WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical aspects imaging

  1. Eating epilepsy: clinical and neuro image aspects - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author)

  2. Carotid and vertebral artery dissections: clinical aspects, imaging features and endovascular treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracranial arterial dissections are a recognised cause of stroke, particularly in young adults. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult, and the classical triad of symptoms is uncommon. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of extracranial arterial dissections, and this review provides a detailed discussion of the relative merits and limitations of currently available imaging modalities. Conventional arteriography has been the reference standard for demonstrating an intimal flap and double lumen, which are the hallmarks of a dissection, and for detecting complications such as stenosis, occlusion or pseudoaneurysm. Noninvasive vascular imaging methods, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are increasingly replacing conventional angiography for the diagnosis of carotid and vertebral dissections. Ultrasound provides dynamic and ''real-time'' information regarding blood flow. Source data of MRA and CTA and additional cross-sectional images can provide direct visualisation of the mural haematoma and information about the vessel lumen. Anticoagulation to prevent strokes is the mainstay of medical treatment, but randomised trials to define the optimal treatment regime are lacking. Surgery has a limited role in management of dissections, but endovascular procedures are gaining importance for treatment of complications and if medical management fails. (orig.)

  3. Pharyngoceles aspects in imaging exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: the present study is aimed at showing the different characteristics of pharyngoceles in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) and its correlation with clinical presentation. Material and method: pharyngocele cases were selected in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) realized in our service, realizing clinical presentation correlation. Results: pharyngocele presents frequently with small dimensions and narrow orifice. When the size enlarges, clinical presentation is more evident and diverse, which can confuse with other cervical lesions that enlarge with Valsalva maneuver. Differential diagnosis can be done by imaging evaluation. Conclusion: we intended to demonstrate that many times pharyngocele can be presented with different aspects, not always being easy to recognize by clinics or imaging exams, but its diagnosis must be always remembered in our daily practice. (author)

  4. Novel Cadmium Zinc Telluride Devices for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging-Technological Aspects and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Simona; Kennedy, John; Keidar, Zohar

    2016-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging plays an important role in the assessment of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease and is well established for diagnosis and for prognostic evaluation in these patients. The dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras with solid-state cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors were first introduced a decade ago. A large body of evidence is building up, showing the superiority of the new technology compared with conventional gamma cameras. Not only the CZT detectors, but also new collimator geometries, the ability to perform focused imaging optimized for the heart and advances in data processing algorithms all contribute to the significantly improved sensitivity up to 8-10 times, as well as improved energy resolution and improved reconstructed spatial resolution compared with conventional technology. In this article, we provide an overview of the physical characteristics of the CZT cameras, as well as a review of the literature published so far, including validation studies in comparison with conventional myocardial perfusion imaging and with invasive coronary angiography, significant reduction in radiation dose, and new imaging protocols enabled by the new technology. PMID:27237438

  5. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF VETERINARY LISTERIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This invited presentation updates the clinical aspects of Listeria monocytogenes in food animals. It summarizes the epidemiology and diagnostic methods. Virtually all domesticated animal species are susceptible to listeric infection, with a large proportion of healthy asymptomatic animals shedding...

  6. Comprehensive brachytherapy physical and clinical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Baltas, Dimos; Meigooni, Ali S; Hoskin, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Modern brachytherapy is one of the most important oncological treatment modalities requiring an integrated approach that utilizes new technologies, advanced clinical imaging facilities, and a thorough understanding of the radiobiological effects on different tissues, the principles of physics, dosimetry techniques and protocols, and clinical expertise. A complete overview of the field, Comprehensive Brachytherapy: Physical and Clinical Aspects is a landmark publication, presenting a detailed account of the underlying physics, design, and implementation of the techniques, along with practical guidance for practitioners. Bridging the gap between research and application, this single source brings together the technological basis, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance, and fundamentals of brachytherapy. In addition, it presents discussion of the most recent clinical practice in brachytherapy including prostate, gynecology, breast, and other clinical treatment sites. Along with exploring new clinical protocols, ...

  7. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ynoe de Moraes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control and pain relief (up to 96%, independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and nonrandomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future.

  8. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Fabio Ynoe; Taunk, Neil Kanth; Laufer, Ilya; Neves-Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; de Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and nonrandomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. PMID:26934240

  9. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves-Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Taunk, Neil Kanth; Yamada, Yoshiya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: fymoraes@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and non randomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. (author)

  10. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and non randomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. (author)

  11. Neurofibromatosis type 1: clinical and radiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disease with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3,000 people, characterized mainly by systemic and progressive involvement, manifesting by physical deformity and compromising of neurological functions. The diagnosis of the neurofibromatosis type 1 must be performed the earliest possible through clinical exams and familiar history. The use of imaging diagnosis as radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients and control of lesions, preventing complications. In this study we describe the clinical and radiological aspects of the neurofibromatosis type 1, considering clinical features, genetics, bone alterations in chest, vertebral column, upper and lower limbs, and craniofacial abnormalities. (author)

  12. Clinical Aspects, Imaging Features, and Considerations on Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis Risk in a Pediatric Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare hereditary condition caused by changes in collagen metabolism. It is classified into four types according to clinical, genetic, and radiological criteria. Clinically, bone fragility, short stature, blue sclerae, and locomotion difficulties may be observed in this disease. OI is often associated to severe dental problems, such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI and malocclusions. Radiographically, affected teeth may have crowns with bulbous appearance, accentuated constriction in the cementoenamel junction, narrowed roots, large root canals due to defective dentin formation, and taurodontism (enlarged pulp chambers. There is no definitive cure, but bisphosphonate therapy is reported to improve bone quality; however, there is a potential risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this study we report a case of OI in a male pediatric patient with no family history of OI who was receiving ongoing treatment with intravenous perfusion of bisphosphonate and who required dental surgery. In addition, we discussed the clinical and imaging findings and briefly reviewed the literature.

  13. Regulatory aspects of clinical xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurman, Henk-Jan

    2015-11-01

    Xenotransplantation attracted interest from regulatory authorities, particularly after the demonstration of pig-to-human transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus (1996). This added to the risk of a product, resulting in a Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration (2003). This addresses the full flow chart in product manufacturing, starting with the designated pathogen-free status of the source animal; and special aspects regarding the recipient like informed consent and monitoring for infectious pathogens. Also archiving of records from the donor and recipient, as well as storage of samples is described. The European Medicines Agency issued a Guideline on xenogeneic cell therapy products (2009). Cell-based medicinal products are subject to specific regulations and directives, which apply also to xenogeneic products: the xenotransplant guidances/guidelines are an addition to these regulations. Noteworthy, acellular products like heart valves and decellularized cornea are not considered a cell therapy product, but rather a medical device with its own regulation. WHO issued relevant documents, especially about safety, and the International Xenotransplantation Association published consensus documents, a.o., addressing preclinical efficacy requirements before entering clinical trials. This manuscript presents an overview of the regulatory framework, with special focus on cell therapy products necause these are expected to reach the market first (i.e., pancreatic islets, hepatocytes and cellularized cornea); major illustrations are from the European situation. Albeit being complex, the regulation of xenotransplant products does not form a block in product development, but rather supports the introduction of efficacious and safe products to meet the medical need. PMID:26408947

  14. The clot burden score, the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale, the cerebral blood volume ASPECTS, and two novel imaging parameters in the prediction of clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently two classification methods based on the location and the extent of thrombosis detected with CT angiography have been introduced: the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) and the clot burden score (CBS). We studied the performance of BASIS and CBS in predicting good clinical outcome (mRS ≤2 at 90 days) in an acute (<3 h) stroke cohort treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent multimodal CT were analyzed. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess how BASIS, CBS, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) ASPECTS predict favorable clinical outcome. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were calculated and compared. Patients with low CBS and CBV ASPECTS scores and major strokes according to BASIS had significantly higher admission NIHSS scores, larger perfusion defects, and more often poor clinical outcome. In logistic regression analysis, CBV ASPECTS, CBS and BASIS were significantly associated with the clinical outcome. The performance of BASIS improved when patients with thrombosis of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery were classified as having minor stroke (M1-BASIS). In the anterior circulation, the sum of CBS and CBV ASPECTS (CBSV) proved to be the most robust predictor of favorable outcome. CBV ASPECTS and CBS had high sensitivity but moderate to poor specificity while BASIS was only moderately sensitive and specific. CBS, BASIS, and CBV ASPECTS are statistically robust and sensitive but unspecific predictors of good clinical outcome. Two new derived imaging parameters, CBSV and M1-BASIS, share these properties and may have increased prognostic value. (orig.)

  15. The clot burden score, the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale, the cerebral blood volume ASPECTS, and two novel imaging parameters in the prediction of clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaa, Niko; Hakomaki, Jari; Lahteela, Arto; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center, Tampere (Finland); Saarinen, Jukka T.; Numminen, Heikki; Elovaara, Irina [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tampere (Finland); Rusanen, Harri [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oulu (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    Recently two classification methods based on the location and the extent of thrombosis detected with CT angiography have been introduced: the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) and the clot burden score (CBS). We studied the performance of BASIS and CBS in predicting good clinical outcome (mRS {<=}2 at 90 days) in an acute (<3 h) stroke cohort treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent multimodal CT were analyzed. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess how BASIS, CBS, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) ASPECTS predict favorable clinical outcome. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were calculated and compared. Patients with low CBS and CBV ASPECTS scores and major strokes according to BASIS had significantly higher admission NIHSS scores, larger perfusion defects, and more often poor clinical outcome. In logistic regression analysis, CBV ASPECTS, CBS and BASIS were significantly associated with the clinical outcome. The performance of BASIS improved when patients with thrombosis of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery were classified as having minor stroke (M1-BASIS). In the anterior circulation, the sum of CBS and CBV ASPECTS (CBSV) proved to be the most robust predictor of favorable outcome. CBV ASPECTS and CBS had high sensitivity but moderate to poor specificity while BASIS was only moderately sensitive and specific. CBS, BASIS, and CBV ASPECTS are statistically robust and sensitive but unspecific predictors of good clinical outcome. Two new derived imaging parameters, CBSV and M1-BASIS, share these properties and may have increased prognostic value. (orig.)

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  17. Clinical and tomographic aspects of macular microholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the clinical aspects and evaluate optical coherence tomography of macular microholes. Methods: Seven patients were assessed (8 eyes) with microholes of the macula. All patients underwent complete eye examination, fundus photography, fluorescent angiography and OCT-3 imaging. Results: Ages ranged from 26 to 69 years. Six patients were female (85.7%) and five of them had microhole in the right eye. The presenting symptom was decrease in visual acuity (71.3%) and central scotoma in (14.3%). Five eyes (71.4%) had no defects shown by fluorescent angiography. A defect in the outer retina was demonstrated in all eyes on optical coherence tomography. The lesions were nonprogressive. Conclusion: Macular microholes are small lamellar defects in the outer retina. The condition is nonprogressive, generally unilateral and compatible with good visual acuity. Fundus biomicroscopy associated with an optical coherence tomography are the main elements in the diagnosis and study of this pathology. (author)

  18. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Ynoe de Moraes; Neil Kanth Taunk; Ilya Laufer; Wellington Furtado Pimenta Neves-Junior; Samir Abdallah Hanna; Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho; Yoshiya Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurge...

  19. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  20. Clinical Aspects of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, Cornelis

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world and the third most common cause of cancer mortality1. Despite the high numbers of patients diagnosed worldwide (the estimated number of people is 0.5 million cases per year), HCC continue to pose challenging clinical problems. The assessment of the tumor and treatment options needs a multi-disciplinary approach in which the surgeon plays a central role. The aim of this thesis is to update on the incidence,...

  1. [Alcohol and women: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Romeo, Marina; Fiorentino, Daniela

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol-related pathologies lead to most serious expressions, both at clinical and social level. The diffused social acceptance of consumption and abuse behavior and the lack of alcohol education for professionals (physicians, psychologists, social workers etc.) make difficult to put in the right frame this issue. Just a multidimensional approach can make the problem understandable. The history of alcohol consumption during the time gives us an exhaustive picture of the negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a problem still underestimated and represents a serious risk for the health of the newborns: children alcohol-exposed in uterus are at risk to develop many pathologies and even the fetal-alcohol syndrome (FAS) that leads to facial anomalies, growth deficiencies and neurological damages. Therefore interventions coping with this kind of issues are needed in order to enhance people's health. PMID:15269446

  2. Brachytherapy: Physical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a term used to describe the short distance treatment of cancer with radiation from small, encapsulated radionuclide sources. This type of treatment is given by placing sources directly into or near the volume to be treated. The dose is then delivered continuously, either over a short period of time (temporary implants) or over the lifetime of the source to a complete decay (permanent implants). Most common brachytherapy sources emit photons; however, in a few specialized situations b or neutron emitting sources are used. There are two main types of brachytherapy treatment: 1) Intracavitary, in which the sources are placed in body cavities close to the tumour volume; 2) Interstitial, in which the sources are implanted within the tumour volume. Intracavitary treatments are always temporary, of short duration, while interstitial treatments may be temporary or permanent. Temporary implants are inserted using either manual or remote afterloading procedures. Other, less common forms of brachytherapy treatments include surface plaque, intraluminal, intraoperative and intravascular source applications; for these treatments either g or b emitting sources are used. The physical advantage of brachytherapy treatments compared with external beam radiotherapy is the improved localized delivery of dose to the target volume of interest. The disadvantage is that brachytherapy can only be used in cases in which the tumour is well localized and relatively small. In a typical radiotherapy department about 10-20% of all radiotherapy patients are treated with brachytherapy. Several aspects must be considered when giving brachytherapy treatments. Of importance is the way in which the sources are positioned relative to the volume to be treated, and several different models have been developed over the past decades for this purpose. The advantage of using a well established model is that one benefits from the long experience associated with such models and that one can

  3. Imaging aspects of the diagnosis of sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Paolo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Center for Rare Lung Diseases, Respiratory Disease Unit, Department of Oncology Haematology and Respiratory Diseases, Modena (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Surgical Sciences, section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology with a wide spectrum of radiological appearances and almost invariably pulmonary involvement. Lung involvement accounts for most of the morbidity and much of the mortality associated with sarcoidosis. Imaging contributes significantly to the diagnosis and management of patients with sarcoidosis. In typical cases, chest radiography may be sufficient to establish the diagnosis with little margin of error and CT is not necessary. However, CT can play a critical role in several clinical settings: atypical clinical and/or radiographic findings; normal or near-normal chest radiograph but clinical suspicion of sarcoidosis; and detection of complications. Moreover, in many patients, CT findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists (e.g. sarcoidosis mimicking other lung diseases and vice versa), and in these cases histological confirmation of the diagnosis is recommended. CT is also useful in assessing disease extent and may help to discriminate between reversible and irreversible lung disease, thus providing critical prognostic information. This review concentrates on the more difficult imaging aspects of sarcoidosis, in particular differential diagnosis and disease complications. (orig.)

  4. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  5. Digital whole-field mammography: Basic physical and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As digital radiography offers clear diagnostic advantages linked to techniques such as diagnostic image reprocessing, data transmission and archivation, technical enhancements developed during the last few years also encompass improvements for whole-field mammography, i.e experimental and, to some part, clinical testing of new image storing media. One crucial aspect in this context was the achievable positional resolving power. (orig./MG)

  6. Word and Image: Intermedial Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Winfried Nöth

    2001-01-01

    The concepts of ‘word’ and ‘image’ are not synonymous with ‘verbal’ and ‘visual communication’ although they are often restricted to these modalities of sign use. Words and images are cross-medially related, and here are many overlaps. By ‘words’ I mean language, verbal texts or discourse, more generally: verbal communication. By ‘images’ I mean pictures and more generally visual communication, not mental images nor verbal images.

  7. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  8. Destination image, image at destination. Methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez; Agustín Santana-Talavera; Alberto Jonay Rodríguez-Darias

    2013-01-01

    Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a differentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed ...

  9. The Prediabetic Period: Review of Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia that does not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM is generally called prediabetes (preDM. The global prevalence of preDM has been increasing progressively in the past few decades, and it has been established that preDM status is a strong risk factor for DM and cardiovascular disease. Currently, preDM status is classified into two subtypes: impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Currently, preDM is not regarded as an independent clinical entity, but only as a risk factor for others. In this article, we review various clinical aspects of preDM in terms of the working definition, changes in criteria over the years, epidemiology, and pathophysiological characteristics, and its clinical significance in current medicine.

  10. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  11. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis. PMID:27151697

  12. Postpartum hemorrhage: Clinical and radiologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimsuk@medimail.co.kr; Lee, Jun Woo; Sol, Yu Li; Kim, Chang Won [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun Sung, Kim [Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ho Jin; Suh, Dong Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life threatening condition, and it remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity. Uterine atony, lower genital tract lacerations, uterine rupture or inversion, retained products of conception and underlying coagulopathy are some of the common causes of PPH. Most conditions can be diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory evaluation supplemented by ultrasound information. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide information for the detection, localization and characterization of PPH in some difficult cases. CT can accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of significant arterial hemorrhage as sites of intravenous contrast material extravasation, which can be as a guide for angiographic intervention. The presence of focal or diffuse intravenous contrast extravasation or a hematoma within the enlarged postpartum uterine cavity on CT can help the diagnosis of uterine atony when the clinical diagnosis of uterine atony is unclear. CT can also provide the information of other alternative conditions such as a puerperal genital hematoma, uterine rupture and concealed hematoma in other sites. MR imaging may be considered as a valuable complement to ultrasound where the ultrasound findings are inconclusive in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of retained products of conception. Knowledge of the various radiologic appearances of PPH and the correlation with clinical information can ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate and prompt treatment planning in the patients with PPH.

  13. Postpartum hemorrhage: Clinical and radiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life threatening condition, and it remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity. Uterine atony, lower genital tract lacerations, uterine rupture or inversion, retained products of conception and underlying coagulopathy are some of the common causes of PPH. Most conditions can be diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory evaluation supplemented by ultrasound information. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide information for the detection, localization and characterization of PPH in some difficult cases. CT can accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of significant arterial hemorrhage as sites of intravenous contrast material extravasation, which can be as a guide for angiographic intervention. The presence of focal or diffuse intravenous contrast extravasation or a hematoma within the enlarged postpartum uterine cavity on CT can help the diagnosis of uterine atony when the clinical diagnosis of uterine atony is unclear. CT can also provide the information of other alternative conditions such as a puerperal genital hematoma, uterine rupture and concealed hematoma in other sites. MR imaging may be considered as a valuable complement to ultrasound where the ultrasound findings are inconclusive in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of retained products of conception. Knowledge of the various radiologic appearances of PPH and the correlation with clinical information can ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate and prompt treatment planning in the patients with PPH.

  14. Clinical aspects of toxoplasmosis in small animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Baptista Galvão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis, a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, has importance in human and veterinary medicine. Animals can be direct or indirect source of infection to man, and this intermediate host, the disease may be responsible for encephalitis and deaths due to congenital form as coinfection in neonates and patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The man and animals can acquire the disease by eating undercooked meat or cures, infected with tissue cysts, as well as food and water contaminated with oocysts. Iatrogenic, such as, blood transfusion and organ transplantation are other less frequent routes of transmission. The causative agent of this disease is Toxoplasma gondii, a protozoan obligate intracellular coccidian. In small animals, the infection has been reported in several countries, promoting varied clinical manifestations and uncommon but severe and fatal, which is a challenge in the clinical diagnosis of small animals, especially when the nervous system involvement. Thus, constitute the purpose of this review address the participation of small animals in the spread of the disease, clinical aspects related to it, as well as discuss methods of diagnosis, therapeutic measures, prophylaxis and control of this disease.

  15. Pathophysiology, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects of Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. The exact cause remains unknown, but there is significant evidence that hypocretin deficiency plays an integral role. There have been advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. It has a negative effect on the quality of life and can restrict the patients from certain careers and activities. Diagnosis relies on patient history and objective data gathered from polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing. Treatment focuses on symptom relief through medication, education, and behavioral modification. Both classic pharmacological treatments as well as newer options have significant problems, especially because of side effects and abuse potential. Some novel modalities are being examined to expand options for treatment. In this review, the pathophysiological, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 271-283

  16. [Sharp's syndrome. Clinical, immunological and nosographic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliusi, P; Muratore, M; Martiradonna, A; Berlingerio, G; Carrozzo, M

    1980-12-15

    LE cells, ds-DNA antibodies (radioimmunoassay), antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and anti-ENA antibodies have been sought in 150 clinical cases observed over a 5-year period in the Rheumatology Division of Bari University. For the latter, three parallel techniques were adopted on each serum, each completed by RNA-sensitivity assay for the demonstration of anti-RNP, i.e. IFI, passive haemoagglutination (PHA) and controimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The series included systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), 30 cases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 30 cases; progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 12 cases; unclassified connective tissue disease (UCTD), 8 cases; mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), 7 cases; Sjögren's syndrome (SS), 4 cases; dermatomyositis (DM), 3 cases; overlap syndromes (PSS-SLE, SS-SLE), 2 cases; rheumatological and internal miscellanea, 54 cases, LE cells and ds-DNA antibodies were found exclusively in SLE; the anti-ENA were found in various groups of diseases, while the anti-RNP were only demonstrated in the 7 MCTD and in some SLE. Of the three techniques for demonstrating anti-ENA, the PHA proved most sensitive and CIE most specific, whereas IFI was considered most suitable for clinical screening. The clinical aspects of the 7 MCTD faithfully followed the disease picture described by Sharp, but some overlap-syndromes and the unclassified connective tissue diseases did not present anti-RNP. It is also pointed out that nephropathy is not rare in MCTD and that the clinical course of the disease is not always benign. To conclude, it is considered that MCTD merits nosographic autonomy, but further investigations are recommended for more exact nosographical typing of connective tissue diseases. PMID:6161325

  17. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity.

  18. A new animal model for the imaging of melanoma: correlation of FDG PET with clinical outcome, macroscopic aspect and histological classification in Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs (MeLiM) as an animal model of melanoma for in vivo imaging. Serial whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans were conducted on five MeLiM. In order to explore different clinical stages of the tumoural lesions, each animal was scanned two to four times, at intervals of 30-155 days. PET images were analysed by a semiquantitative method based on the tumour to muscle metabolic ratio. Histology was performed on biopsies taken between or after the scans and the histological grading of the tumours was compared with the FDG uptake. The overall sensitivity of FDG PET for the detection of cutaneous melanoma was 75%; 62.5% of involved lymph nodes were positive. Sensitivity was better for tumours with vertical growth than for flat lesions. FDG PET did not detect tumours with epidermal involvement only, nor did it detect small metastatic foci. The metabolic ratio was correlated with the evolution of the melanoma. FDG PET is effective in the staging of cutaneous melanoma and the follow-up of tumoural extension and regression in Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs. The results obtained in this animal model correlate well with those described in human melanoma. Accordingly, this model may be useful in testing new tracers specific for melanoma and in helping to detect molecules expressed early during tumoural regression. (orig.)

  19. Technical aspect of integrated body imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning the integrated body imaging, an optimization of technical aspect in each modarities, such as radiation burden, labour turnover and cost effectiveness should also be considered, in diagnostic process. After investigation on these items, we decided to recommend that imagings of Ultrasound, radionuclide and plain X-ray film should be the first choice for screening, then, CT and X-ray contrast study be the second selected choice and lastly, elaborated contrast angiography be the last one to be selected, if it is necessary. As the increase of information dimension is appeared to be accompanied by the increasing burden in various technical aspect, technical effort to extract more information than those at present at the same burden should be worthwise in future. (author)

  20. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Li-Ya Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial.The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect.Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015.Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H.pylori infection.About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H.pylori infection.Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H.pylori infection are under way.Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H.pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer;however, a population-based H.pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora.Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  1. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application.

  2. Clinical trials of conformal therapy - physics aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If Conformal Therapy (CFRT) hadn't existed, physicists would have invented it! So many of the concepts involved are physicist ones: 3-D dose calculation/planning, Beam's-Eye-View, Dose-Volume Histograms, Multileaf Collimators, Computer-Controlled Delivery, Megavoltage Imaging, Optimization, Inverse Planning, Tomotherapy, Biological Modeling, even Protons. All the above developments, many of them involving fairly expensive technology, are on trial. If we wish to be able to use and to continue development of these physicist tools in the future then it has to be demonstrated conclusively that CFRT results in improved clinical outcome. Physicists should therefore be in the front line of planning, executing and evaluating Clinical Trials of Conformal Therapy, by which I mean Randomized, Prospective Phase-III trials i.e. ones that have improved complication-free local control/survival as their endpoint. A prospective, randomized trial to assess the effect of reducing the volume of irradiated normal tissue on acute side-effects in pelvic radiotherapy (93% prostate or bladder ca.) has been carried out at our centre, on 266 patients. In both arms a 3-field, 6 MV x-ray technique was used with identical dose prescriptions; in the conventional arm rectangular fields were employed whereas in the conformal arm the fields were shaped with customized blocks drawn according to the Beam's-Eye-View of the target volume. Substantial differences in normal-tissue volumes (rectum, bladder etc.) were achieved: mean High-Dose Volume (∼ PTV) of 690 cm3 for the conformal technique vs 940 cm3 conventionally. Comprehensive quality-of-life questionnaire were completed before the start of treatment, weekly during and for 3 weeks after the end of treatment and then monthly for a further 2 months. A clear pattern of an increase during followed by a decrease after treatment in symptoms relating to bowel and bladder functions was observed for the patient group as a whole. However, a very extensive

  3. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.)

  4. PET imaging clinical trials: standards for good image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Imaging holds a promising place in the drug development process and clinical trials. In recent times, scientists and researchers have realized that imaging enables them to look for new surrogate endpoints and accelerate the process of drug development. As the number of such trials is increasing every year, there is a growing awareness for the need of quality in imaging trials, so as to avoid imaging issues, reduce losses due to non-evaluable imaging and improve subject safety. This paper is an attempt to address the need of standards for good quality image in clinical trials which use imaging. The main focus of the paper is to describe the various acquisition options in PET-CT available for medical imaging, their applicability in drug development process and clinical trials, emphasize the need to identify possible sources that could possibly impact the quality of images, ways of standardizing the equipments and minimizing the variability of different scanners. Additionally this paper will look into the importance of an expert medical imaging group, imaging protocols, quality assurance programs, and image assessment post acquisition for technical compliance and image quality. A reference of standards as prescribed by various scientific bodies and organizations will also be reviewed. In this paper the focus will be mainly to discuss aspects of PET-CT imaging in clinical trials. PET-CT has the potential to be best for response monitoring to therapy and early detection of disease compared to all other imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, gamma camera, SPECT, ultrasonography etc. In research, PET imaging can help in understanding the pharmacokinetics of a molecule, i.e. kinetic modeling and provides various imaging options, qualitative and quantitative. PET-CT provides anatomical as well as functional information and has the potential to be highly reproducible. The paper emphasizes good imaging practices and its relevance, especially when we are not just

  5. Eating epilepsy: clinical and neuro image aspects - case report; Epilepsia da alimentacao: achados clinicos e de neuroimagem - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Yacubian, Elza Marcia T.; Fiore, Lia Arno; Jorge, Carmen Lisa; Yamaga, Liliam I.; Watanabe, Tomoco; Bacheschi, Luis A.; Scaff, Milberto; Magalhaes, Alvaro E.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1994-04-01

    Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author) 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions. PMID:18432135

  7. MR imaging of the posterolateral aspect of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of the posterolateral aspect of the knee were evaluated with axial MR images. One hundred twelve knees of clinical cases without posterolateral injury were retrospectively reviewed, and 30 knees of 15 volunteers with no history of knee injury or pain were evaluated. The amount of joint effusion and visualization of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and popliteal tendon were classified according to three grades. The LCL and popliteal tendon were identified in 111 clinical cases (99%) and 28 volunteer knees (93%). Visualization of the LCL and popliteal tendon was facilitated in the presence of both joint effusion and fluid collection between the LCL and popliteal tendon. Fluid collection posterior to the femoral attachment of the popliteal tendon was seen in 79 clinical cases (71%) and 20 volunteer knees (67%). Based on cadaveric study, this was considered to be a potential fluid space for communication to the joint space. (author)

  8. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  9. Clinical aspects of feline retroviruses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2012-11-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests) also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats. PMID:23202500

  10. Palmoplantar keratodermas: clinical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Cristina; Technau-Hafsi, Kristin

    2016-02-01

    Palmoplantar keratodermas comprise a diverse group of acquired and hereditary disorders marked by excessive thickening of the epidermis of palms and soles. Early onset and positive family history suggest a genetic cause. While hereditary forms of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) may represent the sole or dominant clinical feature, they may also be associated with other ectodermal defects or extracutaneous manifestations. In recent years, much progress has been made in deciphering the genetic basis of PPK, which has led to the emergence of new disorders and syndromes. The elucidation of disease mechanisms has opened new avenues for specific therapies, increasingly sparking interest in this field. Given the high heterogeneity with respect to clinical features, genetic defects, and disease mechanisms, the classification of PPK is based on various criteria. These include extent of disease manifestations, morphology of palmoplantar skin involvement, inheritance patterns, and molecular pathogenesis. Though not always feasible, the clinical distinction of various PPK entities is based on fine-tuned criteria or clues. Remarkably, apparently distinct disorders have been shown to be allelic, as they are caused by mutations in the same gene. By contrast, similar clinical pictures may result from mutations in different genes. Because of this complexity, mutation analysis is required to determine the precise type of PPK. The best-defined entities are described in this review. PMID:26819106

  11. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline leukemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma, bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia, and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats.

  12. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infecti

  13. Radiobiological and clinical aspects of neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological investigations and their interpretation are discussed. The history of neutrontherapy, the results of RBE-investigations in man as well as clinical results are given. The hypothesis on reaction of human tissue and tumours towards neutron irradiation is presented. (A.S.)

  14. Past and future aspects of clinical electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of clinical electrophysiology has a long and fascinating history. From the earliest time, no clinical symptom impressed the patient (and the physician) more than an irregular heart beat. Although ancient Chinese pulse theory laid the foundation for the study of arrhythmias and clinical electrophysiology in the 5th century BC, the most significant breakthrough in the identification and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias first occurred in this century. In the last decades, our knowledge of electrophysiology and pharmacology has increased exponentially. The enormous clinical significance of cardiac rhythm disturbances has favoured these advances. On the one hand, patients live longer and thus are more likely to experience arrhythmias. On the other hand, circulatory problems of the cardiac vessels have increased enormously, and this has been identified as the primary cause of cardiac rhythm disorders. Coronary heart disease has become not just the most significant disease of all, based on the statistics for cause of death. Arrhythmias are the main complication of ischemic heart disease, and they have been directly linked to the frequent arrhythmogenic sudden death syndrome, which is now presumed to be an avoidable "electrical accident" of the heart. A retrospective look--often charming in its own right--may not only make it easier to sort through the copious details of this field and so become oriented in this universe of important and less important facts; it may also assist the observer in a chronological vantage point of the subject. The study of clinical electrophysiology is no dry compendium of facts and figures, but rather a dynamic field of study evolving out of the competition between various ideas, intentions and theories. PMID:18651426

  15. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  16. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Katrin Hartmann

    2012-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia), and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the viru...

  17. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Goris, Marga

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infectious leptospires live in the urogenital system of their host and are excreted via the urine. Indirect transmission is the main route of infection; leptospirosis is particularly endemic in (sub)tropi...

  18. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolyada T.I.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the severity of clinical manifestations and immune response features in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM was studied. It was established, that in IM patients with minor disease severity dominated the cellular-mediated response. In IM patients with mild disease severity the humoral-oriented immune response predominated. The described above findings suggest the need of differential approach of immune modulators application in IM therapy, depending on the level of disease severity

  19. Clinical and morphological aspects of radiation pneumonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individually different radiation tolerance with relative dose dependence of the radioreaction could be revealed. Various radiation independent diseases of the lungs are predisposing factors of radiogenic pneumonitis. Even severe diffuse pneumonias can be clinically and radiologically asymptomatic. An enhanced toxic effect of combined cytostatic and radiotherapy could be demonstrated once more. Obviously irradiation causes lasting damage of the pulmonary tissue, being a changed but stereotype reaction to different irritations

  20. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, J.

    2001-01-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are—if the American experience is followed—likely to vary significantly in terms...

  1. [Clinical aspects and genetics of pseudoxanthoma elasticum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, S B; Schnyder, U W; Vogel, A

    1985-05-01

    Eighteen cases of Pseudoxantoma elasticum (PXE) were analysed using clinical and genetic criteria. We observed great intra- and interfamiliar variations in the manifestations of the disease as well as mono-, bi- and trisymptomatic cases (skin + eyes + vessels). We lack reliable indications for the existence of more than one recessive type of PXE and hence for heterogeneity. In family 9, PXE was inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode, and the discrete symptoms were restricted to the skin. PMID:4008253

  2. NASAL cytology: practical aspects and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, M; Iannuzzi, L; Quaranta, N; Landi, M; Passalacqua, G

    2016-06-01

    Nasal cytology is a simple and safe diagnostic procedure that allows to assess the normal and pathological aspects of the nasal mucosa, by identifying and counting the cell types and their morphology. It can be easily performed by a nasal scraping followed by May-Grunwald-Giemsa staining and optical microscopy reading. This procedure allows to identify the normal cells (ciliated and mucinous), the inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cells), bacteria, or fungal hyphae/spores. Apart from the normal cell population, some specific cytological patterns can be of help in discriminating among various diseases. Viral infections, allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis and overlapping forms can be easily identified. According to the predominant cell type, various entities can be defined (named as NARES, NARESMA, NARMA). This implies a more detailed knowledge and assessment of the disease that can integrate the standard diagnostic procedures. Nasal cytology also represents a useful research tool for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27009397

  3. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Sá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor is among the main diseases that affect domestic animals of the Canidae family. Abandoned animals are the main transmitters of the disease, which is highly contagious; most of the injuries are commonly found on animals genital organs and faces. This is a tumor without any involvement with an infectious agent, tumor cells are transferred from a sick animal to a healthy animal through natural breeding or direct contact of the lesions with other body parts. The disease has no predisposition for breeding, sex and species, therefore possibly affecting all canids although there are more reports on stray animals.The TVT lesions have cauliflower appearance and may be pedunculated, papillary or multilobulated, with hemorrhagic and crumbly aspect. The tumor can have benign or malignant potential, being the second most frequently commonly reported, wherein according to its potential raise the difficulty of the treatment or not.

  4. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease.  The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu, dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal.

  5. Erythromelalgia : Clinical aspects, pathology and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    List of papers. Papers I-IV and Appendix I-II are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I Lalgaard OM, Seem E, Kvernebo K: Erythromelalgia: a clinical study of 87 cases. J Int Med 242:191-7, 1997 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00185.x Paper II Kalgaard OM, Clausen OP, Mellbye OJ, Hovig T, Kvernebo K: Nonspecific capillary proliferation and vasculopathy indicate skin hypoxia in erythromelalgia. Arch Dermatol 147(3):309-14,2011 doi:10.10...

  6. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis, the Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad F; McCullough, Arthur J

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease with variable severity that develops in patients who usually have a history of prolonged and recent alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on history, physical examination, and laboratory derangements. Liver biopsy is diagnostic but not universally performed, and noninvasive diagnostic modalities are under development. Scoring systems are used to assess severity of disease, predict mortality, and guide decisions for initiation of specific therapies. The natural history and long-term outcomes of alcoholic hepatitis, including recurrence, progression to cirrhosis, and mortality, vary and depend partly on abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:27373612

  7. Vitamin D and cancer: Clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial preclinical and epidemiologic data that suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown that low blood levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (cholecalciferol), estimated by geographical location, diet and activity assessment or measured serum levels are associated with a higher risk of cancer and worse cancer-specific survival as well as numerous morbidities to e.g. cardiovascular disease, stroke, infection, autoimmune disease, and neuromuscular dysfunction among large populations. A considerable number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the most active metabolite of vitamin D – 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol – has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiating, and anti-angiogenic properties. Combined treatment of calcitriol and many types of cytotoxic agents has synergistic or at least additive effects. However, clinical trials testing these hypotheses have been less encouraging, though a number of methodological, pharmacological, and pharmaceutical issues confound all trials ever conducted. In order to properly assess the clinical value of vitamin D, its metabolites and analogs in cancer prevention and treatment, more studies are needed. PMID:21872802

  8. Clinical aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothee G A; Medina, Marco Tulio; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a recognizable, frequent epileptic syndrome. The most typical ictal phenomenon is bilateral myoclonia without loss of consciousness (M), with most patients also presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and some with absence seizures (ASs). The most striking features of JME are its onset around the time of puberty and the fact that seizure episodes occur after awakening from a sleep period or in the evening relaxation period and are facilitated by sleep deprivation and sudden arousal. Photic sensitivity is common in the EEG laboratory but uncommon or unrecognized in daily life. The clinical features of JME make it easy to diagnose. In recent years, awareness of JME has increased, and patients are often accurately diagnosed clinically before confirmation by EEG. The typical circumstance at diagnosis is a first GTCS episode, and one learns during the interview that the patient has had M in the morning for some time before the GTCS episode. There are only few differential diagnoses: the adolescent-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsies, or other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. With JME being so common, we propose that a first GTCS episode in a teenager should be considered as revealing JME until proven otherwise. PMID:23756488

  9. Clinical aspects of patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Cassio Caldini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasal Polyposis is a non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. It causes a large impact to the patients' life quality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with polyposis in the Brazilian population. Method: 50 records of patients followed up in a tertiary hospital and submitted to surgical treatment of nasal polyposis were reviewed. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, smoking, presence of asthma, presence of AAS intolerance and also the clinical manifestations: anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, hyposmia, sneezing and pruritus. The tomographic evaluation system applied was that of Lund-McKay. For statistical analysis we applied the chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Out of 50 patients evaluated, 28 were male and 22 were female. The mean age range was of 40.8 years. The main clinical manifestation was nasal obstruction in 100% of the patients. In the tomographic evaluation, according to the Lund-McKay system, the average scoring was of 10.9. Discussion: No statistically significant difference was obtained in the patients' general symptoms compared to the patients with asthma or AAS intolerance. The difference in the Lund-McKay score was statistically significant in the populations studied. The symptoms were similar to the frequency of symptoms of other works. Conclusion: We concluded that the main complaint of the patients with nasal polyposis is nasal obstruction, the most affected age is of about 40 years old, without preference of sex. The severity of tomographic findings is higher in patients with asthma and AAS intolerance.

  10. The ART approach: clinical aspects reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Fabián Molina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of ART as a caries management approach is supported by more than 20 years of scientific evidence. ART follows the contemporary concepts of modern cariology and restorative dentistry. It challenges treatment concepts such as step-wise excavation and the need for complete removal of affected dentine. The ART approach so far has mainly used high-viscosity glass-ionomer as the sealant and restorative material. Cariostatic and remineralization properties have been ascribed to this material which requires further research to establish its clinical relevance. The adhesion of high-viscosity glass-ionomer to enamel in pits and fissures is apparently strong, as its remnants, blocking the pits and fissures, have been considered a possible reason for the low prevalence of carious lesion development after the glass-ionomer has clinically disappeared from it. Encapsulated high-viscosity glass-ionomers may lead to higher restoration survival results than those of the hand-mixed version and should, therefore, not be neglected when using ART. Similarly, the use of resin-modified glass-ionomer with ART should be researched. The effectiveness of ART when compared to conventional caries management approaches has been shown in numerous studies. Proper case selection is an important factor for long-lasting ART restoration survival. This is based on the caries risk situation of the individual, the size of the cavity opening, the strategic position of the cavitated tooth and the presence of adequate caries control measures. As the operator is one of the main causes for failure of ART restorations, attending a well-conducted ART training course is mandatory for successful implementation of ART.

  11. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  12. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: Clinical and Genetic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignolo Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is a severely disabling heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification that forms qualitatively normal bone in characteristic extraskeletal sites. The worldwide prevalence is approximately 1/2,000,000. There is no ethnic, racial, gender, or geographic predilection to FOP. Children who have FOP appear normal at birth except for congenital malformations of the great toes. During the first decade of life, sporadic episodes of painful soft tissue swellings (flare-ups occur which are often precipitated by soft tissue injury, intramuscular injections, viral infection, muscular stretching, falls or fatigue. These flare-ups transform skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and aponeuroses into heterotopic bone, rendering movement impossible. Patients with atypical forms of FOP have been described. They either present with the classic features of FOP plus one or more atypical features [FOP plus], or present with major variations in one or both of the two classic defining features of FOP [FOP variants]. Classic FOP is caused by a recurrent activating mutation (617G>A; R206H in the gene ACVR1/ALK2 encoding Activin A receptor type I/Activin-like kinase 2, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP type I receptor. Atypical FOP patients also have heterozygous ACVR1 missense mutations in conserved amino acids. The diagnosis of FOP is made by clinical evaluation. Confirmatory genetic testing is available. Differential diagnosis includes progressive osseous heteroplasia, osteosarcoma, lymphedema, soft tissue sarcoma, desmoid tumors, aggressive juvenile fibromatosis, and non-hereditary (acquired heterotopic ossification. Although most cases of FOP are sporadic (noninherited mutations, a small number of inherited FOP cases show germline transmission in an autosomal dominant pattern. At present, there is no definitive

  13. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...... of dental education and necessary changes in dental practice....

  14. Low-grade gliomas clinical and pathobiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, A

    2002-01-01

    The optimal management of patients with low-grade gliomas remains a challenge for the treating physician. The natural history of the disease shows a large variety, and there is a substantial controversy about many of everyday treatment recommendations. H o w e v e r, new developments in clinical and basic research in neuro-oncology have occurred during the last years. In this review some of these new insights into clinical and biological aspects of low-grade gl...

  15. Technical aspects of CT imaging of the spine

    OpenAIRE

    Tins, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses technical aspects of computed tomography (CT) imaging of the spine. Patient positioning, and its influence on image quality and movement artefact, is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the choice of scan parameters and their relation to image quality and radiation burden to the patient. Strategies to reduce radiation burden and artefact from metal implants are outlined. Data acquisition, processing, image display and steps to reduce artefact are reviewed...

