. A.; Mishra, S. K.; Feroze, F.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-three families (71 subjects) were screened for the presence of Candida albicans in mouthwash or stool specimens; 12 families (28 subjects) were culture-positive for this yeast. An enrichment procedure provided a twofold increase in the recovery of C. albicans from mouthwash specimens. Nine of the twelve culture-positive families had two positive members each, two families had three positive members each, and one family had four positive members. Genetic profiles were obtained by three methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis; restriction endonuclease analysis, and random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis. DNA fingerprinting of C. albicans isolated from one body site three consecutive times revealed that each of the 12 families carried a distinct genotype. No two families shared the same strain, and two or more members of a family commonly shared the same strain. Intrafamily genotypic identity (i.e., each member within the family harbored the same strain) was demonstrated in six families. Genotypes of isolates from husband and wife differed from one another in five families. All three methods were satisfactory in determining genotypes; however, we concluded that restriction endonuclease analysis provided adequate resolving power.

  9. Population Structure of Candida albicans from Three Teaching Hospitals in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjapong, Gloria; Hale, Marie; Garrill, Ashley

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies on Candida species in a clinical setting in Ghana have shown a prevalence of Candida albicans. Despite this, very little is known about the various strain types and their population genetic structure. In this study three microsatellite loci, CAI, CAIII and CAVI, were used to investigate the population genetic structure of C. albicans from clinical isolates in Ghana. In all, 240 clinically unrelated C. albicans isolates were recovered from patients reporting at three teaching hospitals. All the isolates were heterozygous for at least one of the three loci, except for one isolate, which was homozygous for all three loci. Sixty-seven unique alleles and 240 different genotypes were generated by the three polymorphic microsatellite loci, resulting in a very high discriminatory potential of approximately 0.98. There was no significant difference in allele frequencies from the small number of anatomical sites sampled, regardless of the host conditions although high genotypic diversities were observed among the isolates. There was evidence for clonal reproduction, including over-expression of observed heterozygotes across the populations. The populations deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and pair-wise genotypic linkage disequilibria comparisons across the three loci were significant, also suggesting a clonal population. The overall Wright FIS for the three loci was negative, and the overall FST value was not significantly different from zero for the three loci analyzed, indicating a clonal and homogeneous population across the three sampling locations from Ghana.

  10. Candida albicans biofilm on titanium: effect of peroxidase precoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahariz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed Ahariz1, Philippe Courtois1,21Laboratory of Experimental Hormonology, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, 2UER de Biologie Médicale, Haute Ecole Francisco Ferrer, Brussels, BelgiumAbstract: The present study aimed to document Candida albicans biofilm development on titanium and its modulation by a peroxidase-precoated material which can generate antimicrobials, such as hypoiodite or hypothiocyanite, from hydrogen peroxide, iodide, or thiocyanate. For this purpose, titanium (powder or foil was suspended in Sabouraud liquid medium inoculated with C. albicans ATCC10231. After continuous stirring for 2–21 days at room temperature, the supernatant was monitored by turbidimetry at 600 nm and titanium washed three times in sterile Sabouraud broth. Using the tetrazolium salt MTT-formazan assay, the titanium-adherent fungal biomass was measured as 7.50 ± 0.60 × 106 blastoconidia per gram of titanium powder (n = 30 and 0.50 ± 0.04 × 106 blastoconidia per cm² of titanium foil (n = 12. The presence of yeast on the surface of titanium was confirmed by microscopy both on fresh preparations and after calcofluor white staining. However, in the presence of peroxidase systems (lactoperoxidase with substrates such as hydrogen peroxide donor, iodide, or thiocyanate, Candida growth in both planktonic and attached phases appeared to be inhibited. Moreover, this study demonstrates the possible partition of peroxidase systems between titanium material (peroxidase-precoated and liquid environment (containing peroxidase substrates to limit C. albicans biofilm formation.Keywords: adhesion, material, oral, yeast

  11. Prevalence of non-albican candida infection in Maharashtrian women with leucorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema M Bankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida is the most common agent causing leucorrhea affecting the women of all strata. It is becoming difficult to completely eradicate the infection mainly due to recurrence caused by non-albican species of Candida. Most of the non-albican species of Candida are resistant to commonly used antifungal agent - azole. Therefore, studying the prevalence of Candida species in vaginal secretion is of great significance. Objective: To study the prevalence of different species of Candida and the efficiency of different Candida detection methods in women from low socio-economic setup of Miraj and Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 150 patients with specific complaints of leucorrhea. In the control group, 50 asymptomatic women were included for comparison. Results: In 33% of the women the leucorrhea was due to Candida infection with highest incidence in women of sexually active age (20-40 years. Sabouraud′s culture was the most efficient method (100% efficiency to detect the Candida compared to wet mount, KOH and gram stain method. Candida albicans was the most common strain identified and Candida krusei was the least common one. Conclusion: Candida infection is the commonest reason for leucorrhea and non-albican candida species significantly contribute to candidiasis in women of Miraj and Sangli.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Rezende Delgado, Ronan; Helena Gasparoto, Thaís; Renata Sipert, Carla; Ramos Pinheiro, Claudia; Gomes de Moraes, Ivaldo; Brandão Garcia, Roberto; Antônio Hungaro Duarte, Marco; Monteiro Bramante, Clóvis; Aparecido Torres, Sérgio; Pompermaier Garlet, Gustavo; Paula Campanelli, Ana; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0–100 and 100–200 µm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the ...

  13. Quinacrine inhibits Candida albicans growth and filamentation at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarny, Vibhati V; Chavez-Dozal, Alba; Rane, Hallie S; Jahng, Maximillian; Bernardo, Stella M; Parra, Karlett J; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-12-01

    Candida albicans is a common cause of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI), in part due to its strong propensity to form biofilms. Drug repurposing is an approach that might identify agents that are able to overcome antifungal drug resistance within biofilms. Quinacrine (QNC) is clinically active against the eukaryotic protozoan parasites Plasmodium and Giardia. We sought to investigate the antifungal activity of QNC against C. albicans biofilms. C. albicans biofilms were incubated with QNC at serially increasing concentrations (4 to 2,048 μg/ml) and assessed using a 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay in a static microplate model. Combinations of QNC and standard antifungals were assayed using biofilm checkerboard analyses. To define a mechanism of action, QNC was assessed for the inhibition of filamentation, effects on endocytosis, and pH-dependent activity. High-dose QNC was effective for the prevention and treatment of C. albicans biofilms in vitro. QNC with fluconazole had no interaction, while the combination of QNC and either caspofungin or amphotericin B demonstrated synergy. QNC was most active against planktonic growth at alkaline pH. QNC dramatically inhibited filamentation. QNC accumulated within vacuoles as expected and caused defects in endocytosis. A tetracycline-regulated VMA3 mutant lacking vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) function demonstrated increased susceptibility to QNC. These experiments indicate that QNC is active against C. albicans growth in a pH-dependent manner. Although QNC activity is not biofilm specific, QNC is effective in the prevention and treatment of biofilms. QNC antibiofilm activity likely occurs via several independent mechanisms: vacuolar alkalinization, inhibition of endocytosis, and impaired filamentation. Further investigation of QNC for the treatment and prevention of biofilm-related Candida CR-BSI is warranted. PMID:25288082

  14. ISOLATION AND SPECIATION OF CANDIDA FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL AT KURNOOL, ANDHRAPRADESH, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available : Candida is one of the most frequently encountered opportunistic fungi that cause infection in humans. The pathogenesis of Candida is complex and probably varies with each infection. This study was conducted to understand the prevalence of Candida from various clinical specimens of patients and to show the emergence of Non albicans Candida in clinical samples. This study also focused on the antifungal susceptibility which guides the clinicians to treat the infection effectively. METHODS: Clinical samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients of Government General Hospital, Kurnool over a period of one year from March2008 to June2009. Isolation, culture, speciation of Candida was done by using standard methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion technique against amphotericin B, nystatin, fluconazole and clotrimazole. RESULTS: Candida manifests in various sites depending on the predisposing factors and immune status of the person. In this study we found the association of Candida with various predisposing factors (Pregnancy, Oral contraceptive pills’s, Immune suppression, Diabetes. This study observed the dominance of non-albicans Candida (51% in the clinical samples over Candida albicans (49%. The maximum antifungal susceptibility was observed against amphotericin B in both the albicans and non-albicans Candia, but non-albicans Candida showed maximum resistance to azoles. CONCLUSION: Candida albicans was the most predominant species (49% isolated in various clinical samples. There was an increase in the prevalence of non albicans Candida in this study. Among the nonalbicans Candida (51% Candid tropicalis was the commonest species isolated. Candida albicans showed maximum susceptibility to amphotericin B and maximum resistance to azoles was seen in nonalbicans Candida.

  15. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual

  16. Comparison of VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system in identification of non- albicans Candida species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In the present study, it was aimed to compare results obtained by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France with those obtained by using API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France for identification of non- albicans Candida species, which was isolated from various clinical samples, at level of species.Materials and methods: Forty-one non-albicans Candida isolates, which were isolated from 28 urine, 10 blood and 3 vaginal swab specimens, and found to be negative by germ tube test, were identified by using VITEK 2 YST Card (bioMérieux, France. In addition, microscopic morphology was assessed in corn-meal Tween 80 agar, while carbohydrate assimilation was assessed by using commercially available API 20C AUX kit (bioMérieux, France.Results: Thirty-four isolates (82.9% were identified as identical species by these 2 systems, while different results were obtained in 7 isolates (17.1%. 5 isolates, identified as Candida glabrata by API 20C AUX system, were identified as Candida tropicalis (n=2, Candida krusei, Candida lipolitica and Candida kefyr by VITEK 2 YST Card. One other isolate, identified as C.tropicalis, was identified as Candida parapsilosis; and additional one isolate, identified as C.parapsilosis, was identified as C.tropicalis.Conclusion: It was concluded that one should be cautious in the identification of C.glabrata, in particular, C.tropicalis and C.parapsilosis, although between VITEK 2 YST Card and API 20C AUX system results was found largely similarity in identification of non-albicans Candida spp.

  17. The Candida genome database incorporates multiple Candida species: multispecies search and analysis tools with curated gene and protein information for Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Diane O; Arnaud, Martha B; Binkley, Jonathan; Shah, Prachi; Skrzypek, Marek S; Wymore, Farrell; Binkley, Gail; Miyasato, Stuart R; Simison, Matt; Sherlock, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    The Candida Genome Database (CGD, http://www.candidagenome.org/) is an internet-based resource that provides centralized access to genomic sequence data and manually curated functional information about genes and proteins of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and other Candida species. As the scope of Candida research, and the number of sequenced strains and related species, has grown in recent years, the need for expanded genomic resources has also grown. To answer this need, CGD has expanded beyond storing data solely for C. albicans, now integrating data from multiple species. Herein we describe the incorporation of this multispecies information, which includes curated gene information and the reference sequence for C. glabrata, as well as orthology relationships that interconnect Locus Summary pages, allowing easy navigation between genes of C. albicans and C. glabrata. These orthology relationships are also used to predict GO annotations of their products. We have also added protein information pages that display domains, structural information and physicochemical properties; bibliographic pages highlighting important topic areas in Candida biology; and a laboratory strain lineage page that describes the lineage of commonly used laboratory strains. All of these data are freely available at http://www.candidagenome.org/. We welcome feedback from the research community at candida-curator@lists.stanford.edu.

  18. Two independent killing mechanisms of Candida albicans by human neutrophils: evidence from innate immunity defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Houdt, Michel; Verkuijlen, Paul J J H; Herbst, Martin; Liese, Johannes G; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2014-07-24

    Invasive fungal infections, accompanied by high rates of mortality, represent an increasing problem in medicine. Neutrophils are the major effector immune cells in fungal killing. Based on studies with neutrophils from patients with defined genetic defects, we provide evidence that human neutrophils use 2 distinct and independent phagolysosomal mechanisms to kill Candida albicans. The first mechanism for the killing of unopsonized C albicans was found to be dependent on complement receptor 3 (CR3) and the signaling proteins phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase and caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9), but was independent of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity. The second mechanism for the killing of opsonized C albicans was strictly dependent on Fcγ receptors, protein kinase C (PKC), and reactive oxygen species production by the NADPH oxidase system. Each of the 2 pathways of Candida killing required Syk tyrosine kinase activity, but dectin-1 was dispensable for both of them. These data provide an explanation for the variable clinical presentation of fungal infection in patients suffering from different immune defects, including dectin-1 deficiency, CARD9 deficiency, or chronic granulomatous disease. PMID:24948657

  19. Epithelial discrimination of commensal and pathogenic Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S X; Moyes, D L; Richardson, J P; Blagojevic, M; Naglik, J R

    2016-04-01

    All mucosal surfaces are lined by epithelial cells and are colonised by opportunistic microbes. In health, these opportunistic microbes remain commensal and are tolerated by the immune system. However, when the correct environmental conditions arise, these microbes can become pathogenic and need to be controlled or cleared by the immune system to prevent disease. The mechanisms that enable epithelial cells to initiate the 'danger' signals activated specifically by pathogenic microbes are critical to mucosal defence and homeostasis but are not well understood. Deciphering these mechanisms will provide essential understanding to how mucosal tissues maintain health and activate immunity, as well as how pathogens promote disease. This review focuses on the interaction of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with epithelial cells and the epithelial mechanisms that enable mucosal tissues to discriminate between the commensal and pathogenic state of this medically important fungus. PMID:26843519

  20. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Citiulo, Francesco

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  1. 中草药抗白念珠菌作用研究进展%Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李姝毅; 夏志宽; 杨蓉娅

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is one of the most common human fungal pathogen,which can cause a variety of superficial and deep mycoses,and often become resistant to commonly used antifungal agents.So looking for broad-spectrum,high efficiency,low toxicity anti-Candida drugs has became a hot research.Extremely rich resources of Chinese herbal medicine have certain advantages of the prevention and treatment of Candida infections.To study the role of Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans,articles summarize the three aspects:herbal mechanism of action against Candida albicans and its active ingredient,single herb and compound herbal preparations against Candida albicans,synergistic effect of compound traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine against Candida albicans.The Chinese herbal medicine against Candida albicans clinical and experimental studies in recent years were reviewed.The article further confirmed the role of herbal anti-Candida albicans and showed the broad application prospects of herbal antifungal aspects.%白念珠菌,是人类最常见的真菌病原体,可引起各种浅表及深部真菌病,对常用抗真菌药物易产生耐药.文章就近年来有关中草药抗白念珠菌的相关临床及实验研究进行综述,主要从中草药抗白念珠菌的作用机制及其活性成分、单味及复方中草药制剂抗白念珠菌作用、中西药协同抗白念珠菌作用几个方面进行阐述.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts on Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunitha Jagalur Doddanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a predominant role in the maintenance of human health since ancient times. Even though several effective antifungal agents are available for oral candida infections, the failure is not uncommon because isolates of Candida albicans may exhibits resistance to the drug during therapy. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of few plant extracts on Candida albicans. An additional objective was to identify an alternative, inexpensive, simple, and effective method of preventing and controlling Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Fine texture powder or paste form of leaves was soaked in sterile distilled water and 100% ethyl alcohol, which were kept in refrigerator at 4°C for 24 h. Then filtrates were prepared and kept in a hot air oven to get a black shining crystal powder/paste form. Stock solutions of plant extracts were inoculated on petri plates containing species of Candida albicans and incubated at 25 ± 2°C for 72 h. Results: Alcoholic curry leaves showed the maximum zone of inhibition on Candida albicans followed by aqueous tea leaves. The other plant extracts like alcoholic onion leaves, alcoholic tea leaves, alcoholic onion bulb, alcoholic aloe vera, and alcoholic mint leaves also inhibited the growth of Candida albicans but lesser extent. Conclusion: The present study renders few medicinal plants as an alternative medicines to the field of dentistry which can be used adjunct to conventional therapy of oral candidasis.

  3. Diorcinol D Exerts Fungicidal Action against Candida albicans through Cytoplasm Membrane Destruction and ROS Accumulation.

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    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, which is the most common human fungal pathogen, causes high mortality among immunocompromised patients. Antifungal drug resistance becomes a major challenge for the management of Candida infection. Diorcinol D (DD, a diphenyl ether derivative isolated from an endolichenic fungus, exerted fungicidal action against Candida species. In this study, we investigated the possible mechanism of its antifungal activity. The change of membrane dynamics and permeability suggested that the cell membrane was disrupted by the treatment of DD. This was further supported by the evidences of intracellular glycerol accumulation, alteration of cell ultrastructure, and down-regulation of genes involved in cell membrane synthesis. In addition, the treatment of C. albicans with DD resulted in the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which caused the dysfunction of mitochondria. These altogether suggested that DD exerted its antifungal activity through cytoplasmic membrane destruction and ROS accumulation. This finding is helpful to uncover the underlying mechanisms for the diphenyl ether derivatives and provides a potential application in fighting clinical fungal infections.

  4. An expanded regulatory network temporally controls Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Bui, Catherine K; Nett, Jeniel E; Hartooni, Nairi; Mui, Michael C; Andes, David R; Nobile, Clarissa J; Johnson, Alexander D

    2015-06-01

    Candida albicans biofilms are composed of highly adherent and densely arranged cells with properties distinct from those of free-floating (planktonic) cells. These biofilms are a significant medical problem because they commonly form on implanted medical devices, are drug resistant and are difficult to remove. C. albicans biofilms are not static structures; rather they are dynamic and develop over time. Here we characterize gene expression in biofilms during their development, and by comparing them to multiple planktonic reference states, we identify patterns of gene expression relevant to biofilm formation. In particular, we document time-dependent changes in genes involved in adhesion and metabolism, both of which are at the core of biofilm development. Additionally, we identify three new regulators of biofilm formation, Flo8, Gal4, and Rfx2, which play distinct roles during biofilm development over time. Flo8 is required for biofilm formation at all time points, and Gal4 and Rfx2 are needed for proper biofilm formation at intermediate time points.

  5. Heat-shock protein 90 in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Researches on Candidal heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in recent years are summarized.Candida albicans is a commensal pathogen in human and animals.In immunocompromised individuals it behaves as an opportunist pathogen,giving rise to superficial or systemic infections.Systemic candidosis is a common cause of death among immunocompromised and debilitated patients,in which the mortality is as high as 70%.HSP90 is now recognized as an immunodominant antigen in C.albicans and plays a key role in systemic candidosis as a molecular chaperone.The 47-ku peptide is the breakdown product of HSP90.Patients who has recovered from systemic candidosis produce high titre of antibodies to 47-ku antigen,whereas the fatal cases have little antibody or falling titres.The three commonest epitopes of candidal HSP90 have been mapped,epitopes C,B and H.Epitopes C and H are immunogenic.The antibody probes of both epitopes may be developed into a new serological test agents for systemic candidosis due to rather high specificity and sensitivity.The recent results establish HSP90 as an ATP-dependent chaperone that is involved in the folding of cell regulatory proteins and in the refolding of stress-denatured polypeptides.Some researches on fungal HSP90 and the treatment of patients with candidosis are reviewed as well.

  6. Development of a high-throughput Candida albicans biofilm chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Srinivasan

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-density microarray platform consisting of nano-biofilms of Candida albicans. A robotic microarrayer was used to print yeast cells of C. albicans encapsulated in a collagen matrix at a volume as low as 50 nL onto surface-modified microscope slides. Upon incubation, the cells grow into fully formed "nano-biofilms". The morphological and architectural complexity of these biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal scanning laser microscopy. The extent of biofilm formation was determined using a microarray scanner from changes in fluorescence intensities due to FUN 1 metabolic processing. This staining technique was also adapted for antifungal susceptibility testing, which demonstrated that, similar to regular biofilms, cells within the on-chip biofilms displayed elevated levels of resistance against antifungal agents (fluconazole and amphotericin B. Thus, results from structural analyses and antifungal susceptibility testing indicated that despite miniaturization, these biofilms display the typical phenotypic properties associated with the biofilm mode of growth. In its final format, the C. albicans biofilm chip (CaBChip is composed of 768 equivalent and spatially distinct nano-biofilms on a single slide; multiple chips can be printed and processed simultaneously. Compared to current methods for the formation of microbial biofilms, namely the 96-well microtiter plate model, this fungal biofilm chip has advantages in terms of miniaturization and automation, which combine to cut reagent use and analysis time, minimize labor intensive steps, and dramatically reduce assay costs. Such a chip should accelerate the antifungal drug discovery process by enabling rapid, convenient and inexpensive screening of hundreds-to-thousands of compounds simultaneously.

  7. Candida albicans osteomyelitis as a cause of chest pain and visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magano, Rita; Cortez, Joana; Ramos, Evelise; Trindade, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans osteomyelitis is a rare disease that occurs in immunocompromised individuals, sometimes with a late diagnosis related to the mismatch between symptoms and candidemia. This case refers to a 36-year-old male patient with a history of oesophageal surgery for achalasia with multiple subsequent surgeries and hospitalisation in the intensive care unit for oesophageal fistula complication. Four months after discharge, the patient was admitted to the infectious diseases department with pain in the 10th-12th left ribs, swelling of the 4th-6th costal cartilage and decreased visual acuity. An MRI study showed thickening and diffuse enhancement, with no defined borders in the cartilage and ribs, compatible with infection. After performing a CT-guided bone biopsy, isolated C. albicans sensitive to antifungal agents was detected. The patient started therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and maintenance fluconazole for 6 months and showed clinical and radiological improvement within this time. PMID:26475877

  8. Comparison of the in vitro activity of echinocandins against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida africana by time-kill curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2015-05-01

    Candida albicans remains the most common fungal pathogen. This species is closely related to 2 phenotypically similar cryptic species, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana. This study aims to compare the antifungal activities of echinocandins against 7 C. albicans, 5 C. dubliniensis, and 2 C. africana strains by time-kill methodology. MIC values were similar for the 3 species; however, differences in killing activity were observed among species, isolates, and echinocandins. Echinocandins produced weak killing activity against the 3 species. In all drugs, the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% mortality) was reached at ≤31 h with ≥0.5 μg/mL for anidulafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis, for caspofungin in 1 C. albicans and 2 C. dubliniensis, and for micafungin in 4 C. albicans and 1 C. dubliniensis. None of echinocandins showed lethality against C. africana. Identification of these new cryptic species and time-kill studies would be recommendable when echinocandin treatment fails.

  9. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required. PMID:27433120

  10. Isolation Frequency Characteristics of Candida Species from Clinical Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeon, Jae-Sik; Kim, Jae Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Candida spp. is an invasive infectious fungus, a major risk factor that can increase morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. In this study, 2,508 Candida spp. were isolated from various clinical specimens collected from university hospitals from July 2011 to October 2014. They were identified in order to determine isolation frequencies and characteristics by specimen, gender, age group, year, season, and month. The strain-specific isolation rate of Candida spp. is in the order of Candida albicans (1,218 strains, 48.56%), Candida glabrata (416 strains, 16.59%), Candida utilis (305 strains, 12.16%), Candida tropicalis (304 strains, 12.12%), and Candida parapsilosis (116 strains, 4.63%) and these five species accounted for more than 94% of the total strains. Of the specimens, Candida spp. were most frequently isolated from urine-catheter, followed by urine-voided, blood, sputum, other, open pus, vaginal discharge, Tip, ear discharge, bronchial aspiration and bile, in that order. Looking at the age distribution, the detection rate of patients in their 60s and older was significantly higher at 75.8% (1,900/2,508). The detection rate of patients in their 20s and younger was shown to be very low at 2.55% (64/2,508). By year, the detection rate of non-albicans Candida spp. showed a tendency to gradually increase each year compared with C. albicans. As isolation of Candida spp. from clinical samples at the specie level can vary depending on characteristics of the patient, sample, season, etc., continual studies are required.

  11. In Vitro Study on the Adhesion and Colonization of Candida Albicans on Metal and Acrylic Piercings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenov N.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral/perioral piercing may provide an ideal environment for adhesion and colonization of microorganisms. The aim of this study is to perform an “in vitro” research on the capabilities of adhesion of Candida albicans on oral piercings made of plastic and metal. Acrylic and metal piercings were incubated with Candida albicans and then were observed using scanning electron microscopy under different magnifications. A lot of irregularities and roughness were observed on the surface of the plastic piercing unlike the surface of the metal one, which is not so rough. Nevertheless, the number of Candida albicans colonies was considerably larger on the scanned metal surface in comparison to the plastic surface. In vitro the metal surface of the piercing creates better environment for the adhesion and colonization of microorganisms than the acrylic. This could be attributed to the electrostatic forces that most likely attract Candida albicans to the metal piercing in the early stages of biofilm formation.

  12. Influence of saliva and mucin on the adhesion of Candida oral clinical isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, C.; Botelho, C.M.; Oliveira, Ana C. N.; Henriques, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This research work intends to clarify the role of artificial saliva, in particularly the role of mucin, a salivary protein, on the surface properties and adhesion ability of Candida spp. oral clinical isolates to abiotic surfaces. Methods: Four oral clinical isolates of Candida spp. were used: two Candida albicans strains (AC; AM) and two Candida parapsilosis strains (AD; AM2). The strains were isolated from patients using oral prosthesis. The microorganisms were cultured in the a...

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Antifungal Activity of Lichochalcone-A against Candida albicans Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleem, Dalia; Benso, Bruna; Noguti, Juliana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is an opportunistic fungal infection with high prevalence among immunocompromised patients. Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen responsible for OC, often manifested in denture stomatitis and oral thrush. Virulence factors, such as biofilms formation and secretion of proteolytic enzymes, are key components in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Given the limited number of available antifungal therapies and the increase in antifungal resistance, demand the search for new safe and effective antifungal treatments. Lichochalcone-A is a polyphenol natural compound, known for its broad protective activities, as an antimicrobial agent. In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity of lichochalcone-A against C. albicans biofilms both in vitro and in vivo. Lichochalcone-A (625 μM; equivalent to 10x MIC) significantly reduced C. albicans (MYA 2876) biofilm growth compared to the vehicle control group (1% ethanol), as indicated by the reduction in the colony formation unit (CFU)/ml/g of biofilm dry weight. Furthermore, proteolytic enzymatic activities of proteinases and phospholipases, secreted by C. albicans were significantly decreased in the lichochalcone-A treated biofilms. In vivo model utilized longitudinal imaging of OC fungal load using a bioluminescent-engineered C. albicans (SKCa23-ActgLUC) and coelenterazine substrate. Mice treated with lichochalcone-A topical treatments exhibited a significant reduction in total photon flux over 4 and 5 days post-infection. Similarly, ex vivo analysis of tongue samples, showed a significant decrease in CFU/ml/mg in tongue tissue sample of lichochalcone-A treated group, which suggest the potential of lichochalcone-A as a novel antifungal agent for future clinical use. PMID:27284694

  14. Comparative transcript profiling of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis identifies SFL2, a C. albicans gene required for virulence in a reconstituted epithelial infection model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spiering, Martin J

    2010-02-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are closely related species displaying differences in virulence and genome content, therefore providing potential opportunities to identify novel C. albicans virulence genes. C. albicans gene arrays were used for comparative analysis of global gene expression in the two species in reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHE). C. albicans (SC5314) showed upregulation of hypha-specific and virulence genes within 30 min postinoculation, coinciding with rapid induction of filamentation and increased RHE damage. C. dubliniensis (CD36) showed no detectable upregulation of hypha-specific genes, grew as yeast, and caused limited RHE damage. Several genes absent or highly divergent in C. dubliniensis were upregulated in C. albicans. One such gene, SFL2 (orf19.3969), encoding a putative heat shock factor, was deleted in C. albicans. DeltaDeltasfl2 cells failed to filament under a range of hypha-inducing conditions and exhibited greatly reduced RHE damage, reversed by reintroduction of SFL2 into the DeltaDeltasfl2 strain. Moreover, SFL2 overexpression in C. albicans triggered hyphal morphogenesis. Although SFL2 deletion had no apparent effect on host survival in the murine model of systemic infection, DeltaDeltasfl2 strain-infected kidney tissues contained only yeast cells. These results suggest a role for SFL2 in morphogenesis and an indirect role in C. albicans pathogenesis in epithelial tissues.

  15. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione, Elena; Gaziano, Roberta; Marino, Daniele; Orlandi, Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. PMID:27199548

  16. Hubungan Kadar Glukosa Darah dengan Pertumbuhan Candida Albicans pada Penderita Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hernawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is comma only hereditary metabolic disorder. The signs were hyperglycemic and glucosuric with or without acute or chronic clinically symptoms. It was cause effectively insulin deficiency. The primary was carbohydrate metabolism disorder which followed lipid and protein metabolism disorders. The increase of boold. Glucose conentration could increase salivary glucose concentration. Glucose was a good media for the growth of microorganism, for example: candida albicans. The most frequently infection on oral mucous diabetes mellitus patients was candidacies. The purpose of the study was to determine the relation of blood glucose concentration and C. albicans growth on oral cavity diabetes mellitus patients. The subject consisted of 8 non regulated diabetes mellitus, 8 regulated diabetes mellitus, and 8 normal patients, respectively. The assessment of blood glucose concentration used Bio-Rad Diastat Halmoglobine A1c method. The growth of C. albicans was determined using swab on oral mucous. The result of swab was into culated on sabaurond agar, than gram stining and glucose test was done. Data was analyzed using spearman test. The result indicated that the growth of C. albicans was eughen on non regulated diabetes mellitus than regulated diabetes mellitus. It's also on regulated diabetes mellitus that normal patient.

  17. Relationship between antifungal resistance of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans and mutations in ERG11 gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Li-juan; WAN Zhe; WANG Xiao-hong; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The cytochrome P450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase(Erg11p) encoded by ERG11 gene is the primary target for azole antifungals.Changes in azole affinity of this enzyme caused by amino acid substitutions have been reported as a mechanism of azole antifungal resistance. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between amino acid substitutions in Erg11p from fluconazole resistant Candida albicans (C.albicans)isolates and their cross-resistance to azoles.Methods Mutations in ERG11 gene were screened in 10 clinical isolates of fluconazole resistant C.albicans strains.DNA sequence of ERG11 was determined by PCR based DNA sequencing.Results In the 10 isolates,19 types of amino acid substitutions were found,of which 10 substitutions (F72S, F103L, F145I, F198L, G206D, G227D, N349S, F416S, F422L and T482A) have not been reported previously. Mutations in ERG11 gene were detected in 9 isolates of fluconazole resistant C. albicans, but were not detected in 1 isolate. Conclusions Although no definite correlation was found between the type of amino acid substitutions in Erg11p and the phenotype of cross-resistance to azoles, the substitutions F72S, F145I and G227D in our study may be highly associated with resistance to azoles because of their special location in Erg11p.

  18. Th17 cells confer long term adaptive immunity to oral mucosal Candida albicans infections

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández-Santos, Nydiaris; Huppler, Anna R; Peterson, Alanna C.; Khader, Shabaana A.; McKenna, Kyle C.; Sarah L Gaffen

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic infection caused by Candida albicans. Despite its prevalence, little is known about C. albicans-specific immunity in the oral mucosa. Vaccines against Candida generate both Th1 and Th17 responses, and considerable evidence implicates IL-17 in immunity to OPC. However, IL-17 is also produced by innate immune cells that are remarkably similar to Th17 cells, expressing the same markers and localizing to similar mucosal sites. To date, the relat...

  19. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, F; A. Raoofi; S. Dadfar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with dentu...

  20. Ultrastructural and biochemical studies of two dynamically expressed cell surface determinants on Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1986-01-01

    Variability in the expression of two different cell surface carbohydrate determinants was examined with two agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibodies (H9 and C6) and immunoelectron microscopy during growth of three strains of Candida albicans. A single strain of Candida parapsilosis did not express either antigen at any time during growth. Antigens were detected on the surface of C. albicans by agglutination tests with either H9 or C6 over a 48-h growth period. The difference in sp...

  1. 白色假丝酵母菌感染的临床分布与药敏及生物膜类型分析%Clinical distribution and drug susceptibility and biological membrane type of Candida albicans infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商安全; 吴健; 潘红超; 王微微; 刘晓明; 魏军

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨白色假丝酵母菌感染的临床分布与药敏率以及产膜能力,为临床合理使用抗真菌药物提供科学依据。方法收集2013年1月-2015年8月住院患者标本分离出7612株真菌,真菌分离培养按《全国临床检验操作规程》进行,采用法国生物梅里埃公司全自动微生物VIT EK‐2 Compact分析仪鉴定到种,体外药敏试验采用纸片K‐B法,采用WHONET 5.6软件进行统计分析,通过结晶紫染色法对白色假丝酵母菌进行生物膜定量分析。结果分离的真菌中白色假丝酵母菌1366株,占17.9%;白色假丝酵母菌主要分离自呼吸科389株及急诊科241株,分别占28.5%及17.6%;白色假丝酵母菌的标本来源主要以痰液最多,其次为尿液及分泌物,分别占68.3%、10.5%及5.8%;白色假丝酵母菌对两性霉素B、伏立康唑、氟康唑、氟胞嘧啶、伊曲康唑的敏感率分别为100.0%、100.0%、99.9%、99.8%、98.0%;标准菌株SC5314为强产生物膜,临床分离的1366株白色假丝酵母菌中弱产生物膜325株、中等产生物膜243株、强产生物膜798株。结论白色假丝酵母菌对两性霉素B、伏立康唑、氟康唑、氟胞嘧啶、伊曲康唑依然保持较高的敏感性,白色假丝酵母菌的临床分布不同,临床治疗应合理选择抗真菌药物,同时加强对真菌耐药性的监测有助于减少耐药菌株的产生,也推动了生物膜产生能力与白色假丝酵母菌的耐药机理及致病性之间关系的进一步研究。%OBJECTIVE To comparatively analyze the clinical distribution ,drug susceptibility and capacity of bio‐logical membrane production of Candida albicans infection ,so as to provide a scientific basis for antifungal agents use in a rational way in clinic .METHODS A total of 7612 strains of fungi were isolated and collected from the pa‐tients'samples in the hospital from Jan .2013

  2. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hanny Wijaya 2); A. Fieki Rachmatillah1); Bachtiar, Boy M.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L) have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans ...

  3. Autophagy is redundant for the host defense against systemic Candida albicans infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Malireddi, R.K.; Plantinga, T.S.; Buffen, K.; Oosting, M.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Perfect, J.R.; Scott, W.K.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Xavier, R.J.; Vosse, E. van de; Kanneganti, T.D.; Johnson, M.D.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has been demonstrated to play an important role in the immunity against intracellular pathogens, but very little is known about its role in the host defense against fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. Therefore, the role of autophagy for the host defense against C. albicans was asse

  4. Candida albicans septicemia in a premature infant successfully treated with oral fluconazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodé, S; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Lars; Hjelt, K

    1992-01-01

    A premature male infant, birth-weight 1460 g, was treated successfully for a Candida albicans septicemia with orally administered fluconazole for 20 days. Dosage was 5 mg/kg/day. No side effects were seen. Fluconazole may present a major progress in treatment of invasive C. albicans infections...

  5. Synthesis of Melanin Pigment by Candida albicans In Vitro and during Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Morris-Jones, Rachael; Gomez, Beatriz L.; Diez, Soraya; Uran, Martha; Morris-Jones, Stephen D.; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Hamilton, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    Melanins are implicated in the pathogenesis of several important human diseases. This study confirmed the presence of melanin particles in Candida albicans in vitro and during infection. Dark particles were isolated from the digestion of C. albicans cultures and from infected tissue, as established by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence techniques.

  6. Systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection mediated by Candida albicans hyphal invasion of mucosal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Schlecht; B.M. Peters; B.P. Krom; J.A. Freiberg; G.M. Hänsch; S.G. Filler; M.A. Jabra-Rizk; M.E. Shirtliff

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated in cases of biofilm-associated infections. C. albicans can cause systemic disease through morphological switch from the rounded yeast to the invasive hyphal form. Alternatively, systemic S. aureus infections arise from seeding through

  7. Manipulation of host diet to reduce gastrointestinal colonization by the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause systemic infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. Infections arise from colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, where C. albicans is part of the normal microflora. Reducing colonization in at-risk patients using antifungal ...

  8. Is Candida albicans a trigger in the onset of coeliac disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Knippels, L.M.J.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Koppelman, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the small intestine that is induced by ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, barley, or rye. We postulate that Candida albicans is a trigger in the onset of coeliac disease. The virulence factor of C albicans - hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1

  9. Cell Wall Polysaccharides of Candida albicans Induce Mast Cell Degranulation in the Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Atsuko; Yamaguchi, Natsu; Sonoyama, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated Candida albicans-induced mast cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo. Cell wall fraction but not culture supernatant and cell membrane fraction prepared from hyphally grown C. albicans induced β-hexosaminidase release in RBL-2H3 cells. Cell wall mannan and soluble β-glucan fractions also induced β-hexosaminidase release. Histological examination of mouse forestomach showed that C. albicans gut colonization induces mast cell degranulation. However, intragastric administration ...

  10. Sap6, a secreted aspartyl proteinase, participates in maintenance the cell surface integrity of Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Buu, Leh-Miauh; Chen, Yee-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Background The polymorphic species Candida albicans is the major cause of candidiasis in humans. The secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) of C. albicans, encoded by a family of 10 SAP genes, have been investigated as the virulent factors during candidiasis. However, the biological functions of most Sap proteins are still uncertain. In this study, we applied co-culture system of C. albicans and THP-1 human monocytes to explore the pathogenic roles and biological functions of Sap proteinases. R...