  16. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  17. Multimodal imaging of bone metastases: From preclinical to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ellmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skeletal system are commonly observed in cancer patients, highly affecting the patients' quality of life. Imaging plays a major role in detection, follow-up, and molecular characterisation of metastatic disease. Thus, imaging techniques have been optimised and combined in a multimodal and multiparametric manner for assessment of complementary aspects in osseous metastases. This review summarises both application of the most relevant imaging techniques for bone metastasis in preclinical models and the clinical setting.

  18. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Modica

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders acco...

  19. Nanoparticles & Nanotechnology : Clinical, Toxicological, Social, Regulatory & other aspects of Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Gourish Chakarvarty

    2013-01-01

    In last few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules like nanoparticles. The continuing advancement of nanotechnology represents a tremendous opportunities of society because of the unique traits that nanoscale material possess but there are many clinical, toxicological, social, regulatory and other aspects of nanotechnology which are matter of concern. The United States F...

  20. Clinical, Aetiologic, And Evolution-Related Aspects Of Pleurisy In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Frecus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Establishing the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of admissions in the Paediatrics Department, as well as the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of respiratory ailments that required hospitalization; evaluating age group distribution and determining the influence of environmental factors; describing clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiologic, and bacteriological investigations in patients with pleurisy; quantifying clinical manifestations and investigations so as to establish an appropriate therapeutic approach; identifying clinical aspects that indicate a favourable/unfavourable evolution; analyzing the evolution of cases after treatment as revealed by radiologic imaging.

  1. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (168)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yusheng Keefe; Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani

    2016-01-01

    A 16-year-old Chinese male patient presented with constipation lasting five days, colicky abdominal pain, lethargy, weakness and body aches. He was able to pass flatus. Abdominal radiography showed a distended stomach causing inferior displacement of the transverse colon. Computed tomography revealed a dilated oesophagus, stomach and duodenum up to its third portion, with a short aortomesenteric distance and narrow angle. There was also consolidation in the lungs bilaterally. Based on the constellation of clinical and imaging findings, a diagnosis of superior mesenteric artery syndrome complicated by aspiration pneumonia was made. The patient was subsequently started on intravenous hydration, nasogastric tube aspiration and antibiotics. Following stabilisation of his acute condition, a nasojejunal feeding tube was inserted and a feeding plan was implemented to promote weight gain. The clinical presentation, differentials, diagnosis and treatment of superior mesenteric artery syndrome are discussed. PMID:27212130

  2. Pharyngoceles aspects in imaging exams; Aspectos das faringoceles nos exames de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Nakamura, Olavo Kyosen; Grassi, Caio Giometti; Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: fabiodiniz@einstein.b [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem

    2010-07-01

    Objective: the present study is aimed at showing the different characteristics of pharyngoceles in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) and its correlation with clinical presentation. Material and method: pharyngocele cases were selected in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) realized in our service, realizing clinical presentation correlation. Results: pharyngocele presents frequently with small dimensions and narrow orifice. When the size enlarges, clinical presentation is more evident and diverse, which can confuse with other cervical lesions that enlarge with Valsalva maneuver. Differential diagnosis can be done by imaging evaluation. Conclusion: we intended to demonstrate that many times pharyngocele can be presented with different aspects, not always being easy to recognize by clinics or imaging exams, but its diagnosis must be always remembered in our daily practice. (author)

  3. Imaging of Various Aspects of Neurofibromatosis Involvement: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Tayari

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is often noticed at birth or soon after. NF is divided into two types: NF type 1 is a complex of cutaneous and deep neural tumors. It is an autosomal dominant familial disorder. CNS is affected in about 15% of the cases. Optic nerve gliomas have a high degree of association with NF 1."nNF type 2 is much less commonly seen. It is also inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are pathognomonic of NF 2 and may be associated with meningiomas or ependymo-mas."nTypical clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis are cafe-au-lait spots and multiple cutaneous tumors. There are also bone involvement as scoliosis, pseudoarthrosis of long bones, scalloping of vertebral bodies, abnormal rib tubulation, and defective ossification of the posterior superior wall of the orbit."nExtraskeletal manifestations of neurofibromatosis include gliomas of the optic nerves, pheochromocytoma, aneurysms of cerebral and renal arteries, acoustic neurilemmoma and superficial skin nodular neurofibromas."nHere, we intend to present images of several cases of neurofibromatosis with different aspects of involvement of the body. "nKeywords: Neurofibromatosis, Glioma, Schwannoma, Neurinoma

  4. Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer   Birgitte Mayland Havelund1,4 MD, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler1,4 MD, PhD, Flemming Brandt Sørensen2,4 MD, DMSc, Ivan Brandslund3 MD, DMSc, Anders Jakobsen1,4 MD, DMSc. 1Department of Oncology, 2Pathology and 3Biochemistry, Vejle...... Hospital, Vejle, Denmark 4Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense Denmark Background Prognostic and predictive markers are needed for individualizing the treatment of colorectal cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription-inducing factor...

  5. Tourette syndrome: clinical and psychological aspects of 250 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1985-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a common hereditary neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of multiple tics and vocal noises. We summarize here clinical aspects of 250 consecutive cases seen over a period of 3 years. The sex ratio was four males to one female, and the mean age of onset was 6.9 years. Only 10% were Jewish, indicating that it is not more prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews. Only 33% had compulsive swearing (coprolalia), indicating that this is not necessary for the diagnosis. The most frequent init...

  6. Clinical aspects of chronic ENT inflammation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, A L; Brihaye, P; Casimir, G; Dhooghe, I; Gordts, F; Halewyck, S; Hanssens, L; Lemkens, N; Lemkens, P; Leupe, P; Mulier, S; Van Crombrugge, L; Van Der Veken, P; Van Hoecke, H

    2012-01-01

    In children, all ENT cavities are particularly prone to the development of chronic inflammation. This is due to many predisposing factors, of which the most common are unfavourable anatomy, absence of nasal blowing, day care attendance, allergy, immature immunity, gastro-oesophageal reflux and tobacco smoke exposure. The aim of this paper is to outline the most specific paediatric clinical aspects of chronic pharyngo-tonsillitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, adenoiditis and laryngotracheitis and the important influence that some of these pathologies exert on the others. PMID:23431613

  7. Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandra Rao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radia

  8. Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra Rao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radiation and device physics amongst each other.

  9. Blepharospasm: Update on Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Sole, Josep; Defazio, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Blepharospasm (BSP) is a rather distressing form of focal dystonia. Although many aspects of its pathophysiological mechanisms are already known, we lack fundamental evidence on etiology, prevention, and treatment. To advance in our knowledge, we need to review what is already known in various aspects of the disorder and use these bases to find future lines of interest. Some of the signs observed in BSP are cause, while others are consequence of the disorder. Non-motor symptoms and signs may be a cue for understanding better the disease. Various cerebral sites have been shown to be functionally abnormal in BSP, including the basal ganglia, the cortex, and the cerebellum. However, we still do not know if the dysfunction or structural change affecting these brain regions is cause or consequence of BSP. Further advances in neurophysiology and neuroimaging may eventually clarify the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated. In this manuscript, we aim to update what is known regarding epidemiology, clinical aspects, and pathophysiology of the disorder and speculate on the directions of research worth pursuing in the near future. PMID:27064462

  10. Neurofibromatosis type 1: clinical and radiological aspects; Neurofibromatose tipo 1: aspectos clinicos e radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem]. E-mail: depimagem@famerp.br; Ferraz Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Unidade de Ressonancia Magnetica; Zanusso, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisa e Atendimento em Nerofibromatose (CEPAN), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Bertelli, Erika Cristina Pavarino [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa em Genetica e Biologia Molecular; Bertollo, Eny Maria Goloni [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Genetica

    2006-04-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disease with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3,000 people, characterized mainly by systemic and progressive involvement, manifesting by physical deformity and compromising of neurological functions. The diagnosis of the neurofibromatosis type 1 must be performed the earliest possible through clinical exams and familiar history. The use of imaging diagnosis as radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients and control of lesions, preventing complications. In this study we describe the clinical and radiological aspects of the neurofibromatosis type 1, considering clinical features, genetics, bone alterations in chest, vertebral column, upper and lower limbs, and craniofacial abnormalities. (author)

  11. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens

  12. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  13. CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETIC ASPECTS OF STEALTH LIPOSOMES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabu Sushma, Khanna Surabhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stealth liposomes are long-circulating liposomes with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol (PEG in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend bloodcirculation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake. Further these liposomes exhibit increasing drug stability and solubility, lowering toxicity, increasing half-life, decreasing clearance and immunogenicity. Sterically stabilized vesicles can act either as long circulating micro reservoirs or tumour (or site of inflammation and infection targeting vehicles. The former applications require larger liposomes (0.2µm while the latter one is due to the ability of small vesicles to leave the blood circulation. The altered biodistribution of stealth liposomes, in addition to the accumulation at the sites characterised with porous blood capillaries, such as in tumors, inflammations, and infections. A pharmacogenomic approach for delivery of siRNA to cells is the use of liposomes as targeted delivery vehicles. Stealth technology summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations, encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further these liposomes offer improvements in bioreclamation and various monitoring and analytical-diagnostic applications. The paper reviews the clinical aspects of these liposomes with longer therapeutic half lives in diseases like Reconstitution of membrane proteins into artificial membranes, model biological membranes, cell function, fusion, recognition , pharmaceutics studies of drug action , medicine drug-delivery and medical diagnostics, gene therapy and there extensive use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  15. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging

  16. Clinical aspects of indirect immunofluorescence for autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanadan, Alireza; Saghazadeh, Amene; Jahanzad, Issa; Rezaei, Nima

    2015-05-01

    Because the most common term used in conversations considering autoimmunity is autoantibodies, it is well-expected that the indirect immunofluorescence assay, which detects antibodies directed against various antigens, is one of our most impressive techniques for investigating autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Roughly speaking, the current literature corroborates that this immunopathologic investigation means that autoantibodies detection makes a considerable contribution to both diagnostic and prognostic aspects of AIDs in the clinical setting. However, it varies between different AIDs, autoantibodies, ethnicities or detection methodologies. Directly focusing on the indirect immunofluorescence assay, we present evidence to support this multidimensional variation regarding the subject via reviewing briefly the best-investigated autoantibodies in the well-documented AIDs, including vasculitis, inflammatory bowel disease, scleroderma, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:25786676

  17. Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy: Clinical Aspects of Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goom, Thomas S H; Malliaras, Peter; Reiman, Michael P; Purdam, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Synopsis Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) typically manifests as deep buttock pain at the hamstring common origin. Both athletic and nonathletic populations are affected by PHT. Pain and dysfunction are often long-standing and limit sporting and daily functions. There is limited evidence regarding diagnosis, assessment, and management; for example, there are no randomized controlled trials investigating rehabilitation of PHT. Some of the principles of management established in, for example, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy would appear to apply to PHT but are not as well documented. This narrative review and commentary will highlight clinical aspects of assessment and management of PHT, drawing on the available evidence and current principles of managing painful tendinopathy. The management outline presented aims to guide clinicians as well as future research. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):483-493. Epub 15 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5986. PMID:27084841

  18. Clinical and immunological aspects of envenomations by Bothrops snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KPO Luna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents caused by snakes, especially in tropical and subtropical countries, still constitute a serious public health problem due to the lack of knowledge of health professionals and the precariousness of health systems in the regions where most accidents occur. Snake venoms contain a range of molecules that may provoke local swelling, pain, renal and respiratory insufficiencies. The study of the effects of each molecule on humans can help the development of complementary therapy. Similarly, the knowledge of clinical aspects of envenomations provides a better identification and implementation of appropriate treatment. In addition, to understand Bothrops envenomations and improve the therapeutic strategy, it is necessary to understand and study the role of important inflammatory mediators, particularly nitric oxide (NO, cytokines and the complement system.

  19. Regulatory aspects of hospital radiopharmacy and clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    research on human beings with a set of recommendations guiding the responsible physicians all over the world. Special caution should also be given to the welfare of animals used for research and to the environment in which the trial is conducted. The European Directive on Good Clinical Practice in Clinical Trials - 2001/20/EC together with its amendments are considered as the main regulation in Europe which apply to all IMP including radiopharmaceuticals. Many countries have their national regulations set similarly and they are being harmonized by the efforts of the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). The guidance documents developed through the harmonization process defines the design,conduct, performance, auditing, recording and reporting of clinical trials. Radiopharmaceuticals may be argued to be different from classical drug products in being radioactive and carrying a small amount of material in a small volume of injection. A radiopharmaceutical is applied to a patient usually only once or a few times in his/her lifetime. In general they spend a short time in the body and no biological effect is expected to occur by the application of a radiopharmaceutical to a human being . On-site preparation and immediate use may be another aspect of radiopharmaceuticals differing from regular drug products . In spite of these arguments radiopharmaceuticals are considered as medicinal products and any clinical trial performed with radiopharmaceuticals is therefore subject to all the legislation regarding IMP. The radioactive nature of radiopharmaceuticals also makes it necessary to follow the regulations related to ionizing radiation. Euratom Directive 97/43 - protection of individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure applies to exposure of healthy individuals or patients voluntarily participating in medical or biological, diagnostic or therapeutic, research programmes. It must be clear that even the use of an authorized

  20. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases

  1. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases.

  2. Cutaneous solar ultraviolet exposure and clinical aspects of photodamage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Battie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation reaching the earth is a combination of UVB (290-320 nm and UVA (320-400 nm wavelengths. Since UVA is less energetic than UVB, UVB has long been thought to be the factor responsible for the damaging effects of solar radiation. But with modern tools such as in vitro models, it has been proven that UVA plays a major role. The objective of this review is to show how skin may be exposed to UV light and to highlight the clinical aspects of UV-induced skin damages with the respective contribution of UVB or UVA. Even if UVA is less energetic than UVB, it is more abundant and penetrates deeper into the skin, reaching as far as the dermis. Various factors also influence skin exposure to UV light: the latitude, season, and time of the day. Acute as well as chronic sun exposure induces short- and long-term clinical damages. Erythema and pigmentation are immediate responses of normal human skin exposed to UV radiation. The long-term effects are photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. In particular, UVA appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin.

  3. Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy due to clinical suspicion of foreign body aspiration at the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clinicas from January of 2000 to December of 2005. Results: The sample consisted of 69 patients, ranging in age from 8 months to 12 years/7 months (75.4% under 3 years of age), 62.3% of whom were male. The principal complaint was sudden-onset cough (75.4%), auscultation was abnormal in 74%, and dyspnea was observed in 29%. Radiological abnormalities were seen in 88% of the cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (54.8%), and 30.7% of the foreign bodies were of vegetal origin (principally beans and peanuts). In the follow-up period, 29% presented complications (most commonly pneumonia), which were found to be associated with longer aspiration time (p = 0.03). Mechanical ventilation was required in 7 children (10.1%), and multiple bronchoscopies were performed in 5 (7.2%). Conclusions: A history of sudden-onset choking and cough, plus abnormal auscultation and radiological findings, characterizes the profile of foreign body aspiration. In such cases, bronchoscopy is indicated. Longer aspiration time translates to a higher risk of complications. The high prevalence of foreign bodies of vegetal origin underscores the relevance of prevention at children younger than three years of age. (author)

  4. Analytical Aspects of the Implementation of Biomarkers in Clinical Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkova, Maria; López, Olga Millán; Picard, Nicolas; Noceti, Ofelia; Sommerer, Claudia; Christians, Uwe; Wieland, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    In response to the urgent need for new reliable biomarkers to complement the guidance of the immunosuppressive therapy, a huge number of biomarker candidates to be implemented in clinical practice have been introduced to the transplant community. This includes a diverse range of molecules with very different molecular weights, chemical and physical properties, ex vivo stabilities, in vivo kinetic behaviors, and levels of similarity to other molecules, etc. In addition, a large body of different analytical techniques and assay protocols can be used to measure biomarkers. Sometimes, a complex software-based data evaluation is a prerequisite for appropriate interpretation of the results and for their reporting. Although some analytical procedures are of great value for research purposes, they may be too complex for implementation in a clinical setting. Whereas the proof of "fitness for purpose" is appropriate for validation of biomarker assays used in exploratory drug development studies, a higher level of analytical validation must be achieved and eventually advanced analytical performance might be necessary before diagnostic application in transplantation medicine. A high level of consistency of results between laboratories and between methods (if applicable) should be obtained and maintained to make biomarkers effective instruments in support of therapeutic decisions. This overview focuses on preanalytical and analytical aspects to be considered for the implementation of new biomarkers for adjusting immunosuppression in a clinical setting and highlights critical points to be addressed on the way to make them suitable as diagnostic tools. These include but are not limited to appropriate method validation, standardization, education, automation, and commercialization. PMID:26418704

  5. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  6. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Yoshioka, Hiroshi [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); University of California-Irvine, Department of Radiological Sciences, Irvine, CA (United States); UC Irvine Medical Center, Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. (orig.)

  7. Monitoring molecular, functional and morphologic aspects of bone metastases using non-invasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-03-01

    Bone is among the most common locations of metastasis and therefore represents an important clinical target for diagnostic follow-up in cancer patients. In the pathogenesis of bone metastases, disseminated tumor cells proliferating in bone interact with the local microenvironment stimulating or inhibiting osteoclast and osteoblast activity. Non-invasive imaging methods monitor molecular, functional and morphologic changes in both compartments of these skeletal lesions - the bone and the soft tissue tumor compartment. In the bone compartment, morphologic information on skeletal destruction is assessed by computed tomography (CT) and radiography. Pathogenic processes of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, however, can be imaged using optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission CT (SPECT) and skeletal scintigraphy. Accordingly, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT as well as diffusion- weighted MRI and optical imaging are used to assess morphologic aspects on the macroscopic and cellular level of the soft tissue tumor compartment. Imaging methods such as PET, MR spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques and vessel size imaging further elucidate on pathogenic processes in this compartment including information on metabolism and vascularization. By monitoring these aspects in bone lesions, new insights in the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases can be gained. In translation to the clinical situation, these novel methods for the monitoring of bone metastases might be applied in patients to improve follow-up of these lesions, in particular after therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes established and experimental imaging techniques for the monitoring of tumor and bone cell activity including molecular, functional and morphological aspects in bone metastases. PMID:22214500

  8. Clinical and cranial magnetic resonance aspects in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Saltık, Sema; Dönmezer, Beril; Yüksel, Elif; Çakı, Suar; Ergüven, Müferet

    2005-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate clinical the findings and cranial MRI findings especially in neurological aspect and to search for the relationship between the lesions on MRI and behavior cognitive disorders in Neurofibromatosis type 1 NF 1 patients Thirty one patients with NF 1 between the ages of 3 19 years mean 9 7±4 6 who had no other cranial MRI findings except optic gliyoma and NF 1 hyper intense lesions NHL on T2 weighted images were included in the study Denver II test was performe...

  9. Imaging for cochlear implantation: Structuring a clinically relevant report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochlear implantation is a proven treatment for bilateral severe to profound hearing loss. Imaging has an important role in deciding candidacy, providing realistic preoperative counselling, and predicting postoperative outcomes. Imaging also provides information about the potential difficulties a surgeon may encounter during the implantation. High-resolution computed tomography and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging complement each other in assessing different aspects of the temporal bone and the auditory pathway in such patients. This review provides a structured format for reading pre-cochlear implant imaging studies with special focus on the surgeon's expectations in order to prepare a clinically relevant report. A constant communication between the imaging specialist and the cochlear implant surgeon improves image interpretation and ensures a successful implantation

  10. Clinical and Molecular Aspects of Diseases of Mitochondrial DNA Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Mao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria within human cells contain vast numbers of mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA, which are small, circular, and double-stranded. The proper functions of mtDNAdepend totally on specific proteins that are encoded by the nucleus and then imported intomitochondria. Thus instability of mtDNA can stem from the mtDNA itself, or secondarilyfrom abnormalities in nuclear DNA. In this review, we will first introduce mtDNA, includingits characteristics, replication, transcription, translation, and the proteins involved in itsmetabolism, in particular DNA polymerase γ (POLG, DNA helicase Twinkle (Twinkle,and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM. Secondly, we will stress the importance ofmitochondrial nucleoid structures in the protection and facilitation of mtDNA metabolism,and report on the few known protein components of nucleoid, especially Twinkle, TFAM,and the recently discovered ATAD3. Based on this information, mtDNA instabilities will becategorized in accordance with their molecular etiologies, those that are caused by primarydefects of mtDNA, and those by secondary effects from abnormalities in nuclear DNA. Theformer includes large defects or point mutations of mtDNA. The latter involves the nucleargenes of POLG1, Twinkle, ANT1, TK2, dGK, and TP. With the comprehensive categorizationin this review, links are provided between the molecular and clinical aspects of mitochondrialDNA diseases. This report should help medical staff understand the complexity ofthese diseases and encourage them in further investigations.

  11. Central nervous system assessment in nuclear medicine. Clinical aspects: tracers and indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear neuroimaging techniques allow the study of functional and neurochemical aspects of the human brain in vivo. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) as well as PET (Positron Emission Tomography) are non-invasive techniques which present two modalities: functional and biochemical. The functional one provides information about neuronal activity measured through metabolism (PET) or regional brain perfusion (SPECT, RMN f). Biochemical neuroimaging provides information on the chemical substrates involved in neurotransmission (receptors, transporters and enzymes) and allows the study of the synaptic activity through imaging of the different brain regions. This information about neurochemical aspects of neurotransmission is an exclusive field of nuclear neuroimaging techniques SPECT and PET. In this paper we discuss the tracers used for each modality of brain SPECT as well as their main clinical uses. (author)

  12. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Jerome Irai Ezhil; Low, Albert S C; Tan, Damien M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2013-04-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with painless jaundice, loss of appetite and significant weight loss. Cross-sectional imaging showed a diffusely enlarged pancreas, with no significant fat stranding and a hypodense rim on computed tomography, which appeared hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. There was a narrowed pancreatic duct and features of common bile duct narrowing in the region of the pancreatic head. However, there was no obvious mass seen in the pancreatic head region. These features were classical of autoimmune pancreatitis with diffuse involvement of the gland. Laboratory investigation showed abnormal liver function and the classical sign of raised immunoglobulin G class 4 antibodies. The patient showed dramatic response to high-dose steroids, with resolution of both the laboratory and imaging abnormalities within one month. We discuss the classical imaging features of Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, an uncommon condition that needs to be differentiated from pancreatic malignancy. PMID:23624453

  13. Clinical needs in functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H.L.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Pate, H.

    1979-01-01

    Emission tomography, with positron or single photon emitting radionuclides, offers the possibility of quantitation, a necessary ingredient for functional studies. A figure of merit has been devised as an aid in selecting radionuclides that offer the greatest photon yield for the lowest radiation dose because emission tomography requires a greater information density than conventional imaging. Alterations in function generally precede anatomical alterations and functional imaging may therefore be a more sensitive method of investigating disease processes.

  14. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related m...

  15. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Modica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders according to the two models of DSM-5 is reported. The first model is included in the Section II of DSM-5; while in the Section III there exists a proposal for a so-called alternate model. The first one suggests a qualitative or categorical kind of approach to personality disorders, whereas the alternate model proposes a dimensional or quantitative kind of approach and aims to formulate, as well as a diagnosis for general alterations of the personological functioning, even a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, which can be formulated when a personality disorder is there but doesn't fit criteria for a specific disorder. Ultimately, it can be so claimed: 1 diagnostic criteria of the first model are similar to those of DSM-IV with its respective strenghts and weaknesses, and namely high probability in diagnosis, where  there, of personality disorder, yet insufficient sensitivity in the specification of the disorder; 2 the alternate model, despite criticism, thanks to the possibility of delivering a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, seems to be more equipped both in the identification of the personality disorder and further specifications.

  16. Novel Clinical and Diagnostic Aspects of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Schulte-Pelkum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA are the serological hallmark of some idiopathic systemic vasculitides. Besides the investigation of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV and constant effort for a standardized nomenclature and classification of the AAV, a main focus of research during the last few years has been to constantly improve the performance of enzyme immunoassays. With the latest so called third generation ELISA, this goal seemed to be fulfilled. The International Consensus Statement on Testing and Reporting of ANCA gave recommendations for standardized strategies for the serological diagnosis of ANCA. New developments now target the system immanent drawbacks of the respective diagnostic methods, be it the need for batching and the long time to result for ELISA, or the high likelihood of error and subjectivity of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF. Random access technology and multiplexing for solid phase assays as well as digital imaging for IIF are tools which may help to expedite and simplify routine diagnostics in the lab and in emergency settings. Recent findings indicate that PR3-ANCA have clinical utility beyond the diagnosis of AAV. PR3-ANCA can also serve as an aid for the differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC and Crohn’s disease (CrD and the stratification of UC patients. This review provides a detailed review of what is known about ANCA and highlights the latest research and state-of-the-art developments in this area.

  17. Novel clinical and diagnostic aspects of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, Johannes; Radice, Antonella; Norman, Gary L; Lόpez Hoyos, Marcos; Lakos, Gabriella; Buchner, Carol; Musset, Lucile; Miyara, Makoto; Stinton, Laura; Mahler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are the serological hallmark of some idiopathic systemic vasculitides. Besides the investigation of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and constant effort for a standardized nomenclature and classification of the AAV, a main focus of research during the last few years has been to constantly improve the performance of enzyme immunoassays. With the latest so called third generation ELISA, this goal seemed to be fulfilled. The International Consensus Statement on Testing and Reporting of ANCA gave recommendations for standardized strategies for the serological diagnosis of ANCA. New developments now target the system immanent drawbacks of the respective diagnostic methods, be it the need for batching and the long time to result for ELISA, or the high likelihood of error and subjectivity of indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). Random access technology and multiplexing for solid phase assays as well as digital imaging for IIF are tools which may help to expedite and simplify routine diagnostics in the lab and in emergency settings. Recent findings indicate that PR3-ANCA have clinical utility beyond the diagnosis of AAV. PR3-ANCA can also serve as an aid for the differentiation between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CrD) and the stratification of UC patients. This review provides a detailed review of what is known about ANCA and highlights the latest research and state-of-the-art developments in this area. PMID:24995343

  18. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166)

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose...

  19. Robust diffusion imaging framework for clinical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maximov, Ivan I; Neuner, Irene; Shah, N Jon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diffusion imaging requires short acquisition times and good image quality to permit its use in various medical applications. In turn, these demands require the development of a robust and efficient post-processing framework in order to guarantee useful and reliable results. However, multiple artefacts abound in in vivo measurements; from either subject such as cardiac pulsation, bulk head motion, respiratory motion and involuntary tics and tremor, or imaging hardware related problems, such as table vibrations, etc. These artefacts can severely degrade the resulting images and render diffusion analysis difficult or impossible. In order to overcome these problems, we developed a robust and efficient framework enabling the use of initially corrupted images from a clinical study. At the heart of this framework is an improved least trimmed squares diffusion tensor estimation algorithm that works well with severely degraded datasets with low signal-to-noise ratio. This approach has been compared with other...

  20. The important and clinical pharmaceutical aspects of radiopharmaceuticals usage

    OpenAIRE

    Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Gjorgieva, Darinka; Smilkov, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to devote the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine application and methods of quality assurance stressing the pharmaceutical aspects. Preparation, distribution, storage and use of radiopharmaceuticals involves a number of pharmaceuticals and radiation protection problems emphasized by the rapidly increasing use of this type of drug relevant for the patient, for the staff and for the environment. To study the pharmaceutical aspects of rad...

  1. Thymic hyperplasia - clinical course and imaging diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The real thymic hyperplasia is benign disease sometimes simulating malignant tumours. The aim of this study is to analyse the clinical symptoms of real thymic hyperplasia and the results from imaging diagnostic based on our clinical material. Clinical material include 27 children, aged from two months to 15 years, admitted in department of thoracic surgery, for a period of 20 years (1985 - 2004). We retrospectively analyze the clinical signs and results from X-ray investigation, CT (Siemens Somatom DRG and Philips Secura) and echocardiography (Acuson TX, 5 and 7 MHz). We discuss the diagnostic value of different methods as well as typical and atypical findings. (authors)

  2. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  3. Clinical imaging of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical imaging of the colon and rectum is the first volume of a new series of practical reference works that enables radiologists to effectively utilize today's rapidly evolving imaging technologies in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disorders. Organized in a disease-oriented format, each volume of the series focuses on specific gastrointestinal organs, offering concrete guidelines for performing and interpreting imaging studies of commonly encountered disorders. For each disease process, pathologic findings obtained using various imaging modalities are clearly described; illustrated by high-quality radiographs and scans; and correlated with the clinical features and basic pathology of the disease. The significance of these detected abnormalities is considered in detail, with emphasis on their importance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning

  4. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a period

  5. Barrett's esophagus: clinical features, obesity, and imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2011-09-01

    The following includes commentaries on clinical features and imaging of Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE); the clinical factors that influence the development of BE; the influence of body fat distribution and central obesity; the role of adipocytokines and proinflammatory markers in carcinogenesis; the role of body mass index (BMI) in healing of Barrett\\'s epithelium; the role of surgery in prevention of carcinogenesis in BE; the importance of double-contrast esophagography and cross-sectional images of the esophagus; and the value of positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography.

  6. Pressure Ulcer or Decubitus : clinical and etiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU), also called bedsores or decubitus, present a significant problem in healthcare. This thesis addresses some aspects of the aetiology of PU. The possible benefit of interventions with nutrional supplementation and the use of a risk assessment tool are evaluated. The role of react

  7. Different morphologic aspects and clinical features in massive hepatic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melato, M; Manconi, R; Magris, D; Morassi, P; Benussi, D G; Tiribelli, C

    1984-01-01

    4 cases of massive hepatic amyloidosis are reported with special reference to their clinical profiles and histologic features. On the basis of these data, two different clinical and histologic courses of the disease can be distinguished. 2 patients showed marked hepatomegaly without cholestasis, whereas in the other 2 the clinical picture was characterized by much less pronounced hepatomegaly, but by severe and progressive intrahepatic cholestasis. The time course of the disease seems to be different in the two forms, the cholestatic form being more rapidly fatal than the other. PMID:6745505

  8. New aspects in the clinical spectrum of neonatal lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurinaviciene, Rasa; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a rare, passively acquired autoimmune disease, caused by maternal autoantibodies. Characteristic clinical features of NLE are transient rash and congenital heart block (CHB), but also hematological abnormalities and hepatobiliary dysfunction may occur...

  9. Coryneform bacteria in infectious diseases: clinical and laboratory aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, M B; Lipsky, B A

    1990-01-01

    Coryneform isolates from clinical specimens frequently cannot be identified by either reference laboratories or research laboratories. Many of these organisms are skin flora that belong to a large number of taxonomic groups, only 40% of which are in the genus Corynebacterium. This review provides an update on clinical presentations, microbiological features, and pathogenic mechanisms of infections with nondiphtheria Corynebacterium species and other pleomorphic gram-positive rods. The early l...

  10. Familial renal cell carcinoma: clinical and molecular genetic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, E. R.; Yates, J. R. W.

    1991-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 2% of all human cancer, but familial cases are infrequent. Riches (1963) and Griffin et al. (1984) in a population-based case-control study found a family history of renal cell carcinoma in 2.4% of affected patients compared to 1.4% of controls. Nevertheless the importance of inherited tumours in clinical practice and medical research is disproportionate to their frequency. In clinical practice recognition of familial RCC can provide opportunities to pr...

  11. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    OpenAIRE

    Boers, M.; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F.; Cats, A.; Weening, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and no...

  12. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, M; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F; Cats, A; Weening, J J

    1987-09-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid disease may play a part in the cause of these abnormalities. PMID:3675007

  13. Clinical and tomographic aspects of macular microholes; Aspectos clinicos e tomograficos dos microburacos maculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, Fernando Jose de [Hospital de Olhos Sadalla Amin Ghanem, Joinville, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: Fernando.novelli@gmail.com; Maia Junior, Otacilio de Oliveira [Fundacao Monte Tabor, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Hospital Sao Rafael; Nobrega, Mario Junqueira [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Garrido Neto, Theodomiro [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Takahashi, Walter Yukihiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Oftalmologia

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical aspects and evaluate optical coherence tomography of macular microholes. Methods: Seven patients were assessed (8 eyes) with microholes of the macula. All patients underwent complete eye examination, fundus photography, fluorescent angiography and OCT-3 imaging. Results: Ages ranged from 26 to 69 years. Six patients were female (85.7%) and five of them had microhole in the right eye. The presenting symptom was decrease in visual acuity (71.3%) and central scotoma in (14.3%). Five eyes (71.4%) had no defects shown by fluorescent angiography. A defect in the outer retina was demonstrated in all eyes on optical coherence tomography. The lesions were nonprogressive. Conclusion: Macular microholes are small lamellar defects in the outer retina. The condition is nonprogressive, generally unilateral and compatible with good visual acuity. Fundus biomicroscopy associated with an optical coherence tomography are the main elements in the diagnosis and study of this pathology. (author)

  14. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26254550

  15. Imaging Review of Neurofibromatosis:Helpful Aspects for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is divided into two types, NF type 1 and NF type 2. Optic nerve gliomas have a high degree of association with NF type 1. NF 2, less commonly seen, is a complex of cutaneous and deep neural tumors. It is an autosomal dominant familial disorder in which CNS is affected in about 15% of the cases. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are pathognomonic of NF type 2 which may be associated with meningiomas or ependymomas.Typical clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis are cafe-au-lait spots and multiple cutaneoustumors. There is bone involvement as scoliosis, pseudoarthrosis of long bones, scalloping of vertebral bodies, abnormal rib tubulation and defective ossification of the skull. Extraskeletal anifestations of neurofibromatosis include optic nerve gliomas, pheochromocytoma,aneurysms of cerebral and renal arteries, acoustic neurilemmoma and superficial skin nodular neurofibromas.Here, we intend to present images of several cases of neurofibromatosis with different patternsof body involvement.

  16. Imaging review of neurofibromatosis: helpful aspects for early detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurofibromatosis is divided into two types, Neurofibromatosis type 1 and Neurofibromatosis type 2. Optic nerve gliomas have a high degree of association with Neurofibromatosis type 1. Neurofibromatosis 2, less commonly seen, is a complex of cutaneous and deep neural tumors. It is an autosomal dominant familial disorder in which CNS is affected in about 15% of the cases. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are pathognomonic of Neurofibromatosis type 2 which may be associated with meningiomas or ependymomas. Typical clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis are cafe-au-lait spots and multiple cutaneous tumors. There is bone involvement as scoliosis, pseudoarthrosis of long bones, scalloping of vertebral bodies, abnormal rib tubulation and defective ossification of the skull. Extra skeletal manifestations of neurofibromatosis include optic nerve gliomas, pheochromocytoma, aneurysms of cerebral and renal arteries, acoustic neurilemmoma and superficial skin nodular neurofibromas. Here, we intend to present images of several cases of neurofibromatosis with different patterns of body involvement.

  17. Clinical efficiency, image quality and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three decades have passed since the first clinical use of the famous EMI Computed Axial Tomography (Cat) scanner. At the time, the prospects for clinical success of this innovative idea were not very good. Time, however, has proven otherwise as what is now simply known as Computed tomography (CT) has been boosted in each one of these decades for different reasons. In the 1970s, technological progress augmented by the realization of the importance of tomographic imaging got everything started; in the 1980s, the boom in health care demand in the US solidified its position and in the 1990s the technological explosion in computers and the imperative need to lower costs in the health care industry have prompted the most dramatic changes in the wy CT is utilized in the year 2000. Thus, different motivations have led the way of progress in CT at various times, and in spite of amazing developments in other crucial imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging, CT maintains its rightful place as the premiere imaging modality in the modern radiology department. This work covers the basic principles of tomographic image reconstruction, and how axial CT scanners progressed historically in the first two decades. Developments in X-ray tubes, and detection systems are highlighted, as well as the impact of clinical efficiency, image quality and patient doses. The basic construction of translate-rotate (1st and 2nd generation, rotate-rotate (3rd generation) and detector ring (4th generation) scanners are described. The so-called 5th generation scanner, the electron beam scanner, is also described, with its clinical and technical advantages and its inherent financial and maintenance disadvantages, which brought the advent of spiral and multi-slice scanners. These most recent developments in CT technology have opened a new era in the clinical use of CT; and although image quality has reached an expected

  18. Tularemia in Arkhangelsk region: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze epidemiological and clinical features of tularemia cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with complications.Methods: We conducted retrospective cohort study including all patients hospitalized with tularemia between 2010 and 2014.Results: Most of tularemia cases were diagnosed in July (20,8% and August (57,1% among adult females (63,6%. The most common forms were bubonic and ulcer-bubonic (89,6%. Buboes were commonly found in the upper femoral and groin regions (92,2%. Diagnostic errors were revealed in 54,1% of cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were lymphadenitis and fever of unknown origin. Delay in effective antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased rate of complications.Conclusion: Tularemia has a diversity of clinical presentations. Doctors need to memorize the most common clinical signs of tularemia (fever and lymphadenitis to make timely diagnosis.

  19. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  20. Companion diagnostics for targeted cancer drugs - clinical and regulatory aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Dana; Jørgensen, Jan Trøst

    2014-01-01

    Companion diagnostics (CDx) holds the promise of improving the predictability of the oncology drug development process and become an important tool for the oncologist in relation to the choice of treatment for the individual patient. A number of drug-diagnostic co-development programs have already been completed successfully, and in the clinic, the use of several targeted cancer drugs is now guided by a CDx. This central role of the CDx assays has attracted the attention of the regulators, and especially the US Food and Drug Administration has been at the forefront in relation to developing regulatory strategies for CDx and the drug-diagnostic co-development project. For an increasing number of cancer patients the treatment selection will depend on the result generated by a CDx assay, and consequently this type of assay has become critical for the care and safety of the patients. In order to secure that the CDx assays have a high degree of analytical and clinical validity, they must undergo an extensive non-clinical and clinical testing before release for routine patient management. This review will give a brief introduction to some of the scientific and medical challenges related to the CDx development with specific emphasis on the regulatory requirements in different regions of the world. PMID:24904822

  1. Companion Diagnostics for Targeted Cancer Drugs - Clinical and Regulatory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan TrøstJørgensen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companion diagnostics (CDx holds the promise of improving the predictability of the oncology drug development process and become an important tool for the oncologist in relation to the choice of treatment for the individual patient. A number of drug-diagnostic co-development programs have already been completed successfully, and in the clinic, the use of several targeted cancer drugs is now guided by a CDx. This central role of the CDx assays has attracted the attention of the regulators, and especially the US FDA has been at the forefront in relation to developing regulatory strategies for CDx and the drug-diagnostic co-development project. For an increasing number of cancer patients the treatment selection will depend on the result generated by a CDx assay, and consequently this type of assay has become critical for the care and safety of the patients. In order to secure that the CDx assays have a high degree of analytical and clinical validity they must undergo an extensive non-clinical and clinical testing before release for routine patient management. This review will give a brief introduction to some of the scientific and medical challenges related to the CDx development with specific emphasis on the regulatory requirements in different regions of the world.  

  2. Biological and clinical aspects of autoimmune inner ear disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, A J

    1992-01-01

    The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune inner ear disease are reviewed. Recent studies indicating an autoimmune etiology and pathogenesis are discussed, along with a comparative analysis of several promising new animal models. Further studies to define the natural history, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of the disease are suggested.

  3. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aspects of hemorrhagic strokes in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, veterinary medicine has made great technological advances, allowing, thus, aid in the diagnosis of many diseases that resulted in increased animals life expectancy. As a result of this new situation, there was an increase of older animals clinical care. Thus, illnesses considered unusual in the past, began to be better identified, as is the case of strokes. Recently, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have been used as aid tools in the diagnosis of many diseases, enabling the identification and evaluation of the central nervous tissue lesions. Information is provided regarding the size, shape and location of the lesion, and the magnitude of tissue compression and its side effects. This review aims to present the main aspects of hemorrhagic strokes in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in dogs. (author)

  4. Clinical aspects of feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Katrin

    2011-10-15

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) are retroviruses with a global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of developing opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma), bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia) and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less important as a deadly infectious agent as in the last 20 years prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. PMID:21807418

  5. Severe scorpion envenomation in Brazil. Clinical, laboratory and anatomopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupo, P; Jurca, M; Azeedo-Marques, M M; Oliveira, J S; Hering, S E

    1994-01-01

    Scorpion stings in Brazil are important not only because of their incidence but also for their potential ability to induce severe, and often fatal, clinical situations, especially among children. In this report we present the clinical and laboratory data of 4 patients victims of scorpion stings by T. serrulatus, who developed heart failure and pulmonary edema, with 3 of them dying within 24 hours of the sting. Anatomopathologic study of these patients revealed diffuse areas of myocardiocytolysis in addition to pulmonary edema. The surviving child presented enzymatic, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes compatible with severe cardiac involvement, which were reversed within 5 days. These findings reinforce the need for continuous monitoring of patients with severe scorpion envenoming during the hours immediately following the sting. PMID:7997776

  6. [Sudeck disease--pathology, clinical aspects and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R H; Buch, K

    1998-06-01

    In our opinion the etiology of Sudeck's disease (acute reflex bone atrophy) plays a decisive role in therapeutic planning. The therapy is based on clinical and radiological findings. Physiotherapy addresses the symptom complex of pain, hyperemia, edema formation, and limitations of movement which act in a vicious circle and its intensity is modified according to the prevailing clinical and possibly also radiological findings. A strict coupling of the therapy to a classification according to stage is not recommended. Pharmacological therapy is merely a supporting element and focuses on the sympathetic overexcitability. The best therapy for Sudeck's disease is prophylaxis. Interventions collected under the general term early functional mobilization are, especially after surgical measures, a major factor in the avoidance of neurovegetative dysregulation in the sense of sympathetic reflex dystrophy. PMID:9738286

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and immunological aspects of neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS) and probably the most common non-multiple sclerosis (MS) CNS IDD. Serum immunoglobulin G autoantibodies have been identified in the majority of NMO patients with the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) as their main target autoantigen. Previous studies have suggested ethnicity-based prevalence differences of NMO. The genetic background for these putative differences is not known. An HLA-association with NMO has been identified, but the association is not very pronounced. Human and experimental studies support that anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. Previous experimental animal models have reported induction of NMO-like histopathology in animals by transfer of human anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG. A main goal of this PhD thesis was to perform a population-based study in a predominantly Caucasian population (in the Region of Southern Denmark) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of NMO and describe the clinical phenotypes in this population. Furthermore the aims were to investigate whether autoimmunity underlies or contributes to the pathogenesis of NMO with specific clinical, immunogenetic and experimental perspectives. The yearly incidence rate of NMO in the population was estimated to be 0.4 per 105 person-years (95% CI 0.30-0.54) and the prevalence was 4.4 per 105 (95% CI 3.1-5.7). The results indicated that NMO is more common in a Caucasian population than earlier believed. Clinical, radiologic and serological data were reviewed in order to establish the diagnostic accuracy of anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG for specific syndromes in NMO. We observed assay characteristics with a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 100%. The diagnosis of NMO based on either the Wingerchuk 2006 criteria or the United States National Multiple Sclerosis Society 2008 criteria could be made purely on clinical grounds in a high proportion (64

  8. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatoses in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, M. (Minna)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract A population-based study to investigate the epidemiological, genetic and clinical features of neurofibromatoses (NF) in Northern Finland was carried out between 1989–1996. The area concerned was that served by Oulu University Hospital, with a total population of 733 037. A total of 197 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), five with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and eight with segmental neurofibromatosis (NF5) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were identified among s...

  9. [Compatibility of science and clinical aspects. Between realism and utopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, R; Perl, M; Münzberg, M; Histing, T

    2013-01-01

    The working environment for young residents in orthopedic surgery has changed tremendously over the past 10 years. Due to cumulative clinical requirements and increasing demands on work-life balance research activity has become less attractive. Successful incorporation of research into the career of residents is a challenging project for the future. The young forum of the German Association for Orthopedics and Traumatology (DGOU) provides different approaches to enhance the quality of research and to help young orthopedists and trauma surgeons. PMID:23325157

  10. Clinical Aspects and Management of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Tambasco; Simone Simoni; Erica Marsili; Elisa Sacchini; Donatella Murasecco; Gabriela Cardaioli; Aroldo Rossi; Paolo Calabresi

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, one of the most troublesome dilemmas is the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. After a few years, chronic treatment with levodopa is associated with the development of dyskinesias. Strategies to delay or to reduce dyskinesias are based on the change of levodopa dosing or the early use of dopamine agonists. Dopamine agonists with different pharmacological profile are available. Our paper was aimed to analyse the clinical impact and the management of dyskinesias w...

  11. Injury to the Developing Lung: experimental and clinic al aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Irwin

    2008-01-01

    textabstractInjury to the developing lung or disturbance of normal lung development may lead to a chronic lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which may have long-term effects. BPD is characterized by an arrest of development of the lung and the pulmonary vascular system and occurs in around 20% of ventilated newborns. In the first part of this thesis, different factors that influence the development of BPD are studied, both in an experimental and a clinical setting. We found that ...

  12. Learning the structure of image collections with latent aspect models

    OpenAIRE

    Monay, Florent

    2007-01-01

    The approach to indexing an image collection depends on the type of data to organize. Satellite images are likely to be searched with latitude and longitude coordinates, medical images are often searched with an image example that serves as a visual query, and personal image collections are generally browsed by event. A more general retrieval scenario is based on the use of textual keywords to search for images containing a specific object, or representing a given scene type. This requires th...

  13. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: preclinical and clinical development aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João; Araújo, Filipe; Cutolo, Maurizio; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-01-01

    Biological drugs and their originated biosimilars are large, highly complex molecules derived from living cells or organisms. Traditional medicines, by contrast, are usually simple molecules of low molecular weight, synthesised by chemical means. The distinct complexities and methods of manufacture create an important difference between biosimilars and conventional generic drugs: while chemical generics can be fully characterised as identical to the originator product, biosimilars cannot. In addition, biological therapies are inherently variable, creating unavoidable differences between even subsequent batches of the same product. An expiring patent does not necessarily mean that the manufacturing process of the originator product becomes available to the biosimilar developers (for instance, the relevant cell line clone and growth medium). Therefore, it cannot be guaranteed that biosimilar products are identical to their reference product on a molecular level. This difference has important implications for the regulation and licensing of biosimilars. While conventional generic drugs require only a limited comparison and demonstration of identical chemical structure to the reference product, biosimilars require far more rigorous testing. In general, there must be a thorough comparison of structural and functional characteristics between biosimilar and originator drug. Stepwise nonclinical in vitro and in vivo approaches are recommended to evaluate the similarity of both drugs and any identified micro-heterogeneities must then be assessed for their impact on safety and clinical performance. Subsequently, clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies need to be performed in order to demonstrate a similar PK profile, prior to conducting clinical efficacy trials. PMID:27383278

  14. Clinical aspects and dynamics of auricular parasitosis in Gir cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia V.B. Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the dynamics of ear infestations caused by Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp., which were correlated with animal age, intensity of clinical signs and climate factors. Sixty-four Gir cattle were distributed into three groups: GA - 23 calves with 4 to 6 months of age; GB - 18 calves with 7 to 12 months of age; and GC - 23 heifers with 13 to 33 months of age. Five samplings, defined as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 were performed every three months from August 2008 to August 2009. The ear secretion was collected using the auricular washing method for the right ear and a swab for the left ear. A clinical assessment of the animals was performed, and they were classified according to the presence and severity of otitis. The highest relative frequency of rhabditosis was 52.2% in GC at the last sampling. In the first sampling, 42.2% of the animals were infested by Raillietia spp. The older cattle were more susceptible to infestations by both parasites. No correlation of Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp. parasitism with climate factors was found. The results showed that both parasites could infest Gir cattle, and in most cases, there was no co-infestation. Only older animals parasitized by the nematode showed clinical signs of the disease.

  15. ASPECTS OF THE AMLODIPINE PLEIOTROPY IN BIOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasma Vitolina, Aivars Krauze, Gunars Duburs and Astrida Velena*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine is the third generation calcium antagonist, 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative with the prolonged duration of the antihypertensive action, especially blocking L-type Ca2+ ion channels. It promotes beneficial therapeutic effect by coronary and other blood vessel diseases and thus delays development of the atherosclerosis. It has several known trade names, the most mentioned is Norvasc. Amlodipine is well tolerated in the clinics, it could be used in combinations with other drugs – diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, statins. Amlodipine at nanomolar concentrations binds to the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels. It possesses optimal lipophylicity. Amlodipine also influences the NO-dependent metabolic processes, stimulates NO synthesis and prolongs NO action duration. Results of the studies of the amlodipine pharmacological and clinical properties are summarized in several reviews. The present review contains opinion from the scientific works of the last decades about the multisided or pleiotropic amlodipine mechanisms of action, it contains information about sometimes controversial clinical studies of the amlodipine vaso- and cardioprotective activity.

  16. Autoimmune thyroiditis goitrogenic. Aspects of clinical and laboratorial diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To asses the accuracy achieved by the A.C.A.T. and other clinical and laboratorial criterion in the diagnoses of T.A.I.B. we investigated twenty patients with goiter and antimicrossomal antibodies titres of 1/1.600 or more. Analysing the parameters useful in the diagnosis, we found a significant correlation between the antimicrossomal antibodies titres and the basal TSH concentration, an elevated basal TSH and an exaggerated response to TRH independent of the patient clinical status reflecting in the majority of the cases a state of subclinical hypotyroidism; an irregular appearance of the radioisotope thyroid scan and a positive response to a perchlorate discharge test. We conclude that from the parameters useful in the T.A.I.B. diagnosis, the A.C.A.T. detection mainly the antimicrossomal antibodies, is an excellent tool to detect patients with a clinical suspect of thyroid auto-immune disease and when we found high tires in a patient with goiter and an elevated basal TSH concentration we can suggest T.A.I.B. diagnosis. (author)

  17. Clinical Applications of Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Saksena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, advances in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have led to the design of numerous innovative imaging techniques. These techniques have not only facilitated structural visualization of anatomy, but also have provided a wealth of functional information regarding biological processes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is one such MRI technique that has generated tremendous amount of interest both in the clinical and laboratory fields. DTI attempts to analyze the magnitude and orientation of random microscopic motion of water molecules in brain tissue. It is based upon the phenomenon of water diffusion known as Brownian motion. This technique pro- vides details on tissue microstructure and organization well beyond the usual image resolution. With diffusion tensor MR imaging, diffusion anisotropy can be quantified and subtle white matter changes not normally seen on conventional MRI can be detected. These features have encouraged scientists to evaluate the integrity and direction of the fiber tracts in various pathological conditions using DTI. Tissue maladies studied by DTI in this review include cerebral ischemia and wallerian degeneration, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, metabolic disorders, infections and brain tumors. We have only included the common clinical conditions to keep this review precise.

  18. Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carla Guarinos; Cristina Sánchez-Fortún; María Rodríguez-Soler; Cristina Alenda; Artemio Payá; Rodrigo Jover

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential.New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area.Until recently,it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene,but it has been found that this pathway accounts for only approximately 70%-80%of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases.The majority of the remaining colorectal cancer cases follow an alternative pathway leading to CpG island methylator phenotype carcinoma with BRAF mutation and with or without microsatellite instability.The mechanism of carcinomas arising from this alternative pathway seems to begin with an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene.Serrated polyposis syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps of the colon.Clinical characteristics,etiology and relationship of serrated polyposis syndrome to CRC have not been clarified yet.Patients with this syndrome show a high risk of CRC and both sporadic and hereditary cases have been described.Clinical criteria have been used for diagnosis and frequent colonoscopy surveillance should be performed in order to prevent colorectal cancer.In this review,we try to gather new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of serrated polyps in order to understand their possible clinical implications and to make an approach to the management of this syndrome.

  19. CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM - ITS ANATOMICAL ASPECTS, EMBRYOGENESIS AND CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    The testes are a pair of male reproductive organs. The testicular variations are unusual and can result in multiple clinical conditions. Congenital cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes have not passed down the scrotal sac. During a routine cadaveric dissection of a middle aged male cadaver, in the left side of the pelvic part of the abdomen an unusual undescended testis was noted near the deep inguinal ring. Additional to this we also noted a thick band of ligament co...

  20. Weber-Christian disease (idiopathic panniculitis: Clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Egorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber-Christian disease (WCD, or idiopathic panniculitis, refers to rare diseases from a group of systemic connective tissue diseases. To verify the diagnosis of WCD is a difficult task, for there are no precise diagnostic tests for this disease.Objective: to study the clinical features and additional investigation data of WCD as one of the variants of lobular panniculitis (LP.Subjects and methods. Nineteen patients (2 men and 17 women aged 32 to 71 years with WCD were examined. The average disease duration was 65.1±11.3 months.Results. The medical history data of 12 patients could identify three suspected factors of disease development: surgical intervention (n = 6; supercooling (n=4, and acute respiratory viral infection (n=2. In 10 (53% patients aged 47–71 years, the Quetelet index was as high as 31.8±7.2 cm/kg, which allowed grade 2 obesity to be diagnosed. According to its clinical manifestations, there were 3 WCD forms: nodular (n=10, plaque (n=6, and infiltrative (n=3. The saucer symptom was present in 74%, including in all cases of the chronic course (p=0.02. The number of affected areas significantly differed in the nodular and plaque forms (p=0.01. ROC analysis showed that the optimal values of sensitivity (80% and specificity (83% on visual analog scale (VAS in patients with these forms corresponded to a separation point of 60 mm, with the prognostic value of a positive result being 0.89 (CI 0.71–1.1; p=0.011. The infiltrative form showed a typical clinical picture (VAS, 83.1±12.5 mm in 3 patients, one of them was found to have mesenteric panniculitis. The level of C-reactive protein was shown to be correlated with the form of the disease; the former being maximal in infiltrative WCD. The pathomorphological examination of skin and subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens from the nodule of all the patients detected diffuse leukolymphocytic infiltration, single multinucleated cells, necrotic foci, and lipocyte proliferation

  1. Clinical aspects of accidents resulting in acute total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    That the management of whole body radiation injury involves: (1) watchful waiting, (2) observation of the hematologic parameters, (3) use of antibiotics, platelet red cell and possibly granulocyte transfusions, (4) administration of hemopoietic molecular regulators of granulopoiesis, and (5) bone marrow transplantation as the last line of defense. The clinical indication for the preceding will not be discussed, since this will be a subject of later speakers in this conference. Certainly, if a radiation casualty is fortunate enough to have an identical twin, a marrow transplant may be lifesaving and certainly can do no harm to the patient, and there is little risk to the donor

  2. [Clinical aspects and diagnosis of lumbosacral perineural cysts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestar, F J

    1989-01-01

    Perineurial cysts are sometimes space-occupying cystic dilatations of the lumbo-sacral nerve roots at or distal to the junction of the posterior root and the dorsal ganglion. The wall is composed of perineurium and neural tissue. We report on 2 cases of upper sacral perineurial cysts with their computed tomography and myelography findings. Indication for operation is discussed: perineurial cysts should only be operated on if their clinical symptoms are clearly attributable to them and other causes like degeneration of the lumbar spine can be excluded. PMID:2922094

  3. Epidemiological, clinical and immunological aspects of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    myelitis (LETM) and brain lesions were observed. In the clinical immunogenetic study we observed that NMO patients had frequent co-existence of autoimmune disease and family occurrence of NMO and MS. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*0402 allele was increased in NMO and a significantly increased frequency of the......-4 (AQP4) as their main target autoantigen. Previous studies have suggested ethnicity-based prevalence differences of NMO. The genetic background for these putative differences is not known. An HLA-association with NMO has been identified, but the association is not very pronounced. Human and...

  4. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2016-02-01

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:26746812

  5. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF YERSINIOSES IN KHARKIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohylenets O.I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite great success in diagnostics of infectious diseases and development of new laboratory methods, vast majority of cases are not diagnosed or registered as different diagnosis. It connected with polymorphism of clinical signs and difficulty of specific diagnostics. The most evidential method of diagnostics is culture, but grows of Yersinia spp. on common media is very bad. More specific and modern methods are immunoferment analysis (IFA, polymerase chain reaction, immunoblot analysis, but this methods are rather expensive and require specialized laboratory equipmet and staff. Indirect hemahlutination test (IHAT is still more common in Ukraine. Materials and methods The object of the study were 61 patients with yersiniosis who were treated in the Kharkiv Regional Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital during five years. The diagnosis of yersiniosis in all patients was based on epidemiological, clinical, anamnestic data; results of additional laboratory studies which were in accordance with generally accepted clinical criteria. Final diagnosis was confirmed by results of serological studies (IHAT in pair serum with Yersinia enterocolitica 03, Yersinia enterocolitica 09 and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis antigen. For exclusion of viral hepatitis patients with jaundice were checked for anti- HAV IgM, HbsAg, and anti-HCV ІgG by IFA. Statistical data processing was carried out by means of Statistica 6,0 software package. Comparative group analysis was perfomed by using χ 2 (Pearson criterium. Differences with p<0,05 were considered statistically significant. Results and Discussion From the 61 patients that were under our supervision, in 59 was diagnosed intestinal yersiniosis, in 2 – pseudotuberculosis. Patients up to 50 years old were dominated. The incidence was recorded throughout the year in the form of sporadic cases. The severity of the disease in most cases was moderate (55,7% or mild (32,8%. Severe disease was registered in 7 patients

  6. Intracranial Infections: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologist plays a crucial role in identifying and narrowing the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections. A thorough understanding of the intracranial compartment anatomy and characteristic imaging findings of specific pathogens, as well incorporation of the clinical information, is essential to establish correct diagnosis. Specific types of infections have certain propensities for different anatomical regions within the brain. In addition, the imaging findings must be placed in the context of the clinical setting, particularly in immunocompromised and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This paper describes and depicts infections within the different compartments of the brain. Pathology-proven infectious cases are presented in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, with a discussion of the characteristic findings of each pathogen. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characteristics for several infections are also discussed

  7. Clinically Relevant Imaging in Tuberous Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupa Radhakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberous sclerosis (TS, also known as Bourneville disease or Bourneville-Pringle disease, is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder classically characterized by the presence of hamartomatous growths in multiple organs. TS and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC are different terms for the same genetic condition. Both terms describe clinical changes due to mutations involving either of the two genes named TSC1 and TSC2, which regulate cell growth. The diagnosis of TSC is established using diagnostic criteria based on clinical and imaging findings. Routine screening and surveillance of patients with TSC is needed to determine the presence and extent of organ involvement, especially the brain, kidneys, and lungs, and identify the development of associated complications. As the treatment is organ specific, imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with TSC.

  8. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  9. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  10. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  11. Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic aspects of the trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis occurs mainly in women during the menopausal period. It is related to manual activities and is usually bilateral. The onset is insidious and the evolution is slow and progressive. It is characterized by of strength and pain in the basis of the thumb resulting in limitation of the use and function of the hand. The diagnosis of this condition is based on the physical examination. The manouver of compression axial-rotation of the trapezimetacarpal joint is a common positive finding. Typical findings of osteoarthritis are present in the radiological studies. Scintigraphic images have a predictive value. The early diagnosis is important to avoid the risk factors and to prevent disabilities of the hand. (author)

  12. [Portal thrombosis: the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects and clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, G; Angelelli, G; Margari, A; Mustacchio, N; Scattarella, M; Macarini, L; Cannone, G; Ialongo, P

    1994-05-01

    The authors report their experience, from 1983 to 1992, in the treatment of portal vein thrombosis and discuss various aetiological factor of obstruction also underlining the frequent and important association with portal hypertension. The authors emphasize the crucial role of the modern diagnostic techniques such as endoscopy and imaging radiology (U.S., C.T., angiography). Although these techniques not always allow a conclusive evidence in relation to aetiology, however, it is possible to have a rationale for the treatment, i.e. medical, sclerotherapeutic or surgical. As related to the surgical procedures, the authors--based on their personal experience--believe the best are the non-derivative ones. PMID:7524597

  13. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  14. Clinical aspects of MR colonography as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael

    2010-01-01

    polypectomy might be curative. Colonoscopy remains the gold standard for full colon evaluation. However, the result of our studies can justify clinical use of MRC on selected indications, e.g. in the cases where colonoscopy is incomplete or technically difficult. Since up to 54% of all preoperative colon...... complications (perforation, bleeding, death) and the lack of patient acceptance in colonoscopy, the need for a safe, patient friendly alternative examination with high sensitivity, is clear. In conclusion, in the three studies that made up this PhD thesis, we have shown: that there are some flaws to the present...... gold standard of colonic evaluation; that there is an increased morbidity and mortality in the group of patients with missed SC; that patients have a preference for MRC and for fecal tagging compared to CC and bowel purgation and that there is a potential gain in doing preoperative colonic evaluation...

  15. [Familial Mediterranean fever--from gene test to clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, H

    2000-10-26

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetically defined disease affecting mostly families of jewish, turkish or armenian origin whose ancestors originate from the mediterranean basin. The first officially acknowledged description was given by SIEGAL in 1945 but previous cases were reported since 1908. The main clinical signs which are very varying in intensity and appearance are periodic attacks of fever with peritonitis, pleurisy and arthritis. The classical but not always found complication is amyloidosis with renal failure which is preventable by lifelong colchicine therapy. By using a novel genetest it is now possible to definitely diagnose FMF instead of relying on a diagnosis made merely by exclusion. This will emphasize the use of colchicine and should bring us nearer to the pathophysiology of this interesting disease. PMID:11103618

  16. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  17. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of iron chelation therapy in MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattermann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The majority of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) become transfusion-dependent during the course of disease and may thus develop transfusional iron overload. As a further contributor to iron overload there is increased absorption of dietary iron from the gut, as a consequence of ineffective erythropoiesis. Compared with thalassemia, it is less clear how frequent patients with MDS develop clinical complications of iron overload, and whether the accumulation of iron shortens their survival. This review aims to summarize our current knowledge of the detrimental effects of transfusional iron overload in MDS, point out the risks associated with iron-induced oxidative stress, describe the tools available for diagnosing iron overload, indicate the treatment options with currently available iron chelators, and discuss the measurement of labile plasma iron (LPI) as a tool to monitor the efficacy of iron chelation therapy. PMID:22571702

  18. Clinical biophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbar, M.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.

    1985-01-01

    Chapters are included on clinical decision making, principles of biomedical engineering, computers and their medical uses, clinical radiobiology, diagnostic x-ray radiology, clinical applications of ultrasonics, nuclear medicine, NMR imaging, diagnostic imaging, bioelectric techniques in diagnosis and therapy, biophysical aspects of the clinical laboratory, and biophysical aspects of modern surgery.

  19. Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency, clinical, biochemical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Gozalbo, M E; Bakker, J A; Waterham, H R; Wanders, R J A

    2004-01-01

    The carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is one of the components of the carnitine cycle. The carnitine cycle is necessary to shuttle long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the intramitochondrial space where mitochondrial beta-oxidation of fatty acids takes place. The oxidation of fatty acids yields acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) units, which may either be degraded to CO(2) and H(2)O in the citric acid cycle to produce ATP or converted into ketone bodies which occurs in liver and kidneys. Metabolic consequences of a defective CACT are hypoketotic hypoglycaemia under fasting conditions, hyperammonemia, elevated creatine kinase and transaminases, dicarboxylic aciduria, very low free carnitine and an abnormal acylcarnitine profile with marked elevation of the long-chain acylcarnitines. Clinical signs and symptoms in CACT deficient patients, are a combination of energy depletion and endogenous toxicity. The predominantly affected organs are brain, heart and skeletal muscle, and liver, leading to neurological abnormalities, cardiomyopathy and arrythmias, skeletal muscle damage and liver dysfunction. Most patients become symptomatic in the neonatal period with a rapidly progressive deterioration and a high mortality rate. However, presentations at a later age with a milder phenotype have also been reported. The therapeutic approach is the same as in other long-chain fatty acid disorders and includes intravenous glucose (+/- insulin) administration to maximally inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fatty acid oxidation during the acute deterioration, along with other measures such as ammonia detoxification, depending on the clinical features. Long-term strategy consists of avoidance of fasting with frequent meals and a special diet with restriction of long-chain fatty acids. Due to the extremely low free carnitine concentrations, carnitine supplementation is often needed. Acylcarnitine profiling in plasma is the assay of choice for the diagnosis at a metabolite level

  20. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  1. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  2. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  3. [Clinical aspects of the link between diabetes and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Géza; Rosta, Klára; Szémán, Barbara; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Somogyi, Anikó

    2011-03-27

    Diabetes mellitus and depression are public health concerns of the present and, as predicted, also the future. The observation that depression is seen more frequently in diabetic patients compared to the non-diabetic population has been proven by several recent studies. The co-occurrence carries further risks for the affected patients, as depression in diabetics may affect sufficient treatment of diabetes and enhance the development of diabetic complications. These may further worsen depressive symptoms causing a vicious cycle in these patients. In the present paper authors discuss in detail the theoretic and practical issues of the complex two directional relationships between diabetes and depression. Their goal is to draw attention to depression as co-morbidity of diabetes that may interfere with the optimization of diabetic patient's carbohydrate metabolism. If sufficient glycaemic control is not achieved using routine clinical methods depression should be evaluated as a probable cause. If needed, depression should be treated to improve the medical outcomes and quality of life of diabetic patients. PMID:21398210

  4. Pathogenesis and clinical aspects of pain in patients with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediati, Rocco Domenico; Vellucci, Renato; Dodaro, Lucia

    2014-09-01

    Bone pain is one of the most frequent kinds of chronic pain, mainly in elderly patients. It causes a significant worsening of functional capacity and deterioration in the quality of life in people affected. Mechanisms of pain in osteoporosis are poorly known and often extrapolated by other pathologies or other experimental model. One of principal causes would be a "hyper-remodeling" of bone, that involves osteoclasts activity and pathological modifications of bone innervation. Several studies show that osteoclasts play a significant role in bone pain etiology. Pain in osteoporosis is mainly nociceptive, if it become persistent a sensitization of peripheral and central nervous system can occur, so underlining the transition to a chronic pain syndrome. Central sensitization mechanisms are complex and involve several neuromediators and receptors (Substance P, NMDA, etc.). Most common manifestations of osteoporosis are vertebral compression fractures that cause persistent pain, though to differentiate from pain originating in structures as joint or muscle. First manifestation can be an acute pain due to pathological fracture, those of hip often causes disability. Pain in osteoporosis is an important clinical challenge. Often its complications and consequences on patient quality of life are underestimated with not negligible social implications. A balanced and early multimodal pain therapy including opioids as necessary, even in cases of acute pain, improve the functional capacity of patients and helps to prevent neurological alterations that seems to contribute in significant way in causing irreversible pain chronic syndromes. PMID:25568647

  5. [Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

    2013-10-01

    In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

  6. A digital image capture method: legal and criminalistic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Šiurna, Žilvinas

    2007-01-01

    The graduating paper focuses on the digital image capture method in criminalistic and also on its legal regulation and practical resort in the law enforcement institutions‘ investigations of criminal acts. The digital image capture is one of the methods of digital image capture in criminalistic. Its structure contains digital photography and digital video recording. The digital photography is used for strategical and investigative photography. The usage of the digital image capture method inv...

  7. Endodontic retreatment. Aspects of decision making and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, T

    2001-01-01

    regardless of assessment method. Compared with Standard gamble Visual Analogue Scale systematically produced lower ratings. U-values were found to change considerably in both the short and long-term. Any significant correlation between endodontists' U-values and retreatment prescriptions could not be demonstrated. Surgical and nonsurgical retreatment were randomly assigned to 95 "failed" root filled teeth in 92 patients. Cases were followed clinically and radiographically for four years postoperatively. At the 12-month recall a statistically significant higher healing rate was observed for teeth retreated surgically. At the final 48-month recall no systematic difference was detected. Patients were found to be more subject to postoperative discomfort when teeth were retreated surgically compared with nonsurgically. Consequently, surgical retreatment tended to be associated with higher indirect costs than a nonsurgically approach. In the final part of the thesis it is argued that retreatment decision making in everyday clinical practice normally should be based on simple principles. It is suggested that in order to achieve the best overall consequence a periapical lesion in a root filled tooth that is not expected to heal should be retreated. Arguments to withhold retreatment should be based on (i) respect for patient autonomy, (ii) retreatment risks or (iii) retreatment costs. PMID:11288682

  8. [Clinical aspects, diagnosis and drug therapy of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürgi, U; Gerber, H; Peter, H J

    1995-08-01

    Graves' disease and toxic uni- or multinodular goiter are the most frequent causes of hyperthyroidism. Graves' disease is caused by thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins which are directed against the TSH receptor of thyroid follicular cells. Graves' disease affects more females than males and is associated with diffuse goiter and a rapid appearance of symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism. Patients with Graves' disease are on average younger than patients with toxic nodular goiter. The diagnosis of Graves' disease is usually easy, particularly if signs of endocrine opthalmopathy are present. Toxic nodular goiter is seen more often in older patients with pre-existing goiters. Symptoms and signs of hyperthyroidism often appear only slowly. Hyperthyroidism in these older patients can be oligosymptomatic. Older patients should therefore be investigated for the presence of hyperthyroidism, even if they present only a few symptoms or signs which could suggest this diagnosis. The development of ultrasensitive TSH assays has simplified the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and made the TRH-test, often used in the past, almost superfluous. At the present time, it is practically always possible to differentiate between Graves' disease and toxic nodular goiter as the cause of hyperthyroidism on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings alone, and in many cases thyroid scintiscans are therefore no longer necessary. A patient with newly diagnosed Graves' disease is treated with antithyroid drugs (carbimazole or PTU) for one year. If hyperthyroidism persists after this one year of antithyroid drug treatment, or if it recurs, another year of therapy with carbimazole or PTU is indicated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7545825

  9. Managing medical images and clinical information: InCor's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuie, Sergio S; Rebelo, Marina S; Moreno, Ramon A; Santos, Marcelo; Bertozzo, Nivaldo; Motta, Gustavo H M B; Pires, Fabio A; Gutierrez, Marco A

    2007-01-01

    Patients usually get medical assistance in several clinics and hospitals during their lifetime, archiving vital information in a dispersed way. Clearly, a proper patient care should take into account that information in order to check for incompatibilities, avoid unnecessary exams, and get relevant clinical history. The Heart Institute (InCor) of São Paulo, Brazil, has been committed to the goal of integrating all exams and clinical information within the institution and other hospitals. Since InCor is one of the six institutes of the University of São Paulo Medical School and each institute has its own information system, exchanging information among the institutes is also a very important aspect that has been considered. In the last few years, a system for transmission, archiving, retrieval, processing, and visualization of medical images integrated with a hospital information system has been successfully created and constitutes the InCor's electronic patient record (EPR). This work describes the experience in the effort to develop a functional and comprehensive EPR, which includes laboratory exams, images (static, dynamic, and three dimensional), clinical reports, documents, and even real-time vital signals. A security policy based on a contextual role-based access control model was implemented to regulate user's access to EPR. Currently, more than 10 TB of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images have been stored using the proposed architecture and the EPR stores daily more than 11 GB of integrated data. The proposed storage subsystem allows 6 months of visibility for rapid retrieval and more than two years for automatic retrieval using a jukebox. This paper addresses also a prototype for the integration of distributed and heterogeneous EPR. PMID:17249400

  10. Clinical imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most well-characterized mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The recognition of 99mTc-Sestamibi and other lipophilic cations as transport substrates for Pgp provided the necessary tool for the clinical assessment of Pgp function in patients with cancer. Many clinical studies from different institutions and trials including variety of malignancies indicate that both tumor uptake and clearance of 99mTc-Sestamibi are correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of multidrug resistance. Although both parameters may predict tumor responsible to chemotherapy, the extraction of efflux rate constants appeared o provide a more direct index of Pgp function as compared tp tracer uptake ratio allowing to trace a continuous spectrum of drug transport activity. Preliminary studies the use of MDR imaging agents to monitor the modulating ability of revertant compounds. Although the results support the feasibility of this approach, the alteration of tracer pharmacokinetics induced by the modulators certainly constitute a challenge in the development of a simple functional test suitable in clinical practice. The extension of the acquired imaging methodology to tumors with redundant intrinsic resistant mechanism. Due to multifactorial nature of phenomenon, the development of new tracers with substrate specificity for other known the complex array of cellular mechanisms contributing to treatment failure

  11. Clinical imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vecchi, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Salvatore, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Medicina Nucleare. Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali

    1999-06-01

    The most well-characterized mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The recognition of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi and other lipophilic cations as transport substrates for Pgp provided the necessary tool for the clinical assessment of Pgp function in patients with cancer. Many clinical studies from different institutions and trials including variety of malignancies indicate that both tumor uptake and clearance of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi are correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of multidrug resistance. Although both parameters may predict tumor responsible to chemotherapy, the extraction of efflux rate constants appeared o provide a more direct index of Pgp function as compared tp tracer uptake ratio allowing to trace a continuous spectrum of drug transport activity. Preliminary studies the use of MDR imaging agents to monitor the modulating ability of revertant compounds. Although the results support the feasibility of this approach, the alteration of tracer pharmacokinetics induced by the modulators certainly constitute a challenge in the development of a simple functional test suitable in clinical practice. The extension of the acquired imaging methodology to tumors with redundant intrinsic resistant mechanism. Due to multifactorial nature of phenomenon, the development of new tracers with substrate specificity for other known the complex array of cellular mechanisms contributing to treatment failure.

  12. Carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue: imaging aspects (mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three years 30,000 mammograms were performed in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Accessory breast tissue was observed in 0.23% of the individuals. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman presenting a hard nodule adhered to the subcutaneous tissue in right inframammary topography. At ultrasonography, a hypoechogenic solid nodule with irregular contour measuring 1.4 cm was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed type II (plateau) dynamic curve. Breast adenocarcinoma was subsequently diagnosed by biopsy. Accessory breast carcinomas generally present with an ill-defined histopathological aspect and early dissemination. Early detection is essential to begin treatment in the initial stages, with better chances of cure. (author)

  13. Geometric Aspects in 3D Biomedical Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Thévenaz, P; Unser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present some issues that arise when a geometric transformation is performed on an image or a volume. In particular, we illustrate the well-known problems of blocking, blurring, aliasing and ringing. Although the solution to these problems is trivial in an analog (optical) image processing system, their solution in a discrete (numeric) context is much more difficult. The modern trend of biomedical image processing is to fight these artifacts by using more sophisticated models that emphasize...

  14. Environmental lung diseases: Clinical and imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental lung diseases are caused by exposure to adverse environmental conditions, such as atmospheric pressure changes or the ingestion or inhalation of toxic agents. The development of environmental lung diseases depends on the intensity and duration of exposure, the physiological and biological susceptibility of the host, and the toxic effects of the adverse environmental conditions encountered. A combination of clinical features, related exposure history, imaging findings, and a review of previous reports that support an association between exposure and the disease process is required for diagnosis

  15. Physical aspects to consider in radiometric calibration of satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    It does a revision about the physical principles involved in digital processing of satellite images, more specifically in radiometric calibration of them. It shows a conceptual description of the interaction between radiation and atmosphere and radiation and soil in order to help the reader understand in more detail which means the information contained in satellite images.

  16. Economic aspects of clinical decision making: applications of clinical decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, V S

    1988-03-01

    Clinical decision analysis as a basic tool for decision making is described, and potential applications of decision analysis in six areas of clinical practice are identified. Clinical decision analysis is a systematic method of describing clinical problems in a quantitative fashion, identifying possible courses of action, assessing the probability and value of outcomes, and then making a calculation to select the ultimate course of action. Clinical decision analysis provides a structure for clinical decision problems, helps clarify medical controversies, and encourages decision makers to speak a common language. Applications of clinical decision analysis in the areas of diagnostic testing, patient management, product and program selection, research and education, patient preferences, and health-care-policy evaluation are described. Decision analysis offers health professionals a tool for making quantifiable, cost-effective clinical decisions, especially in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:3285672

  17. Chronic valvular disease: correlation between clinical, electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic aspects in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echocardiographic aspects of chronic mitral valvular disease were studied and compared to physical, radiographic and electrocardiographic aspects. Seventy dogs were used, and clinical examination, thoracic radiography, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were performed. Correlations between regurgitation severity with cardiac failure functional class and murmur intensity were observed. The electrocardiogram showed a low sensibility in detecting cardiac chamber enlargement, caused by mitral regurgitation. All the dogs with severe mitral regurgitation showed cardiomegaly according to thoracic radiographies

  18. Mondini dysplasia; Clinical signs and diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Taizo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Takeuchi, Shunji; Saito, Haruo (Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Recent advances in imaging technique, including high resolution thin section computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), permit the easy diagnosis of congenital malformations of the osseous labyrinth, which have so far been lumped together as 'Mondini dysplasia'. In the present study, the anatomic patterns from the radiogrpahic appearance and the clinical manifestation were examined in 18 patients (23 ears) with radiographic abnormalities of the inner ear. The most common abnormal configuration was a large vestibule (20 of 23 ears). This anomaly of the vestibule often involved the lateral semicircular canal, revealed as a round high signal zone on T2-weighted MRI. However, a large vestibule was not always associated with an abnormal cochlea. Abnormal cochleas were found in 8 of the 20 ears with a large vestibule, and most of these 8 ears had total or profound deafness. But 4 of the 10 ears with residual hearing had low tone deafness and 6 had fluctuating hearing loss, which was frequently associated with attacks of dizziness. These clinical manifestations of Mondini dysplasia are similar to those of patients with endolymphatic hydrops. (author).

  19. Brain-Mind Operational Architectonics Imaging: Technical and Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint a...

  20. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Bo-ram; Choi, Da-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Sam-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Materials and Methods Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the p...

  1. Clinical Aspects of Pediatric and Adult Onset Mastocytosis in the Skin

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, Rogier

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe term mastocytosis can be summarized as an accumulation of mast cells without an apparent cause. In the majority of the cases the disease is manifest in the skin and can be diagnosed on clinical suspicion and skin biopsy. Mastocytosis has a wide clinical spectrum and it is not a disease limited to the skin. As cutaneous manifestations of mastocytosis form one of the key features of this rare disease, the dermatological aspects of this disease continue to be relevant.

  2. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  3. Factors influencing the establishment and maintenance of a clinical PET imaging service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Interest in PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Imaging has increased and many Imaging Units will be confronted by the prospect of introducing a PET service. Using our experience of setting up and maintaining a Clinical PET imaging service, we will demonstrate the issues to be considered in establishing a safe and effective service Areas to be covered include: instrumentation and Quality Control for imaging and accessory equipment radiopharmaceutical availability; utilisation of time and space for planning and scheduling, radiation safety for staff, patients and visitors, adequate staffing levels to maintain service and low doses, training for clinical and technical staff, and the costs associated with the running of a unit. We hope to show some of the various aspects to consider when providing a Clinical PET Imaging service and how we have tackled it without compromising quality or safety. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Imaging Review of Neurofibromatosis: Helpful Aspects for Early Detection

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hekmatnia; Ghazavi, A.; M.J. Marashi Shooshtari; F. Hekmatnia; R Basiratnia

    2011-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF) is divided into two types, NF type 1 and NF type 2. Optic nerve gliomas have a high degree of association with NF type 1. NF 2, less commonly seen, is a complex of cutaneous and deep neural tumors. It is an autosomal dominant familial disorder in which CNS is affected in about 15% of the cases. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are pathognomonic of NF type 2 which may be associated with meningiomas or ependymomas. Typical clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis are cafe-...

  5. 2011 New lung adenocarcinoma multidisciplinary classification: imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new classification of lung adenocarcinoma has been proposed by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011. This new classification proposes a series of new concepts, such as lung adenocarcinoma in situ replacing the old term bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and subtypes of invasive adenocarcinoma. This paper reviews the major advances of this new classification and its effect on imaging evaluation of lung adenocarcinoma and CT appearances of various subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. (authors)

  6. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  7. Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high quality radiotherapy. Whilst it has long been recognized that the physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy are vital to achieve and effective and safe treatment, it has been increasingly acknowledged only recently that a systematic approach is absolutely necessary to all steps within clinical and technical aspects of a radiotherapy programme as well. The need to establish general guidelines at the IAEA, taking into account clinical medical physics, radiation protection and safety considerations, for designing and implementing radiotherapy programmes in Member States has been identified through the Member States' increased interest in the efficient and safe application of radiation in health care. Several consultants and advisory group meetings were convened to prepare a report providing a basis for establishing a programme in radiotherapy. The present TECDOC is addressed to all professionals and administrators involved in the development, implementation and management of a radiotherapy programme in order to establish a common and consistent framework where all steps and procedures in radiotherapy are taken into account

  8. Obtaining and Using Images in the Clinical Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently small electronic devices capable of producing high quality images are available. The massive use of these devices has become common in the clinical setting as medical images represent a useful tool to document relevant clinical conditions for patient diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Besides, clinical images are beneficial for legal, scientific and academic purposes. The extended practice without proper ethical guidelines might represent a significant risk for the protection of patient rights and clinical practice. This document discusses risks and duties when obtaining medical images, and presents some arguments on institutional and professional responsibilities around the definition of policies regarding the protection of privacy and dignity of the patient.

  9. Pulmonary histiocytosis X - imaging aspects of pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary histiocytosis X is an idiopathic disease which is and uncommon but important cause of pulmonary fibrosis in young adults. Chest radiographs and high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lungs of 7 patients diagnosed as pulmonary histiocytosis X were examined retrospectively. The authors reviewed the pathologic, clinical and radiographic features of pulmonary histiocytosis X, focusing on differential diagnosis and disease progression. Pulmonary histiocytosis X can be suspected on the basis of chest radiographic findings; predominantly upper lobe nodules and cysts present an increased sensitivity and are virtually pathognomonic of this disorder. Chest HRCT allows good assessment of the evolution of pulmonary histiocytosis X and is also valuable in distinguishing histiocytosis from other disorders that produces nodules or cysts. (author)

  10. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF APIXABAN USE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: VIEW POINT OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apixaban is a "new" oral anticoagulant, direct Xa factor inhibitor with a good evidence base of the efficacy in the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The article is devoted to apixaban use in clinical practice: examination before apixaban administration, clinical situation when laboratory control and monitoring are needed, drugs interactions (at the level of CYP3A4, P-gp, management of patients with bleeding because of apixaban therapy (including antidotes application, perioperative management of patients receiving apixaban.

  11. Methodological aspects of clinical trials in tinnitus: A proposal for an international standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Azevedo, Andréia; Baguley, David; Bauer, Carol; Cacace, Anthony; Coelho, Claudia; Dornhoffer, John; Figueiredo, Ricardo; Flor, Herta; Hajak, Goeran; van de Heyning, Paul; Hiller, Wolfgang; Khedr, Eman; Kleinjung, Tobias; Koller, Michael; Lainez, Jose Miguel; Londero, Alain; Martin, William H.; Mennemeier, Mark; Piccirillo, Jay; De Ridder, Dirk; Rupprecht, Rainer; Searchfield, Grant; Vanneste, Sven; Zeman, Florian; Langguth, Berthold

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a common condition with a high burden of disease. While many different treatments are used in clinical practice, the evidence for the efficacy of these treatments is low and the variance of treatment response between individuals is high. This is most likely due to the great heterogeneity of tinnitus with respect to clinical features as well as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a clear need to find effective treatment options in tinnitus, however, clinical trials differ substantially with respect to methodological quality and design. Consequently, the conclusions that can be derived from these studies are limited and jeopardize comparison between studies. Here, we discuss our view of the most important aspects of trial design in clinical studies in tinnitus and make suggestions for an international methodological standard in tinnitus trials. We hope that the proposed methodological standard will stimulate scientific discussion and will help to improve the quality of trials in tinnitus. PMID:22789414

  12. Small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung. High resolution CT analysis and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Eiji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Kido, Shoji [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    Since 1986, we have experienced 52 cases of resected small bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs) less than 2 cm in diameter. All cases were compatible with type A or type B, using the histologic classification based on tumor growth patterns reported by Noguchi et al. We retrospectively reviewed their high-resolution CT findings. The characteristics of type A tumors (localized BACs) include well-defined margin, little air-bronchogram, little vascular indentation and marked areas of ground-glass opacities (GGO). Those of type B tumors (localized BACs with foci of collapse of alveolar structure) include ill-defined margin, marked air-bronchogram, marked vascular indentation and fewer areas of GGO than type A. Patients with localized BACs exhibit no significant differences in clinical aspects between type A and type B. The common clinical aspects include no gander dominance, lack of symptoms, few lymph node metastasis and no remote metastasis. (author)

  13. Small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung. High resolution CT analysis and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, we have experienced 52 cases of resected small bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs) less than 2 cm in diameter. All cases were compatible with type A or type B, using the histologic classification based on tumor growth patterns reported by Noguchi et al. We retrospectively reviewed their high-resolution CT findings. The characteristics of type A tumors (localized BACs) include well-defined margin, little air-bronchogram, little vascular indentation and marked areas of ground-glass opacities (GGO). Those of type B tumors (localized BACs with foci of collapse of alveolar structure) include ill-defined margin, marked air-bronchogram, marked vascular indentation and fewer areas of GGO than type A. Patients with localized BACs exhibit no significant differences in clinical aspects between type A and type B. The common clinical aspects include no gander dominance, lack of symptoms, few lymph node metastasis and no remote metastasis. (author)

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals for bone lesions. Imaging and therapy in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, E. K. J.; Stokkel, M. P. M. [Leiden University Centre, Dept. of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    Bone scintigraphy continues to be one of the most commonly performed procedures in nuclear medicine. The radionuclide bone scan remains an excellent modality to detect metastatic disease in patients suffering from primary malignancies. This article reviews a number of aspects of bone scintigraphy such as bone physiology, radiopharmaceuticals and uptake mechanisms. As {sup 99}mTc labelled bis(di)phosphonates are the most frequently used this article is centred around these imaging agents. In addition to diagnostic bone scintigraphy the use of various bone seeking agents has been extended to the palliative treatment of bone metastases. In this context the radiobiological characteristics of various radionuclides as {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 186}Re and {sup 117}Sn is elucidated. In addition, the clinical efficacy for pain killing of these radionuclides is elucidated on the basis of the radiation properties of these agents. It is concluded that {sup 89}Sr and {sup 186}Re are presently the radionuclides of choice. The latter agent has a slight advantage as its imaging photons enable individual dosimetry, resulting in an optimised application scheme.