  11. Funktionelle Analyse einer Familie von Oligopeptidtransportern des humanpathogenen Hefepilzes Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Reuß, Oliver Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Der Hefepilz Candida albicans ist Teil der natürlichen Mikroflora auf den Schleimhäuten des Verdauungs- und Urogenitaltrakts der meisten gesunden Menschen. Allerdings kann C. albicans vor allem in immunsupprimierten Patienten auch schwerwiegende Infektionen verursachen. Diese reichen von oberflächlichen Mykosen bis hin zu lebensbedrohlichen systemischen Infektionen. C. albicans besitzt eine Reihe von Eigenschaften, die es diesem opportunistisch humanpathogenen Pilz ermöglichen unterschiedlich...

  12. Neuroinflammation and structural injury of the fetal ovine brain following intra-amniotic Candida albicans exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Ophelders, Daan R. M. G.; Gussenhoven, Ruth; Lammens, Martin; Küsters, Benno; Kemp, Matthew W.; Newnham, John P; Payne, Matthew S.; Suhas G Kallapur; Jobe, Allan H.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Boris W Kramer; Tim G A M Wolfs

    2016-01-01

    Background Intra-amniotic Candida albicans (C. Albicans) infection is associated with preterm birth and high morbidity and mortality rates. Survivors are prone to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these adverse neonatal brain outcomes remain largely unknown. To better understand the mechanisms underlying C. albicans-induced fetal brain injury, we studied immunological responses and structural changes of the fetal brain in a well-established translational ovine mod...

  13. Elevated Cell Wall Chitin in Candida albicans Confers Echinocandin Resistance In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, K K; MacCallum, D.M; Jacobsen, M.D.; Walker, L A; Odds, F C; Gow, N. A. R.; Munro, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Candida albicans cells with increased cell wall chitin have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether C. albicans cells with elevated chitin levels have reduced echinocandin susceptibility in vivo. BALB/c mice were infected with C. albicans cells with normal chitin levels and compared to mice infected with high-chitin cells. Caspofungin therapy was initiated at 24 h postinfection. Mice infected with chitin-normal cells were successfully tre...

  14. Anti-Candida albicans activity of Pichia anomala as determined by a growth rate reduction assay.

    OpenAIRE

    Sawant, A D; Abdelal, A T; Ahearn, D G

    1988-01-01

    Killer toxin activity of Pichia anomala WC65 appeared fungicidal for P. bimundalis WC38 and fungistatic for Candida albicans RC1. Inhibitory activity against sensitive C. albicans showed a linear relationship between toxin concentrations and the inverse of the reduced growth rates. The plot of toxin concentrations against growth rates was hyperbolic, as is characteristic of saturation kinetics. Sensitivity of C. albicans to the toxin decreased with increased cell age. The measurement of growt...

  15. Self-Regulation of Candida albicans Population Size during GI Colonization

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sarah Jane; Rosenbach, Ari; Lephart, Paul; Nguyen, Diem; Benjamin, Alana; Tzipori, Saul; Whiteway, Malcolm; Mecsas, Joan; Kumamoto, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between colonizing commensal microorganisms and their hosts play important roles in health and disease. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans is a common component of human intestinal flora. To gain insight into C. albicans colonization, genes expressed by fungi grown within a host were studied. The EFH1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor, was highly expressed during growth of C. albicans in the intestinal tract. Counterintuitively, an efh1 null mutant ex...

  16. A piglet model for studying Candida albicans colonization of the human oro-gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeflinger, Jennifer L; Coleman, David A; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Miller, Michael J; Hoyer, Lois L

    2014-08-01

    Pigs from a variety of sources were surveyed for oro-gastrointestinal (oro-GIT) carriage of Candida albicans. Candida albicans-positive animals were readily located, but we also identified C. albicans-free pigs. We hypothesized that pigs could be stably colonized with a C. albicans strain of choice, simply by feeding yeast cells. Piglets were farrowed routinely and remained with the sow for 4 days to acquire a normal microbiota. Piglets were then placed in an artificial rearing environment and fed sow milk replacer. Piglets were inoculated orally with one of three different C. albicans strains. Piglets were weighed daily, and culture swabs were collected to detect C. albicans orally, rectally and in the piglet's environment. Stable C. albicans colonization over the course of the study did not affect piglet growth. Necropsy revealed mucosally associated C. albicans throughout the oro-GIT with the highest abundance in the esophagus. Uninoculated control piglets remained C. albicans-negative. These data establish the piglet as a model to study C. albicans colonization of the human oro-GIT. Similarities between oro-GIT colonization in humans and pigs, as well as the ease of working with the piglet model, suggest its adaptability for use among investigators interested in understanding C. albicans-host commensal interactions.

  17. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  18. Potent Antifungal Activity of Pure Compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Extracts against Six Oral Candida Species and the Synergy with Fluconazole against Azole-Resistant Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Yan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antifungal activities of four traditional Chinese medicine (TCM extracts. The inhibitory effects of pseudolaric acid B, gentiopicrin, rhein, and alion were assessed using standard disk diffusion and broth microdilution assays. They were tested against six oral Candida species, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida guilliermondii, including clinical isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. It was found that pseudolaric acid B had the most potent antifungal effect and showed similar antifungal activity to all six Candida spp, and to isolates from HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and Sjögren's syndrome patients. The MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 μg/mL. More interestingly, a synergistic effect of pseudolaric acid B in combination with fluconazole was observed. We suggest that pseudolaric acid B might be a potential therapeutic fungicidal agent in treating oral candidiasis.

  19. Candida albicans biofilm development in vitro for photodynamic therapy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a phototherapy based on the use of a photo sensitizer (PS) in the presence of low intensity light with resonant wavelength of absorption of the PS and biological systems that can raise awareness, generating reactive oxygen species. Studies show that PDT has a lethal effect on Candida albicans. The biofilm formed by C. albicans is the cause of infections associated with medical devices such as catheters, with a proven resistance to antifungal agents, and the removal of the catheter colonized almost always is necessary. However, few studies in literature report the behavior and response of biofilm organized by C. albicans against PDT. The aims of this study were to develop a methodology for in vitro biofilm formation of C. albicans, evaluate the sensitivity of the biofilm of C. albicans to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy using PS as the methylene blue (MB) and hypocrellin B: La+3 (HBLa+3) and analyze the biofilm by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). For biofilm formation, discs were made from elastomeric silicone catheters. The PS were dissolved in solution of PBS, and the MB had two different concentrations tested in the biofilm: 100μM and 1mM; HBLa+3 only one of 10μM. The irradiation of both dyes with the microorganism was done by two different LEDs, one with red emission at λ = 630nm ± 20nm and the other one blue emission at λ = 460nm ± 30nm. We performed a curve of survival fraction versus time of irradiation of each sample with biofilm and suspension of the microorganism in the yeast form to verify the susceptibility of the front PDT. The yeast showed 100% reduction using both PS, but at different times of irradiation (30s to HBLa+3 and 6 min for the MB at 100μM). When the therapy was applied in biofilm, the MB 100μM did not show any significant reduction, while at concentration of 1mM was reduced by 100% after 6 min of irradiation. The HBLa+3 biofilm group showed a lower reduction in the concentration of 10μM in

  20. Candida albicans-associated necrotizing vasculitis producing life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sargent, Jeremy

    2012-02-01

    Patients undergoing treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at risk for fungal infections including disseminated candidiasis. We describe a case of systemic Candida albicans infection associated with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to unusual necrotizing vasculitis involving the gastrointestinal tract. We explore the association between Candida and such vasculopathy.

  1. Antifungal activities of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. bark extracts against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouattara Sitapha

    2013-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous and hydroacoholic extracts from bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae. In vitro antifungal activity of all the extracts was done by agar slant double dilution method. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus clinically important strains were used for the study. ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. Antifungal activity was determinated by evaluating of antifungal parameters values which are MCF (minimal concentration fungicide and IC50 (Concentration for 50% of inhibition around each assay. Result showed that the antifungal activity was more pronounced against Aspergillus fumigatus than Candida albicans. The hydroalcoholic extract showed best antifungal activity than ketoconazole. Demonstration of antifungal activity of T. ivorensis provides the scientific basis for the use of this plant in the traditional treatment of diseases and may help to discover new chemical classes of antifungal substances that could serve as selective agents for infectious disease chemotherapy. Keywords: Terminalia ivorensis, antifungal activity, clinical strains, hydroalcoholic extract [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 49-52

  2. Virulence and pathogenicity of Candida albicans is enhanced in biofilms containing oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Morse, Daniel James; da Silva, Wander José; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; Wei, Xiaoqing; Wilson, Melanie; Milward, Paul; Lewis, Michael; Bradshaw, David; Williams, David Wynne

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of bacteria on the virulence and pathogenicity of candidal biofilms. Mature biofilms (Candida albicans-only, bacteria-only, C. albicans with bacteria) were generated on acrylic and either analysed directly, or used to infect a reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE). Analyses included Candida hyphae enumeration and assessment of Candida virulence gene expression. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and Candida tissue invasion following biofilm infection of the RHOE were also measured. Candida hyphae were more prevalent (p biofilms also containing bacteria, with genes encoding secreted aspartyl-proteinases (SAP4/SAP6) and hyphal-wall protein (HWP1) up-regulated (p biofilm infections of RHOE. Multi-species infections exhibited higher hyphal proportions (p biofilms promoted Candida virulence, consideration should be given to the bacterial component when managing denture biofilm associated candidoses.

  3. Humoral immunity links Candida albicans infection and celiac disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Corouge

    Full Text Available The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI.Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC. IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1.CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004 and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009 antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039. During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides.Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  4. The fungus Candida albicans tolerates ambiguity at multiple codons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Salvador Simões

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The ascomycete Candida albicans is a normal resident of the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It occurs in a broad range of body sites and has high capacity to survive and proliferate in adverse environments with drastic changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide, pH, osmolarity, nutrients and temperature. Its biology is unique due to flexible reassignment of the leucine CUG codon to serine and synthesis of statistical proteins. Under standard growth conditions 3% of leucine and 97% of serine are incorporated at CUG sites on a proteome wide scale, but leucine incorporation fluctuates in response to environmental stressors and can be artificially increased up to 98%. In order to determine whether such flexibility also exists at other codons, we have constructed several serine tRNAs that decode various non-cognate codons. Expression of these tRNAs had minor effects on fitness, but growth of the mistranslating strains at different temperatures, in medium with different pH and nutrients composition was often enhanced relatively to the wild type (WT strain, supporting our previous data on adaptive roles of CUG ambiguity in variable growth conditions. Parallel evolution of the recombinant strains (100 generations followed by full genome resequencing identified various strain specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and one SNP in the deneddylase (JAB1 gene in all strains. Since JAB1 is a subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex, which interacts with cullin (Cdc53p to mediate degradation of a variety of cellular proteins, our data suggest that neddylation plays a key role in tolerance and adaptation to codon ambiguity in C. albicans.

  5. Humoral Immunity Links Candida albicans Infection and Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradin, Chantal; Salleron, Julia; Damiens, Sébastien; Moragues, Maria Dolores; Souplet, Vianney; Jouault, Thierry; Robert, Raymond; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Sendid, Boualem; Colombel, Jean Fréderic; Poulain, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The protein Hwp1, expressed on the pathogenic phase of Candida albicans, presents sequence analogy with the gluten protein gliadin and is also a substrate for transglutaminase. This had led to the suggestion that C. albicans infection (CI) may be a triggering factor for Celiac disease (CeD) onset. We investigated cross-immune reactivity between CeD and CI. Methods Serum IgG levels against recombinant Hwp1 and serological markers of CeD were measured in 87 CeD patients, 41 CI patients, and 98 healthy controls (HC). IgA and IgG were also measured in 20 individuals from each of these groups using microchips sensitized with 38 peptides designed from the N-terminal of Hwp1. Results CI and CeD patients had higher levels of anti-Hwp1 (p=0.0005 and p=0.004) and anti-gliadin (p=0.002 and p=0.0009) antibodies than HC but there was no significant difference between CeD and CI patients. CeD and CI patients had higher levels of anti-transglutaminase IgA than HC (p=0.0001 and p=0.0039). During CI, the increase in anti-Hwp1 paralleled the increase in anti-gliadin antibodies. Microchip analysis showed that CeD patients were more reactive against some Hwp1 peptides than CI patients, and that some deamidated peptides were more reactive than their native analogs. Binding of IgG from CeD patients to Hwp1 peptides was inhibited by γIII gliadin peptides. Conclusions Humoral cross-reactivity between Hwp1 and gliadin was observed during CeD and CI. Increased reactivity to Hwp1 deamidated peptide suggests that transglutaminase is involved in this interplay. These results support the hypothesis that CI may trigger CeD onset in genetically-susceptible individuals. PMID:25793717

  6. Susceptibility of Candida albicans to new synthetic sulfone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Ochal, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    The influence of halogenated methyl sulfones, i.e. bromodichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (named halogenated methyl sulfone 1), dichloromethyl-4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 2), and chlorodibromomethyl-4-hydrazino-3-nitrophenyl sulfone (halogenated methyl sulfone 3), on cell growth inhibition, aspartic protease gene (SAP4-6) expression, adhesion to epithelium, and filamentation was investigated. Antifungal susceptibility of the halogenated methyl sulfones was determined with the M27-A3 protocol in the range of 16-0.0313 µg/mL. Adherence to Caco-2 cells was performed in 24-well plates; relative quantification was normalized against ACT1 in cells after 18 h of growth in YEPD and on Caco-2 cells. SAP4-6 expression was analyzed using RT-PCR. Structure-activity relationship studies suggested that halogenated methyl sulfone 1 containing bromodichloromethyl or dichloromethyl function at C-4 (halogenated methyl sulfone 2) of the phenyl ring showed the best activity (100% cell inhibition at 0.5 µg/mL), while hydrazine at C-1 (halogenated methyl sulfone 3) reduced the sulfone potential (100% = 4 µg/mL). SAP4-6 were up- or down-regulated depending on the strains' genetic background and the substitutions on the phenyl ring. Halogenated methyl sulfone 2 repressed germination and affected adherence to epithelium (P ≤ 0.05). The tested halogenated methyl sulfones interfered with the adhesion of Candida albicans cells to the epithelial tissues, without affecting their viability after 90 min of incubation. The mode of action of the halogenated methyl sulfones was attributed to the reduced virulence of C. albicans. SAP5 and SAP6 contribute to halogenated methyl sulfones resistance. Thus, halogenated methyl sulfones can inhibit biofilm formation due to their interference with adherence and with the yeast-to-hyphae transition.

  7. Sampling of Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis by Langerin-positive dendritic cells in mouse Peyer's patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Magdia; Rodriguez, Adam E; Yagita, Hideo; Ostroff, Gary R; Mantis, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Members of the Candida genus, including C. albicans and C. tropicalis are opportunistic fungal pathogens that are increasingly associated with gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory bowel diseases. In healthy populations, however, C. albicans and C. tropicalis are considered benign members of the mycobiome, and are presumably kept in check by the mucosal immune system. In this study, we demonstrate in mice that C. albicans and C. tropicalis are sampled by Peyer's patch (PP) dendritic cells (DCs). Uptake into gut-associated lymphoid tissues occurred rapidly and was at least partly M cell-dependent. C. albicans and C. tropicalis preferentially localized in (and persisted within) a recently identified sub- population of Peyer's patch DCs distinguished by their expression of the C-type lectin receptor, Langerin. This study is the first to identify a subset of PP DCs capable of sampling Candida species.

  8. New type of antibody-enzyme conjugate which specifically kills Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, K; Ishiwara, K; Noguchi, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Tadokoro, I

    1980-01-01

    A new type of antibody-enzyme conjugate was made, and its possible application to Candida infection was studied. Both lactoperoxidase and xanthine oxidase were conjugated to specific antibody against Candida albicans. In vitro microbiocidal activity of the new antibody-enzyme conjugate, when incubated together with xanthine and minute amount of halides, showed a remarkable level of candidacidal ability. When the new antibody-enzyme conjugate was given to Candida-infected mice, followed by inj...

  9. In vivo inhibitory effect on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans by liverwort derived riccardin D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl isolated from Chinese liverwort Dumortiera hirsute, has been proved to have inhibitory effect on biofilms formation of Candida albicans in in vitro study. Our present study aims to investigate the in vivo effect and mechanisms of riccardin D against C. albicans biofilms when used alone or in combination with clinical using antifungal agent fluconazole. XTT reduction assay revealed riccardin D had both prophylactic and therapeutic effect against C. albicans biofilms formation in a dose-dependent manner when using a central venous catheter related infective animal model. Scanning electron microscope and laser confocal scanning microscope showed that the morphology of biofilms was altered remarkably after riccardin D treatment, especially hypha growth inhibition. To uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms, quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to observe the variation of related genes. The downregulation of hypha-specific genes such as ALS1, ALS3, ECE1, EFG1, HWP1 and CDC35 following riccardin D treatment suggested riccardin D inhibited the Ras-cAMP-Efg pathway to retard the hypha formation, then leading to the defect of biofilms maturation. Moreover, riccardin D displayed an increased antifungal activity when administered in combination with fluconazole. Our study provides a potential clinical application to eliminate the biofilms of relevant pathogens.

  10. The role of candida albicans in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Sepahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is related to many genetic, and environmental factors, as well as infectious pathogens. Findings suggest that the Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the possible association between C. albicans and the prevalence of psoriasis. Methods: A systematic search of existing literature was performed in the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases and the Google search engine using the following search strategy ((Candida albicans OR C. albicans OR Candida AND (psoriasis vulgaris OR plaque psoriasis OR psoriasis to find relevant articles that described a possible positive or negative association between C. albicans and the incidence or progression of psoriasis. The search was not limited to articles that were published within a specific time period; however, only those written in the English language were included in the review.Result: Of the 499 articles in total that were identified during the initial database search, 491 were excluded from the review because they failed to meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The total number of people involved in the selected studies, including both patients and healthy controls, was 1260. The analysis of the results of the included documents showed that the colonization of C. albicans is more prevalent in biological specimens taken from psoriatic patients.Conclusion: Studies show that C. albicans, opportunistic yeast, like diploid fungus, may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  11. Effect of Low-Level Laser therapy on the fungal proliferation of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Vanda S. M.; Araújo, Natália C.; Menezes, Rebeca F. d.; Moreno, Lara M.; Santos-Neto, Alexandrino d. P.; Gerbi, Marleny Elizabeth M.

    2016-03-01

    Candida albicans plays an important role in triggering infections in HIV+ patients. The indiscriminate use of antifungals has led to resistance to Candida albicans, which requires new treatment alternatives for oral candidiasis. Low-level laser therapy promotes a considerable improvement in the healing of wounds and in curing illnesses caused by microorganisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of laser radiation on the cell proliferation of Candida albicans in immunosuppressed patients. Six Candida albicans strains that had been isolated from immunosuppressed patients were divided into a control group and experimental groups, which received eight sessions of laser therapy (InGaAlP, λ685nm, P = 30mW, CW, Φ~6 mm and GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW, CW, Φ~6 mm) using dosimetries of 6J/cm2, 8J/cm2, 10J/cm2 and 12J/cm2 for each wavelength and power. The results were not statistically significant (Kruskal Wallis, p > 0.05), although the proliferation of Candida albicans was lower in some of the experimental groups. The dosimetry of 6J/cm2 (GaAlAs, λ830nm, P = 40mW) provided lower mean scores than the other groups for the growth of Candida. Further studies are required to confirm whetehr laser therapy is a viable option in the treatment of fungal infections.

  12. Successful Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Treatment of Relapsing Candida albicans Meningoencephalitis Caused by CARD9 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celmeli, Fatih; Oztoprak, Nefise; Turkkahraman, Doga; Seyman, Derya; Mutlu, Esvet; Frede, Natalie; Köksoy, Sadi; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2016-04-01

    Caspase-associated recruitment domain-9 (CARD9) deficiency is an autosomal-recessive primary immunodeficiency with genetic defects in Th17 immunity marked by susceptibility to recurrent and invasive Candida infections. We present a case of relapsing Candida albicans meningoencephalitis over 1-year period despite appropriate antifungal therapy. We detected a homozygous p.Q295X mutation in CARD9 as well as a defective interleukin-17 and interferon gamma synthesis in Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot tests. We achieved complete clinical remission, and improvement of interleukin-17 secretion with subcutaneous granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) treatment. PMID:26658378

  13. Molecular mechanisms of primary resistance to flucytosine in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William W; Tabernero, Lydia; Denning, David W; Anderson, Michael J

    2004-11-01

    Primary resistance in Candida albicans to flucytosine (5-FC) was investigated in 25 strains by identifying and sequencing the genes FCA1, FUR1, FCY21, and FCY22, which code for cytosine deaminase, uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT), and two purine-cytosine permeases, respectively. These proteins are involved in pyrimidine salvage and 5-FC metabolism. An association between a polymorphic nucleotide and resistance to 5-FC was found within FUR1 where the substitution of cytidylate for thymidylate at nucleotide position 301 results in the replacement of arginine with cysteine at amino acid position 101 in UPRT. Isolates that are homozygous for this mutation display increased levels of resistance to 5-FC, whereas heterozygous isolates have reduced susceptibility. Three-dimensional protein modeling of UPRT suggests that the Arg101Cys mutation disturbs the quaternary structure of the enzyme, which is postulated to compromise optimal enzyme activity. A single resistant isolate, lacking the above polymorphism in FUR1, has a homozygous polymorphism in FCA1 that results in a glycine-to-aspartate substitution at position 28 in cytosine deaminase.

  14. The Role of IL-33 in Host Response to Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rodríguez-Cerdeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Interleukin (IL 33 is a recently identified pleiotropic cytokine that influences the activity of multiple cell types and orchestrates complex innate and adaptive immune responses. Methods. We performed an extensive review of the literature published between 2005 and 2013 on IL-33 and related cytokines, their functions, and their regulation of the immune system following Candida albicans colonization. Our literature review included cross-references from retrieved articles and specific data from our own studies. Results. IL-33 (IL-1F11 is a recently identified member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Accumulating evidence suggests a pivotal role of the IL-33/ST2 axis in host immune defense against fungal pathogens, including C. albicans. IL-33 induces a Th2-type inflammatory response and activates both innate and adaptive immunity. Studies in animal models have shown that Th2 inflammatory responses have a beneficial role in immunity against gastrointestinal and systemic infections by Candida spp. Conclusions. This review summarizes the most important clinical studies and case reports describing the beneficial role of IL-33 in immunity and host defense mechanisms against pathogenic fungi. The finding that the IL-33/ST2 axis is involved in therapeutic target has implications for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases, including acute or chronic candidiasis.

  15. PCR melting profile (PCR MP - a new tool for differentiation of Candida albicans strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Magdalena

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported the use of PCR Melting Profile (PCR MP technique based on using low denaturation temperatures during ligation mediated PCR (LM PCR for bacterial strain differentiation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate this method for intra-species differentiation of Candida albicans strains. Methods In total 123 Candida albicans strains (including 7 reference, 11 clinical unrelated, and 105 isolates from patients of two hospitals in Poland were examined using three genotyping methods: PCR MP, macrorestriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques. Results The genotyping results of the PCR MP were compared with results from REA-PFGE and RAPD techniques giving 27, 26 and 25 unique types, respectively. The results showed that the PCR MP technique has at least the same discriminatory power as REA-PFGE and RAPD. Conclusion Data presented here show for the first time the evaluation of PCR MP technique for candidial strains differentiation and we propose that this can be used as a relatively simple and cheap technique for epidemiological studies in short period of time in hospital.

  16. An essential role for the NLRP3 inflammasome in host defense against the human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Hise, Amy G.; Tomalka, Jeffrey; Ganesan, Sandhya; Patel, Krupen; Hall, Brian A.; Brown, Gordon D.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen causing life-threatening mucosal and systemic infections in immunocompromised humans. Using a murine model of mucosal Candida infection we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in host-defense to Candida albicans. We find that the synthesis, processing and release of IL-1β in response to Candida are tightly controlled and first require transcriptional induction, followed by a second signal leading to caspase-1 mediated...

  17. Tc-99m-HMPAO-Labeled leukocyte SPECT/CT in pediatrics: detecting Candida albicans tricuspid endocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Edet-Sanson, Agathe; Gaucher, Stephane; Vera, Pierre; Cloirec, Joseph Le [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen Univ. Hospital, Rouen (France)

    2015-12-15

    These results led to performing TEE, which showed tricuspid vegetation. Blood cultures were then positive to Candida albicans. Control blood cultures and TEE performed 6 weeks later after adapted antifungal therapy remained negative. In accordance with the results of Erba and al., this case illustrates the usefulness of late thoracic SPECT-CT acquisition of a WBC scan in a patient with high clinical suspicion of endocarditis and identified risk factors but inconclusive echocardiographic findings.

  18. Potent Synergistic Effect of Doxycycline with Fluconazole against Candida albicans Is Mediated by Interference with Iron Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Fiori, Alessandro; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Doxycycline was found to act synergistically with the antifungal fluconazole against Candida albicans. Combination with doxycycline converts fluconazole from fungistatic to fungicidal, prevents the onset of drug resistance, and is also effective against a clinical isolate characterized by elevated resistance to fluconazole. Investigation of the interactions between the two drugs by way of checkerboard assays indicated that doxycycline had an influence on the MIC for fluconazole, as defined by...

  19. Breakthrough Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans double infection during caspofungin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo; Buzina, Walter;

    2009-01-01

    Caspofungin is used for the treatment of acute invasive candidiasis and as salvage treatment for invasive aspergillosis. We report characteristics of isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus detected in a patient with breakthrough infection complicating severe gastrointestinal surgery...... without FSK1 resistance mutations in liver and lung tissues. Breakthrough disseminated aspergillosis and candidiasis developed despite an absence of characteristic FKS1 resistance mutations in the Aspergillus isolates. EUCAST and CLSI methodology did not separate the candin-resistant clinical isolate from...

  20. The role of pattern recognition receptors in the innate recognition of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan-Xin; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dan-Dan; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  1. Biofilm formation is a risk factor for mortality in patients with Candida albicans bloodstream infection—Scotland, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, R.; Sherry, L.; Nile, C.J.; Sherriff, A.; Johnson, E.M.; Hanson, M.F.; Williams, C.; Munro, C.A.; Jones, B.J.; Ramage, G.

    2016-01-01

    Bloodstream infections caused by Candida species remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Biofilm formation by Candida species is an important virulence factor for disease pathogenesis. A prospective analysis of patients with Candida bloodstream infection (n = 217) in Scotland (2012–2013) was performed to assess the risk factors associated with patient mortality, in particular the impact of biofilm formation. Candida bloodstream isolates (n = 280) and clinical records for 157 patients were collected through 11 different health boards across Scotland. Biofilm formation by clinical isolates was assessed in vitro with standard biomass assays. The role of biofilm phenotype on treatment efficacy was also evaluated in vitro by treating preformed biofilms with fixed concentrations of different classes of antifungal. Available mortality data for 134 patients showed that the 30-day candidaemia case mortality rate was 41%, with predisposing factors including patient age and catheter removal. Multivariate Cox regression survival analysis for 42 patients showed a significantly higher mortality rate for Candida albicans infection than for Candida glabrata infection. Biofilm-forming ability was significantly associated with C. albicans mortality (34 patients). Finally, in vitro antifungal sensitivity testing showed that low biofilm formers and high biofilm formers were differentially affected by azoles and echinocandins, but not by polyenes. This study provides further evidence that the biofilm phenotype represents a significant clinical entity, and that isolates with this phenotype differentially respond to antifungal therapy in vitro. Collectively, these findings show that greater clinical understanding is required with respect to Candida biofilm infections, and the implications of isolate heterogeneity. PMID:26432192

  2. Proteomic profiling of serologic response to Candida albicans during host-commensal and host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Aida; Nombela, César; Gil, Concha

    2009-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal inhabitant of the normal human microflora that can become pathogenic and invade almost all body sites and organs in response to both host-mediated and fungus-mediated mechanisms. Serologic responses to C. albicans that underlie its dichotomist relationship with the host (host-commensal and host-pathogen interactions) display a high degree of heterogeneity, resulting in distinct serum anti-Candida antibody signatures (molecular fingerprints of anti-Candida antibodies in serum) that can be used to discriminate commensal colonization from invasive disease. We describe the typical proteomic strategy to globally and integratively profile these host antibody responses and determine serum antibody signatures. This approach is based on the combination of classic immunoproteomics or serologic proteome analysis (two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by quantitative Western blotting and mass spectrometry) with data mining procedures. This global proteomic stratagem is a useful tool not only for obtaining an overview of different anti-Candida antibodies that are being elicited during the host-fungus interaction and, consequently, of the complex C. albicans immunome (the subset of the C. albicans proteome targeted by the immune system), but also for evaluating how this pathogen organism interacts with its host to trigger infection. In contrast with genomics and transcriptomics, this proteomic technology has the potential to detect antigenicity associated with posttranslational modification, subcellular localization, and other functional aspects that can be relevant in the host immune response. Furthermore, this strategy to define molecular fingerprints of serum anti-Candida antibodies may hopefully bring to light potential candidates for diagnosis, prognosis, risk stratification, clinical follow-up, therapeutic monitoring, and/or immunotherapy of candidiasis, especially of its life-threatening systemic forms. PMID:19089396

  3. Synergistic Interactions of Eugenol-tosylate and Its Congeners with Fluconazole against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aijaz; Wani, Mohmmad Younus; Khan, Amber; Manzoor, Nikhat; Molepo, Julitha

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported the antifungal properties of a monoterpene phenol "Eugenol" against different Candida strains and have observed that the addition of methyl group to eugenol drastically increased its antimicrobial potency. Based on the results and the importance of medicinal synthetic chemistry, we synthesized eugenol-tosylate and its congeners (E1-E6) and tested their antifungal activity against different clinical fluconazole (FLC)- susceptible and FLC- resistant C. albicans isolates alone and in combination with FLC by determining fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) and isobolograms calculated from microdilution assays. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results confirmed that all the tested C. albicans strains were variably susceptible to the semi-synthetic derivatives E1-E6, with MIC values ranging from 1-62 μg/ml. The test compounds in combination with FLC exhibited either synergy (36%), additive (41%) or indifferent (23%) interactions, however, no antagonistic interactions were observed. The MICs of FLC decreased 2-9 fold when used in combination with the test compounds. Like their precursor eugenol, all the derivatives showed significant impairment of ergosterol biosynthesis in all C. albicans strains coupled with down regulation of the important ergosterol biosynthesis pathway gene-ERG11. The results were further validated by docking studies, which revealed that the inhibitors snugly fitting the active site of the target enzyme, mimicking fluconazole, may well explain their excellent inhibitory activity. Our results suggest that these compounds have a great potential as antifungals, which can be used as chemosensitizing agents with the known antifungal drugs.

  4. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the pathogenesis of Candida albicans in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation addresses questions concerning the effects of UV radiation on the pathogenesis of opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans. UV radiation decreased the survival of Candida-infected mice; however, no correlation was found between suppression of the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the course of lethal infection. This suggested that DTH was not protective against lethal disease with this organism. UV radiation also changed the persistence of the organism in the internal organs. UV-irradiated, infected animals had increased numbers of Candida in their kidneys compared to non-irradiated mice. Sensitization prior to UV irradiation aided clearance of the organism from the kidneys of UV-irradiated mice. These data show that UV radiation suppresses cell-mediated immunity to Candida albicans in mice and increases mortality of Candida-infected mice. Moreover, the data suggest that an increase in environmental UV radiation could increase the severity of pathogenic infections

  5. 白假丝酵母菌简便培养方法的建立及临床应用研究%The constrution and clinical application of convenient Candida albicans cultivation method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲; 侯佳宜; 高颖; 杨少芳; 任建平

    2014-01-01

    culture media were com-pared with conventional pour-plate method. The detection rates of fresh homemade culture media and culture media saved 6 months at 2~8℃were compared. Results The Candida albicans detection rates of homemade culture media and conventional culture media were 38.4%and 26.1%, respectively among 307 samples from 2011 to 2013. The detection rates of homemade culture media in vaginal secretions and sputum samples were better than that of conventional pour-plate method, and the differences all had statistical significance (Pall0.05). The colonial morphology were plesiomorphism, and almost the other bacterium were depressed in the two culture medias. The colonial morphology shown blue in conventional culture media , but shown cream in homemade culture media. There were no statistical significance in sputum sample ,vaginal se-cretions and the other samples between fresh homemade culture media and culture media saved 6 months at 2~8℃(Pall>0.05). The detection rate of the other pathogenic bacterium except Candida albicans in vaginal se-cretions from 2006 to 2010 was 16.7%(475/2840),including 87 cases combined Candida albicans, and the positive rate was 3.1%(87/2840). Conclusion The fungus convenient culture media is simple made, low cost, and well selected to Candida albicans, which can be used widely in grassroots medical institutions.

  6. Person-to-person transfer of Candida albicans in the spacecraft environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Magee, B. B.; Mishra, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    We assessed the exchange of Candida albicans among crew members during 10 Space Shuttle missions. Throat, nasal, urine and faecal specimens were collected from 61 crew members twice before and once after space flights ranging from 7 to 10 days in duration; crews consisted of groups of five, six or seven men and women. Candida albicans was isolated at least once from 20 of the 61 subjects (33%). Candida strains were identified by restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) after digestion by the endonucleases EcoRI and HinfI; further discrimination was gained by Southern blot hybridization with the C. albicans repeat fragment 27A. Eighteen of the 20 Candida-positive crew members carried different strains of C. albicans in the specimens collected. Possible transfer of C. albicans between members of the same crew was demonstrated only once in the 10 missions studied. We conclude that the transfer of C. albicans among crew members during Space Shuttle flights is less frequent than had been predicted from earlier reports.

  7. Antifungal Activity of Lavandula Angustifolia and Quergues Infectoria Extracts in Comparison with Nystatin on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nouri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays,herbal extracts are used to treat diseases, especially infec-tious ones. Candida albicans is the most common causes of oral opportunistic infections.In this study, antifungal effects of two herbal extracts were evaluated on an oral pathogen i.e. Candida albicans. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study, the Department of Prosthodontics, ,Tehran University of Medical Sciences, school of Dentistry the oral samples of 25 patients with denture stomatitis were collected using sterile swabs. Then the isolated candida albicans and standard candida albicans PTCC 5027 were cultured. The antifungal effect was evaluated with disk plate method. Nystatin and methanol were used as positive and negative control groups, respectively. The power of antifungal activity was evaluated with the inhibition zone diameter of each of the extracts. At the end, the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fried-man statistical tests. Results: Results showed that extracts of Querques infectoria had great antifungal effects. There was not statistically significant difference between nystatine and Querques infectoria extract (P>0.05 however , Querques infectoria was statistically more effective than lavender extract and nystatin showed the highest antifungal activity (P <0.001. Conclusion: This study showed that plant extracts had positive effects on Candida albicans as compared to nystatin. Thus, we hope to find new herbal medicines and compounds to treat candidiasis in the future. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2016; 23 (2:172-178

  8. Intra-amniotic Candida albicans infection induces mucosal injury and inflammation in the ovine fetal intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforou, Maria; Jacobs, Esmee M R; Kemp, Matthew W; Hornef, Mathias W; Payne, Matthew S; Saito, Masatoshi; Newnham, John P; Janssen, Leon E W; Jobe, Alan H; Kallapur, Suhas G; Kramer, Boris W; Wolfs, Tim G A M

    2016-01-01

    Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-α and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy. PMID:27411776

  9. Blocking of Candida albicans biofilm formation by cis-2-dodecenoic acid and trans-2-dodecenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqian; Cai, Chen; Yang, Yuxiang; Weng, Lixing; Wang, Lianhui

    2011-11-01

    Candida is an important opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Infections caused by Candida albicans are related to the formation of a biofilm. The biofilm enhances the resistance of the C. albicans defence system, increases its resistance to antifungal drugs and induces increased drug tolerance, making clinical care more challenging. The in vitro activity of cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF; a diffusible signal factor from Burkholderia cenocepacia) and trans-2-dodecenoic acid (trans-BDSF) against C. albicans growth, germ-tube germination and biofilm formation was estimated by absorbance measurements and microscopic assessments. C. albicans biofilms were prepared using a static microtitre plate model. Quantitative analysis of biofilm formation was performed using a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfo-phenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of BDSF and trans-BDSF at different stages of biofilm formation. Reductions in biofilm structure and formation were visualized by inverted microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was employed to estimate the mRNA expression levels of the hyphae-specific genes HWP1 and ALS3. It was found that 30 µM of either BDSF or trans-BDSF reduced germ-tube formation by approximately 70 % without inhibiting yeast growth. Yeast growth was strongly repressed by the exogenous addition of 300 µM BDSF and trans-BDSF at 0 and 1 h after cell attachment, with biofilm formation being reduced by approximately 90 and 60 %, respectively. BDSF and trans-BDSF were more effective against biofilm formation than farnesol and the diffusible signal factor cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid. None of the four drugs was able to destroy pre-formed biofilms. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that HWP1 was downregulated by approximately 90 % and ALS3 was downregulated by 70-80 % by 60 µM BDSF and trans-BDSF, implying that BDSF and trans-BDSF block C. albicans biofilm formation by interfering with the morphological

  10. Fungal β-1,3-Glucan Increases Ofloxacin Tolerance of Escherichia coli in a Polymicrobial E. coli/Candida albicans Biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    De Brucker, Katrijn; Tan, Yulong; Vints, Katlijn; De Cremer, Kaat; Braem, Annabel; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Vleugels, Jef; Bruno P.A. Cammue; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    In the past, biofilm-related research has focused mainly on axenic biofilms. However, in nature, biofilms are often composed of multiple species, and the resulting polymicrobial interactions influence industrially and clinically relevant outcomes such as performance and drug resistance. In this study, we show that Escherichia coli does not affect Candida albicans tolerance to amphotericin or caspofungin in an E. coli/C. albicans biofilm. In contrast, ofloxacin tolerance of E. coli is signific...