  15. Book review of: "Clinical aspects of electroporation" by Stephen T Kee, Julie Gehl, Edward W Lee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spugnini Enrico

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article is a review of the book: Clinical aspects of electroporation, by Stephen T. Kee, Julie Gehl, Edward W Lee, which is published by Springer Press. Basic information that should be helpful in deciding whether to read the book and whether to use it as a reference book is presented. This includes an introduction, a description of all the sections of the book, and a comparison with recently published books on the topic.

  16. A data grid for imaging-based clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Chao, Sander S.; Lee, Jasper; Liu, Brent; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    Clinical trials play a crucial role in testing new drugs or devices in modern medicine. Medical imaging has also become an important tool in clinical trials because images provide a unique and fast diagnosis with visual observation and quantitative assessment. A typical imaging-based clinical trial consists of: 1) A well-defined rigorous clinical trial protocol, 2) a radiology core that has a quality control mechanism, a biostatistics component, and a server for storing and distributing data and analysis results; and 3) many field sites that generate and send image studies to the radiology core. As the number of clinical trials increases, it becomes a challenge for a radiology core servicing multiple trials to have a server robust enough to administrate and quickly distribute information to participating radiologists/clinicians worldwide. The Data Grid can satisfy the aforementioned requirements of imaging based clinical trials. In this paper, we present a Data Grid architecture for imaging-based clinical trials. A Data Grid prototype has been implemented in the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) Laboratory at the University of Southern California to test and evaluate performance in storing trial images and analysis results for a clinical trial. The implementation methodology and evaluation protocol of the Data Grid are presented.

  17. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  18. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oncology: Translational Preclinical and Early Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluru, Keerthi S; Wilson, Katheryne E; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2016-08-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has evolved into a clinically translatable platform with the potential to complement existing imaging techniques for the management of cancer, including detection, characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. In photoacoustic imaging, tissue is optically excited to produce ultrasonographic images that represent a spatial map of optical absorption of endogenous constituents such as hemoglobin, fat, melanin, and water or exogenous contrast agents such as dyes and nanoparticles. It can therefore provide functional and molecular information that allows noninvasive soft-tissue characterization. Photoacoustic imaging has matured over the years and is currently being translated into the clinic with various clinical studies underway. In this review, the current state of photoacoustic imaging is presented, including techniques and instrumentation, followed by a discussion of potential clinical applications of this technique for the detection and management of cancer. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27429141

  19. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.M. Faber (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radi

  20. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  1. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  2. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  3. Vertigo Imaging; Clinical Radiology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    ;' and anxiety in psychiatry. "n- Clinical differentiating of peripheral and central vestibular lesion should be done by separating harmonic and disharmonic vestibular syndrome. "n- Examination of the patient with vertigo '' laboratory and imaging'' "n•Electronystagmography "n•Video-oculography "n•Audiometry "n•BAEP "n•CT "n•MRI "n - Common cause of vertigo '' all by image '' "nPeripheral: Physiological '' motion sickness'', benign paroxysmal positional vertigo , vestibular neuronitis , labyrinthitis , meniere disease , perilymph fistula. "nCentral: Brain stem TIA/infarct , post. fossa tumors , M.sclerosis, syringobulbia ,Arnold -chiari , temporal lobe epilepsy and basilar migraine. "nOthers: Cardiac , GI , psycogenic , mediacations , anemia and  hypotension , toxin and drugs: "n''aminoglycoside antibiotics,anticonvulsants,salycilates , alcohol , sedatives , antihistamins , antidepressants '' , cervical spondylosis , sensory deprivation ''neuropathy , visual impairment '',anemia , hypoglycemia , orthostatic hypotension and hyperventilation.  

  4. Clinical anatomy of the canine brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Edmund J; Mackillop, Edward; Robertson, Ian D; Hudson, Lola C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce an magnetic resonsnce (MR) image atlas of clinically relevant brain anatomy and to relate this neuroanatomy to clinical signs. The brain of a large mixed breed dog was imaged in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T MR unit and the following pulse sequences: Turbo (fast) spin echo (TSE) T2, T1, and T2- weighted spatial and chemical shift-encoded excitation sequence. Relevant neuroanatomic structures were identified using anatomic texts, sectioned cadaver heads, and previously published atlases. Major subdivisions of the brain were mapped and the neurologic signs of lesions in these divisions were described. TSE T2-weighted images were found to be the most useful for identifying clinically relevant neuroanatomy. Relating clinical signs to morphology as seen on MR will assist veterinarians to better understand clinically relevant neuroanatomy in MR images. PMID:18418990

  5. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Choi, Da Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Bae, Kwang Hak; Lee, Sam Sun [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  6. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  7. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using clinical ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a potential hybrid imaging modality which is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, they are not suitable for clinical applications owing to their high cost, large size. Also, their low pulse repetition rate (PRR) of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in real-time PAT. So, there is a growing need for an imaging system capable of real-time imaging for various clinical applications. In this work, we are using a nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to obtain the photoacoustic imaging. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with energy of ~1.4 mJ per pulse. So far, the reported frame rate for photoacoustic imaging is only a few hundred Hertz. We have demonstrated up to 7000 frames per second framerate in photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of fast moving obje ct. Phantom experiments were performed to test the fast imaging capability and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be used for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  8. Radiometric calibration to consider in quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litorja, M.; Urbas, A.; Zong, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The fluorescent light detected by a clinical imager is assumed to be proportional only to the amount of fluorescent substance present in the sample and the level of excitation. Unfortunately, there are many factors that can add or subtract to the light signal directly attributable to the desired fluorescence emission, especially with fluorescence from inside the body imaged remotely. The quantification of fluorescence emission is feasible by calibrating the imager using international system of units (SI)-traceable physical and material calibration artifacts such that the detector's digital numbers (DN) can be converted to radiometric units. Here we discuss three calibration methods for quantitative clinical fluorescence imaging systems.

  9. Computer assisted, imaging, clinical equipment management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the hospital, imaging and radiological services are the thrust areas for providing of non-invasive diagnostic procedures of direct relevance for the diagnoses of various human diseases. The importance of these specialties has assumed greater significance in present times, primarily because of the multi-pronged and fusion approach in imaging of the various human organs with better resolution and speed with the availability of various high technology equipment like MRI scanners, C.T. Scanners, Ultrasound-Doppler, linear and phased-array scanners, D.S.A. imaging, dedicated mammography along with conventional radiographic and fluoroscopic machines

  10. Clinical Aspects of Patients with Febrile Convulsion: A survey in Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarian F; Hamedi A; Khalesi M; Hoseini Noude S; Rahmani Sh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Febrile seizures (FS) happen in 2-5% of children aged 6 months to 5 years. Several studies have confirmed that between 2 to 7% of children with FS, develop epilepsy later in life. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical aspects of patients with febrile seizure in our region. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study that was performed in the pediatric ward of Ghaem hospital in Mashhad, Iran from Sep. 2004 to March 2005. 68 patients...

  11. Secundum atrial septal defect in the adult. Clinical, haemodynamic and electrophysiological aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Thilén, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) is the most common congenital heart malformation diagnosed in adult life. In this thesis important clinical, haemodynamic and electrophysiological aspects of ASD in the adult are explored. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance velocity mapping (MRvm)in calculating the pulmonary/systemic flow ratio (QP/QS)was assessed (I). The mean and maximal error by MRvm was 1±1% and ≤4% respectively in the whole range of different QP/QS and repeatability showed a d...

  12. Stüve-Wiedemann Syndrome: Update on Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Bertola, Débora; Honjo, Rachel S; Baratela, Wagner A R

    2016-04-01

    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowed long bones, joint restrictions, dysautonomia, and respiratory and feeding difficulties, leading to death in the neonatal period and infancy in several occasions. Since the first cases in 1971, much has been learned about this condition, including its molecular basis - mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR) -, natural history and management possibilities. This review aims to highlight the clinical aspects, radiological features, molecular findings, and management strategies in Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. PMID:27194968

  13. International Clinical Guidelines for the Adoption of Digital Pathology: A Review of Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital slides, also called whole-slide images, are being evaluated to replace conventional microscopy, and several guidelines have been published. This paper reviews technical specifications of digital pathology systems that have been included in the guidelines and position papers from the Canadian Association of Pathologists, the College of American Pathologists, the American Telemedicine Association, the Digital Pathology Association, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, the European Commission, the Spanish Society of Anatomic Pathology, The Royal College of Pathologists and The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. In conclusion, most technical aspects are well covered by these guidelines, although they offer limited information regarding image quality and compression, and file formats. PMID:27100834

  14. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Frank

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radiographic stress measurement. With neither method a sharp distinction between hypermobility and non-hypermobility of the joint could be made. Comparison of the Hohmann surgical procedure with the La...

  15. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of inflammatory demyelinating diseases in childhood: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalice, Alberto; Parisi, Pasquale; Papetti, Laura; Nicita, Francesco; Ursitti, Fabiana; Del Balzo, Francesca; Properzi, Enrico; Verrotti, Alberto; Ruggieri, Martino; Iannetti, Paola

    2010-06-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases comprise a spectrum of disorders affecting the myelin of the central and peripheral nervous system. These diseases can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, radiological, laboratory and pathological findings. Recent studies have contributed to current awareness that inflammatory demyelinating diseases are not restricted to the adult age group, but are more common in pediatric age than previously believed. Some of pediatric inflammatory demyelinating diseases carry an unfavorable long-term prognosis but appropriate treatments can improve the outcome. The possibility of physical and cognitive disability resulting from these diseases, highlights the urgent need for therapeutic strategies for neurorehabilitation, neuroregeneration, and neurorepair. This review discusses characteristics of primary demyelinating diseases more frequently observed in childhood, focusing on epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatments. PMID:21119885

  16. Patients' attitudes to medical and psychosocial aspects of care in fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J;

    2003-01-01

    among infertile people. METHODS: We conducted an epidemiological study based on questionnaires among all new couples attending five fertility clinics with a response rate of 80.0% and a total of 2250 patients. RESULTS: The vast majority of both men and women considered a high level of medical...... services for both men and women was high infertility-related stress in the marital, personal and social domain. CONCLUSIONS: A supportive attitude from medical staff and the provision of both medical and psychosocial information and support should be integral aspects of medical care in fertility clinics....... Although only a minority of the participants perceived professional psychosocial services as important, they should be available for patients whose infertility causes them much strain, especially for patients whose marital relationship suffered much because of infertility....

  17. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoona, Alya; Naeem, Ismat; Saddiqe, Zeb; Jameel, Khalid

    2011-01-27

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of ethnomedicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative disorders. Rohdewald (2002) wrote the first comprehensive review of extract highlighting its antioxidative nature and its role in different diseases. Later, Watson (2003) and Gulati (2005) in their reviews about cardiovascular health, described the extract as a best neutraceutical agent in this regard. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on this extract in terms of extraction methods, its pharmacological, toxicological and nutraceutical effects and clinical studies. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2009 and sixty-nine research articles were extracted. Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects. PMID:21044675

  18. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  19. UPON TYPE, FREQUENCY AND SOME CLINICAL ASPECTS OF PSYCHOTIC SYMPTOMS IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Arnaudova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychotic disorders develop often at different stages of the disease. A comprehensive approach of type, frequency and clinical aspects of the psychotic disorders patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD can optimize management of these conditions in patients with dementia. We examined 120 patients with probable AD. The routine clinical examination and observation were used to delineate the most common psychotic symptoms. Delusions, found in the explored patients were predominantly paranoid. The delusions are often short lived and lack complexity of that seen in schizophrenia. In number of cases they are difficult to be distinguished from confabulations. Hallucinations were mostly verbal, visual and tactile. Misidentification syndromes were identified in a considerable number of patients. They are often disputable or have been classified as delusions or hallucinations, depending on interpretation of psychotic phenomena. We discuss different forms of misidentification. The presence of psychotic symptoms predicts the occurrence and frequency of different forms of aggression and destructive behavior.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinically-definite multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T instrument. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an abnormality in 90% of patients. In four patients, no lesions were demonstrated. The number, size and site of the lesions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the patients' clinical status and other variables. The Kurtzke disability status scale score increased in patients with corpus callosum atrophy, brainstem and basal ganglia lesions, and correlated with the total number of lesions. No correlation was shown between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and disease duration, age, sex or pattern-reversal visual-evoked potentials. The variety of magnetic resonance images that could be obtained in patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis is highlighted. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. [Clinical aspects of obsessive-compulsive syndromes: results of phase 2 of a large French survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantouche, E G; Bourgeois, M; Bouhassira, M; Lancrenon, S

    1996-01-01

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) had received a new interest from fundamental research (psychopharmacology, neurobiology and brain imagery...). Although more investigation of OCD clinical aspects are needed, especially in large cohorts of patients, not seen nor investigated only in high specialized psychiatric units. A large french survey "Screening-Understanding-Treating OCD" was conducted in 1994 with the participation of 240 psychiatrists. The survey had included 4,363 new consecutive patients consulting in out-patient psychiatry. The phase 1 had shown a point prevalence rates of 9.2% for OCD (full criteria of DSM III-R) and 17% for OCS (Obsessive-Compulsive Syndromes). From 731 patients, the phrase 2 was conducted on a cohort of 646 patients with OCD or OCS and had explored in details in the clinical aspects of the OC illness (typology, symptomatic categories, comorbidity, OCD spectrum, psychiatric family history and treatment history...). The results of the french survey phase 2 had confirmed a variety of classical and current literature data, especially: the ICD 10 proposal for diagnostic sub-typology according to symptomatic predominance (obsessions, compulsions or both); the symptomatic clustering of obsessions and compulsions into three major categories, suggested by a recent study from the Boston University; the high rate of comorbidity with anxiety and depressive disorders and with disorders related to the large OCD spectrum (somatoform disorders, eating disorders, impulse-control disorders, compulsive buying...); the impact of clinical parameters (as slowness, avoidance, lack of insight) on clinical global OCD and OCS severity; the high rate of intrafamilial psychiatric morbidity (OCD, depression, anxiety disorders). PMID:9035981

  2. Self-image and eating disorder symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén Mantilla, Emma; Bergsten, Katja; Birgegård, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are psychiatric disorders of multifactorial origin, predominantly appearing in adolescence. Negative self-image is identified as risk factor, but the association between self-image and ED in adolescents or sex differences regarding such associations remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between specific self-image aspects and ED symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents, including sex differences. Participants included 855 ED patients (girls=813, boys=42) and 482 normal adolescents (girls=238, boys=244), 13-15 years. Stepwise regression demonstrated strong associations between self-image and ED in normal adolescents (girls: R(2)=.31, boys: R(2)=.08), and stronger associations in patients (girls: R(2)=.64, boys: R(2)=.69). Qualitative sex differences were observed in patients. Connections between specific self-image aspects and ED have implications for clinical management of ED. The strong link between self-image variables and ED symptoms in normal girls, but not boys, is discussed in terms of the continuity-discontinuity hypothesis. PMID:24411765

  3. Liver imaging. Clinical applications and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases affect several millon people each year. The main imaging modalities to detect and assist diagnosis of primary and secondary liver tumours include MR imaging, CT, and US. The value of these techniques is further increased by the use of contrast agents which increase the sensitivity, and sometimes also the specificity, of the investigations. The relative advantages and drawbacks of the different contrast agents and imaging modalities in the detection and characterisation of liver tumours are discussed. Currently there is no consensus amongst investigators as to which is superior, due to the technical complexities and number of combinations possible within each of the different modalities. There continues to be advances in the hardware and software of imaging equipment, as well as a trend to develop new contrast agents with more organ-specificity. These include those targeting the hepatocytes, such as mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan), and those with reticuloendothelial cell specificity, such as the superparamagnetic iron oxides. These developments have the potential for making significant contributions to the diagnostic value of imaging procedures and, by reducing the number of investigations necessary to reach a final diagnosis, having a significant and beneficial impact on the pharmaco-economics of patient health care. (orig.)

  4. PET Imaging - from Physics to Clinical Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stan

    2008-03-01

    From the beginnings many years ago in a few physics laboratories and first applications as a research brain function imager, PET became lately a leading molecular imaging modality used in diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of cancer, as well as has increased use in assessment of brain function (early diagnosis of Alzheimer's, etc) and in cardiac function. To assist with anatomic structure map and with absorption correction CT is often used with PET in a duo system. Growing interest in the last 5-10 years in dedicated organ specific PET imagers (breast, prostate, brain, etc) presents again an opportunity to the particle physics instrumentation community to contribute to the important field of medical imaging. In addition to the bulky standard ring structures, compact, economical and high performance mobile imagers are being proposed and build. The latest development in standard PET imaging is introduction of the well known TOF concept enabling clearer tomographic pictures of the patient organs. Development and availability of novel photodetectors such as Silicon PMT immune to magnetic fields offers an exciting opportunity to use PET in conjunction with MRI and fMRI. As before with avalanche photodiodes, particle physics community plays a leading role in developing these devices. The presentation will mostly focus on present and future opportunities for better PET designs based on new technologies and methods: new scintillators, photodetectors, readout, software.

  5. Preoperative Imaging for Clinical Staging Prior to Radical Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugen, Cory M; Duddalwar, Vinay; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2016-09-01

    The importance of patient selection for quality outcomes following radical cystectomy is critical. Clinical staging is one of the key elements necessary for patient selection, and staging relies on accurate preoperative imaging. Many imaging modalities are available and have been utilized for preoperative staging with published operating characteristics. In this update, we review recently published literature for advances in preoperative imaging prior to radical cystectomy. PMID:27432379

  6. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  7. Setting up a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cancer is increasing, particularly because of the increase in life expectancy arising from worldwide improvements in standards of living. According to recent estimates of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately ten million new cases of cancer are being detected per year worldwide, with slightly more than half of the cases occurring in developing countries. By the year 2015 this number is expected to increase to about 15 million cases, of which two thirds will occur in developing countries. About half of all cancer patients receive radiotherapy, either as part of their primary treatment or in connection with recurrences or palliative treatment. Radiotherapy is a multidisciplinary specialty which uses complex equipment and radiation sources for the delivery of treatment. It is estimated that approximately 3300 teletherapy machines are currently installed in developing countries. This figure is significantly below the estimated needs, of almost 5000 machines at present and about 10 000 machines by the year 2015. Taking this into account, in addition to the great need for qualified professionals (radiation oncologists, medical radiotherapy physicists, radiotherapy technicians, radiation protection officers, maintenance engineers, etc.), the future development of the medical infrastructure for cancer treatment appears to be a substantial undertaking. While the present publication discusses radiation treatment programmes alone, it is recognized that other components of comprehensive cancer management programmes, such as cancer prevention and diagnosis, also need to be addressed. It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, treatment decision making, indication for treatment and follow-up), as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment, must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high

  8. The aspects of using imaging methods in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clinical study of the efficiency of orthopantomography and computer tomography was made in this report. In this study were included 180 patients with dental pathologies who had a radiologic examination performed (433 panoramic radiographs and 27 CT investigations). Information processing of the orthopantomography with available tools offered by the programs working with digital image or CT provides an exact, clear and correct diagnosis as well as a choice of safety treatment plan, proper to each clinical case. (authors)

  9. Clinical value of ventilation perfusion imaging for pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and clinical value of ventilation perfusion (VP) imaging in 434 patients is reported. Pulmonary arteriography has been performed independently in 47 of these patients. Pulmonary arteriography provides the only specific test for intraluminal thrombus in pulmonary vessels. It is, however, invasive, time consuming and expensive, and has a significant morbidity and occasional mortality. For these reasons, VP imaging has been widely adopted as a screening test for pulmonary embolism (PE). The non-specific nature of perfusion abnormalities of lung demonstrated by this technique are a drawback, and controversy has been generated concerning the value of VP imaging to clinicians who must make decisions on clinical management. It is found that VP imaging provides valuable information in two-thirds of all patients referred to Nuclear Medicine with a clinical suspicion of PE. Among these patients, VP imaging confirmed the clinical suspicion in one-third, clarified or corrected the clinical diagnosis in one-third, and was non-diagnostic in one-third. It is concluded that VP imaging is a safe, reliable and valuable screening test in a significant number of patients suspected of having PE

  10. Mammography practice in Serbia: Evaluation and optimisation of image quality and the technical aspects of the mammographic imaging chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work was to assess mammography practice in Serbia and its appropriateness for both diagnostic service and potential screening by implementing quality control (QC) protocol in three large teaching hospitals. Corrective actions were suggested, accordingly. In addition to technical aspects of QC, image quality was assessed using image grading before and after the introduction of corrective measures. The survey demonstrated considerable variations in technical parameters that affect image quality and patients doses. Average glandular doses ranged from 1.8 to 2.8 mGy, while reference optical density (OD) ranged from 1.0 to 2.6. Image grading resulted in a very high percentage of images with poor quality (12-70% for cranio-caudal projection and 8-66% for medio-lateral oblique projection). Main problems were associated with film processing, viewing conditions and OD control. Following introduction of corrective measures, the image grading results were improved in some hospitals, so the percentage of images without any remarks has been increased. (authors)

  11. Clinical evaluation of digital cine imaging on coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digital cine angio system was developed a few years ago and is used widely for cardiac examinations. However, the image quality of digital imaging in clinical examinations is seldom evaluated. We have attempted to evaluate the digital imaging in D.C.I. First, each segment of coronary arteries that is exposed in routine projection angle were visually evaluated. Second, regarding the appearance of the coronary arteries on the diaphragm we compared digital imaging with cine film. As a result, the image quality of the coronary arteries except for segments 7 to 10 (classified by A.H.A.) was evaluated as being good. Regarding the appearance of coronary arteries on a diaphragm, digital imaging was evaluated higher than cine film. In this report, the advantages of digital imaging in coronary angiography were studied. (author)

  12. Benign fatty tumors: classification, clinical course, imaging appearance, and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bancroft, Laura W.; Kransdorf, Mark J.; Peterson, Jeffrey J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); O' Connor, Mary I. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2006-10-15

    Lipoma is the most common soft-tissue tumor, with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations and imaging appearances. Several subtypes are described, ranging from lesions entirely composed of mature adipose tissue to tumors intimately associated with nonadipose tissue, to those composed of brown fat. The imaging appearance of these fatty masses is frequently sufficiently characteristic to allow a specific diagnosis. However, in other cases, although a specific diagnosis is not achievable, a meaningful limited differential diagnosis can be established. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the spectrum of benign fatty tumors highlighting the current classification system, clinical presentation and behavior, spectrum of imaging appearances, and treatment. The imaging review emphasizes computed tomography (CT) scanning and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, differentiating radiologic features. (orig.)

  13. Clinical image: MRI during migraine with aura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeal, A.C. [Brooklyn VA Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Migraine refers to severe headaches that are usually unilateral, throbbing, and associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia. Migraine with aura (formerly called {open_quotes}classic migraine{close_quotes}) consists of the headache preceded or accompanied by neurological dysfunction. This dysfunction (aura) usually involves visual and sensory symptoms. The patient described herein experienced migraine with aura. MRI during and after the attack showed a reversible abnormality of the right posterior cerebral artery, with no parenchymal lesions. This appears to be the first report of abnormal MR vascular imaging during migraine with aura. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Clinical and Morphological Aspects of Gray Matter Heterotopia Type Developmental Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray matter heterotopia (GMH) is a malformation of the central nervous system characterized by interruption of normal neuroblasts migration between the 7th and 16th week of fetal development. The aim of the study was the analysis of clinical symptoms, prevalence rate and the most common concurrent central nervous system (CNS) developmental disorders as well as assessment of characteristic morphological changes of gray matter heterotopia in children hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients’ data who were hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. We assessed clinical data and imaging exams in children diagnosed with gray matter heterotopia confirmed in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). GMH occurred in 26 children hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. Among children with gray matter heterotopia most common clinical symptoms were: epilepsy, intellectual disability and hemiparesis. The commonest location of heterotopic gray matter were fronto-parietal areas of brain parenchyma, mostly subependymal region. Gray matter heterotopia occurred with other developmental disorders of the central nervous system rather than solely and in most cases it was bilateral. Schizencephaly and abnormalities of the corpus callosum were the most often developmental disorders accompanying GMH. 1. Subependymal gray matter heterotopia was more common than subcortical GMH. Subependymal GMH showed tendency to localize in the region of the bodies of the lateral ventricles. The least common was laminar GMH. 2. Gray matter heterotopia occurred more often with other developmental disorders of the central nervous system rather than solely. The most frequent concurrent disorders of the central nervous system were: schizencephaly, developmental abnormalities of the corpus callosum, arachnoid cyst, abnormalities of the septum pellucidum and the fornix. 3. GMH foci were more often

  15. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) – Clinical and Radiological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality) was first developed and introduced by Pang and Wilberger who used it to define “clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability”. SCIWORA is a clinical-radiological condition that mostly affects children. SCIWORA lesions are found mainly in the cervical spine but can also be seen, although much less frequently, in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Based on reports from different authors, SCIWORA is responsible for 6 to 19% and 9% to 14% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively. Underlying degenerative changes, including spondylosis or spinal canal stenosis, are typically present in adult patients. The level of spinal cord injury corresponds to the location of these changes. With recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, and with increasing availability of MRI as a diagnostic tool, the overall detection rate of SCIWORA has significantly improved

  16. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 ± 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 ± 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 ± 13.6 min and 43.7 ± 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 ± 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 ± 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 ± 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 before RF ablation vs. 47.2 ± 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m2 after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  17. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Alwatban, A Z W

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a ...

  18. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT & ITS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.R Murthy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  19. Review of tick-borne encephalitis and vaccines: clinical and economical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) disease is an increasing burden not only locally but also globally. In most endemic countries, vaccination coverage is too low to reduce the TBE burden significantly; however, vaccination is the most effective protection against TBE, with various vaccines currently available. In spite of rising awareness of TBE, little attention is directed toward the health economics of the disease. The purpose of the present review is to compile information on TBE and its explicit clinical and economical aspects. Given the scarcity of studies, the authors conclude that more attention is needed for health economics of TBE. Notably, this would help establish guidance on efficient policies for TBE prevention, reduce disease burden and achieve population health benefits. PMID:25427237

  20. Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  1. Clinical and molecular aspects of the live attenuated Oka varicella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Mark; Breuer, Judy

    2014-07-01

    VZV is a ubiquitous member of the Herpesviridae family that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Both manifestations can cause great morbidity and mortality and are therefore of significant economic burden. The introduction of varicella vaccination as part of childhood immunization programs has resulted in a remarkable decline in varicella incidence, and associated hospitalizations and deaths, particularly in the USA. The vaccine preparation, vOka, is a live attenuated virus produced by serial passage of a wild-type clinical isolate termed pOka in human and guinea pig cell lines. Although vOka is clinically attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and reactivate to cause herpes zoster. Sequence analysis has shown that vOka differs from pOka by at least 42 loci; however, not all genomes possess the novel vOka change at all positions, creating a heterogeneous population of genetically distinct haplotypes. This, together with the extreme cell-associated nature of VZV replication in cell culture and the lack of an animal model, in which the complete VZV life cycle can be replicated, has limited studies into the molecular basis for vOka attenuation. Comparative studies of vOka with pOka replication in T cells, dorsal root ganglia, and skin indicate that attenuation likely involves multiple mutations within ORF 62 and several other genes. This article presents an overview of the clinical aspects of the vaccine and current progress on understanding the molecular mechanisms that account for the clinical phenotype of reduced virulence. PMID:24687808

  2. The Eurosdr Project "RADIOMETRIC Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric IMAGES" - Results of the Empirical Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkavaara, E.; Arbiol, R.; Markelin, L.; Martínez, L.; Bovet, S.; Bredif, M.; Chandelier, L.; Heikkinen, V.; Korpela, I.; Lelegard, L.; Pérez, F.; Schläpfer, D.; Tokola, T.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  3. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  4. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwatban, Adnan Z.W

    2002-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  5. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  6. Technical aspects on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine at 1.5 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical aspects on surface coil magnetic resonance imaging of the spine using a superconducting system with a field strength of 1.5 tesla are described. By using a flat surface coil instead of the body coil the image quality was markedly improved and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was increased approximately 2.6 times. Small voxels resulted in low S/N. The best image quality was achieved with a slice thickness of 5 mm, a field of view of 20 to 24 cm and a matrix of 256 x 256. Interleaved slices provided superior image quality compared with contiguous slices at the expense of acquisition time. For sagittal images the phase encoding gradient should be in the cranio-caudal direction to minimize motion artifacts. To obtain T1 and T2 images of high quality, spin echo pulse sequences with TR 600/TE 20 ms and TR 2000/TE 40 to 80 ms are useful. (orig.)

  7. Implementational Aspects of the Contourlet Filter Bank and Application in Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong T. Nguyen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the implementational aspects of the contourlet filter bank (or the pyramidal directional filter bank (PDFB, and considered its application in image coding. First, details of the binary tree-structured directional filter bank (DFB are presented, including a modification to minimize the phase delay factor and necessary steps for handling rectangular images. The PDFB is viewed as an overcomplete filter bank, and the directional filters are expressed in terms of polyphase components of the pyramidal filter bank and the conventional DFB. The aliasing effect of the conventional DFB and the Laplacian pyramid to the directional filters is then considered, and the conditions for reducing this effect are presented. The new filters obtained by redesigning the PDFBs satisfying these requirements have much better frequency responses. A hybrid multiscale filter bank consisting of the PDFB at higher scales and the traditional maximally decimated wavelet filter bank at lower scales is constructed to provide a sparse image representation. A novel embedded image coding system based on the image decomposition and a morphological dilation algorithm is then presented. The coding algorithm efficiently clusters the significant coefficients using progressive morphological operations. Context models for arithmetic coding are designed to exploit the intraband dependency and the correlation existing among the neighboring directional subbands. Experimental results show that the proposed coding algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art wavelet-based coders, such as JPEG2000, for images with directional features.

  8. Biochemical and clinical aspects of advanced oxidation protein products in kidney diseases and metabolic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Piwowar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Intensified oxidative modification of proteins and increased concentration of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs are confirmed by many experimental investigations in different pathological states, especially these with well-known participation of oxidative stress (OS in etiopathogenesis but also these with not well recognized its role. Presented data indicate that AOPPs play a significant role in many disorders with chronic background, because of they reflect both intensification of OS and the degree of pathological changes connected with OS in these diseases. This review sets out the clinical and diagnostic aspects of AOPPs in these diseases such as: renal diseases with different etiology, cardiovascular diseases, as well as connected with metabolic disturbances – e.g. diabetes, atherosclerosis or metabolic syndrome. Moreover results of investigation about utility of AOPPs measurement, mainly in plasma/serum, in these diseases are presented. The review and evaluation of application of AOPPs as useful marker in diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring the course of these diseases were performed. This paper also describes the suggested mechanisms of their action which contribute to biochemical and clinic changes undergoing in the condition of increased OS. Diagnostic or prognostic utility of AOPPs are especially indicated in the course of diabetes and its complications (diabetic nephropahy and cardiovascular diseases.

  9. [Neurologic aspects of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and therapy of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (causalgia, Sudeck's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, H; Griesser, H J; Hornyak, M

    1991-04-01

    The symptomatology of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), a diagnostic term which today includes causalgia and M. Sudeck, is characterized clinically by a triad of autonomic (sympathetic), motor and sensory disturbances. They develop following a noxious event--though independent of its nature and location--in a generalized distribution pattern at the distal site of the affected extremity. Pathophysiologically, a complex disturbance of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system is involved, which mediates the dominant symptoms of RSD, namely the spontaneous pain and the swelling. This disturbance is thought to be initiated by nociceptive impulses, occurring in conjunction with the preceding noxious event, and to be maintained reflexly, in a form of a vicious circle, by means of the typical pain sensation accompanying the RSD-syndrome. From these ideas, an important part of the RSD therapy is deduced; i.e. the early interruption of the neuronal sympathetic activity by means of a sympathetic blockade. Such a blockade can interrupt the pain and at the same time also the vicious circle of RSD. Altogether, for the RSD syndrome there are relevant neurological aspects with respect to its clinical symptomatology, its pathophysiology and its therapy. PMID:1713305

  10. Hereditary angioedema: Historical aspects, classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and laboratory diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, David A

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare disorder first described in 1888 by Sir William Osler. Since then, our understanding of this condition has increased tremendously. This article reviews the historical aspects, classification, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and laboratory diagnosis of HAE. A review was performed of historical and current literature of HAE. HAE I and II are related to insufficient production of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) or production of a dysfunctional C1-INH protein, respectively. HAE III is not related to C1-INH deficiency and the pathogenesis is unknown. Bradykinin appears to be the main mediator responsible for angioedema in patients with C1-INH deficiencies. Angioedema of the extremities, face, and upper airway along with gastrointestinal angioedema are the most common clinical features in HAE. The laboratory tests that are most commonly used in the diagnosis of HAE include C4, C1-INH concentration, and C1-INH function. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of HAE have led to several advances in the therapy of this disease. Despite our more thorough understanding of the genetics and pathophysiology of HAE, many questions remain unanswered. PMID:21262092

  11. Myasthenia gravis in Ceará, Brazil: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective chart review was performed on patients diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis in Ceará State, Brazil and who were followed from October 1981 to June 2009. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects were evaluated. In this work, 122 patients were studied, of whom 85 (69.7% were females and 37 (30.3% were males. The disease duration ranged from five months to 50 years (8.9±8.1 years. Age at the first symptoms varied from 0 to 74 years (31.9±14.4 years. The first main symptoms and signs were ptosis, diplopia and limb weakness. Generalized myasthenia was the most common clinical presentation, but 5.1% (n=6 persisted as ocular myasthenia. Thymectomy was performed in 42.6% (n=52 of myasthenic patients. A thymoma was present in 10 patients. Serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR antibodies were present in 80% (n=20 of specimens tested. The data presented are similar to those of studies performed in other countries.

  12. Phase contrast mammography with synchrotron radiation: physical aspects of the clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R.; Abrami, A.; Arfelli, F.; Bregant, P.; Chenda, V.; Cova, M. A.; Dreossi, D.; de Guarrini, F.; Menk, R. H.; Quai, E.; Quaia, E.; Rokvic, T.; Tonutti, M.; Tromba, G.; Zanconati, F.; Castelli, E.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: The first clinical facility for synchrotron radiation (SR) mammography is now operative at the SYRMEP beamline of ELETTRA, the SR facility in Trieste, Italy. The mammographic facility and the preliminary results of the clinical trial are presented in this contribution. Method and Materials: The distance between the SR source and the patient is about 30 m; the main features of the X-ray beam are: monochromaticity at ~0.2% bandwith in the energy range 8-35 keV, photon flux of about 10 8 ph/(mm2 s) and dimensions of 21 cm x 3.5 mm at the compressed breast. An innovative dosimetric system allows the on-line dose control during the examination. The images are acquired by scanning the patient, in prone position, in front of the stationary laminar beam; the average scanning time is about 10 s. The detector is a screen film system; it is at ~2 m from the breast in order to fulfil the so-called Phase Contrast (PhC) requirements. The breast thickness and glandularity defines the optimal beam energy for each examination. The patients are enrolled by radiologists, after routine examinations, on the basis of BI-RADS classification, according the research program approved by the local Ethical Committee. Results: This communication concerns the first 9 patients underwent the SR PhC mammography; the images match the quality obtained in previous in vitro studies. With reference to conventional mammography the diagnostic quality of the radiological images is better, without increasing the delivered dose to the patient.

  13. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN INTER-IMPLANT DISTANCE AND CLINICAL ASPECTS IN TWO IMPLANT MANDIBULAR OVERDENTURES

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    Mihaela Marin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the influence of different interimplant distances on prosthetic complications in two implant mandibular overdenture treatments, as well as the possible correlations between such complications and some anatomic and functional individual aspect of the patients. Materials and method. An observational clinical study was conducted – between October 2008 – March 2010 - in the Clinics of Dental Prosthetics of the “Carol Davila” UMF of Bucuresti – on 32 completely edentulous patients, treated with 2 implant mandibular overdentures. The patients (24 women and 8 men, with ages between 49 and 83 years were divided into 2 groups, according to the position of the implants, inserted at the level of the lateral incisor (group 1 or in posterior position versus the canine (group 2. The prosthetic aspects, the peri-implant tissues and the anchoring systems were evaluated after 6 months and, respectively, 1 year of treatment, all prosthetic or biological complications, as well as the number of visits necessary for solving them being recorded. Results. As to the general characteristics of the group of patients, the observation was made that the average age of patients was of 63.8 years, most of them demonstrated a severe resorbtion of the crest, oval in shape in the mandibular frontal area, belonging mostly to the IInd hypo or hyper-divergent skeletal class, proportionally with and without a tendency towards propulsion. For both groups of patients, a total number of 114 prosthetic complications were registered after one year, the most frequent ones being occlusal problems (23.68%, the presence of decubitus lesions (21.05% and deactivation of matrices, accompanied by reduced retention (19.29%. Lower ratios were recorded for: the necessity of prosthesis relining (14%, loss of matrices (12.28%, fracturing of the prosthesis (8.77%, presence of peri-implant gingival hyperplasies (7% and loosening of the patrix screw (5

  14. Epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of gastric cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Elmajjaoui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gastric cancer is a relatively frequent cancer and has poor prognosis. The present study is the first Moroccan study to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, therapeutic characteristics, and outcomes of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including 154 cases of gastric cancer treated at the National Institute of Oncology between January 2007 and December 2007. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (18-87 years and the sex ratio was 2.14. Risk factors were dominated by tobacco use (30.5% and gastric ulcer (4.5%. The average interval between symptom presentation and consultation was 8.7 months (1-48 months. The clinical symptoms were dominated by epigastric pain (88.7%, vomiting (62.3%, and weight loss (80.5%. Oeso-gastric fibroscopy was performed in all patients and showed an ulcerated aspect in 77.9% of the cases. The location of the tumor was antropyloric in 42.2% of the cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (72.8%, followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22%, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST; 3.2%, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET; 2%. Tumor stage was metastatic in 62% of the cases, locally advanced in 18.5% of the cases, and localized in only 8% of the cases; however, 11.5% of patients were not staged. Also, 46% of the patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 111 were not treated, 6.4% received chemotherapy first (non-resectable (one patient was operated, 20.6% received surgery first followed by adjuvant treatment, 4.5% received chemo-radiotherapy, 5.4% received chemotherapy only, and 27% received palliative chemotherapy. In the sub-group of patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 48.5% received chemotherapy based on Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP regimen. In the sub-group diagnosed with GIST (n = 5 histology, all cases received surgery first and 2 cases received adjuvant chemotherapy based on doxorubicin. Finally

  15. Clinical advantages of three dimensional cine cardiac images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated clinical advantages and the quantitativeness of computerized three-dimensional (3D) cinematic images of a human heart, which were produced with a set of magnetic resonance (MR) images by using the computer graphic technique. Many contiguous, multi-location and multi-phase short axis images were obtained with the ECG gated conventional and fast cardiac imaging sequences in normal volunteers and selected patients with myocardial infarction, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy and left ventricular dysfunction. Judging by visual impressions of the computerized 3D cinematic cardiac images, we could easily understand and evaluate the myocardial motions or the anatomic and volumetric changes of a heart according to the cardiac phases. These images were especially useful to compare the wall motion, the left ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF), or other cardiac functions and conditions between before and after therapeutic procedures such as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for patients with myocardial infarction. A good correlation between the LVEF calculated from a set of computerized 3D cinematic images and the ultra sound examinations were found. The results of our study showed that computerized 3D cinematic cardiac images were clinically useful to understand the myocardial motions qualitatively and to evaluate cardiac functions such as the LVEF quantitatively. (author)

  16. Radiological and clinical aspects of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma based on selected own cases and literature data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the study was to define characteristic radiological changes during bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in correlation with its various histological forms. Nine cases of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma were diagnosed and treated in the Specialistic Complex of Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases in Rzeszow in the years 2000-2005. The material of the study was analyzed in order to determine characteristic radiological patterns and clinical data. Three patient groups were separated based on different features of radiological images (X ray film and CT) of the chest (infiltrative, tubercular and diffuse forms). Correlation between appearance of characteristic radiological pattern and histological type of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and clinical symptoms was observed. Study data were compared with data from literature; our study showed that the infiltrative form of CT patterns of the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is dominant (55,5%) and that it is more frequent in females (67%). It was also confirmed that the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma has no connection with nicotinism. In conclusion, the possibility of diagnosing an infiltrative form of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in the CT examination with the support of characteristic radiological patterns and clinical data was stressed. (author)

  17. Imaging retinal ganglion cells: enabling experimental technology for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Corey A; Chauhan, Balwantray C

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical ophthalmic imaging have enhanced patient care. However, the ability to differentiate retinal neurons, such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), would advance many areas within ophthalmology, including the screening and monitoring of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. Imaging at the single cell level would take diagnostics to the next level. Experimental methods have provided techniques and insight into imaging RGCs, however no method has yet to be translated to clinical application. This review provides an overview of the importance of non-invasive imaging of RGCs and the clinically relevant capabilities. In addition, we report on experimental data from wild-type mice that received an in vivo intravitreal injection of a neuronal tracer that labelled RGCs, which in turn were monitored for up to 100 days post-injection with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We were able to demonstrate efficient and consistent RGC labelling with this delivery method and discuss the issue of cell specificity. This type of experimental work is important in progressing towards clinically applicable methods for monitoring loss of RGCs in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We discuss the challenges to translating these findings to clinical application and how this method of tracking RGCs in vivo could provide valuable structural and functional information to clinicians. PMID:25448921

  18. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on aspects related to ionizing radiation in imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to assess the non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on the use of ionizing radiation in imaging. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional study utilizing an anonymous questionnaire responded by physicians in clinical and surgical specialties, divided into two parts as follows: one including questions about the physicians' characteristics, frequency of imaging studies requests and participation in professional updating events, and another part including multiple choice questions approaching general knowledge about radiation, optimization principles and radioprotection. Results: from a total of 309 questionnaires, 120 (38.8%) were responded, 50% by physicians in surgical specialties and 50% in clinical specialties; respectively 45% and 2.5% of physicians responded that magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography use ionizing radiation. Overall, the average grade was higher for surgical specialists with no significant difference, except for the question about exposure in pregnant women (p = 0.047). Physicians who are professionally updated, particularly those attending clinical meetings (p = 0.050) and participating in teaching activities (p = 0.047), showed statistically superior knowledge about ionizing radiation as compared with others. Conclusion: the non-radiologist physicians' is heterogeneous and in some points needs to be improved. Multidisciplinary clinical meetings and teaching activities are important ways to disseminate information on the subject. (author)

  1. Joubert syndrome: Clinical manifestations and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joubert syndrome presents neonatal respiratory abnormalities and other clinical manifestations. Pathologically the patients show hypoplasia or agenesis of cerebellar vermis and other intracranial anomalies. Our purpose is to evaluate the clinical manifestations and MR findings of Joubert syndrome. Among the patient presenting with clinical stigmata of Joubert syndrome and agenesis of vermis on MR imaging, eight patients who did not satisfied the criteria of Dandy-Walker malformation, tectocerebellar dysraphia and rhombencephalosynapsis were selected. MR findings and clinical manifestation were analyzed. On MR imaging, agenesis of the cerebellar vermis (all cases), hypoplasia of the cerebellar peduncle (6 cases), fourth ventricular contour deformity (6 cases), tentorial elevation (4 caes), deformity of the lateral ventricles (4 cases), dysgenesis of the straight sinus (3 cases) were demonstrated. Other findings were abnormalities of corpus callosum (3 cases), falx anomalies (3 case), occipital encephalomeningocele (2 cases) and fluid collection in posterior cranial fossa (2 cases). Clinical manifestations were developmental delay (5 cases), abnormal eyeball movement (3 cases), hypotonia (2 cases), neonatal respiratory abnormality (2 cases), etc. Joubert syndrome showed various clinical manifestations and intracranial anomalies. MR imaging is an useful modality in detection of the cerebellar vermian agenesis and other anomalies of the patients

  2. Clinical and imaging assessment of cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocca, Maria A; Amato, Maria P; De Stefano, Nicola; Enzinger, Christian; Geurts, Jeroen J; Penner, Iris-K; Rovira, Alex; Sumowski, James F; Valsasina, Paola; Filippi, Massimo; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini

    2015-01-01

    In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), grey matter damage is widespread and might underlie many of the clinical symptoms, especially cognitive impairment. This relation between grey matter damage and cognitive impairment has been lent support by findings from clinical and MRI studies. However......, many aspects of cognitive impairment in patients with MS still need to be characterised. Standardised neuropsychological tests that are easy to administer and sensitive to disease-related abnormalities are needed to gain a better understanding of the factors affecting cognitive performance in patients...

  3. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  4. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov;

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500...... from the International Telecommunication Union - Radiocommunication (ITU-R) for such subjective quality assessment, this work presents equipment and a methodology for clinical image quality evaluation for guiding the development of new and improved imaging. The system is based on a BK-Medical 2202 Pro......Focus scanner equipped with a UA2227 research interface, connected to a PC through X64-CL Express camera link. Data acquisition features subject data recording, loading/saving of exact scanner settings (for later experiment reproducibility), free access to all system parameters for beamformation and is...

  5. Clinical application of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) in the assessment of intracerebral malignant tumors. This study included 33 patients (10 with glioblastomas, 1 with anaplastic astrocytomas, 19 with brain metastases and 3 with malignant lymphomas) during the last 1.5 years. DWI was acquired using the diffusion-weighted, single-shot, multislice, echo planar SE sequence. In high-grade gliomas, malignant lymphomas and brain metastases, areas of tumors that showed significant enhancement on T1-weighted MR images after administration of contrast material were hyperintense on DWI. Furthermore, on DWI the edema surrounding glioblastomas produced higher signals than edema surrounding metastases. DWI is a clinically useful technique for studying malignant tumors. It enables us to differentiate various aspects of tumors (e.g., enhancing, nonenhancing, cystic, necrotic, or recurrence). Further investigations of pathological features of these areas are needed. (author)

  6. Magnetic resonance microscopy of prostate tissue: How basic science can inform clinical imaging development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This commentary outlines how magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy studies of prostate tissue samples and whole organs have shed light on a number of clinical imaging mysteries and may enable more effective development of new clinical imaging methods

  7. Physical and clinical aspects of the dynamic intensity-modulated radiotherapy of 21 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To describe the physical and clinical aspects of the dynamic intensity modulated radiotherapy of 21 patients. Methods and Materials: Dynamic, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMR) was given to 21 patients with advanced or recurrent disease. 13 patients were immobilized with head screws, and 8, with non-invasive thermoplastic masks. The system was selected because it was designed de novo from a well established simulated annealing optimization model (SA), and with stringent leakage requirements and rapid leaf transit time for a multi leaf collimator (MLC). The system included a 6 MV linear accelerator (linac), an MLC, a quad processing computer system with SA software, a computer MLC controller with inclinometers and interlocks to stop radiation upon potential MLC or linac gantry fault detection, and immobilization devices attached to CT and treatment tables. The MLC was built around a 2 x 20 array of leaves with 9 half value layers of attenuation of the primary beam (99.8%). Over a trillion (240) beamlet patterns were dynamically changeable per deg. of linac gantry rotation. With all leaves shut, transmission was within a secondary collimator standard of < 0.5% of the primary beam. MLC control was via touch screen computer, and a disk drive which read beam pattern sequences from a disk generated by the planning system. Planning included 3D CT and magnetic resonance localization of regions of interest (ROI). The SA cost function incorporated idealized dose-volume parameter sets of up to 21 ROI/patient. Relative importance and spatial pre-eminance of each ROI were quantified into the constraint set, together with an instrument data file (IDR) built from depth dose and crossplot data of 8 x 8 to 20 x 200 mm field sizes and patterns measured with small diodes in a water tanc phantom. Planner output included dose volume histograms, tabulated dosimetry statistics, 2D dose distributions, and 3D translucent renderings of patient surfaces with underlying colored

  8. Clinical usefulness of cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the clinical usefulness of cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) from aspects of image quality and cardiac function. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the myocardium was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with AF than those with normal sinus rhythm. Two radiologists who did not know any patient's information evaluated the image quality visually by marking method on a scale of 12 points. There was no difference of image quality between the two groups. The standard deviation of R-R interval was significantly (r=-0.92, p<0.001) correlated with the S/N ratio in myocardium. Consequently, it was not favorable to estimate visually cardiac cine MR image in patients with AF, when standard deviation of R-R interval was large. The left ventricular (LV) end diastolic, end systolic and stroke volumes and ejection fraction were closely (r=0.82∼0.95, p<0.05∼0.001) correlated between MR imaging and M-mode echocardiography, respectively. The ability to detect left side valvular regurgitation was almost equal in both MR imaging and color Doppler echocardiography. This result was coincided to previous papers in patients with normal sinus rhythm. In conclusion, cine mode MR imaging was also useful to analyze cardiac function and detect valvular regurgitation in patients with AF. (author)

  9. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  10. State of the art in both in vitro and in vivo aspects of small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for practical reasons (with the advent of genomics and combinatorial chemistry, gene knock-out mice, transgene mice and cloned human receptors, drug discovery departments could be rapidly flooded with new active compounds making the selection for further development becoming more and more critical). Until recently, it was felt that PET and SPECT radioisotopic imaging methodologies were too expensive and that their resolution was too poor to be used in small laboratory animals like mice and rats. With the development of high-resolution and relatively low-cost imaging systems dedicated to small animals, that perception is changing. Another anticipated benefit of the use of small animal imaging techniques is that they provide a sophisticated way to work with the many transgenic mouse models of disease that have become more and more important in the drug development process. Using these in vivo imaging systems, it is now possible to repeat the same study on a single mouse allowing, for example, to monitor the response to drugs as a function of time. In a near future these small animal-imaging techniques could be used to monitor gene therapy (using radiolabelled oligonucleotides or therapy genes monitored with the reporter gene/radiolabelled reporter probe system). Animal PET/SPECT systems are unique tools to provide information on the mechanism of action of drugs and as such are more and more used as rapid screening procedures for selecting new drugs and for optimising treatment protocols. The use of small animal imaging systems is particularly valuable in small animal studies with a longitudinal or interventional design. The high-performance, application-specific research PET and SPECT systems, designed for use with small animals, should facilitate quantitative accurate research data to be translated more effectively from pharmacological labs to clinical medicine and clinical trials. PET and SPECT for small-animal imaging provide a bridge between preclinical drug

  11. Toward carbon nanotube-based imaging agents for the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, Mayra; Zaibaq, Nicholas G; Wilson, Lon J

    2016-09-01

    Among the many applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their use in medicine has drawn special attention due to their potential for a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. As progress toward clinical applications continues, monitoring CNTs in vivo will be essential to evaluate their biodistribution, potential toxicity, therapeutic activity, and any physiological changes that the material may induce in specific tissues. There are many different imaging modalities to visualize and track CNTs in vivo, yet only a few are full-body penetrating, a central characteristic that widens their clinical utility. In order to visualize CNTs, chemical modification is often required for the material to be used as a platform to carry imaging agents compatible with one or more of the clinical imaging techniques. Here, we focus on the most recent work involving the use of CNTs as imaging agents for the non-invasive, full-body penetrating clinical modalities of MRI, PET, SPECT, and X-ray CT. The synthesis and modification of the CNT materials are discussed, as well as relevant preclinical studies. PMID:27294540

  12. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  13. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  14. Nurse prescribing as an aspect of future role expansion: the views of Irish clinical nurse specialists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lockwood, Emily B

    2008-10-01

    AIM: Nurses and midwives are expanding the scope of their professional practice, assuming additional responsibilities including the management and prescribing of medications. The aim of the study was to discover the attitudes of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in Ireland to nurse prescribing and to examine perceived barriers to engaging in this aspect of future role expansion. BACKGROUND: The expansion of the nursing role in relation to nurse prescribing is an ongoing process and is subject to incremental iterations of legislation and professional policy. Nurse prescribing as an expanded role function has become a reality in many countries. Ireland has addressed the matter in a formal and systematic way through legislation. METHOD: A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 283 CNSs practising in a variety of care settings in Ireland. Attitudes were measured using Likert-type attitudinal scales, designed specifically for the study. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the majority of clinical nurse specialists were positively disposed toward nurse prescribing as a future role expansion. The fear of litigation was identified as the most significant barrier to nurse prescribing. The majority of respondents equated nurse prescribing with increased autonomy and holistic care. The findings indicate that there is a need for further examination of the educational requirements of the CNS in relation to nurse prescribing. The legislative implications for nurse prescribing and fear of legal consequences need to be considered prior to any implementation of nurse prescribing. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: While senior clinicians are willing to embrace future role expansion in the area of nurse prescribing, their Nurse Managers should recognize that facilitation of nurse prescribing needs to address the legal and educational requirements for such activity. Failure to address these requirements can represent a barrier to role expansion. This paper offers

  15. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil: geographical and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Batista de Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to show the situation of paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This study is a descriptive case series developed in two stages. First, a survey of cases originating from the state of Maranhão at the Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela, Piauí (IDTNP from 1997 to 2007, and second, the clinical description of 29 cases diagnosed in the Centro de Referências em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Maranhão (CREDIP from 2004 to 2010. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen cases have been cataloged at the IDTNP. West, east, and central regions of the state of Maranhão recorded 90.3% of cases proving to be important areas for study. The western region, with a prevalence of 10.8/100,000 inhabitants, has a significantly higher proportion of cases than the northern, southern, and eastern regions (p < 0.05. The occurrence was higher in men with 89.3% of cases, and the male-to-female ratio was 8.4:1. The majority of patients were older than 20 years, lived in rural areas, and had farming or soil management as main occupation (73.8%. At CREDIP, 29 cases were diagnosed, of which 26 (89.6% had multifocal manifestations. Mucous tissues were involved more (75.8% frequently, followed by lymph nodes, skin, and lungs with 65.5%, 39% and 37.9 %, respectively. The diagnosis was made by combining direct examination, culture, and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the geographical distribution and the epidemiological and clinical aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, revealing the significance of the disease to the state of Maranhão.

  16. Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young Ho; Choi, Young Ho [Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients. Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; {+-} 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization. Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

  17. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. PMID:21919951

  18. [Body dysmorphic disorder: clinical aspects, nosological dimensions and controversies with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Rosa; Arancibia, Marcelo; Heitzer, Cristóbal; Meza, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence about the co-existence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (ED), particularly with anorexia nervosa (AN). An exhaustive review of the specialised literature regarding these disorders was carried out. The results show that their co-occurrence implies a more complex diagnosis and treatment, a more severe clinical symptomatology and a worse prognosis and outcome. Both disorders display common similarities, differences and comorbidities, which allow authors to classify them in different nosological spectra (somatomorphic, anxious, obsessive-compulsive, affective and psychotic). Their crossover involves higher levels of body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, depression, suicidal tendency, personality disorders, substance use/abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, alexithymia and childhood abuse or neglect background. Treatment including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and selective reuptake serotonin inhibitors are effective for both, BDD and ED; nevertheless, plastic surgery could exacerbate BDD. Clinical traits of BDD must be systematically detected in patients suffering from ED and vice versa. PMID:27552014

  19. Clinical Aspects of Patients with Febrile Convulsion: A survey in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarian F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Febrile seizures (FS happen in 2-5% of children aged 6 months to 5 years. Several studies have confirmed that between 2 to 7% of children with FS, develop epilepsy later in life. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical aspects of patients with febrile seizure in our region. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study that was performed in the pediatric ward of Ghaem hospital in Mashhad, Iran from Sep. 2004 to March 2005. 68 patients aged 6 months to 5 years were evaluated. Results: Most patients were male and aged between 1 to 3 years. 25% had a past history of febrile seizures. Upper respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were among the most common causes of febrile seizures, respectively. Simple febrile seizures were seen in 64.7% of the cases. Most of such patients had body temperature above 38.5˚c at the time of seizure occurrence. Conclusion: Febrile seizures were more frequently seen in boys aged 1 to 3 years. It most commonly occurred following an upper respiratory tract infection and due to rise in body temperature above 38.5 ۫c.

  20. Root resorption after dental traumas: classification and clinical, radiographic and histologic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Oliveira de Aguiar Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common sequelae observed after dental trauma is root resorption. Objective: The aim of this study was to classify and discuss the external root resorption after a dental trauma, based on a literature review. Literature review: A bibliographic search was performed in the following databases: Medline, PubMed, and Lilacs, from 1997 to 2010. The following descriptors were used: Root resorption, Dental trauma and Classification. From a total of 152 articles found, 25 were selected: 24 in English and 1 in Spanish. Classic articles were also used in our study. External root resorption after dental traumas can be divided into superficial, inflammatory and replacement. It can also be verified in primary dentition as physiological and atypical resorptions. Conclusion: Each type of resorption presents clinical features as well as radiographic and histological aspects. Therefore, the dentist should know these characteristics to perform an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, minimizing the sequelae related to this problem. Moreover, in primary dentition, the differential diagnosis between physiological and pathological resorption is important to avoid over-treatment.

  1. Radiation-induced cataract-genesis: pathophysiologic, radiobiological and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataract-genesis is a widely reported late effect of irradiated crystalline lens. In this review the authors discussed the different aspects of radiation cataract pathogenesis, and the different mechanisms involved in the lens opacification, particularly the epithelium modifications such as epithelial cell death. The authors also reported the influence of radiation exposure on cataract formation following total body irradiation TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Moreover, the radiobiological parameters are not studied for the crystalline lens of human. We applied for the first time the linear quadratic (LQ) and biological effective dose (BED) concept to TBI data. The calculated value of α/β of 1 Gy is in the range of the values reported for the other late responding tissues. The other risk factors for cataract development after TBI such as age, gender, central nervous system boost, long-term steroid therapy and heparin administration are discussed. In terms of cataract or sicca syndrome prevention, numerous compounds have been successfully tested in experimental models or used for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients treated for head and neck cancer. However, none of them has been clinically evaluated for ocular radiation late effects prevention. In this report the authors discussed some of the radioprotectors potentially interesting for radiation-induced cataract or sicca syndrome prevention. (author)

  2. Progesterone and Related Compounds in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC accounts for 85% to 90% of primary liver cancers. Major risk factors for HCC include infection with HBV or HCV, alcoholic liver disease, and most probably nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In general, men are two to four times more often associated with HCC than women. It can be suggested that sex hormones including progesterone may play some roles in HCC. Rather, very limited information discusses its potential involvement in HCC. This paper thus collects some recent studies of the potential involvement of progesterone and related compounds in HCC from basic and clinical aspects. In addition, two synthetic progestins, megestrol acetate (MA and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, will be discussed thoroughly. It is noted that progesterone can also serve as the precursor for androgens and estrogens produced by the gonadal and adrenal cortical tissues, while men have a higher incidence of HCC than women might be due to the stimulatory effects of androgen and the protective effects of estrogen. Eventually, this paper suggests a new insight on the associations of progesterone and related compounds with HCC development and treatment.

  3. Modern aspects and tracer techniques in nuclear medicine imaging and therapy - an approach towards personalized medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiometalated peptides and peptidic ligands in preclinical and clinical imaging and therapy are rapidly gaining in significance. In addition to well established ligands, such as sst-agonists, new and powerful tracers, such as GRP-2 antagonists, PSMA inhibitors, subtype specific integrin ligands, chemokine receptor antagonists (CXCR4-ligands) and others are under development and have already entered first studies in humans. Apart from the further development and assessment of improved lead structures and innovative chelators, the evaluation of new tracers in appropriate animal models and first clinical trials opens a broad field of preclinical and clinical research. With the aim to improve the labeling chemistry and thus the availability of clinically relevant peptides, we have developed new phosphinate based triazacyclononane (TRAP, NOPO) and tetraazacyclododecane (DOTPI) chelator systems that allow for fast and selective labeling with radiometals, such as 68Ga, 64Cu or 177Lu. Due to the high selectivity of these chelators, specific activities of up >4000 GBq/mol (approx. >100.000Ci/mmol) can be reached for 68Ga-labeling without separation of residual peptide precursor. In addition, tri- and tetrameric structures, which can be easily realized with these chelators, result in pM affinities and thus allows in combination with the high specific activity in a significant improved experimental set-up for preclinical molecular imaging studies

  4. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  5. Clinical evaluation of multiplanar reformation CT images in disk hernias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is a non-invasive procedure as compared with myelography in the diagnosis of diseases of the spine and spinal cord. In recent years, the performance of the CT-scan equipment has been markedly improved, resulting in an advancement of its diagnostic value, and it is said that CT is now superior to myelography in diagnosing some types of diseases of spine and spinal cord. We performed a multiplanar reformation in patients with disk hernia for the purpose of evaluating the method's clinical diagnostic value, and the reformatted images were compared with the axial images in the same patient. We used four types of reformation: coronal, sagittal, para-axial, and oblique reformations. The reformatted images were obtained from multiple continuous images with a slice thickness of 3 mm and with no declination of the gantry of the scanner. The axial images were obtained by making the gantry parallel to the disk and perpendicular to the vertebral body. The thickness of the axial images is 3 mm at the disk and 5 mm at the vertebral body level. We compared these reformatted and axial images with the extension of the disk hernia in the spinal canal and neural foramen and the degree of visualization of nerve roots. The sagittal reformatted images were useful in evaluating the extension of the disk hernia in the spinal canal and neural foramen. The coronal and oblique reformatted images were useful in visualizing the nerve roots. The axial images were excellent in ability to diagnose the disk hernia, while the reformatted images were significant in understanding the anatomical relation of the disease preoperatively. (author)

  6. [Ultrasound coronary angioplasty: state of the art and new clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenschein, U; Budde-Schwartzman, B

    1997-12-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound was shown to ablate thrombi and to disrupt atherosclerotic plaques in vitro and recently to recanalize occluded coronary arteries in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The goal of this article is to update collective experience and to weigh the promising and unresolved aspects of this newly developed technology and its clinical results. As therapeutic ultrasound was for long known a synonym for lithotripsy of calculi diseases, it lastly received high attention as a catheter-based ultrasound method to ablate thrombi and disrupt atherosclerotic plaques in interventional cardiology (Figure 1). The effect of therapeutic ultrasound to ablate selectively pathological tissue depends on its bioselectivity for elastic fibers: After ultrasound sonication, healthy tissue-rich in elastin and collagen-including arterial wall remains intact whereas thrombus and plaque with their minimal elastic support are found to be highly susceptible to ablation. Our catheter for coronary ultrasound thrombolysis (Figure 2) consists of a solid metal probe and is connected to a piezo-electric transducer at its proximal end. The distal part ends in a three-wire flexible segment with a 1.6 mm tip ball to guarantee maximal wire flexibility and optimal transmission of ultrasound energy. The initial in vitro studies resulted in a fundamental understanding of the destructive effect of ultrasound on tissue based on 4 factors: mechanical vibration, thermal effects, microcurrents, and cavitation. The first studies on human peripheral vessels were published in 1991 being performed during femoral bypass surgery on occluded and partially obstructed arteries. The procedure was performed without perforation, no adverse side effects emerged, restenosis rate was 20%. The clinical application of coronary ultrasound angioplasty was initiated in 1991; Siegel published his data on 44 patients. In his study, 30 patients with chronic atherosclerotic occlusive lesions and 14 with unstable or

  7. Dual energy imaging using a clinical on-board imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual energy (DE) imaging consists of obtaining kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images at two different diagnostic energies and performing a weighted subtraction of these images. A third image is then produced that highlights soft tissue. DE imaging has been used by radiologists to aid in the detection of lung malignancies. However, it has not been used clinically in radiotherapy. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of performing DE imaging using a commercial on-board imaging system. Both a simple and an anthropomorphic phantom were constructed for this analysis. Planar kV images of the phantoms were obtained using varied imaging energies and mAs. Software was written to perform DE subtraction using empirically determined weighting factors. Tumor detectability was assessed quantitatively using the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Overall DE subtraction suppressed high density objects in both phantoms. The optimal imaging technique, providing the largest SDNR with a dose less than our reference technique was 140 kVp, 1.0 mAs and 60 kVp, 3.2 mAs. Based on this analysis, DE subtraction imaging is feasible using a commercial on-board imaging system and may improve the visualization of tumors in lung cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. (paper)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yong Du; Hanfeng Yang; Yayong Huang; Jun Meng; Dongmei Xiao

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available,the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization.In clinical practice,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer,the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location,size,and extent,while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness.This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI)for aiding prostate cancer management.

  9. Clinical imaging of vascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Covic, Adrian; London, Gerard; Vervloet, Marc; Goldsmith, David; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease. Imaging of pre-calcification and decalcification events may prove more important than imaging of the calcification itself. Data-driven approaches to screening will be necessary to limit radiation exposure and prevent over-utilization of expensive imaging techniques. PMID:26898824

  10. Delayed allergy-like reactions to X-ray contrast media administration focusing on clinical aspects. First expert meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materials presented at the first expert meeting of leading specialists in medical radiology are briefly described. The include 14 reports of the scientists of Germany, England, Japan, USA, Finland, Austria. The reports concert delayed allergy-like response to X-ray contrast media accepting on clinical aspects and analysis of nonionic dimeric isotonic media application

  11. PET imaging with 89Zr: From radiochemistry to the clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of antibody-based cancer therapeutics has led to the concomitant rise in the development of companion diagnostics for these therapies, particularly nuclear imaging agents. A number of radioisotopes have been employed for antibody-based PET and SPECT imaging, notably 64Cu, 124I, 111In, and 99mTc; in recent years, however, the field has increasingly focused on 89Zr, a radiometal with near ideal physical and chemical properties for immunoPET imaging. In the review at hand, we seek to provide a comprehensive portrait of the current state of 89Zr radiochemical and imaging research, including work into the production and purification of the isotope, the synthesis of new chelators, the development of new bioconjugation strategies, the creation of novel 89Zr-based agents for preclinical imaging studies, and the translation of 89Zr-labeled radiopharmaceuticals to the clinic. Particular attention will also be dedicated to emerging trends in the field, 89Zr-based imaging applications using vectors other than antibodies, the comparative advantages and limitations of 89Zr-based imaging compared to that with other isotopes, and areas that would benefit from more extensive investigation. At bottom, it is hoped that this review will provide both the experienced investigator and new scientist with a full and critical overview of this exciting and fast-developing field.

  12. ASPECTS REGARDING THE FACEBOOK USER IN ROMANIA AS A POTENTIAL DESTINATION IMAGE - VECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAIL-CRISTIAN DIȚOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet’s rapid development from the 1.0 version to the 2.0 one has triggered the appearance of social networks. Facebook is Illustrative of them due to the number of users it attracts and its international range of dispersion. Although a beginner in communication, Facebook Romania is prone to contribute highly to the “content generator” market in what concerns its users. In order to create or maintain a brand’s positive image it is necessary to know some elements regarding the demographic aspects of the target public, and its attitudes, predilections or behaviours in general. Thus, web pages created on Facebook can “transform” its users into fans and there is a possibility that afterwards these fans become image -vectors by way of the delivered experiences. This article tries to study the fundamental elements that could make up the profile of a user from the targeted group as a potential destination image- vector.

  13. Global quality control perspective for the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography - Image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic monitoring of image quality and radiation dose is an ultimate solution to ensuring the continuously high quality of mammography examination. At present several protocols exist around the world, and different test objects are used for quality control (QC) of the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography. This situation may lead to differences in radiation image quality and dose reported. This article reviews the global QC perspective for the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography with regard to image quality and radiation dose. It points out issues that must be resolved in terms of radiation dose and that also affect the comparison. (authors)

  14. A review of methods of clinical image quality evaluation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Consistency in evaluation of mammography images in research and clinical practice is dependent on a standardised clinical image quality evaluation system. Currently two such systems are available-one developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the other by the European Commission (EU guidelines). The purpose of this study was to review mammography clinical evaluation methods in research studies and their adherence to these systems. Method: A total of 23 research articles were reviewed from the period 2000-2006, 11 of these studies used digital images. The focus of the review was the criteria and rating scales used. Results: Only 5 studies used either the ACR (3) or EU guidelines (2). The remainder included aspects of these systems together with a range of other criteria and rating scales. Variation was found in the categories of criteria used, number of criteria, the descriptors of the criteria and the instructions used to evaluate the criteria. Instructions were frequently not specific and open to individual interpretation. Although breast density is an important criterion of image quality and contributes to perception of breast lesions, inclusion of this criterion was not universal, and even when used the area of breast density to be evaluated was not identified, thus enhancing inter-observer variability. Scales that were absolute or relative were used for evaluation, all of which incorporated inconsistent numbers of steps. Conclusion: Low adherence to ACR and EU Guidelines has resulted in considerable variation in the evaluation methods used in research studies. The implications of this variability are considerable both for evaluation of image quality in research outcomes and clinical practice.

  15. Clinical and imaging characteristics of the vascular dementia. Preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive prospective study was carried out in 41 patients presenting with vascular dementia from Habana Vieja municipality, Havana City, in order to know some of the clinical and imaging characteristics of this disease. The main risk factors observed were the history of cerebrovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Depression, sleeping disorders and focal and pseudo bulbar neurologic signs were the most frequent clinical findings. Folstein neuropsychological test evidenced an important disorder of attention, calculation, the evocation memory and orientation. According to this test, 29 % of the patients had a severe dementia and nearly 50 % showed a severe handicap. The most frequent imaging findings observed in the computerized axial tomography of the cranium were cerebral atrophy, and single or multiple infarctions. Multiple cerebral infarctions, the lacunar status, subcortical encephalopathy of Binswanger, and single infarction located in cerebral areas related to cognition were considered as possible psychopathological mechanisms associated with the disease

  16. Image correlation: meaning in clinical radioimmunotherapy dosimetry for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image correlation has many potential applications in Nuclear Medicine: the combination of the high resolution anatomical delineation of structures as achievable with MRI/CT and the less spatially resolved but functional biochemical images from SPECT, benefits both modalities and is successful in clinical applications. In particular this is fundamental to obtain 1) the volume determination of tumours and normal organs and 2) the quantitation of the activity of radiolabelled antibodies in tumours and normal organs, necessary for the development of treatment strategies. Clinical reports of treatment planning in cerebral gliomas are showed in this paper: the modalities used are CT and SPECT with DTPA. The last has the property of showing the contour of the skull allowing an easier correlation by comparing it to the one that is even more visible by CT. This suggests to use anatomic markers or even surface fitting (Pellizzari algorithm)

  17. Clinical aspects, outcome assessment, and management of ankylosing spondylitis and postenteric reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, S; van der Heijde, D

    2000-07-01

    The cause of ankylosing spondylitis remains unclear. Proof that this disorder is an autoimmune disease attributable to crossreactivity between bacteria and HLA-B27 is still lacking. Differences in endogenous peptide presentation by HLA-B27 subtypes might be relevant in the etiopathogenesis. Fractures of the osteoporotic spine contribute to morbidity. Spinal cord injury may occur. MR imaging enables identifying sacroiliitis earlier than plain radiography. Sweet syndrome has now been described in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn disease. Progress has been made in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. There are now core sets for different settings and validated instruments for functioning and disease activity that will enable demonstrating efficacy of new therapeutic interventions. The debate continues on classification of postinfectious and reactive arthritis. Bacterial antigens may be found in the inflamed joints; occasionally 16S ribosomal RNA is also demonstrated. Antibiotics seem not to be effective in postenteric reactive arthritis. More than 25 years have now elapsed since the association between ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-B27 was first described in 1973. The cause of this disease is still unknown, but a lot of progress has been made regarding the molecular structure of HLA-B27, the spectrum of disease, the clinical and radiographic assessment of ankylosing spondylitis, and its treatment. Recent advances in research on ankylosing spondylitis are reviewed here. PMID:10910177

  18. CT dose and image quality studies using phantom and clinical images: the dose efficiency index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the effort in reducing radiation dose to patients, the selection of a radiation dose efficient CT scanner is vital from the clinical practice point of view. A number of CT dose efficiency indexes have been suggested in the literature for the assessment of the CT scanners from different manufactures. There is still no generally accepted index or figure of merit for the assessment of CT scanners. In this work, CT phantom and clinical images were acquired or collected from a number of clinical imaging centres using both 16 and 64 slices scanners of the four major CT manufactures. CT dose was displayed as CTDI on the images and image quality was assessed by four human observers and ranked using 1.5 visual grading scale. The best fit for the relationship between the dose and image quality is an exponential function and a new dose efficiency index is defined as the radio of the image quality to radiation dose at the just acceptable image quality for diagnosis.

  19. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (60). Insufficiency fractures of the pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peh, W C

    2001-04-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with severe low back pain of gradual onset. Her walking ability was affected. Physical examination was essentially negative. Bone scintiscans showed a butterfly-shaped area of increased sacral uptake as well as focal pubic uptake. The diagnosis of sacral and parasymphyseal insufficiency fractures was confirmed by CT. The patient recovered well with conservative management. The clinical and imaging features, and management of insufficiency fractures of the pelvis are discussed. PMID:11465322

  1. Breast imaging with SoftVue: initial clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    We describe the clinical performance of SoftVue, a breast imaging device based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. Participants were enrolled in an IRB-approved study at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. The main research findings indicate that SoftVue is able to image the whole uncompressed breast up to cup size H. Masses can be imaged in even the densest breasts with the ability to discern margins and mass shapes. Additionally, it is demonstrated that multi-focal disease can also be imaged. The system was also tested in its research mode for additional imaging capabilities. These tests demonstrated the potential for generating tissue stiffness information for the entire breast using through-transmission data. This research capability differentiates SoftVue from the other whole breast systems on the market. It is also shown that MRI-like images can be generated using alternative processing of the echo data. Ongoing research is focused on validating and quantifying these findings in a larger sample of study participants and quantifying SoftVue's ability to differentiate benign masses from cancer.

  2. Clinical application of quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging for the diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation in patients with thyroid disease. Methods: With the Siemens Orbit SPECT, 99Tcm sodium pertechnetate thyroid imaging was performed on a control group and 108 patients with Graves' disease, 58 patients with Hashimoto's disease, 41 patients with subacute thyroiditis. Three functional parameters were calculated as follows: AR=5 min thyroid count/1 min thyroid count; UI=20 min thyroid count/thigh count; Td=imaging interval between carotid and thyroid. Results: 1) Three functional parameters were basically concordant with serological parameters in patients with Graves' disease. While uptake was high in patients who had contracted Graves' disease for ≤0.5 year, for those whose disease relapsed within 2 years the 99Tcm thyroid uptake increased when the antithyroid medication was stopped. 2) Thyroid images of hyperthyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease showed increased perfusion and 99Tcm uptake, a pattern similar to that found in Graves' disease. Differences in Td, AR , UI were not significant among euthyroid, subclinical hypothyroid patients with Hashimoto's disease, so uptake ratios could indicate the thyroid activity. 3) Delayed thyroid image and diffuse uptake decrease were found in hyperthyroid patients with SAT, however, focal damages were observed in euthyroid patients. Conclusion: Quantitative 99Tcm-pertechnetate thyroid imaging is a significantly helpful technique in the diagnosis and treatment for common thyroid disorders

  3. Chest wall tuberculosis - A clinical and imaging experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculous infection of the thoracic cage is rare and is difficult to discern clinically or on radiographs. This study aims to describe the common sites and the imaging appearances of chest wall tuberculosis. A retrospective review of the clinical and imaging records of 12 confirmed cases of thoracic cage tuberculosis (excluding that of the spine), seen over the last 7 years, was performed. Imaging studies available included radiographs, ultrasonographies (USGs), and computed tomography (CT) scans. Pathological confirmation was obtained in all cases. All patients had clinical signs and symptoms localized to the site of involvement, whether it was the sternum, sternoclavicular joints, or ribs. CT scan revealed sternal destruction in three patients and osteolytic lesions with sclerosis of the articular surfaces of the sternoclavicular joints in two patients. In five patients with rib lesions, USG elegantly demonstrated the bone destruction underlying the cold abscess. All cases were confirmed to be of tuberculous origin by pathology studies of the aspirated/curetted material, obtained by CT / USG guidance. Tuberculous etiology should be considered for patients presenting with atypical sites of skeletal inflammation. CT scan plays an important role in the evaluation of these patients. However, the use of USG for demonstrating rib destruction in a chest wall cold abscess has so far been under-emphasized, as has been the role of CT and USG guided aspiration in confirming the aetiology

  4. Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taejun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Seunghun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bumju; Hwang, Sekyu; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yoon, Yeoreum; Lee, Gilgu; Le, Viet-Hoan; Bok, Seoyeon; Ahn, G.-One; Lee, Jaewook; Gho, Yong Song; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Jang, Myoung Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Myoung Joon; So, Peter T. C.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear fluorescence microscopic technique widely used for cellular imaging of thick tissues and live animals in biological studies. However, MPM application to human tissues is limited by weak endogenous fluorescence in tissue and cytotoxicity of exogenous probes. Herein, we describe the applications of moxifloxacin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, as a cell-labeling agent for MPM. Moxifloxacin has bright intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence, good tissue penetration and high intracellular concentration. MPM with moxifloxacin was demonstrated in various cell lines, and animal tissues of cornea, skin, small intestine and bladder. Clinical application is promising since imaging based on moxifloxacin labeling could be 10 times faster than imaging based on endogenous fluorescence.

  5. Imaging and clinical analysis of 12 cases with melioidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Imaging and clinical manifestations of melioidosis were analyzed in order to improve our understanding of the disease and to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis. Methods: From 2001 to 2006, 12 melioidosis cases were confirmed by blood, pus and sputum culture. All cases were examined with radiography, and nine of them with CT and 2 with US. The imaging and clinical data were assessed retrospectively. Results: Ten of 12 cases revealed lung abnormalities, the main organ involved by melioidosis in the body. The appearances were observed as follows: diffused sheets and sheets fused partly in bilateral fields of the lungs can be seen on chest radiograph; homogeneous dense shadow of the lobe or segment were observed on plain chest film and CT; blurred strips radiated from hilum were revealed on plain chest film; multitude nodules in 2 lungs showed on CT; cavity with air and liquid be seen on plain chest film and CT; patches and granules in superior and middle fields or (and) inferior fields be seen on plain chest film and CT; arc shadow of water attenuation in dorsal thorax showed on CT. Infections outside the lung can be observed in orbital, lumbar muscle, liver and spleen in 1 case, and thighbone osteomyelitis with multi abscesses in one case. Conclusion: Alhough medioidosis has no characteristic imaging appearances, the disease's location, extent, severity and quantity objectively can be demonstrated by imaging, final confirmation is necessary using the culture of blood, pus and sputum. (authors)

  6. Clinical and imaging manifestations of adult mitochondrial encephalomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate clinical manifestations and neuroimaging in the adult patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME). Methods: Systematic study was performed on the clinical features of six adult patients with ME with observations on electromyogram (EMG), electroencephalogram (EEG), the blood lactic acid level, muscle biopsies results and neuroimaging features of CT and MRI. Results: The main clinical features were characterized by seizures, intolerance to exercise, audio-visual dysfunction, mental retardation, and so forth. EMG showed neurogenic damages (4/5 cases); EEG showed extensive mild to severe abnormal activities (3/3 cases) and lactic acidosis was also observed (4 /4 cases). Neuroimaging findings included symmetric supratentorial multi foci lesions, located in frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes, thalami and basal ganglia with widening of ventricles and cerebral atrophy; the neuroimaging findings also included hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and hypointensity/ isointensity on T1-weighted images; No stenosis and occlusion of main artery was displayed by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Muscle biopsies showed red ragged fiber (RRF) (4/6 cases). Conclusions: Based on clinical features and neuroimaging, diagnosis of ME in early stage may be made in combination with muscle biopsy. (authors)

  7. 'Ready-access' CT imaging for an orthopaedic trauma clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, D

    2011-03-01

    \\'Ready-Access\\' to CT imaging facilities in Orthopaedic Trauma Clinics is not a standard facility. This facility has been available at the regional trauma unit, in Merlin Park Hospital, Galway for the past four years. We reviewed the use of this facility over a 2-year period when 100 patients had CT scans as part of their trauma clinic assessment. The rate of CT scan per clinic was 0.6. The mean waiting time for a CT scan was 30 minutes. 20 (20%) new fractures were confirmed, 33 (33%) fractures were out-ruled, 25 (25%) fractures demonstrated additional information and 8 (8%) had additional fractures. 20 (20%) patients were discharged and 12 (12%) patients were admitted as a result of the CT scan. It adds little time and cost to CT scanning lists.

  8. Different aspects of dysexecutive syndrome in patients with moyamoya disease and its clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingling; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Qian; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Rong; Wan, Weiqing

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysexecutive syndrome is common in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), a chronic cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and progressive collateral revascularization, and MMD can be classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic according to the disease presentation and history. In this study, the authors aimed to determine which aspects of executive function are impaired in patients with MMD, in addition to the specific dysexecutive functions present among its clinical subtypes and the mechanisms underlying dysexecutive function in these patients. METHODS The authors administered 5 typical executive function tests (the Stroop test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], the verbal fluency [VF] test, the N-back test, and the Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) to 49 patients with MMD and 47 IQ-, age-, education-, and social status-matched healthy controls. The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) was also used to assess participants' subjective feelings about their executive function. A total of 39 of the patients were evaluated by CT perfusion (CTP) before the assessments were performed, and the correlations among the performances of the patients on the above tests with the parameters of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) in the frontal lobes of these patients were also analyzed. RESULTS Many aspects of executive function in the patients with MMD were significantly poorer than those in the healthy controls, and the patients performed particularly poorer on the VF test, HSCT, N-back test, and SART. The patients with hemorrhagic MMD exhibited worse executive inhibition, executive processing, and semantic inhibition compared with those with ischemic MMD, but the latter group presented a worse working memory and poorer sustained attention. There were no significant differences in the DEX scores between the patients with MMD and

  9. Clinical study of imaging skin cancer margins using polarized light imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Lee, Ken; Jacques, Steven L.

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer is most commons type of cancer in United States that occur on sun-exposed cosmetically sensitive areas like face, neck, and forearms. Surgical excision of skin cancer is challenging as more than one-third the actual margins extend beyond the clinically determined margins. Polarized light camera (polCAM) provides images of the superficial layers of the tissue with enhanced contrast which was used to image skin cancer margins. In a NIH-funded pilot study polCAM was used to image skin cancer in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery for skin cancer. Polarized light imaging utilizes the polarization properties of light to create an image of a lesion comprised only of light scattering from the superficial layers of the skin which yields a characteristic "fabric pattern" of the putative lesion and the surrounding normal tissue. In several case studies conducted with a system developed for the clinic, we have found that skin cancer disrupts this fabric pattern, allowing the doctor a new means of identifying the margins of the lesion. Data is acquired before the patient underwent surgery. The clinically determined skin cancer margins were compared with margins determined by examination of the polCAM images. The true margins were provided by the dermatophathologist on examination of the frozen sections. Our initial data suggests that the contrast due to polarization changes associated with cancerous lesions can elucidate margins that were not recognized by the surgeon under normal conditions but were later confirmed by the pathologist.