  11. The R467K Amino Acid Substitution in Candida albicans Sterol 14α-Demethylase Causes Drug Resistance through Reduced Affinity

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, David C.; Kelly, Diane E.; White, Theodore C.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2000-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) of Candida albicans is involved in an essential step of ergosterol biosynthesis and is the target for azole antifungal compounds. We have undertaken site-directed mutation of C. albicans CYP51 to produce a recombinant mutant protein with the amino acid substitution R467K corresponding to a mutation observed clinically. This alteration perturbed the heme environment causing an altered reduced-carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a maximum ...

  12. Imaging morphogenesis of Candida albicans during infection in a live animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Soumya; Dolan, Kristy; Foster, Thomas H.; Wellington, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen that requires an intact host immune response to prevent disease. Thus, studying host-pathogen interactions is critical to understanding and preventing this disease. We report a new model infection system in which ongoing C. albicans infections can be imaged at high spatial resolution in the ears of living mice. Intradermal inoculation into mouse ears with a C. albicans strain expressing green fluorescent protein results in systemic C. albicans infection that can be imaged in vivo using confocal microscopy. We observed filamentous growth of the organism in vivo as well as formation of microabscesses. This model system will allow us to gain significant new information about C. albicans pathogenesis through studies of host-C. albicans interactions in the native environment.

  13. Molecular Tools for Cryptic "Candida" Species Identification with Applications in a Clinical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamarra, Soledad; Dudiuk, Catiana; Mancilla, Estefania; Vera Garate, Maria Veronica; Guerrero, Sergio; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    "Candida" spp. includes more than 160 species but only 20 species pose clinical problems. "C. albicans" and "C. parapsilosis" account for more than 75% of all the fungemias worldwide. In 1995 and 2005, one "C. albicans" and two "C. parapsilosis"-related species were described, respectively. Using…

  14. [25S intron analysis followed by restriction enzyme digestion performed for genotyping Candida albicans isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Zeynep Ceren; Saran, Begüm; Yenice, Sevinç; Ağırbaşlı, Handan; Arıkan Akan, Ozay; Tekeli, Alper

    2012-04-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered fungal pathogen especially in the immunocompromised hosts. Genotyping clinical microbial isolates is important for obtaining epidemiological data and for establishing appropriate infection control strategies in the hospital setting. 25S intron analysis is an easy and reliable method used for genotyping C.albicans strains. As it has a low discriminatory power, its use is limited in epidemiological studies. In this study, our aim was to genotype clinical C.albicans isolates by using 25S intron analysis followed by restriction enzyme digestion in order to develop a more discriminative genotyping system for C.albicans. A total of 260 clinical C.albicans strains isolated from various infection sites (121 blood, 69 sputum, 36 vaginal discharge, 26 wound, 8 urine samples) were genotyped by 25S intron analysis, and all the products obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. Discriminatory power of each method was calculated. Among the isolates 184 (70.8%) were classified as genotype A, 42 (16.2%) as genotype B, and 34 (13%) as genotype C by 25S intron analysis. Discriminatory power of the method was calculated as 0.46. HaeIII restriction of genotype A, B and C isolates produced ten, one, and five restriction patterns (genotypes), respectively. By the addition of restriction enzyme analysis, the number of genotypes obtained was increased to 16, and the discriminatory power of the method to 0.79. Combining different genotyping methods increases the discriminatory power by increasing the number of genotypes obtained. However, there is also a risk to split certain strains in different genotypes by the different methods used and this makes the genotypic evaluation more difficult. On the other hand, combining 25S intron analysis with restriction enzyme analysis increases the discriminatory power without introducing a totally different method, and makes the method more suitable for

  15. Fungistatic activity of all-trans retinoic acid against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campione E

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Elena Campione,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Daniele Marino,2 Augusto Orlandi3 1Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Microbiology, 3Department of Anatomic Pathology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy Purpose: Fungal infections are a major complication in hematologic and neoplastic patients causing severe morbidity and mortality. Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans are among the most invasive opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients, and classic antifungal drugs are frequently unsuccessful in these patients. Recent reports hypothesize that the antifungal efficacy of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA is mainly related to its strong capacity to stimulate monocyte-mediated immunity, but no consideration was given to its potential direct fungistatic activity. Moreover, ATRA offers the opportunity for systemic therapy. Methods and results: We investigated the efficacy of ATRA at different concentrations for its antifungal activity against opportunistic A. fumigatus and C. albicans obtained from clinical samples according to standard protocols. A fungistatic activity of ATRA on A. fumigatus and C. albicans at 0.5–1 mM concentration was documented up to 7 days. Conclusion: This is the first evidence of a direct and strong fungistatic activity of ATRA against A. fumigatus and C. albicans. The potential adjuvant therapeutic application of ATRA might be useful in the treatment and/or prevention of systemic mycoses in immunocompromised patients. The discovery of a direct fungistatic activity, in association with its reported immunomodulatory properties, makes ATRA an excellent candidate for new combined antifungal strategies for systemic mycoses in immunocompromised and cancer patients. Keywords: all-trans retinoic acid, fungistatic activity, fungal infections

  16. DNA microarray analysis of fluconazole resistance in a laboratory Candida albicans strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Several mechanisms are responsible for the acquired fluconazole (FLC) resistance in Candida albicans. In this study, we developed a FLC-resistant C. albicans strain through serial cultures of a FLC-susceptible C. albicans strain with inhibitory concentrations of FLC. Complimen-tary DNA microarray analysis and real-time reverse tran-scription-polymerase chain reaction were used to investi-gate gene expression changes during the acquisition of azole resistance in the susceptible parental strain and the resis-tant daughter strain. The differentially expressed genes rep-resented functions as diverse as transporters (e.g. CDRI, PDR17), ergosterol biosynthesis (e.g. ERG2, ERG9), sterol metabolism (e.g. ARE2, IPF6464), energy metabolism (e.g. ADH3, AOX2) and transcription factors (e.g. FCR1, ECM22). Functional analysis revealed that energy-depen-dent efflux activity of membrane transporters increased and that ergosterol content decreased with the accumulation of sterol intermediates in the resistant strain as compared with the susceptible strain. We found that a point mutation (N977K) in transcription factor TAC1 that resulted in hy-peractivity of Tac1 could be the reason for overexpression of CDR1, CDR2, and PDR17 in the resistant strain.Furthermore, a single amino acid difference (DI9E) in ERG3 that led to the inactivation of Erg3 could account for both sterol precursor accumulation and the changes in the ex-pression of ergosterol biosynthesis genes in this resistant strain. These findings expand the understanding of poten-tial novel molecular targets of FLC resistance in clinical C.albicans isolates.

  17. Expression of Candida Albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase in Acute Vaginal Candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Nengxing; FENG Jing; TU Yating; FENG Aiping

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze the in vivo expression of Candida albicans secreted aspartyl proteinases (SAP) in human vaginal infection, the vaginal secretion from 29 human subjects was collected by vaginal swab, and the expression of SAP1-SAP6 was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using specific primer sets. It was found that Sap2 and Sap5 were the most common genes expressed during infection; Sap3 and Sap4 were detected in all subjects and all 6 SAP genes were simultaneously expressed in some patients with vaginal candidiasis. It was suggested that the SAP family is expressed by Candida albicans during infection in human and that Candida albicans infection is associated with the differential expression of individual SAP genes which may be involved in the pathogenesis of vaginal candidiasis.

  18. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida.

  19. Differential virulence of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis: A role for Tor1 kinase?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sullivan, Derek J

    2011-01-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are two very closely related species of pathogenic yeast. C. albicans is the most prevalent species in the human gastrointestinal tract and is responsible for far more opportunistic infections in comparison with C. dubliniensis. This disparity is likely to be due to the reduced ability of C. dubliniensis to undergo the yeast to hypha transition, a change in morphology that plays an important role in C. albicans virulence. We have recently shown that hypha formation by C. dubliniensis is specifically repressed by nutrients at alkaline pH. In this article, we present new data showing that this can be partly reversed by treatment with rapamycin, an inhibitor of the nutrient sensing kinase Tor1 (Target Of Rapamycin). We also provide a speculative model to describe why C. albicans filaments more efficiently in nutrient rich environments, citing recently described data on Mds3, a pH responsive regulator of Tor1 kinase activity.

  20. Denture Stomatitis and Candida Albicans in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: Denture stomatitis is the common form of oral candidiasis, which is seen in the form of diffused inflammation in the areas covered by dentures. Many primary studies report the prevalence of denture stomatitis and candida albicans among patients in the Iranian population; therefore, using meta-analysis is valuable for health policy makers. Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to determine the prevalence of denture stomatitis and candida albicans in Iran. Materials and Method: Using relevant keywords, national and international databases were searched. After limiting the search strategy and deleting the duplicates, the remaining papers were screened by examining the title and abstract. In order to increase the sensitivity of search reference lists of papers were examined. Finally the index of heterogeneity between studies was defined using Cochran test (Q and I-squared (I2. According to heterogeneity, the random effects model was used to estimate the prevalence of denture stomatitis and candida albicans in Iran. Result: The prevalence of denture stomatitis in 12 studies, and the prevalence of candida albicans in patients with denture stomatitis have been reported in 6 studies. The number of sample under investigated and its age range among primary studies included meta- analysis was 2271 individuals and 32.7 till 87.5 years respectively. The prevalence of denture stomatitis in preliminary studies imported to a meta-analysis varied from 1.9% to 54.6%, and its rate in Iran using the meta-analysis was estimated 28.9 % (CI 95%: 18.2-39.6. Also the overall prevalence of candida albicans in patients with denture stomatitis in Iran was estimated 60.6% (CI 95%:50.1-71.2. Conclusion: This study showed that the prevalence of denture stomatitis and candida albicans among patient infected denture stomatitis is relatively significant in Iran.

  1. Case analysis of 255 patients with candida albicans infection%255份白假丝酵母菌感染患者的病历分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟; 刘如品; 徐金霞; 田泾; 田锋奇

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析255份白假丝酵母菌感染患者的病历,为临床治疗提供参考。方法对255份白假丝酵母菌感染患者的病历进行分析,讨论患者一般资料、标本来源及药敏实验结果。结果白假丝酵母菌来源依次为痰液、分泌物、尿液、粪便、血液及其他;抗菌药物对白假丝酵母菌的敏感性依次为两性霉素、制霉菌素、氟胞嘧啶、酮康唑、咪康唑、氟康唑、伊曲康唑。结论白假丝酵母菌感染以老年患者居多,其中痰液检出率较高,白假丝酵母菌对两性霉素的敏感性高,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To analyze the case history of 255 patients with candida albicans infections, in order to provide references for clinical treatment. Methods The case history of 255 cases with candida albicans infection was analyzed. General information, specimen source and susceptibility testing results were discussed. Results The sources of candida albicans were sputum, secretion, urine, feces, blood, etc. Sensibility of antibacterial agents to candida albicans were amphotericin, nystatin, flucytosine, ketoconazole, miconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusion The majority of the patients with candida albicans are the elderly. The sputum detection rate is high and the sensibility of candida albicans to amphotericin is high. It is worth popularization and application in clinic.

  2. Shuttle vectors for facile gap repair cloning and integration into a neutral locus in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Gerami-Nejad, Maryam; Zacchi, Lucia F.; McClellan, Mark; Matter, Kathleen; Berman, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans. The current techniques used to construct C. albicans strains require integration of exogenous DNA at ectopic locations, which can exert position effects on gene expression that can confound the interpretation of data from critical experiments such as virulence assays. We have identified a large intergenic region, NEUT5L, which facilitates the integration and expression of ectopic genes. To construct and integrate inserts int...

  3. Human submandibular-sublingual saliva promotes adhesion of Candida albicans to polymethylmethacrylate.

    OpenAIRE

    Edgerton, M; Scannapieco, F A; Reddy, M. S.; Levine, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify components of saliva that interact with Candida albicans in solution and that may modulate adhesion to dental acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]) surfaces. Saliva-derived pellicles extracted from C. albicans blastoconidia and hyphal-form cells mixed with fresh human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) contained predominantly high- and low-molecular-weight mucins (MG1 and MG2, respectively). In contrast, few components from fresh human parotid ...

  4. Modulation der Candida albicans Biofilmbildung und Expression von Pathogenitätsfaktoren durch Lactobacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Dreßel, Tilmann

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus- Spezies, die zur Gattung der Milchsäurebakterien gehören, haben bereits hemmende Eigenschaften gegen Candida albicans gezeigt. Dieser dimorphe Hefepilz ist einer der bedeutendsten Erreger von Pilzinfektionen beim Menschen und einer der häufigsten Verursacher Katheter- assoziierter Infektionen. Eine bedeutende Rolle bei der Pathogenität von C. albicans spielt die Biofilmbildung, die sowohl die körpereigene Abwehr als auch die antimykotische Therapie einer invasiven Infektion erh...

  5. Formation of Azole-Resistant Candida albicans by Mutation of Sterol 14-Demethylase P450

    OpenAIRE

    Asai, Kentaro; Tsuchimori, Noboru; Okonogi, Kenji; Perfect, John R.; Gotoh, Osamu; Yoshida, Yuzo

    1999-01-01

    The sterol 14-demethylase P450 (CYP51) of a fluconazole-resistant isolate of Candida albicans, DUMC136, showed reduced susceptibility to this azole but with little change in its catalytic activity. Twelve nucleotide substitutions, resulting in four amino acid changes, were identified in the DUMC136 CYP51 gene in comparison with a reported CYP51 sequence from a wild-type, fluconazole-susceptible C. albicans strain. Seven of these substitutions, including all of those causing amino acid changes...

  6. Prothioconazole and Prothioconazole-Desthio Activities against Candida albicans Sterol 14-α-Demethylase

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Josie E.; Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Cools, Hans J; Fraaije, Bart A.; Lucas, John A.; Rigdova, Katarina; Griffiths, William J.; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    Prothioconazole is a new triazolinthione fungicide used in agriculture. We have used Candida albicans CYP51 (CaCYP51) to investigate the in vitro activity of prothioconazole and to consider the use of such compounds in the medical arena. Treatment of C. albicans cells with prothioconazole, prothioconazole-desthio, and voriconazole resulted in CYP51 inhibition, as evidenced by the accumulation of 14α-methylated sterol substrates (lanosterol and eburicol) and the depletion of ergosterol. We the...

  7. Modulation of Post-Antibiotic Bacterial Community Reassembly and Host Response by Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Erb Downward, John R.; Falkowski, Nicole R.; Mason, Katie L.; Ryan Muraglia; Huffnagle, Gary B.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of Candida albicans into cefoperazone-treated mice results in changes in bacterial community reassembly. Our objective was to use high-throughput sequencing to characterize at much greater depth the specific changes in the bacterial microbiome. The colonization of C. albicans significantly altered bacterial community reassembly that was evident at multiple taxonomic levels of resolution. There were marked changes in the levels of Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillaceae. Lachnospir...

  8. Specific induction of fibronectin binding activity by hemoglobin in Candida albicans grown in defined media.

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, S.; Nègre, E; Cashel, J A; Guo, N; Lyman, C A; Walsh, T J; Roberts, D D

    1996-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of host extracellular matrix that may play an important role in the initiation and dissemination of Candida albicans infections. Expression of FN binding requires growth of C albicans blastoconidia in complex medium, and the regulation of FN receptor expression is poorly understood. We now demonstrate that hemoglobin is a potent and specific inducer of FN receptor expression and describe a defined medium supplemented with hemoglobin that greatly and stabl...

  9. Passage through the mammalian gut triggers a phenotypic switch that promotes Candida albicans commensalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pande, Kalyan; Chen, Changbin; Noble, Suzanne M.

    2013-01-01

    Among ~5,000,000 fungal species, 1 Candida albicans is exceptional in its lifelong association with humans, either within the gastrointestinal microbiome or as an invasive pathogen. 2 Opportunistic infections are generally ascribed to defective host immunity 3 but may require specific microbial programs. Here, we report that exposure of C. albicans to the mammalian gut triggers a developmental switch, driven by the Wor1 transcription factor, to a commensal cell type. Wor1 expression was previ...

  10. An iron homeostasis regulatory circuit with reciprocal roles in Candida albicans commensalism and pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Changbin; Pande, Kalyan; French, Sarah D.; Tuch, Brian B.; Noble, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract and bloodstream are highly disparate biological niches that differ in concentrations of nutrients such as iron. However, some commensal-pathogenic microorganisms, such as the yeast Candida albicans, thrive in both environments. We report the evolution of a transcription circuit in C. albicans that controls iron uptake and determines its fitness in both niches. Our analysis of DNA-binding proteins that regulate iron uptake by this organism suggests the evol...

  11. Does Candida albicans Als5p Amyloid Play a Role in Commensalism in Caenorhabditis elegans?

    OpenAIRE

    Bois, Michael; Singh, Sean; Samlalsingh, Alyssa; Lipke, Peter N.; Garcia, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans, a dimorphic fungus and an opportunistic pathogen, possesses a myriad of adherence factors, including members of the agglutinin-like sequence (Als) family of mannoproteins. The adhesin Als5p mediates adhesion to many substrates and is upregulated during commensal interactions but is downregulated during active C. albicans infections. An amyloid-forming core sequence at residues 325 to 331 is important for Als5p function, because a single-amino-acid substitution at position 32...

  12. Therapeutic potential of thiazolidinedione-8 as an antibiofilm agent against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Feldman

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is known as a commensal microorganism but it is also the most common fungal pathogen in humans, causing both mucosal and systemic infections. Biofilm-associated C. albicans infections present clinically important features due to their high levels of resistance to traditional antifungal agents. Quorum sensing is closely associated with biofilm formation and increasing fungal pathogenicity. We investigated the ability of the novel bacterial quorum sensing quencher thiazolidinedione-8 (S-8 to inhibit the formation of, and eradication of mature C. albicans biofilms. In addition, the capability of S-8 to alter fungal adhesion to mammalian cells was checked. S-8 exhibited specific antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities against C. albicans, at four- to eightfold lower concentrations than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that S-8 dose-dependently reduces C. albicans-GFP binding to RAW macrophages. S-8 at sub-MICs also interfered with fungal morphogenesis by inhibiting the yeast-to-hyphal form transition. In addition, the tested agent strongly affected fungal cell wall characteristics by modulating its hydrophobicity. We evaluated the molecular mode of S-8 antibiofilm and antiadhesion activities using real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of genes associated with biofilm formation, adhesion and filamentation, HWP1, ALS3 and EAP1, respectively, were dose-dependently downregulated by S-8. Transcript levels of UME6, responsible for long-term hyphal maintenance, were also significantly decreased by the tested agent. Both signaling pathways of hyphal formation-cAMP-PKA and MAPK-were interrupted by S-8. Their upstream general regulator RAS1 was markedly suppressed by S-8. In addition, the expression levels of MAPK cascade components CST20, HST7 and CPH1 were downregulated by S-8. Finally, transcriptional repressors of filament formation, TUP1 and NRG1, were dramatically upregulated by our

  13. Factors affecting colonization and dissemination of Candida albicans from the gastrointestinal tract of mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Ekenna, O; Sherertz, R J

    1987-01-01

    Male ICR Swiss mice (2 to 3 months old) were fed Candida albicans in their drinking water for 3 days, followed by no treatment, antibiotics in their drinking water (daily), or immunosuppressants given by intraperitoneal injection (two to three times weekly) over a 3- to 4-week period. The organs of animals were processed to determine the numbers of C. albicans and total aerobic bacteria per g of tissue. Untreated animals had mean Candida counts during the 1-month period of 10(2.3) CFU/g of ce...

  14. Amino Acid Substitutions in the Cytochrome P-450 Lanosterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51A1) from Azole-Resistant Candida albicans Clinical Isolates Contribute to Resistance to Azole Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard, Dominique; Ischer, Françoise; Koymans, Luc; Bille, Jacques

    1998-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 lanosterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51A1) of yeasts is involved in an important step in the biosynthesis of ergosterol. Since CYP51A1 is the target of azole antifungal agents, this enzyme is potentially prone to alterations leading to resistance to these agents. Among them, a decrease in the affinity of CYP51A1 for these agents is possible. We showed in a group of Candida albicans isolates from AIDS patients that multidrug efflux transporters were playing an important role in ...

  15. Betamethasone augments the antifungal effect of menadione--towards a novel anti-Candida albicans combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, Ágnes; Emri, Tamás; Sipos, Lilla; Kiss, Ágnes; Kovács, Renátó; Dombrádi, Viktor; Kemény-Beke, Ádám; Balla, József; Majoros, László; Pócsi, István

    2015-08-01

    The fluorinated glucocorticoid betamethasone stimulated both the extracellular phospholipase production and hypha formation of the opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans and also decreased the efficiency of the polyene antimycotics amphotericin B and nystatin against C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, betamethasone increased synergistically the anti-Candida activity of the oxidative stress generating agent menadione, which may be exploited in future combination therapies to prevent or cure C. albicans infections, in the field of dermatology.

  16. Frequency, pathogenicity and microbiologic outcome of non-Candida albicans candiduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhipinti, D J; Gubbins, P O; Schreckenberger, P; Danziger, L H

    1994-06-01

    A retrospective review of urine cultures obtained from patients at the University of Illinois Hospital revealed that the frequency of isolation of non-albicans Candida species increased significantly from 1990 to 1991 (p = 0.0003), while the frequency of isolation of Candida albicans species decreased significantly (p = 0.0006). Patients with urine cultures positive for non-albicans Candida species of Torulopsis glabrata during 1991 were identified for review. Sixty-seven patients were eligible for evaluation. Non-albicans candiduria developed in an average of 12 days. Identical fungal species were isolated from the blood following a positive urine culture in only two patients. Twenty patients were treated; candiduria persisted in 9 (45%), while resolution occurred in 11 (55%). The remaining 47 patients were not treated. Non-albicans candiduria persisted in 30 (64%) of these patients and resolved in 15 (32%); in the remaining two patients (4%) the microbiologic outcome was undetermined. The difference in microbiologic outcomes between treated and untreated patients was not significant using the Chi-square test (p = 0.170). Non-albicans candiduria developed rapidly, frequently persisted whether treated or untreated, and rarely progressed to candidemia.

  17. Study on the comparative activity of echinocandins on murine gut colonization by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Sofia; Hamilos, George; Dimopoulou, Dimitra; Andrianaki, Angeliki M; Karageorgiadis, Alexander Steven; Kyvernitakis, Andreas; Lionakis, Stelios; Kofteridis, Diamantis P; Samonis, George

    2015-08-01

    Colonization of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by Candida species is a principal pathogenetic event for development of invasive candidiasis. Importantly, the effect of echinocandins, the preferred antifungal agents for treatment of invasive candidiasis, on GI tract colonization by Candida spp. is currently unknown. Herein, we used an established model of persistent murine GI tract colonization by Candida albicans to test the ability of different echinocandins to eradicate the yeast from murine gut. Adult male Crl:CD1 (ICR) BR mice were fed with chow containing C. albicans and subsequently treated with different echinocandins or normal saline via daily intraperitoneal injections for 10 days. Quantitative stool cultures were performed immediately before (week one), and weekly for three months after discontinuation of treatment. Notably, treatment with all three echinocandins used (caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin) resulted in eradication of Candida albicans from the stools, as evidenced by the significant reduction of yeast cells from a mean of 4.2 log10 CFU/g of stool before treatment (week one of colonization) to undetectable (Candida yeast cells in the stools of control mice. Collectively, the ability of echinocandins to eradicate C. albicans from the stools could have important implications in prophylaxis of high-risk patients for development of invasive candidiasis originating from the GI tract.

  18. Comparative adherence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to human buccal epithelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rachael P C; Williams, David W; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2014-04-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are very closely related pathogenic yeast species. Despite their close relationship, C. albicans is a far more successful colonizer and pathogen of humans. The purpose of this study was to determine if the disparity in the virulence of the two species is attributed to differences in their ability to adhere to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and/or extracellular matrix proteins. When grown overnight at 30°C in yeast extract peptone dextrose, genotype 1 C. dubliniensis isolates were found to be significantly more adherent to human BECs than C. albicans or C. dubliniensis genotypes 2-4 (P < 0.001). However, when the yeast cells were grown at 37°C, no significant difference between the adhesion of C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans to human BECs was observed, and C. dubliniensis genotype 1 and C. albicans adhered to BECs in significantly greater numbers than the other C. dubliniensis genotypes (P < 0.001). Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, C. dubliniensis isolates were found to adhere in significantly greater numbers than C. albicans to type I and IV collagen, fibronectin, laminin, vitronectin, and proline-rich peptides. These data suggest that C. albicans is not more adherent to epithelial cells or matrix proteins than C. dubliniensis and therefore other factors must contribute to the greater levels of virulence exhibited by C. albicans.

  19. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube formation by C. albicans and to compare its activity with clotrimazole which is a topical antifungal agent commonly used for the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Materials and Methodology: Alpha-mangostin was extracted by thin layer chromatography. The effect of alpha-mangostin on adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic was determined by using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay and germ tube formation by C. albicans was determined by using the counting chamber. Results: A significant reduction of C. albicans adhesion to denture acrylic was evident after exposure to 2,000 µg/ml of alpha-mangostin for only 15 min. In addition, the 2,000 µg/ml of the alpha-mangostin-treated C. albicans had a reduced ability for germ tube formation. These inhibitory effects of alpha-mangostin were as effective as clotrimazole. Conclusion: Alpha-mangostin has antifungal property against C. albicans by inhibiting the adhesion to denture acrylic and germ tube formation in vitro. These results suggest the potential application of alpha-mangostin as a topical medication or a natural oral hygiene product for treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:26962371

  20. Adherence of Candida albicans to oral epithelial cells differentiated by Papanicolaou staining.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, D. W.; Walker, R; Lewis, M.A.; Allison, R T; Potts, A J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative adherence of Candida albicans to oral epithelial cells differentiated by Papanicolaou staining. METHODS: Oral epithelial cells were collected from 10 healthy adults (five male, five female) and counted. Equal volumes of oral epithelial cells and candida were mixed and incubated. The epithelial cells from this mix were collected by filtration through 10 microns polycarbonate membrane filters. Cells retained on the membrane filters were stained with crystal vi...

  1. Effect of surface treatments of titanium on amphotericin B-treated Candida albicans persister cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, CSP; Tang, DYK

    2010-01-01

    Although persister cells in Candida albicans biofilm may contribute to its increased resistance to antifungal drugs, little information is available on the formation of Candida persister cells on titanium surfaces. The effect of different surface treatments of Ti on persister cells was determined in the present study. Titanium discs were surface-treated by three different methods (Group A - polishing, Group B - sandblasting followed by acid-etching, and Group C - sandblasting alone). Persiste...

  2. OA03.03. A clinical study on effect of yoni prakshalan with pancha valkal kwatha in the management of kaphaja yonivapada w.s.r. to candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattar, Prabhavati

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ayurved has elaborated Gynecological disorders under the entity of yoni vapadas. Kaphaj yoni vapat is one among the twenty yonivapadas, which shoes the symptoms of picchila yonisrava along with yoni kandu. All females of reproductive age group are prone for kaphaj yoni vapat at some time or other and is important Gynecological disorders now a days, in spite of several researches done and plenty of medicines in various forms being available now a days. Pancha valkal kawatha is used for stanika chikitsa(yoni prakshalan), these drug having the qualities of stambhana,kashay rasa, sotha hara and kapha shama beneficial for yonirogas. In this clinical study pancha valkal kwatha has shown significant improvement in white discharge, itching and backache. Method: Research conducted on 10 patients from IPD & OPD of Prasuti Tantra & Stree Roga of SDM College of Ayurveda, Hassan. The selection was done on the basis of chief complaints of Kaphaj yonivyapat such as vaginal discharge, itching associated with backache and presence of Candida albicans was proved by vaginal smear. Sthanik chikitsa with Panch valkal kwatha was given for duration of 7 days and patients were asked to maintain local hygiene. Follow up was for 1 week. Result: Out of 10 patients, 6 patients were totally cured from the symptoms and mild improvement was observed in the remaining 4 patients at the end of treatment. Conclusion: The drug Pancha valkal kawatha is kapha shamaka, stambhaka and having the properties like astringent, antiseptic (kashaya rasa) and wound healing (vrana ropana). Because of these properties it helps in increasing local cell immunity and prevent recurrence of symptoms in patients.

  3. Presumptive identification of Candida species other than C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis with the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida

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    Horvath Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CHROMagar Candida (CaC is increasingly being reported as a medium used to differentiate Candida albicans from non-albicans Candida (NAC species. Rapid identification of NAC can assist the clinician in selecting appropriate antifungal therapy. CaC is a differential chromogenic medium designed to identify C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis based on colony color and morphology. Some reports have proposed that CaC can also reliably identify C. dubliniensis and C. glabrata. Methods We evaluated the usefulness of CaC in the identification of C. dubliniensis, C. famata, C. firmetaria, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. inconspicua, C. kefyr, C. lipolytica, C. lusitaniae, C. norvegensis, C. parapsilosis, and C. rugosa. Results Most NAC produced colonies that were shades of pink, lavender, or ivory. Several isolates of C. firmetaria and all C. inconspicua produced colonies difficult to differentiate from C. krusei. Most C. rugosa isolates produced unique colonies with morphology like C. krusei except in a light blue-green color. C. glabrata isolates produced small dark violet colonies that could be differentiated from the pink and lavender colors produced by other species. All seventeen isolates of C. dubliniensis produced green colonies similar to those produced by C. albicans. Conclusion C. glabrata and C. rugosa appear distinguishable from other species using CaC. Some NAC, including C. firmetaria and C. inconspicua, could be confused with C. krusei using this medium.

  4. Miltefosine is effective against Candida albicans and Fusarium oxysporum nail biofilms in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Vila, Taissa Vieira; Sousa Quintanilha, Natália; Rozental, Sonia

    2015-11-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection that represents ∼50 % of all nail disease cases worldwide. Clinical treatment with standard antifungals frequently requires long-term systemic therapy to avoid chronic disease. Onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophyte moulds, such as Fusarium spp., and yeasts, such as Candida spp., is particularly difficult to treat, possibly due to the formation of drug-resistant fungal biofilms on affected areas. Here, we show that the alkylphospholipid miltefosine, used clinically against leishmaniasis and cutaneous breast metastases, has potent activity against biofilms of Fusarium oxysporum and Candida albicans formed on human nail fragments in vitro. Miltefosine activity was compared with that of commercially available antifungals in the treatment of biofilms at two distinct developmental phases: formation and maturation (pre-formed biofilms). Drug activity towards biofilms formed on nail fragments and on microplate surfaces (microdilution assays) was evaluated using XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assays, and drug effects on fingernail biofilms were analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For F. oxysporum, miltefosine at 8 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 93%, whilst 256 μg ml- 1 reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed nail biofilms by 93%. Treatment with miltefosine at 1000 μg ml- 1 inhibited biofilm formation by 89% and reduced the metabolic activity of pre-formed C. albicans biofilms by 99%. SEM analyses of biofilms formed on fingernail fragments showed a clear reduction in biofilm biomass after miltefosine treatment, in agreement with XTT results. Our results show that miltefosine has potential as a therapeutic agent against onychomycosis and should be considered for in vivo efficacy studies, especially in topical formulations for refractory disease treatment.

  5. Melanin Externalization in Candida albicans Depends on Cell Wall Chitin Structures▿

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Claire A; Gómez, Beatriz L.; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.; Mackenzie, Kevin S; Munro, Carol A.; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Kibbler, Christopher C.; Odds, Frank C.

    2010-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans produces dark-pigmented melanin after 3 to 4 days of incubation in medium containing l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) as a substrate. Expression profiling of C. albicans revealed very few genes significantly up- or downregulated by growth in l-DOPA. We were unable to determine a possible role for melanin in the virulence of C. albicans. However, we showed that melanin was externalized from the fungal cells in the form of electron-dense melanosomes tha...

  6. Terpenoids of plant origin inhibit morphogenesis, adhesion, and biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Jayant S; Shinde, Ravikumar B; Chauhan, Nitin M; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm-related infections caused by Candida albicans and associated drug resistant micro-organisms are serious problems for immunocompromised populations. Molecules which can prevent or remove biofilms are needed. Twenty-eight terpenoids of plant origin were analysed for their activity against growth, virulence attributes, and biofilms of C. albicans. Eighteen molecules exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations of isopulegol, menthol, carvone, α-thujone, and farnesol exhibited biofilm-specific activity. Eight terpenoids were identified as inhibitors of mature biofilms. This study demonstrated the antibiofilm potential of terpenoids, which need to be further explored as therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated infections of C. albicans. PMID:23216018

  7. Anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia (noni extracts against Candida albicans: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Barani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-fungal activity of Morinda citrifolia fruit extract on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: Juice extract from M. citrifolia fruit was lyophilized and used in anti-fungal testing. Anti-fungal activity of M. citrifolia fruit extract against C. albicans was tested in vitro at various concentrations. The inhibitory effect of M. citrifolia extract on C. albicans was determined by agar culture and applied broth dilution test. Results: M. citrifolia extract at 1000 μg/ml concentration effectively inhibited the growth of C. albicans (16.6 ± 0.3 compared with the positive control - amphotericin B (20.6 ± 0.6. It was found to be a dose-dependent reaction. Conclusion: M. citrifolia fruit extract had an anti-fungal effect on C. albicans and the inhibitory effect varied with concentration.

  8. Growth of Candida albicans in human saliva is supported by low-molecular-mass compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Nazmi, Kamran; Brand, Henk S; van't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I

    2015-12-01

    Saliva plays a key role in the maintenance of a stable oral microflora. It contains antimicrobial compounds but also functions as a substrate for growth of bacteria under conditions of low external nutrient supply. Besides bacteria, yeasts, in particular Candida albicans, commonly inhabit the oral cavity. Under immunocompromised conditions, instantaneous outgrowth of this yeast occurs in oral carriers of C. albicans, suggesting that this yeast is able to survive in the oral cavity with saliva as sole source of growth substrate. The aim of the present study was to identify the salivary constituents that are used by C. albicans for growth and survival in saliva. In addition, we have explored the effect of growth in saliva on the susceptibility of C. albicans to histatin 5, a salivary antifungal peptide. It was found that C. albicans was able to grow in human saliva without addition of glucose, and in the stationary phase could survive for more than 400 h. Candida albicans grown in saliva was more than 10 times less susceptible for salivary histatin 5 than C. albicans cultured in Sabouraud medium.

  9. Micafungin triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis biofilms, including caspofungin non-susceptible isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, F; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2015-01-01

    Candida biofilms play an important role in infections associated with medical devices and are resistant to antifungals. We hypothesized that the echinocandin micafungin (MICA) exerts an enhanced antifungal activity against caspofungin (CAS)-susceptible (CAS-S) and CAS-non-susceptible (CAS-NS) Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis which is at least in part through apoptosis, even in the biofilm environment. Apoptosis was characterized by detecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA fragmentation, lack of plasma membrane integrity, and metacaspase activation following exposure of Candida biofilm to MICA for 3h at 37°C in RPMI 1640 medium. The minimum inhibitory concentration was higher for CAS (2.0-16.0 μg/mL) than for MICA (1.0-8.0 μg/mL) for Candida biofilms. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Elevated intracellular ROS levels and depolarization of MMP was evident in CAS-S C. albicans (3.0-4.2 fold) and C. parapsilosis (4.8-5.4 fold) biofilms compared with CAS-NS (1.2 fold) after exposure to MICA (0.25x-1xMIC). Finally higher ß-1, 3 glucan levels were seen in sessile cells compared to planktonic cells, especially in CAS-NS strains. MICA treatment might induce a metacaspase-dependent apoptotic process in biofilms of both CAS-S C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, and to some degree in CAS-NS strains.

  10. Effect of Nitric Oxide on the Antifungal Activity of Oxidative Stress and Azoles Against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Dong; Yang, Chang-Chun; Liu, Ping; Wang, Yan; Sun, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule with a wide range of biological activities in mammalian and bacteria. However, the role of NO in fungi, especially Candida albicans, is not clear. In this study, we confirmed the generation of endogenous NO in C. albicans, and found that the production of endogenous NO in C. albicans was associated with nitric oxide synthase pathway. Our results further indicated that the production of endogenous NO in C. albicans was reduced under oxidative stress such as menadione or H2O2 treatment. Meanwhile, exogenous NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), synergized with H2O2 against C. albicans. Interestingly, SNP could inhibit the antifungal effect of azoles against C. albicans in vitro, suggesting that NO might be involved in the resistance of C. albicans to antifungals. Collectively, this study demonstrated the production of endogenous NO in C. albicans, and indicated that NO may play an important role in the response of C. albicans to oxidative stress and azoles. PMID:27570314

  11. Antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans burn infection in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Wang, Yucheng; Murray, Clinton K.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Gu, Ying; Dai, Tianhong

    2015-05-01

    In this preclinical study, we investigated the utility of antimicrobial blue light therapy for Candida albicans infection in acutely burned mice. A bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was used. The susceptibilities to blue light inactivation were compared between C. albicans and human keratinocyte. In vitro serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure was performed to evaluate the potential development of resistance to blue light inactivation. A mouse model of acute thermal burn injury infected with the bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was developed. Blue light (415 nm) was delivered to mouse burns for decolonization of C. albicans. Bioluminescence imaging was used to monitor in real time the extent of fungal infection in mouse burns. Experimental results showed that C. albicans was approximately 42-fold more susceptible to blue light inactivation in vitro than human keratinocyte (P=0.0022). Serial passaging of C. albicans on blue light exposure implied a tendency for the fungal susceptibility to blue light inactivation to decrease with the numbers of passages. Blue light reduced fungal burden by over 4-log10 (99.99%) in acute mouse burns infected with C. albicans in comparison to infected mouse burns without blue light therapy (P=0.015).