  10. Clinical value of imaging techniques in childhood osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The traditional approach to investigating suspected osteomyelitis in children includes conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. The roles of US, CT and MR imaging are controversial. Our objective was to determine whether the additional use of these modalities would yield information likely to lead to treatment modification. Material and Methods: Sixty-five children with clinically suspected osteomyelitis took part in a prospective study. All patients underwent conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. In addition to this, US, CT and MR imaging were all performed in 33 patients; the remaining 32 patients were examined with various combinations of these three modalities. The value of the additional information obtained was estimated retrospectively by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon in terms of possible modification of treatment. Results: MR imaging was the modality with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting osteomyelitis. MR yielded information likely to influence treatment in the greatest proportion of patients (45%) followed by US (30%). Conclusion: The standard investigation protocol with the addition of US (because of its ability to detect subperiosteal abscesses early and simply) is adequate in uncomplicated cases. When additional imaging is required to outline a lesion, or in complicated cases, and when bone scintigraphy is inconclusive, MR imaging should also be performed. CT should be considered when MR investigation is not available or when anesthesia is required but cannot be provided. (orig.)

  11. Clinical value of imaging techniques in childhood osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, S.; Jorulf, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children`s Hospital, Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hirsch, G. [Karolinska Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children`s Hospital, Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Purpose: The traditional approach to investigating suspected osteomyelitis in children includes conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. The roles of US, CT and MR imaging are controversial. Our objective was to determine whether the additional use of these modalities would yield information likely to lead to treatment modification. Material and Methods: Sixty-five children with clinically suspected osteomyelitis took part in a prospective study. All patients underwent conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. In addition to this, US, CT and MR imaging were all performed in 33 patients; the remaining 32 patients were examined with various combinations of these three modalities. The value of the additional information obtained was estimated retrospectively by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon in terms of possible modification of treatment. Results: MR imaging was the modality with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting osteomyelitis. MR yielded information likely to influence treatment in the greatest proportion of patients (45%) followed by US (30%). Conclusion: The standard investigation protocol with the addition of US (because of its ability to detect subperiosteal abscesses early and simply) is adequate in uncomplicated cases. When additional imaging is required to outline a lesion, or in complicated cases, and when bone scintigraphy is inconclusive, MR imaging should also be performed. CT should be considered when MR investigation is not available or when anesthesia is required but cannot be provided. (orig.)

  12. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized. PMID:26785413

  13. On-the-fly detection of images with gastritis aspects in magnetically guided capsule endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, P. W.; Neumann, D.; Juloski, A. L.; Angelopoulou, E.; Hornegger, J.

    2011-03-01

    Capsule Endoscopy (CE) was introduced in 2000 and has since become an established diagnostic procedure for the small bowel, colon and esophagus. For the CE examination the patient swallows the capsule, which then travels through the gastrointestinal tract under the influence of the peristaltic movements. CE is not indicated for stomach examination, as the capsule movements can not be controlled from the outside and the entire surface of the stomach can not be reliably covered. Magnetically-guided capsule endoscopy (MGCE) was introduced in 2010. For the MGCE procedure the stomach is filled with water and the capsule is navigated from the outside using an external magnetic field. During the examination the operator can control the motion of the capsule in order to obtain a sufficient number of stomach-surface images with diagnostic value. The quality of the examination depends on the skill of the operator and his ability to detect aspects of interest in real time. We present a novel computer-assisted diagnostic-procedure (CADP) algorithm for indicating gastritis pathologies in the stomach during the examination. Our algorithm is based on pre-processing methods and feature vectors that are suitably chosen for the challenges of the MGCE imaging (suspended particles, bubbles, lighting). An image is classified using an ada-boost trained classifier. For the classifier training, a number of possible features were investigated. Statistical evaluation was conducted to identify relevant features with discriminative potential. The proposed algorithm was tested on 12 video sequences stemming from 6 volunteers. A mean detection rate of 91.17% was achieved during leave-one out cross-validation.

  14. Imaging with FDG labelled leukocytes: is it clinically useful?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo and in vitro labeled leukocytes have been shown to be very effective in detecting different infectious and inflammatory conditions. The model of labeled leukocyte imaging is based on the powerful mechanisms of chemotaxis exerted on activated leukocytes by chemo-attractants. The avidity of inflammatory cells for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has led to the concept of labeling leukocytes with [18 F]FDG ex vivo. This concept combines cell-bound radionuclide trafficking from the blood pool compartment to the lesion with the high resolution of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The further benefits of having a correlated anatomical map by implementing the acquisition on a hybrid PET/computed tomography (CT) device are obvious. The feasibility and the potential value of leukocyte PET(/CT) imaging in infection have been demonstrated. The available data suggest a high accuracy of the method. Still, leukocyte PET/CT should not be considered as the endpoint of infection imaging, since it only meets a part of the criteria of the ideal infection imaging agent. However, the common clinical need for specific detection of infection with anatomical precision, the availability of the components necessary for performing leukocyte PET/CT, their lack of toxicity or adverse effects and the absence of more superior tracers on the commercial market make it worthwhile to further investigate leukocyte PET/CT imaging in larger prospective series. The advantages of leukocyte PET/CT over the more conventional nuclear medicine and radiological methods makes this imaging tool likely to be useful in certain subsets of infected patients.

  15. Concussion in athletics: ongoing clinical and brain imaging research controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobounov, Semyon; Gay, Michael; Johnson, Brian; Zhang, Kai

    2012-06-01

    Concussion, the most common form of traumatic brain injury, proves to be increasingly complex and not mild in nature as its synonymous term mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) would imply. Despite the increasing occurrence and prevalence of mTBI there is no universally accepted definition and conventional brain imaging techniques lack the sensitivity to detect subtle changes it causes. Moreover, clinical management of sports induced mild traumatic brain injury has not changed much over the past decade. Advances in neuroimaging that include electroencephalography (EEG), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), resting-state functional connectivity, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) offer promise in aiding research into understanding the complexities and nuances of mTBI which may ultimately influence clinical management of the condition. In this paper the authors review the major findings from these advanced neuroimaging methods along with current controversy within this field of research. As mTBI is frequently associated with youth and sports injury this review focuses on sports-related mTBI in the younger population. PMID:22669496

  16. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  17. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  18. Estimation of clinical efficacy for scintigraphic images of liver, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical efficacy No. 1 (diagnostic accuracy) of liver images on the SOL-disease from a viewpoint of the reliability of diagnosis with liver image. The results of which 11 physicians read the liver images of 401 cases (SOL-presence = 124 case, SOL-absence = 227 cases) collected from the 8 situations, were analyzed. The reliability of diagnosis in detecting the SOL by reading liver images may be evaluated from the measurements of variation of finding by 11 doctors. The results of analysis are as follows. (1) The amount of interobserver variations of ROC curve in detecting the SOL is different at any operating point. An operating point at which the detection efficiency of SOL-disease is large and the interobserver variations is small, may be searched by calculating the posttest probability differences as a function of the prevalence of disease. (2) By scoring the confidence level of SOL-presence judged by a doctor and calculating an average value and a standard deviation of the scores obtained from 11 doctors, the relation between an average confidence and an interobserver variations of SOL-diagnosis for each case may be estimated. (3) A deviations of answer gained by any two observers out of 11 are calculated by the analysis of variance technique and differences in personality with image reading are detected. (4) Finally, it is presented that the double check study by two doctors having the different personality with image reading improves the ROC curve of SOL-diagnosis. (author)

  19. Noninvasive imaging in acute coronary disease. A clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous highly complex and sensitive noninvasive imaging techniques have enhanced the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Optimum use requires specific objectives to be defined in advance, including a review of the potential impact of the test on subsequent decisions. An additional issue that is subject to scrutiny in the current climate of cost containment relates to the incremental value of a specific examination. The imaging modality to be used will partially depend on other issues, including accessibility, cost, and interindividual or institutional expertise with a particular technique. Major applications in noninvasive imaging in the acute coronary syndromes include the following: (1) diagnosis, including identification of associated diseases and contraindications for acute reperfusion; (2) evaluation and management of complications; (3) determination of prognosis (both early and late); (4) estimation of myocardial viability; (5) assessment of therapeutic efficacy; (6) investigational approaches, including 99mTc-sestamibi tomographic imaging, ultrafast cine computed tomographic scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Previous studies in the prethrombolytic era have documented the powerful impact of radionuclide stress testing on prognosis, but this needs to be reevaluated in the light of the changing current population undergoing stress testing. Preliminary data imply that the prognostic accuracy of stress testing after thrombolytic therapy is diminished. Moreover, the role of the open infarct-related artery in traditional estimates of prognosis requires further study. Noninvasive imaging has multiple applications in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary disease, but the decision to use a specific technology in a particular circumstance mandates good clinical judgment and selectivity. 82 references

  20. Tropical spastic paraparesis and HTLV-1 associated myelopathy: clinical, epidemiological, virological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessain, A; Mahieux, R

    2012-03-01

    , TSP/HAM is mainly defined as a chronic spastic paraparesis and minor sensory signs. The onset is insidious with often gait disturbance and urinary symptoms. In more than 90% of the cases, the neurological features involve: spasticity and/or hyperreflexia of the lower extremities, urinary bladder disturbance, lower extremity muscle weakness, and in around 50% of the cases, sensory disturbances with low back pain. Central functions and cranial nerves are usually spared. The clinical course is generally progressive without remission. High levels of antibodies titers directed against HTLV-1 antigens are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A high HTLV-1 proviral load is frequently observed in the blood. Mild to moderate increase of proteins may be present in the CSF. However, intrathecal production of specific HTLV-1 antibody index provides additional data to support the diagnosis. Brain white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging are frequent. A mild atrophy of the thoracic spinal cord can also be observed. Pathologically, it is characterized by a chronic inflammation with perivascular lymphocytic cuffing and mild parenchymal lymphocytic infiltrates. The cells are mostly CD4(+) in early disease and mostly CD8(+) in latter disease. Pyramidal tract damage with myelin and axonal loss, mainly in the lower thoracic spinal cord are observed. TSP/HAM pathogenesis is still poorly understood and viral and host factors as the proviral load and the cellular immune response play a major role in disease progression. TSP/HAM can be associated with other HTLV-1 associated symptoms (uveitis, myositis, infective dermatitis). Therapy of TSP/HAM remains disappointing and symptomatic treatment remains still the mainstay of therapy. PMID:22405461

  1. Concentric sclerosis: Imaging diagnosis and clinical analysis of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu J

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Baló's Concentric sclerosis (BCS is a rare demyelinating disease considered to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS. The typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes associated with BCS consist of concentric rings or onions' cross-section on T1-weighted (T1W images. Because MRI reveals pathological changes consistent with autopsy in the focus of BCS, it plays an important role in the before-death diagnosis of BCS. We report three cases of BCS diagnosed antemortem on the basis of the typical concentric rings pattern on MRI and on the basis of clinical findings and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination. BCS often occurs in the prime of life, acutely or subacutely. Then come cerebral multifocal symptoms and signs. We find that BCS is not always an acute and irreversible pathological process as described in the past.

  2. Characterization of clinical-imaging characteristics of the binswanger's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review was made to go deep into the understanding of vascular dementias that behave as the second cause of dementia in practice. Binswanger's disease is one of the most important among them. Its detection has progressively increased with the continual improvement of the radiological diagnostic tools that allow to identify the ischemic damage of the hemispherical cerebral white matter and the presence of lacunar infarctions. It is a disease of chronic course and inexorably progressive that is characterized by the association of subcortical cognitive dysfunction, evidence of cerebrovascular disease, Parkinsonian rigidity and vesicle dysfunction with a characteristic imaging picture. The clinical picture and the main imaging characteristics are explained in this paper and the pathogens of the disease is briefly described

  3. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166). Nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-03-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose to achieve good glycaemic control. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged after eight days. There are many causes of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity, including hyperglycaemia in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. This case emphasises the importance of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of hyperglycaemia as a cause of chorea-hemiballismus, to enable early treatment and a better clinical outcome. PMID:26996977

  4. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Antonio [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; MRI Health Time Group, Jaen (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Univ. (Spain). Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta. Caterina; Hygino da Cruz, L. Celso Jr. (ed.) [CDPI and IRM, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Rossi, Santiago E. [Centro de Diagnostico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  5. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  6. Evaluation of different imaging chains in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Terho, E.O.; Wiljasalo, M.; Wiljasalo, S.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland))

    1984-11-01

    Six imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography have been evaluated: four film-screen combinations in the conventional grid technique and two combinations in the air gap technique. Five parameters characterising the quality of a chest radiograph were evaluated by three radiologists and one chest physician by using a nominal grading scale from -2 to +2 compared with the standard technique. The quality parameters judged were: the visibility of peripheral lung vessels, lung parenchyme, the pulmonary hilum, and lung structure behind the heart shadow, as well as the visibility of miscellaneous findings of clinical interest. The air gap technique was shown to be superior to the ordinary grid technique. The diagnostic quality of chest radiography does not necessarily deteriorate with the screen speed. However, statistically significant differences were noticed, even between techniques which had equal speed and physical resolution.

  7. MR imaging assessment of clinical problems in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Jose A.; Roca, Yolanda; Aguilera, Carlos [Department of CT and MR Imaging, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Narvaez, Javier [Department of Medicine, Delfos Medical Center, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Although MR imaging has been increasingly recognized as a useful tool in the diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in the assessment of disease activity, these applications have not yet been usually included in the routine management of this condition. Our goal is to review the current role of MRI in the everyday clinical management of patients with RA. The usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of articular and para-articular changes in specific locations, mainly the craniocervical region and the temporomandibular joint, are reviewed. Clinical problems derived from local extra-articular involvement, such as tenosynovitis, ''rice-bodies'' bursitis, and Baker's cyst rupture, are also described. Finally, we also review the value of MRI in evaluation of some complications of RA such as tendinous rupture, osteonecrosis, stress fracture, and septic arthritis/osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  8. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  9. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  10. Sinusitis and intracranial sepsis: the CT imaging and clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, V.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Boldt, D.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Shield, L.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-11-01

    The CT imaging and clinical presentation in 14 children with coexistent intracranial sepsis and sinusitis were reviewed. A routine CT head scan (10-mm thick semi-axial slices through the cranium done before and after intravenous contrast medium administration) was found to be an inadequate initial investigation as the intracranial collection was missed in four patients and the abnormal sinuses not shown in six. In half the children the dagnosis of sinusitis was unsuspected at the time of admission. The dominant clinical features were fever, intense headache and facial swelling in early adolescent males. In this clinical setting we recommend: (1) The routine scan is extended through the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses and photographed at a window level and width showing both bone detail and air/soft tissue interfaces; (2) direct coronal projections are performed through the anterior cranial fossa if no collection is seen on the routine study; (3) an early repeat scan within 48 h if the initial study shows no intracranial pathology but the fronto-ethomoidal sinuses are abnormal and there is a high clinical supicion of intracranial sepsis; and (4) in the presence of intracranial sepsis the vault is viewed at bone window settings to exclude cranial osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  11. Sinusitis and intracranial sepsis: the CT imaging and clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT imaging and clinical presentation in 14 children with coexistent intracranial sepsis and sinusitis were reviewed. A routine CT head scan (10-mm thick semi-axial slices through the cranium done before and after intravenous contrast medium administration) was found to be an inadequate initial investigation as the intracranial collection was missed in four patients and the abnormal sinuses not shown in six. In half the children the dagnosis of sinusitis was unsuspected at the time of admission. The dominant clinical features were fever, intense headache and facial swelling in early adolescent males. In this clinical setting we recommend: (1) The routine scan is extended through the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses and photographed at a window level and width showing both bone detail and air/soft tissue interfaces; (2) direct coronal projections are performed through the anterior cranial fossa if no collection is seen on the routine study; (3) an early repeat scan within 48 h if the initial study shows no intracranial pathology but the fronto-ethomoidal sinuses are abnormal and there is a high clinical supicion of intracranial sepsis; and (4) in the presence of intracranial sepsis the vault is viewed at bone window settings to exclude cranial osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  12. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushma Chhabra; Sanjeev Kumar Uppal; Lachhman Das Singla

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected withHepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods: Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results: Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination ofH. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions: The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.

  13. Yoga and Mindfulness: Clinical Aspects of an Ancient Mind/Body Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul; Lush, Elizabeth; Jablonski, Megan; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Yoga and other complementary healthcare interventions for both clinical and non-clinical populations has increased substantially in recent years. In this context, we describe the implementation of Hatha Yoga in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program of Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. This is embedded in a more general…

  14. Psychological safety of a multiple channel cochlear implant device. Psychological aspects of a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, L J

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-three deaf patients were screened psychologically and medically for suitability to receive an intracochlear implant. After initial screening for psychological normalcy, candidates were assessed again 1 year postimplant. Isolated deleterious psychological effects were found, and certain aspects of psychological functioning were enhanced. Overall evidence suggests that the implant is not psychologically damaging. PMID:2228457

  15. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Projection image based artefact corrections of image lag, detector scatter, body scatter and beam hardening are described and applied to CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Image quality is evaluated through visual appearance of the reconstructed images, HU-correspondence with the planning CT images, and total volume HU error. Artefacts are reduced and CT-like HUs are recovered in the artefact corrected CBCT images. Visual inspection confirms that artefacts are indeed suppressed by the proposed method, and the HU root mean square difference between reconstructed CBCTs and the reference CT images are reduced by 31% when using the artefact corrections compared to the standard clinical CBCT reconstruction. A versatile artefact correction method for clinical CBCT images acquired for IGRT has been developed. HU values are recovered in the corrected CBCT images. The proposed method relies on post processing of clinical projection images, and does not require patient specific optimisation. It is thus a powerful tool for image quality improvement of large numbers of CBCT images.

  16. Comparison of clinical and physics scoring of PET images when image reconstruction parameters are varied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the quantitative and qualitative image quality (IQ) measurements with clinical judgement of IQ in positron emission tomography (PET) were compared. The limitations of IQ metrics and the proposed criteria of acceptability for PET scanners are discussed. Phantom and patient images were reconstructed using seven different iterative reconstruction protocols. For each reconstructed set of images, IQ was scored based both on the visual analysis and on the quantitative metrics. The quantitative physics metrics did not rank the reconstruction protocols in the same order as the clinicians' scoring of perceived IQ (Rs = -0.54). Better agreement was achieved when comparing the clinical perception of IQ to the physicist's visual assessment of IQ in the phantom images (Rs = +0.59). The closest agreement was seen between the quantitative physics metrics and the measurement of the standard uptake values (SUVs) in small tumours (Rs = +0.92). Given the disparity between the clinical perception of IQ and the physics metrics a cautious approach to use of IQ measurements for determining suspension levels is warranted. (authors)

  17. Functional brain imaging with SPECT in normal again and dementia. Methodological, pathophysiological, and diagnostic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New developments in instrumentation, radiochemistry, and data analysis, particularly the introduction of 99mTc-labeled brain-retained tracers for perfusion studies, have opened up a new era of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In this review critical methodological issues relating to the SPECT instrument, the radioactive tracers, the scanning procedure, the data analysis and interpretation of data, and subject selection are discussed together with the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) observed in normal aging. An overview is given of the topography and the pathophysiological and diagnostic significance of focal rCBF deficits in Alzheimer's disease and in other dementia disorders, in which SPECT is capable of early or preclinical disease detection. In Alzheimer's disease, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of focal rCBF deficits measured with SPECT and brain-retained tracers are very high, in particular when combined with medial temporal lob atrophy on CT. Together with neuropsychological testing, SPECT serves to map the topography of brain dysfunction. Thus, in the clinical setting, SPECT provides information that is supplemental to that obtained in other studies. Future applications include neuroreceptor studies and treatment studies, in which SPECT may serve as a diagnostic aid in the selection of patients and as a potential mean for monitoring treatment effects. Although positron emission tomography is the best characterized tool for addressing some of these clinical and research issues in dementia, only the less expensive and technically simpler SPECT technique will have the potential of being available as a screening diagnostic instrument in the clinical setting. It is concluded that, properly approached, functional brain imaging with SPECT represents an important tool in the diagnosis, management, and research of dementia disorders. (au) 251 refs

  18. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet S Kochar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively.

  19. Design and implementation of a calibrated hyperspectral small-animal imager: Practical and theoretical aspects of system optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavesley, Silas Josiah

    Pre-clinical imaging has been an important development within the bioscience and pharmacology fields. A rapidly growing area within these fields is small animal fluorescence imaging, in which molecularly targeted fluorescent probes are used to non-invasively image internal events on a gross anatomical scale. Small-animal fluorescence imaging has transitioned from a research technique to pre-clinical technology very quickly, due to its molecular specificity, low cost, and relative ease of use. In addition, its potential uses in gene therapy and as a translational technology are becoming evident. This thesis outlines the development of an alternative modality for small animal/tissue imaging, using hyperspectral techniques to enable the collection of fluorescence images at different excitation and emission wavelengths. In specific, acousto-optical tunable filters (AOTFs) were used to construct emission-wavelength-scanning and excitation-wavelength-scanning small animal fluorescence imagers. Statistical, classification, and unmixing algorithms have been employed to extract specific fluorescent-dye information from hyperspectral image sets. In this work, we have designed and implemented hyperspectral imaging and analysis techniques to remove background autofluorescence from the desired fluorescence signal, resulting in highly specific and localized fluorescence. Therefore, in practice, it is possible to more accurately pin-point the location and size of diagnostic anatomical markers (e.g. tumors) labeled with fluorescent probes. Furthermore, multiple probes can be individually distinguished. In addition to imaging hardware and acquisition and analysis software, we have designed an optical tissue phantom for quality control and inter-system comparison. The phantom has been modeled using Monte Carlo techniques. The culmination of this work results in an understanding of the advantages and complexities in applying hyperspectral techniques to small animal fluorescence

  20. Clinical evaluation of gadodiamide injection in paediatric MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety and efficacy of intravenous gadodiamide injection, 0.1 mmol/kg body weight, have been evaluated in an open label, non-comparative as to drug, phase III clinical trial in 50 children from 6 months to 13 years of age, referred for MRI requiring the injection of a contrast medium. The central nervous system and other body areas were examined with T1 sequences before and after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. Overall safety was very good and no clinically relevant changes were evident as regards heart rate and venous blood oxygen saturation after injection. No adverse event or discomfort was experienced by conscious patients that could with certainty be related to the contrast medium, but slight movements were observed in two sedated patients that could be related to the injection. Comparing pre- and post-injection images, additional diagnostic information could be obtained from the latter in 41 patients (82 %). In these images, the number of lesions detected increased and they were generally better delineated and their size more easily estimated. The results of this trial indicate that gadodiamide injection is safe and effective for MRI examinations in children. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Clinical application of positron emission tomography imaging in urologic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an advanced noninvasive molecular imaging modality that is being investigated for use in the differentiation, diagnosis, and guiding therapy ora variety of cancer types. FDG PET has the unique clinical value in the differentiation, diagnosis, and monitoring therapy of prostate, such as bladder, renal, and testicle cancer. However, high false-positive and false-negative findings are observed in the detection of these tumors with FDG PET. 11C-Choline (CH) and 11C-acetate (AC) can overcome the pitfall of FDG, and appear to be more successful than FGD in imaging prostate cancer and bladder cancer. The short half-life of 11C prevents the widespread use of CH and AC and 18F-fluorocholine (FCH) and 18F-fluoroacetate (FAC) seem to be potential tracers. Potential clinical value of the new PET tracers, such as 3'-deoxy-3'-18F-fluorothymidine (FLT), 18F-fluorodihydrotestosterone (FDHT), and 9-(4-18F-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)-guanine(18F-FHBG) in the detection of urologic tumors, can deserve further study. (authors)

  2. Crohn's disease: Clinical-surgical questions and imaging answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by a relapsing clinical pattern that typically affects people during their adult and economically productive lives. Affected patients require clinical follow-up because of the periodic flare-up of the disease and of the risk of long-term complications. Extensive diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical treatments are often needed over a lifetime. The challenge posed by the management of IBD is better faced by a multidisciplinary team that includes health care providers with complementary diagnostic or therapeutic skills. The team is expected to provide the best practice to manage IBD by defining a realistic 'diagnostic and therapeutic pathway' for the patients to follow based on the locally available professional, structural and technological resources. For such a 'pathway' the correct questions and answers are essential. Sometimes it is not easy to make sense out of these questions. To ask a right question is not simple. Of course, different surgeons and gastroenterologists ask different questions. If radiologists want to choose the right imaging method, they must know these questions. There exist a simple equation: good question = correct imaging method = right answer.

  3. Clinical feature and imaging findings of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the clinical features and imaging findings of juvenile ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) in order to improve the diagnosis and the prognosis of JAS. Methods: Twelve cases were analyzed retrospectively and 14 cases, who were followed-up averagely for 2.3 years, were analyzed prospectively. Initially 10 were diagnosed as Still's disease and four were diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis. Photography was performed in all cases, CT scan was done in 18 cases, and MRI in 8 cases. Lower extremity big joint disorders were observed in all cases and the small joints were reserved. The abnormalities of the sacroiliac joint were revealed in the early stage in 12 cases. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: The age of preliminary diagnosis was 9.3 years in average. There were statistical correlation between the age of the first episode and severity of the disease. And there were statistical correlation between the course of the illness and severity of the disease. The large joints of the lower extremities were most commonly involved. Conclusion: There were characteristic clinical features and imaging findings in the JAS. Early diagnosis and treatment improve the prognosis

  4. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, George R; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included. PMID:27002328

  5. Clinical aspects and perspectives of erlotinib in the treatment of patients with biliary tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . The epidermal growth factor receptor system is upregulated in many cancers and can be targeted by the protein kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Erlotinib has demonstrated a clinically applicable effect in pancreatic and lung cancer Areas covered: In this review, the author presents the published clinical...... erlotinib was negative, but suggested improved progression free survival in cholangiocarcinoma patients when added to gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. There is no clinical, radiological or molecular marker to guide therapy, but genomic profiling and basket or umbrella trials may be useful in identifying the...

  6. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect. PMID:26725844

  7. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  8. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs

  9. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.M.L

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs.

  10. Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

  11. [Sarcoptic mange of dogs: biology of the organism, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspect, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraiss, A; Kraft, W; Gothe, R

    1987-01-01

    A review is presented on the biology of the causative agent, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and therapy of canine Sarcoptes scabiei infestation. This survey includes also clinical data of the period 1978-1986 in the Small Animal Hospital, Munich Veterinary Faculty. Several skin scrapings are usually necessary for diagnosis. For therapy application of acaricides once a week, altogether at least three times is sufficient. Simultaneously a decontamination of the dog's surroundings should be carried out. PMID:3122363

  12. Clinical applications of SPECT/CT in imaging the extremities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huellner, Martin W. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Medical Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Strobel, Klaus [Lucerne Cantonal Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiology, Lucerne (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Today, SPECT/CT is increasingly used and available in the majority of larger nuclear medicine departments. Several applications of SPECT/CT as a supplement to or replacement for traditional conventional bone scintigraphy have been established in recent years. SPECT/CT of the upper and lower extremities is valuable in many conditions with abnormal bone turnover due to trauma, inflammation, infection, degeneration or tumour. SPECT/CT is often used in patients if conventional radiographs are insufficient, if MR image quality is impaired due to metal implants or in patients with contraindications to MR. In complex joints such as those in the foot and wrist, SPECT/CT provides exact anatomical correlation of pathological uptake. In many cases SPECT increases the sensitivity and CT the specificity of the study, increasing confidence in the final diagnosis compared to planar images alone. The CT protocol should be adapted to the clinical question and may vary from very low-dose (e.g. attenuation correction only), to low-dose for anatomical correlation, to normal-dose protocols enabling precise anatomical resolution. The aim of this review is to give an overview of SPECT/CT imaging of the extremities with a focus on the hand and wrist, knee and foot, and for evaluation of patients after joint arthroplasty. (orig.)

  13. Behavioral aspects of clinical trials. An integrated framework from behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, G R; Hickok, J T; Burish, T G

    1994-11-01

    A less-than-optimal proportion of patients with cancer are entered into National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials. This article reviews the literature on accrual in oncology clinical trials to characterize the extent of the problem, identify reasons for low accrual, and suggest ways to promote accrual. Four well known theories of health behavior (the Health Belief Model, Subjective Expected Utility Theory, Protection Motivation Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action) point to central concepts involved in understanding patient health-related behavior: (1) the probability that an unwelcomed health event will happen to a patient, (2) the severity of that event if it does occur, (3) the effectiveness of a particular behavior (such as taking part in a clinical trial) to modify the severity, and (4) the cost of adopting that behavior. These concepts form a framework for integrating the available information about accrual to clinical oncology trials. Patient and physician factors previously related to clinical trials suggest specific recommendations for increasing accrual to clinical oncology trials. PMID:7954285

  14. Magnetic Resonance Microscopic Images with 50-mm Field-of-View of the Medial Aspect of the Knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the utility of microscopic images with field-of-view of 50 mm in delineation of the medial aspect of the knee, including fascial plane, superficial and deep layers of the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and the medial meniscus. Material and Methods: Using a phantom, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy coil with a diameter of 47 mm was calculated and compared with that of a regular coil. Four cadaveric knees were imaged by microscopy and resected to confirm the morphologies. Sixty-nine patients with internal derangement were examined by routine and microscopic imaging. Comparing the paired images for delineation of the above-mentioned structures, a qualitative image analysis was performed. Results: SNRs of the MR microscopy coil were higher than those of the regular coil. MR microscopy readily demonstrated the multilayered appearance of the fascial plane and both layers of the MCL in cadavers and patients. In cases with MCL tears, ruptured stumps were identified by microscopy. MR microscopy delineated tiny cleavages in cases with meniscal tears. The mean values of qualitative evaluation of the MR microscopy were significantly higher than those of the routine imaging. Conclusion: High-resolution imaging delineated fine structures of the medial aspect of the knee

  15. Imaging tissue hypoxia: clinical and pre-clinical experience with {sup 123}IAZA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, L.I. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underline the selective binding of iodazomycin arabinoside, IAZA, and related nitromidazoles are reviewed as a basis for interpretation of preclinical and clinical data for hypoxic binding of radioiodinated IAZA. Clinical data are presented for {sup 123}IAZA uptake in a number of pathologies including metastatic tumours, peripheral vascular disease in diabetes, muscle stress and rheumatoid arthritis. The results of studies to determine the influence of tumour type on uptake of {sup 123} I-IAZA in patients with a variety of deep-seated solid tumours will be presented. Correlations of hypoxia-dependent binding with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO perfusion images will be reviewed and early correlations of uptake to treatment response in cancer will be presented. Unusual features of {sup 123}I-IAZA biodistribution will also be discussed together with detailed pharmacokinetic and radiation dosimetry data for `2{sup 123}I- IAZA in normal volunteers 27 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Imaging tissue hypoxia: clinical and pre-clinical experience with 123IAZA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms that underline the selective binding of iodazomycin arabinoside, IAZA, and related nitromidazoles are reviewed as a basis for interpretation of preclinical and clinical data for hypoxic binding of radioiodinated IAZA. Clinical data are presented for 123IAZA uptake in a number of pathologies including metastatic tumours, peripheral vascular disease in diabetes, muscle stress and rheumatoid arthritis. The results of studies to determine the influence of tumour type on uptake of 123 I-IAZA in patients with a variety of deep-seated solid tumours will be presented. Correlations of hypoxia-dependent binding with 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion images will be reviewed and early correlations of uptake to treatment response in cancer will be presented. Unusual features of 123I-IAZA biodistribution will also be discussed together with detailed pharmacokinetic and radiation dosimetry data for '2123I- IAZA in normal volunteers

  17. The Cerebrospinal Fluid in Severe Pain Conditions : Clinical, Pharmacological and Proteomic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of both cancer pain and non-cancer chronic pain is still suboptimal. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to conduct translational pain research at the interface between clinical pain medicine and the field of human proteomics, using the practice of intrathecal analgesia at our institution as a starting point. Hence, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is at the centre of the present dissertation, both as a target for infusing analgesics (Papers I and II – clinical and pharmacologic...

  18. Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers: The Application of Advanced Image Processing and Analysis to Clinical and Preclinical Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Jeffrey William

    2012-01-01

    The importance of medical imaging for clinical decision making has been steadily increasing over the last four decades. Recently, there has also been an emphasis on medical imaging for preclinical decision making, i.e., for use in pharamaceutical and medical device development. There is also a drive towards quantification of imaging findings by using quantitative imaging biomarkers, which can improve sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and reproducibility of imaged characteristics used for dia...

  19. 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET in neuroendocrine tumors : Basic aspects and emerging clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Pieter L.; Chirakal, Raman; Marriott, Christopher J.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET has emerged as a new diagnostic tool for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. This application is based on the unique property of neuroendocrine tumors to produce and secrete various substances, a process that requires the upt

  20. [Swiss scrapie surveillance. I. Clinical aspects of neurological diseases in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Botteron, C; Ehrensperger, F; Fatzer, R; Jaggy, A; Kolly, C; Meylan, M; Zurbriggen, A; Doherr, M G

    2005-10-01

    Small ruminants infected with scrapie show a large range of often unspecific clinical symptoms. The most-often described signs, locomotion, sensibility and behavioural disorders and emaciation, rarely occur together, and cases have been described in which only one of those signs was detectable.Thus, formulating a well-circumscribed definition of a clinical suspect case is difficult. Most animals with CNS-effecting diseases such as listeriosis, polioencephalomacia, cerebrospinal nematidiasis and enterotoxemia will, in a thorough neurological examination, show at least some scrapie-like symptoms. Among the 22 neurological field cases examined in this study, a goat with cerebral gliomatosis and hair lice showed the closest similarity to clinical scrapie. The unilateral deficiency of the cerebral nerves has potential as an clinical exclusion criterion for scrapie. However, the laboratory confirmation--or exclusion--of scrapie remains important. It thus needs to be realized that a consistent and thorough examination of neurologically diseased small ruminants (including fallen stock) is the backbone of a good surveillance system for these diseases. This should be a motivation for submitting adult sheep and goats for neuropathological examination. PMID:16259408

  1. Inheritance Pattern and Clinical Aspects of 93 Iranian Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Badalzadeh, Mohsen; Sedighipour, Leyla; Movahedi, Masoud; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri, Seyed Davood; Khotaei, Ghamar Taj; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Bazargan, Nasrin; Mamishi, Setareh; Zandieh, Fariborz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Iraj; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ahmad; Kalantari, Najmeddin; Tajik, Shaghayegh; Maddah, Marzieh; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency due to a genetic defect in one of the NADPH-oxidase components. We studied CGD inheritance forms (autosomal recessive (AR) or X-linked (XL)) and AR-CGD subtypes in Iran. Clinical and functional investigations were conducted in 93 Iranian

  2. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Achiam, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    AND METHODS: The prospective study included 48 consecutive patients (29 female, 19 male, 18-70 years old, mean age=37.1 years). MRI examination was designed to be comfortable and fast; no contrast was administered. The sequences were performed during quiet respiration. The MRI findings were reviewed......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. MATERIALS...... symptoms and 14 patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate (kappa=0.51) and fair (kappa=0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR...

  3. Two-dimensional strain imaging: a new echocardiographic advance with research and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, N J; Oxborough, D L; Williams, G; Pepper, C B; Tan, L B

    2008-01-24

    Over the past two decades the quest for quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function and regional wall motion has escalated, allowing several aspects of myocardial contractile patterns to be quantified, both during stress echocardiography and in the assessment of dyssynchrony. Most of the literature to date has used Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) techniques to assess essentially long-axis function due to the angle dependency of Doppler based techniques. This brief review introduces the early development, validation and potential clinical applications of a new technique of quantifying two-dimensional (radial and circumferential) strains and strain rates through tracking myocardial "speckles". In-vivo and in-vitro validation of this 2D-strain imaging technique has been undertaken and reached a point where it is considered ready for more widespread investigations into clinical utility. One important advantage over TDI techniques is that it is not limited by dependency on the angle of insonation. Several recent studies looking at ventricular function in specific groups of patients have reported practical ability to distinguish the abnormally from the normally contracting regions of ventricular walls. It provides new and complementary quantitative information about ventricular dyssynchrony and regional wall motion abnormalities. More research studies are needed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the measurements obtained using this technique and define its strengths and limitations. In particular, whether the measured values correlate well with clinical outcomes will need to be established in longitudinal interventional studies. The clinical utilities of this technique over the coming years are likely to expand rapidly. PMID:17477993

  4. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  5. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Digital image processing and clinical application of video densitometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to propose the utility which was evaluated the digital image processing and clinical application of the video densitometry. The experiments were performed with IBM-PC/16 bit-AT compatible, video camera (CCdtr55, Sony Co., Japan), an colormonitor (MultiSync 3D, NEC, Japan) providing the resolution of 512 X 480 and 64 levels of gray. Sylvia Image Capture Board for the ADC (analog to digital converter) was used, composed of digitized image from digital signal and the radiographic density was measured by 256 level of grey. The periapical radiograph (Ektaspeed EP-21, Kodak Co., U. S. A.) which was radiographed dried human mandible by exposure condition of 70 kVp and 48 impulses, was used for primary X-ray detector. And them evaluated for digitized image by low and high pass filtering, between aluminum equivalent values and the thickness of aluminum step wedge, aluminum equivalent values of sound enamel, dentin, and alveolar bone, the range of diffuse density for gray level ranging from 0 to 255. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The edge between aluminum steps of digitized image were somewhat blurred by low pass filtering, but edge enhancement could be resulted by high pass filtering. Especially, edge enhancement between digital root of lower left 2nd molar and alveolar lamina dura was observed. 2. The correlation between aluminum equivalent values and the thickness of aluminum step wedge was intimated, yielding the coefficient of correlation r=0.9997 (p<0.001), the regression line was described by y=0.9699X + 0.456, and coefficient of variation amounting to 1.5%. 3. The aluminum equivalent values of sound enamel, dentin, and alveolar bone were 15.41 mm, 12.48 mm, 10.35 mm, respectively. 4. The range of diffuse density for gray level ranging from 0 to 255 was enough than that of photodensitometer to be within the range of 1-4.9.

  8. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV and Chikungunya (CHIKV and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult.The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9% were tested and 119 (45.4% were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype.This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364 and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119. We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added to the PAHO case definition, while fever could be given less

  9. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Romero, Carolina; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Carvalho, Marilia Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9%) were tested and 119 (45.4%) were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype. Conclusions / Significance This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364) and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119). We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added

  10. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  11. Recent Developments in Instrumentation for Pre-Clinical Imaging Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent advances in imaging instrumentation have led to a variety of tomograph designs for dedicated pre clinical imaging of laboratory animals. These advances make it possible to image and quantify the kinetics of radiolabelled pharmaceuticals in a wide range of animal models from rodents to non-human primates. Applications include evaluation of promising new radiopharmaceuticals, study of the molecular origins of human disease and evaluation of new forms of therapy. These applications and advances in instrumentation are equally applicable to positron emitters and single photon emitters. This paper provides an overview of recent advances which have led to the current state-of-the-art in pre clinical imaging. The common inorganic scintillators that have been used for SPECT and PET, including some of the promising materials recently studied. The current crystal of choice for SPECT imaging is NaI(Tl) because of its high light output and density which make it well suited to imaging photons in the 100-200 keV range. However, NaI(Tl) has the disadvantage that it must be hermetically sealed to prevent absorption of moisture from the environment. Therefore, investigators have explored a number of alternative inorganic crystals, including CsI(Tl) and cerium-doped yttrium aluminium perovskite (YAP), as well as solid state detectors such as cadmium zinc telluride (CZT). Many of the crystals used in SPECT have also been tried for PET, including NaI(Tl) and YAP. However these crystals have lower stopping power than BGO and NaI(Tl) is also relatively slow. A very promising scintillator for PET is cerium-doped lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) (1) which has similar stopping power to BGO and relatively high light output and fast decay. The first PET scanner to use LSO was the UCLA animal scanner, microPET, which also makes use of a number of other new technologies and unique design features. Recently, improvements in multi-anode and crossed wire position sensitive

  12. Clinical types of spinocerebellar degeneration and evaluation with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Shigeyuki (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-12-01

    Eighty one patients with the clinical diagnosis of non-hereditary spinocerebellar degeneration were examined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRI findings were subdivided into non-cerebellar atrophy, cerebellar atrophy without and with apparent enlargement of the fourth ventricle as a result of atrophy of the middle or superior cerebellar peduncles. The first pattern of non-cerebellar atrophy included ataxias such as Friendreich's ataxia and Machado-Joseph disease (MJD; type II). In the patients with MJD, atrophy of the brainstem was frequently recognized. The second pattern largely included late cortical cerebellar atrophy and hereditary ataxia of Holmes type. The third pattern was subdivided further into atrophies of the middle and superior cerebellar peduncles. The pattern of the former included olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and hereditary ataxia of Menzel type, and the pattern of the latter included MJD and dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA). In the patients with OPCA and hereditary ataxia of Menzel type, increased signal intensity on T2-weighted image was always observed in the transverese pontine fibers, middle cerebellar peduncles. In several patients with MJD and DRPLA, atrophy of both cerebellar peduncles was demonstrated, but abnormal signal intensity was not observed in the pontocerebellar areas. (author).