  12. Human Epithelial Cells Discriminate between Commensal and Pathogenic Interactions with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, Timothy J; Kullas, Amy L; Southern, Peter J; Davis, Dana A

    2016-01-01

    The commensal fungus, Candida albicans, can cause life-threatening infections in at risk individuals. C. albicans colonizes mucosal surfaces of most people, adhering to and interacting with epithelial cells. At low concentrations, C. albicans is not pathogenic nor does it cause epithelial cell damage in vitro; at high concentrations, C. albicans causes mucosal infections and kills epithelial cells in vitro. Here we show that while there are quantitative dose-dependent differences in exposed epithelial cell populations, these reflect a fundamental qualitative difference in host cell response to C. albicans. Using transcriptional profiling experiments and real time PCR, we found that wild-type C. albicans induce dose-dependent responses from a FaDu epithelial cell line. However, real time PCR and Western blot analysis using a high dose of various C. albicans strains demonstrated that these dose-dependent responses are associated with ability to promote host cell damage. Our studies support the idea that epithelial cells play a key role in the immune system by monitoring the microbial community at mucosal surfaces and initiating defensive responses when this community is dysfunctional. This places epithelial cells at a pivotal position in the interaction with C. albicans as epithelial cells themselves promote C. albicans stimulated damage.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF CANDIDA SPP . ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS

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    Sagarika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the changing health scenario fungal infections have increased significantly, contributing to morbidity, mortality and health care cost. Candida is major human fungal pathogens that cause both superficial and deep tissue infections. With emergence of non - albicans Candida species, availability of advanced identification methods and antifungal resistance, the spectrum of candidiasis has changed. OBJ ECTIVE: The aim of our study was to identify the distribution of Candida species among clinical isolates, risk factors associated with candidiasis and their sensitivity pattern for common antifungal drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty nine dif ferent clinical isolates of Candida were collected from indoor patients of a tertiary care centre of Gujarat from May 2009 to June 2010. Identification of Candida species and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed with miniAPI (Analytical Prophylactic Index (Biomerieux, France which is an automatic identification and susceptibility testing instrument. RESULTS: We found that the non ‑ albicans Candida were more prevalent than Candida albicans . Candida tropicalis (48.9% was the most common Candida spp. and also more resistant than that of C.albicans . C.albicans showed resistance against fluconazole (3.5% and itraconazole (8.8% whereas C.tropicalis were res istant to amphotericin B (10.3%, fluconazole (20.7%, itraconazole (32.3%, and voriconazole (23.5% and flucytosine (5.8%. Overall resistance rates of Candida for amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and voriconazole and flucytosine were 6.4%, 15. 2%, 22.3%, 12.9%, 5% respectively. CONCLUSION: To achieve better clinical results species ‑ level identification of Candida spp. and their antifungal sensitivity testing should be performed.

  14. STUDY OF BIOFILM FORMATION AS A VIRULENCE MARKER IN CANDIDA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SPEC IMENS

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    Saroj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Candida species can be either commensals or opportunis tic pathogens with the ability to cause a variety of inf ections, ranging from superficial to life threatening. Nosocomial infections due to candida a re also becoming increasingly important. Early and prompt diagnosis, proper treatment and prevent ion of candidemia due to biofilms pose a major challenge for microbiologists and clini cians worldwide. Added to this is the emerging trend of antifungal drug resistance among the biofilm producing strains of Candida. AIMS: The aim of this study was to detect biofilm producti on in Candida species isolated from various clinical samples obtained from patients hospit alized in Dr. B.R Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species (Candida albicans49 and non-albicans Candida59 species isola ted from various specimens (urine, blood, respiratory tract, genital samples, plastic devices an d pus samples were included in the study.The various candida isolates were identified by using conventional methods and their ability to produce biofilm was detected by the tube method. RESULTS: Out of 108 candida species, non-albicans Candida 59(54.63% was the pred ominant species isolated. Biofilm positivity was seen with 71(65.74% isolates and the biofilm production was observed more with non-albicans Candida species 44(61.97% compare d to C.albicans species 27(38.03%. Among the non-albicans Candida species, strong biofi lm producers were C.krusei(80.77% and C.tropicalis(72.73%. Biofilm positivity was found to be higher in the bloodstream Candida isolates (81.82% compared to isolates from other si tes. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests an increasing prevalence of non-albicans Ca ndida species in the various clinical samples isolated and also shows them as strong biofi lm producers compared to C.albicans species. These data suggest that, biofilm formation as a potential virulence factor might

  15. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mark M.; Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway Blvd., Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Zhang, Lingxin [Washington University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Stoll, Janis M. [Washington University School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-04-15

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. (orig.)

  16. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. (orig.)

  17. Candida albicans pancreatitis in a child with cystic fibrosis post lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Mark M; Zhang, Lingxin; Stoll, Janis M; Sheybani, Elizabeth F

    2016-04-01

    We present a case of Candida albicans infection of a previously intact pancreas in a child with cystic fibrosis status post lung transplantation. Although Candida superinfection in necrotizing pancreatitis is not uncommon, this is a unique case of Candida infection of non-necrotic pancreatic parenchyma. This case presented a diagnostic dilemma for radiologists because it appeared virtually identical to acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis on imaging. Ultimately, endoscopic US-based biopsy was pursued for diagnosis. Although difficult to treat and compounded by the immunocompromised status of the child, the pancreatic infection improved with antifungal therapy. PMID:26546567

  18. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  19. Comparative study on the effects of two antifungal drugs against Candida albicans by microcalorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Qing-Lian [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Juan [Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Stomatology, Hubei Provincial Maternal and Child Health Hospital, Wuhan 430070 (China); Xu, Zi-Qiang; Li, Ran [State Key Laboratory of Virology and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jiang, Feng-Lei, E-mail: fljiang@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xiao, Qi, E-mail: qi.xiao@whu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University, Nanning 530001 (China); Liu, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Virology and Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcalorimetry is a fast, simple method to study the antibiotic property of drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We noticed that the antibiotic effect of ITZ was slightly better than that of KTZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We perform the TEM to study the morphology changes of C. albicans cells. - Abstract: In this work, a multi-channel thermal activity monitor (TAM 2277) was applied to study the growth metabolism of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro in the absence and presence of different concentrations of ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ). The results showed that the half inhibiting concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of C. albicans by KTZ and ITZ are 73.5 and 66.3 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, respectively. So the antibiotic effect of ITZ was slightly better than that of KTZ. The morphology of C. albicans cells both in the absence and presence of antifungal agents was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our research also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, non-invasive, non-destructive and more sensitive method, and can be easily performed to study the antibiotic property of different species of drugs on microorganism compared to other biological and clinical methods.

  20. Comparative study on the effects of two antifungal drugs against Candida albicans by microcalorimetry and transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Microcalorimetry is a fast, simple method to study the antibiotic property of drugs. ► We noticed that the antibiotic effect of ITZ was slightly better than that of KTZ. ► We perform the TEM to study the morphology changes of C. albicans cells. - Abstract: In this work, a multi-channel thermal activity monitor (TAM 2277) was applied to study the growth metabolism of Candida albicans (C. albicans) in vitro in the absence and presence of different concentrations of ketoconazole (KTZ) and itraconazole (ITZ). The results showed that the half inhibiting concentrations (IC50) of C. albicans by KTZ and ITZ are 73.5 and 66.3 μmol L−1, respectively. So the antibiotic effect of ITZ was slightly better than that of KTZ. The morphology of C. albicans cells both in the absence and presence of antifungal agents was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our research also suggests that microcalorimetry is a fast, simple, non-invasive, non-destructive and more sensitive method, and can be easily performed to study the antibiotic property of different species of drugs on microorganism compared to other biological and clinical methods.

  1. Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the CAI microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (CAI) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the CAI genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the CAI locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the CAI microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141

  2. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to terbinafine in Candida albicans using a cDNA microarray analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Yue-bin; QIAN Yuan-shu; MA Lian; GU Hong-ni

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans is the most frequently seen opportunistic human fungal pathogen. Terbinafine is an allylamine antifungal agent that has been proven to have high clinical efficacy in the therapy of fungal infections, the mechanism of action of terbinafine involves the specific inhibition of fungal squalene epoxidase, resulting in ergosterol deficiency and accumulation of intracellular squalene. We used cDNA microarray analysis technology to monitor global expression profile changes of Candida albicans genes in response to terbinafine treatment, and we anticipated a panoramic view of the responses of Candida albicans cells to the representatives of allylamine antifungal agents at the molecular level in an effort to identify drug class-specific and mechanism-independent changes in gene expression.Methods Candida albicans strain ATCC 90028 was exposed to either medium alone or terbinafine at a concentration equivalent to the 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs, 4 mg/L) for 90 minutes. RNA was isolated and gene expression profiles were compared to identify the changes in the gene expression profile using a cDNA microarray analysis. Differential expression of 10 select genes detected by cDNA microarray analysis was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results A total of 222 genes were found to be responsive to terbinafine, including 121 up-regulated genes and 101 down-regulated genes. These included genes encoding membrane transport proteins belonging to the members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) or major facilitator superfamily (MFS; CDR1, AGP2, GAP6, PHO84, HOL3, FCY23, VCX1),genes involved in stress response and detoxification (CDR1, AGP2, HOL3), and gene involved in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway (ERG12). The results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR were consistent with that of the cDNA microarray analysis.Conclusions The up-regulation of the gene encoding the multidrug resistance efflux pump

  3. Antifungal susceptibility analysis of berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin on Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jianhua; Wen Hai

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the antifungal effects of Chinese herb monomers, i.e. berberine, baicalin, eugenol and curcumin, on Candida albicans. Methods: After Candida albicans strain Y01-09 was incubated for 48 h in YEPD broth which contained different concentrations of Chinese herb components, the cell cycle, fluorescent intensity and the size of cell volume were detected by flow cytometry. Results: The 4 Chinese herb monomers could affect the cell cycle of Candida albicans in different ranges. The ratio of cells in S-G2-M period decreased as the agents concentration increased, indicating that the cell division was inhibited. The fluorescent intensity of Candida albicans cells became weaker after being incubated, which reflected the loss of DNA fragments. The higher the concentration was, the weaker the fluorescent intensity became. The cell size, cell diopter and particle size changed much as the agents concentration increased. Conclusion: Chinese herb monomers play the antifungal role in inhibiting cell division. FCM could be used to determine the susceptibility of antifungal agents.

  4. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tularat Sookto

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  5. Streptococcus mutans Competence-Stimulating Peptide Inhibits Candida albicans Hypha Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarosz, Lucja M.; Deng, Dong Mei; van der Mei, Henny C.; Crielaard, Wim; Krom, Bastiaan P.

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the huma

  6. Trapping and Killing of Candida albicans by Corynebacterium parvum-Activated Livers †

    OpenAIRE

    Sawyer, R T; Moon, R J; Beneke, E S

    1981-01-01

    Corynebacterium parvum vaccination significantly increased the number of leukocytes adherent to hepatic vessels. Perfused C. parvum-treated livers killed significantly more Candida albicans than did livers not treated with C. parvum, an effect reversed by the macrophage inhibitors silica, phenylbutazone, and iodoacetate.

  7. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B;

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5aR signal...

  8. Iron restriction-induced adaptations in the wall proteome of Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Sorgo; S. Brul; C.G. de Koster; L.J. de Koning; F.M. Klis

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans has developed various ways to overcome iron restriction in a mammalian host. Using different surface proteins, among them membrane- and wall-localized GPI-proteins, it can exploit iron from host hemoglobin, ferritin, and transferrin. Culturing C. al

  9. Phagocytosis and killing of Candida albicans by human neutrophils after exposure to structurally different lipid emulsions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Curfs, J.H.A.J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that structurally different lipid emulsions have distinct immune-modulating properties, we analyzed the elimination of Candida albicans by neutrophils after exposure to various emulsions. METHODS: Neutrophils from 8 volunteers were incubated in physiologic 5 mmol/L

  10. A Concise Synthesis of Antigenic Factor 4 Existing in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU,Yu-Liang(朱玉亮); CHEN,Lang-Qiu(陈朗秋); KONG,Fan-Zuo(孔繁祚)

    2001-01-01

    A concise synthesis of α-Man12-α-Man1→3-(α-Man1→6)-α-Man12-α-Man12-a-Man12-Man,the antigenic factot 4 existing in Candida albicans,was achieved via TMSOTf promoted condensation of the corresponding acylated tetrasac charide donor with the trisaccharide acceptor.``

  11. Differential adaptation of Candida albicans in vivo modulates immune recognition by dectin-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marakalala, M.J.; Vautier, S.; Potrykus, J.; Walker, L.A.; Shepardson, K.M.; Hopke, A.; Mora-Montes, H.M.; Kerrigan, A.; Netea, M.G.; Murray, G.I.; MacCallum, D.M.; Wheeler, R.; Munro, C.A.; Gow, N.A.; Cramer, R.A.; Brown, A.J.; Brown, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    The beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 is a member of the C-type lectin family and functions as an innate pattern recognition receptor in antifungal immunity. In both mouse and man, Dectin-1 has been found to play an essential role in controlling infections with Candida albicans, a normally commensal fun

  12. Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Jarosz; D.M. Deng; H.C. van der Mei; W. Crielaard; B.P. Krom

    2009-01-01

    The oral cavity is colonized by microorganisms growing in biofilms in which interspecies interactions take place. Streptococcus mutans grows in biofilms on enamel surfaces and is considered one of the main etiological agents of human dental caries. Candida albicans is also commonly found in the huma

  13. Beyond the wall: Candida albicans secret(e)s to survive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Sorgo; C.J. Heilmann; S. Brul; C.G. de Koster; F.M. Klis

    2013-01-01

    The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans occupies various niches of the human body such as the skin and the mucosal surfaces of the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. It can also enter the blood stream and cause deadly, systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised patients, bu

  14. Host responses to Candida albicans: Th17 cells and mucosal candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Heather R.; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    Candida albicans causes mucosal and disseminated candidiasis, which represent serious problems for the rapidly expanding immunocompromised population. Until recently, Th1-mediated immunity was thought to confer the primary protection, particularly for oral candidiasis. However, emerging data indicate that the newly-defined Th17 compartment appears to play the predominant role in mucosal candidiasis.

  15. Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea steeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soebagio Soebagio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Black tea or Cournelia sinensis is one of known tea varieties in Indonesia. Actually, black tea is consumed daily as beverage that can function as antiseptics and fungicides. Black tea containing antibacterial and fungicide properties can reduce the number of Candida albicans (C. albicans colony attachment on the surface of acrylic resin plates. Purpose: This study was done to determine the effective concentration of black tea steeping used as the immersion material of acrylic resin plates towards the number of Candida albicans colonies. Methods: In this study, acrylic resin plates with the size of 10 × 20 × 1 mm were immersed in black tea steeping with the following concentrations, 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%, for one hour. The growth of C. albicans colonies were then detected by counting the number of colonies growing on Sabouraud’s dextrose medium. Data was analyzed by using both One-Way ANOVA with the significance level of 5%, and Tuckey’s multiple comparison tests (Tuckey’s HSD test. Results: There were significant differences in the number of C. albicans colonies in acrylic resin plates immersed in black tea with the concentration of 3.33%, 6.66%, and 13.33%. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the higher concentration of black tea (13.33% used to immerse acrylic resin plates, the greater the decreased number of C. albicans colonies.Latar belakang: Teh hitam atau Cournelia sinensis adalah salah satu macam teh yang dikenal di Indonesia. Teh hitam seringkali dipakai sebagai minuman sehari- hari dan berkhasiat sebagai antiseptik maupun fungisid. Teh hitam yang mengandung sifat antibakteri dan fungisid dapat menurunkan jumlah koloni Candida albicans (C. albicans yang melekat pada permukaan lempeng resin akrilik. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui konsentrasi efektif seduhan teh hitam sebagai bahan perendam lempeng resin akrilik terhadap jumlah koloni C. albicans. Metode: Pada penelitian ini lempeng resin akrilik ukuran 10 × 20 × 1 mm

  16. Disruption of the transcriptional regulator Cas5 results in enhanced killing of Candida albicans by Fluconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasicek, Erin M; Berkow, Elizabeth L; Bruno, Vincent M; Mitchell, Aaron P; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Barker, Katherine S; Rogers, P David

    2014-11-01

    Azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole exhibit fungistatic activity against Candida albicans. Strategies to enhance azole antifungal activity would be therapeutically appealing. In an effort to identify transcriptional pathways that influence the killing activity of fluconazole, we sought to identify transcription factors (TFs) involved in this process. From a collection of C. albicans strains disrupted for genes encoding TFs (O. R. Homann, J. Dea, S. M. Noble, and A. D. Johnson, PLoS Genet. 5:e1000783, 2009, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000783), four strains exhibited marked reductions in minimum fungicidal concentration (MFCs) in both RPMI and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) media. One of these genes, UPC2, was previously characterized with regard to its role in azole susceptibility. Of mutants representing the three remaining TF genes of interest, one (CAS5) was unable to recover from fluconazole exposure at concentrations as low as 2 μg/ml after 72 h in YPD medium. This mutant also showed reduced susceptibility and a clear zone of inhibition by Etest, was unable to grow on solid medium containing 10 μg/ml fluconazole, and exhibited increased susceptibility by time-kill analysis. CAS5 disruption in highly azole-resistant clinical isolates exhibiting multiple resistance mechanisms did not alter susceptibility. However, CAS5 disruption in strains with specific resistance mutations resulted in moderate reductions in MICs and MFCs. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed in the presence of fluconazole and was consistent with the suggested role of CAS5 in cell wall organization while also suggesting a role in iron transport and homeostasis. These findings suggest that Cas5 regulates a transcriptional network that influences the response of C. albicans to fluconazole. Further delineation of this transcriptional network may identify targets for potential cotherapeutic strategies to enhance the activity of the azole class of antifungals.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Coumarin from Ageratum conyzoides L. Leaves on Candida albicans cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Pamudji Widodo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the antifungal activity of coumarin isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. leaves and to observe its influence on Candida albicans cells by scanning electron microscope (SEM and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Antifungal activity testing by disk diffusion method showed coumarin was active toward pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans with the MIC value of coumarin of 125 g mL-1. The influence of this substance on C. albicans cells was observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. The result showed that this compound damaged the cell by pores formation on the cell wall. The death of cells occurred due to leakage and necrotic of cytoplasmic content.

  18. PENGHAMBATAN CAJUPUTS CANDY TERHADAP VIABILITAS KHAMIR Candida albicans SECARA IN VITRO [Inhibition of Cajuputs Candy Toward the Viability of Candida albicans by using In Vitro Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hanny Wijaya1*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of cajuput essential oil as a flavor in candy may produce a physiological active added value. Some compounds of cajuput plant (Melaleuca cajuputi L have been reported for their anti-microbial activities. Candida albicans is a normal commensal organism in human mouth. However, it may become virulent and responsible for oral diseases known as oral candidiasis. This study aimed to determine the effect of cajuput and peppermint oil in cajuputs candy in inhibiting the C. albicans biofilms formation by using in vitro biofilm assay and viability assay. Furthermore, the influence of concentration of cajuput oil on the anti-microbial activities had been analyzed. All the tested concentration of cajuput oil in cajuputs candy was effective to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The provision of flavor components of cajuput and peppermint oil could produce synergistic effects compared to a single flavor component. The addition of cajuput oil at 0.6% was able to inhibit the viability of C. albicans. The activities of the cajuput oil showed positive correlation to the concentration. The variable of plus and minus 0.1% addition of the cajuput oil concentration, however, produced no significant difference to inhibit the growth of C. albicans in biofilm. Sensory test, hedonic test, was conducted to evaluate the flavor, aroma, and overall attributes, resulting in no significant difference between 0.6 to 0.8% additions of cajuput oil upon the sensory acceptance.

  19. An evaluation on the adherence of Candida albicans to different denture- base materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savabi O

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface topography of denture base material is an important factor for the"nadhesion of Candida albicans and other microorganisms."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the adherence of Candida albicans to four types of denture"nbase materials (Acropars acrylic resin, Meliodent acrylic resin, rough and smooth surfaces of Molloplast B."nMaterials and Methods: Seven blocks of two types of acrylic resins and ten blocks of silicone with one"nrough and one smooth surface were made and incubated in a suspension of Candida albicans. After washing,"nthe blocks were stained with acridine orange and examined under fluorescent microscope. For statistical"nanalysis ANOVA and Duncan tests were used."nResults: It was observed that Candida adhesion to rough surfaces of acrylic resins and silicone was"nsignificantly more than polished surfaces of acrylic resins and smooth silicone (PO.0001. However, no"nstatistical significant difference was found between polished acrylic resins surfaces and smooth silicone."nConclusion: Significant differences in the adherence of Candida to the surfaces of different denture base"nmaterials are due to differences in surface topography, chemical, physical and hydrophobic properties so it is"nrecommended to minimize the roughness and irregularities of denture base.

  20. Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of Chitosan on the Oral Pathogen Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is particularly evident, not only in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, but also in elderly people with xerostomy. In general, Candida is an opportunistic pathogen, causing infections in immunocompromised people and, in some cases, when the natural microbiota is altered. Chitosan, a natural derivative of chitin, is a polysaccharide that has been proven to possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that encompasses action against fungi, yeast and bacteria. While recent studies have revealed a significant antibiofilm activity upon several microorganisms, including C. albicans, little is known regarding the impact of chitosan upon the adhesive process or mature biofilms. With that in mind, the purpose of this work was to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of chitosan to inhibit C. albicans growth and biofilm formation. The results obtained showed that chitosan is capable of inhibiting C. albicans planktonic growth (HMW, 1 mg/mL; LMW, 3 mg/mL. Regarding biofilm growth, chitosan inhibited C. albicans adhesion (ca. 95%, biofilm formation (percentages above 90% and reduced mature biofilms by ca. 65% and dual species biofilms (C. albicans and S. mutans by ca. 70%. These results display the potential of this molecule to be used as an effective anti-Candida agent capable of acting upon C. albicans infections.

  1. Diversities of interaction of murine macrophages with three strains of Candida albicans represented by MyD88, CARD9 gene expressions and ROS, IL-10 and TNF-α secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaohuan; Ge, Yanping; Li, Wenqing; Hu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To explore the mechanisms underlying the different responses of macrophages to distinct Candida albicans strains. Methods: Bone marrow was collected from mice. Macrophages were independently incubated with 3 Candida albicans strains. Results: MyD88 expression in Candida albicans 3683 group was significantly higher than that in Candida albicans 3630 group and Candida albicans SC5314 group, and marked difference was also observed between later two groups (P

  2. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Inactivation Inhibits Candida albicans Virulence Factors and Reduces In Vivo Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Caetano Padial; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Tegos, George P.; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Hamblin, Michael R.; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether Candida albicans exhibits altered pathogenicity characteristics following sublethal antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (APDI) and if such alterations are maintained in the daughter cells. C. albicans was exposed to sublethal APDI by using methylene blue (MB) as a photosensitizer (0.05 mM) combined with a GaAlAs diode laser (λ 660 nm, 75 mW/cm2, 9 to 27 J/cm2). In vitro, we evaluated APDI effects on C. albicans growth, germ tube formation, sensitivity to oxidative and osmotic stress, cell wall integrity, and fluconazole susceptibility. In vivo, we evaluated C. albicans pathogenicity with a mouse model of systemic infection. Animal survival was evaluated daily. Sublethal MB-mediated APDI reduced the growth rate and the ability of C. albicans to form germ tubes compared to untreated cells (P < 0.05). Survival of mice systemically infected with C. albicans pretreated with APDI was significantly increased compared to mice infected with untreated yeast (P < 0.05). APDI increased C. albicans sensitivity to sodium dodecyl sulfate, caffeine, and hydrogen peroxide. The MIC for fluconazole for C. albicans was also reduced following sublethal MB-mediated APDI. However, none of those pathogenic parameters was altered in daughter cells of C. albicans submitted to APDI. These data suggest that APDI may inhibit virulence factors and reduce in vivo pathogenicity of C. albicans. The absence of alterations in daughter cells indicates that APDI effects are transitory. The MIC reduction for fluconazole following APDI suggests that this antifungal could be combined with APDI to treat C. albicans infections. PMID:23129051

  3. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of Candida albicans: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsong; Zhu, Yingbo; Chen, Jia; Wang, Yucheng; Sherwood, Margaret E; Murray, Clinton K; Vrahas, Mark S; Hooper, David C; Hamblin, Michael R; Dai, Tianhong

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infections are a common cause of morbidity, mortality and cost in critical care populations. The increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistance necessitates the development of new therapeutic approaches for fungal infections. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of an innovative approach, antimicrobial blue light (aBL), for inactivation of Candida albicans in vitro and in infected mouse burns. A bioluminescent strain of C. albicans was used. The susceptibilities to aBL (415 nm) were compared between C. albicans and human keratinocytes. The potential development of aBL resistance by C. albicans was investigated via 10 serial passages of C. albicans on aBL exposure. For the animal study, a mouse model of thermal burn infected with the bioluminescent C. albicans strain was used. aBL was delivered to mouse burns approximately 12 h after fungal inoculation. Bioluminescence imaging was performed to monitor in real time the extent of infection in mice. The results obtained from the studies demonstrated that C. albicans was approximately 42-fold more susceptible to aBL than human keratinocytes. Serial passaging of C. albicans on aBL exposure implied a tendency of reduced aBL susceptibility of C. albicans with increasing numbers of passages; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the post-aBL survival rate of C. albicans between the first and the last passage (P>0.05). A single exposure of 432 J/cm(2) aBL reduced the fungal burden in infected mouse burns by 1.75-log10 (P=0.015). Taken together, our findings suggest aBL is a potential therapeutic for C. albicans infections. PMID:26909654

  4. Control of Candida albicans metabolism and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa phenazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Diana K; Grahl, Nora; Okegbe, Chinweike; Dietrich, Lars E P; Jacobs, Nicholas J; Hogan, Deborah A

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans has developmental programs that govern transitions between yeast and filamentous morphologies and between unattached and biofilm lifestyles. Here, we report that filamentation, intercellular adherence, and biofilm development were inhibited during interactions between Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through the action of P. aeruginosa-produced phenazines. While phenazines are toxic to C. albicans at millimolar concentrations, we found that lower concentrations of any of three different phenazines (pyocyanin, phenazine methosulfate, and phenazine-1-carboxylate) allowed growth but affected the development of C. albicans wrinkled colony biofilms and inhibited the fungal yeast-to-filament transition. Phenazines impaired C. albicans growth on nonfermentable carbon sources and led to increased production of fermentation products (ethanol, glycerol, and acetate) in glucose-containing medium, leading us to propose that phenazines specifically inhibited respiration. Methylene blue, another inhibitor of respiration, also prevented the formation of structured colony biofilms. The inhibition of filamentation and colony wrinkling was not solely due to lowered extracellular pH induced by fermentation. Compared to smooth, unstructured colonies, wrinkled colony biofilms had higher oxygen concentrations within the colony, and wrinkled regions of these colonies had higher levels of respiration. Together, our data suggest that the structure of the fungal biofilm promotes access to oxygen and enhances respiratory metabolism and that the perturbation of respiration by bacterial molecules such as phenazines or compounds with similar activities disrupts these pathways. These findings may suggest new ways to limit fungal biofilms in the context of disease. IMPORTANCE Many of the infections caused by Candida albicans, a major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, involve both morphological transitions and the formation of surface-associated biofilms. Through the

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Incubation Temperature and Ph On the Susceptibility of Candida Albicans Isolates to Ketoconazole Invitro

    OpenAIRE

    F Katiraee; Z Farahnejad; M Riazipoor; MH Yadegari; H Zarrinfar

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis, as an opportunistic infection, is caused by the Candida species. Although Candida albicans is classified in the body as an endogenic flora, it plays an important role in creating Candida related diseases. Candida vulvovaginitis in pregnant women, diabetes mellitus patients and those using multiple antibiotics and contraceptive drugs demonstrates the high resistance of the organism against conventional medication. On the other hand, recurrent vaginitis disintegrates ...

  6. Impact of oxidative and osmotic stresses on Candida albicans biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemmaraju, Suma C; Padmapriya, Kumar; Pruthi, Parul A; Prasad, R; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Candida albicans possesses an ability to grow under different host-driven stress conditions by developing robust protective mechanisms. In this investigation the focus was on the impact of osmotic (2M NaCl) and oxidative (5 mM H2O2) stress conditions during C. albicans biofilm formation. Oxidative stress enhanced extracellular DNA secretion into the biofilm matrix, increased the chitin level, and reduced virulence factors, namely phospholipase and proteinase activity, while osmotic stress mainly increased extracellular proteinase and decreased phospholipase activity. Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of mannan isolated from the C. albicans biofilm cell wall revealed a decrease in mannan content and reduced β-linked mannose moieties under stress conditions. The results demonstrate that C. albicans adapts to oxidative and osmotic stress conditions by inducing biofilm formation with a rich exopolymeric matrix, modulating virulence factors as well as the cell wall composition for its survival in different host niches. PMID:27472386

  7. Correlation between virulence of Candida albicans mutants in mice and Galleria mellonella larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Marc; Thomas, David Y; Whiteway, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2002-10-11

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic human pathogen in which the yeast to hyphal switch may be an important factor in virulence in mammals. This pathogen has recently been shown to also kill insects such as the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella when injected into the haemocoel of the insect larvae. We have investigated the effect of previously characterised C. albicans mutations that influence the yeast to hyphal transition on virulence in G. mellonella larvae. There is a good correlation between the virulence of these mutants in the insect host and the virulence measured through systemic infection of mice. Although the predominant cellular species detected in G. mellonella infections is the yeast form of C. albicans, mutations that influence the hyphal transition also reduce pathogenicity in the insect. The correlation with virulence measured in the mouse infection system suggests that Galleria may provide a convenient and inexpensive model for the in vivo screening of mutants of C. albicans. PMID:12381467

  8. Additive potential of ginger starch on antifungal potency of honey against Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Hammoudi SM; Aissat Saad; Akila Bourabeh; Hemida Houari

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the additive action of ginger starch on the antifungal activity of honey against Candida albicans (C. albicans). Methods: C. albicans was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four varieties of Algerian honey. Lower concentrations of honey than the MIC were incubated with a set of concentrations of starch and then added to media to determine the minimum additive inhibitory concentration (MAIC). Results: The MIC for the four varieties of honey without starch against C. albicans ranged between 38% and 42% (v/v). When starch was incubated with honey and then added to media, a MIC drop was noticed with each variety. MAIC of the four varieties ranged between 32% honey (v/v) with 4% starch and 36% honey (v/v) with 2% starch. Conclusions: The use of ginger starch allows honey benefit and will constitute an alternative way against the resistance to antifungal agents.

  9. Biochemical characterization of recombinant dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zameitat, E.; Gojkovic, Zoran; Knecht, Wolfgang;

    2006-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prevalent yeast pathogen in humans, and recently it has become increasingly resistant to the current antifungal agents. In this study we investigated C. albicans dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH, EC 1.3.99.11), which catalyzes the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine...... lacks the targeting sequence and the transmembrane domain, were subcloned from C. albicans, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized for their kinetics and substrate specificity. An inhibitor screening with 28 selected compounds was performed. Only the dianisidine...... derivative, redoxal, and the biphenyl quinoline-carboxylic acid derivative, brequinar sodium, which are known to be potent inhibitors of mammalian DHODH, markedly reduced C. albicans DHODH activity. This study provides a background for the development of antipyrimidines with high efficacy for decreasing...

  10. Molecular typing of Candida albicans strains isolated from nosocomial candidemia Tipificação molecular de espécies de Candida albicans isoladas de candidemia hospitalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Moretti Branchini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts of the genus Candida have been recognized as important microorganisms responsible for nosocomial fungemia. Six blood-stream and two intravenous central catheter C. albicans strains were isolated from eight patients and studied by electrophoretic karyotyping of chromosomal DNA by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Seven chromosomal DNA profiles were identified. Two patients showed isolates with the same profile, suggesting nosocomial transmission. Karyotyping of C. albicans revealed an excellent discriminatory power among the isolates and may therefore be useful in the study of nosocomial candidemia.Leveduras do gênero Candida têm sido reconhecidas como importantes causadoras de fungemias hospitalares. Foram estudados os DNA cromossômicos de oito cepas de C. albicans, obtidas de oito pacientes com fungemia hospitalar, por cariotipagem eletroforética através de "pulsed-field gel electrophoresis". As cepas foram obtidas pelo isolamento da levedura em seis hemoculturas e duas infecções relacionadas ao uso de cateter intra-venoso central. Foram identificados sete perfis de DNA cromossômico. Dois pacientes mostraram cepas com o mesmo perfil de DNA sugerindo transmissão nosocomial. A cariotipagem eletroforética revelou excelente capacidade discriminatória entre os isolados sendo útil no estudo das candidemias hospitalares.

  11. Effect of Candida albicans on Intestinal Ischemia-reperfusion Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Yan; Chun-Rong Wu; Chen Wang; Chun-Hui Yang; Guang-Zhi Tong; Jian-Guo Tang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Inflammation is supposed to play a key role in the pathophysiological processes of intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IIRI),and Candida albicans in human gut commonly elevates inflammatory cytokines in intestinal mucosa.This study aimed to explore the effect of C albicans on IIRI.Methods:Fifty female Wistar rats were divided into five groups according to the status of C albicans infection and IIRI operation:group blank and sham;group blank and IIRI;group cefoperazone plus IIRI;group C.albicans plus cefoperazone and IIRI (CCI);and group C.albicans plus cefoperazone and sham.The levels of inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,interleukin (IL)-6,IL-1β,and diamine oxidase (DAO) measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to evaluate the inflammation reactivity as well as the integrity of small intestine.Histological scores were used to assess the mucosal damage,and the C albicans blood translocation was detected to judge the permeability of intestinal mucosal barrier.Results:The levels of inflammatory factors TNF-α,IL-6,and IL-1β in serum and intestine were higher in rats undergone both C.albicans infection and IIRI operation compared with rats in other groups.The levels of DAO (serum:44.13 ± 4.30 pg/ml,intestine:346.21 ± 37.03 pg/g) and Chiu scores (3.41 ± 1.09) which reflected intestinal mucosal disruption were highest in group CCI after the operation.The number of C.albicans translocated into blood was most in group CCI ([33.80 ± 6.60] × 102 colony forming unit (CFU)/ml).Conclusion:Intestinal C.albicans infection worsened the IIRI-induced disruption of intestinal mucosal barrier and facilitated the subsequent C.albicans translocation and dissemination.

  12. Analysis of genital Candida albicans infection by rapid microsatellite markers genotyping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Wei-min; MEI Xing-yu; GAO Fei; HUO Ke-ke; SHEN Liang-liang; QIN Hai-hong; WU Zhou-wei; ZHENG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Background Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection, often occurring in genital candidiasis, has increased dramatically recently. Developing an efficient C. albicans typing method may contribute to understanding its epidemiological characteristics and guiding efficient treatment. We used rapid microsatellite genotyping assay for interstrain differentiation of C. albicans isolates and explored some characteristics of its spread.Methods DNA was extracted from C. albicans isolates from gentalia, recta and mouths of 39 female cases and 27 male cases of genital candidiasis. Three fluorescent primers for the microsatellite markers in conserved genes (CDC3, EF3and HIS3) of C. albicans were used to amplify the isolates DNA by PCR. Fluorescent signals were read with an automatic sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan software.Results Analysis of the three microsatellites markers showed 18 gene allelic associations in genital C. albicans infected patients: 10 allelic associations in female and 11 allelic associations in male, of which 3 allelic associations shared by both genders covered 71% of infections. The most dominant allele association of pathogenic strains for both genders was 116:124, 122:131,160:200 that covered about 50% of infection. Gentalia and recta shared the same strains in 80%of female patients, but in only 3.8% of male patients. There were 2.7% female patients, but no males, with same strain in both gentalia and mouths. Five of seven genital C. albicans infected couples had the same allelic associations of which 4were the dominant pathogenic C. albicans susceptible for both genders.Conclusions The predominant allelic association of the pathogenic strain in genital C. albicans infection is 116:124,122:131, 160:200. Vaginal pathogenic strains are probably maintained from the rectal reservoir. Pathogenic strains of male patients are probably from frequent sexual intercourse. The aggressiveness of some strains varies with gender.

  13. Candida albicans exposures, sex specificity and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Catherine R; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A; Savage, Christina L; Adamos, Maria B; Sweeney, Kevin M; Origoni, Andrea E; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case–control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions. The case–control cohort included 261 with schizophrenia, 270 with bipolar disorder, and 277 non-psychiatric controls; the second included 139 with first-episode schizophrenia, 78 of whom were antipsychotic naive. No differences in C. albicans exposures were found until diagnostic groups were stratified by sex. In males, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for a schizophrenia diagnosis (OR 2.04–9.53, P⩽0.0001). In females, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for lower cognitive scores on Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in schizophrenia (OR 1.12, P⩽0.004), with significant decreases on memory modules for both disorders (P⩽0.0007–0.03). C. albicans IgG levels were not impacted by antipsychotic medications. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances were associated with elevated C. albicans in males with schizophrenia and females with bipolar disorder (P⩽0.009–0.02). C. albicans exposure was associated with homelessness in bipolar males (P⩽0.0015). In conclusion, sex-specific C. albicans immune responses were evident in psychiatric disorder subsets. Inquiry regarding C. albicans infection or symptoms may expedite amelioration of this treatable comorbid condition. Yeast exposure as a risk factor for schizophrenia and its associated cognitive and GI effects require further investigation including the possible contribution of

  14. Streptococcus mutans Can Modulate Biofilm Formation and Attenuate the Virulence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Vilela, Simone Furgeri Godinho; de Alvarenga, Janaína Araújo; Velloso, Marisol dos Santos; Prata, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are found together in the oral biofilms on dental surfaces, but little is known about the ecological interactions between these species. Here, we studied the effects of S. mutans UA159 on the growth and pathogencity of C. albicans. Initially, the effects of S. mutans on the biofilm formation and morphogenesis of C. albicans were tested in vitro. Next, we investigate the influence of S. mutans on pathogenicity of C. albicans using in vivo host models, in which the experimental candidiasis was induced in G. mellonella larvae and analyzed by survival curves, C. albicans count in hemolymph, and quantification of hyphae in the host tissues. In all the tests, we evaluated the direct effects of S. mutans cells, as well as the indirect effects of the subproducts secreted by this microorganism using a bacterial culture filtrate. The in vitro analysis showed that S. mutans cells favored biofilm formation by C. albicans. However, a reduction in biofilm viable cells and inhibition of hyphal growth was observed when C. albicans was in contact with the S. mutans culture filtrate. In the in vivo study, injection of S. mutans cells or S. mutans culture filtrate into G. mellonella larvae infected with C. albicans increased the survival of these animals. Furthermore, a reduction in hyphal formation was observed in larval tissues when C. albicans was associated with S. mutans culture filtrate. These findings suggest that S. mutans can secrete subproducts capable to inhibit the biofilm formation, morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans, attenuating the experimental candidiasis in G. mellonella model.

  15. Candida albicans exposures, sex specificity and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Stallings, Catherine R; Katsafanas, Emily; Schweinfurth, Lucy A; Savage, Christina L; Adamos, Maria B; Sweeney, Kevin M; Origoni, Andrea E; Khushalani, Sunil; Leweke, F Markus; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Immune aberrations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have led to the hypotheses that infectious agents or corresponding immune responses might contribute to psychiatric etiopathogeneses. We investigated case-control differences in exposure to the opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, and examined associations with cognition, medication, lifestyle, and somatic conditions. We quantified C. albicans IgG antibodies in two cohorts totaling 947 individuals and evaluated odds ratios (OR) of exposure with psychiatric disorder using multivariate regressions. The case-control cohort included 261 with schizophrenia, 270 with bipolar disorder, and 277 non-psychiatric controls; the second included 139 with first-episode schizophrenia, 78 of whom were antipsychotic naive. No differences in C. albicans exposures were found until diagnostic groups were stratified by sex. In males, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for a schizophrenia diagnosis (OR 2.04-9.53, P⩽0.0001). In females, C. albicans seropositivity conferred increased odds for lower cognitive scores on Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in schizophrenia (OR 1.12, P⩽0.004), with significant decreases on memory modules for both disorders (P⩽0.0007-0.03). C. albicans IgG levels were not impacted by antipsychotic medications. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances were associated with elevated C. albicans in males with schizophrenia and females with bipolar disorder (P⩽0.009-0.02). C. albicans exposure was associated with homelessness in bipolar males (P⩽0.0015). In conclusion, sex-specific C. albicans immune responses were evident in psychiatric disorder subsets. Inquiry regarding C. albicans infection or symptoms may expedite amelioration of this treatable comorbid condition. Yeast exposure as a risk factor for schizophrenia and its associated cognitive and GI effects require further investigation including the possible contribution of gut

  16. O-mannosylation in Candida albicans enables development of interkingdom biofilm communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Lindsay C; Nobbs, Angela H; Jepson, Katy; Jepson, Mark A; Vickerman, M Margaret; Aqeel Alawfi, Sami; Munro, Carol A; Lamont, Richard J; Jenkinson, Howard F

    2014-04-15

    Candida albicans is a fungus that colonizes oral cavity surfaces, the gut, and the genital tract. Streptococcus gordonii is a ubiquitous oral bacterium that has been shown to form biofilm communities with C. albicans. Formation of dual-species S. gordonii-C. albicans biofilm communities involves interaction of the S. gordonii SspB protein with the Als3 protein on the hyphal filament surface of C. albicans. Mannoproteins comprise a major component of the C. albicans cell wall, and in this study we sought to determine if mannosylation in cell wall biogenesis of C. albicans was necessary for hyphal adhesin functions associated with interkingdom biofilm development. A C. albicans mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant, with deleted α-1,2-mannosyltransferase genes and thus defective in O-mannosylation, was abrogated in biofilm formation under various growth conditions and produced hyphal filaments that were not recognized by S. gordonii. Cell wall proteomes of hypha-forming mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells showed growth medium-dependent alterations, compared to findings for the wild type, in a range of protein components, including Als1, Als3, Rbt1, Scw1, and Sap9. Hyphal filaments formed by mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant cells, unlike wild-type hyphae, did not interact with C. albicans Als3 or Hwp1 partner cell wall proteins or with S. gordonii SspB partner adhesin, suggesting defective functionality of adhesins on the mnt1Δ mnt2Δ mutant. These observations imply that early stage O-mannosylation is critical for activation of hyphal adhesin functions required for biofilm formation, recognition by bacteria such as S. gordonii, and microbial community development. IMPORTANCE In the human mouth, microorganisms form communities known as biofilms that adhere to the surfaces present. Candida albicans is a fungus that is often found within these biofilms. We have focused on the mechanisms by which C. albicans becomes incorporated into communities containing bacteria, such as Streptococcus. We find that

  17. Modulation of Candida albicans virulence by bacterial biofilms on titanium surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Wilson, Melanie; Lewis, Michael; Del-Bel-Cury, Altair Antoninha; da Silva, Wander José; Williams, David W

    2016-01-01

    Whilst Candida albicans occurs in peri-implant biofilms, its role in peri-implantitis remains unclear. This study therefore examined the virulence of C. albicans in mixed-species biofilms on titanium surfaces. Biofilms of C. albicans (Ca), C. albicans with streptococci (Streptococcus sanguinis, S. mutans) (Ca-Ss-Sm) and those incorporating Porphyromonas gingivalis (Ca-Pg and Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg) were developed. Expression of C. albicans genes associated with adhesion (ALS1, ALS3, HWP1) and hydrolytic enzymes (SAP2, SAP4, SAP6, PLD1) was measured and hyphal production by C. albicans quantified. Compared with Ca biofilms, significant (pbiofilms containing streptococci (Ca-Ss-Sm). In Ca-Pg biofilms, down-regulation of HWP1 and SAP4 expression, with reduced hyphal production occurred. Ca-Ss-Sm-Pg biofilms had increased hyphal proportions and up-regulation of ALS3, SAP2 and SAP6. In conclusion, C. albicans expressed virulence factors in biofilms that could contribute to peri-implantitis, but this was dependent on associated bacterial species.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine on intratubular Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronan Jacques Rezende Delgado; Thaís Helena Gasparoto; Carla Renata Sipert; Claudia Ramos Pinheiro; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes; Roberto Brandāo Garcia; Marco Antonio Hungaro Duarte; Clóvis Monteiro Bramante; Sérgio Aparecido Torres; Gustavo Pompermaier Garlet; Ana Paula Campanelli; Norberti Bernardineli

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel for the elimination of intratubular Candida albicans (C. albicans). Human single-rooted teeth contaminated with C. albicans were treated with calcium hydroxide, 2% chlorhexidine gel, calcium hydroxide plus 2% chlorhexidine gel, or saline (0.9% sodium chloride) as a positive control. The samples obtained at depths of 0-100 and 100-200 μm from the root canal system were analyzed for C. albicans load by counting the number of colony forming units and for the percentage of viable C. albicans using fluorescence microscopy. First, the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide and the 2% chlorhexidine gel was evaluated by counting the number of colony forming units. After 14 days of intracanal medication, there was a significant decrease in the number of C. albicanscolony forming units at a depth of 0-100 lzm with chlorhexidine treatment either with or without calcium hydroxide compared with the calcium hydroxide only treatment. However, there were no differences in the number of colony forming units at the 100-200 μm depth for any of the medications investigated. C. albicans viability was also evaluated by vital staining techniques and fluorescence microscopy analysis. Antifungal activity against C. albicans significantly increased at both depths in the chlorhexidine groups with and without calcium hydroxide compared with the groups treated with calcium hydroxide only. Treatments with only chlorhexidine or chlorhexidine in combination with calcium hydroxide were effective for elimination of C. albicans.

  19. Candida albicans Amphotericin B-Tolerant Persister Formation is Closely Related to Surface Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Li, Zhigang; Chu, Haoyue; Guo, Jing; Jiang, Guangshui; Qi, Qingguo

    2016-02-01

    Candida albicans persisters have so far been observed only in biofilm environment; the biofilm element(s) that trigger(s) persister formation are still unknown. In this study, we tried to further elucidate the possible relationship between C. albicans persisters and the early phases of biofilm formation, especially the surface adhesion phase. Three C. albicans strains were surveyed for the formation of persisters. We tested C. albicans persister formation dynamically at different time points during the process of adhesion and biofilm formation. The number of persister cells was determined based on an assessment of cell viability after amphotericin B treatment and colony-forming unit assay. None of the planktonic cultures contained persisters. Immediately following adhesion of C. albicans cells to the surface, persister cells emerged and the proportion of persisters reached a peak of 0.2-0.69 % in approximately 2-h biofilm. As the biofilm matured, the proportion of persisters decreased and was only 0.01-0.02 % by 24 h, while the number of persisters remained stable with no significant change. Persisters were not detected in the absence of an attachment surface which was pre-coated. Persisters were also absent in biofilms that were scraped to disrupt surface adhesion prior to amphotericin B treatment. These results indicate that C. albicans antifungal-tolerant persisters are produced mainly in surface adhesion phase and surface adhesion is required for the emergence and maintenance of C. albicans persisters.

  20. Presence of extracellular DNA in the Candida albicans biofilm matrix and its contribution to biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Margarida; Uppuluri, Priya; Thomas, Derek P; Cleary, Ian A; Henriques, Mariana; Lopez-Ribot, José L; Oliveira, Rosário

    2010-05-01

    DNA has been described as a structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in bacterial biofilms. In Candida albicans, there is a scarce knowledge concerning the contribution of extracellular DNA (eDNA) to biofilm matrix and overall structure. This work examined the presence and quantified the amount of eDNA in C. albicans biofilm ECM and the effect of DNase treatment and the addition of exogenous DNA on C. albicans biofilm development as indicators of a role for eDNA in biofilm development. We were able to detect the accumulation of eDNA in biofilm ECM extracted from C. albicans biofilms formed under conditions of flow, although the quantity of eDNA detected differed according to growth conditions, in particular with regards to the medium used to grow the biofilms. Experiments with C. albicans biofilms formed statically using a microtiter plate model indicated that the addition of exogenous DNA (>160 ng/ml) increases biofilm biomass and, conversely, DNase treatment (>0.03 mg/ml) decreases biofilm biomass at later time points of biofilm development. We present evidence for the role of eDNA in C. albicans biofilm structure and formation, consistent with eDNA being a key element of the ECM in mature C. albicans biofilms and playing a predominant role in biofilm structural integrity and maintenance.

  1. Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida albicans and its related species Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana isolated from vulvovaginal samples in a hospital of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theill, Laura; Dudiuk, Catiana; Morano, Susana; Gamarra, Soledad; Nardin, María Elena; Méndez, Emilce; Garcia-Effron, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Candida africana taxonomical status is controversial. It was proposed as a separate species within the Candida albicans species complex; however, phylogenetic analyses suggested that it is an unusual variety of C. albicans. The prevalence of C. albicans-related species (Candida dubliniensis and C. africana) as vulvovaginal pathogens is not known in Argentina. Moreover, data on antifungal susceptibility of isolates causing vulvovaginal candidiasis is scarce. The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of C. dubliniensis and C. africana in vaginal samples and to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of vaginal C. albicans species complex strains. We used a molecular-based method coupled with a new pooled DNA extraction methodology to differentiate C. dubliniensis and C. africana in a collection of 287 strains originally identified as C. albicans isolated from an Argentinian hospital during 2013. Antifungal susceptibilities to fluconazole, clotrimazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, nystatin, amphotericin B and terbinafine were evaluated by using the CLSI M27-A3 and M27-S4 documents. Of the 287 isolates, 4 C. dubliniensis and one C. africana strains (1.39% and 0.35% prevalence, respectively) were identified. This is the first description of C. africana in Argentina and its identification was confirmed by sequencing the ITS2 region and the hwp1 gene. C. dubliniensis and C. africana strains showed very low MIC values for all the tested antifungals. Fluconazole-reduced-susceptibility and azole cross-resistance were observed in 3.55% and 1.41% of the C. albicans isolates, respectively. These results demonstrate that antifungal resistance is still a rare phenomenon in this kind of isolates.

  2. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. Materials and Methods: 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based ondefs score were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey′sPOSTHOC test. Results: A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264. Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005. Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  3. Candida albicans modulates host defense by biosynthesizing the pro-resolving mediator resolvin E1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Haas-Stapleton

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans that resides commensally on epithelial surfaces, but can cause inflammation when pathogenic. Resolvins are a class of anti-inflammatory lipids derived from omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA that attenuate neutrophil migration during the resolution phase of inflammation. In this report we demonstrate that C. albicans biosynthesizes resolvins that are chemically identical to those produced by human cells. In contrast to the trans-cellular biosynthesis of human Resolvin E1 (RvE1, RvE1 biosynthesis in C. albicans occurs in the absence of other cellular partners. C. albicans biosynthesis of RvE1 is sensitive to lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 monoxygenase inhibitors. We show that 10nM RvE1 reduces neutrophil chemotaxis in response to IL-8; 1nM RvE1 enhanced phagocytosis of Candida by human neutrophils, as well as intracellular ROS generation and killing, while having no direct affect on neutrophil motility. In a mouse model of systemic candidiasis, RvE1 stimulated clearance of the fungus from circulating blood. These results reveal an inter-species chemical signaling system that modulates host immune functions and may play a role in balancing host carriage of commensal and pathogenic C. albicans.

  4. Antifungal effects of Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts against Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghim Hassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by Candida albicans. Recentstudies suggest that the side effects of herbal drugs with significant therapeutic effectsare far less than chemical drugs. This study was therefore, conducted to examineantifungal activities of Zataria multif lora and Nigella sativa extracts on C. albicans.Methods: Powders of Z. multif lora and N. sativa were macerated with ethanol 70% and evaporatedat 38˚C by rotary evaporator. The suspension of C. albicans was prepared according to McFarlandat a concentration of approximately 0.5-2.5 × 10CFU/ml. Testing was performed according tomicrobroth dilution in 96-well micro-dilution plates. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC,MIC50%, MIC90% and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC were separately evaluated bycounting the fungal colonies for Z. multif lora and N. sativa.Results: The measured values of MIC, MIC50%, MIC90% and MFC of Z. multiflora on the C.albicans were 0.13, 0.38, 0.74 and 1.03 mg/ml, and those of N. sativa were 10, 27.7, 52.3 and 72.3 mg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The results indicate that both Zataria multiflora and Nigella sativa extracts are effectiveagainst Candida albicans, but the former species has the highest antifungal activity. If the clinicaltrials confirm the results of this study, Z. multiflora, as a new antifungal agent by replacing chemicaldrugs can be used to develop antifungal medicinal herbs.

  5. Candida albicans induces pro-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic signals in macrophages as revealed by quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reales-Calderón, Jose Antonio; Sylvester, Marc; Strijbis, Karin;

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages play a pivotal role in the prevention of Candida albicans infections. Yeast recognition and phagocytosis by macrophages is mediated by Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) that initiate downstream signal transduction cascades by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We expose...

  6. Candida albicans and Candida stellatoidea, in contrast to other Candida species, bind iC3b and C3d but not C3b.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidenreich, F; Dierich, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    It was demonstrated that complement-coated sheep erythrocytes bind to Candida albicans cells grown in serum-free RPMI 1640 medium. Testing of purified complement components proved that iC3b and C3d were responsible for the reaction, whereas C3b and C3b-H reacted only slightly if at all. Binding occurred only to C. albicans and C. stellatoidea, not to other species pathogenic to humans. There was evidence of a lectinlike nature of the effect.

  7. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R.; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Methods Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4 Results A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman’s correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (pcaries severity (pcaries-free children). Among 18 child-mother pairs, >60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to

  8. Ocorrência de Candida albicans em intestinos de bovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas a identificação e a sorotipagem de C. albicans isoladas de fezes de bovinos em amamentação natural. Para o isolamento, utilizou-se o meio seletivo e diferencial de Pagano Levin, adicionado de bifenilo na concentração final de 0,1%. De 210 bovinos inicialmente considerados, 70 adultos, 68 bezerros após o desmame e 72 bezerros em fase de amamentação natural, observou-se positividade para C. albicans somente em nove amostras de fezes de bezerros em fase de amamentação (12,5%. A determinação do sorotipo por meio de provas de aglutinação direta em lâmina, com soros monoespecíficos, revelou que a totalidade das amostras isoladas pertencia ao sorotipo A. O bifenilo na concentração de 0,1% mostrou-se inibitório para a maioria dos bolores sem, aparentemente, afetar a viabilidade de C. albicans. O isolamento de C. albicans somente a partir de fezes de bezerros em amamentação, provavelmente, está relacionado à dieta láctea.

  9. Differential filamentation of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis Is governed by nutrient regulation of UME6 expression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Leanne

    2010-09-01

    Candida dubliniensis is closely related to Candida albicans; however, it is responsible for fewer infections in humans and is less virulent in animal models of infection. C. dubliniensis forms fewer hyphae in vivo, and this may contribute to its reduced virulence. In this study we show that, unlike C. albicans, C. dubliniensis fails to form hyphae in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) medium supplemented with 10% (vol\\/vol) fetal calf serum (YPDS medium). However, C. dubliniensis filaments in water plus 10% (vol\\/vol) fetal calf serum (WS), and this filamentation is inhibited by the addition of peptone and glucose. Repression of filamentation in YPDS medium could be partly overcome by preculture in synthetic Lee\\'s medium. Unlike C. albicans, inoculation of C. dubliniensis in YPDS medium did not result in increased UME6 transcription. However, >100-fold induction of UME6 was observed when C. dubliniensis was inoculated in nutrient-poor WS medium. The addition of increasing concentrations of peptone to WS medium had a dose-dependent effect on reducing UME6 expression. Transcript profiling of C. dubliniensis hyphae in WS medium identified a starvation response involving expression of genes in the glyoxylate cycle and fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a core, shared transcriptional response with C. albicans could be identified, including expression of virulence-associated genes including SAP456, SAP7, HWP1, and SOD5. Preculture in nutrient-limiting medium enhanced adherence of C. dubliniensis, epithelial invasion, and survival following coculture with murine macrophages. In conclusion, C. albicans, unlike C. dubliniensis, appears to form hyphae in liquid medium regardless of nutrient availability, which may account for its increased capacity to cause disease in humans.

  10. Cellular Alterations Induced by Candida albicans RC Nosodes: an in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Holandino

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candidiasis is an opportunist infection, caused by yeast of the genus Candida, which emerges as one of the main causes of systemic infections in hospitalized patients. Candida albicans is the most common causing agent of these infections. According to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopeia[1], nosodes are medicines compounded from chemically undefined biological products. Living nosodes are prepared using the etiologic agent of an illness in its infective form, were first developed by Brazilian physician Roberto Costa (RC. Roberto Costa’s research indicated that living nosodes present a higher capability to stimulate the host’s immunological system [2]. Aim: This study aims to evaluate cellular alterations induced in C. albicans yeasts and RAW 264-7 macrophages by Candida albicans RC. Methodology: To prepare Candida albicans RC, one part of C. albicans infective yeast suspension (108 cell/ml was diluted in 9 parts of sterile distilled water and submitted to 100 mechanical succussions. This process was successively repeated to the potencies of 12x and 30x1. Water 30x was prepared by the same technique, as control. The cell viability of C. albicans previously treated with nosodes in both potencies and respective controls was evaluated using the samples at the concentration of 10% (V/V, in a volume of 1ml, distributed in 1-3 days. The viability of the yeast cells was analyzed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il-2,5-difeniltetrazolic (5mg/ml assay [3] and by Propidium Iodide (PI incorporation methods. Additionally, using macrophages RAW 264-7 as a cell model, Nitric Oxide (NO production and cell viability were also evaluated. For this, the following protocol of cell treatment was employed: on each experimental day, RAW 264-7 cells were treated 4 times (4 stimuli with RC nosode 30x at the concentration of 10% (V/V. Results: The nosodes (12x and 30x did not present cytotoxic effects on macrophage

  11. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoyu; Du, Faya; Yan, Lan; He, Gonghao; He, Jianchang; Wang, Chengying; Rao, Gaoxiong; Jiang, Yuanying; Xu, Guili

    2015-01-01

    Roemerine (RM) is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway. PMID:26426004

  12. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

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    Subhajit Gantait

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10. Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey′s test and Dunnett′s test showed high significance (P < 0.0001. The group treated with adhesive showed high fungal growth compared to the control group, whereas chlorhexidine showed high potency to prevent C. albicans, whereas adhesive increased the adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic surface. Conclusions: Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface.

  13. Comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different cleaning methods on the growth of Candida albicans over acrylic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantait, Subhajit; Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Das, Samiran; Biswas, Shibendu; Ghati, Amit; Ghosh, Soumitra; Goel, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Context: This study evaluated the efficacy of denture adhesive, cleanser, chlorhexidine, and brushing against Candida albicans biofilm developed on an acrylic surface and predicted the most effective, simple, and inexpensive way to maintain denture health, thereby preventing denture stomatitis. Aims: To find the best possible method for maintaining denture hygiene. Settings and Design: This retrospective analysis was conducted in the Guru Nanak Institute of Dental Sciences and Research, Kolkata, and this in vitro study was designed to minimize denture stomatitis among denture wearing population. Subjects and Methods: Sixty acrylic discs of equal dimensions after exposure to C. albicans were treated for a duration of 24 h with denture adhesive, cleanser, 0.2% chlorhexidine individually, or in combinations simulating clinical conditions dividing in six groups, ten samples each (n = 10). Statistical Analysis Used: After treatment, colony count was evaluated and statistically analyzed by post hoc Tukey's test and Dunnett's test to determine the most effective way of prevention. Results: The statistical post hoc analysis (Tukey's test and Dunnett's test) showed high significance (P Denture adhesive increases the adherence of C. albicans to denture surface. Other cleaning chemicals such as cleanser and chlorhexidine decrease the adherence. Moreover, among the all denture cleaning protocol, chlorhexidine drastically inhibit the adherence, as well as growth of C. albicans over denture surface. PMID:27630498

  14. Echinocandin to fluconazole step-down therapy in critically ill patients with invasive, susceptible Candida albicans infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geest, Patrick J; Rijnders, Bart J A; Vonk, Alieke G; Groeneveld, A B Johan

    2016-03-01

    Invasive Candida spp. infections are increasingly diagnosed in critically ill patients. For initial treatment, an echinocandin is recommended with a possible step-down to fluconazole when the patients' condition is improving and the isolate appears susceptible, but there are no data to support such policy. We studied the safety and efficacy of step-down therapy in critically ill patients with culture proven deep seated or bloodstream infections by C. albicans susceptible to fluconazole. All patients admitted into the intensive care unit from January 2010 to December 2014, who had a culture proven invasive C. albicans infection and received initial treatment with an echinocandin for at least 4 days were included. Data on patient characteristics, treatment and vital outcomes were assessed. Of the 56 patients, 32 received step-down fluconazole therapy, at median day 5, whereas the echinocandin was continued in the other 24. No differences where seen in baseline characteristics or risk factors for invasive C. albicans infection between the two groups. Response rates were similar and no difference where seen in 28-day or 90-day mortality between the groups. Step-down therapy to fluconazole may be safe and effective in critically ill patients with invasive infections by C. albicans, susceptible to fluconazole, who have clinically improved as early as 4 days after start of treatment with an echinocandin.

  15. Candida albicans bloodstream isolates in a German university hospital are genetically heterogenous and susceptible to commonly used antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyke, Johanna; Martin, Ronny; Walther, Grit; Weber, Michael; Kaerger, Kerstin; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; Elias, Johannes; Kurzai, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    From an eight-year-span, 99 Candida bloodstream isolates were collected at the University Hospital Wuerzburg, Germany. In this study, all strains were analyzed using molecular and phenotypic typing methods. Confirmatory species identification revealed three isolates that were initially diagnosed as C. albicans to be actually C. dubliniensis. Two isolates contained a mixed culture of C. albicans and C. glabrata, in one of the specimens both species could be separated while it was not possible to recover C. albicans in the other sample. The remaining 95 C. albicans isolates were profiled by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analyses showed a highly heterogenous collection of strains, associated with many different clades and constituting a set of new diploid sequence types (DST). For all strains with identical DST, patient data were reviewed for potential nosocomial transmission. In addition, all isolates were tested for their susceptibility to amphotericin B, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole. No clinically relevant resistance could be detected. Furthermore, these data underline that correlation between minimal inhibitory concentrations for caspofungin and anidulafungin is low.

  16. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Issam Alshami; Alharbi, Ahmed E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract. Methods: In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming ...

  17. Activity of antimicrobial peptide mimetics in the oral cavity: I. Activity against biofilms of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, J; Yamarthy, R; Felsenstein, S; Scott, R W; Markowitz, K; Diamond, G

    2010-12-01

    Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides hold promise as therapeutic agents against oral pathogens such as Candida albicans but numerous difficulties have slowed their development. Synthetic, non-peptidic analogs that mimic the properties of these peptides have many advantages and exhibit potent, selective antimicrobial activity. Several series of mimetics (with molecular weight oral Candida strains as a proof-of-principle for their antifungal properties. One phenylalkyne and several arylamide compounds with reduced mammalian cytotoxicities were found to be active against C. albicans. These compounds demonstrated rapid fungicidal activity in liquid culture even in the presence of saliva, and demonstrated synergy with standard antifungal agents. When assayed against biofilms grown on denture acrylic, the compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity as measured by metabolic and fluorescent viability assays. Repeated passages in sub-minimum inhibitory concentration levels did not lead to resistant Candida, in contrast to fluconazole. Our results demonstrate the proof-of principle for the use of these compounds as anti-Candida agents, and their further testing is warranted as novel anti-Candida therapies.

  18. Function and subcellular localization of Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Peng; Fan, Xueyi; Chen, Jiangye

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen commonly found in humans. It has the ability to switch reversibly between three growth forms: budding yeast, pseudohypha, and hypha. The transition between yeast and hyphal growth forms is critical for the pathogenesis of C. albicans. During the yeast-to-hypha morphologic transition, gene expression is regulated by transcriptional regulators including histone modifying complexes and chromatin remodeling complexes. We previously reported that Esa1, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex NuA4, is essential for the hyphal development of C. albicans. In this study, we analyzed the functional roles of Gcn5, a catalytic subunit in the histone acetyltransferase complex SAGA, in C. albicans. Gcn5 is required for the invasive and filamentous growth of C. albicans. Deletion of GCN5 impaired hyphal elongation in sensing serum and attenuated the virulence of C. albicans in a mouse systemic infection model. The C. albicans gcn5/gcn5 mutant cells also exhibited sensitivity to cell wall stress. Functional analysis showed that the HAT domain and Bromodomain in Gcn5 play distinct roles in morphogenesis and cell wall stress response of C. albicans. Our results show that the conserved residue Glu188 is crucial for the Gcn5 HAT activity and for Gcn5 function during filamentous growth. In addition, the subcellular distribution of ectopically expressed GFP-Gcn5 correlates with the different growth states of C. albicans. In stationary phase, Gcn5 accumulated in the nucleus, while during vegetative growth it localized in the cytoplasm in a morpha-independent manner. Our results suggest that the nuclear localization of Gcn5 depends on the existence of its N-terminal NLS and HAT domains.

  19. Comparison of Switching and Biofilm Formation between MTL-Homozygous Strains of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Claude; Daniels, Karla J; Soll, David R

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are highly related species that share the same main developmental programs. In C. albicans, it has been demonstrated that the biofilms formed by strains heterozygous and homozygous at the mating type locus (MTL) differ functionally, but studies rarely identify the MTL configuration. This becomes a particular problem in studies of C. dubliniensis, given that one-third of natural strains are MTL homozygous. For that reason, we have analyzed MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis for their capacity to switch from white to opaque, the stability of the opaque phenotype, CO2 induction of switching, pheromone induction of adhesion, the effects of minority opaque cells on biofilm thickness and dry weight, and biofilm architecture in comparison with C. albicans. Our results reveal that C. dubliniensis strains switch to opaque at lower average frequencies, exhibit a far lower level of opaque phase stability, are not stimulated to switch by high CO2, exhibit more variability in biofilm architecture, and most notably, form mature biofilms composed predominately of pseudohyphae rather than true hyphae. Therefore, while several traits of MTL-homozygous strains of C. dubliniensis appear to be degenerating or have been lost, others, most notably several related to biofilm formation, have been conserved. Within this context, the possibility is considered that C. dubliniensis is transitioning from a hypha-dominated to a pseudohypha-dominated biofilm and that aspects of C. dubliniensis colonization may provide insights into the selective pressures that are involved.

  20. Clusters of patients with candidaemia due to genotypes of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis: differences in frequency between hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Zambrano, L J; Escribano, P; Sanguinetti, M; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, E; De Carolis, E; Vella, A; Cantón, R; Bouza, E; Guinea, J

    2015-07-01

    The presence of clusters (identical genotypes infecting different patients) suggests patient-to-patient transmission or a common source for strains. We report the results of a genotyping study based on microsatellite markers of Candida albicans (n = 179) and Candida parapsilosis (n = 76) causing candidaemia, to assess and compare the percentage of patients grouped in clusters during the study period (January 2010 to December 2012). The study was performed in two large tertiary hospitals in Madrid, Spain. We detected 145 C. albicans genotypes (21 in clusters) and 63 C. parapsilosis genotypes (seven in clusters). Clusters involved two to seven patients each. Most of the clusters in the two centres involved two patients for both species, but the number of patients included in each cluster differed between hospitals. Considering both species, the percentage of patients per cluster ranged from 19% to 38% (p albicans and C. parapsilosis genotypes causing candidaemia differed between hospitals, suggesting differences in strain transmission. Occasionally, the same genotypes were found in patients admitted to different hospitals located in the same city.

  1. [Killer toxin and enzyme production by Candida albicans isolated from buccal mucosa in patients with cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, E E; Silva, S C; Soares, A J; Attux, C; Cruvinel, B; Silva, M do R

    1998-01-01

    Opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are primarily caused by Candida and frequently occur in patients with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. Of the specimens received from the oral mucosa of 44 patients with cancer, 25 (56.8%) yielded Candida on culture in Sabouraud agar. Twenty four of these isolates were identified as C. albicans (96%) and 1 as C. krusei (4%). The phenotypic characteristics of these isolates showed that all of them were strongly proteolytic, had a high ability to produce phospholipase, and presented the byotypes characterized as 811 (95.8%) and 511 (4.2%) in terms of susceptibility to killer toxins. PMID:9859695

  2. Evaluation of Candida strains isolated from clinical specimens

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    Hafize Sav

    2014-01-01

    [¤]METHODS[|]January 2011 to June 2012, Candida strains were isolated from 3905 clinical specimen. In identification of Candida species that were isolated, germ tube test, growth in Cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and formation of clamydospore, presence of pseudohyphae, carbonhytrate fermentation and assimilation tests, and the test of nitrate were studied.[¤]RESULTS[|]Finally 1122 Candida strains were isolated from 3905 various clinical specimens. The distribution of clinical specimens were as fallows: 556 from bronchoalveolar lavage (49.6%, 271 from sputum (24.2%, 114 from blood (10.2%, 51 vaginal swabs (4.6%, 50 from urine (4.4%, 30 from tissue (2.6%, 22 from endotracheal tracheal aspirate (ETA (1.9%, nine from pleural mai (0.80%, six from peritoneal fluid (0.53%, four from gastric fluid(0.35%,three from stool(0.28%,two from abscess (0.18%,three from nail (0.26%, one from cerebrospinal fluid (0.10%. From these clinical samples 848 C. albicans (75.6%, 143 C. glabrata (12.8%, 40 C. parapsilosis, (3.57%, 33 C. krusei (2.94%, 33 C. kefyr (2.94%, 19 C. tropicalis (1.7% were isolated. Other strains were identified as C. lusitania, C. lipolytica, C. norvegensis, C. pelliculosa ve C. zeylanoides.[¤]CONCLUSION[|] It was concluded that C.albicans has still been the most frequent species among Candida isolates of in our hospital; however, the incidence of non-albicans species have increased.[¤

  3. Growth of Candida albicans cells on the physiologically relevant carbon source lactate affects their recognition and phagocytosis by immune cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ene, I.V.; Cheng, S.C.; Netea, M.G.; Brown, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a normal resident of the human gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts and also a prevalent fungal pathogen. During both commensalism and infection, it must match the immunological defenses of its host while adapting to environmental cues and the local nutrient status. C. albicans

  4. Influence of aeration of Candida albicans during culturing on their surface aggregation in the presence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millsap, KW; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Candida albicans surfaces are extremely sensitive to changes in growth conditions. In this study, adhesion to glass of aerated and non-aerated C. albicans ATCC 10261 in the presence and absence of adhering Streptococcus gordonii NCTC 7869 was determined in a parallel plate flow chamber. In addition,

  5. Effects of Low-Level Laser Irradiation on the Pathogenicity of Candida albicans: In Vitro and in Vivo Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seyedmousavi Tasieh, S.; Hashemi, S.J.; Rezaie, S.; Fateh, M.; Djavid, G.E.; Zibafar, E.; Morsali, F.; Zand, N.; Alinaghizadeh, M.; Ataie-Fashtami, L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the in vitro growth characteristics and in vivo pathogenicity of Candida albicans in a murine model in the absence of a photosensitizer. Background data: C. albicans is an opportunistic

  6. Effect of Shark Liver Oil on Peritoneal Murine Macrophages in Responses to Killed-Candida albicans

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    Monire Hajimoradi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sShark Liver Oil (SLO is an immunomodulator. Macrophages play a key role in host defense against pathogens like fungi. Candida albicans have mechanisms to escape immune system. We determined the effect of killed-Candida on the in vitro viability of macrophages and the effect of SLO on augmentation of this potency.Materials and MethodsPeritoneal macrophages were separated and cultured (3×105/well. At first, the effect of killed-Candida (200 cells/well on macrophage viability was evaluated, using MTT test. Then, MTT was performed on macrophages stimulated with killed-Candida in the presence of SLO. ResultsKilled-Candida suppressed the ability of MTT reduction and hence macrophages viability (P=0.026, but addition of SLO (100 mg/ml significantly enhanced cell viability (P=0.00. So, SLO could neutralize the inhibitory effect of Candida.ConclusionSimultaneous with cytotoxic effect of killed-Candida cells on macrophages viability, SLO augment macrophages viability. So, it can be applied in candidiasis as a complement.

  7. Candida albicans--adriamycin interactions: ultrastructural and spectrofluorometric study of whole yeasts and spheroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobichon, H; Bussy, V; Angiboust, J F; Manfait, M; Bouchet, P; Jardillier, J C

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence of candidiasis in cancer patients who undergo chemotherapy requires the interrelation of Candida albicans and the antimitotic drug Adriamycin (ADM) which is well known as an intercalating agent. The whole yeasts were not affected by 2 h of contact with the drug at 10(-4) M neither for their growth curve nor for their ultrastructure, despite the presence of free ADM on their surface. Spheroplasts displayed a delay in their growth and exhibited altered nucleoli with segregation of their granular and fibrillar components. The modified emission spectrum of ADM, determined by spectrofluorometry, corresponded neither to the free ADM nor to the DNA-bound drug, but it could be related to a metabolite of the drug. The cell wall appeared to be one of the main sites for ADM resistance of Candida albicans in vitro. PMID:2085691

  8. Nocvel potential targets and related genes of transcription factor Caplp in Candida albicans 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YahWANG; Yong-bingCAO; Xin-mingJIA; De-junWANG; ZhengXU; HuiSHEN; KangYING; Wan-shengCHEN; Yuan-yingJIANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM Capl p, encoded by CAP1 in Candida albicans, is highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Yapl p. It has been associated with tolerance to oxidative stress and resistance to a variety of toxicants previously. We used homemade microarray to reveal Capl p related genes in a broad spectrum as well as to lucubrate the functions of Capl p. METHODS Microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes between CAP1 deletion strain CJD21 and its parental strain CAI4. CAP1 over-expression strain was constructed to confirm the relationship between CAP1 and some differentially expressedgenes. Bioinformatics was applied to reveal promoters with Capl p binding site as well as the clusters of differentially expressed genes. RT-PCR and drug efflux analysis were used to lucubrate the functions of Caplp in Candida albicans.