  13. Clinical imaging centers: The role of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection is mandated in all 50 states. Regulatory control over naturally occurring and accelerator produced radioactive materials use is exclusively by state government. Although states are independent bodies there are many similarities in their regulatory approaches. Differences in the degree of regulatory control are minimized through use of the Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation and other guidance documents provided by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. This paper discusses the general requirements to obtain a license and/or registration to produce radioactive material in an accelerator, prepare an imaging agent and/or operate an imaging clinic. These requirements include minimum standards for training and experience of all principal users, equipment specifications, facilities design and construction, specific operating and emergency procedures, radiation protection surveys and monitoring of personnel exposures, ongoing training of staff, and a commitment to ALARA (the philosophy of keeping radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable). The nature and frequency of routine inspections to ensure adequate protection of workers and the public is also covered

  14. Narrow band imaging: clinical applications in oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, A; Farah, C S

    2016-07-01

    Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) is an endoscopic optical imaging enhancement technology that improves the contrast of mucosal surface texture, and enhances visualisation of mucosal and submucosal vasculature. White light is filtered to emit two 30-nm narrow bands of blue (415 nm) and green light (540 nm) light simultaneously, the former corresponding to the main peak absorption spectrum of haemoglobin, and the latter allowing visualisation of blood vessels in the deeper mucosal and submucosal layers. NBI has been used to better assess oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), identify oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and to define surgical margins of head and neck malignancies. NBI shows great potential in improving detection rates of OPMD, facilitating better assessment of oral and oropharyngeal SCC, and reducing the risk of recurrence for oral SCC. Although further research is required to better understand and define intrapapillary capillary loop (IPCL) patterns and to relate these with clinical, histopathological and molecular parameters especially for early mucosal changes, there is building evidence to recommend its use as the new gold standard for endoscopic assessment in head and neck oncology. PMID:26713751

  15. Adhesive systems: important aspects related to their composition and clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Honorato Silva e Souza Junior; Karina Gama Kato Carneiro; Marcelo Figueiredo Lobato; Patrícia de Almeida Rodrigues Silva e Souza; Mário Fernando de Góes

    2010-01-01

    This literature review article addresses the types and the main components of different etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems available in the market, and relates them to their function, possible chemical interactions and infuence of handling characteristics. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images are presented to characterize the interface between adhesives and dentin. Adhesive systems have been recently classifed according to their adhesion approaches in etch-and-rinse, self-etch...

  16. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. ETIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF 262 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祖能; 汤晓芙

    1995-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-two patients with carpal turmel syndrome (CTS) were analyzed retrospeetively. Results showed that middia-and older-age women were more apt to have CTS than men, and that the dominant hand was more frequently affected. Hormonal changes, repetitive and forceful movements, awkward positions of hand and wrist, and other factors may be associated with CTS. Typical clinical manifestations include pain and pareathesia in the median nerve territory, worsening at night or in the early morning, and being relieved by shaking the hand. Although the patients may localize the discomfort beyond the territory, sensory changes are variable and not entirely reliable. Conduction abnormalities often appeared selectively in the median nerve distal to the wriat in CTS. If the patient who is clinically suggestive of CTS shows normal conduction with conventional methods, palmar stimulation and inching technique is recommended. The diagnosis of CTS requires confirmation of illness history, symptoms and signs with objective electrodiagnostic tests.

  17. Radiographic and clinical aspects of endodonty of the central incisor, in maxilla: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors in the current report introduce a study of the present features when of agenesis of dental elements on the maxilla-mandibular complex. They relate a case of right upper central incisor's hypodontia, describing its clinical and radiographic appearances. Through a large revision of literature about this field, they found out that a disappearance of this element on the human dentition is rare, associating for this: genetic, familiar, nutrient, hormonal, infections and traumatic agents. Finally, they alert for the fact that an accurate clinical examination, complemented by a exact radiographic survey, will make possible a precocious diagnosis and execution of more efficient therapeutic manipulations that reduce the problems of functional, esthetic and phonetics order. (author)

  18. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising. PMID:17493851

  19. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    residual allergenicity in some hypoallergenic formulae controlled clinical testing is necessary in each case before use. Goat's milk proteins share identity with CMP Raw untreated cow's milk and unhomogenized cow's milk is as allergenic as normal pasteurized and homogenized milk products. The prognosis of......Reproducible clinically abnormal reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP) may be due to the interaction between one or more milk proteins and one or more immune mechanisms, possibly any of the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions. At present, evidence for type I, III and IV reactions against...... CMP has been demonstrated. Immunologically mediated reactions, mainly immediate IgE-mediated reactions are defined as cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Non immunologically reactions against CMP are defined as cow's milk protein intolerance (CMPI). Many studies on "cow's milk allergy'" have not...

  20. "Clinical and Radiological Aspects of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in Children: A case Series from Iran "

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare disorder of phagocytes, predisposes patients to bacterial and fungal infections. The main purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, radiological, pathologicial features, outcome and response to treatment of children with CGD. Thirteen patients with CGD, who had been referred to National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), were reviewed during a 6 year period (1999-2005). There were 10 (76%) male and 3(24%) fema...

  1. Clinical - cardiologic data of 170 dogs - general aspects of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an actual continuous cardiologic follow up study on 170 unselected dogs. Each proband underwent a complete cardiologic examination (history, auscultation, ECG, radiologic examination, in some cases also echocardiography). Data were grouped by age, sex, breed, congenital and acquired cardiac diseases, and by therapy. 81 (47.65 percent) of the 170 dogs were suffering from an acquired, 25 (14.70 percent) from a congenital cardiac disease. 64 dogs (37.65 percent) showedno clinical signs of heart disease

  2. Clinical and Pharmacological Aspects of Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases in Childhood: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Spalice, Alberto; Parisi, Pasquale; Papetti, Laura; Nicita, Francesco; Ursitti, Fabiana; Del Balzo, Francesca; Properzi, Enrico; Verrotti, Alberto; Ruggieri, Martino; Iannetti, Paola

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory demyelinating diseases comprise a spectrum of disorders affecting the myelin of the central and peripheral nervous system. These diseases can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, radiological, laboratory and pathological findings. Recent studies have contributed to current awareness that inflammatory demyelinating diseases are not restricted to the adult age group, but are more common in pediatric age than previously believed. Some of pediatric inflammatory demyeli...

  3. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of urinary tract infection in community-dwelling elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo José Marques

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs in elderly patients can be a complex problem in terms of approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, because the patients often present nonspecific symptoms. The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of UTI in elderly women were studied, in order to make early diagnosis and prevent serious clinical complications secondary to UTI. METHODS: This was a prospective population-based study, with elderly women, during their first medical office visit. Medical records were obtained by clinical history and physical examination in order to detect signs and symptoms of UTI and the presence of comorbidities. Clean-catch midstream urine specimens for urinary dipstick test, sediment, and culture were collected; cervical samples for conventional Pap smears were also collected. RESULTS: UTI was found in 16.55% of elderly women. The most frequent urinary symptom was foul smelling urine, in 60.6%. E. coli was responsible for 98 (76.56% cases of significant bacteriuria; 34 (34.69% were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 21 (21.42% to fluoroquinolones. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB was not treated. The presence of predisposing factors demonstrated that the history of previous UTI (p < 0.001, vaginitis (p < 0.001, and diabetes (p = 0.042 increased the risk for UTI. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the high prevalence of UTI among elderly women and its unusual clinical presentation. Diabetes, history of previous UTI, and vaginitis were shown to be predisposing factors for UTI; it is not necessary to treat AB in elderly women, even among diabetics.

  4. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological ide...

  5. Prostate cancer risk and recurrence: the role of nutrition and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, D. E. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Western countries. Knowledge on prostate cancer aetiology is required for identification of high-risk groups, optimization of treatment strategies, and development of prevention programs. The aim of this thesis was toobtain insight into nutritional and clinical factors relevant to different stages of prostate cancer. Methods and results First, an inventory of potential risk factors for prostate cancer was made by asking 956 pat...

  6. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Brasil, Patrícia; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Siqueira, André Machado; Wakimoto, Mayumi; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Nobre, Aline; Quintana, Marcel de Souza Borges; de Mendonça, Marco Cesar Lima; Lupi, Otilia; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; ROMERO, CAROLINA; Zogbi, Heruza; Bressan, Clarisse da Silveira; Alves, Simone Sampaio; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult. Methodology / Principal Findings The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesse...

  7. Mass spectrometry-based hepcidin measurements in serum and urine: analytical aspects and clinical implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Kemna, E.; Tjalsma, H.; Podust, V N; Swinkels, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discovery of the central role of hepcidin in body iron regulation has shed new light on the pathophysiology of iron disorders. Information is lacking on newer analytical approaches to measure hepcidin in serum and urine. Recent reports on the measurement of urine and serum hepcidin by surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) necessitate analytical and clinical evaluation of MS-based methodologies. METHODS: We used SELDI-TOF MS, i...

  8. Maternal near miss in the intensive care unit: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leonam Costa; da Costa, Aurélio Antônio Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological clinical profile of women with maternal near miss according to the new World Health Organization criteria. Methods A descriptive crosssectional study was conducted, in which the records of patients admitted to the obstetric intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Recife (Brazil) over a period of four years were analyzed. Women who presented at least one near miss criterion were included. The variables studied were age, race/color, civil status, e...

  9. Reconsidering Risk for Reoffense in Intrafamilial Child Molesters: New Aspects on Clinical and Criminological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard Eher; Thomas Ross

    2006-01-01

    Intrafamilial child molesters are generally seen to be at lower risk for reoffense than extrafamilial child molesters. There is, however, good reason to question this assumption. The literature usually does not take into account some clinical and criminological data, that might indicate a higher relative risk for reoffending in intrafamilial child molesters than generally assumed. On two groups of intrafamilial (n=157) and extrafamilial (n=131) child molesters, this study tested some of the a...

  10. Practical aspects of the use of FMEA tool in clinical laboratory risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elizabete Mendes; Pérsio de Almeida Rezende Ebner; Paschoalina Romano; Maurílio Pacheco Neto; Alexandre Sant’anna; Nairo Massakazu Sumita

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tool in a clinical laboratory through the introduction of new technology for blood gas and serum ionized calcium in multi-parameter analyzers such as Point of Care Testing (POCT). OBJECTIVE: To present FMEA as a tool for risk managing and improvement with the introduction of new technologies in a public laboratory. METHODS: The change of multiparameter gas analyzer type POCT was defined and described as a process....

  11. Aspects of Subcortical Ischaemic Vascular Disease : Early clinical manifestations and associations with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Harten, van, B.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD) is an important cause of cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Screening and diagnostic tests are needed to identify these patients. The HIV dementia scale (HDS) is a reliable and quantitative scale for identifying HIV dementia1. The cognitive profile of HIV dementia has subcortical features that resemble subcortical ischaemic vascular disease (SIVD). The clinical syndrome is characterized by early impairment of attention and executive...

  12. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells: II. Origin, disease models and clinical aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janne; Holm, Thomas Lindebo; Claesson, Mogens H

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases afflict approximately 5% of the population and reflect a failure in the immune system to discriminate between self and non-self resulting in the breakdown of self-tolerance. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells (Treg cells) have been shown to play an important role in the maintenance of...... immune homeostasis and self-tolerance by counteracting the development and effector functions of potentially autoreactive T cells. We have in the previous APMIS review described the phenotype and physiology of Treg cells. The present overview deals with the thymic origin of Treg cells and their role in...... disease models such as autoimmune gastritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, we will consider some aspects of the therapeutic potential of Treg cells....

  13. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  14. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  15. Biodegradable device applied in flatfoot surgery: Comparative studies between clinical and technological aspects of removed screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most used polymers for biomedical application; its use in sutures and other implants has been widely investigated. Although the knowledge of PLLA biodegradation and biocompatibility features is deep, PLLA screws used to correct the flat foot deformity have deserved attention since they are not degraded in most of cases after a long period of years (3–7) from the implantation. In this article, a clinical and radiological evaluation (NMR, histological and clinical outcomes) on patients was correlated with physico-chemical characterization (by SEM, DSC, GPC and XRD analysis at different temperatures) on both native and patient-recovered screws together with the theoretical degradation processes of PLLA-based implants. The data demonstrated the need for crossing the biodegradation and bioabsorption of the polymer with the characteristics of both the device (geometry, structure and fabrication process) and the implantation site. Highlights: ► Resorbable PLLA screws were proposed for arthroereisis in pediatric flatfoot. ► Satisfactory clinical results were obtained almost in the totality of patients. ► The bioabsorption period is slightly longer than what is expected. ► Patient-recovered screws were analyzed to evaluate the biodegradation stage. ► Degradability/structural integrity during implantation should be ameliorated

  16. Biodegradable device applied in flatfoot surgery: Comparative studies between clinical and technological aspects of removed screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruozi, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.ruozi@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Belletti, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.belletti@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Manfredini, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe626@virgilio.it [Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena Italy, Director Prof. F. Catani, Via del Pozzo 71, Policlinico, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Tonelli, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.tonelli@unimore.it [CIGS, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Sena, Paola, E-mail: paola.sena@unimore.it [Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, Policlinico, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Vandelli, Maria Angela, E-mail: mariaangela.vandelli@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Forni, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.forni@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Tosi, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.tosi@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most used polymers for biomedical application; its use in sutures and other implants has been widely investigated. Although the knowledge of PLLA biodegradation and biocompatibility features is deep, PLLA screws used to correct the flat foot deformity have deserved attention since they are not degraded in most of cases after a long period of years (3–7) from the implantation. In this article, a clinical and radiological evaluation (NMR, histological and clinical outcomes) on patients was correlated with physico-chemical characterization (by SEM, DSC, GPC and XRD analysis at different temperatures) on both native and patient-recovered screws together with the theoretical degradation processes of PLLA-based implants. The data demonstrated the need for crossing the biodegradation and bioabsorption of the polymer with the characteristics of both the device (geometry, structure and fabrication process) and the implantation site. Highlights: ► Resorbable PLLA screws were proposed for arthroereisis in pediatric flatfoot. ► Satisfactory clinical results were obtained almost in the totality of patients. ► The bioabsorption period is slightly longer than what is expected. ► Patient-recovered screws were analyzed to evaluate the biodegradation stage. ► Degradability/structural integrity during implantation should be ameliorated.

  17. Clinical Aspects of Thyrotoxicosis in 592 Patients: A Single Center Experience from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Baydur Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the main causes of thyrotoxicosis and to compare the clinical and biochemical fetaures of the patients according to the underlying cause of thyrotoxicosis. Material and Method: Five hundred ninety-two patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis, were retrospectively analysed. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3 and free T4 levels, anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody (TGAb, anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb and ultrasonographic features were recorded. To determine the cause of thyrotoxicosis, Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy was performed in all patients except for pregnant women. The clinical and biochemical results were compared between the patients with different diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Results: 40.9% of patients were diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG. The other main causes of thyrotoxicosis were: Graves’ disease (GD (22%, thyroiditis (14.8%, gestational thyrotoxicosis (12.7%, and toxic adenoma (9.6%. The clinical presentation and severity of thyrotoxicosis varied according to the underlying cause. Weight loss was more frequently observed in patients with GD (p=0.0001, while cardiac arrhythmia dominated in patients with TMNG (p=0.0001. Moderate (27% or severe (23.9% thyrotoxicosis was more common in patients with GD than in patients with other forms of thyrotoxicosis (p=0.0001. Discussion: Toxic multinodular goiter is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in our region.

  18. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27063256

  19. Image registration in the brain: a test of clinical accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: Accurate localization of tumor and normal structures is a critical step in the radiation treatment planning processes and has direct implications for tumor control success as well as normal tissue morbidity. We conducted a study to determine the accuracy of transferring tumor information from diagnostic images to the simulation films and planning CT with conventional methods using the best clinical judgment and compared that to tumor localization using 3D registration software. Materials and Methods: We measured the accuracy with which experienced clinicians could localize tumor volume from diagnostic images to either simulation films or a planning CT, with and without 3D registration software. To obtain absolute registration truth we used the method of identical pairs wherein a CT data set was duplicated and one copy resliced along a different plane than the original while maintaining the exact mathematical transformation between them. A tumor was then added to the resliced CT which became the surrogate diagnostic image. Because we were concerned that a CT/CT pair might be too easy to register, a simulated MR made by re-colorizing the resliced CT (to become a facsimile MR or fMR) was also used as a surrogate diagnostic image. Finally we studied the registration accuracy when a CT/(real)MR pair was used. The registration in this case could not be guaranteed to be exact, but the studies were obtained under carefully controlled conditions and were registered from bony landmarks using commercial radiosurgery software. A team of experts then placed the tumor from the resliced CT, fMR, or real MR to an AP and lateral 'isocenter simulation film' (a digitally reconstructed radiograph made from the unmarked CT) and to the 'planning CT' - also the unmarked CT. A registration of the data sets (CT/CT, CT/fMR and CT/MR) was also done using our 3D registration software. A total of thirty-six tasks on four subjects were performed. Four analyses (each with

  20. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto;

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five ...

  1. Clinical and laboratory aspects of a trichinellosis outbreak in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected during an outbreak of trichinellosis, which occurred in Izmir, Turkey, between January and March 2004. The source of the infection was raw meatballs made with a mixture of uncooked beef and pork. Of 474 persons who were admitted at the Ataturk Training and Research Hospital during this period with a history of raw meatball consumption, the diagnosis of trichinellosis was confirmed for 154 (32.5 %, 87 males and 67 females; mean age 31 years, range 6-67 years. Among persons with a confirmed diagnosis, 79 % had myalgia, 77 % weakness and malaise, 63 % arthralgia, 40 % jaw pain, 68 % fever, 63 % periorbital and/or facial oedema, 49 % oedema at the trunk and limb, 42 % abdominal pain, 40 % nausea and vomiting, 28 % diarrhoea, 23 % subconjunctival haemorrhage, 25 % macular or petechial rash, 4 % subungual haemorrhage, 15 % cardiac complaints and 0.2 % neurological complaints. Nine patients (5.8 % were hospitalised due to severe myalgia (n = 2, high fever (n = 3, neurological manifestations (n = 1, thrombophlebitis (n = 2 and palmar erythema (n = 1. Eosinophilia was present in 88 % of the confirmed cases at the admission. Elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were detected in 72 %, 70 % and 16 % of the confirmed cases, respectively. The seroconversion occurred in most of the infected people between the 4th and 6th weeks after the infection. All of the confirmed cases were treated with mebendazole. People with severe symptoms were treated also with prednisolone (60 mg/day for three days and those with a moderately severe clinical pattern received a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (naproxen sodium, 550 mg/day. All confirmed cases recovered without any clinical sequela.

  2. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma: clinical aspects and in vitro functional characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...... strongly impaired cell viability and promoted apoptosis. To characterize downstream target genes and SOX4-induced pathways, we used a time-course global expression study of the overexpressed SOX4. Analysis of the microarray data showed 130 novel SOX4-related genes, some involved in signal transduction (MAP...

  3. Serological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of Lyme borreliosis in Mures County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Țilea Brîndușa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Borrelioza Lyme (BL este cea mai frecventă infecţie transmisă de căpuşe din genul Ixodes, atât în Statele Unite ale Americii (SUA, cât şi în Europa. Obiectivele studiului au constat în monitorizarea incidenţei şi a manifestărilor clinice ale bolii în judeţul Mureș. Material şi metodă. Studiul s-a efectuat pe o perioadă de 2 ani, 1 ianuarie 2010 - 31 decembrie 2011, pe un număr de 120 pacienţi. Diagnosticul cert sau probabil al BL s-a stabilit pe baza criteriilorCenters for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, SUA şi European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB şi anume epidemiologice, clinice şi serologice. Pentru identificarea anticorpilor antiBb IgM, IgG din ser şi LCR s-au utilizat tehnicile ELISA şi Western-Blot. Rezultate. În anul 2010 s-au înregistrat 44 cazuri, iar în anul 2011, 76 cazuri. Conform definiţiei de caz, 106 cazuri au fost confirmate, 14 probabile. BL a fost evidenţiată cu o frecvenţă mai ridicată la copii, adulţi tineri şi adulţi, comparativ cu grupa de vârstă peste 60 ani. Incidenţa afecţiunii a fost mai ridicată la sexul feminin, 68 pacienţi (56,66% faţă de sexul masculin 52 pacienţi (43,33%, cu o pondere, mai crescută la persoanele din mediul urban, 78 pacienţi (65,0%, comparativ cu cele din mediul rural 42 pacienţi (35,0%. Manifestările clinice au fost acute de tipul eritemului migrator (EM la 64,16 din pacienţi, neurologice la 22,50% pacienţi, articulare la 1,66% pacienţi şi cardiace la 0,83% din cazuri. Concluzii. În judetul Mureș s-a constatat o incidenţă în creştere a bolii în anul 2011 comparativ cu anul 2010. Manifestările clinice predominante au fost cele acute dermatologice, neurologice.

  4. Clinical and psychological aspects of rehabilitation of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Berezantsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of 110 women on various stages of follow-up care after radical surgery for breast cancer are stated in this article. Border- line mental disorders are diagnosed for 68.18 % of patients, prenosological mental disorders — for the others. Interrelations between clinical factors, individually-personal features and parameters of quality of a life and social adaptation are ascertained. The reduction of psycho- pathological semiology and improvement of subjective parameters of patients’ quality of life in the course of individually selected psycho- therapy is marked.

  5. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER; Maristela Honório CAYETANO; Elerson Gaetti JARDIM JR; Sosígenes Victor BENFATTI; João BAUSELLS

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947) while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seco...

  6. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs of Parkinson’s disease (PD are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia.

  7. The evolution of articular cartilage imaging and its impact on clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past four decades, articular cartilage imaging has developed rapidly. Imaging now plays a critical role not only in clinical practice and therapeutic decisions but also in the basic research probing our understanding of cartilage physiology and biomechanics. (orig.)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for the clinical management of rectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Lambregts, Doenja M J; Maas, Monique; Bipat, Shandra; Barbaro, Brunella; Caseiro-Alves, Filipe; Curvo-Semedo, Luís; Fenlon, Helen M; Gollub, Marc J; Gourtsoyianni, Sofia; Halligan, Steve; Hoeffel, Christine; Kim, Seung Ho; Laghi, Andrea; Maier, Andrea; Rafaelsen, Søren R; Stoker, Jaap; Taylor, Stuart A; Torkzad, Michael R; Blomqvist, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach regarding the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: A consensus meeting of 14 abdominal imaging experts from the European...

  9. Control of the visual and tactile aspects of poultry food according to the poultry food behavior by image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachemi, R.; Vincent, N.; Lomenie, N.

    2007-01-01

    This study tries to connect the poultry food behavior to the visual and tactile characteristics of the food. The aim of the work is to make it possible to control the visual and tactile aspects of food (food pellets), by means of image analysis. These aspects are often suspected to explain the undesirable behavior of the poultries, which can reject a food, showing however optimal nutritional characteristics. These incidents involve important negative consequences as well for the animal as for the poultry breeder, with a major degradation of the technical and economic performances. Many zootechnical studies and observations in breeding testify to the sensitivity of the poultries to the visual and tactile aspects of food, but measurements classically used to characterize them do not allow explaining this phenomenon. Color, texture and shape features extracted from images of pellets will constitute effective and practical measures to describe their visual and tactile aspects. We show that a pellets classification based on visual features and supervised by a set of poultry food behavior labels allows to select a set of discriminating features.

  10. The conceptual images of erotic relations in Spanish. Analysis of some linguistic aspects of The Turkish passion by Antonio Gala

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Popek-Bernat

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual images of erotic relations in Spanish. Analysis of some linguistic aspects of The Turkish passion by Antonio GalaIn this paper we try to systematize the contemporary Spanish expressions related to the erotic relations. The corpus is based on the novel by Antonio Gala The Turkish Passion (orig. La pasión turca) which, thanks to its plot with higly erotic content, constitutes an important source of linguistic material for our investigation. The analysis we propose reflects the me...

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from various tissues: Biological, clinical and cryopreservation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; McGann, Locksley E; Elliott, Janet A W

    2015-10-01

    Originally isolated from bone marrow, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have since been obtained from various fetal and post-natal tissues and are the focus of an increasing number of clinical trials. Because of their tremendous potential for cellular therapy, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, it is desirable to cryopreserve and bank MSCs to increase their access and availability. A remarkable amount of research and resources have been expended towards optimizing the protocols, freezing media composition, cooling devices and storage containers, as well as developing good manufacturing practices in order to ensure that MSCs retain their therapeutic characteristics following cryopreservation and that they are safe for clinical use. Here, we first present an overview of the identification of MSCs, their tissue sources and the properties that render them suitable as a cellular therapeutic. Next, we discuss the responses of cells during freezing and focus on the traditional and novel approaches used to cryopreserve MSCs. We conclude that viable MSCs from diverse tissues can be recovered after cryopreservation using a variety of freezing protocols, cryoprotectants, storage periods and temperatures. However, alterations in certain functions of MSCs following cryopreservation warrant future investigations on the recovery of cells post-thaw followed by expansion of functional cells in order to achieve their full therapeutic potential. PMID:26186998

  12. Mental health of children and adolescents with epilepsy: analysis of clinical and neuropsichological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Souza Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy compromises the development of cognitive and social skills and represents a risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: To compare psychopathological symptoms in children with epilepsy and in a healthy group, and to correlate the results with neuropsychological and clinical variables. Method: Forty five children with idiopathic epilepsy and sixty five healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and their caregivers replied to a psychopathology questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist – CBCL. Results: There were significant differences in CBCL, with poorer results showed mainly by patients with epilepsy. There was no significant association between any psychopathological symptom and disease duration or amount of antiepileptic drugs used. There was positive correlation between intelligence quocient and CBCL on items such as sluggish cognitive tempo, aggressive behavior, attention problems and activities and a negative relation between academic achievement, conduct and rule-breaking behavior. Conclusion: Children with epilepsy had the worse results in the psychopathology evaluation. Certain psychopathological variables are related to the cognitive profile, with no relation to clinical variables.

  13. Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sporadic Non-Medullar Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Rumjanzeva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatic mutations in sporadic thyroid cancer is unclear today. Probably they coming out as aetiological factors in carcinogenesis as well as, respectfully to many authors, can to participate in TC pathogenesis and to determine the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. For today as main oncogenes taking part in initiation of thyroid malignant tumors are considered: RET/PTC, TRK, PTEN, P53, RAS, MET, PPARγ. By means of genetic investigations scientists are trying to solve problems with thyroid cancer differentiated diagnostics (cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, mesothelial cells antigen (Hector Battifora MEsotelial (cell or HBME-1, loss of heterozigitoty (LOH in short arm of 3 chromosome (gene VHL -von Hippel Lindau, 3р26. Recently in foreign literature appeared reports of activated mutations in gene BRAF which most frequently are occurred in melanoma and papillary TC. Prognosis of thyroid cancer may reflected by the LOH as a biological breakage as well as changes of tumor suppressive gene P53 which fraught with decrease of disease prognosis. Thus, both researchers and clinicians have many questions concerning the role of genome, particularly in order to precise of genetic abnormality influence on tumor growth and therefore for assessment of clinical prognosis and with aim to chose adequate treatment tactic in each case.

  14. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  15. Clinical and microbiologic aspects of serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, C U; Miller, H

    1983-01-01

    10 patients with serious infections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8 cases of endocarditis in non-prosthetic valves, 1 was complicated by osteomyelitis, 1 case of osteomyelitis, and 1 case of septicemia) are described. Clinical and microbiologic features were evaluated including antibiotic sensitivity and synergy studies, phage typing and biotyping. Endocarditis tended to affect the elderly population and the clinical manifestations were quite similar to those caused by Streptococcus viridans. Both patients with osteomyelitis had involvement of the cervical spine with excellent response to antibiotic therapy. The only patient with septicemia acquired via hyperalimentation had delayed clearance of the bacteremia but ultimately responded to intravenous antibiotics. Rifampicin was the most effective of all antibiotics tested. All isolates were sensitive to penicillinase-resistant penicillins and cephalosporins and over half were sensitive to penicillin. Full synergistic activity was demonstrated with cephalothin and nafcillin in combination with rifampicin, and rifampicin-vancomycin was partially synergistic against the majority of the strains. Five of 8 available isolates were non-phage typeable and no definite pattern was established for various types of infections. Four of the 8 isolates were classified as biotype SIIa, 2 biotype SIIc and 2 biotype SVh. PMID:6361977

  16. I Brazilian Registry of Heart Failure - Clinical Aspects, Care Quality and Hospitalization Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denilson Campos de Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in adults in Brazil. However, most of the available data is limited to unicenter registries. The BREATHE registry is the first to include a large sample of hospitalized patients with decompensated HF from different regions in Brazil. Objective: Describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of hospitalized patients admitted with acute HF. Methods: Observational registry study with longitudinal follow-up. The eligibility criteria included patients older than 18 years with a definitive diagnosis of HF, admitted to public or private hospitals. Assessed outcomes included the causes of decompensation, use of medications, care quality indicators, hemodynamic profile and intrahospital events. Results: A total of 1,263 patients (64±16 years, 60% women were included from 51 centers from different regions in Brazil. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (70.8%, dyslipidemia (36.7% and diabetes (34%. Around 40% of the patients had normal left ventricular systolic function and most were admitted with a wet-warm clinical-hemodynamic profile. Vasodilators and intravenous inotropes were used in less than 15% of the studied cohort. Care quality indicators based on hospital discharge recommendations were reached in less than 65% of the patients. Intrahospital mortality affected 12.6% of all patients included. Conclusion: The BREATHE study demonstrated the high intrahospital mortality of patients admitted with acute HF in Brazil, in addition to the low rate of prescription of drugs based on evidence.

  17. Practical aspects of the use of FMEA tool in clinical laboratory risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabete Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA tool in a clinical laboratory through the introduction of new technology for blood gas and serum ionized calcium in multi-parameter analyzers such as Point of Care Testing (POCT. OBJECTIVE: To present FMEA as a tool for risk managing and improvement with the introduction of new technologies in a public laboratory. METHODS: The change of multiparameter gas analyzer type POCT was defined and described as a process. Subsequently, the criteria were presented to the risk assessment and its quantification. We studied the failure modes that might occur in this process. We established three action plans involving improvements to be made in the technological change. FMEA was applied in two stages: at the beginning of the project and after the implementation of the proposed measures. RESULTS: The first plan involved administrative measures related to the bidding process; the second preventive action involved the possibility of which supplier would win the bid by studying the efficiency of the analyzer and its impact on productivity; the third set of actions was directed to improvements in the relationship with the clinical staff in order to minimize occasional complaints. The last actions referred to employing new employees to meet the growing demand. CONCLUSION: FMEA proved to be a reliable tool for performance improvement, which proactively identifies, prioritizes and mitigates patient risks.

  18. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  19. The role of Ikaros transcriptional factor in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis: biological and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Vshivkoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the pathogenesis and factors effecting recurrence, progression and drug resistance in acute leukemia (AL remains a major challenge for hematology and other related areas. The role of more than 50 genes and proteins in the AL pathogenesis has been shown, including the well-studied tumor suppressor (CDKN2A/CDKN2B, RB1, PTEN, p53, and classical fusion genes (BCR/ABL1, TEL/AML1, E2A/PBX, MLL translocations. In addition, high frequency of aberrations in genes responsible for lymphoid differentiation have been identified such as transcription factors (PAX5, IKZF1 and EBF1, transcriptional regulation of the genes (ETV6, ERG, and signaling pathways of antigen receptors (BTLA, CD200, TOX, BLNK, VPREB1, as well as genes involved in chemoresistance of leukemia cells (NR3C1. In recent studies, Ikaros abnormalities have been reported to be frequently associated with AL. Ikaros is a member of a Kruppel-like family of zinc finger transcription factors that also includes IKZF2 (Helios, IKZF3 (Aiolos, Eos and Pegasus, and encoded by the IKZF1 gene. In hematopoietic cells Ikaros functions as a transcription factor, a key protein controlling T-, B-, NK-, and dendritic cells early differentiation. At the early hematopoiesis stages, it represses the myeloid and erythroid lineages, and stimulates the lymphoid differentiation. Ikaros also normally modulates immune response and plays role of a tumor suppressor in lymphoid malignances. Data from numerous clinical studies confirmed an association between the presence of IKZF1 aberrations and B-cell and, to a lesser extent, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL development. Besides, loss of Ikaros function was associated with progression of myeloproliferative diseases to acute myeloid leukemia (AML in children. From clinical point of view, particular intragenic IKZF1 deletions and a short (non-functional protein Ikaros isoforms, which may occur as a result of intragenic deletions or aberrant splicing

  20. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  1. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  2. Insulin resistance and clinical aspects of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh; Sharma, Barjesh Chander

    2005-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders. This is highly prevalent in obese and diabetic subjects. Persons with central obesity are at particular risk. Other clinical predictors are age more than 40-50 years and hyperlipidemias, but none of these factors is invariable for causation of NASH. Other reported associations are, celiac disease, Wilson's Disease and few other metabolic diseases. Drugs, particularly amiodarone, tamoxifen, nucleoside analogues and methotrxate have also been linked to NASH. The disease is evenly distributed in both sexes but advanced disease is more common in women. Ethnic variation exists and African Americans are less affected than Hispanic Americans. Specific clinical features of NASH are infrequent. Patients usually come to clinical attention by elevated liver enzymes found on routine evaluation but on history, about two third of patients will admit to have mild fatigue and about half will report right upper quadrant pain. Rarely, patient may present with a complication of cirrhosis. Physical examination may reveal hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Research in last few years has stressed that development of steatosis, stetohepatitis, fibrosis with subsequent cirrhosis are most probably the result of insulin resistance. Therefore, clinical features may reflect existence of insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly central obesity is most important of these. Patients may have sleep apnea syndrome. Hypertension and manifestations of diabetes mellitus like polyuria, polydypsia, and neurological deficits may occur. Patients may have varying combination of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and impaired fibrinolysis (syndrome X). Children with insulin resistance may show acanthosis nigricance. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, which consists of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, hirsutism, oligo or polymenorrha and hyperlipidemia may have NASH. Other rare manifestations of insulin

  3. Definition and natural history of metabolic steatosis: clinical aspects of NAFLD, NASH and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, L; Lemoine, M

    2008-12-01

    Metabolic steatosis or non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver injury in Western countries. Histological signs of necroinflammation, indicating the presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), are present in 20-30% of cases. While steatosis on its own has a benign course, NASH may be associated with fibrosis and may progress to cirrhosis, terminal liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is closely associated with the metabolic syndrome, its prevalence reaching 50-90% in obese patients. The clinical impact of NAFLD has been demonstrated in large cohort studies by the overprevalence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in obese and diabetic patients. In terms of survival, liver disease is the third most common cause of mortality in patients with NAFLD. When associated with other causes of liver disease such as alcohol consumption or hepatitis C infection, metabolic steatosis may be a major risk factor for disease progression. PMID:19195623

  4. Reconsidering Risk for Reoffense in Intrafamilial Child Molesters: New Aspects on Clinical and Criminological Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Eher

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrafamilial child molesters are generally seen to be at lower risk for reoffense than extrafamilial child molesters. There is, however, good reason to question this assumption. The literature usually does not take into account some clinical and criminological data, that might indicate a higher relative risk for reoffending in intrafamilial child molesters than generally assumed. On two groups of intrafamilial (n=157 and extrafamilial (n=131 child molesters, this study tested some of the assumptions generally made about these offender groups. We found that there are indeed differences that can not be interpreted in line with the general literature on this topic. Most importantly, the time from onset of offense until official conviction is much longer in intrafamilial than extrafamilial offenders, rendering the former considerable more opportunity to consistently recidivate that the latter. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of treatment needs for both groups of individuals.

  5. [Not only optic neuropathy: new molecular and clinical aspects of OPA1 gene mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Monika; Sciezyńska, Aneta; Szulborski, Kamil; Szaflik, Jacek P; Szaflik, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant optic nerve atrophy is the most frequent dominantly inherited optic neuropathy. The main causesof the disease are OPA1 gene mutations, which are detected in about 60% of patients. Encoded by the nuclear genome the OPA1 protein plays an important role in a wide variety of processes crucial to the proper functioning of mitochondria, the role of OPAl in many of them has been discovered recently. A detailed study of patients with mutations in the OPA1 gene has shown that about 20% of them present symptoms of a multiple system disease, which may include hearing loss, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, myopathy, peripheral neuropathy, spastic paraparesis and multiple sclerosis-like illness. This clinical manifestation is difficult to differentiate from other neurodegenerative diseases, that is why genetic testing is very important in order to determine the molecular basis of the disease in these patients. PMID:25137924

  6. Practical aspects of apixaban use in clinical practice: continuing the theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bel'diev

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are no generally accepted guidelines for the use of apixaban together with CYP3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitors. Analysis of clinical and pharmacological studies suggests that apixaban dose should be reduced to 2.5 mg twice daily when co-administered with a strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors, such as azole antimycotics, HIV protease inhibitors and clarithromycin. However, it is preferred to avoid apixaban combination with strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl <30 mL/min. According to preliminary calculations, apixaban dose should also be adjusted in patients with CrCl <70-80 ml/min, receiving less potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, such as diltiazem, naproxen, verapamil, amiodarone and quinidine. 

  7. Stroke-like episodes in familial mitochondrial encephalomyopathy: clinical and biochemical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, M S; Reichmann, H; Schütz, H J; Dorndorf, W; Schachenmayr, W

    1991-04-01

    Acute episodes of focal neurological dysfunction are a well-recognized complication of the mitochondrial encephalomyopathies. Because of rapid remission, biochemical tests and other diagnostic procedures are mostly performed after the acute phase. We report the case of a patient suffering from mitochondrial disease manifesting primarily with seizures, progressive deafness and dementia, who experienced multiple stroke-like episodes. Other members of the family with evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction are presented briefly. EEG and biochemical findings in the acute stage are correlated with clinical symptoms, showing characteristics distinct from the chronic illness. The possible involvement of dietary factors in the provocation of stroke-like episodes is discussed and regulation of glucose intake suggested as a strategy in the prevention of stroke-like episodes. PMID:1906933

  8. The aging lung. Clinical and imaging findings and the fringe of physiological state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since aspects of demographic transition have become an essential part of socioeconomic, medical and health-care research in the last decades, it is vital for the radiologist to discriminate between normal ageing related effects and abnormal imaging findings in the elderly. This article reviews functional and structural aspects of the ageing lung and focuses on typical ageing related radiological patterns.

  9. Hematologic and Clinical Aspects of Experimental Ovine Anaplasmosis Caused by Anaplasma Ovis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gharabaghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaplasma ovis infections can cause clinical symptoms in acute phase and lead to huge economic losses in flocks. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hematological and parasito­logical changes in experimental anaplasmosis in sheep with Iranian strain of A. ovis.Method: Five male sheep without any blood parasite infection were selected. One hundred ml hepari­nized blood was collected from splenectomised sheep that showed 6% A. ovis parasitemia. Inocu­lums of 20 ml blood were administered intravenously to each test animal. Hematological, parasito­logical and clinical changes of experimental anaplasmosis were studied in 0-38 days post infec­tion.Result: Parasitemia was detected 3 days post infection and reached its maximum level on the day 12 of experiment in test animals. Then the parasitemia was declined, but the organism could be found persistently until the last day of study. The red cell counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin concentra­tion were decreased and mean corpuscular volume was increased significantly during the infection period. Reticulocytosis and basophilic stippling were also detected. No significant changes were observed in total and differential leukocyte count and animal body temperature.Conclusion: Experimental A. ovis infection in sheep resulted in marked normocytic normochromic anemia at the beginning of the infection which became macrocytic normochromic by the develop­ment of the disease. There were negative correlations between parasitemia and RBC, PCV and Hb values, therefore hematological assessment can be considered as a practical diagnostic tool in ovine anaplasmosis.

  10. CNS Cavernous Hemangioma; Imaging, Clinical Presentation and Related Anatomophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nClinical and imaging judgement or decision: "n- Is it a CH “CM, CA“? "n- Is it solitary, multiple or familial? "n- Is there an associated venous malformation? "n- Are there risks and consequences of hemorrhage? "n- Is the anatomic location critical and life threatening? "nCavernous malformation is a low pressure, slow flowing malformation and composes 10 – 15 % of vascular malformations. Cavernous angioma consists of enlarged sinusoidal vascular spaces, a compact mass in the brain and spinal cord, the endothelial lining is weak and blood element leakage is frequent.Calcification is possible "X – ray CT ". 75% located in the brain and 25 % in the posterior fossa and brain stem. "nAll 50% of cases are multiple and this form is familial in 80 % of cases “possibility combined with cord cavernoma“. "nExtra – medullary and extra – paranchymal forms are rare. "n- 40-60 % of the patients demonstrate seizure because of hemorrhage inside the cavernoma. "n10 – 15 % of complicated patients show significant clinical signs especially in the brain stem."n Imaging: "n1- X-ray CT: Isodense or hyperdense with frequent and heavy calcification . "nEnhanced CT may show the degree of enhancement. "n2 – By MRI: T1 may be isointense but in case of hemorrhage there is bright methemoglobin inside. By T2 and flair a thin capsule and a rim of hemosiderin – ferritin "popcorn or mulberries" and shows enhancement "GD-GRE-MRI pulse". "nCompanion of venous angioma and cavernoma is possible. "nBleeding is more likely from cavernous malformations during pregnancy. "nConclusion: CT and MRI demonstrate all forms and sites of brain and spinal cord cavernomas. "nAttention is necessary for brain stem lesions especially during pregnancy."n Treatment: 1- Medial and serial MRI controls. "n2- Radiosurgery "Gama-knife", rare. "n3- Microsurgery, very rare Multiple forms of these lesions are demonstratable in 55 patients.  

  11. Clinical relevance of imaging proliferative activity in lung nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Andreas K.; Schirrmeister, Holger; Kratochwil, Clemens; Wahl, Andreas; Glatting, Gerhard; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Neumaier, Bernd; Reske, Sven N. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Hetzel, Martin [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II - Pulmonary Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Halter, Gisela [University of Ulm, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Moeller, Peter; Mattfeldt, Torsten [University of Ulm, Department of Pathology, Ulm (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Recently, the thymidine analogue 3'-deoxy-3'[{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine (FLT) has been introduced for imaging proliferation with positron emission tomography (PET). In this prospective study, we examined the accuracy of FLT for differentiation of benign from malignant lung lesions and for tumour staging. A total of 47 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary nodules on chest CT suspicious for malignancy were examined with FLT-PET in addition to routine staging procedures. A total of 43 patients also underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET imaging. Within 2 weeks, patients underwent resective surgery or core biopsy of the pulmonary lesion. Histopathology revealed malignant lung tumours in 32 patients (20 non-small cell lung cancer, 1 small cell lung cancer, 1 pulmonary carcinoid, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, nine metastases from extrapulmonary tumours) and benign lesions in 15 patients. Increased FLT uptake was exclusively related to malignant tumours. FLT-PET was false negative in two patients with non-small cell lung cancer, in the patient with a pulmonary carcinoid and in three patients with lung metastases. The sensitivity of FLT-PET for detection of lung cancer was 90%, the specificity 100% and the accuracy 94%. Fifteen out of 21 patients with lung cancer had mediastinal lymph node metastases. FLT-PET was true positive in 7/15 patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 53% for N-staging (specificity 100%, accuracy 67%). Clinical TNM stage was correctly identified in 67% (20/30) patients, compared to 85% (23/27) with FDG-PET. FLT-PET has a high specificity for the detection of malignant lung tumours. Compared with FDG, FLT-PET is less accurate for N-staging in patients with lung cancer and for detection of lung metastases. FLT-PET therefore cannot be recommended for staging of lung cancer. (orig.)