  9. Genotypes of Candida albicans isolated from healthy individuals and their distribution in patients with oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yuki; Fukano, Hideo; Shimozato, Kazuo; Tanaka, Reiko; Horii, Toshinobu; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

    2013-12-01

    For the study of Candida albicans genotypes involved in development of candidiasis, Candida albicans isolates were collected from healthy volunteers and patients with oral candidiasis and genotyped on the basis of 25S rDNA and microsatellite polymorphisms. In the microsatellite analysis using two microsatellite markers (CDC3 and CAI), 63 healthy volunteer isolates were classified into 35 genotypes (allelic relations to CDC3 alleles 1:2/CAI alleles 1:2), among which genotypes II (115:119/23:23), III (115:123/18:27), and V (123:127/32:41) were found at frequencies of 12.7%, 7.9%, and 7.9%, respectively. In 68 oral candidiasis isolates classified into 39 genotypes, genotypes II and III were identified in 4.4% and 20.6% of the isolates, respectively. The frequency of genotype III was higher in the candidiasis isolates than in the healthy isolates (p oral candidiasis.

  10. Role of Ess1 in growth, morphogenetic switching, and RNA polymerase II transcription in Candida albicans.

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    Dhanushki Samaranayake

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections among immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of drug resistant C. albicans strains makes it important to identify new antifungal drug targets. Among potential targets are enzymes known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases that catalyze isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline. We are investigating a PPIase called Ess1, which is conserved in all major human pathogenic fungi. Previously, we reported that C. albicans Ess1 is essential for growth and morphogenetic switching. In the present study, we re-evaluated these findings using more rigorous genetic analyses, including the use of additional CaESS1 mutant alleles, distinct marker genes, and the engineering of suitably-matched isogenic control strains. The results confirm that CaEss1 is essential for growth in C. albicans, but show that reduction of CaESS1 gene dosage by half (δ/+ does not interfere with morphogenetic switching. However, further reduction of CaEss1 levels using a conditional allele does reduce morphogenetic switching. We also examine the role of the linker α-helix that distinguishes C. albicans Ess1 from the human Pin1 enzyme, and present results of a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. The latter analysis indicates that CaEss1 has a conserved role in regulation of RNA polymerase II function, and is required for efficient termination of small nucleolar RNAs and repression of cryptic transcription in C. albicans.

  11. Genetic organization and mRNA expression of enolase genes of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, P; Sundstrom, P

    1995-04-01

    In previous work, we cloned a Candida albicans cDNA for the glycolytic enzyme enolase and found a single, abundant enolase transcript on Northern (RNA) blots and a single protein on immunoblots, using antiserum raised against a recombinant enolase fusion protein. Because C. albicans enolase is abundantly produced during infection and elicits strong host immune responses, the mechanisms regulating enolase production are important for understanding the growth of C. albicans in vivo. To obtain more information on enolase gene expression by C. albicans, we used the enolase cDNA clone to investigate the genetic organization of enolase genes and the steady-state levels of enolase mRNA under several growth conditions. Gene disruption techniques in combination with Southern blot analyses of genomic DNA showed the presence of two enolase gene loci that could be distinguished by the locations of ClaI and Mn/I sites in their 3' flanking regions. Enolase steady-state mRNA levels were greatest during the middle phase of the logarithmic growth curve and were low during stationary phase. Minimal differences in enolase mRNA levels between yeast cells and hyphae were found. Propagation of C. albicans in glucose did not cause increased enolase mRNA levels compared with growth in a nonfermentable carbon source (pyruvate). It was concluded that two gene loci exist for C. albicans enolase and that enolase mRNA is constitutively produced at high levels during active metabolism. PMID:7896700

  12. Rac1 dynamics in the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

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    Romain Vauchelles

    Full Text Available The small Rho G-protein Rac1 is highly conserved from fungi to humans, with approximately 65% overall sequence identity in Candida albicans. As observed with human Rac1, we show that C. albicans Rac1 can accumulate in the nucleus, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP together with fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP studies indicate that this Rho G-protein undergoes nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Analyses of different chimeras revealed that nuclear accumulation of C. albicans Rac1 requires the NLS-motifs at its carboxyl-terminus, which are blocked by prenylation of the adjacent cysteine residue. Furthermore, we show that C. albicans Rac1 dynamics, both at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus, are dependent on its activation state and in particular that the inactive form accumulates faster in the nucleus. Heterologous expression of human Rac1 in C. albicans also results in nuclear accumulation, yet accumulation is more rapid than that of C. albicans Rac1. Taken together our results indicate that Rac1 nuclear accumulation is an inherent property of this G-protein and suggest that the requirements for its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling are conserved from fungi to humans.

  13. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  14. Identification of Drosophila gene products required for phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

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    Shannon L Stroschein-Stevenson

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis is a highly conserved aspect of innate immunity. We used Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells as a model system to study the phagocytosis of Candida albicans, the major fungal pathogen of humans, by screening an RNAi library representing 7,216 fly genes conserved among metazoans. After rescreening the initial genes identified and eliminating certain classes of housekeeping genes, we identified 184 genes required for efficient phagocytosis of C. albicans. Diverse biological processes are represented, with actin cytoskeleton regulation, vesicle transport, signaling, and transcriptional regulation being prominent. Secondary screens using Escherichia coli and latex beads revealed several genes specific for C. albicans phagocytosis. Characterization of one of those gene products, Macroglobulin complement related (Mcr, shows that it is secreted, that it binds specifically to the surface of C. albicans, and that it promotes its subsequent phagocytosis. Mcr is closely related to the four Drosophila thioester proteins (Teps, and we show that TepII is required for efficient phagocytosis of E. coli (but not C. albicans or Staphylococcus aureus and that TepIII is required for the efficient phagocytosis of S. aureus (but not C. albicans or E. coli. Thus, this family of fly proteins distinguishes different pathogens for subsequent phagocytosis.

  15. Innate Immunity and Saliva in Candida albicans-mediated Oral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, O; Puri, S; Tati, S; Edgerton, M

    2016-04-01

    The oral cavity is a unique niche where Candida albicans infections occur in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Here we critically review the significance of human innate immune response in preventing oral candidiasis. One important line of defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis is the oral microbiota that prevents infection by competing for space and nutrients as well as by secreting antagonistic molecules and triggering local inflammatory responses. C. albicans is able to induce mucosal defenses through activation of immune cells and production of cytokines. Also, saliva contains various proteins that affect C. albicans growth positively by promoting mucosal adherence and negatively through immune exclusion and direct fungicidal activity. We further discuss the role of saliva in unifying host innate immune defenses against C. albicans as a communicating medium and how C. albicans overgrowth in the oral cavity may be a result of aberrations ranging from microbial dysbiosis and salivary dysfunction to epithelial damage. Last we underscore select oral diseases in which C. albicans is a contributory microorganism in immune-competent individuals.

  16. Specific induction of fibronectin binding activity by hemoglobin in Candida albicans grown in defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S; Nègre, E; Cashel, J A; Guo, N; Lyman, C A; Walsh, T J; Roberts, D D

    1996-08-01

    Fibronectin (FN) is a major component of host extracellular matrix that may play an important role in the initiation and dissemination of Candida albicans infections. Expression of FN binding requires growth of C albicans blastoconidia in complex medium, and the regulation of FN receptor expression is poorly understood. We now demonstrate that hemoglobin is a potent and specific inducer of FN receptor expression and describe a defined medium supplemented with hemoglobin that greatly and stably enhances the binding activity of C. albicans for soluble FN. Enhancement of FN binding by hemoglobin in strain 44807 was concentration dependent and was maximal at 0.1% hemoglobin with 20- to 80-fold enhancement. The hemoglobin-induced FN binding to C. albicans was saturable, with a Kd of 2.7 X 10(-8) M. Enhancement required growth of C. albicans in hemoglobin-containing medium, since simply exposing blastoconidia to hemoglobin in a nongrowing status did not enhance binding. Induction was reversible following removal of hemoglobin from the growth medium and not associated with germination. Inorganic or protein-bound iron was not sufficient for the induction, since other iron-containing proteins or inorganic iron salts were inactive. Growth in the simple medium yeast nitrogen base supplemented with hemoglobin increased cell adhesion to immobilized FN and to cultured monolayers of bovine corneal endothelial cells. These data suggest that hemoglobin may be an important regulator of FN binding activity in C. albicans and thus may play a role in its pathogenesis. PMID:8757815

  17. Members of the Candida parapsilosis Complex and Candida albicans are Differentially Recognized by Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Mata, Eine; Navarro-Arias, María J.; Pérez-García, Luis A.; Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G.; Csonka, Katalin; Gacser, Attila; Mora-Montes, Héctor M.

    2016-01-01

    The systemic infections caused by members of the Candida parapsilosis complex are currently associated to high morbility and mortality rates, and are considered as relevant as those caused by Candida albicans. Since the fungal cell wall is the first point of contact with the host cells, here we performed a comparison of this organelle in members of the C. parapsilosis complex, and its relevance during interaction with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We found that the wall of the C. parapsilosis complex members is similar in composition, but differs to that from C. albicans, with less mannan content and more β-glucan and porosity levels. Furthermore, lectin-based analysis showed increased chitin and β1,3-glucan exposure at the surface of C. parapsilosis sensu lato when compared to C. albicans. Yeast cells of members of the C. parapsilosis complex stimulated more cytokine production by human PBMCs than C. albicans cells; and this significantly changed upon removal of O-linked mannans, indicating this wall component plays a significant role in cytokine stimulation by C. parapsilosis sensu lato. When inner wall components were exposed on the wall surface, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis, but not C. orthopsilosis, stimulated higher cytokine production. Moreover, we found a strong dependency on β1,3-glucan recognition for the members of the C. parapsilosis complex, but not for live C. albicans cells; whereas TLR4 was required for TNFα production by the three members of the complex, and stimulation of IL-6 by C. orthopsilosis. Mannose receptor had a significant role during TNFα and IL-1β stimulation by members of the complex. Finally, we demonstrated that purified N- and O-mannans from either C. parapsilosis sensu lato or C. albicans are capable to block the recognition of these pathogens by human PBMCs. Together; our results suggest that the innate immune recognition of the members of the C. parapsilosis complex is differential

  18. Members of the Candida parapsilosis complex and Candida albicans are differentially recognized by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eine eEstrada-Mata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic infections caused by members of the Candida parapsilosis complex are currently associated to high mobility and mortality rates, and are considered as relevant as those caused by Candida albicans. Since the fungal cell wall is the first point of contact with the host cells, here we performed a comparison of this organelle in members of the C. parapsilosis complex, and its relevance during interaction with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We found that the wall of the C. parapsilosis complex members is similar in composition, but differs to that from C. albicans, with less mannan content and more β-glucan and porosity levels. Furthermore, lectin-based analysis showed increased chitin and β1,3-glucan exposure at the surface of C. parapsilosis sensu lato when compared to C. albicans. Yeast cells of members of the C. parapsilosis complex stimulated more cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells than C. albicans cells; and this significantly changed upon removal of O-linked mannans, indicating this wall component plays a significant role in cytokine stimulation by C. parapsilosis sensu lato. When inner wall components were exposed on the wall surface, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis, but not C. orthopsilosis, stimulated higher cytokine production. Moreover, we found a strong dependency on β1,3-glucan recognition for the members of the C. parapsilosis complex, but not for live C. albicans cells; whereas TLR4 was required for TNFα production by the three members of the complex, and stimulation of IL-6 by C. orthopsilosis. Mannose receptor had a significant role during TNF and IL-1β stimulation by members of the complex. Finally, we demonstrated that purified N- and O-mannans from either C. parapsilosis sensu lato or C. albicans are capable to block the recognition of these pathogens by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Together; our results suggest that the innate immune

  19. 建立白色念珠菌蛋白指纹库的研究%A study on establishment of peptide mapping database of Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永长; 喻华; 刘华; 肖代雯; 黄文芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨白色念珠菌蛋白指纹库的建立,为白色念珠菌感染快速诊断奠定基础。方法收集96株临床分离的白色念珠菌,提取DNA ,采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增其ITS1-5.8S-ITS2基因片段,利用限制性内切酶对其进行鉴定。应用表面增强激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(SELDI-TOF-MS)仪检测念珠菌蛋白指纹,Ciphergen ProteinChip软件自动采集数据,筛选稳定表达蛋白峰建立白色念珠菌蛋白指纹库,运用经准确鉴定的念珠菌对建立的蛋白指纹库进行验证。结果限制性片段长度多态性分析证实临床分离的所有菌株均为白色念珠菌。SELDI-TOF-MS芯片能捕获15个蛋白峰,其中5个蛋白峰在所有白色念珠菌中均稳定表达,利用相似性分析软件建立白色念珠菌蛋白指纹库,白色念珠菌蛋白指纹与建立数据库的相似性大于95%,而其他种类念珠菌蛋白指纹与数据库的相似性均小于50%。结论白色念珠菌蛋白指纹库的建立为快速诊断白色念珠菌感染提供了理论依据。%Objective To explore the establishment of peptide mapping database of Candida albicans ,laying the foundation for rapid diagnosis of Candida albicans infection .Methods 96 Candida albicans were collected clinically ,and its DNA was extracted . Polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was used to amplify the ITS1-5 .8S-ITS2 gene fragments and restriction endonucleases were a-dopted to identify them .Surface enhanced laser desorption ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry(SELDI-TOF-MS) instrument was applied to detect the Candida albicans peptide mapping ,and Ciphergen ProteinChip software was used to collect data automati-cally .The established peptide mapping database was verified by confirmed Candida .Results According to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis ,96 strains were confirmed as Candida albicans .15 peptide peaks were captured by SELDI-TOF-MS chips .Five

  20. Suppression of humoral response during the course of Candida albicans infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; Meson, O E; de Valdez, G A; Sirena, A

    1984-10-30

    This paper aims at demonstrating the non-specific immunosuppression as regards thyme-dependent antigens sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) during the course of Candida albicans systemic infection. Three lots of syngeneic/BALB/c mice, 8-12 weeks of age, were used. The first normal lot was inoculated via the intraperitoneal route with a (SRBC) suspension (4 X 10(8) cells ml) in a Hank's balanced saline solution. The primary response of antibodies formed by splenic cells was measured from 4 to 8 days after inoculation using the direct plaque forming cells technique. The second lot was infected by the same route with a suspension of Candida albicans (1 X 10(7) cells). Positive retrocultures from the blood and kidneys of these infected mice were obtained. These yeasts cultivated in a Sabouraud medium were harvested after 20 h at 37 degrees C. Following the same methodology the immune response to SRBC was determined. The serum obtained from infected mice was transferred to a third lot of mice at different intervals during the course of the infection. The immune response to SRBC was done by the direct plaque-forming cells technique. Controls were carried out using normal donors and recipients. A suppression of the immune response was obtained as from the 2nd day of inoculation up to the 28th day. It was not possible to transfer such suppression passively by means of the serum. These results suggest that the systemic infection by Candida albicans induce a non-specific immunosuppression in the organism, already demonstrated in viral infections, bacteria, protozoaria and metazoaria in mammals. In some way, this will contribute to explain the mechanisms of immune response to Candida albicans.

  1. Mixed Fungal Lung Infection with Aspergillus Fumigatus and Candida Albicans in a Immunocomprimised Patient: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    S., Jaya; Vipparti, Haritha

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of invasive, opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past 2 decades. In the immune-compromised host, many fungi, including species of fungi typically considered non-pathogenic, have the potential to cause serious morbidity and mortality. Here we report a rare case of mixed fungal infection of the lung with Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a patient on prolonged steroid therapy.

  2. Variability in expression of cell surface antigens of Candida albicans during morphogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The location and expression of two different cell surface antigens on germinating and nongerminating Candida albicans cells was examined by using transmission electron microscopy after labeling with monoclonal antibodies (H9 or C6) and immunocolloidal gold. Immunodeterminant expression of the two carbohydrate antigens was followed from early germination events through 20 h of development. The determinant detected by H9 antibody, which was initially lost from the mother cell surface and prefer...

  3. Role of granulocytes in increased host resistance to Candida albicans induced by recombinant interleukin-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Kullberg, B J; Van't Wout, J W; van Furth, R

    1990-01-01

    The effect of human recombinant interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) on a systemic candidal infection in mice under various conditions of immunosuppression was investigated. In normal mice and in mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide, hydrocortisone acetate, or sublethal total body irradiation, the outgrowth of Candida albicans in the kidney was significantly reduced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of 80 ng of IL-1 (P less than 0.05). In mice treated with either cyclophosph...

  4. Hydrophobic surface protein masking by the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; Hazen, B W

    1992-01-01

    Ultrastructural and biochemical analyses of hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cell surface proteins of Candida albicans were performed. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cells were obtained by growth at 23 and 37 degrees C, respectively. In addition, hydrophilic yeast cells were converted to surface hydrophobicity by treatment with tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. When freeze-etched cells were examined, the temperature-induced hydrophilic cells had long (0.198 micron), compact, evenly distribu...

  5. Differential adherence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic Candida albicans yeast cells to mouse tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Hazen, K C; Brawner, D L; Riesselman, M H; Jutila, M A; Cutler, J E

    1991-01-01

    Using an ex vivo binding assay, we previously demonstrated that yeast cells grown at 37 degrees C display binding specificity in mouse spleen, lymph node, and kidney tissues. In spleen and lymph node tissues, binding was predominantly in regions rich in macrophages. Here, we tested the possibility that hydrophobic and hydrophilic cells bind differentially to host tissues. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic yeast cells of four Candida albicans strains were incubated for 15 min at 4 degrees C with cry...

  6. Relationship between germination of Candida albicans and increased adherence to human buccal epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, L H; Pearsall, N N

    1980-01-01

    A strong correlation was shown between germination and increased adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells, indicating that germination or other changes in the fungi accompanying germination were responsible for enhanced adherence. Partial inhibition of germination by cysteine resulted in a comparably lower adherence. Preferential adherence of germinated fungi occurred in competition assays with nongerminated and germinated fungi. The enhanced adherence to human mucosal c...

  7. Identification of two germ-tube-specific cell wall antigens of Candida albicans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponton, J; J. M. Jones

    1986-01-01

    Outer cell wall layers of intact yeast- and mycelial-phase Candida albicans B311 were extracted with dithiothreitol. Antisera against mycelial-phase organisms were absorbed with yeast-phase organisms or yeast-phase extract and used to stain Western blots of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels loaded with yeast- and mycelial-phase extracts. Autoradiography of gels loaded with extracts from organisms surface labeled with 125I was used to detect surface antigens containing proteins. Antig...

  8. PRODUCTION OF A HUMAN RECOMBINANT ANTIBODY AGAINST SEROTYPE A CANDIDA ALBICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari, A. A.

    2005-01-01

    After using 3 different generations of antibodies including human and non-human hyperimmune sera, monoclonal antibodies and chimeric antibodies, more recently a newer approach has been developed in which the antibody genes are cloned directly from a patient peripheral B-lymphocytes and expressed in a host like E. coli. In this study the Candida albicans serotype A (NCTC 3153) mannan was purified using a modified Fehling method and used for selection of human recombinant antibody from a C. alb...

  9. Protection against murine disseminated candidiasis mediated by a Candida albicans-specific T-cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Sieck, T G; Moors, M A; Buckley, H R; Blank, K J

    1993-01-01

    The role of T lymphocytes in disseminated candidiasis in a mouse model of irradiation-induced immunosuppression was investigated. A continuously cultured Candida albicans-specific T-cell line mediated protection of sublethally irradiated mice from disseminated candidiasis as measured by both the fungal load in the kidneys and mortality. These results are the first to demonstrate directly a role for antigen-specific T cells in the protective immune response against murine disseminated candidia...

  10. Influence of artificial saliva in biofilm formation of Candida albicans in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peneluppi Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10. A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p≤0.05.

  11. Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in the gut: Synergy in commensalism?

    OpenAIRE

    Garsin, Danielle A.; Michael C Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Candida albicans and the gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis are both normal residents of the human gut microbiome and cause opportunistic disseminated infections in immunocompromised individuals. Using a nematode infection model, we recently showed that co-infection resulted in less pathology and less mortality than infection with either species alone and this was partly explained by an interkingdom signaling event in which a bacterial-derived product inhibits hyphal mor...

  12. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon W Blumstein

    Full Text Available Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans infection. To determine the outcome of chronic Δ9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or Δ9-THC (16 mg/kg in vehicle on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×10(5 C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic Δ9-THC (4-64 mg/kg treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×10(4 C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×10(5 C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic Δ9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, Δ9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, Δ9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-γ and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic Δ9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-γ that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.

  13. Toll-like receptor 2 suppresses immunity against Candida albicans through induction of IL-10 and regulatory T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Sutmuller, R.P.M.; Hermann, C.; Graaf, C.A.A. van der; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Hartung, T.; Adema, G.J.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 play a pivotal role in recognition of Candida albicans. We demonstrate that TLR2(-/-) mice are more resistant to disseminated Candida infection, and this is associated with increased chemotaxis and enhanced candidacidal capacity of TLR2(-/-) macrophages. Although

  14. Protocol for Determination of the Persister Subpopulation in Candida Albicans Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brucker, Katrijn; De Cremer, Kaat; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to planktonic cultures of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, C. albicans biofilms can contain a persister subpopulation that is tolerant to high concentrations of currently used antifungals. In this chapter, the method to determine the persister fraction in a C. albicans biofilm treated with an antifungal compound is described. To this end, a mature biofilm is developed and subsequently treated with a concentration series of the antifungal compound of interest. Upon incubation, the fraction of surviving biofilm cells is determined by plating and plotted versus the used concentrations of the antifungal compound. If a persister subpopulation in the biofilm is present, the dose-dependent killing of the biofilm cells results in a biphasic killing pattern.

  15. Analysis of the relationship between fluconazole consumption and non-C. albicans Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczkowska-Sieron, E; Gaszynski, W; Tyczkowski, J; Glowacka, A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of fluconazole consumption on the incidence of nosocomial non-C. albicans Candida infections remains unclear. In this study we investigated such a relationship in an intensive care unit (Poland) over an 11-year period (2002-2012). Statistics relating to the number of candidiasis cases and the number of defined daily doses of fluconazole showed that only a very weak and not statistically significant linear correlation existed between these two variables (r(2) = 0.36, P = 0.052). However, the assumption of a 1-year delay in the infection response to changes in fluconazole concentrations resulted in a strong and statistically significant linear correlation (r(2) = 0.64, P = 0.0053). To more accurately determine the nature of this relationship, a simple epidemiological model was proposed that provided a better than linear correlation (r(2) = 0.78, P = 0.00077). We successfully used this approach to analyze results from the literature that were interpreted as evidence that fluconazole use is not a risk factor for development of non-C. albicans Candida infections. If a time delay in the infection response was assumed, a strong and statistically significant correlation was obtained. These findings suggest the need for a closer look at fluconazole therapy as a possible risk factor for development of non-C. albicans Candida infections.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Curcumin on Candida-albicans compared with Nystatin: an in-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Babaii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Curcumin is the active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa. Curcumin has a surprisingly wide range of beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. on basis of recent studies; it has antifungal and antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was in-vitro evaluation of antifungal effect of curcumin on candida albicans and comparing it with nystatin. Methods: after preparing curcumin powder, 3 laboratory methods were used to evaluate antifungal effect. The first method was cell count technique, used to evaluate the amount of candida albicans after time, in different concentrations of curcumin in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO. The second was cup bioassay, in which inhibitory a zone of curcumin in DMSO was evaluated in sabouraud culture plates; and in third method, inhibitory zones of dried disks; which contained curcumin in DMSO were evaluated. Results: the result of all three methods showed that curcumin has antifungal effect and this effect increases in more concentrations. Conclusion: curcumin has apparent and dose dependent antifungal effect on candida albicans.

  17. Application of benzo[a]phenoxazinium chlorides in Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy of Candida albicans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marisa; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Rama Raju, B; Gonçalves, M Sameiro T; Coutinho, Paulo J G; Henriques, Mariana; Belo, Isabel

    2014-12-01

    The use of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) as a new approach to treat localized Candida infections is an emerging and promising field nowadays. The aim of this study was to verify the efficacy of photodynamic therapy using two new benzo[a]phenoxazinium photosensitizers against Candida albicans biofilms: N-(5-(3-hydroxypropylamino)-10-methyl-9H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-9-ylidene)ethanaminium chloride (FSc) and N-(5-(11-hydroxyundecylamino)-10-methyl-9H-benzo[a]phenoxazin-9-ylidene)ethanaminium chloride (FSd). The photodynamic activity of dyes against C. albicans biofilms was evaluated by incubating biofilms with dyes in the range of 100-300 μM for 3 or 18 h followed by illumination at 12 or 36 J cm(-2), using a xenon arc lamp (600 ± 2 nm). A total photoinactivation of C. albicans biofilm cells was achieved using 300 μM of FSc with 18 h of incubation, followed by illumination at 36 J cm(-2). Contrarily, FSd had insignificant effect on biofilms inactivation by APDT. The higher uptake of FSc than FSd dye by biofilms during the dark incubation may explain the greater photodynamic effectiveness achieved with FSc. The results obtained stresses out the FSc-mediated APDT potential use to treat C. albicans infections.

  18. Biofilm formation and Candida albicans morphology on the surface of denture base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susewind, Sabine; Lang, Reinhold; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Fungal biofilms may contribute to the occurrence of denture stomatitis. The objective of the study was to investigate the biofilm formation and morphology of Candida albicans in biofilms on the surface of denture base materials. Specimens were prepared from different denture base materials. After determination of surface properties and salivary pellicle formation, mono- and multispecies biofilm formation including Candida albicans ATCC 10231 was initiated. Relative amounts of adherent cells were determined after 20, 44, 68 and 188 h; C. albicans morphology was analysed employing selective fluorescence microscopic analysis. Significant differences were identified in the relative amount of cells adherent to the denture base materials. Highest blastospore/hyphae index suggesting an increased percentage of hyphae was observed in mono- and multispecies biofilms on the soft denture liner, which did not necessarily respond to the highest relative amount of adherent cells. For both biofilm models, lowest relative amount of adherent cells was identified on the methacrylate-based denture base material, which did not necessarily relate to a significantly lower blastospore/hyphae index. The results indicate that there are significant differences in both biofilm formation as well as the morphology of C. albicans cells in biofilms on the surface of different denture base materials.

  19. Top-down characterization data on the speciation of the Candida albicans immunome in candidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarch, Aida; Nombela, César; Gil, Concha

    2016-03-01

    The characterization of pathogen-specific antigenic proteins at the protein species level is crucial in the development and molecular optimization of novel immunodiagnostics, vaccines or immunotherapeutics for infectious diseases. The major requirements to achieve this molecular level are to obtain 100% sequence coverage and identify all post-translational modifications of each antigenic protein species. In this article, we show nearly complete sequence information for five discrete antigenic species of Candida albicans Tdh3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), which have been reported to be differentially recognized both among candidemia patients and between candidemia and control patients. A comprehensive description of the top-down immunoproteomic strategy used for seroprofiling at the C. albicans protein species level in candidemia as well as for the chemical characterization of this immunogenic protein (based on high-resolution 2-DE, Western blotting, peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing) is also provided. The top-down characterization data on the speciation of the C. albicans immunome in candidemia presented here are related to our research article entitled "Seroprofiling at the Candida albicans protein species level unveils an accurate molecular discriminator for candidemia" (Pitarch et al., J. Proteomics, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.10.022). PMID:26862568

  20. Top-down characterization data on the speciation of the Candida albicans immunome in candidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Pitarch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of pathogen-specific antigenic proteins at the protein species level is crucial in the development and molecular optimization of novel immunodiagnostics, vaccines or immunotherapeutics for infectious diseases. The major requirements to achieve this molecular level are to obtain 100% sequence coverage and identify all post-translational modifications of each antigenic protein species. In this article, we show nearly complete sequence information for five discrete antigenic species of Candida albicans Tdh3 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which have been reported to be differentially recognized both among candidemia patients and between candidemia and control patients. A comprehensive description of the top-down immunoproteomic strategy used for seroprofiling at the C. albicans protein species level in candidemia as well as for the chemical characterization of this immunogenic protein (based on high-resolution 2-DE, Western blotting, peptide mass fingerprinting, tandem mass spectrometry and de novo peptide sequencing is also provided. The top-down characterization data on the speciation of the C. albicans immunome in candidemia presented here are related to our research article entitled “Seroprofiling at the Candida albicans protein species level unveils an accurate molecular discriminator for candidemia” (Pitarch et al., J. Proteomics, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2015.10.022.

  1. Application of surface plasmon resonance biosensor for the detection of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmongkol, Sirasa; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Puttharugsa, Chokchai; Sutapun, Boonsong; Amarit, Ratthasart; Somboonkaew, Armote; Srikhirin, Toemsak

    2016-02-01

    In this study, surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPR imaging) was developed for the detection of Candida albicans which is a causal agent of oral infection. The detection was based on the sandwich assay. The capture antibody was covalently immobilized on the mixed self assemble monolayers (SAMs). The ratio of mixed SAMs between 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid and 3-mercaptopropanol was varied to find the optimal ratio for use as a sensor surface. The results showed that the suitable surface for C. albicans detection was SAM of carboxylic (mixed SAMs 1:0), even though mixed SAMs 1:40 had a high detection signal in comparison to mixed SAMs 1:0, but the non-specific signal was higher. The detection limit was 107 cells/ml for direct detection, and was increased to 106 cells/ml with sandwich antibody. The use of polyclonal C. albicans antibody as capture and sandwich antibody showed good selectivity against the relevant oral bacteria including Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutan, Staphylococcus aureus, β-streptococci, and Lactobacillus casei. SPR platform in this study could detect C. albicans from the mixed microbial suspension without requirement of skillful technician. This SPR imaging biosensor could be applied for Candida identification after cultivation.

  2. Efek Antijamur Minyak Atsiri Jahe Merah (Zingiber officinale Var. Rubrum terhadap Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermina Karuna Atmaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Candida albicans infections is increasing in the society. Therefore, an effective and affordable antifungal drug with minimal side effect is needed. Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a traditional herb which has an antifungal effect in its volatile oil. Objective: To investigate antifungal effect of volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var rubrum against C. albicans in vitro, to determine the optimum concentration, and finally to determine the correlation between the various concentrations of the oil and the inhibition zone. Material and method: Strain C. albicans tested was obtained from the Department of Parasitology, Medical Faculty, University of Indonesia. Volatile oil of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum was produced from water and steam distillation of fresh ginger in BALLITRO, Bogor. Concentrations of the volatile oil used were 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5% 6.25%, 3.125%, 1.56% and 0.78%. Methods used were colony counting and disk diffusion method (by using 6 mm blank disk. The specimens were divided into two groups, treatment group (C. albicans with application of volatile oil and control group (C. albicans without application of volatile oil. Result: There was a significant decrease in the amount of C. albicans colonies from 3.125% to 6.25% of concentration. The amount of C. albicans colonies at concentration 6.25% was also significantly lower than in the control group. Moreover, there was strong and positive correlation between the concentration of the volatile oil and the inhibition zone. Conclusion: Volatile oil from Zingiber officinale var. rubrum has an antifungal effect against C. albicans in vitro with optimum concentration at 6.25%. Increasing concentrations of the oil correlates with increasing inhibition zome.

  3. Mechanisms of the antifungal action of marine metagenome-derived peptide, MMGP1, against Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuirulan Pushpanathan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Development of resistant variants to existing antifungal drugs continues to be the serious problem in Candida albicans-induced fungal pathogenesis, which has a considerable impact on animal and human health. Identification and characterization of newer drugs against C. albicans is, therefore, essential. MMGP1 is a direct cell-penetrating peptide recently identified from marine metagenome, which was found to possess potent antifungal activity against C. albicans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated the mechanism of antifungal action of MMGP1 against C. albicans. Agarose gel shift assay found the peptide to be having a remarkable DNA-binding ability. The modification of the absorption spectra and fluorescence quenching of the tryptophyl residue correspond to the stacking between indole ring and nucleotide bases. The formation of peptide-DNA complexes was confirmed by fluorescence quenching of SYTO 9 probe. The interaction of peptide with plasmid DNA afforded protection of DNA from enzymatic degradation by DNase I. In vitro transcription of mouse β-actin gene in the presence of peptide led to a decrease in the level of mRNA synthesis. The C. albicans treated with MMGP1 showed strong inhibition of biosynthetic incorporation of uridine analog 5-ethynyluridine (EU into nascent RNA, suggesting the peptide's role in the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Furthermore, the peptide also induces endogenous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in C. albicans. MMGP1 supplemented with glutathione showed an increased viability of C. albicans cells. The hyper-produced ROS by MMGP1 leads to increased levels of protein carbonyls and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and it also causes dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation in C. albicans cells. CONCLUSION: And Significance: Therefore, the antifungal activity of MMGP1 could be attributed to its binding with DNA, causing

  4. Adding Biotin to Parenteral Nutrition Solutions Without Lipid Accelerates the Growth of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Takashi; Kaneda, Shinya; Shimono, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously demonstrated that Candida albicans requires multivitamins (MVs) or lipid to increase rapidly in parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions. In this study, in detail, the effects of vitamins on the growth of C. albicans in PN solutions without lipid were investigated. Methods: In the 1st experiment, a commercial PN solution without lipid was supplemented with water-soluble vitamins (SVs: vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C, folic acid, nicotinamide, biotin and panthenol), water-insoluble vitamins (IVs: vitamins A, D, E and K) or both (MVs). In the 2nd experiment, the test solutions were prepared by supplementing the PN solution with one of each or all of the SVs. In the 3rd experiment, another commercial peripheral PN (PPN) solution without lipid was supplemented with SVs, nicotinic acid, biotin or both nicotinic acid and biotin. In each of the experiments, a specified number of C. albicans organisms was added to each test solution, and all of the test solutions were allowed to stand at room temperature (23-26ºC). The number of C. albicans was counted at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the addition of the organism. Results: In the 1st experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs, but increased slowly without the SVs, regardless of the addition of the IVs. In the 2nd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with each of the other water-soluble vitamins. In the 3rd experiment, the C. albicans increased rapidly in the PPN solution supplemented with the SVs or biotin, but increased slowly with the addition of nicotinic acid. Conclusions: These results suggested that adding MVs or SVs to PN solutions without lipid promotes the growth of C. albicans, and that this effect is mostly attributable to biotin. PMID:27648003

  5. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

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    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  6. Candida albicans menengitis in a newborn with classical galactosemia

    OpenAIRE

    Altunhan, Hüseyin; Annagür, Ali; Ertuğrul, Sabahattin; Konak, Murat; Yüksekkaya, Hasan Ali; Örs, Rahmi

    2012-01-01

    Classical galactosemia is a rarely seen carbohydrate metabolism disorder. The frequency of sepsis significantly increases in patients with galactosemia. The most common agent causing sepsis is E. coli. Sepsis due to fungus in patients with galactosemia is rarely reported. Candida is an important cause of sepsis in newborn intensive care units especially in newborns with underlying risk factors such as prematurity and low birth weight. Although the most common etiologic agent of sepsis is E. c...

  7. Antifungal Susceptibility Test of 506 Clinical Candida Albicans Isolates to Fluconazole and Itraconazole In Vitro%白念珠菌506株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的体外药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景伟芳; 李春莉; 王惠平

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解白念珠菌临床株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑的体外药物敏感性.方法 收集鉴定白念珠菌临床株,采用美国国家临床实验室标准化研究所CLSI(即以前的NCCLS)推荐的M27-A2微量肉汤稀释法,进行氟康唑和伊曲康唑的MIC值测定.结果 共收集白念珠菌506株,检测出氟康唑耐药株3株,剂量依赖性敏感株1株,耐药率为0.59%;伊曲康唑耐药株18株,剂量依赖性敏感株269株,耐药率为3.56%;其中1株对氟康唑和伊曲康唑交叉耐药.结论 白念珠菌对唑类药物有耐药及交叉耐药现象的发生;伊曲康唑耐药率高于氟康唑.%Objective To investigate the susceptibility of C. albicans isolates to fluconazole and itraconazole in vitro.Methods C. albicans was collected and identified from clinical isolates. M27-A2 Broth microdilution method, recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute ( CLSI), was used to assess the susceptibility of clinical C. albicans to fluconazole and itraconazole. Results A total of 506 clinical C.albicans isolates were collected. Three of the isolates were resistant to fluconazole, and one was susceptible-dose dependent to fluconazole. The resistant rate was 0. 59%. Eighteen isolates were resistant to itraconazole, and 269 were susceptible-dose dependent to itraconazole. The resistant rate was 3.56%. There was one isolates presenting cross-resistant to both fluconazole and itraconazole. Conclusion Some of the clinical C. albicans isolates do resist or cross-resist to antifungal azoles. The resistant rate of ltraconazole is higher than fluconazole.

  8. An in vitro study on effect of Delmopinol application on Candida albicans adherence on heat cured denture base acrylic resin: A thorough study

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    Deshraj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Heat-cured acrylic resin shows greater reduction in adherence of Candida albicans by contamination after Delmopinol application as compared with contamination before Delmopinol application.