  12. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elcha@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Balslev, Ingegerd, E-mail: inbal@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Achiam, Michael, E-mail: micach01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Nielsen, Yousef W., E-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Adamsen, Sven, E-mail: svad@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Gocht-Jensen, Peter, E-mail: petgoc01@heh.reginh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Brisling, Steffen K., E-mail: stkibr01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Logager, Vibeke B., E-mail: viloe@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S., E-mail: heth@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and methods: The prospective study included 48 consecutive patients (29 female, 19 male, 18-70 years old, mean age = 37.1 years). MRI examination was designed to be comfortable and fast; no contrast was administered. The sequences were performed during quiet respiration. The MRI findings were reviewed by two radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. Results: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14 patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate ({kappa} = 0.51) and fair ({kappa} = 0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute appendicitis were found between the reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for overall performance of MRI in detecting pelvic abnormalities were 100%, 75% (3 of 4 healthy patients were identified by MRI) and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: Unenhanced fast MRI is feasible as an additional fast screening before the appendectomy. It may prevent unnecessary surgeries. The fast MRI examination can be adequately performed on an MRI unit of broad range of field strengths.

  13. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and methods: The prospective study included 48 consecutive patients (29 female, 19 male, 18-70 years old, mean age = 37.1 years). MRI examination was designed to be comfortable and fast; no contrast was administered. The sequences were performed during quiet respiration. The MRI findings were reviewed by two radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. Results: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14 patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate (κ = 0.51) and fair (κ = 0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute appendicitis were found between the reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for overall performance of MRI in detecting pelvic abnormalities were 100%, 75% (3 of 4 healthy patients were identified by MRI) and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: Unenhanced fast MRI is feasible as an additional fast screening before the appendectomy. It may prevent unnecessary surgeries. The fast MRI examination can be adequately performed on an MRI unit of broad range of field strengths.

  14. The Clinical Characteristics and Imaging Findings of Morning Glory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the features of CT, ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA) of morning glory syndrome, the data on CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were retrospectively analyzed in 8 cases of morning glory syndrome (MGS).Among those cases, 6 were examined with CT, 4 with FFA and 8 with A/B-scan ultrasonography.Results showed that the characteristics of CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA in MGS included:(1) The attachment spot of optic nerve became thin and vitreous body protruded to the posterior wall of eyeball with a spherical shape on CT image; (2) in the early period of FFA, hypofluorescence appeared on the optic, the abnormal arteriae and veins around the optic papilla were displayed clearly and in the late period, optic disc was stained with fluorescein; (3) on B-scan ultrasonogram, the vitreous cavity extended to the posterior pole and optic papilla, and projected to the basal part of muscle cones and thus the posterior part of vitreous cavity looked like an upside-down bottleneck. Sometimes the echogenic band of retinal detachment could also be seen. On A-scan ultrasonogram, both vitreous cavity and bottleneck showed no ultrasonic echoes and presented a base line without any evident wave crest. It is concluded that CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA could show the imageological features of MGS from different aspects, which helps clinicians to differentiate it from other diseases such as optic disc coloboma. CT and A/B-scan ultrasonography, in particular, are considered to be reliable imageological methods for the accurate diagnosis of MGS and are superior to the traditional techniques.

  15. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  16. Clinical and radiographic aspects of the bovine pericardium as a substitute of the canine cranial cruciate ligament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical and radiographic aspects of the bovine pericardium preserved in glicerin, were evaluated as a substitute for canine cranial cruciate ligament. Fifteen male mongrel dogs weighing between 17.4 and 31.6kg had the ligament experimentally ruptured and the stifle joint stabilized by an arthroscopical technique with bovine pericardium as a graft. The dogs were divided into three groups of five animals each. They were evaluated at 30, 90 and 120 days. The operated limb was imobillized for two weeks and clinical examination was performed weekly. Radiographs were taken monthly and the sinovial fluid was collect at 30, 90 and 120 days. Clinically, dogs presented high to moderate lameness, muscle hipotrophy in the operated limb and accentuated cranial drawer movement. Degenerative disease was detected in radiography. All dogs showed total rupture of the graft. Sinovial fluid analysis showed characteristics of inflammation. It can be concluded that pericardium graft failed prematurely, incited persistent inflammatory reaction and rejection phenomena. Thus, it cannot be recommended as a xenograft for cranial cruciate ligament replacement

  17. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  18. Technical aspects of clinical videoconferencing: a large scale review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farhad; Armfield, Nigel R; Dimitrijevic, Mila; Gray, Leonard C

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine has been increasingly researched during the past few decades and the technology used by health care providers and recipients has changed dramatically. However, little has been published on technical characteristics of video consultations and how these characteristics have changed over time due to rapid advancement of information and communication technology. We aimed to summarize various types of technologies used for interactive videoconferencing between health care providers and patients, and identify the trend of their change from 2002 to 2012. A comprehensive electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases which yielded 2,411 unique records. After screening at title/abstract level, full texts of 505 articles were retrieved and explored for technical information of videoconferencing. The trend of number of publications fluctuated between 41 and 47 articles with no specific pattern, though a dip in 2004 (n = 35) and drastic increase in 2012 (n = 68) was evident. The equipment used for videoconferencing was not mentioned in 15% of the papers. Dedicated VC systems (CODECs), were the most commonly used hardware, followed by computer/laptop/notebook. The connection speed (bandwidth) was not reported in 46% of the papers. The proportion of articles reporting the connection speed declined over time. Details of image quality and frame rate were mentioned in 11% and 5% of the papers, respectively. The results of this study showed that a high proportion of telemedicine papers lack sufficient technical details that limits their repeatability and generalizability. PMID:25697489

  19. Joint Probability Models of Radiology Images and Clinical Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Corey Wells

    2009-01-01

    Radiology data, in the form of images and reports, is growing at a high rate due to the introduction of new imaging modalities, new uses of existing modalities, and the growing importance of objective image information in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. This increase has resulted in an enormous set of image data that is richly annotated…

  20. "Clinical and Radiological Aspects of Chronic Granulomatous Disease in Children: A case Series from Iran "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Soheila Khalilzadeh

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD is a rare disorder of phagocytes, predisposes patients to bacterial and fungal infections. The main purpose of this study was to determine the clinical, radiological, pathologicial features, outcome and response to treatment of children with CGD. Thirteen patients with CGD, who had been referred to National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD, were reviewed during a 6 year period (1999-2005. There were 10 (76% male and 3(24% female cases. The median age of the patients was 9 years (1 month-12 years.Family history of CGD was reported by 7 patients. The median diagnostic age was 8 years, with a diagnostic delay of 4.5 years. The most common manifestations of CGD were pulmonary infections and skin involvement, followed by generalized lymphadenopathy. The most common radiological findings were multiple lymphadenopathy in mediastinal region and fibrotic changes in lung fields. Two patients died of pulmonary infections. Based on the results of this research, immunologic evaluations especially evaluation for CGD is highly recommended in children suffering from recurrent pulmonary infections, cutaneous or hepatic abscesses, or infections caused by uncommon pathogens. Early diagnosis and prophylactic treatment both, prevent further development of the lesions, irreversible complications and decreasing mortality and morbidity rates in children suffering from CGD.

  1. Physiopathological, Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Caterina; Brucculeri, Salvatore; Caimi, Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (6 hours in duration), in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (due to non osmotic stimuli), long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associated with pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome. PMID:26237602

  2. Physiopathological, Epidemiological, Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Urso

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH is dilutional hyponatremia, a variant of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH, characterized by a plasma concentration of sodium lower than 135 mEq/L. The prevalence of EAH is common in endurance (<6 hours and ultra-endurance events (>6 hours in duration, in which both athletes and medical providers need to be aware of risk factors, symptom presentation, and management. The development of EAH is a combination of excessive water intake, inadequate suppression of the secretion of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH (due to non osmotic stimuli, long race duration, and very high or very low ambient temperatures. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Signs and symptoms of EAH include nausea, vomiting, confusion, headache and seizures; it may result in severe clinical conditions associated with pulmonary and cerebral edema, respiratory failure and death. A rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatment with a hypertonic saline solution is essential in the severe form to ensure a positive outcome.

  3. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Drosera, Massimo; Gasparini, Giulia; Parodi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp's syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5-10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia. PMID:24649358

  4. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  5. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cozzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp’s syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5–10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia.

  6. Therapeutic and clinical aspects of portal vein thrombosisin patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complicationin cirrhosis, particularly in advanced stages of thedisease. As for general venous thromboembolism, riskfactors for PVT are slow blood flow, vessel wall damageand hypercoagulability, all features of advanced cirrhosis.Actually, the old dogma of a hemorrhagic tendency incirrhosis has been challenged by new laboratory toolsand the clinical evidence that venous thrombosis alsooccurs in cirrhosis. The impaired hepatic synthesis ofboth pro- and anticoagulants leads to a rebalancedhemostasis, more liable to be tipped towards thrombosisor even bleeding. Conventional anticoagulant drugs(low molecular weight heparin or vitamin K antagonists)may be used in cirrhosis patients with PVT, particularlyin those eligible for liver transplantation, to preventthrombosis progression thus permitting/facilitating livertransplant. However, several doubts exist on the levelof anticoagulation achieved as estimated by coagulationtests, on the efficacy of treatment monitoring and onthe correct timing for discontinuation in non-transplantcandidates, while in transplant candidates there isexpert consensus on continuing anticoagulation untiltransplantation. The recent introduction of direct actingoral anticoagulant drugs (DOACs) in other clinicalsettings generates much interest on their possibleapplication in patients with cirrhosis and PVT. However,DOACs were not evaluated yet in patients with liverdisease and cannot be recommended for the presenttime.

  7. [Pulmonary CO/NO transfer: physiological basis, technical aspects and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degano, B; Perrin, F; Soumagne, T; Agard, C; Chambellan, A

    2014-05-01

    Diseases affecting the alveolar-capillary membrane or the capillary blood vessels can impair pulmonary gas exchanges and lung diffusion. The single-breath transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) is the classical technique for measuring gas transfer from the alveolus to the pulmonary capillary blood. Pulmonary gas exchanges can also be explored by the transfer factor of the lung for nitric oxide (TL,NO). TL,NO represents a better index for the diffusing capacity of the alveolar-capillary membrane whereas TL,CO is more influenced by red blood cell resistance. Membrane diffusing capacity (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) derivated from TL,CO and TL,NO by the Roughton-Forster equation can give additional insights into pulmonary pathologies. The clinical impact of the CO/NO transfer has still to be precised even if this measurement seems to provide an alternative way of investigating the alveolar membrane and the blood reacting with the gas. PMID:24314829

  8. Clinically and radiological aspects of alterations in humeroradiulnar and hip joints in fila brasileiro dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeroradiulnar and hip joints of 100 fila brasileiro dogs were clinically and radiological studied. the objective was the demonstration of pathologies and their frequency in the metropolitan area of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The animals were 47 females and 53 males, aged between 9 and 120 months, although 74% of them had less than 36 months and were investigated according their city region and kind of food. Most of the animals came from region III (37%) and used to eat commercial food (32%) and mixed diet composed by commercial food meat and domestic food (26%). Diets with higher density and protein concentrations were more frequent in regions I and III and domestic food in region V. the alterations frequency in the humeroredioulnar joint was 33%. The most frequent pathologies observed were the fragmentation of the coronoid process (39.4%), osteochondrosis dissecans of the medial humeral condyle (31.8%) and ununited anconeal process (28.8%). It was observed significant difference in the frequency of hip dysplasia between the female group (46.5%) and male group (66.7%). For the entire group this frequency was 58%. No significant difference was found in the average inclination angle for normal dogs (149.73 deg ± 1.55 deg) and dysplastic dogs dysplasia. Control measures must be applied aiming the reduction of the joint alterations, as the fila brasileiro is a relative new breed. (author)

  9. Clinical and pharmacologic aspects of blinatumomab in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell CA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Craig A Portell, Candice M Wenzell, Anjali S Advani Leukemia Program, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults remains a challenging disease to treat, and novel therapies are needed. Precursor-B ALL comprises 80% of cases, and the CD19 antigen is expressed in nearly all precursor-B ALL patients. Bispecific T-cell-engaging antibodies are novel bioengineered proteins. The bispecific T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab engages polyclonal T cells to CD19-expressing B cells. By binding to both CD3 and CD19, blinatumomab physically brings these T cells in close proximity to malignant B cells and potentiates T-cell-induced cytotoxic cell kill. Blinatumomab requires continuous intravenous infusion due to its short half-life, the need for continuous exposure for the drug to exert sufficient efficacy, and lessened toxicity. A phase II trial of B-cell ALL patients with persistent or relapsed minimal residual disease demonstrated an 80% rate of complete molecular remission. Cytokine-release syndrome and central nervous system events, such as seizures and encephalopathy, are reversible toxicities. Promising results in B-cell ALL with minimal residual disease have led to further evaluation of this drug in newly diagnosed and relapsed B-cell ALL. Keywords: blinatumomab, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CD19, BiTE antibodies

  10. Clinical and histological aspects with therapeutic implications in head and neck lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuşaliu, Mihail; Mogoantă, Carmen Aurelia; Dobrea, Camelia Marioara; Zainea, Viorel

    2015-01-01

    Malignant lymphoma (ML) is one of the major issues in modern medical practice, with an increasing incidence in recent years, which makes it, together with leukemia, the most frequent form of neoplasia affecting young people. The onset can occur both inside and outside the lymph nodes, with a quarter of the lymphomas with extranodal onset being located in the head and neck. The purpose of the paper is to conduct a retrospective study over a period of six years on patients diagnosed and admitted to the clinic with malignant lymphomas located in the head and neck, discussing their different histological variations. It emphasizes the importance of the histopathological examination and, in particular, of the immunohistochemical tests, in determining the histological subtype of the lymphoma, as the immunohistochemical and cytogenetic data of the malignant cell play a major role in the evolution and prognosis of patients. The study leads to the conclusion that, in spite of the advancements of the immunological, cytogenetic and molecular techniques, the diagnosis and histological determination of malignant lymphomas continue to be a challenge to clinicians and anatomical pathologists. Of particular importance in the efforts made for the accurate diagnosis and proper treatment of the ENT (ear, nose and throat) malignant lymphomas is the interdisciplinary collaboration between the ENT specialist, the hematologist, the anatomical pathologist, the oncologist and the nutritionist. PMID:26193219

  11. Respiratory viruses in the pediatric intensive care unit: prevalence and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M Straliotto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in two pediatric intensive care units in hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in order to monitor the main respiratory viruses present in bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia and their involvement in the severity of viral respiratory infections. Viral respiratory infection prevalence was 38.7%. In bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was detected in 36% of the cases. In pneumonia, the prevalence rates were similar for adenovirus (10.3% and RSV (7.7%. There was a difference among the viruses detected in terms of frequency of clinical findings indicating greater severity. Frequency of crackles in patients with RSV (47.3% showed a borderline significance (p = 0.055, Fisher's exact test as compared to those with adenovirus (87.5%. The overall case fatality rate in this study was 2.7%, and adenovirus showed a significantly higher case fatality rate (25% than RSV (2.8% (p = 0.005. Injected antibiotics were used in 49% of the children with RSV and 60% of those with adenovirus. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the 33 children submitted to oxygen therapy.

  12. Gingival Condition in Children Aged From 6 to 12 Years Old: Clinical and Microbiological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Stella Salgado XAVIER

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the gingival condition and the occurrence of periodontopathogens in 93 children aged from 6 to 12 years old in Araçatuba, Brazil. Method: Clinical examination was performed in accordance to Schour and Massler (1947 while the subgingival plaque samples were obtained though sterilized paper point that were placed into health and inflamed gingival crevice of tooth 54 or 14, 61 or 11, 26, 75 or 35, 82 or 42 and 46, where they were kept for 60 seconds and tranferred to tubes containing 5 ml of thioglicolate broth. Microorganisms were isolated on blood agar and CVE an agar after incubation under anaerobiosis, at 37ºC, for 10 days. The identification of the isolates was based on their morphological, cellular and biochemical features. Results: 91.40% shows gingivitis while 70.97% presented mild gingivitis. Only 8.6% didn’t presented gingivitis. It was verified that the most of children presented mild gengivitis and was had some periodontopathogens. Conclusion: The gingivitis deteriored with age and only F. nucleatum was related with the deterioration of gengival status.

  13. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil: clinical aspects of three new cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERREIRA Marcelo S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS has been recognized recently in Brazil, where 28 cases have been reported as of September 1999. We report here the clinical and laboratory findings of three cases whose diagnoses were confirmed serologically. All the patients were adults who presented a febrile illness with respiratory symptoms that progressed to respiratory failure that required artificial ventilation in two of them. Laboratory findings were most of the time consistent with those reported in the United States in patients infected with the Sin Nombre virus, and included elevated hematocrit and thrombocytopenia; presence of atypical lymphocytes was observed in one patient. The chest radiological findings observed in all the patients were bilateral, diffuse, reticulonodular infiltrates. Two patients died. Histopathological examination of the lungs of these patients revealed interstitial and alveolar edema, alveolar hemorrhage, and mild interstitial pneumonia characterized by infiltrate of immunoblasts and mononuclear cells. In the epidemiologic investigation of one of the cases, serologic (ELISA tests were positive in 3 (25% out of 12 individuals who shared the same environmental exposure. HPS should be included in the differential diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory failure.

  14. BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM remains to be one of the major health problems particularly in developing countries. Tunisia is a part of the Mediterranean countries mostly affected by this disease which is highly concentrated in small towns in families with low-income earners. The main objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, clinical features and transfusion-related complications in patients with TM living in Tunisia. A standardized questionnaire was sent to clinicians throughout 33 different medical institutions caring for thalassemic patients. 391 transfusion dependant thalassemic patients with a median age of 10.7 years (range 3 months- 31 years were included in the study.The majority were originated from the north west of the country .A moderate overload between 1501 and 2500ng/ml was found in 61patients, while 81 patients (26.9% had ferritin level more than 2500 ng/ml and greater than 5000ng/ml in 21 patients (6.9%. 51 patients died from complications related to their disease. Heart failure was the main cause of death. The incidence of cardiac, endocrine, and infectious complications will be reviewed. Preventive measures such as health education, carrier screening and premarital screening remain the best ways for lowering the incidence of these diseases, which might be reflected in financial saving, social benefits and health benefits.

  15. Advances on the clinical applications of the image fusion techniques in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of coronary heart disease increasingly depends on referring and combining the information from a variety of imaging techniques. The fusion imaging of the anatomy and function provides a convenient 'one stop' examination which improves the existing imaging examination process. The development of the image fusion techniques, such as SPECT/coronary angiography, SPECT/CT, especially PET/CT, has shown a larger value in the diagnosis, risk stratification, clinical treatment guidance and efficacy prognosis of coronary heart disease than a single imaging examination, while the more complete data of the image and the quantitative analysis provide more useful information for the clinic. (authors)

  16. Stereoscopic Height Estimation from Multiple Aspect Synthetic Aperture Radar Images; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a two-dimensional projection of the radar reflectivity from a 3-dimensional object or scene. Stereoscopic SAR employs two SAR images from distinct flight paths that can be processed together to extract information of the third collapsed dimension (typically height) with some degree of accuracy. However, more than two SAR images of the same scene can similarly be processed to further improve height accuracy, and hence 3-dimensional position accuracy. This report shows how

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging. Multicentre study for a clinical and economic evaluation. Summary. Kernspintomographie. Multizentrische Studie zur klinischen und oekonomischen Evaluierung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A.; Bielke, G.; Bockenheimer, S.; Brenner, G.; Dieringer, H.; Esswein, H.; Hopf, H.; Koch, H.; Meves, M.; Nagel, F.; Oberstein, A.; Ostheimer, E.; Pfaff, M.; Schlaps, D.; Schopka, H.J.; Seiderer, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study investigates three points of main interest: (1) The clinical efficacy of MR imaging as a routine method, if possible to be assessed in comparison to comparable imaging methods, and referring to a broad spectrum of available types of equipment and modes of operation, to be expressed in terms of diagnostic value and indication of therapy. (2) Specific economic aspects, considering different sites of operation and application conditions. (3) Results of clinical application with regard to individual cases (patient careers), in order to establish a nationwide basis for economic cost-benefit assessment of this diagnostic tool. Another aspect taken into account whenever available data allow so, is substitutional or additional application of MR imaging. The survey is performed on the basis of data accumulated by more than 21.000 MR examinations, and of data describing the application environment, furnished by 25 users from university hospitals, general hospitals, or private practice. (orig./HP).

  18. SUEX process optimization for ultra-thick high-aspect ratio LIGA imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald W.; Goettert, Jost; Singh, Varshni; Yemane, Dawit

    2011-04-01

    oven, taken out and cooled to RT then relaxed up to 3 days before development to reduce stress. Development was done in PGMEA for up to 3 hours for the 1000μm thick samples followed by a short IPA rinse and drying in air. Very high aspect ratios of 100 or more have been routinely patterned with nearly perfectly straight sidewalls (~1-1.5μm deviation for a 1mm tall structure) and excellent image fidelity.

  19. Nongenomic progesterone receptor on human spermatozoa: biochemical aspects and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, E; Luconi, M; Bonaccorsi, L; Maggi, M; Francavilla, S; Gabriele, A; Properzi, G; Forti, G

    1999-01-01

    Progesterone (P) is a physiological stimulus of human sperm functions. It is present in high levels at the site of fertilization (cumulus oophorus) and has been described to affect several sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction, and the ability to bind and to respond to zona proteins. The effects of the steroid are mediated essentially by an increase of intracellular calcium concentrations, stimulation of activity of phospholipases, phosphorylation of proteins, efflux of chloride. These effects are due to activation of a rapid, nongenomic pathway. Whether the effects of progesterone are mediated or not by specific interactions with sperm membrane proteins is questioned. By using an antibody directed against the C-terminal region (P-binding region) of the genomic receptor, we have recently identified two sperm proteins with molecular weights distinct from the classic genomic receptors. In addition, ligand blot analysis with peroxidase-conjugated P demonstrated that P specifically binds these two proteins. Classical ligand binding experiments demonstrated the presence of two specific binding sites with affinity in the nanomolar and in the micromolar range, respectively. The involvement of progesterone in the physiological process leading to fertilization of the oocyte is suggested by several studies. In particular, the demonstration that sperm responsiveness to progesterone is impaired in subfertile patients and that is strictly correlated to the ability of fertilizing the oocyte represents a further indication of the participation of the steroid in this process. In addition, the determination of sperm responsiveness may be predictive of fertilizing ability with a positive predictive value of 90% and can be clinically useful for the preliminary assessment of the male partner to select the appropriate assisted reproductive technique. PMID:10323683

  20. [Gender medicine. Sex- and gender-specific aspects of clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, A

    2014-09-01

    Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways. Epigenetic modifications provide evidence of the impact of environment and lifestyle during vulnerable phases on biological processes, effecting future generations. Maternal lifestyle and environmental factors during pregnancy can impact the health of offspring in later life already in utero in a sex-specific way. Pain, stress, and coping styles differ between men and women. Women experience more dramatic physical changes during their lifetime, which are associated with specific burdens and psychosocial alterations. Women with multiple roles and responsibilities suffering from stress develop depression more frequently. However, men are often not diagnosed and treated appropriately in cases of depression or osteoporosis, diseases that are typically considered "female." There are prominent differences between men and women in medicine regarding the immune system, inflammation, and noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Women experience more often autoimmune diseases and suffer more frequently from (chronic) pain, neurodegenerative changes, and functional disabilities. Men have shorter life expectancy but relatively more healthy years of life, which is in greater part ascribed to psychosocial determinants. State-of-the-art clinical medicine comprises individual risk factors based on sex- and gender-sensitive health programs in order to

  1. Mastocytosis: the puzzling clinical spectrum and challenging diagnostic aspects of an enigmatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülen, T; Hägglund, H; Dahlén, B; Nilsson, G

    2016-03-01

    Mastocytosis is a complex disorder characterized by the accumulation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in the skin, bone marrow and/or other visceral organs. The clinical manifestations result from MC-derived mediators and, less frequently, from destructive infiltration of MCs. Patients suffer from a variety of symptoms including pruritus, flushing and life-threatening anaphylaxis. Whilst mastocytosis is likely to be suspected in a patient with typical skin lesions [i.e. urticaria pigmentosa (UP)], the absence of cutaneous signs does not rule out the diagnosis of this disease. Mastocytosis should be suspected in cases of recurrent, unexplained or severe insect-induced anaphylaxis or symptoms of MC degranulation without true allergy. In rare cases, unexplained osteoporosis or unexplained haematological abnormalities can be underlying feature of mastocytosis, particularly when these conditions are associated with elevated baseline serum tryptase levels. The diagnosis is based on the World Health Organization criteria, in which the tryptase level, histopathological and immunophenotypic evaluation of MCs and molecular analysis are crucial. A somatic KIT mutation, the most common of which is D816V, is usually detectable in MCs and their progenitors. Once a diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM) is made, it is mandatory to assess the burden of the disease, its activity, subtype and prognosis, and the appropriate therapy. Mastocytosis comprises seven different categories that range from indolent forms, such as cutaneous and indolent SM, to progressive forms, such as aggressive SM and MC leukaemia. Although prognosis is good in patients with indolent forms of the disease, patients with advanced categories have a poor prognosis. PMID:26347286

  2. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  3. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  4. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  5. Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Image of God as a Core Aspect of Religiousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; Sizoo, B.; Schothorst-Van Roekel, J.; Corveleyn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the image of God were studied among adult mental health outpatients with ASD (N = 78) and compared to a psychiatric and a nonclinical norm group. The God image, which refers to the personal meaning that God/the divine has to the individual, of

  6. [Clinical-pharmacological aspects to accelerate the development process from the preclinical to the clinical phase/1st communication: The contribution of clinical pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    To improve the transition from research to development a critical evaluation of the individual project by research and disease area teams is required to include input from pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, galenics, clinical pharmacology, clinical as well as regulatory experts and marketing. Decisions on the individual development strategy should be made prior to the start of development and all projects should be reviewed at predefined stages throughout the product development life cycle. This ensures consistency of decision-making not only during the development of individual products but throughout the entire development pipeline. Studies in the exploratory stage of drug development should be designed for decision making in contrast to later clinical trials in the confirmatory stage that require power for proof-of-safety and proof-of-efficacy. The more thorough and profound studies have been carried out during this exploratory stage of drug development, the earlier a decision can be made on the continuation or discontinuation of further development, thus saving development time and money and assessing and considerably reducing the risk for the patients and increasing the success rate of the project in the later confirmatory effectiveness trial with an adequate number of subjects receiving the new therapy under typical conditions of use. Strategies which may be helpful to improve the quality of decisions in drug discovery and drug development are: discovery experiments should be done to critically evaluate the compound, the "killer" experiments should be done as early as possible, continuous effort on preclinical disease models is necessary to improve predictability of efficacy in patients ("humanized" research): genomic technology should be used to identify novel, disease-related targets and to characterise preclinical test systems, improvement of knowledge and experience concerning the relevance of new technologies for the clinical picture; genotyping

  7. Tolerability of a fully maturated cheese in cow's milk allergic children: biochemical, immunochemical, and clinical aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From patients' reports and our preliminary observations, a fully maturated cheese (Parmigiano-Reggiano; PR seems to be well tolerated by a subset of cow's milk (CM allergic patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To biochemically and immunologically characterize PR samples at different maturation stage and to verify PR tolerability in CM allergic children. Seventy patients, with suspected CM allergy, were enrolled. IgE to CM, α-lactalbumin (ALA, β-lactoglobulin (BLG and caseins (CAS were tested using ImmunoCAP, ISAC103 and skin prick test. Patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with CM, and an open food challenge with 36 months-maturated PR. Extracts obtained from PR samples were biochemically analyzed in order to determine protein and peptide contents. Pepsin and trypsin-chymotrypsin-pepsin simulated digestions were applied to PR extracts. Each PR extract was investigated by IgE Single Point Highest Inhibition Achievable assay (SPHIAa. The efficiency analysis was carried out using CM and PR oral challenges as gold standards. RESULTS: The IgE binding to milk allergens was 100% inhibited by almost all PR preparations; the only difference was for CAS, mainly α(S1-CAS. Sixteen patients sensitized to CM tolerated both CM and PR; 29 patients tolerated PR only; 21 patients, reacted to both CM and PR, whereas 4 patients reactive to CM refused to ingest PR. ROC analysis showed that the absence of IgE to BLG measured by ISAC could be a good marker of PR tolerance. The SPHIAa using digested PR preparations showed a marked effect on IgE binding to CAS and almost none on ALA and BLG. CONCLUSIONS: 58% of patients clinically reactive to CM tolerated fully maturated PR. The preliminary digestion of CAS induced by PR maturation process, facilitating a further loss of allergenic reactivity during gut digestion, might explain the tolerance. This hypothesis seems to work when no IgE sensitization to ISAC BLG is detected.

  8. The clinical aspects of the acute facet syndrome: results from a structured discussion among European chiropractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Tue

    2009-02-01

    attending the workshop described the characteristics of an acute, uncomplicated lumbar facet syndrome in much the same way as chronic pain from the facet joints has been described in the literature. Furthermore, the acute, uncomplicated facet syndrome was considered to have an uncomplicated clinical course, responding quickly to spinal manipulative therapy.

  9. Clinical-pharmacokinetic aspects of prolonged effect duration as illustrated by beta2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Johan

    2002-07-01

    Regularity is a key element of maintenance drug treatment; compliance is crucial for treatment success. Once- or twice-daily intake of a drug is always easier to comply with than regimens requiring more frequent dosing. Bronchodilating treatment was used as an example to illustrate how sustained duration of effect can be achieved by two different approaches: oral administration of the terbutaline prodrug bambuterol and inhalation of formoterol. Bioanalytical methods were employed to monitor the kinetic fate of bambuterol and formoterol in plasma, urine, or faeces. Generated terbutaline in plasma was used as a marker of effect for bambuterol. Established clinical laboratory tests were used to assess local and systemic effects of inhaled formoterol compared with salbutamol. Recommended doses of bambuterol, 10-20 mg once daily in adults, normally produced plasma concentrations of the active moiety terbutaline within therapeutically relevant limits. Dose proportionality for terbutaline makes dosing with bambuterol predictable. Compared with adults, children should be given higher doses than indicated by their lower body weight. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that absorption of bambuterol was slow and multi-phasic and that slow biotransformation to terbutaline occurred both presystemically and systemically. Systemically circulating formoterol was rapidly eliminated, the inactive (S;S)-formoterol more rapidly than the active (R;R)-formoterol. An inactive phenol glucuronide was the main metabolite, and a previously unknown sulphate metabolite was discovered. Duration of systemically mediated cardiovascular or metabolic side-effects of inhaled formoterol seemed not to differ from those of an inhaled systemically equieffective dose of salbutamol. There was a trend suggesting that the magnitude of systemic side-effects may be less pronounced after inhalation of formoterol compared with a locally equieffective dose of inhaled salbutamol. Both approaches to sustaining

  10. A review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray TJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Gray,1 Cameron E Webb2,31Department of Infectious Diseases, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Pathology West - Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to

  11. The impact of a clinical guideline on imaging children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a clinical pathway on the volume of imaging studies performed in children with suspected clinical diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The pathway suggested referral to surgeons for clinical evaluation for palpation of the olive prior to ordering imaging studies. Only those children in whom the olive could not be palpated would be referred for imaging, and it was anticipated that imaging volume would be reduced following guideline implementation. Materials and methods: The database of the Health Policy and Clinical Effectiveness Department was used to evaluate all patients who had surgery for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The presence of a palpable olive and the type of imaging were evaluated both prior to and after the implementation of the clinical guideline. Results: Prior to the guideline, 85 infants had surgery for pyloric stenosis, with 83 of the 85 (97%) having imaging. After the implementation of the guideline, 90 infants had surgery for pyloric stenosis with 84 of 90 patients imaged (92%). A chi-square analysis demonstrated no significant difference in the percentage of children imaged in the two groups (P=0.104). Approximately one in five children referred for vomiting were diagnosed with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. Conclusion: No significant change in imaging volume occurred following initiation of a guideline which recommended clinical evaluation for palpation of the olive prior to ordering imaging studies. Multiple factors probably contributed to the lack of demonstrated changes. (orig.)

  12. KRAS analysis in colorectal carcinoma: Analytical aspects of Pyrosequencing and allele-specific PCR in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy is now approved for treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinomas (CRC) in patients with tumors lacking KRAS mutations. Several procedures to detect KRAS mutations have been developed. However, the analytical sensitivity and specificity of these assays on routine clinical samples are not yet fully characterised. The practical aspects and clinical applicability of a KRAS-assay based on Pyrosequencing were evaluated in a series of 314 consecutive CRC cases submitted for diagnostic KRAS analysis. The performance of Pyrosequencing compared to allele-specific, real-time PCR was then explored by a direct comparison of CE-IVD-marked versions of Pyrosequencing and TheraScreen (DxS) KRAS assays for a consecutive subset (n = 100) of the 314 clinical CRC samples. Using Pyrosequencing, 39% of the 314 CRC samples were found KRAS-mutated and several of the mutations (8%) were located in codon 61. To explore the analytical sensitivity of the Pyrosequencing assay, mutated patient DNA was serially diluted with wild-type patient DNA. Dilutions corresponding to 1.25-2.5% tumor cells still revealed detectable mutation signals. In clinical practice, our algorithm for KRAS analysis includes a reanalysis of samples with low tumor cell content (< 10%, n = 56) using an independent assay (allele-specific PCR, DxS). All mutations identified by Pyrosequencing were then confirmed and, in addition, one more mutated sample was identified in this subset of 56 samples. Finally, a direct comparison of the two technologies was done by re-analysis of a subset (n = 100) of the clinical samples using CE-IVD-marked versions of Pyrosequencing and TheraScreen KRAS assays in a single blinded fashion. The number of samples for which the KRAS codon 12/13 mutation status could be defined using the Pyrosequencing or the TheraScreen assay was 94 and 91, respectively, and both assays detected the same number of codon 12 and 13 mutations. KRAS mutation detection

  13. Evaluation of non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on aspects related to ionizing radiation in imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrigano, Renata Rodrigues [Hospital Santa Helena, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abrao, Karen Cristine; Regacini, Rodrigo, E-mail: regacini@gmail.com [Universidade Anhembi Morumbi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Puchnick, Andrea [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-07-15

    Objective: to assess the non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on the use of ionizing radiation in imaging. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional study utilizing an anonymous questionnaire responded by physicians in clinical and surgical specialties, divided into two parts as follows: one including questions about the physicians' characteristics, frequency of imaging studies requests and participation in professional updating events, and another part including multiple choice questions approaching general knowledge about radiation, optimization principles and radioprotection. Results: from a total of 309 questionnaires, 120 (38.8%) were responded, 50% by physicians in surgical specialties and 50% in clinical specialties; respectively 45% and 2.5% of physicians responded that magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography use ionizing radiation. Overall, the average grade was higher for surgical specialists with no significant difference, except for the question about exposure in pregnant women (p = 0.047). Physicians who are professionally updated, particularly those attending clinical meetings (p = 0.050) and participating in teaching activities (p = 0.047), showed statistically superior knowledge about ionizing radiation as compared with others. Conclusion: the non-radiologist physicians' is heterogeneous and in some points needs to be improved. Multidisciplinary clinical meetings and teaching activities are important ways to disseminate information on the subject. (author)

  14. Unique roles of SPET brain imaging in clinical and research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing availability of PET imaging in Nuclear medicine expands the armamentarium of clinical and research tools for improving diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, the role of SPEC imaging remains critical to both research and clinical practice. The development of rational strategies for guiding the selection of imaging modalities flows from primarily the nature of the clinical or research question and the availability of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals. There has been extensive SPECT and PET work in Parkinson's disease (PD) which highlights the value of both these scintigraphic modalities. Three main areas of interest in PD include imaging for improving diagnostic accuracy, for monitoring the progression of disease, and for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with neoroprotective potential. The demands of the clinical or research question posed to imaging dictates the selection of radiotracer and imaging modality. Diagnosis of PD represents the easiest challenge with many imaging bio markers showing high sensitivity for detecting abnormal reduction of dopaminergic function based on qualitative review of images. On the other hand, using imaging to evaluate treatments which purportedly slow the rate of disease progression, indicated by the reduction of the rate of loss in a quantitative imaging signal in patients studied over time, represents the most rigorous requirement of the imaging measure. In each of these applications presynaptic markers of dopaminergic function using SPECT and PET have been extremely valuable. Review of neuroimaging studies of PD provides a useful example of optimized approaches to clinical and research studies in neuropsychiatric disorders

  15. [The pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process in the young males: clinical and therapeutical aspects in 160 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, P A; Gueye, S M; Ndoye, A; Sylla, C; Abdallahi, M O; Diame, A A; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe the clinical and therapeutical aspects of pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process. We have performed a retrospective study including 160 patients operated between January 1990 up to December 1996. Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years, ranged from 1 month to 13 years old. All patients were male. The abnormality was located in the right side in 60% of cases and was bilateral in 6.7% of cases. The main clinical features were scrotal mass (81%) and scrotal pain (13.46%). The diagnosis was made at birth only in 20% of cases. A maldescended testis was associated in 7.5% of cases. A groin incision have been used in 91.25% of patients. The average hospital stay after surgery was 1 day. Thus, the pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process is common and apparently banal. Need for treatment through a groin incision owing to the possibility of associated maldescended testis. PMID:15779188

  16. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects of pyelo-ureteral junction abnormalities at the University Hospital of Point G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembely, Aly; Kassogué, Amadou; Berthé, Honoré; Ouattara, Zanafon

    2016-01-01

    This study is meant to analyze the clinical and therapeutic aspects of abnormalities ureteropelvic junction. Cross-sectional and descriptive study on 35 cases of abnormalities of the AUPJ collected the Urology Department of the University Hospital of Point G for a period of 4 years (January 2010 to December 2014). Data were collected on the survey forms, medical records and records of the block. The socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic data were entered into Microsoft Word 2007 and Excel 2007 and analyzed on SPSS 18.0. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 35 cases of AUPJ were collected. The average age was 29.3 years. The back pain was the most frequent reason for consultation or 40%. 20% of patients were consulting for the first time 10 years symptomatic evolution. Kidney destruction was observed in 28.6%. The association Ultrasound + IVU has established the diagnosis in 37.1%. A urinary tract infection was found in 60%. The gallstone complication was present in 17.1% of patients. 51.4% of patients received open pyeloplasty by Anderson Kuss. The anomaly of the ureteropelvic junction in our study was marked by a consultation with delay formidable complications. The open surgery has been the gold standard with satisfactory results. The endopyéloplasty, the treatment of laparoscopic minimally invasive joint surgeries are not available to us but to encourage and incorporate in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:27516821

  17. Stereo analysis of high-resolution SAR images for building height estimation in cases of orthogonal aspect directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soergel, Uwe; Michaelsen, Eckart; Thiele, Antje; Cadario, Erich; Thoennessen, Ulrich

    SAR stereo image analysis for 3D information extraction is mostly carried out based on imagery taken under same-side or opposite-side viewing conditions. For urban scenes in practice stereo is up to now usually restricted to the first configuration, because increasing image dissimilarity connected with rising illumination direction differences leads to a lack of suitable features for matching, especially in the case of low or medium resolution data. However, due to two developments SAR stereo from arbitrary viewing conditions becomes an interesting option for urban information extraction. The first one is the availability of airborne sensor systems, which are capable of more flexible data acquisition in comparison to satellite sensors. This flexibility enables multi-aspect analysis of objects in built-up areas for various kinds of purpose, such as building recognition, road network extraction, or traffic monitoring. The second development is the significant improvement of the geometric resolution providing a high level of detail especially of roof features, which can be observed from a wide span of viewpoints. In this paper, high-resolution SAR images of an urban scene are analyzed in order to infer buildings and their height from the different layover effects in views taken from orthogonal aspect angles. High level object matching is proposed that relies on symbolic data, representing suitable features of urban objects. Here, a knowledge-based approach is applied, which is realized by a production system that codes a set of suitable principles of perceptual grouping in its production rules. The images are analyzed separately for the presence of certain object groups and their characteristics frequently appearing on buildings, such as salient rows of point targets, rectangular structures or symmetries. The stereo analysis is then accomplished by means of productions that combine and match these 2D image objects and infer their height by 3D clustering. The approach

  18. Imaging key aspects of fast ion physics in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visible imaging has been used to provide the 2D spatial structure and temporal evolution of the profile of high-energy neutrals introduced by neutral beam injection, the fast ion profile and a variety of plasma instabilities in DIII-D plasmas; the combination of these techniques form a comprehensive fast ion physics diagnostic suite. The injected neutral profile is imaged in Doppler shifted Dα light induced by collisional excitation. Fast ion profile information was obtained through imaging of Doppler shifted fast ion Dα light (FIDA) emitted by re-neutralized energetic ions. Imaging of FIDA emission during sawtooth events shows a large central depletion following sawtooth crashes-indicative of a broad redistribution of fast ions. Two examples of instability structure measurements are given. Measurements of the detailed 2D poloidal structure of rotating tearing modes were obtained using spectrally filtered fast imaging of broadband visible bremsstrahlung emission, a method which is capable of imaging with high resolution the structure of coherent oscillations in the core of current and next-step fusion plasma experiments and can be applied to virtually any mode with a finite perturbed bremsstrahlung emissivity and frequency in the laboratory frame. Measurements are also presented of the n = 0 energetic particle geodesic acoustic mode which were made by observing fluctuations in active emission.

  19. Clinical PET-MR Imaging in Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samuel L; Friedman, Kent P

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid imaging systems have dramatically improved thoracic oncology patient care over the past 2 decades. PET-MR imaging systems have the potential to further improve imaging of thoracic neoplasms, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic advantages compared with current MR imaging and PET-computed tomography systems. Increasing soft tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity, improved image registration, reduced radiation exposure, and improved patient convenience are immediate clinical advantages. Multiparametric quantitative imaging capabilities of PET-MR imaging have the potential to improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer and treatment effects, potentially guiding improvements in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27593245

  20. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies. PMID:26977342