  9. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Rees, Dieke J; Aarts, Cathelijn E M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content. PMID:26802050

  10. Antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast:Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Moussa; Djebli Noureddine; Aissat Saad; Meslem Abdelmelek; Benhalima Abdelkader

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antifungal activity of four honeys of different types from Algeria against pathogenic yeast i.e. Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Rhodotorula sp. Methods:Four Algeria honeys of different botanical origin were analyzed to test antifungal effect against C. albicans, and Rhodotorula sp. Different concentrations (undiluted, 10%, 30%, 50%and 70%w/v) of honey were studied in vitro for their antifugal activity using C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. as fungal strains. Results:The range of the diameter of zone of inhibition of various concentrations of tested honeys was (7-23 mm) for Rhodotorula sp., while C. albicans showed clearly resistance towards all concentrations used. The MICs of tested honey concentrations against C. albicans and Rhodotorula sp. were (70.09-93.48)%and (4.90-99.70)%v/v, respectively. Conclusions:This study demonstrates that, in vitro, these natural products have clearly an antifungal activity against Rhodotorula sp. and C. albicans.

  11. Multilocus sequence typing for the analysis of clonality among Candida albicans strains from a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Eun Song; Shin, Jong Hee; Jang, Hee-Chang; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Soo Hyun; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; d'Enfert, Christophe; Choi, Young Youn

    2014-08-01

    Nosocomial Candida albicans infections are a significant problem in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We investigated the clonality of C. albicans isolates recovered over an 8-year period from neonates at a NICU. We also validated multilocus sequence typing (MLST) compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for the genotyping of C. albicans strains from the same NICU. A total of 43 clinical isolates (10 blood, 19 urine, and 14 other) were obtained from 43 neonates between 2005 and 2012. Clonal strains were defined as the isolation of two or more strains with identical or similar genotypes as determined with both MLST and PFGE. Using MLST, the 43 isolates yielded 25 diploid sequence types (DSTs) and 10 DSTs were shared by 28 isolates (65.1%). Among the 28 isolates sharing 10 DSTs, isolates from each of seven DSTs had the same or similar PFGE pattern. In addition, two sets of isolates that differed by MLST at only one locus had the same or similar PFGE pattern. Overall, when the MLST and PFGE results were combined, 22 isolates (51.2%) shared eight genotypes, suggesting clonal strains. Strains from each of seven genotypes (total, 19 isolates) were isolated among the 22 clonal strains within a 6-month period, whereas three strains of one genotype were obtained over a 3-year interval. Our findings suggest that horizontal transmission of C. albicans may occur more frequently than vertical transmission among NICU patients and that MLST appears to be a useful method for genotyping C. albicans strains isolated from NICU patients.

  12. Efek Penambahan Glukosa pada Saburoud Dextrose Broth terhadap Pertumbuhan Candida albicans (Uji In Vitro

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    Lakshmi A. Leepel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available High carbohydrate intake is one of predisposing factors of oral candidiasis. Objective: Investigating the effect of 1%,5%,10% glucose addition on the growth of C.albicans in vitro. Method: C.albicans sample was taken from oral swab of a male oral candidiasis patient. Identification of C.albicans was conducted using CHROMagar and confirmed by germ tube formation in serum. As a comparison, C.albicans ATCC10231 was used. After 2 days the cultures were serially diluted and inoculated in SDB without glucose, and with 1%,5%,10% addditional glucose, kept for 3 and 7 days in room temperature, then inoculated in SDA. The CFU/ml were counted after 2 days. ANOVA with α0.05 was used. Result: Statisticaly, additional 1% glucose for 3 days lead to significant decreased of growth of both clinical strain and ATCC 10231 C. albicans. However, only additional 5% and 10% glucose in clinical isolate for 7 days increased the growth of C.albicans significantly. Conclusion: The effect of additional glucose on the increased growth of C.albicans in vitro is influenced by the concentration, exposure duration of glucose, and by the strain of C.albicans.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i1.14

  13. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms

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    Chaoyu Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Roemerine (RM is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans. The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p < 0.01 both in Spider medium and Lee’s medium. In addition, RM could inhibit yeast-to-hyphae transition of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm-specific and hypha-specific genes such as YWP1, SAP5, SAP6, HWP1, ECE1 were up-regulated and EFG1 was down-regulated after 8 μg/mL RM treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity of RM was investigated using C. elegans worms, three cancer cells and one normal cell. The date showed that RM had no significant toxicity. In conclusion, RM could inhibited the formation of C. albicans biofilm in vitro, but it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, and the anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway.

  14. In vivo photodynamic inactivation of Candida albicans using chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmello, J C; Alves, F; Ribeiro, Apd; Basso, F G; de Souza Costa, C A; Tedesco, A C; Primo, F L; Mima, E G; Pavarina, A C

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis using chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlP) encapsulated in cationic nanoemulsions (NE) and chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlP) diluted in DMSO (DMSO) as photosensitizer (PS). Seventy-five 6-week-old female Swiss mice were immunosuppressed and inoculated with C. albicans to induce oral candidiasis. PDT was performed on the tongue by the application of the photosensitizers and LED light (100 J cm(-2) -660 nm). Twenty-four hours and 7 days after treatments, microbiological evaluation was carried out by recovering C. albicans from the tongue of animals (CFU ml(-1) ). Then, mice were sacrificed and the tongues were surgically removed for histological and biomolecular analysis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Data were analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test. ClAlP-NE-mediated PDT reduced 2.26 log10 of C. albicans recovered from the tongue when compared with the control group (P-L-) (P < 0.05). PDT did not promote adverse effects on the tongue tissue. Seven days after treatment, all animals were completely healthy. In summary, PDT mediated by chloro-aluminum phthalocyanine entrapped in cationic nanoemulsions was effective in reducing C. albicans recovered from the oral lesions of immunocompromised mice. PMID:26914185

  15. Microsatellite-based genotyping of Candida albicans isolated from patients with superficial candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazue; Hattori, Hisao; Adachi, Hidesada; Oshima, Ryosuke; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanaka, Reiko; Yaguchi, Takashi; Tomita, Yasushi; Akiyama, Masashi; Kawamoto, Fumihiko; Kanbe, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the genotype distribution of Candida albicans and the major genotypes involved in superficial candidiasis. The genotypes of C. albicans isolated from the infection sites of patients with superficial candidiasis (referred to as infection isolates) were analyzed by fragment analysis using 4 microsatellite markers (HIS3, CDC3, CAI and CAIII). Genotypes of the infection isolates were compared with those of C. albicans isolated from oral mucosa of non-candidiasis patients (referred to as oral isolates). Isolates of C. albicans showed 4 major genotypes for HIS3/CAI (" a " for 148 : 148 / 23 : 23," b " for 148 : 160 / 33 : 41," c " for 148 : 164 / 32 : 41 and " d " for 152 : 152 / 18 : 27). The genotypes " a "," b " and " d " were commonly found in oral (4.7, 8.8 and 7.6%, respectively) and infection (6.6, 9.2 and 15.4%, respectively) isolates. No isolates of genotype " c " were isolated from infection sites. The genotype " a " was found in the isolates from patients with genitalia candidiasis. Genotyping of multiple isolates from an individual patient showed that C. albicans from infection sites was genetically homogenous as compared with that of oral isolates, even in the same patient with candidiasis.

  16. Genotype comparisons of strains of Candida albicans from patients with cutaneous candidiasis and vaginal candidiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Xiao-dong; WANG Xue-jun; FU Mei-hua; SHEN Yong-nian; LIU Wei-da

    2008-01-01

    Background It is uncertain whether genotypes of Candida albicans (C. Albicans) are associated with colonizing body locations or variant conditions of infection. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are significant associations between strain genotypes and body sites of infection and to determine the potential pathogenesis of cutaneous candidiasis at multiple locations.Methods A total of 151 strains of C. Albicans were isolated from 74 infant patients with cutaneous candidiasis and 61 female patients with vaginal candidiasis. Patients were grouped according to the body sites and underlying conditions of infection. Genolypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the 25S rDNA and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ALT repeals digested with EcoRI and Clal.Results Ten genotypes were detected. There were significant differences in genotype frequencies between the two groups. However, we found no clear association between genotypes and the sites of cutaneous infection or the underlying conditions of vaginal candidiasis (VVC). In addition, strains of C. Albicans from multiple cutaneous locations of the same patient had identical genotypes.Conclusions Populations of C. Albicans from patients with cutaneous and vaginal candidiasis were genetically different. However, the lack of genetic difference between strains from different body sites with cutaneous infections or from different underlying conditions for VVC suggests no evidence of genotype selection for different skin surfaces or patients with different underlying conditions for VVC.

  17. Transcriptomics Analysis of Candida albicans Treated with Huanglian Jiedu Decoction Using RNA-seq

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    Qianqian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the major invasive fungal pathogen of humans, causing diseases ranging from superficial mucosal infections to disseminated, systemic infections that are often life-threatening. Resistance of C. albicans to antifungal agents and limited antifungal agents has potentially serious implications for management of infections. As a famous multiherb prescription in China, Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HLJJD, Orengedokuto in Japan is efficient against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and C. albicans. But the antifungal mechanism of HLJDD remains unclear. In this study, by using RNA-seq technique, we performed a transcriptomics analysis of gene expression changes for C. albicans under the treatment of HLJDD. A total of 6057 predicted protein-encoding genes were identified. By gene expression analysis, we obtained a total of 735 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, including 700 upregulated genes and 35 downregulated genes. Genes encoding multidrug transporters such as ABC transporter and MFS transporter were identified to be significantly upregulated. Meanwhile, by pathway enrichment analysis, we identified 26 significant pathways, in which pathways of DNA replication and transporter activity were mainly involved. These results might provide insights for the inhibition mechanism of HLJDD against C. albicans.

  18. The GRF10 homeobox gene regulates filamentous growth in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Anup K; Wangsanut, Tanaporn; Fonzi, William A; Rolfes, Ronda J

    2015-12-01

    Candida albicans is the most common human fungal pathogen and can cause life-threatening infections. Filamentous growth is critical in the pathogenicity of C. albicans, as the transition from yeast to hyphal forms is linked to virulence and is also a pivotal process in fungal biofilm development. Homeodomain-containing transcription factors have been linked to developmental processes in fungi and other eukaryotes. We report here on GRF10, a homeobox transcription factor-encoding gene that plays a role in C. albicans filamentation. Deletion of the GRF10 gene, in both C. albicans SN152 and BWP17 strain backgrounds, results in mutants with strongly decreased hyphal growth. The mutants are defective in chlamydospore and biofilm formation, as well as showing dramatically attenuated virulence in a mouse infection model. Expression of the GRF10 gene is highly induced during stationary phase and filamentation. In summary, our study emphasizes a new role for the homeodomain-containing transcription factor in morphogenesis and pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  19. A comprehensive Candida albicans PeptideAtlas build enables deep proteome coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialas, Vital; Sun, Zhi; Reales-Calderón, Jose A; Hernáez, María L; Casas, Vanessa; Carrascal, Montserrat; Abián, Joaquín; Monteoliva, Lucía; Deutsch, Eric W; Moritz, Robert L; Gil, Concha

    2016-01-10

    To provide new and expanded proteome documentation of the opportunistically pathogen Candida albicans, we have developed new protein extraction and analysis routines to provide a new, extended and enhanced version of the C. albicans PeptideAtlas. Two new datasets, resulting from experiments consisting of exhaustive subcellular fractionations and different growing conditions, plus two additional datasets from previous experiments on the surface and the secreted proteomes, have been incorporated to increase the coverage of the proteome. High resolution precursor mass spectrometry (MS) and ion trap tandem MS spectra were analyzed with three different search engines using a database containing allele-specific sequences. This approach, novel for a large-scale C. albicans proteomics project, was combined with the post-processing and filtering implemented in the Trans Proteomic Pipeline consistently used in the PeptideAtlas project and resulted in 49,372 additional peptides (3-fold increase) and 1630 more proteins (1.6-fold increase) identified in the new C. albicans PeptideAtlas with respect to the previous build. A total of 71,310 peptides and 4174 canonical (minimal non-redundant set) proteins (4115 if one protein per pair of alleles is considered) were identified representing 66% of the 6218 proteins in the predicted proteome. This makes the new PeptideAtlas build the most comprehensive C. albicans proteomics resource available and the only large-scale one with detections of individual alleles.

  20. Potent Activities of Roemerine against Candida albicans and the Underlying Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chaoyu; Du, Faya; Yan, Lan; He, Gonghao; He, Jianchang; Wang, Chengying; Rao, Gaoxiong; Jiang, Yuanying; Xu, Guili

    2015-01-01

    Roemerine (RM) is an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the fresh rattan stem of Fibraurea recisa, and it has been demonstrated to have certain antifungal activity. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of RM and the underlying mechanisms in Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro antifungal activity of RM was evaluated by a series of experiments, including the XTT reduction assay, confocal laser scanning microscopy assay, scanning electron microscope assay. Results showed that 1 μg/mL RM inhibited biofilm formation significantly (p albicans in a dose-dependent manner. The biofilm-specific and hypha-specific genes such as YWP1, SAP5, SAP6, HWP1, ECE1 were up-regulated and EFG1 was down-regulated after 8 μg/mL RM treatment. Furthermore, the toxicity of RM was investigated using C. elegans worms, three cancer cells and one normal cell. The date showed that RM had no significant toxicity. In conclusion, RM could inhibited the formation of C. albicans biofilm in vitro, but it had no fungicidal effect on planktonic C. albicans cells, and the anti-biofilm mechanism may be related to the cAMP pathway.

  1. Identification of signature volatiles to discriminate Candida albicans, glabrata, krusei and tropicalis using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Moritz; Hartwig, Stefan; Schütte, Eyke; Gillissen, Bernhard; Preissner, Robert; Schmidt-Westhausen, Andrea Maria; Paris, Sebastian; Kastner, Isabell; Preissner, Saskia

    2016-02-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most frequent fungal infection of the oral cavity. Clinical diagnoses require mycological confirmation, which is time-consuming in case of culture testing. The aim of the study was to identify signature volatiles to develop a chairside breath test to diagnose oral candidiasis. Headspaces above Candida albicans, glabrata, tropicalis, krusei cultures, and growth media as control were analysed after eight and 24 h using offline gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The identification of signature volatiles was assisted using various microbial databases. Retrieved volatile patterns enabled Candida species discrimination in vitro. For C. albicans 3-methyl-2-butanone and styrene and for C. krusei a combination of p-xylene, 2-octanone, 2-heptanone and n-butyl acetate were found to be specific. 1-hexanol was found in C. tropicalis, but is emitted by a variety of other microorganisms. C. glabrata was characterised through the absence of these volatiles. The development of a breath test is a promising approach in confirming suspicions of oral candidiasis. To confirm the retrieved results in vivo, breath tests in affected and healthy subjects have to be performed.

  2. The Transcription Factor Mrr1p Controls Expression of the MDR1 Efflux Pump and Mediates Multidrug Resistance in Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Joachim Morschhäuser; Katherine S. Barker; Liu, Teresa T.; Julia BlaB-Warmuth; Ramin Homayouni; P David Rogers

    2007-01-01

    Constitutive overexpression of the MDR1 (multidrug resistance) gene, which encodes a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily, is a frequent cause of resistance to fluconazole and other toxic compounds in clinical Candida albicans strains, but the mechanism of MDR1 upregulation has not been resolved. By genome-wide gene expression analysis we have identified a zinc cluster transcription factor, designated as MRR1 (multidrug resistance regulator), that was coordinately upregu...

  3. Phage displaying epitope of Candida albicans HSP90 and serodiagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琼; 王丽; 卢大宁; 邢沈阳; 尹东; 朱筱娟

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, the frequent use of immunosuppressants and chemotherapeutic drugs for cancers has caused an increase in the frequency of life-threatening systemic candidiasis.1 Studies by Matthews et al2 indicated HSP90 fragments are major targets for the immune system in infection due to C. albicans, and anti-epitope LKVIRK of HSP90 antibody is a serological marker for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. Cloning and sequencing HSP90 antigen revealed that the linear epitope LKVIRK, localized near the C-terminus of the 47 kDa protein which circulates in the sera of patients with invasive candidiasis, as a heat-stable breakdown product of large more heat-labile antigen HSP90.2 In this study, epitope LKVIRK was displayed on the surface of phage fd to develop a new serological test for systemic candidiasis.

  4. An Unusual Cause of Renal and Perirenal Abscesses: Candida albicans

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    Serhan PİŞKİNPAŞA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old female with history of surgery due to urolithiasis was admitted to hospital with complaints of fever, left fl ank pain and vomiting. She was found to have acute kidney injury due to urinary tract infection. Abdominal computed tomography revealed right atrophic kidney and left renal and perirenal abscesses together with urolithiasis. Urine, blood and abscess cultures yielded C. albicans. The patient was treated with fl uconazole and percutaneous drainage of the perirenal abscess, which was 60 mm in diameter. Her serum creatinine returned to the normal ranges within two weeks of hospitalization. Nearly 18 months following this presentation, she has normal serum creatinine and no abscesses in the kidneys.

  5. Antifungal activity of clotrimazole against Candida albicans depends on carbon sources, growth phase and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Lydia; Miramón, Pedro; Jablonowski, Nadja; Wisgott, Stephanie; Wilson, Duncan; Brunke, Sascha; Hube, Bernhard

    2015-07-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis, a superficial infection caused predominantly by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans, is frequently treated with clotrimazole. Some drug formulations contain lactate for improved solubility. Lactate may modify C. albicans physiology and drug sensitivity by serving as a carbon source for the fungus and/or affecting local pH. Here, we explored the effects of lactate, in combination with pH changes, on C. albicans proliferation, morphology and clotrimazole sensitivity. Moreover, we determined the influence of growth phase and morphology per se on drug sensitivity. We showed that utilization of lactate as a carbon source did not promote fast fungal proliferation or filamentation. Lactate had no influence on clotrimazole-mediated killing of C. albicans in standard fungal cultivation medium but had an additive effect on the fungicidal clotrimazole action under in vitro vagina-simulative conditions. Moreover, clotrimazole-mediated killing was growth-phase and morphology dependent. Post-exponential cells were resistant to the fungicidal action of clotrimazole, whilst logarithmic cells were sensitive, and hyphae showed the highest susceptibility. Finally, we showed that treatment of pre-formed C. albicans hyphae with sublethal concentrations of clotrimazole induced a reversion to yeast-phase growth. As C. albicans hyphae are considered the pathogenic morphology during mucosal infections, these data suggest that elevated fungicidal activity of clotrimazole against hyphae plus clotrimazole-induced hyphae-to-yeast reversion may help to dampen acute vaginal infections by reducing the relative proportion of hyphae and thus shifting to a non-invasive commensal-like population. In addition, lactate as an ingredient of clotrimazole formulations may potentiate clotrimazole killing of C. albicans in the vaginal microenvironment. PMID:25976001

  6. Sensitization of Candida albicans biofilms to various antifungal drugs by cyclosporine A

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    Shinde Ravikumar B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biofilms formed by Candida albicans are resistant towards most of the available antifungal drugs. Therefore, infections associated with Candida biofilms are considered as a threat to immunocompromised patients. Combinatorial drug therapy may be a good strategy to combat C. albicans biofilms. Methods Combinations of five antifungal drugs- fluconazole (FLC, voriconazole (VOR, caspofungin (CSP, amphotericin B (AmB and nystatin (NYT with cyclosporine A (CSA were tested in vitro against planktonic and biofilm growth of C. albicans. Standard broth micro dilution method was used to study planktonic growth, while biofilms were studied in an in vitro biofilm model. A chequerboard format was used to determine fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI of combination effects. Biofilm growth was analyzed using XTT-metabolic assay. Results MICs of various antifungal drugs for planktonic growth of C. albicans were lowered in combination with CSA by 2 to 16 fold. Activity against biofilm development with FIC indices of 0.26, 0.28, 0.31 and 0.25 indicated synergistic interactions between FLC-CSA, VOR-CSA, CSP-CSA and AmB-CSA, respectively. Increase in efficacy of the drugs FLC, VOR and CSP against mature biofilms after addition of 62.5 μg/ml of CSA was evident with FIC indices 0.06, 0.14 and 0.37, respectively. Conclusions The combinations with CSA resulted in increased susceptibility of biofilms to antifungal drugs. Combination of antifungal drugs with CSA would be an effective prophylactic and therapeutic strategy against biofilm associated C. albicans infections.

  7. Candida albicans Gene Deletion with a Transient CRISPR-Cas9 System

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    Min, Kyunghun; Ichikawa, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated gene 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) systems are used for a wide array of genome-editing applications in organisms ranging from fungi to plants and animals. Recently, a CRISPR-Cas9 system has been developed for the diploid fungal pathogen Candida albicans; the system accelerates genetic manipulation dramatically [V. K. Vyas, M. I. Barrasa, and G. R. Fink, Sci Adv 1(3):e1500248, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500248]. We show here that the CRISPR-Cas9 genetic elements can function transiently, without stable integration into the genome, to enable the introduction of a gene deletion construct. We describe a transient CRISPR-Cas9 system for efficient gene deletion in C. albicans. Our observations suggest that there are two mechanisms that lead to homozygous deletions: (i) independent recombination of transforming DNA into each allele and (ii) recombination of transforming DNA into one allele, followed by gene conversion of the second allele. Our approach will streamline gene function analysis in C. albicans, and our results indicate that DNA can function transiently after transformation of this organism. IMPORTANCE The fungus Candida albicans is a major pathogen. Genetic analysis of this organism has revealed determinants of pathogenicity, drug resistance, and other unique biological features, as well as the identities of prospective drug targets. The creation of targeted mutations has been greatly accelerated recently through the implementation of CRISPR genome-editing technology by Vyas et al. [Sci Adv 1(3):e1500248, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500248]. In this study, we find that CRISPR elements can be expressed from genes that are present only transiently, and we develop a transient CRISPR system that further accelerates C. albicans genetic manipulation. PMID:27340698

  8. In vitro evaluation of the effect of herbal medicine of western of Iran,Ilam on clinical and standard spices of Candida Albicans (Disk Diffusion Method; A Systematic Review

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    Jafar Panahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the current decades, the infection induced from Candid yeasts especially Candida albicans is significantly increasing. In respect of classically using of herbal medicine in the western of Iran,Ilam for infection treatment, in this study was analyzed different studies that were done in this field. Material & Methods: This Systematic Review study was done according to achieved study on the Websites like Google, Scholar, Magiran, Iran medex, Pub Med, Science Direct, Iran doc, SID. The data were extracted with respective key words. Results: The results showed the using of different concentration of extracts by researchers. However, the most inhibition zone diameter was related to alcoholic extract of Inner Stratum of Oak fruit in 1600μg/disk concentration with 26mm inhibition zone and the least was related to alcoholic and aqueous extract of Medicago sativa in 2000 μg/disk concentration and none of inhibition zone. Conclusion: The performed study showed an acceptable effect of some herbal extracts that were used classically in the western of Iran,Ilam. This results needs to more and widespread study with more details to economical using of this plants as medicine.

  9. INCIDENCE OF NON-CANDIDA ALBICANS IN PATIENTS WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SPECIATIO N AND ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

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    Ragini Ananth

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fungal urinary tract infections have become frequent, as a result of increased use of broad spec trum antibiotics, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and bladder catheters in acut e care settings. The associated risk factors which are seen in cases of candiduria are: antibiotic therapy, female gender, urinary catheterization, surgical procedure and extended hos pitalization. Candiduria has become a potential source of morbidity and mortality if untre ated. We undertook a prospective study to note the incidence of non-Candida albicans in patien ts with urinary tract infection with special reference to speciation, antifungal susceptibility an d the associated risk factors. METHODS: Candida species isolated from urine samples of patient s with urinary tract infection were subjected to speciation using standard yeast identif ication protocol and CHROM agar. Antifungal Susceptibility testing was done by the disc diffusio n method to amphotericin B and fluconazole. Clinical details and risk factors of the patients we re noted down. RESULTS: Among the 60 culture positive cases, six Candida species which wer e isolated are : C.tropicalis (66.66%, C.albicans (13.33%, C.parapsilosis (8.33%, C.glabr ata (6.66%, C.kefyr (3.33% and C.guilliermondii (1.66% The susceptibility pattern s howed, that of the 60 isolates, 40% were resistant to fluconazole. No resistance was seen to amphotericin B. CONCLUSION: Isolation of non-Candida albicans species was more than Candida a lbicans. Candida tropicalis was the predominant isolate. The following risk factors were noted: 43.33 % of the patients had diabetes mellitus, 30%had history of prolonged antib iotics (cephalosporin and aminoglycosides, 16.66% had underlying renal pathol ogy, 3.33% had post –renal transplant status, 1.66% were on steroids, 1.66%had pregnancy a nd 3.33% had no identifiable risk factors.20% patients had an indwelling catheter in them. The antifungal

  10. IDENTIFICATION OF CANDIDA SPECIES FROM CLINICAL SAMPLES AND THEIR ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS

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    Bhaskar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND : The incidence of Candida infections has increased dramatically over the past few decades due to increase in the number of population susceptible to fungal infections. With multiple antifungal ag ents that are available and recovery of clinical isolates that exhibit inherent or developed resistance to commonly used antifungal agents, it has become imperative to do susceptibility testing routinely. The study was done to determine the predisposing fa ctors, species incidence and susceptibility pattern of Candida isolates to commonly use d antifungal agents. METHODS: A total of 108 Candida species were recovered from symptomatic clinical cases. Candida isolates were speciated by germ tube test, chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar and color produced on chromogenic media. Antifungal susceptibility test was done by disk diffusion method for nystatin, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin - B. RESULTS: Candida albicans is the m ost frequently isolated species. However, non - albicans Candida species, taken as a group has predominated in clinical samples. Chromogenic agar medium showed good correlation in species identification in comparison with conventional germ tube test and chla mydospore formation on corn meal agar. C. albicans (41, C. tropicalis (33, C. krusei (30 and C. glabrata (04 were isolated. Candida species showed 95.4% susceptibility to amphotericin - B, 77.8% to voriconazol e, 69.4% to nystatin, 64.1% to f luconazole an d 63.9% to itraconazole. CONCLUSION : Increasing incidence of non - albicans species infection. Chromogenic medium can be used for species identification. Increasing resistance of Candida species to commonly used antifungal agents.

  11. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lippia citriodora on candida albicans

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    Ghasempour, Maryam; Omran, Saeid Mahdavi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Shafiee, Faranak

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Because of resistance and side effects to common antifungal drugs activity, the research on herbal substances with antifungal activity is frequent. Lemon verbena (Lippia citriodora) is a member of Verbenaceae family. The aim of this study was to determine the anti-candida activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the lemon verbena leaves and compare them with nystatin and fluconazole. Methods In this 2015 study, 15 clinical isolates and standard strain of candida albicans PTCC 5027 were used, and the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts, Nystatin and Fluconazole, were evaluated using disk and well diffusion methods. Also, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Five concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (156–2500 μg/ml), Nystatin (8–128 μg/ml) and Fluconazole (4–64 μg/ml) were used in disk and well diffusion methods, and nine concentrations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts (19–5000 μg/ml), Nystatin (0.5–128 μg/ml), and Fluconazole (0.25–64 μg/ml) were applied for MIC. Data were analyzed using Tukey’s post-hoc and one-way ANOVA tests. The significant level was considered p < 0.05 in the current study. Results In the well and disk diffusion techniques, limited growth inhibition halos were produced around some clinical isolates at different concentrations of ethanolic extract; however, no growth inhibitory halo was observed with any concentrations of the aqueous extract. The MIC values of ethanolic extract, aqueous extract, Nystatin and Fluconazole for clinical isolated and standard strain were 833 ± 78.5and 625μg/ml; 4156 ± 67.4 and 2500 μg/ml; 10.13 ± 1.91 and 4 μg/ml; and 1.97 ± 0.25 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion The results showed that the ethanolic extract was stronger than the aqueous extract of this plant, which can be used as an alternative for drugs. It is recommended that the ethanolic extract of this plant be investigated in vivo for better

  12. Evaluation of gene expression SAP5, LIP9, and PLB2 of Candida albicans biofilms after photodynamic inactivation.

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    Freire, Fernanda; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; da Silva Ávila, Damara; Brito, Graziella Nuernberg Back; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing number of strains of Candida ssp. resistant to antifungal agents, the accomplishment of researches that evaluate the effects of new therapeutic methods, like photodynamic inactivation (PDI), becomes important and necessary. Thus, the objective of this study was to verify the effects of the PDI on Candida albicans biofilms, evaluating their effects on the expression of the gene hydrolytic enzymes aspartyl proteinase (SAP5), lipase (LIP9), and phospholipase (PLB2). Clinical strains of C. albicans (n = 9) isolated from patient bearers of the virus HIV and a pattern strain ATCC 18804 were used. The quantification of gene expression was related to the production of hydrolytic enzymes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay. For PDI, we used laser-aluminum-gallium arsenide low power (red visible, 660 nm) as a light source and the methylene blue at 300 μM as a photosensitizer. We assessed two experimental groups for each strain: (a) PDI: sensitization with methylene blue and laser irradiation and (b) control: without sensitization with methylene blue and light absence. The PDI decreased gene expression in 60 % of samples for gene SAP5 and 50 % of the samples decreased expression of LIP9 and PLB2. When we compared the expression profile for of each gene between the treated and control group, a decrease in all gene expression was observed, however no statistically significant difference (Tukey's test/p = 0.12). It could be concluded that PDI (photosensitization with methylene blue followed by low-level laser irradiation) showed a slight reduction on the expression of hydrolytic enzymes of C. albicans, without statistical significance.

  13. Genome-Wide Transposon Mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans

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    Xu, Tao; Bharucha, Nikë; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is an effective method for generating large sets of random mutations in target DNA, with applicability toward numerous types of genetic screens in prokaryotes, single-celled eukaryotes, and metazoans alike. Relative to methods of random mutagenesis by chemical/UV treatment, transposon insertions can be easily identified in mutants with phenotypes of interest. The construction of transposon insertion mutants is also less labor-intensive on a genome-wide scale than methods for targeted gene replacement, although transposon insertions are not precisely targeted to a specific residue, and thus coverage of the target DNA can be problematic. The collective advantages of transposon mutagenesis have been well demonstrated in studies of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, as transposon mutagenesis has been used extensively for phenotypic screens in both yeasts. Consequently, we present here protocols for the generation and utilization of transposon-insertion DNA libraries in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans. Specifically, we present methods for the large-scale introduction of transposon insertion alleles in a desired strain of S. cerevisiae. Methods are also presented for transposon mutagenesis of C. albicans, encompassing both the construction of the plasmid-based transposon-mutagenized DNA library and its introduction into a desired strain of Candida. In total, these methods provide the necessary information to implement transposon mutagenesis in yeast, enabling the construction of large sets of identifiable gene disruption mutations, with particular utility for phenotypic screening in nonstandard genetic backgrounds. PMID:21815095

  14. Co-occurence of filamentation defects and impaired biofilms in Candida albicans protein kinase mutants.

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    Konstantinidou, Nina; Morrissey, John Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is linked with its developmental stages, notably the capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth, and to form biofilms on surfaces. To better understand the cellular processes involved in C. albicans development, a collection of 63 C. albicans protein kinase mutants was screened for biofilm formation in a microtitre plate assay. Thirty-eight mutants displayed some degree of biofilm impairment, with 20 categorised as poor biofilm formers. All the poor biofilm formers were also defective in the switch from yeast to hyphae, establishing it as a primary defect. Five genes, VPS15, IME2, PKH3, PGA43 and CEX1, encode proteins not previously reported to influence hyphal development or biofilm formation. Network analysis established that individual components of some processes, most interestingly MAP kinase pathways, are not required for biofilm formation, most likely indicating functional redundancy. Mutants were also screened for their response to bacterial supernatants and it was found that Pseudomonas aeruginosa supernatants inhibited biofilm formation in all mutants, regardless of the presence of homoserine lactones (HSLs). In contrast, Candida morphology was only affected by supernatant containing HSLs. This confirms the distinct HSL-dependent inhibition of filamentation and the HSL-independent impairment of biofilm development by P. aeruginosa.

  15. Effects of Mentha suaveolens Essential Oil Alone or in Combination with Other Drugs in Candida albicans.

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    Stringaro, Annarita; Vavala, Elisabetta; Colone, Marisa; Pepi, Federico; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Garzoli, Stefania; Cecchetti, Serena; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2014-01-01

    Candidosis is the most important cause of fungal infections in humans. The yeast Candida albicans can form biofilms, and it is known that microbial biofilms play an important role in human diseases and are very difficult to treat. The prolonged treatment with drugs has often resulted in failure and resistance. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistance, alternatives to conventional antimicrobial therapy are needed. This study aims to analyse the effects induced by essential oil of Mentha suaveolens Ehrh (EOMS) on Candida albicans and its potential synergism when used in combination with conventional drugs. Morphological differences between control and EOMS treated yeast cells or biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM resp.,). In order to reveal the presence of cell cycle alterations, flow cytometry analysis was carried out as well. The synergic action of EOMS was studied with the checkerboard method, and the cellular damage induced by different treatments was analysed by TEM. The results obtained have demonstrated both the effects of EOMS on C. albicans yeast cells and biofilms and the synergism of EOMS when used in combination with conventional antifungal drugs as fluconazole (FLC) and micafungin (MCFG), and therefore we can hypothesize on its potential use in therapy. Further studies are necessary to know its mechanism of action.

  16. Horizontal transmission of Candida albicans and evidence of a vaccine response in mice colonized with the fungus.

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    Jim E Cutler

    Full Text Available Disseminated candidiasis is the third leading nosocomial blood stream infection in the United States and is often fatal. We previously showed that disseminated candidiasis was preventable in normal mice by immunization with either a glycopeptide or a peptide synthetic vaccine, both of which were Candida albicans cell wall derived. A weakness of these studies is that, unlike humans, mice do not have a C. albicans GI flora and they lack Candida serum antibodies. We examined the influence of C. albicans GI tract colonization and serum antibodies on mouse vaccination responses to the peptide, Fba, derived from fructose bisphosphate aldolase which has cytosolic and cell wall distributions in the fungus. We evaluated the effect of live C. albicans in drinking water and antimicrobial agents on establishment of Candida colonization of the mouse GI tract. Body mass, C. albicans in feces, and fungal-specific serum antibodies were monitored longitudinally. Unexpectedly, C. albicans colonization occurred in mice that received only antibiotics in their drinking water, provided that the mice were housed in the same room as intentionally colonized mice. The fungal strain in unintentionally colonized mice appeared identical to the strain used for intentional GI-tract colonization. This is the first report of horizontal transmission and spontaneous C. albicans colonization in mice. Importantly, many Candida-colonized mice developed serum fungal-specific antibodies. Despite the GI-tract colonization and presence of serum antibodies, the animals made antibodies in response to the Fba immunogen. This mouse model has potential for elucidating C. albicans horizontal transmission and for exploring factors that induce host defense against disseminated candidiasis. Furthermore, a combined protracted GI-tract colonization with Candida and the possibility of serum antibody responses to the presence of the fungus makes this an attractive mouse model for testing the

  17. Th17 cells confer long-term adaptive immunity to oral mucosal Candida albicans infections.

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    Hernández-Santos, N; Huppler, A R; Peterson, A C; Khader, S A; McKenna, K C; Gaffen, S L

    2013-09-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is an opportunistic infection caused by Candida albicans. Despite its prevalence, little is known about C. albicans-specific immunity in the oral mucosa. Vaccines against Candida generate both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 responses, and considerable evidence implicates interleukin (IL)-17 in immunity to OPC. However, IL-17 is also produced by innate immune cells that are remarkably similar to Th17 cells, expressing the same markers and localizing to similar mucosal sites. To date, the relative contribution(s) of Th1, Th17, and innate IL-17-producing cells in OPC have not been clearly defined. Here, we sought to determine the nature and function of adaptive T-cell responses to OPC, using a new recall infection model. Mice subjected to infection and re-challenge with Candida mounted a robust and stable antigen-specific IL-17 response in CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells. There was little evidence for Th1 or Th1/Th17 responses. The Th17 response promoted accelerated fungal clearance, and Th17 cells could confer protection in Rag1-/- mice upon adoptive transfer. Surprisingly, CD4 deficiency did not cause OPC but was instead associated with compensatory IL-17 production by Tc17 and CD3+CD4-CD8- cells. Therefore, classic CD4+Th17 cells protect from OPC but can be compensated by other IL-17-producing cells in CD4-deficient hosts. PMID:23250275

  18. Fluorometric determination of acid proteinase activity in Candida albicans strains from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.

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    Yildirim, Zuhal; Kilic, Nedret; Kalkanci, Ayse

    2011-09-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most frequent disorders in obstetrics and gynaecology. Approximately three-quarters of all adult women experience at least one episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis during their life span. Diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the rate of vaginal colonisation and infection with Candida species. The secreted acid proteinase might be especially relevant in the pathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. The aim of this study was to determine the acid proteinase activity in the samples of Candida albicans from diabetic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis by a fluorometric method. Vaginal swabs were taken from 33 women (aged between 22 and 57 years) having symptoms of vaginitis. Patients were divided into three groups: control group, controlled diabetic group and uncontrolled diabetic group. The proteinase activity in the culture supernatants was determined by a modified fluorometric method. Acid proteinase activities were significantly increased in the uncontrolled diabetic group in comparison with both the control group and the controlled diabetic group (P albicans pathogenesis in diabetic patients. Improving glucose control may reduce the risk of Candida colonisation and potentially symptomatic infection, among women with diabetes and hence may be useful even for weaker enzyme activity measurements.

  19. Cellular Structural Changes in Candida albicans Caused by the Hydroalcoholic Extract from Sapindus saponaria L.

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    Shinobu-Mesquita, Cristiane S; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia S; Moreira, Amanda L; Ferreira, Izabel C P; Donatti, Lucelia; Fiorini, Adriana; Svidzinski, Terezinha I E

    2015-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a disease caused by the abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi in the mucosa of the female genital tract. Candida albicans is the principal etiological agent involved in VVC, but reports have shown an increase in the prevalence of Candida non-C. albicans (CNCA) cases, which complicates VVC treatment because CNCA does not respond well to antifungal therapy. Our group has reported the in vitro antifungal activity of extracts from Sapindus saponaria L. The present study used scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to further evaluate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract from S. saponaria (HE) against yeast obtained from VVC and structural changes induced by HE. We observed the antifungal activity of HE against 125 vaginal yeasts that belonged to four different species of the Candida genus and S. cerevisae. The results suggest that saponins that are present in HE act on the cell wall or membrane of yeast at the first moments after contact, causing damage to these structures and cell lysis. PMID:26007191

  20. Global screening of potential Candida albicans biofilm-related transcription factors via network comparison

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    Murillo Luis A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candida albicans is a commonly encountered fungal pathogen in humans. The formation of biofilm is a major virulence factor in C. albicans pathogenesis and is related to antidrug resistance of this organism. Although many factors affecting biofilm have been analyzed, molecular mechanisms that regulate biofilm formation still await to be elucidated. Results In this study, from the gene regulatory network perspective, we developed an efficient computational framework, which integrates different kinds of data from genome-scale analysis, for global screening of potential transcription factors (TFs controlling C. albicans biofilm formation. S. cerevisiae information and ortholog data were used to infer the possible TF-gene regulatory associations in C. albicans. Based on TF-gene regulatory associations and gene expression profiles, a stochastic dynamic model was employed to reconstruct the gene regulatory networks of C. albicans biofilm and planktonic cells. The two networks were then compared and a score of relevance value (RV was proposed to determine and assign the quantity of correlation of each potential TF with biofilm formation. A total of twenty-three TFs are identified to be related to the biofilm formation; ten of them are previously reported by literature evidences. Conclusions The results indicate that the proposed screening method can successfully identify most known biofilm-related TFs and also identify many others that have not been previously reported. Together, this method can be employed as a pre-experiment screening approach that reveals new target genes for further characterization to understand the regulatory mechanisms in biofilm formation, which can serve as the starting point for therapeutic intervention of C. albicans infections.

  1. Melanocytes and melanin represent a first line of innate immunity against Candida albicans.

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    Tapia, Cecilia V; Falconer, Maryanne; Tempio, Fabián; Falcón, Felipe; López, Mercedes; Fuentes, Marisol; Alburquenque, Claudio; Amaro, José; Bucarey, Sergio A; Di Nardo, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Melanocytes are dendritic cells located in the skin and mucosae that synthesize melanin. Some infections induce hypo- or hyperpigmentation, which is associated with the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR4. Candida albicans is an opportunist pathogen that can switch between blastoconidia and hyphae forms; the latter is associated with invasion. Our objectives in this study were to ascertain whether C. albicans induces pigmentation in melanocytes and whether this process is dependent on TLR activation, as well as relating this with the antifungal activity of melanin as a first line of innate immunity against fungal infections. Normal human melanocytes were stimulated with C. albicans supernatants or with crude extracts of the blastoconidia or hyphae forms, and pigmentation and TLR2/TLR4 expression were measured. Expression of the melanosomal antigens Melan-A and gp100 was examined for any correlation with increased melanin levels or antifungal activity in melanocyte lysates. Melanosomal antigens were induced earlier than cell pigmentation, and hyphae induced stronger melanization than blastoconidia. Notably, when melanocytes were stimulated with crude extracts of C. albicans, the cell surface expression of TLR2/TLR4 began at 48 h post-stimulation and peaked at 72 h. At this time, blastoconidia induced both TLR2 and TLR4 expression, whereas hyphae only induced TLR4 expression. Taken together, these results suggest that melanocytes play a key role in innate immune responses against C. albicans infections by recognizing pathogenic forms of C. albicans via TLR4, resulting in increased melanin content and inhibition of infection.

  2. Divergent responses of different endothelial cell types to infection with Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Kati Seidl

    Full Text Available Endothelial cells are important in the pathogenesis of bloodstream infections caused by Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. Numerous investigations have used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to study microbial-endothelial cell interactions in vitro. However, the use of HUVECs requires a constant supply of umbilical cords, and there are significant donor-to-donor variations in these endothelial cells. The use of an immortalized endothelial cell line would obviate such difficulties. One candidate in this regard is HMEC-1, an immortalized human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line. To determine if HMEC-1 cells are suitable for studying the interactions of C. albicans and S. aureus with endothelial cells in vitro, we compared the interactions of these organisms with HMEC-1 cells and HUVECs. We found that wild-type C. albicans had significantly reduced adherence to and invasion of HMEC-1 cells as compared to HUVECs. Although wild-type S. aureus adhered to and invaded HMEC-1 cells similarly to HUVECs, an agr mutant strain had significantly reduced invasion of HMEC-1 cells, but not HUVECs. Furthermore, HMEC-1 cells were less susceptible to damage induced by C. albicans, but more susceptible to damage caused by S. aureus. In addition, HMEC-1 cells secreted very little IL-8 in response to infection with either organism, whereas infection of HUVECs induced substantial IL-8 secretion. This weak IL-8 response was likely due to the anatomic site from which HMEC-1 cells were obtained because infection of primary human dermal microvascular endothelial cells with C. albicans and S. aureus also induced little increase in IL-8 production above basal levels. Thus, C. albicans and S. aureus interact with HMEC-1 cells in a substantially different manner than with HUVECs, and data obtained with one type of endothelial cell cannot necessarily be extrapolated to other types.

  3. Distribution of Candida Species in different clinical samples and their virulence: Biofilm formation, proteinase and phospholipase production: A study on hospitalized patients in Southern India

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    Vinitha Mohandas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and mucosa. The importance of epidemiological monitoring of yeasts involved in pathogenic processes is unquestionable due to the increase of these infections over the last decade; Materials and Methods: The clinical samples from the respiratory tract (sputum, bronchial wash, tracheal secretions, saliva, blood, urine, middle ear discharge, vitreous fluid, corneal ulcer, and plastic devices (endotracheal tube, catheter tip, suction tip were collected and cultured. The species of Candida isolated were identified. Results: A total of 111 isolates of Candida species were recovered from 250 diverse clinical sources. C. albicans (39.64% was the most isolated species, although the Candida non albicans species with 60.36% showed the major prevalence. In blood cultures, C. krusei (38.23% and C. albicans (20.58% were isolated frequently. C. albicans (63.27% was the predominant species in mucosal surface. Urinary tract infections caused by yeasts were more frequent in hospitalized patients, C. krusei (50.0% being commonly isolated, followed by C. albicans (25.0%. Discussion: Several virulence factors like, biofilm, proteinase, phospholipase, etc. contribute to the pathogenecity. Early detection of virulence factors by Candida is useful in clinical decision making. We therefore have aimed at demonstrating the formation of biofilm using the method proposed by Branchini et al, (1994. The proteinase produced by Candida was estimated as per the method of Staib et al, (1965. Phospholipase assay was carried out as per the method of Samaranayake et al, (2005. Conclusions : The data suggests that the capacity of Candida species to produce biofilm may be a reflection of the pathogenic potential of the isolates. C. krusei and C. tropicalis showed strong slime production. The non-Candida albicans produced more proteinase than C. albicans. C. albicans produced higher levels of phospholipase than non

  4. Antifungal properties of Foeniculum vulgare, Carum carvi and Eucalyptus sp. essential oils against Candida albicans strains

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    Skrobonja Jelica M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic plants are among the most important sources of biologically active secondary metabolites, with high antimicrobal potential. This study was carried out to examine in vitro antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare (Apiaceae, Carum carvi (Apiaceae and Eucalyptus sp.(Myrtaceae essential oils against three Candida albicans strains of different origin (laboratory-CAL, human pulmonary-CAH and ATCC10231-CAR. The essential oils were screened on C. albicans using disc and well-diffusion and microdilution method, and compared to Nystatine and Fluconazole as standard anti-mycotics. The activity of tested oils was expressed by inhibition zone diameter (mm, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC (mg/ml. The results indicated that studied essential oils show antifungal activity against all three isolates of C. albicans. It was observed that each oil exhibits different degree of antifungal activity depending on the oil concentration applied as well as on analyzed strain of C. albicans. Carum carvi demonstrated the strongest antifungal effect to all tested strains, showing the lowest MIC values (0.03mg/ml for CAL, 0.06mg/ml for CAH, and 0.11mg/ml for CAR, respectively. Eucalyptus sp. exhibited the lowest antifungal activity, with MIC values ranging from 0.11 mg/ml for CAL to 0.45 mg/ml for both CAH and CAR. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  5. Genome-Wide Synthetic Genetic Screening by Transposon Mutagenesis in Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Brooke N.; Kumar, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Transposon-based mutagenesis is an effective method for genetic screening on a genome-wide scale, with particular applicability in organisms possessing compact genomes where transforming DNA tends to integrate by homologous recombination. Methods for transposon mutagenesis have been applied with great success in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in the related pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. In C. albicans, we have implemented transposon mutagenesis to generate heterozygous mutations for the analysis of complex haploinsufficiency, a type of synthetic genetic interaction wherein a pair of non-complementing heterozygous mutations results in a stronger phenotype then either individual mutation in isolation. Genes exhibiting complex haploinsufficiency typically function within a regulatory pathway, in parallel pathways, or in parallel branches within a single pathway. Here, we present protocols to implement transposon mutagenesis for complex haploinsufficiency screening in C. albicans, indicating methods for transposon construction, mutagenesis, phenotypic screening, and identification of insertion sites in strains of interest. In total, the approach is a useful means to implement large-scale synthetic genetic screening in the diploid C. albicans. PMID:25636616

  6. Induction of the immune response suppression in mice inoculated with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; Mesón, D E; Sirena, A; de Petrino, S F; Eugenia, M; de Jorrat, B B; de Valdex, M G

    1986-03-01

    There is a controversy in respect to the immunological response (humoral or cellular) concerning the defense against Candida albicans. Candidosis would induce sub-populations of suppressor cells in the host cell-immune response. This report tries to show the effect of different doses of C. albicans (alive or heat-killed) on the expression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The effect upon cell immunity was determined by inoculating different lots of singeneic mice, doses of varied concentration of C. albicans and checking for delayed-type hipersensitivity (D.T.H.). D.T.H. was also controlled in syngeneic normal mice which had previously been injected with inoculated mice spleen cells. Humoral immunity was assayed by measuring the induced blastogenesis by Pokeweed Mitogen on spleen mononuclear cells with different doses of C. albicans. Results obtained show that the different doses gave origin to: Suppression of humoral and cell response (10(8) alive); Suppression of only humoral response (10(6) alive); Suppression of cell response and increase of humoral response (10(9) dead); Increase of both responses (10(8) dead).

  7. Antifungal effects of undecylenic acid on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongmei; Zhao, Yaxin; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Shen, Yongnian; Lu, Guixia; Mei, Huan; Qiu, Ying; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-05-01

    Undecylenic acid can effectively control skin fungal infection, but the mechanism of its fungal inhibition is unclear. Hyphal growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and biofilm formation have been well recognized as important virulence factors for the initiation of skin infection and late development of disseminated infection. In this study, we seek to investigate antifungal mechanisms of undecylenic acid by evaluating the virulence factors of C. albicans during biofilm formation. We found that undecylenic acid inhibits biofilm formation of C. albicans effectively with optimal concentration above 3 mM. In the presence of this compound, the morphological transition from yeast to filamentous phase is abolished ultimately when the concentration of undecylenic acid is above 4 mM. Meanwhile, the cell surface is crumpled, and cells display an atrophic appearance under scanning electron microscopy even with low concentration of drug treatment. On the other hand, the drug treatment decreases the transcriptions of hydrolytic enzymes such as secreted aspartic protease, lipase, and phospholipase. Hyphal formation related genes, like HWP1, are significantly reduced in transcriptional level in drug-treated biofilm condition as well. The down-regulated profile of these genes leads to a poorly organized biofilm in undecylenic acid treated environment.

  8. Inhibition of germ tube's formation of Candida albicans by lactobacillus spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Huan; WEI Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of 6 strains of lactobacilli and their main culture metabolites on the morphogenesis of Candida albicans (C. albicans) so as to screen medicinal strains as antifungal agents. Methods: Spent culture supernatant (SCS) at different culture time points, live lactobacilli, heatkilled bacteria and bacterial short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) with different molarities were incubated with C. albicans respectively. Crystal violet-based germ tube assay was used to detect the germination of C. albicans and the inhibitory efficiency of each addition was tested by germination rate. Results: SCS of lactobacillus spp. decreased the germination significantly and live bacteria of L. rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 as well as L. johnsonii JCM1022 could partially inhibit the conversion, however, all the heatkilled bacteria failed to control the germ tube formation. In addition, only butyric acid blocked the conversion of yeast to hypha among all the SCFA. Conclusion: The excellent fungistasis activities make L.rhamnosus. GG, L. acidophilus L050103-12 and L. johnsonii JCM1022 potential strains as antifungal drugs and the inhibition seems to have direct correlation to the metabolites.

  9. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Dai, Huan-Qin; Liang, Qing; Xie, Xiao-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Zhao, Guang-Ze; Zhang, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organelle destruction and ultimately cell death. RNA sequencing analysis showed that garlic oil induced differential expression of critical genes including those involved in oxidation-reduction processes, pathogenesis, and cellular response to drugs and starvation. Moreover, the differentially expressed genes were mainly clustered in 19 KEGG pathways, representing vital cellular processes such as oxidative phosphorylation, the spliceosome, the cell cycle, and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, four upregulated proteins selected after two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis were identified with high probability by mass spectrometry as putative cytoplasmic adenylate kinase, pyruvate decarboxylase, hexokinase, and heat shock proteins. This is suggestive of a C. albicans stress responses to garlic oil treatment. On the other hand, a large number of proteins were downregulated, leading to significant disruption of the normal metabolism and physical functions of C. albicans. PMID:26948845

  10. New pFA-cassettes for PCR-based gene manipulation in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, Yvonne; Dünkler, Alexander; Walther, Andrea; Wendland, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    Several modules for efficient PCR-based gene disruption have recently been introduced in Candida albicans. These are based on auxotrophic marker genes for deficient strains derived from SC5314/CAI4. Commonly used protocols for the transformation C. albicans are based either on the lithium acetate procedure or on electroporation also used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we present our updated arsenal of pFA-modules that now include the heterologous marker genes HIS1 from C. dubliniensis and LEU2 from C. maltosa (Noble and Johnson 2005) and the dominant selection marker ca SAT1 (Reuss et al. 2004). We also introduce the Ashbya gossypii TEF1 -promoter as a strong constitutive promoter. With these new elements an enlarged collection of pFA-marker and pFA-marker-promoter modules were generated containing 17 new modules. In addition, N-terminal tagging with GFP-(GA) 6 and epitope-tagging modules using the 6 x-HIS-tag were constructed. This adds to the previous modules that only enabled C-terminal GFP-tagging of genes (Gola et al. 2003). In total 29 pFA-modules are currently freely available from our lab which - together with an update on the diagnostic verification procedure - further enlarge the C. albicans molecular toolbox and enhance our capabilities to use PCR-based gene alteration methods in C. albicans. PMID:17009297

  11. Effect of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Yousef Salameh; Kamel Adwan

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Ecballium elaterium (E.elaterium) fruits alone against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains and Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains, or in combination with penicillin against Staphylococcus areus strains. Methods: Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity or synergy interaction was carried out using microdilution method. Results: The results showed that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), methicillin sensitive S.aureus (MSSA) and C. albicans. This extract showed a significant decrease in minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin against both MRSA and MSSA strains. Fractional inhibitory concentration index (FIC) between penicillin and ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits against these test strains was less than 0.5. Conclusions: This study suggests that ethanolic extract of E. elaterium fruits has antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and C. albicans and there is a possibility of concurrent use of penicillin and E. elaterium extract in combination in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA and MSSA strains. A wider study is needed to identify the effective components, the mode of action and the possible toxic effect in vivo of these ingredients.

  12. Antifungal effects of undecylenic acid on the biofilm formation of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dongmei; Zhao, Yaxin; Yan, Hongxia; Fu, Hongjun; Shen, Yongnian; Lu, Guixia; Mei, Huan; Qiu, Ying; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-05-01

    Undecylenic acid can effectively control skin fungal infection, but the mechanism of its fungal inhibition is unclear. Hyphal growth of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and biofilm formation have been well recognized as important virulence factors for the initiation of skin infection and late development of disseminated infection. In this study, we seek to investigate antifungal mechanisms of undecylenic acid by evaluating the virulence factors of C. albicans during biofilm formation. We found that undecylenic acid inhibits biofilm formation of C. albicans effectively with optimal concentration above 3 mM. In the presence of this compound, the morphological transition from yeast to filamentous phase is abolished ultimately when the concentration of undecylenic acid is above 4 mM. Meanwhile, the cell surface is crumpled, and cells display an atrophic appearance under scanning electron microscopy even with low concentration of drug treatment. On the other hand, the drug treatment decreases the transcriptions of hydrolytic enzymes such as secreted aspartic protease, lipase, and phospholipase. Hyphal formation related genes, like HWP1, are significantly reduced in transcriptional level in drug-treated biofilm condition as well. The down-regulated profile of these genes leads to a poorly organized biofilm in undecylenic acid treated environment. PMID:26902505

  13. Efficacy of ferulic acid encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles against Candida albicans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Richa; Pemmaraju, Suma C; Sharma, Asvene K; Pruthi, Vikas

    2016-06-01

    Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen is a major causative agent of superficial to systemic life-threating biofilm infections on indwelling medical devices. These biofilms acts as double edge swords owing to their resistance towards antibiotics and immunological barriers. To overcome this threat ferulic acid encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (FA-CSNPs) were formulated to assess its efficacy as an antibiofilm agent against C. albicans. These FA-CSNPs were synthesized using ionotropic gelation method and observed through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and fluorescent microscopy. Assessment of successful encapsulation and stability of ferulic acid into chitosan nanoparticles was made using Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), (1)H NMR and thermal analyses. Synthesized FA-CSNPs, were found to be cytocompatible, when tested using Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cell lines. XTT assay revealed that FA-CSNPs reduced the cell metabolic activity of C. albicans upto 22.5% as compared to native ferulic acid (63%) and unloaded CSNPs (88%) after 24 h incubation. Disruption of C. albicans biofilm architecture was visualized by FESEM. Results highlighted the potential of FA-CSNPs to be used as an effective alternative to the conventional antifungal therapeutics. PMID:26930164

  14. Antimicrobial effects of Piper hispidum extract, fractions and chalcones against Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G M; Endo, E H; Cortez, D A G; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2016-09-01

    Three chalcones, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, 2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-tetramethoxychalcone, and 3,2'-dihydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, were isolated from the leaves of Piper hispidum in a bioguided fractionation of crude extract. The antimicrobial activity of crude extract of P. hispidum leaves was determined against bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. Fractions and chalcones were tested against C. albicans and S. aureus. The checkerboard assay was performed to assess synergic interactions between extract and antifungal drugs, and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate anti-biofilm effects of extract. The extract was active against yeasts, S. aureus and B. subtilis with MIC values between 15.6 and 62.5μg/mL. Synergistic effects of extract associated with fluconazole and nystatin were observed against C. albicans, with fractional inhibitory concentration indices of 0.37 and 0.24, respectively. The extract was also effective against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm cells at concentrations of 62.5 and 200μg/mL, respectively. Thus, P. hispidum may be a possible source of bioactive substances with antimicrobial properties. PMID:27499460

  15. Determination of germ tube, phospholipase, and proteinase production by bloodstream isolates of Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Souza Mattei

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Candida albicans is a commensal and opportunistic agent that causes infection in immunocompromised individuals. Several attributes contribute to the virulence and pathogenicity of this yeast, including the production of germ tubes (GTs and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, particularly phospholipase and proteinase. This study aimed to investigate GT production and phospholipase and proteinase activities in bloodstream isolates of C. albicans. Methods One hundred fifty-three C. albicans isolates were obtained from blood samples and analyzed for GT, phospholipase, and proteinase production. The assays were performed in duplicate in egg yolk medium containing bovine serum albumin and human serum. Results Detectable amounts of proteinase were produced by 97% of the isolates, and 78% of the isolates produced phospholipase. GTs were produced by 95% of the isolates. A majority of the isolates exhibited low levels of phospholipase production and high levels of proteinase production. Conclusions Bloodstream isolates of C. albicans produce virulence factors such as GT and hydrolytic enzymes that enable them to cause infection under favorable conditions.

  16. A conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is required for mating in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangye; Chen, Jing; Lane, Shelley; Liu, Haoping

    2002-12-01

    Candida albicans had been thought to lack a mating process until the recent discovery of a mating type-like locus and mating between MTLa and MTL(alpha) strains. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms that regulate mating in C. albicans, we examined the function of Cph1 and its upstream mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in mating, as they are homologues of the pheromone-responsive MAP kinase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that overexpressing CPH1 in MTLa, but not in MTLa/alpha strains, induced the transcription of orthologues of S. cerevisiae pheromone-induced genes and also increased mating efficiency. Furthermore, cph1 and hst7 mutants were completely defective in mating, and cst20 and cek1 mutants showed reduced mating efficiency, as in S. cerevisiae. The partial mating defect in cek1 results from the presence of a functionally redundant MAP kinase, Cek2. CEK2 complemented the mating defect of a fus3 kss1 mutant of S. cerevisiae and was expressed only in MTLa or MTL(alpha), but not in MTLa/alpha cell types. Moreover, a cek1 cek2 double mutant was completely defective in mating. Our data suggest that the conserved MAP kinase pathway regulates mating in C. albicans. We also observed that C. albicans mating efficiency was greatly affected by medium composition, indicating the potential involvement of nutrient-sensing pathways in mating in addition to the MAP kinase pathway. PMID:12453219

  17. Characteristics of DTH suppressor cells in mice infected with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; Mesón, O E; Sirena, A; de Alderete, N G

    1987-05-01

    Inoculation of 10(8) C. albicans intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice at given dosage was reported to induce suppression of antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells into normal syngeneic mice pre-treated with Cyclophosphamide confirmed the existence of suppressor cells in mice. Such cells were sensitive to treatment with anti-theta serum and complement, non-adherent to Sephadex G-10. A pretreatment of the mice with Cyclophosphamide eliminated DTH suppression. Treatment with antimacrophage agents via intraperitoneal abrogated suppression only if being effected before inoculation of alive 10(8) Candida albicans. It is concluded that the spleen suppressor cell is a T-lymphocyte whose precursor is Cyclophosphamide-sensitive, requiring the macrophage to be induced.

  18. Inhibition of Candida albicans by Fluvastatin Is Dependent on pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-lowering drug fluvastatin (FS has an inhibitory effect on the growth of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans that is dependent on the pH of the medium. At the low pH value of the vagina, FS is growth inhibitory at low and at high concentrations, while at intermediate concentrations (1–10 mM, it has no inhibitory effect. Examination of the effect of the common antifungal drug fluconazole in combination with FS demonstrates drug interactions in the low concentration range. Determination of intracellular stress and the activity of the FS target enzyme HMG-CoA reductase confirm our hypothesis that in the intermediate dose range adjustments to the sterol biosynthesis pathway can compensate for the action of FS. We conclude that the pH dependent uptake of FS across yeast membranes might make FS combination therapy an attractive possibility for treatment of vaginal C. albicans infections.

  19. Bioactivity of a Family of Chiral Nonracemic Aminobenzylnaphthols towards Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Annunziata M. Capozzi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chiral nonracemic aminobenzylnaphthols were obtained by a Betti multi-component reaction between 2-naphthol, aryl aldehydes and enantiopure arylethylamine. Moreover, some new aminobenzylnaphthols were synthesized by a similar reaction between 2-naphthol, aryl aldehydes and prolinol. These aminobenzylnaphthols, synthesized from different components and thus having different structural features, were tested as anti-yeast agents inhibiting Candida albicans. The effect towards the test strain was studied with a microdilution approach and three different concentrations (150, 300 and 450 µg/mL were tested. The best results were found for the aminobenzylnaphthols obtained from 1-naphthylethylamine and from natural prolinol. The use of the two-way ANOVA highlighted the better performances of the prolinol derivative among the differently structured aminobenzylnaphthols that were screened. The activity towards C. albicans of this prolinol derivative resulted to be interesting and could represent a promising alternative to overcome the problem of the strains resistant to the traditional antifungals.

  20. Role of CaECM25 in cell morphogenesis, cell growth and virulence in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prominent opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Multiple factors are associated with the virulence of C. albicans, including morphogenesis, cell wall organization and growth rate. Here, we describe the identification and functional characterization of CaECM25, a gene that has not been reported before. We constructed Caecm25?/? mutants and investigated the role of the gene in morphogenesis, cell wall organization and virulence. CaECM25 deletion resulted in defects in cell separation, a slower growth rate, reduced filamentous growth and attenuated adherence to plastic surfaces. The Caecm25?/? mutant was also significantly less virulent than wild type when tested for systemic infection in mice. Therefore, CaECM25 plays important roles in morphogenesis, cell wall organization and virulence.

  1. Role of CaECM25 in cell morphogenesis, cell growth and virulence in Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG TingTing; LI WanJie; LI Di; WANG Yue; SANG JianLi

    2008-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most prominent opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. Multiple factors are associated with the virulence of C. albicans, including morphogenesis, cell wall organization and growth rate. Here, we describe the identification and functional characterization of CaECM25, a gene that has not been reported before. We constructed Caecm25△/△ mutants and investigated the role of the gene In morphogenesis, cell wall organization and virulence. CaECM25 deletion resulted in defects in cell separation, a slower growth rate, reduced filamentous growth and attenuated adherence to plastic surfaces. The Caecm25△/△ mutant was also significantly less virulent than wild type when tested for systemic infection in mice. Therefore, CaECM25 plays important roles in morphogenesis, cell wall organization and virulence.

  2. Thiamin Pyrimidine Biosynthesis in Candida albicans: A Remarkable Reaction between Histidine and Pyridoxal Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Rung-Yi; Huang, Siyu; Fenwick, Michael K.; Hazra, Amrita; Zhang, Yang; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Philmus, Benjamin; Kinsland, Cynthia; Sanders, Jennie Mansell; Ealick, Steven E.; Begley, Tadhg P. (Cornell); (TAM)

    2012-06-26

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, thiamin pyrimidine is formed from histidine and pyridoxal phosphate (PLP). The origin of all of the pyrimidine atoms has been previously determined using labeling studies and suggests that the pyrimidine is formed using remarkable chemistry that is without chemical or biochemical precedent. Here we report the overexpression of the closely related Candida albicans pyrimidine synthase (THI5p) and the reconstitution and preliminary characterization of the enzymatic activity. A structure of the C. albicans THI5p shows PLP bound at the active site via an imine with Lys62 and His66 in close proximity to the PLP. Our data suggest that His66 of the THI5 protein is the histidine source for pyrimidine formation and that the pyrimidine synthase is a single-turnover enzyme.

  3. Epidemiology of Candida infection. II. Application of biochemical methods for typing of Candida albicans strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, A

    1990-01-01

    Biochemical profiles of 350 C. albicans isolates from five towns in Poland and from Freiburg in Germany were determined on the basis of nine biochemical tests of Odds and Abbott method. API 20 C AUX system and additionally a resistogram. The analysis of the strains according to Odds' and Abbotts's system showed that investigated strains can be typed into 9 profile codes of common biochemical patterns. There were some differences among the profiles according to their geographical origin and anatomical sources of the isolation. On the basis of the ability C. albicans strains to assimilate of carbon sources, 350 isolates were categorised into 13 separate auxotrophic profiles with the major one: 2,576,174 accounting for 81% of the total. The majority of the investigated isolates were susceptible to antifungal agents (83%). A disproportionate distribution of auxotrophic profiles limited the use of resistogram method and API 20 C AUX as systems for typing C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the method of Odds and Abbott provides valuable criteria for typing of C. albicans. PMID:2130802

  4. Neonatal malnutrition programs the oxidant function of macrophages in response to Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thacianna Barreto Da; Morais, Natália Gomes De; Pedrosa, Amanda Lúcia F; De Albuquerque, Suênia Da Cunha G; De Castro, Maria Carolina A B; Pereira, Valéria Rêgo A; Cavalcanti, Milena De Paiva; De Castro, Célia Maria M B

    2016-06-01

    Experimental maternal nutrition restriction models are used to investigate short or long-term consequences of nutritional deficiency on puppies' growth. By assuming that the immune function is directly related to host's nutritional status, the current study aims to investigate the effects of neonatal malnutrition on oxidative stress and on the cell death of the alveolar macrophage after in vitro infection by Candida albicans. Wistar rats were suckled by mothers fed on diets containing 17% protein (Nourished group) or 8% protein (Malnourished group) in the current assay. Both groups received the standard diet used in the vivarium until adulthood, after weaning. The results showed that the offspring from mothers fed on low-protein diet presented lower body weight from 5 days of life on. Their low weight remained until adulthood when it was compared to that of rats in the nourished group. Superoxide and nitric oxide production was lower in malnourished animals and it was accompanied by low inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression levels in systems in which the alveolar macrophages were challenged by immunogenic stimulus. No significant differences were observed in comparisons performed between the nourished and malnourished groups in any of the analyzed cell viability (apoptosis/necrosis) parameters. The fungal inoculum-stimulated system induced higher oxidative stress and cell death by necrosis. The current study demonstrated that dietary restriction during lactation alters the oxidant function of alveolar macrophages in puppies; It happens from the gene transcription step to the release of mediators, thus compromising the host's defenses against Candida albicans. It raises the possibility that Candida albicans may cease to be a commensal fungus to become a pathogen in offspring that have suffered nutritional deficiency during critical developmental periods, due to impaired immune responses. PMID:27001703

  5. A New Endogenous Overexpression System of Multidrug Transporters of Candida albicans Suitable for Structural and Functional Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanu eBanerjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogens have a robust array of multidrug transporters which aid in active expulsion of drugs and xenobiotics to help them evade toxic effects of drugs. Thus, these transporters impose a major impediment to effective chemotherapy. Although the Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain AD1-8u- has catered well to the need of an over-expression system to study drug transport by multidrug transporters of Candida albicans, artefacts associated with a heterologous system could not be excluded. To avoid the issue, we exploited a azole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans to develop a new system devoid of three major multidrug transporters (Cdr1p, Cdr2p and Mdr1p for the over-expression of multidrug transporters under native hyperactive CDR1 promoter due to gain of function (GOF mutation in TAC1. The study deals with overexpression and functional characterization of representatives of two major classes of multidrug transporters, Cdr1p and Mdr1p, to prove the functionality of this newly developed endogenous expression system. Expression of native Cdr1 and Mdr1 protein in C. albicans cells was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunodetection and resulted in increased resistance to the putative substrates as compared to control. The system was further validated by overexpressing a few key mutant variants of Cdr1p and Mdr1p. Together, our data confirms the utility of new endogenous overexpression system which is devoid of artifactual factors as most suited for functional characterization of multidrug transporter proteins of C. albicans.

  6. Biofilms of Candida albicans serotypes A and B differ in their sensitivity to photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos

    2014-09-01

    Candida albicans is classified into different serotypes according to cell wall mannan composition and cell surface hydrophobicity. Since the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) depends on the cell wall structure of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to compare the sensitivity of in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotypes A and B to antimicrobial PDT. Reference strains of C. albicans serotype A (ATCC 36801) and serotype B (ATCC 36802) were used for the assays. A gallium-aluminum-arsenide laser (660 nm) was used as the light source and methylene blue (300 μM) as the photosensitizer. After biofilm formation on the bottom of a 96-well microplate for 48 h, each Candida strain was submitted to assays: PDT consisting of laser and photosensitizer application (L + P+), laser application alone (L + P-), photosensitizer application alone (L-P+), and application of saline as control (L-P-). After treatment, biofilm cells were scraped off and transferred to tubes containing PBS. The content of the tubes was homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto Sabouraud agar plates to determine the number of colony-forming units (CFU/mL). The results were compared by analysis of variance and Tukey test (p < 0.05). The two strains studied were sensitive to PDT (L + P+), with a log reduction of 0.49 for serotype A and of 2.34 for serotype B. Laser application alone only reduced serotype B cells (0.53 log), and the use of the photosensitizer alone had no effect on the strains tested. It can be concluded that in vitro biofilms of C. albicans serotype B were more sensitive to PDT.

  7. CHARACTERISTIC OF SENSITIVITY OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND CANDIDA ALBICANS TO ANTIBACTERIAL PREPARATIONS AND COLLOIDAL SILVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Afonina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Constant use of antibiotics leads to reliable increasing of resistance among microorganisms. Using non-toxic concentrations of colloidal silver in combination with antimicrobial agents can reduce using concentrations of antibiotics, kept necessary antimicrobial effect. In case of Staphylococcus aureus bactericidal activity of the complex of colloidal silver with unit concentration of neomycin is bigger than the bactericidal effect of double concentration of the antibiotic. Fungicidal effect of combination of antifungal agents with a solution of the colloidal silver on Candida albicans is equal to fungicidal effect of double concentration of antifungal drugs.

  8. Morphogenesis of Candida albicans and Cytoplasmic Proteins Associated with Differences in Morphology, Strain, or Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The extent of change in cytoplasmic proteins which accompanies yeast-to-mycelium morphogenesis of Candida albicans was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Pure cultures of yeasts and true hyphae (i.e., without concomitant production of pseudohyphae) were grown in a synthetic low-sulfate medium. The two strains selected for this study were strain 4918, which produces pure mycelial cultures in low-sulfate medium at 37 degrees C and yeast cells at 24 degrees C, and strain 2252, whic...

  9. Azole Binding Properties of Candida albicans Sterol 14-α Demethylase (CaCYP51)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Warrilow, Andrew G. S.; Martel, Claire M.; Parker, Josie E.; Melo, Nadja; Lamb, David C.; Nes, W. David; Kelly, Diane E.; Kelly, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Purified Candida albicans sterol 14-α demethylase (CaCYP51) bound the CYP51 substrates lanosterol and eburicol, producing type I binding spectra with Ks values of 11 and 25 μM, respectively, and a Km value of 6 μM for lanosterol. Azole binding to CaCYP51 was “tight” with both the type II spectral intensity (ΔAmax) and the azole concentration required to obtain a half-ΔAmax being proportional to the CaCYP51 concentration. Tight binding of fluconazole and itraconazole was confirmed by 50% inhib...

  10. Impact of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Candida Albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malíková, Ivona; Janoušek, Ladislav; Fantova, Vladyslava; Jíra, Jaroslav; Kříha, Vítĕzslav

    2015-03-01

    Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on growth of selected microorganism is studied in the article. The diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cell was chosen for this research. The theory of ion parametric resonance was taken as the base for studying the influence of electromagnetic field on biological structures. We tested the hypothesis, whether it is possible to observe the change in growth properties of Candida albicans with an AC electromagnetic field tuned to resonance with calcium ions cyclotron frequency.

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of homeopathic Candida albicans solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luis Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Candida spp is naturally found in humans’ flora of skin, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and, in general, up to 75% of the population does not have any symptom [1]. However, oral candidiasis is very common among HIV patients and patients undergoing chemotherapy. The treatment of oral candidiasis is necessary once the disease causes discomfort and dysphagia, resulting in poor nutrition, slow recovery, and prolonged hospital stay [2,3]. Preliminary results obtained by our group with a new biotherapic prepared from Candida albicans (Candida 30x showed a great potential to reduce the candida yeast adhesion rate when the epithelial cells were pre-treated. This study is currently being developed with the evaluation of mutagenic and genotoxic potentials of several homeopathic solutions. Aims: The goal of this study was to assess the genotoxic and mutagenic potentials of different homeopathic potencies of C. albicans. Methodology: One part of C. albicans yeast obtained from Brazilian patient’s blood [4] was diluted in 9 parts of sterile water. This sample was submitted to 100 mechanical succussions (approximately 3 Hz, using Autic® Brazilian machine, originating the first dilution (1x. Then, 1 ml of this solution was diluted in 9 ml of solvent, submitted to 100 succussions, obtaining 2x potency. This procedure was successively repeated to obtain 30x potency, according to Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [5]. By the same technique, water vehicle was prepared until 30x to be used as control. All samples were prepared in sterile and aseptic conditions, using laminar flow cabinet, class II and were stored in the refrigerator (8ºC. The samples 1x, 6x, 12x, 18x, 24x and 30x of C. albicans and water 30x (vehicle control were analysed by: the Inductest, which assesses the ability of physical or chemical agents to promote lysogenic induction as a reflection of damage in DNA

  12. SLA2 mutations cause SWE1-mediated cell cycle phenotypes in Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Gale, Cheryl A.; Leonard, Michelle D.; Finley, Kenneth R.; Christensen, Leah; McClellan, Mark; Abbey, Darren; Kurischko, Cornelia; Bensen, Eric; Tzafrir, Iris; Kauffman, Sarah; Becker, Jeff; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The early endocytic patch protein Sla2 is important for morphogenesis and growth rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, but the mechanism that connects these processes is not clear. Here we report that growth defects in cells lacking CaSLA2 or ScSLA2 are associated with a cell cycle delay that is influenced by Swe1, a morphogenesis checkpoint kinase. To establish how Swe1 monitors Sla2 function, we compared actin organization and cell cycle dynamics in strains lacking other c...

  13. Inhibitory activity of root canal irrigants against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Kelly da Silva Fidalgo; Roberta Barcelos; Maristela Barbosa Portela; Rosangela Maria de Araújo Soares; Rogério Gleiser; Fernando Costa e Silva-Filho

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of three root canal irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis,