WorldWideScience

Sample records for clinical aspects imaging

  1. Eating epilepsy: clinical and neuro image aspects - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author)

  2. Cell tracking using {sup 19}F magnetic resonance imaging: Technical aspects and challenges towards clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Houshang [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Srinivas, Mangala; Vries, I.J.M. de [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Tumor Immunology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Veltien, Andor; Uden, Mark J. van; Heerschap, Arend [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-06

    {sup 19}F MRI is emerging as a new imaging technique for cell tracking. It is particularly attractive because of its potential for direct and precise cell quantification. The most important challenge towards in vivo applications is the sensitivity of the technique, i.e. the detection limit in a reasonable imaging time. Optimal sensitivity can be achieved with dedicated {sup 19}F compounds together with specifically adapted hardware and acquisition methods. In this paper we introduce the {sup 19}F MRI technique focusing on these key sensitivity issues and review the state-of-the-art of {sup 19}F MRI and developments towards its clinical use. We calculate {sup 19}F detection limits reported in preclinical cell and clinical {sup 19}F drug studies in terms of tissue concentration in a 1 cm{sup 3} voxel, as an alternate way to compare detection limits. We estimate that a tissue concentration of a few millimoles per litre (mM) of {sup 19}F is required for a human study at a resolution of 1 cm{sup 3}. (orig.)

  3. Novel Cadmium Zinc Telluride Devices for Myocardial Perfusion Imaging-Technological Aspects and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Simona; Kennedy, John; Keidar, Zohar

    2016-07-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging plays an important role in the assessment of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease and is well established for diagnosis and for prognostic evaluation in these patients. The dedicated cardiac SPECT cameras with solid-state cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors were first introduced a decade ago. A large body of evidence is building up, showing the superiority of the new technology compared with conventional gamma cameras. Not only the CZT detectors, but also new collimator geometries, the ability to perform focused imaging optimized for the heart and advances in data processing algorithms all contribute to the significantly improved sensitivity up to 8-10 times, as well as improved energy resolution and improved reconstructed spatial resolution compared with conventional technology. In this article, we provide an overview of the physical characteristics of the CZT cameras, as well as a review of the literature published so far, including validation studies in comparison with conventional myocardial perfusion imaging and with invasive coronary angiography, significant reduction in radiation dose, and new imaging protocols enabled by the new technology.

  4. Clinical aspects of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Russel J; Korkmaz, Ahmet

    2008-11-01

    Melatonin is produced in the human pineal gland, particularly at night, with the circadian rhythm of blood melatonin levels closely paralleling its production within the pineal gland. Light exposure at night, or rapid transmeridian travel severely compromises the circadian production of melatonin. The disturbed melatonin rhythm contributes to jet lag and sleep inefficiency, both of which are improved by melatonin administration. Melatonin is also a highly effective direct free radical scavenger and antioxidant. In this capacity, melatonin reduces experimental cataractogenesis, traumatic injury to the spinal cord and brain, and protects against oxidative damage to neurons and glia in models of stroke, Parkinsonism, and Alzheimer's disease. Additionally, melatonin and its metabolites are highly effective in protecting against ionizing radiation. Finally, melatonin may be a treatment for hypertension. Melatonin's high efficacy, its high safety profile, and its virtual lack of toxicity make it of interest in clinical medicine. PMID:18997997

  5. Comprehensive brachytherapy physical and clinical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Baltas, Dimos; Meigooni, Ali S; Hoskin, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Modern brachytherapy is one of the most important oncological treatment modalities requiring an integrated approach that utilizes new technologies, advanced clinical imaging facilities, and a thorough understanding of the radiobiological effects on different tissues, the principles of physics, dosimetry techniques and protocols, and clinical expertise. A complete overview of the field, Comprehensive Brachytherapy: Physical and Clinical Aspects is a landmark publication, presenting a detailed account of the underlying physics, design, and implementation of the techniques, along with practical guidance for practitioners. Bridging the gap between research and application, this single source brings together the technological basis, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance, and fundamentals of brachytherapy. In addition, it presents discussion of the most recent clinical practice in brachytherapy including prostate, gynecology, breast, and other clinical treatment sites. Along with exploring new clinical protocols, ...

  6. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Ynoe de Moraes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control and pain relief (up to 96%, independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and nonrandomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future.

  7. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Fabio Ynoe de; Neves-Junior, Wellington Furtado Pimenta; Hanna, Samir Abdallah; Carvalho, Heloisa de Andrade [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radioterapia; Taunk, Neil Kanth; Yamada, Yoshiya [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, New York, NY (United States); Laufer, Ilya, E-mail: fymoraes@gmail.com [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Neurosurgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurgery is an increasingly utilized treatment method that improves local control and pain relief after delivering ablative doses of radiation. Here, we present a review highlighting the use of spinal radiosurgery for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the spine. The data used in the review were collected from both published studies and ongoing trials. We found that spinal radiosurgery is safe and provides excellent tumor control (up to 94% local control) and pain relief (up to 96%), independent of histology. Extensive data regarding clinical outcomes are available; however, this information has primarily been generated from retrospective and non randomized prospective series. Currently, two randomized trials are enrolling patients to study clinical applications of fractionation schedules spinal Radiosurgery. Additionally, a phase I clinical trial is being conducted to assess the safety of concurrent stereotactic body radiotherapy and ipilimumab for spinal metastases. Clinical trials to refine clinical indications and dose fractionation are ongoing. The concomitant use of targeted agents may produce better outcomes in the future. (author)

  8. Clinical Aspects, Imaging Features, and Considerations on Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis Risk in a Pediatric Patient with Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Wildson Gurgel Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare hereditary condition caused by changes in collagen metabolism. It is classified into four types according to clinical, genetic, and radiological criteria. Clinically, bone fragility, short stature, blue sclerae, and locomotion difficulties may be observed in this disease. OI is often associated to severe dental problems, such as dentinogenesis imperfecta (DI and malocclusions. Radiographically, affected teeth may have crowns with bulbous appearance, accentuated constriction in the cementoenamel junction, narrowed roots, large root canals due to defective dentin formation, and taurodontism (enlarged pulp chambers. There is no definitive cure, but bisphosphonate therapy is reported to improve bone quality; however, there is a potential risk of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this study we report a case of OI in a male pediatric patient with no family history of OI who was receiving ongoing treatment with intravenous perfusion of bisphosphonate and who required dental surgery. In addition, we discussed the clinical and imaging findings and briefly reviewed the literature.

  9. The clot burden score, the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale, the cerebral blood volume ASPECTS, and two novel imaging parameters in the prediction of clinical outcome of ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolytic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillanpaa, Niko; Hakomaki, Jari; Lahteela, Arto; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo [Tampere University Hospital, Medical Imaging Center, Tampere (Finland); Saarinen, Jukka T.; Numminen, Heikki; Elovaara, Irina [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Tampere (Finland); Rusanen, Harri [Oulu University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Oulu (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    Recently two classification methods based on the location and the extent of thrombosis detected with CT angiography have been introduced: the Boston Acute Stroke Imaging Scale (BASIS) and the clot burden score (CBS). We studied the performance of BASIS and CBS in predicting good clinical outcome (mRS {<=}2 at 90 days) in an acute (<3 h) stroke cohort treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy. Eighty-three consecutive patients who underwent multimodal CT were analyzed. Binary logistic regression model was used to assess how BASIS, CBS, and cerebral blood volume (CBV) ASPECTS predict favorable clinical outcome. Diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were calculated and compared. Patients with low CBS and CBV ASPECTS scores and major strokes according to BASIS had significantly higher admission NIHSS scores, larger perfusion defects, and more often poor clinical outcome. In logistic regression analysis, CBV ASPECTS, CBS and BASIS were significantly associated with the clinical outcome. The performance of BASIS improved when patients with thrombosis of the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery were classified as having minor stroke (M1-BASIS). In the anterior circulation, the sum of CBS and CBV ASPECTS (CBSV) proved to be the most robust predictor of favorable outcome. CBV ASPECTS and CBS had high sensitivity but moderate to poor specificity while BASIS was only moderately sensitive and specific. CBS, BASIS, and CBV ASPECTS are statistically robust and sensitive but unspecific predictors of good clinical outcome. Two new derived imaging parameters, CBSV and M1-BASIS, share these properties and may have increased prognostic value. (orig.)

  10. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE

  11. Systemic lupus erythematosus: Clinical and experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This text covers questions related to the history, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and therapy of systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Both animal models and human SLE are considered. With regard to basic science, concise information on cellular immunology, autoantibodies, viral aspects and molecular biology in SLE is provided. Clinical topics then deal with medical, dermatologic, neurologic, radiologic, pathologic, and therapeutic aspects. The book not only presents the most recent information on clinical and experimental insights, but also looks at future aspects related to the diagnosis and therapy of SLE.

  12. Spine radiosurgery for the local treatment of spine metastases: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance, clinical aspects and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Ynoe de Moraes; Neil Kanth Taunk; Ilya Laufer; Wellington Furtado Pimenta Neves-Junior; Samir Abdallah Hanna; Heloisa de Andrade Carvalho; Yoshiya Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Many cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. Local control is important for preventing neurologic compromise and to relieve pain. Stereotactic body radiotherapy or spinal radiosurgery is a new radiation therapy technique for spinal metastasis that can deliver a high dose of radiation to a tumor while minimizing the radiation delivered to healthy, neighboring tissues. This treatment is based on intensity-modulated radiotherapy, image guidance and rigid immobilization. Spinal radiosurge...

  13. Radon in caves: clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Craven Stephen A.; Smit Berend J.

    2006-01-01

    Historical, experimental and clinical evidence is presented to suggest that radon constitutes a relatively small carcinogenic risk for casual visitors to caves. The risk is dependent on radon levels and the smoking of tobacco. Show cave guides, chronically exposed to radon, may be at increased risk for lung cancer due to the effects of radon, especially if they are smokers of tobacco.

  14. Imaging aspects of the diagnosis of sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spagnolo, Paolo [University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Center for Rare Lung Diseases, Respiratory Disease Unit, Department of Oncology Haematology and Respiratory Diseases, Modena (Italy); Sverzellati, Nicola [University of Parma, Department of Surgical Sciences, section of Radiology, Parma (Italy); Wells, Athol U. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom); Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disorder of unknown aetiology with a wide spectrum of radiological appearances and almost invariably pulmonary involvement. Lung involvement accounts for most of the morbidity and much of the mortality associated with sarcoidosis. Imaging contributes significantly to the diagnosis and management of patients with sarcoidosis. In typical cases, chest radiography may be sufficient to establish the diagnosis with little margin of error and CT is not necessary. However, CT can play a critical role in several clinical settings: atypical clinical and/or radiographic findings; normal or near-normal chest radiograph but clinical suspicion of sarcoidosis; and detection of complications. Moreover, in many patients, CT findings are atypical and unfamiliar to most radiologists (e.g. sarcoidosis mimicking other lung diseases and vice versa), and in these cases histological confirmation of the diagnosis is recommended. CT is also useful in assessing disease extent and may help to discriminate between reversible and irreversible lung disease, thus providing critical prognostic information. This review concentrates on the more difficult imaging aspects of sarcoidosis, in particular differential diagnosis and disease complications. (orig.)

  15. CLINICAL, RADIOLOGICAL AND GENETIC ASPECTS OF LEUKODYSTROPHIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laszlo, A.; Elpeleg, On; Horvath, K.; Jakobs, C.; Kobor, J.; Gal, A.; Barsi, P.; Kelemen, A.; Saracz, J.; Svekus, A.; Tegzes, A.; Voeroes, E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors summarize the pathomechanism of the myelination process, the clinical, radiological and the genetical aspects of the leukodystrophies, as in 18q deletion syndrome, adrenoleukodysrtophy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher leukodystrophy, Alexander disease and olivo-ponto-c

  16. [Haemostatic aspects in clinical oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, F; Holstein, K; Eifrig, B; Bokemeyer, C

    2008-12-01

    The clinical link between cancer and thrombosis has been recognized by Armand Trousseau in 1865. It has now become clear that clotting activation in malignancy not only plays an important role in the evolution of venous thromboembolism (VTE) or systemic coagulation disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, but that multiple components of the haemostatic and fibrinolytic systems are directly involved in tumour progression. In particular, tissue factor (TF) appears to be involved in several pathways relevant to cancer growth and metastasis. Increasing evidence emerges that haemostatic perturbances in cancer patients are, at least in part, controlled by defined genetic events in molecular tumourigenesis including activating and inactivating mutations of oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, respectively. Long-term therapy with low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is considered as standard treatment for cancer-associated VTE. However, several experimental studies and clinical trials suggest that LMWH may also be beneficial as an adjunct in the treatment of patients with malignant disease. This article provides an overview on the significance, pathogenesis and treatment of cancer-related clotting disorders as well as on the cellular and molecular mechanisms, by which haemostatic components such as TF, platelets and fibrin(ogen) drive tumour progression. PMID:19132177

  17. Clinical aspects of venous thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Fabris, Fabrizio; Girolami, Bruno

    2002-01-01

    Venous thrombophilia is the result of clotting changes namely of a hypercoagulable state together with blood flow and vessel wall changes. There is no need for all these components to be present in order for thrombosis to occur. As the matter of fact, thrombosis may occur even if only one of these conditions is present. In clinical practice a combination of factors is usualy seen. In comparison with arterial thrombophilia, clotting changes and blood flow seen to play a major role in venous thrombosis. Venous thrombophilia may remain asynptomatic or may result in a series of clinical syndromes. The commonest of these are: 1. Superficial vein thrombosis, 2. Deep vein thrombosis of legs, 3. Deep vein thrombosis of arms, 4. Caval veins thrombosis, 5. Portal vein thrombosis, 6. Hepatic veins thrombosis, 7. Renal vein thrombosis, 8. Cerebral sinuses thrombosis, 9. Right heart thrombosis, 10. Miscellaneous (ovarian, adrenal veins thrombosis, etc.). Since the first two are widely and easily recognized, these is no need for an extensive discussion. Deep vein thromboses of upper limbs are not as frequent as those of lower limbs or of superficial phlebitis but they can still be recognized on clinical grounds and non invasive techniques. The remaining 7 syndromes are less common and therefore less frequently suspected and recognized. Of particular interest, among these less common manifestations of venous thrombophilia are hepatic vein and renal vein thrombosis. Hepatic veins thrombosis, sometimes part of inferior vena cava thrombosis is most frequently due to an isolated occlusion of hepatic veins thereby causing a form of venocclusive disease. Occasionally diagnosis may be difficult because of slow onset of symptoms (hepatomegaly, right flank pain, fever, ascites etc.). The same is true for renal vein thrombosis which may also be of difficult diagnosis since it causes proteinuria and flank pain. The proteinuria is often interpreted as due to a nephrotic syndrome which

  18. Word and Image: Intermedial Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Winfried Nöth

    2001-01-01

    The concepts of ‘word’ and ‘image’ are not synonymous with ‘verbal’ and ‘visual communication’ although they are often restricted to these modalities of sign use. Words and images are cross-medially related, and here are many overlaps. By ‘words’ I mean language, verbal texts or discourse, more generally: verbal communication. By ‘images’ I mean pictures and more generally visual communication, not mental images nor verbal images.

  19. Destination image, image at destination. Methodological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Díaz-Rodríguez; Agustín Santana-Talavera; Alberto Jonay Rodríguez-Darias

    2013-01-01

    Today, the part played by the image in the development of tourism, and, specially, as a differentiation element of a destination area is widely acknowledged. This is reflected to a great extent in the literature that focuses its interest on identifying the variables that motivate the purchase or stimulate the decision process. However, the reference to feedback processes or image control mechanisms as well as their creation, is surprising. An approach model to these processes will be exposed ...

  20. Coronaviridae, pathogenetic and clinical aspects: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möstl, K

    1990-01-01

    A review is given about pathogenetic and clinical aspects of the well-known as well as of recently detected members of the family Coronaviridae. Special attention is paid to coronavirus infections of domestic cattle and pets, whereas avian, murine, rat and human coronaviruses are summarized briefly. PMID:1963836

  1. The Prediabetic Period: Review of Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Youl Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia that does not satisfy the diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus (DM is generally called prediabetes (preDM. The global prevalence of preDM has been increasing progressively in the past few decades, and it has been established that preDM status is a strong risk factor for DM and cardiovascular disease. Currently, preDM status is classified into two subtypes: impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. Currently, preDM is not regarded as an independent clinical entity, but only as a risk factor for others. In this article, we review various clinical aspects of preDM in terms of the working definition, changes in criteria over the years, epidemiology, and pathophysiological characteristics, and its clinical significance in current medicine.

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  3. Clinical aspects of the temporal arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palheta Neto, Francisco Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Horton's disease, or temporal arteritis, is the most common autoimmune systemic vasculitis in adults, especially the old-aged. Objective: To review the literature about the several aspects of the Horton's disease, and confirm the otorhinolaryngologic clinical manifestations. Method: The study searched online databases such as EMedicine, Encyclopedia of Medicine, FindArticles, LILACS, MEDLINE, Merck Manuals On-Line Medical Library and Scielo, and applied to the search the terms: Horton's disease, Temporal Arteritis and Giant Cells Arteritis, for articles published between 1996 and 2008. Literature's Review: The disease's clinical manifestations start after 50 years old, and it's more frequent near 72 years old. The intense headache, temporal tumefaction, mandibular claudication and visual loss are the main signals and symptoms. There may occur dysacusis, necrosis of the tongue and odynophagia. Considerations: Lots of aspects of the Horton's disease do not have their due elucidation and, even being a disease that affects many adults, it doesn't have deep investigations in great quantity. A better understanding of this disease will lead to the increment of cure possibilities and reduction of morbidity in the patients, especially in ophthalmologic and otorhinolaryngologic areas.

  4. Postpartum hemorrhage: Clinical and radiologic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Nam Kyung [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimsuk@medimail.co.kr; Lee, Jun Woo; Sol, Yu Li; Kim, Chang Won [Department of Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, 1-10, Ami-Dong, Seo-Gu, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun Sung, Kim [Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ho Jin; Suh, Dong Soo [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life threatening condition, and it remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity. Uterine atony, lower genital tract lacerations, uterine rupture or inversion, retained products of conception and underlying coagulopathy are some of the common causes of PPH. Most conditions can be diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory evaluation supplemented by ultrasound information. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide information for the detection, localization and characterization of PPH in some difficult cases. CT can accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of significant arterial hemorrhage as sites of intravenous contrast material extravasation, which can be as a guide for angiographic intervention. The presence of focal or diffuse intravenous contrast extravasation or a hematoma within the enlarged postpartum uterine cavity on CT can help the diagnosis of uterine atony when the clinical diagnosis of uterine atony is unclear. CT can also provide the information of other alternative conditions such as a puerperal genital hematoma, uterine rupture and concealed hematoma in other sites. MR imaging may be considered as a valuable complement to ultrasound where the ultrasound findings are inconclusive in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of retained products of conception. Knowledge of the various radiologic appearances of PPH and the correlation with clinical information can ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate and prompt treatment planning in the patients with PPH.

  5. Postpartum hemorrhage: Clinical and radiologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a potentially life threatening condition, and it remains the leading cause of maternal morbidity. Uterine atony, lower genital tract lacerations, uterine rupture or inversion, retained products of conception and underlying coagulopathy are some of the common causes of PPH. Most conditions can be diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory evaluation supplemented by ultrasound information. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can provide information for the detection, localization and characterization of PPH in some difficult cases. CT can accurately demonstrate the anatomic location of significant arterial hemorrhage as sites of intravenous contrast material extravasation, which can be as a guide for angiographic intervention. The presence of focal or diffuse intravenous contrast extravasation or a hematoma within the enlarged postpartum uterine cavity on CT can help the diagnosis of uterine atony when the clinical diagnosis of uterine atony is unclear. CT can also provide the information of other alternative conditions such as a puerperal genital hematoma, uterine rupture and concealed hematoma in other sites. MR imaging may be considered as a valuable complement to ultrasound where the ultrasound findings are inconclusive in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of retained products of conception. Knowledge of the various radiologic appearances of PPH and the correlation with clinical information can ensure correct diagnosis and appropriate and prompt treatment planning in the patients with PPH.

  6. Pathophysiology, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects of Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. The exact cause remains unknown, but there is significant evidence that hypocretin deficiency plays an integral role. There have been advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. It has a negative effect on the quality of life and can restrict the patients from certain careers and activities. Diagnosis relies on patient history and objective data gathered from polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing. Treatment focuses on symptom relief through medication, education, and behavioral modification. Both classic pharmacological treatments as well as newer options have significant problems, especially because of side effects and abuse potential. Some novel modalities are being examined to expand options for treatment. In this review, the pathophysiological, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 271-283

  7. A new animal model for the imaging of melanoma: correlation of FDG PET with clinical outcome, macroscopic aspect and histological classification in Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs (MeLiM) as an animal model of melanoma for in vivo imaging. Serial whole-body 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scans were conducted on five MeLiM. In order to explore different clinical stages of the tumoural lesions, each animal was scanned two to four times, at intervals of 30-155 days. PET images were analysed by a semiquantitative method based on the tumour to muscle metabolic ratio. Histology was performed on biopsies taken between or after the scans and the histological grading of the tumours was compared with the FDG uptake. The overall sensitivity of FDG PET for the detection of cutaneous melanoma was 75%; 62.5% of involved lymph nodes were positive. Sensitivity was better for tumours with vertical growth than for flat lesions. FDG PET did not detect tumours with epidermal involvement only, nor did it detect small metastatic foci. The metabolic ratio was correlated with the evolution of the melanoma. FDG PET is effective in the staging of cutaneous melanoma and the follow-up of tumoural extension and regression in Melanoblastoma-bearing Libechov Minipigs. The results obtained in this animal model correlate well with those described in human melanoma. Accordingly, this model may be useful in testing new tracers specific for melanoma and in helping to detect molecules expressed early during tumoural regression. (orig.)

  8. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  9. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Qiang Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial. The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H. pylori infection. About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H. pylori infection. Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H. pylori infection are under way. Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H. pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer; however, a population-based H. pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora. Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  10. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-04-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity. PMID:27536698

  11. Ricin Toxicity: Clinical and Molecular Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshiri, Mohammad; Hamid, Fatemeh; Etemad, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinuscommunis L (CB) contain ricin toxin (RT), one of the most poisonous naturally-occurring substances known. Ricin toxin, a water-soluble glycoprotein that does not partition into the oil extract, is a ribosome-inactivating toxin composed of two chains, labeled A and B. Severity of the toxicity varies depending on the route of exposure to the toxin. Inhalational is the most toxic route, followed by oral ingestion. Orally-ingested RT accumulates in the liver and spleen but other cells are also affected. The main clinical manifestations are also related to the administration route. Oral ingestion of CB or RT results in abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, and various types of gastrointestinal bleeding that leading to volume depletion, hypovolemic shock, and renal failure. Inhalation of the toxin presents with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema, diffuse necrotizing pneumonia, interstitial and alveolar inflammation, and edema. Local injection of RT induces indurations at the injection site, swelling of regional lymph nodes, hypotension, and death. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to detect RT in animal tissues and fluids. Ricinine, an alkaloid of CB, can be detected in rat urine within 48 h of RT exposure. Supportive care is the basic treatment and standard biowarfare decontamination protocols are used for RT intoxication. Dexamethasone and difluoromethylornithine might be effective treatments. This review examines the clinical and molecular aspects of ricin toxicity.

  12. Helicobacter Pylori and Gastric Cancer: Clinical Aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Song; Li-Ya Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although Helicobacterpylori (H.pylori) is considered as the main etiological factor for gastric cancer, the strategy of screening and treating the oncogenic bacterium is still controversial.The objective was to evaluate the status and progress of the cognition about the relationship between H.pylori infection and gastric cancer from a clinical aspect.Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from the PubMed articles published in English from 1984 to 2015.Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic.Results: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common malignancy and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.The main etiological factor for gastric cancer is H.pylori infection.About 74.7-89.0% gastric cancer was related to H.pylori infection.Up to date, some regional gastric cancer prevention programs including the detection and treatment of H.pylori infection are under way.Current data obtained from the randomized controlled trials suggest that population-based H.pylori screening and treatment is feasible and cost-effective in preventing gastric cancer;however, a population-based H.pylori eradication campaign would potentially lead to bacterial resistance to the corresponding antibiotics, as well as a negative impact on the normal flora.Conclusions: The important questions of feasibility, program costs, appropriate target groups for intervention, and the potential harm of mass therapy with antibiotics must first be answered before implementing any large-scale program.

  13. LDL-Apheresis: Technical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Bambauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia, sometimes combined with elevated lipoprotein (a levels, and coronary heart disease refractory to diet and lipid-lowering drugs is poor. For such patients, regular treatment with low-density lipoprotein (LDL apheresis is the therapeutic option. Today, there are five different LDL-apheresis systems available: cascade filtration or lipid filtration, immunoadsorption, heparin-induced LDL precipitation, dextran sulfate LDL adsorption, and the LDL hemoperfusion. There is a strong correlation between hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Besides the elimination of other risk factors, in severe hyperlipidemia therapeutic strategies should focus on a drastic reduction of serum lipoproteins. Despite maximum conventional therapy with a combination of different kinds of lipid-lowering drugs, sometimes the goal of therapy cannot be reached. Hence, in such patients, treatment with LDL-apheresis is indicated. Technical and clinical aspects of these five different LDL-apheresis methods are shown here. There were no significant differences with respect to or concerning all cholesterols, or triglycerides observed. With respect to elevated lipoprotein (a levels, however, the immunoadsorption method seems to be most effective. The different published data clearly demonstrate that treatment with LDL-apheresis in patients suffering from severe hyperlipidemia refractory to maximum conservative therapy is effective and safe in long-term application.

  14. Hepatic echinococcosis: Clinical and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Nunnari; Marilia R Pinzone; Salvatore Gruttadauria; Benedetto M Celesia; Giordano Madeddu; Giulia Malaguarnera; Piero Pavone

    2012-01-01

    Echinococcosis or hydatid disease (HD) is a zoonosis caused by the larval stages of taeniid cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus.Hepatic echinococcosis is a life-threatening disease,mainly differentiated into alveolar and cystic forms,associated with Echinoccus multilocularis (E.multilocularis) and Echinococcus granulosus (E.granulosus) infection,respectively.Cystic echinococcosis (CE) has a worldwide distribution,while hepatic alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is endemic in the Northern hemisphere,including North America and several Asian and European countries,like France,Germany and Austria.E.granulosus young cysts are spherical,unilocular vesicles,consisting of an internal germinal layer and an outer acellular layer.Cyst expansion is associated with a host immune reaction and the subsequent development of a fibrous layer,called the pericyst; old cysts typically present internal septations and daughter cysts.E.multilocularis has a tumorlike,infiltrative behavior,which is responsible for tissue destruction and finally for liver failure.The liver is the main site of HD involvement,for both alveolar and cystic hydatidosis.HD is usually asymptomatic for a long period of time,because cyst growth is commonly slow;the most frequent symptoms are fatigue and abdominal pain.Patients may also present jaundice,hepatomegaly or anaphylaxis,due to cyst leakage or rupture.HD diagnosis is usually accomplished with the combined use of ultrasonography and immunodiagnosis; furthermore,the improvement of surgical techniques,the introduction of minimally invasive treatments [such as puncture,aspiration,injection,re-aspiration (PAIR)] and more effective drugs (such as benzoimidazoles) have deeply changed life expectancy and quality of life of patients with HD.The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of biological,diagnostic,clinical and therapeutic aspects of hepatic echinococcosis.

  15. MR imaging of the posterolateral aspect of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structures of the posterolateral aspect of the knee were evaluated with axial MR images. One hundred twelve knees of clinical cases without posterolateral injury were retrospectively reviewed, and 30 knees of 15 volunteers with no history of knee injury or pain were evaluated. The amount of joint effusion and visualization of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) and popliteal tendon were classified according to three grades. The LCL and popliteal tendon were identified in 111 clinical cases (99%) and 28 volunteer knees (93%). Visualization of the LCL and popliteal tendon was facilitated in the presence of both joint effusion and fluid collection between the LCL and popliteal tendon. Fluid collection posterior to the femoral attachment of the popliteal tendon was seen in 79 clinical cases (71%) and 20 volunteer knees (67%). Based on cadaveric study, this was considered to be a potential fluid space for communication to the joint space. (author)

  16. PET imaging clinical trials: standards for good image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Imaging holds a promising place in the drug development process and clinical trials. In recent times, scientists and researchers have realized that imaging enables them to look for new surrogate endpoints and accelerate the process of drug development. As the number of such trials is increasing every year, there is a growing awareness for the need of quality in imaging trials, so as to avoid imaging issues, reduce losses due to non-evaluable imaging and improve subject safety. This paper is an attempt to address the need of standards for good quality image in clinical trials which use imaging. The main focus of the paper is to describe the various acquisition options in PET-CT available for medical imaging, their applicability in drug development process and clinical trials, emphasize the need to identify possible sources that could possibly impact the quality of images, ways of standardizing the equipments and minimizing the variability of different scanners. Additionally this paper will look into the importance of an expert medical imaging group, imaging protocols, quality assurance programs, and image assessment post acquisition for technical compliance and image quality. A reference of standards as prescribed by various scientific bodies and organizations will also be reviewed. In this paper the focus will be mainly to discuss aspects of PET-CT imaging in clinical trials. PET-CT has the potential to be best for response monitoring to therapy and early detection of disease compared to all other imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, gamma camera, SPECT, ultrasonography etc. In research, PET imaging can help in understanding the pharmacokinetics of a molecule, i.e. kinetic modeling and provides various imaging options, qualitative and quantitative. PET-CT provides anatomical as well as functional information and has the potential to be highly reproducible. The paper emphasizes good imaging practices and its relevance, especially when we are not just

  17. Eating epilepsy: clinical and neuro image aspects - case report; Epilepsia da alimentacao: achados clinicos e de neuroimagem - relato de um caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchpiguel, Carlos A.; Yacubian, Elza Marcia T.; Fiore, Lia Arno; Jorge, Carmen Lisa; Yamaga, Liliam I.; Watanabe, Tomoco; Bacheschi, Luis A.; Scaff, Milberto; Magalhaes, Alvaro E.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1994-04-01

    Eating epilepsy is an uncommon form of reflex epilepsy. The authors present a case report of a patient with clinical diagnosis of eating epilepsy who was submitted to clinical tests, neuroimaging studies (MRI and SPECT) and surface EEG. Multiple intercritical EEGs showed sharp discharges in the posterior left temporal area. The MRI did not show any abnormality. The intercritical brain SPECT showed clear hypoperfusion in the posterior left temporal area; so confirming the epileptogenic focus in producing the partial complex seizures triggered by eating. (author) 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Functional brain imaging - baric and clinical questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancing biological knowledge of disease processes plays a central part in the progress of modern psychiatry. An essential contribution comes from the functional and structural brain imaging techniques (CT, MRI, SPECT, PET). Their application is important for biological oriented research in psychiatry and there is also a growing relevance in clinical aspects. This development is taken into account by recent diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry. The capabilities and limitations of functional brain imaging in the context of research and clinic will be presented and discussed by examples and own investigations. (orig.)

  19. [Social aspect of clinical research in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masełbas, Wojciech; Czarkowski, Marek

    2007-12-01

    Each year more than 400 new clinical studies are registered in Poland. They gather above 50.000 of study participants. Social opinion on clinical trials is an important factor. The paper presents the review of actual opinions on clinical research in Poland. It provides the description of standards of protection of study participants, benefits and risks related to the participation in clinical research and the role of media in creating and influencing of the social perception of clinical trials. Results of conducted questionnaire studies imply that Poles correctly identify and assess the risk of participation in clinical experiments. The primary reason for the participation seams to be the possibility to help other patients, contribution to the progress of science and standards of medical care and potential benefits for other sufferers. The need of testing the safety and efficacy of the new medication in man is generally well recognized. At the same time a substantial part of the society is concerned with the possible corruption of investigators and unethical behaviour of sponsors. The social perception of clinical research in Poland is in majority of analyzed parameters not substantially different from opinions in other member states of EU. However, the medical society should be more active in influencing and changing some negative impressions. PMID:18432135

  20. Clinical aspects of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron neutron capture therapy is potentially useful in treating malignant tumors of the central nervous system and is technically possible. Additional in vitro and in vivo testing is required to determine toxicities, normal tissue tolerances and tissue responses to treatment parameters. Adequate tumor uptake of the capture agent can be evaluated clinically prior to implementation of a finalized treatment protocol. Phase I and Phase II protocol development, clinical pharmacokinetic studies and neutron beam development

  1. Radiobiological and clinical aspects of neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiobiological investigations and their interpretation are discussed. The history of neutrontherapy, the results of RBE-investigations in man as well as clinical results are given. The hypothesis on reaction of human tissue and tumours towards neutron irradiation is presented. (A.S.)

  2. Clinical Aspects of Feline Retroviruses: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hartmann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline leukemia virus (FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV are retroviruses with global impact on the health of domestic cats. The two viruses differ in their potential to cause disease. FeLV is more pathogenic, and was long considered to be responsible for more clinical syndromes than any other agent in cats. FeLV can cause tumors (mainly lymphoma, bone marrow suppression syndromes (mainly anemia, and lead to secondary infectious diseases caused by suppressive effects of the virus on bone marrow and the immune system. Today, FeLV is less commonly diagnosed than in the previous 20 years; prevalence has been decreasing in most countries. However, FeLV importance may be underestimated as it has been shown that regressively infected cats (that are negative in routinely used FeLV tests also can develop clinical signs. FIV can cause an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that increases the risk of opportunistic infections, neurological diseases, and tumors. In most naturally infected cats, however, FIV itself does not cause severe clinical signs, and FIV-infected cats may live many years without any health problems. This article provides a review of clinical syndromes in progressively and regressively FeLV-infected cats as well as in FIV-infected cats.

  3. Palmoplantar keratodermas: clinical and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Has, Cristina; Technau-Hafsi, Kristin

    2016-02-01

    Palmoplantar keratodermas comprise a diverse group of acquired and hereditary disorders marked by excessive thickening of the epidermis of palms and soles. Early onset and positive family history suggest a genetic cause. While hereditary forms of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) may represent the sole or dominant clinical feature, they may also be associated with other ectodermal defects or extracutaneous manifestations. In recent years, much progress has been made in deciphering the genetic basis of PPK, which has led to the emergence of new disorders and syndromes. The elucidation of disease mechanisms has opened new avenues for specific therapies, increasingly sparking interest in this field. Given the high heterogeneity with respect to clinical features, genetic defects, and disease mechanisms, the classification of PPK is based on various criteria. These include extent of disease manifestations, morphology of palmoplantar skin involvement, inheritance patterns, and molecular pathogenesis. Though not always feasible, the clinical distinction of various PPK entities is based on fine-tuned criteria or clues. Remarkably, apparently distinct disorders have been shown to be allelic, as they are caused by mutations in the same gene. By contrast, similar clinical pictures may result from mutations in different genes. Because of this complexity, mutation analysis is required to determine the precise type of PPK. The best-defined entities are described in this review. PMID:26819106

  4. Leptospirosis: epidemiology, clinical aspects and diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G.A. Goris (Marga)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractLeptospirosis is among the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world. The clinical manifestations of the disease are not specific, can vary widely and therefore are consistent with many other diseases. A diagnosis can only be confirmed with certainty by laboratory tests. Infecti

  5. Past and future aspects of clinical electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüderitz, Berndt

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of clinical electrophysiology has a long and fascinating history. From the earliest time, no clinical symptom impressed the patient (and the physician) more than an irregular heart beat. Although ancient Chinese pulse theory laid the foundation for the study of arrhythmias and clinical electrophysiology in the 5th century BC, the most significant breakthrough in the identification and treatment of cardiac arrhythmias first occurred in this century. In the last decades, our knowledge of electrophysiology and pharmacology has increased exponentially. The enormous clinical significance of cardiac rhythm disturbances has favoured these advances. On the one hand, patients live longer and thus are more likely to experience arrhythmias. On the other hand, circulatory problems of the cardiac vessels have increased enormously, and this has been identified as the primary cause of cardiac rhythm disorders. Coronary heart disease has become not just the most significant disease of all, based on the statistics for cause of death. Arrhythmias are the main complication of ischemic heart disease, and they have been directly linked to the frequent arrhythmogenic sudden death syndrome, which is now presumed to be an avoidable "electrical accident" of the heart. A retrospective look--often charming in its own right--may not only make it easier to sort through the copious details of this field and so become oriented in this universe of important and less important facts; it may also assist the observer in a chronological vantage point of the subject. The study of clinical electrophysiology is no dry compendium of facts and figures, but rather a dynamic field of study evolving out of the competition between various ideas, intentions and theories. PMID:18651426

  6. Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented. PMID:27669961

  7. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF TRANSMISSIBLE VENEREAL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Sá

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible venereal tumor is among the main diseases that affect domestic animals of the Canidae family. Abandoned animals are the main transmitters of the disease, which is highly contagious; most of the injuries are commonly found on animals genital organs and faces. This is a tumor without any involvement with an infectious agent, tumor cells are transferred from a sick animal to a healthy animal through natural breeding or direct contact of the lesions with other body parts. The disease has no predisposition for breeding, sex and species, therefore possibly affecting all canids although there are more reports on stray animals.The TVT lesions have cauliflower appearance and may be pedunculated, papillary or multilobulated, with hemorrhagic and crumbly aspect. The tumor can have benign or malignant potential, being the second most frequently commonly reported, wherein according to its potential raise the difficulty of the treatment or not.

  8. Clinical epidemiological aspects of chronic lymphoid leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and retrospective study of 71 patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia, attended at the Hematology Service from 'Dr Juan Bruno Zayas Alfonso' Teaching General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba was carried out from January, 2001 to November, 2006, in order to identify some clinical epidemiological variables on them, to show the therapeutical variables more used, as well as to assess survival, mortality, and the main causes of the clinical entity. Elderly, male sex, and high risk category related to advanced stage were predominant in the series. The therapeutical schedule of chlorambucil and prednisone was the most used, achieving good results in the majority of the case material. The survival of patients, in general, ranged among 1-5 years, whereas deaths occurred due to disease progression, infectious respiratory processes, pro-lymphocytic transformation, second neoplasias, and strokes. (author)

  9. Legal aspects of clinical ethics committees

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrick, J.

    2001-01-01

    In an increasingly litigious society where ritual demands for accountability and "taking responsibility" are now commonplace, it is not surprising that members of clinical ethics committees (CECs) are becoming more aware of their potential legal liability. Yet the vulnerability of committee members to legal action is difficult to assess with any certainty. This is because the CECs which have been set up in the UK are—if the American experience is followed—likely to vary significantly in terms...

  10. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF UNCOMPLICATED AND SEVERE MALARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bartoloni

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The first symptoms of malaria, common to all the different malaria species, are nonspecific and mimic a flu-like syndrome. Although fever represents the cardinal feature, clinical findings in malaria are extremely diverse and may range in severity from mild headache to serious complications leading to death, particularly in falciparum malaria. As the progression to these complications can be rapid, any malaria patient must be assessed and treated rapidly, and frequent observations are needed to look for early signs of systemic complications. In fact, severe malaria is a life threatening but treatable disease.  The protean and nonspecific clinical findings occurring in malaria (fever, malaise, headache, myalgias, jaundice and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea may lead physicians who see malaria infrequently to a wrong diagnosis, such as influenza (particularly during the seasonal epidemic flu, dengue, gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, encephalitis. Physicians should be aware that malaria is not a clinical diagnosis but must be diagnosed, or excluded, by performing microscopic examination of blood films. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are then crucial to prevent morbidity and fatal outcomes. Although Plasmodium falciparum malaria is the major cause of severe malaria and death, increasing evidence has recently emerged that Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi can also be severe and even fatal.

  11. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis, the Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugum, Mohannad F; McCullough, Arthur J

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease with variable severity that develops in patients who usually have a history of prolonged and recent alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on history, physical examination, and laboratory derangements. Liver biopsy is diagnostic but not universally performed, and noninvasive diagnostic modalities are under development. Scoring systems are used to assess severity of disease, predict mortality, and guide decisions for initiation of specific therapies. The natural history and long-term outcomes of alcoholic hepatitis, including recurrence, progression to cirrhosis, and mortality, vary and depend partly on abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:27373612

  12. Erythromelalgia : Clinical aspects, pathology and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    List of papers. Papers I-IV and Appendix I-II are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I Lalgaard OM, Seem E, Kvernebo K: Erythromelalgia: a clinical study of 87 cases. J Int Med 242:191-7, 1997 doi:10.1046/j.1365-2796.1997.00185.x Paper II Kalgaard OM, Clausen OP, Mellbye OJ, Hovig T, Kvernebo K: Nonspecific capillary proliferation and vasculopathy indicate skin hypoxia in erythromelalgia. Arch Dermatol 147(3):309-14,2011 doi:10.10...

  13. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  14. Vitamin D and cancer: Clinical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    There are substantial preclinical and epidemiologic data that suggest that vitamin D plays a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Numerous observational studies have shown that low blood levels of 25(OH) vitamin D (cholecalciferol), estimated by geographical location, diet and activity assessment or measured serum levels are associated with a higher risk of cancer and worse cancer-specific survival as well as numerous morbidities to e.g. cardiovascular disease, stroke, infection, autoimmune disease, and neuromuscular dysfunction among large populations. A considerable number of in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that the most active metabolite of vitamin D – 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or calcitriol – has anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, pro-differentiating, and anti-angiogenic properties. Combined treatment of calcitriol and many types of cytotoxic agents has synergistic or at least additive effects. However, clinical trials testing these hypotheses have been less encouraging, though a number of methodological, pharmacological, and pharmaceutical issues confound all trials ever conducted. In order to properly assess the clinical value of vitamin D, its metabolites and analogs in cancer prevention and treatment, more studies are needed. PMID:21872802

  15. Nutritional aspects of detoxification in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, John C

    2015-01-01

    Detoxification is a vital cellular task that, if lacking, can lead to early morbidity and mortality. The process of detoxification involves the mobilization, biotransformation, and elimination of toxicants of exogenous and endogenous origin. This article discusses the phase I and phase II detoxification and biotransformation pathways and promotes using food to support these highly complex processes. The author identifies the comprehensive elimination diet as a useful therapeutic tool for clinicians and patients to use to achieve detoxification. Using this diet, the patient removes the most common allergenic foods and beverages from the diet and replaces them with nonallergenic choices for a period of 4 wk, gradually adding back the eliminated foods and observing their effects. Another effective clinical tool that the author discusses is the detox-focused core food plan, which identifies the variety of foods required to supply key nutrients that can maximize the effectiveness of detoxification. Finally, the author provides a case study in which these tools were used to help a patient suffering from major, debilitating illnesses that resulted from exposure to malathion, including severe vomiting and diarrhea, headaches, night sweats, severe arthralgias and myalgias, episcleritis, and shortness of breath. The article details the interventions used and the clinical results (ie, successful resolution of most issues after 3 mo). PMID:26026145

  16. Clinical aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothee G A; Medina, Marco Tulio; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a recognizable, frequent epileptic syndrome. The most typical ictal phenomenon is bilateral myoclonia without loss of consciousness (M), with most patients also presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and some with absence seizures (ASs). The most striking features of JME are its onset around the time of puberty and the fact that seizure episodes occur after awakening from a sleep period or in the evening relaxation period and are facilitated by sleep deprivation and sudden arousal. Photic sensitivity is common in the EEG laboratory but uncommon or unrecognized in daily life. The clinical features of JME make it easy to diagnose. In recent years, awareness of JME has increased, and patients are often accurately diagnosed clinically before confirmation by EEG. The typical circumstance at diagnosis is a first GTCS episode, and one learns during the interview that the patient has had M in the morning for some time before the GTCS episode. There are only few differential diagnoses: the adolescent-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsies, or other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. With JME being so common, we propose that a first GTCS episode in a teenager should be considered as revealing JME until proven otherwise. PMID:23756488

  17. Alcohol and Suicide: Neurobiological and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol, primarily in the form of ethyl alcohol (ethanol, has occupied an important place in the history of humankind for at least 8,000 years. In most Western societies, at least 90% of people consume alcohol at some time during their lives, and 30% or more of drinkers develop alcohol-related problems. Severe alcohol-related life impairment, alcohol dependence (alcoholism, is observed at some time during their lives in about 10% of men and 3—5% of women. An additional 5—10% of each sex develops persistent, but less intense, problems that are diagnosed as alcohol abuse. It this review, neurobiological aspects of suicidal behavior in alcoholism is discussed. In individuals with comorbid depression and alcoholism, greater serotonergic impairment may be associated with higher risk of completed suicide. Dopaminergic dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior in alcoholism. Brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits are associated with alcohol use disorders and may contribute to suicidal behavior in persons with alcohol dependence or abuse. Aggression/impulsivity and alcoholism severity affect risk for suicide among individuals with alcoholism. Major depressive episodes and stressful life events particularly, partner-relationship disruptions, may precipitate suicidal behavior in individuals with alcohol use disorders. Alcohol misuse and psychosocial adversity can combine to increase stress on the person, and, thereby, potentially, increase the risk for suicidal behavior. The management of suicidal patients with alcohol use disorders is also discussed. It is to be hoped that the efforts of clinicians will reduce morbidity and mortality associated with alcohol misuse.

  18. Clopidogrel Salts - Pharmacokinetic, Pharmakodynamic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat – Pharmakokinetische, pharmakodynamische und klinische Aspekte. Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat spielt eine zentrale Rolle als Thrombozytenfunktionshemmer in der interventionellen Kardiologie und in der Sekundärprävention ischämischer Ereignisse bei Patienten mit Herzinfarkt, Schlaganfall oder peripherer arterieller Verschlusskrankheit (PAVK. Im Vergleich zum Standard Acetylsalicylsäure (ASS wurde ein zusätzlicher Nutzen für die Monotherapie mit Clopidogrelhydrogensulfat bei Patienten mit PAVK gezeigt. Auf der Basis einer Bioäquivalenz( kinetikstudie zur inaktiven Mutter- 􀂄 Background The thienopyridine clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate is a platelet inhibitor that has been on the market since 1998 (trade names: Plavix [1], Iscover. Whereas acetylsalicylic acid (ASA reduces platelet aggregation, capability to aggregate and secrete by irreversible inhibition of thromboxane synthesis, clopidogrel acts in a different way, by irreversibly blocking the adenosine receptor. The substance clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate was examined in a variety of experimental and clinical studies. A recent Medline search revealed nearly 600 published clinical studies on clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate. Among them are comprehensive endpoint studies such as CAPRIE [2], CURE [3], MATCH [4], CHARISMA [5], or PRoFeSS [6], TRITON TIMI-38 [7] and ACTIVE-A [8], being the largest of their kind. A number of experimental results from investigations of platelet function and clinical studies indicate superior efficacy of clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate compared to ASA and for clopidogrel HS plus ASA compared with ASA alone [9]. All the mentioned studies were performed with clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate. This clopidogrel compound is approved for secondary prophylaxis of atherothrombotic events. Clopidogrel hydrogen sulfate in combination with ASA is additionally approved for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS with and without ST segment elevation

  19. Olmsted syndrome: clinical, molecular and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchatelet, Sabine; Hovnanian, Alain

    2015-03-17

    Olmsted syndrome (OS) is a rare genodermatosis classically characterized by the combination of bilateral mutilating transgredient palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) and periorificial keratotic plaques, but which shows considerable clinical heterogeneity. The disease starts usually at birth or in early childhood. About 73 cases have been reported worldwide. OS is observed in both sexes, although male cases are more frequent. The most suggestive symptoms associate PPK with pseudoainhum and periorificial keratotic plaques. Frequently associated features include hair and nail abnormalities, leukokeratosis, corneal default and recurrent infections. Pain and itching are variable but can be severe. Most of reported OS cases are sporadic, although familial cases with different mode of inheritance were also described. Mutations in TRPV3 (Transient receptor potential vanilloid-3) gene have recently been identified as a cause of autosomal dominant (gain-of-function mutations) or recessive OS. Mutations in MBTPS2 (membrane-bound transcription factor protease, site 2) gene were identified in a recessive X-linked form. The diagnosis relies mainly on clinical features associating severe PPK and periorificial keratotic plaques, but can be challenging in patients with incomplete phenotype or atypical features. OS has to be differentiated from other severe forms of PPK including Vohwinkel, Clouston, Papillon-Lefèvre or Haim-Munk syndromes, Mal de Meleda, pachyonychia congenita, Tyrosinemia type II and acrodermatitis enteropathica. When differential diagnoses are difficult to exclude, genetic studies are essential to search for a TRPV3 or MBTPS2 mutation. However, additional genes remain to be identified. No specific and satisfactory therapy is currently available for OS. Current treatments of hyperkeratosis (mainly emollients, keratolytics, retinoids or corticosteroids), either topical or systemic, are symptomatic and offer only temporary partial relief. Specific management of pain and

  20. [Clinical and biological aspects of chronic brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buşilă, V T; Vasilescu, I; Popian, R; Fitărău, A; Teodorescu, R; Sarlău, A; Alexandrescu, R; Stamboliu, W

    1975-01-01

    The present study refers to 53 cases of chronic brucellosis admitted to the clinic or followed up in an out-patient unit for ten years (1962-1971). There was a total of 946 days in hospital and 1688 days of occupational disability, about 40% of the patients necessitating repeated hospitalization because of the relapsing course of the disease. This group of cases presented the classical dominant features of an occupational anthropozoonoses (90.5%). Elements of visceral and tissular pathology, obviously conditioned in their structure by the stage of the disease, were found in cardiovascular, hepatic, nervous, osteoarticular, orchitic, ocular, cutaneous localizations, etc. Their associated character particularize the polyvisceral forms. The immunopathology of chronic brucellosis is marked by its dynamics and frequently dissociated character of the sero-allergic diagnostic reactions. Blood proteins behave unequally (hypoalbuminemia, hyperalpha1-, hyperalpha2- and hypergammaglobulinemia). There is still debate about the terapeutic attempts, although sigmamycin associated with cortisone derivatives reduce or temporize the relapsing evolution, opening up new therapeutical perspectives. PMID:128800

  1. [Neurological effects of American trypanosomyiasis: clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Prada, Diddier G; Bayona-Prieto, Jaime; Valderrama, Vladimir; García, Ingrid; León, Marta E; Sunnemark, Dan

    2003-12-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, affects not only cardiac and intestinal structures but also neurological structures. A high prevalence of T. cruzi infection occurs in Colombia, prompting the present study. First, a qualitative metaanalysis was undertaken using the PubMed database, the electronic internet engine Altavista, Colombian journals indexed by Colciencias, and three relevant textbooks. The following key words were used: Trypanosoma, Chagas disease, nervous system, spinal cord, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, neuromuscular junction, autonomic nervous system, muscle, muscle disorders, neuromuscular disease, neuromuscular disorders, synapticopathies and dysautonomia. The documents analyzed numbered 116 and included original papers, reviews, case reports, editorials, brief communications, conferences and book chapters. At minimum, each document included data involving ELISA testing, indirect immunofluorescense, or parasitemia levels in the clinical, serological or histopathological studies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies were not included because of the recent introduction of PCR as a confirmatory technique for Chagas disease in Colombia. Chagas disease affects the central, the peripheral and the autonomic nervous system in humans, although its effects on the antonomic system is most commonly investigated in Colombia. Neurological lesions must be evaluated carefully, because patients may be misdiagnosed and treated as carriers of 'idiopathic' diseases. Neurological pathologies poses a serious threat in Colombia due to the prevalence of Chagas disease. PMID:14968924

  2. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: Clinical and Genetic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pignolo Robert J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is a severely disabling heritable disorder of connective tissue characterized by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification that forms qualitatively normal bone in characteristic extraskeletal sites. The worldwide prevalence is approximately 1/2,000,000. There is no ethnic, racial, gender, or geographic predilection to FOP. Children who have FOP appear normal at birth except for congenital malformations of the great toes. During the first decade of life, sporadic episodes of painful soft tissue swellings (flare-ups occur which are often precipitated by soft tissue injury, intramuscular injections, viral infection, muscular stretching, falls or fatigue. These flare-ups transform skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, fascia, and aponeuroses into heterotopic bone, rendering movement impossible. Patients with atypical forms of FOP have been described. They either present with the classic features of FOP plus one or more atypical features [FOP plus], or present with major variations in one or both of the two classic defining features of FOP [FOP variants]. Classic FOP is caused by a recurrent activating mutation (617G>A; R206H in the gene ACVR1/ALK2 encoding Activin A receptor type I/Activin-like kinase 2, a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP type I receptor. Atypical FOP patients also have heterozygous ACVR1 missense mutations in conserved amino acids. The diagnosis of FOP is made by clinical evaluation. Confirmatory genetic testing is available. Differential diagnosis includes progressive osseous heteroplasia, osteosarcoma, lymphedema, soft tissue sarcoma, desmoid tumors, aggressive juvenile fibromatosis, and non-hereditary (acquired heterotopic ossification. Although most cases of FOP are sporadic (noninherited mutations, a small number of inherited FOP cases show germline transmission in an autosomal dominant pattern. At present, there is no definitive

  3. Technical aspects of CT imaging of the spine

    OpenAIRE

    Tins, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    This review article discusses technical aspects of computed tomography (CT) imaging of the spine. Patient positioning, and its influence on image quality and movement artefact, is discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on the choice of scan parameters and their relation to image quality and radiation burden to the patient. Strategies to reduce radiation burden and artefact from metal implants are outlined. Data acquisition, processing, image display and steps to reduce artefact are reviewed...

  4. Etic aspects of childrens body image

    OpenAIRE

    Bokaová, Katarína

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with marketing communication focused on children, particulary with the impact on children's body image. It reflects the regulation of advertising in terms of legal and ethical issues. It seeks to examine the manipulability of children in decision-making process and the impact of advertising and media on their healthy development. The role of the thesis is to highlight the importance of careful monitoring of the marketing development and its negative impact on childr...

  5. Psychosocial Aspects of Dental Anxiety and Clinical Pain Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    This Danish Doctoral Dissertation in the science of Odontology contains 7 chapters: 1) Introduction to a social perspective on dental treatment, anxiety and pain throughout time, 2) research models and methods to study dental anxiety and clinical pain phenomena, 3) the fear of dental treatment...... .. what it is and what it is not and how many have it, 4) clinical pain treatment, psychosocial aspects in relation to anxiety, 4) patients and dentists' roles, pain perception and anxiety, 6) psychosocial aspects of managing anxiety and pain phenomena, and 7) Conclusions and proposals for the future...

  6. Theoretical aspects of nonlinear echo image system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ruiquan; FENG Shaosong

    2003-01-01

    In order to develop the nonlinear echo image system to diagnose pathological changes in biological tissue , a simple physical model to analyse the character of nonlinear reflected wave in biological medium is postulated. The propagation of large amplitude plane sound wave in layered biological media is analysed for the one dimensional case by the method of successive approximation and the expression for the second order wave reflected from any interface of layered biological media is obtained. The relations between the second order reflection coefficients and the nonlinear parameters of medium below the interface are studied in three layers interfaces. Finally, the second order reflection coefficients of four layered media are calculated numerically. The results indicate that the nonlinear parameter B/A of each layer of biological media can be determined by the reflection method.

  7. Liver alveolar echinococcosis in China: Clinical aspect with relative basic research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ci-Peng Jiang; McManus Don; Malcolm Jones

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with all aspects of liver alveolar echinococcosis (AE) including epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, imaging examinations, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, surgical treatment and chemotherapy.The review is not only based on personal clinical experiences but also in combination with relative basic research such as proliferation and growth of alveococcus, preclinical studies of a novel compound extracted from TCM for treatment of liver AE, and molecular immunology used for specific AE diagnosis, etc.

  8. Clinical aspects of a rotational total skin electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; Pla, C.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1984-06-01

    A simple rotational total skin electron irradiation technique utilising a single large field electron beam is presented. Clinical and technical aspects of the technique are discussed and treatment results for the first 10 patients treated for wide-spread mycosis fungoides reported. The technique is simple and well tolerated by patients, and can easily be implemented in centres utilising electron beam radiotherapy.

  9. Pharyngoceles aspects in imaging exams; Aspectos das faringoceles nos exames de imagem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diniz, Fabio de Vilhena; Nakamura, Olavo Kyosen; Grassi, Caio Giometti; Barbosa Junior, Alcino Alves; Gomes, Regina Lucia Elia; Daniel, Mauro Miguel; Garcia, Marcio Ricardo Taveira; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: fabiodiniz@einstein.b [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (HIAE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem

    2010-07-01

    Objective: the present study is aimed at showing the different characteristics of pharyngoceles in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) and its correlation with clinical presentation. Material and method: pharyngocele cases were selected in imaging exams (video fluoroscopic swallowing exam [VFSE] and computed tomography) realized in our service, realizing clinical presentation correlation. Results: pharyngocele presents frequently with small dimensions and narrow orifice. When the size enlarges, clinical presentation is more evident and diverse, which can confuse with other cervical lesions that enlarge with Valsalva maneuver. Differential diagnosis can be done by imaging evaluation. Conclusion: we intended to demonstrate that many times pharyngocele can be presented with different aspects, not always being easy to recognize by clinics or imaging exams, but its diagnosis must be always remembered in our daily practice. (author)

  10. Multimodal imaging of bone metastases: From preclinical to clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Ellmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the skeletal system are commonly observed in cancer patients, highly affecting the patients' quality of life. Imaging plays a major role in detection, follow-up, and molecular characterisation of metastatic disease. Thus, imaging techniques have been optimised and combined in a multimodal and multiparametric manner for assessment of complementary aspects in osseous metastases. This review summarises both application of the most relevant imaging techniques for bone metastasis in preclinical models and the clinical setting.

  11. Aspect-based Relevance Learning for Image Retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskes, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the special structure of the relevance feedback learning problem, focusing particularly on the effects of image selection by partial relevance on the clustering behavior of feedback examples. We propose a scheme, aspect-based relevance learning, which guarantees that feedback on feature v

  12. Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandra Rao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radia

  13. Charge-Transfer CMOS Image Sensors: Device and Radiation Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandra Rao, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was twofold: investigating the effect of ionizing radiation on 4-T CMOS image sensors and the possibility of realizing a CCD like sensor in standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology (for medical applications). Both the aims are complementary; borrowing and lending many aspects of radiation and device physics amongst each other.

  14. Clinical, Aetiologic, And Evolution-Related Aspects Of Pleurisy In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Frecus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Establishing the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of admissions in the Paediatrics Department, as well as the frequency of pleurisy from the total number of respiratory ailments that required hospitalization; evaluating age group distribution and determining the influence of environmental factors; describing clinical manifestations, laboratory, radiologic, and bacteriological investigations in patients with pleurisy; quantifying clinical manifestations and investigations so as to establish an appropriate therapeutic approach; identifying clinical aspects that indicate a favourable/unfavourable evolution; analyzing the evolution of cases after treatment as revealed by radiologic imaging.

  15. Modeling semantic aspects for cross-media image indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monay, Florent; Gatica-Perez, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    To go beyond the query-by-example paradigm in image retrieval, there is a need for semantic indexing of large image collections for intuitive text-based image search. Different models have been proposed to learn the dependencies between the visual content of an image set and the associated text captions, then allowing for the automatic creation of semantic indices for unannotated images. The task, however, remains unsolved. In this paper, we present three alternatives to learn a Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model (PLSA) for annotated images, and evaluate their respective performance for automatic image indexing. Under the PLSA assumptions, an image is modeled as a mixture of latent aspects that generates both image features and text captions, and we investigate three ways to learn the mixture of aspects. We also propose a more discriminative image representation than the traditional Blob histogram, concatenating quantized local color information and quantized local texture descriptors. The first learning procedure of a PLSA model for annotated images is a standard EM algorithm, which implicitly assumes that the visual and the textual modalities can be treated equivalently. The other two models are based on an asymmetric PLSA learning, allowing to constrain the definition of the latent space on the visual or on the textual modality. We demonstrate that the textual modality is more appropriate to learn a semantically meaningful latent space, which translates into improved annotation performance. A comparison of our learning algorithms with respect to recent methods on a standard dataset is presented, and a detailed evaluation of the performance shows the validity of our framework.

  16. [Key aspects in interpreting clinical trials in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Gómez, L; García Villar, C; Seguro Fernández, Á

    2015-01-01

    A clinical trial is an experimental study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a treatment or diagnostic technique in human beings. To ensure the methodological quality of a clinical trial and the validity of its results, various checklists have been elaborated to identify biases that could invalidate its conclusions. This article focuses on the points we need to consider in the critical evaluation of a clinical trial. We can usually find this information in the "materials and methods" and "results" sections of articles. Randomization, follow-up (or analysis of losses), blinding, and equivalence between groups (apart from the intervention itself) are some key aspects related to design. In the "results" section, we need to consider what measures of clinical efficacy were used (relative risk, odds ratio, or number needed to treat, among others) and the precision of the results (confidence intervals). Once we have confirmed that the clinical trial fulfills these criteria, we need to determine whether the results can be applied in our environment and whether the benefits obtained justify the risks and costs involved.

  17. Tourette syndrome: clinical and psychological aspects of 250 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Comings, D E; Comings, B G

    1985-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a common hereditary neuropsychiatric disorder consisting of multiple tics and vocal noises. We summarize here clinical aspects of 250 consecutive cases seen over a period of 3 years. The sex ratio was four males to one female, and the mean age of onset was 6.9 years. Only 10% were Jewish, indicating that it is not more prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews. Only 33% had compulsive swearing (coprolalia), indicating that this is not necessary for the diagnosis. The most frequent init...

  18. Comparative genomic hybridization: technical development and cytogenetic aspects for routine use in clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, J M; Cacheux, V; Da Silva, F; Collot, N; Hervy, N; Wiss, J; Tachdjian, G

    1998-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) offers a new global approach for detection of chromosomal material imbalances of the entire genome in a single experiment without cell culture. In this paper, we discuss the technical development and the cytogenetic aspects of CGH in a clinical laboratory. Based only on the visual inspection of CGH metaphase spreads, the correct identification of numerical and structural anomalies are reported. No commercial image analysis software was required in these experiments. We have demonstrated that this new technology can be set up easily for routine use in a clinical cytogenetics laboratory.

  19. Neurofibromatosis type 1: clinical and radiological aspects; Neurofibromatose tipo 1: aspectos clinicos e radiologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem]. E-mail: depimagem@famerp.br; Ferraz Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base. Unidade de Ressonancia Magnetica; Zanusso, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisa e Atendimento em Nerofibromatose (CEPAN), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Bertelli, Erika Cristina Pavarino [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa em Genetica e Biologia Molecular; Bertollo, Eny Maria Goloni [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Disciplina de Genetica

    2006-04-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a genetic disease with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3,000 people, characterized mainly by systemic and progressive involvement, manifesting by physical deformity and compromising of neurological functions. The diagnosis of the neurofibromatosis type 1 must be performed the earliest possible through clinical exams and familiar history. The use of imaging diagnosis as radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging is valuable for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up of patients and control of lesions, preventing complications. In this study we describe the clinical and radiological aspects of the neurofibromatosis type 1, considering clinical features, genetics, bone alterations in chest, vertebral column, upper and lower limbs, and craniofacial abnormalities. (author)

  20. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  1. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-02-02

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens.

  2. NMR clinical imaging and spectroscopy: Its impact on nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a collection of four papers describing aspects of past and future use of nuclear magnetic resonance as a clinical diagnostic tool. The four papers are entitled (1) What Does NMR Offer that Nuclear Medicine Does Not? by Jerry W. Froelich, (2) Oncological Imaging: Now, Future and Impact Jerry W. Froelich, (3) Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine: Past, Present and Future by H. Cecil Charles, and (4) MR Cardiology: Now, Future and Impact by Robert J. Herfkens

  3. Monitoring molecular, functional and morphologic aspects of bone metastases using non-invasive imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Semmler, Wolfhard

    2012-03-01

    Bone is among the most common locations of metastasis and therefore represents an important clinical target for diagnostic follow-up in cancer patients. In the pathogenesis of bone metastases, disseminated tumor cells proliferating in bone interact with the local microenvironment stimulating or inhibiting osteoclast and osteoblast activity. Non-invasive imaging methods monitor molecular, functional and morphologic changes in both compartments of these skeletal lesions - the bone and the soft tissue tumor compartment. In the bone compartment, morphologic information on skeletal destruction is assessed by computed tomography (CT) and radiography. Pathogenic processes of osteoclast and osteoblast activity, however, can be imaged using optical imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission CT (SPECT) and skeletal scintigraphy. Accordingly, conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT as well as diffusion- weighted MRI and optical imaging are used to assess morphologic aspects on the macroscopic and cellular level of the soft tissue tumor compartment. Imaging methods such as PET, MR spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced techniques and vessel size imaging further elucidate on pathogenic processes in this compartment including information on metabolism and vascularization. By monitoring these aspects in bone lesions, new insights in the pathogenesis of skeletal metastases can be gained. In translation to the clinical situation, these novel methods for the monitoring of bone metastases might be applied in patients to improve follow-up of these lesions, in particular after therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes established and experimental imaging techniques for the monitoring of tumor and bone cell activity including molecular, functional and morphological aspects in bone metastases. PMID:22214500

  4. Epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic aspects of sheep conidiobolomycosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Weiblen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Conidiobolomycosis is an emerging disease caused by fungi of the cosmopolitan genus Conidiobolus . Particular strains of Conidiobolus coronatus, Conidiobolus incongruus and Conidiobolus lamprauges , mainly from tropical or sub-tropical origin, cause the mycosis in humans and animals, domestic or wild. Lesions are usually granulomatous and necrotic in character, presenting two clinical forms: rhinofacial and nasopharyngeal. This review includes the main features of the disease in sheep, with an emphasis on the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and diagnosis of infections caused by Conidiobolus spp. in Brazil. In this country, the disease is endemic in the Northeast and Midwest, affecting predominantly woolless sheep breeds and occasioning death in the majority of the studied cases. The species responsible for infections of sheep are C. coronatus and C. lamprauges and the predominant clinical presentation is nasopharyngeal. These fungal infections are very important, since they compromise the health status of the sheep flock and cause serious economic losses to the sheep industry. Thus, research is needed to investigate faster tools for diagnosis and effective methods for the control and treatment of conidiobolomycosis.

  5. CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETIC ASPECTS OF STEALTH LIPOSOMES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drabu Sushma, Khanna Surabhi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stealth liposomes are long-circulating liposomes with inclusion of the synthetic polymer poly-(ethylene glycol (PEG in liposome composition. The presence of PEG on the surface of the liposomal carrier has been shown to extend bloodcirculation time while reducing mononuclear phagocyte system uptake. Further these liposomes exhibit increasing drug stability and solubility, lowering toxicity, increasing half-life, decreasing clearance and immunogenicity. Sterically stabilized vesicles can act either as long circulating micro reservoirs or tumour (or site of inflammation and infection targeting vehicles. The former applications require larger liposomes (0.2µm while the latter one is due to the ability of small vesicles to leave the blood circulation. The altered biodistribution of stealth liposomes, in addition to the accumulation at the sites characterised with porous blood capillaries, such as in tumors, inflammations, and infections. A pharmacogenomic approach for delivery of siRNA to cells is the use of liposomes as targeted delivery vehicles. Stealth technology summarizes pre-clinical and clinical data relating to the principal liposome formulations, encapsulating active molecules, with high target efficiency and activity. Further these liposomes offer improvements in bioreclamation and various monitoring and analytical-diagnostic applications. The paper reviews the clinical aspects of these liposomes with longer therapeutic half lives in diseases like Reconstitution of membrane proteins into artificial membranes, model biological membranes, cell function, fusion, recognition , pharmaceutics studies of drug action , medicine drug-delivery and medical diagnostics, gene therapy and there extensive use in the pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy: Clinical Aspects of Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goom, Thomas S H; Malliaras, Peter; Reiman, Michael P; Purdam, Craig R

    2016-06-01

    Synopsis Proximal hamstring tendinopathy (PHT) typically manifests as deep buttock pain at the hamstring common origin. Both athletic and nonathletic populations are affected by PHT. Pain and dysfunction are often long-standing and limit sporting and daily functions. There is limited evidence regarding diagnosis, assessment, and management; for example, there are no randomized controlled trials investigating rehabilitation of PHT. Some of the principles of management established in, for example, Achilles and patellar tendinopathy would appear to apply to PHT but are not as well documented. This narrative review and commentary will highlight clinical aspects of assessment and management of PHT, drawing on the available evidence and current principles of managing painful tendinopathy. The management outline presented aims to guide clinicians as well as future research. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):483-493. Epub 15 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5986. PMID:27084841

  7. Clinical and immunological aspects of envenomations by Bothrops snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KPO Luna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidents caused by snakes, especially in tropical and subtropical countries, still constitute a serious public health problem due to the lack of knowledge of health professionals and the precariousness of health systems in the regions where most accidents occur. Snake venoms contain a range of molecules that may provoke local swelling, pain, renal and respiratory insufficiencies. The study of the effects of each molecule on humans can help the development of complementary therapy. Similarly, the knowledge of clinical aspects of envenomations provides a better identification and implementation of appropriate treatment. In addition, to understand Bothrops envenomations and improve the therapeutic strategy, it is necessary to understand and study the role of important inflammatory mediators, particularly nitric oxide (NO, cytokines and the complement system.

  8. Ultrasound molecular imaging: Moving toward clinical translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elkacem, Lotfi; Bachawal, Sunitha V.; Willmann, Jürgen K., E-mail: willmann@stanford.edu

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ultrasound molecular imaging is a highly sensitive modality. • A clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent has entered first in human clinical trials. • Several new potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging are being explored. - Abstract: Ultrasound is a widely available, cost-effective, real-time, non-invasive and safe imaging modality widely used in the clinic for anatomical and functional imaging. With the introduction of novel molecularly-targeted ultrasound contrast agents, another dimension of ultrasound has become a reality: diagnosing and monitoring pathological processes at the molecular level. Most commonly used ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents are micron sized, gas-containing microbubbles functionalized to recognize and attach to molecules expressed on inflamed or angiogenic vascular endothelial cells. There are several potential clinical applications currently being explored including earlier detection, molecular profiling, and monitoring of cancer, as well as visualization of ischemic memory in transient myocardial ischemia, monitoring of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease, and assessment of arteriosclerosis. Recently, a first clinical grade ultrasound contrast agent (BR55), targeted at a molecule expressed in neoangiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2; VEGFR2) has been introduced and safety and feasibility of VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound imaging is being explored in first inhuman clinical trials in various cancer types. This review describes the design of ultrasound molecular imaging contrast agents, imaging techniques, and potential future clinical applications of ultrasound molecular imaging.

  9. Foreign body aspiration in children: clinical aspects, radiological aspects and bronchoscopic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations and bronchoscopic treatment of foreign body aspiration in children under 14 years of age, correlating the clinical aspects with the bronchoscopic findings. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive study analyzing data related to children under 14 years of age undergoing bronchoscopy due to clinical suspicion of foreign body aspiration at the State University at Campinas Hospital das Clinicas from January of 2000 to December of 2005. Results: The sample consisted of 69 patients, ranging in age from 8 months to 12 years/7 months (75.4% under 3 years of age), 62.3% of whom were male. The principal complaint was sudden-onset cough (75.4%), auscultation was abnormal in 74%, and dyspnea was observed in 29%. Radiological abnormalities were seen in 88% of the cases. Aspirations were primarily into the right lung (54.8%), and 30.7% of the foreign bodies were of vegetal origin (principally beans and peanuts). In the follow-up period, 29% presented complications (most commonly pneumonia), which were found to be associated with longer aspiration time (p = 0.03). Mechanical ventilation was required in 7 children (10.1%), and multiple bronchoscopies were performed in 5 (7.2%). Conclusions: A history of sudden-onset choking and cough, plus abnormal auscultation and radiological findings, characterizes the profile of foreign body aspiration. In such cases, bronchoscopy is indicated. Longer aspiration time translates to a higher risk of complications. The high prevalence of foreign bodies of vegetal origin underscores the relevance of prevention at children younger than three years of age. (author)

  10. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases.

  11. Uses of coercion in addiction treatment: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria A; Birkmayer, Florian; Boyarsky, Beth K; Frances, Richard J; Fromson, John A; Galanter, Marc; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Nace, Edgar P; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Tolliver, Bryan; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Coerced or involuntary treatment comprises an integral, often positive component of treatment for addictive disorders. By the same token, coercion in health care raises numerous ethical, clinical, legal, political, cultural, and philosophical issues. In order to apply coerced care effectively, health care professionals should appreciate the indications, methods, advantages, and liabilities associated with this important clinical modality. An expert panel, consisting of the Addiction Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, listed the issues to be considered by clinicians in considering coerced treatment. In undertaking this task, they searched the literature using Pubmed from 1985 to 2005 using the following search terms: addiction, alcohol, coercion, compulsory, involuntary, substance, and treatment. In addition, they utilized relevant literature from published reports. In the treatment of addictions, coercive techniques can be effective and may be warranted in some circumstances. Various dimensions of coercive treatment are reviewed, including interventions to initiate treatment; contingency contracting and urine testing in the context of psychotherapy; and pharmacological methods of coercion such as disulfiram, naltrexone, and the use of a cocaine vaccine. The philosophical, historical, and societal aspects of coerced treatment are considered.

  12. Cutaneous solar ultraviolet exposure and clinical aspects of photodamage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Battie

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar ultraviolet (UV radiation reaching the earth is a combination of UVB (290-320 nm and UVA (320-400 nm wavelengths. Since UVA is less energetic than UVB, UVB has long been thought to be the factor responsible for the damaging effects of solar radiation. But with modern tools such as in vitro models, it has been proven that UVA plays a major role. The objective of this review is to show how skin may be exposed to UV light and to highlight the clinical aspects of UV-induced skin damages with the respective contribution of UVB or UVA. Even if UVA is less energetic than UVB, it is more abundant and penetrates deeper into the skin, reaching as far as the dermis. Various factors also influence skin exposure to UV light: the latitude, season, and time of the day. Acute as well as chronic sun exposure induces short- and long-term clinical damages. Erythema and pigmentation are immediate responses of normal human skin exposed to UV radiation. The long-term effects are photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. In particular, UVA appears to play a major role in the deterioration of dermal structure leading to the photoaged appearance of the skin.

  13. Analytical Aspects of the Implementation of Biomarkers in Clinical Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkova, Maria; López, Olga Millán; Picard, Nicolas; Noceti, Ofelia; Sommerer, Claudia; Christians, Uwe; Wieland, Eberhard

    2016-04-01

    In response to the urgent need for new reliable biomarkers to complement the guidance of the immunosuppressive therapy, a huge number of biomarker candidates to be implemented in clinical practice have been introduced to the transplant community. This includes a diverse range of molecules with very different molecular weights, chemical and physical properties, ex vivo stabilities, in vivo kinetic behaviors, and levels of similarity to other molecules, etc. In addition, a large body of different analytical techniques and assay protocols can be used to measure biomarkers. Sometimes, a complex software-based data evaluation is a prerequisite for appropriate interpretation of the results and for their reporting. Although some analytical procedures are of great value for research purposes, they may be too complex for implementation in a clinical setting. Whereas the proof of "fitness for purpose" is appropriate for validation of biomarker assays used in exploratory drug development studies, a higher level of analytical validation must be achieved and eventually advanced analytical performance might be necessary before diagnostic application in transplantation medicine. A high level of consistency of results between laboratories and between methods (if applicable) should be obtained and maintained to make biomarkers effective instruments in support of therapeutic decisions. This overview focuses on preanalytical and analytical aspects to be considered for the implementation of new biomarkers for adjusting immunosuppression in a clinical setting and highlights critical points to be addressed on the way to make them suitable as diagnostic tools. These include but are not limited to appropriate method validation, standardization, education, automation, and commercialization.

  14. Clinical and cranial magnetic resonance aspects in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 Original Article

    OpenAIRE

    Saltık, Sema; Dönmezer, Beril; Yüksel, Elif; Çakı, Suar; Ergüven, Müferet

    2005-01-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate clinical the findings and cranial MRI findings especially in neurological aspect and to search for the relationship between the lesions on MRI and behavior cognitive disorders in Neurofibromatosis type 1 NF 1 patients Thirty one patients with NF 1 between the ages of 3 19 years mean 9 7±4 6 who had no other cranial MRI findings except optic gliyoma and NF 1 hyper intense lesions NHL on T2 weighted images were included in the study Denver II test was performe...

  15. Imaging and histopathological aspects in aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica; Kamal, Diana; Kamal, Kamal Constantin; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina; Popescu, Mihai; Bondari, Simona; Alexandru, Dragoş Ovidiu; Ionovici, Nina; Grecu, Dan Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic osteonecrosis causes various clinical manifestations, depending on its location, but has in common a histopathological and radiological substrate. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a condition whose pathogenesis remains unclear despite many theories developed so far, and the discovery of numerous risk factors. The objective of this study is to emphasize the role of imaging techniques and correlating histology and immunohistochemistry methods in order to more accurately stage the disease. This retrospective study was performed on a total of 103 patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of unilateral or bilateral osteonecrosis. For the diagnosis criteria, we used clinical information, pelvic X-ray images, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). For the inclusion of patients in a disease stage, we used the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification system. For patients diagnosed at an advanced stage, who underwent hip arthroplasty, we harvested biological material necessary for the histopathological study. There were differences in the appearance and extent of the lesion on the histological samples compared to macroscopic examination and even those obtained through imaging means, particularly for patients in evolutionary stage III. Aspects such as the extension of the area of fibrosis, bone tissue remodeling, the density of the newly formed vascular network and degree of impairment of the cartilage, are determined more accurately using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Before classifying patients in a certain stage, after correlating clinical and imaging data, histopathological aspects have to be considered, particularly in patients in stages III and IV, in which total hip arthroplasty could be delayed.

  16. Pancreatic cancer: Translational research aspects and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ansari; Bi-Cheng Chen; Lei Dong; Meng-Tao Zhou; Roland Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy,the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%.This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes,proteins,microRNAs or epigenetic modifications.However,there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice.Furthermore,novel ways of secondary screening in high-risk individuals,such as artificial neural networks and modern imaging,will be discussed.Drug resistance is ubiquitous in pancreatic cancer.Several mechanisms of drug resistance have already been revealed,including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 status,multidrug resistance proteins,aberrant signaling pathways,microRNAs,stromal influence,epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells and recently the presence of cancer stem cells/cancer-initiating cells.These factors must be considered when developing more customized types of intervention ("personalized medicine").In the future,multifunctional nanoparticles that combine a specific targeting agent,an imaging probe,a cell-penetrating agent,a biocompatible polymer and an anti-cancer drug may become valuable for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  17. Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological, and Histopathological Aspects of Acquired Dacryocystoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selam Yekta Sendul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology and the clinical, microbiological, histopathological, and radiological findings of acquired dacryocystoceles. Methods. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the clinical records of 10 eyes of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles who underwent external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR surgery. Etiology, presenting symptoms and radiological findings as well as microbiological and histopathological assessment results and outcome were analyzed. Results. The records of 8 patients with dacryocystoceles were included in this study. In the histopathological evaluations of the samples collected from the lacrimal sac wall, chronic inflammation was found in all biopsied samples and fibrosis was observed in two histopathological evaluations. Computerized tomography (CT imaging showed fluid collection separated from adjacent tissues by a thin rim, corresponding to dacryocystoceles in the sac. In the microbiological culture examination of samples collected from the fluid within the cyst, no bacterial growth in 5 eyes, gram-negative bacillus growth in 3 eyes, and gram-positive cocci growth in 2 eyes were found. Conclusions. Acquired dacryocystoceles were observed extremely rarely and a definite pathogenic agent could not be identified in any of the cases, either microbiologically or histologically, whereas chronic inflammation was detected in all cases in our study.

  18. Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Birgitte Mayland; Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    to a standardized scheme. 2. The prognostic value of HIF-1α is investigated by SNP analysis and HIF-1α expression in tissue from 300 patients operated for colorectal cancer and the results is validated in a prospectively population of 200 patients. 3. The predictive value of HIF-1α will be investigated in patients......Clinical Aspects of Hypoxia-inducible Factors in Colorectal Cancer   Birgitte Mayland Havelund1,4 MD, Karen-Lise Garm Spindler1,4 MD, PhD, Flemming Brandt Sørensen2,4 MD, DMSc, Ivan Brandslund3 MD, DMSc, Anders Jakobsen1,4 MD, DMSc. 1Department of Oncology, 2Pathology and 3Biochemistry, Vejle...... Hospital, Vejle, Denmark 4Institute of Regional Health Services Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense Denmark Background Prognostic and predictive markers are needed for individualizing the treatment of colorectal cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a transcription-inducing factor...

  19. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 145.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Jerome Irai Ezhil; Low, Albert S C; Tan, Damien M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2013-04-01

    A 63-year-old man presented with painless jaundice, loss of appetite and significant weight loss. Cross-sectional imaging showed a diffusely enlarged pancreas, with no significant fat stranding and a hypodense rim on computed tomography, which appeared hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. There was a narrowed pancreatic duct and features of common bile duct narrowing in the region of the pancreatic head. However, there was no obvious mass seen in the pancreatic head region. These features were classical of autoimmune pancreatitis with diffuse involvement of the gland. Laboratory investigation showed abnormal liver function and the classical sign of raised immunoglobulin G class 4 antibodies. The patient showed dramatic response to high-dose steroids, with resolution of both the laboratory and imaging abnormalities within one month. We discuss the classical imaging features of Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis, an uncommon condition that needs to be differentiated from pancreatic malignancy. PMID:23624453

  20. Clinical needs in functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, H.L.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.; Pate, H.

    1979-01-01

    Emission tomography, with positron or single photon emitting radionuclides, offers the possibility of quantitation, a necessary ingredient for functional studies. A figure of merit has been devised as an aid in selecting radionuclides that offer the greatest photon yield for the lowest radiation dose because emission tomography requires a greater information density than conventional imaging. Alterations in function generally precede anatomical alterations and functional imaging may therefore be a more sensitive method of investigating disease processes.

  1. Clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis in the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Modica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Personality disorders represent psychopathological conditions hard to be diagnosed. The Author highlights the clinical aspects of personality disorder diagnosis according to the criteria of the DSM-5. In this study, some of the numerous definitions of personality are mentioned; afterwards, some of the theories on the development of personality shall be. Later on, concepts of temperament, character and personality get analysed. Then, the current approach to personality disorders according to the two models of DSM-5 is reported. The first model is included in the Section II of DSM-5; while in the Section III there exists a proposal for a so-called alternate model. The first one suggests a qualitative or categorical kind of approach to personality disorders, whereas the alternate model proposes a dimensional or quantitative kind of approach and aims to formulate, as well as a diagnosis for general alterations of the personological functioning, even a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, which can be formulated when a personality disorder is there but doesn't fit criteria for a specific disorder. Ultimately, it can be so claimed: 1 diagnostic criteria of the first model are similar to those of DSM-IV with its respective strenghts and weaknesses, and namely high probability in diagnosis, where  there, of personality disorder, yet insufficient sensitivity in the specification of the disorder; 2 the alternate model, despite criticism, thanks to the possibility of delivering a trait-based personality disorder diagnosis, seems to be more equipped both in the identification of the personality disorder and further specifications.

  2. High resolution multimodal clinical ophthalmic imaging system

    OpenAIRE

    Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Patel, Ankit H.; Iftimia, Nicusor; Lue, Niyom; Hammer, Daniel X.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a multimodal adaptive optics (AO) retinal imager which is the first to combine high performance AO-corrected scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and swept source Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) imaging modes in a single compact clinical prototype platform. Such systems are becoming ever more essential to vision research and are expected to prove their clinical value for diagnosis of retinal diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related m...

  3. Imaging Review of Neurofibromatosis:Helpful Aspects for Early Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hekmatnia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF is divided into two types, NF type 1 and NF type 2. Optic nerve gliomas have a high degree of association with NF type 1. NF 2, less commonly seen, is a complex of cutaneous and deep neural tumors. It is an autosomal dominant familial disorder in which CNS is affected in about 15% of the cases. Bilateral acoustic neuromas are pathognomonic of NF type 2 which may be associated with meningiomas or ependymomas.Typical clinical manifestations of neurofibromatosis are cafe-au-lait spots and multiple cutaneoustumors. There is bone involvement as scoliosis, pseudoarthrosis of long bones, scalloping of vertebral bodies, abnormal rib tubulation and defective ossification of the skull. Extraskeletal anifestations of neurofibromatosis include optic nerve gliomas, pheochromocytoma,aneurysms of cerebral and renal arteries, acoustic neurilemmoma and superficial skin nodular neurofibromas.Here, we intend to present images of several cases of neurofibromatosis with different patternsof body involvement.

  4. Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Mankoff, David A; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Lieberman, Frank S; Buatti, John M; Mountz, James M; Erickson, Bradley J; Fennessy, Fiona M M; Huang, Wei; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Wahl, Richard L; Linden, Hannah M; Kinahan, Paul E; Zhao, Binsheng; Hylton, Nola M; Gillies, Robert J; Clarke, Laurence; Nordstrom, Robert; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-01-15

    As anticancer therapies designed to target specific molecular pathways have been developed, it has become critical to develop methods to assess the response induced by such agents. Although traditional, anatomic CT, and MRI examinations are useful in many settings, increasing evidence suggests that these methods cannot answer the fundamental biologic and physiologic questions essential for assessment and, eventually, prediction of treatment response in the clinical trial setting, especially in the critical period soon after treatment is initiated. To optimally apply advances in quantitative imaging methods to trials of targeted cancer therapy, new infrastructure improvements are needed that incorporate these emerging techniques into the settings where they are most likely to have impact. In this review, we first elucidate the needs for therapeutic response assessment in the era of molecularly targeted therapy and describe how quantitative imaging can most effectively provide scientifically and clinically relevant data. We then describe the tools and methods required to apply quantitative imaging and provide concrete examples of work making these advances practically available for routine application in clinical trials. We conclude by proposing strategies to surmount barriers to wider incorporation of these quantitative imaging methods into clinical trials and, eventually, clinical practice. Our goal is to encourage and guide the oncology community to deploy standardized quantitative imaging techniques in clinical trials to further personalize care for cancer patients and to provide a more efficient path for the development of improved targeted therapies.

  5. The important and clinical pharmaceutical aspects of radiopharmaceuticals usage

    OpenAIRE

    Janevik-Ivanovska, Emilija; Gjorgieva, Darinka; Smilkov, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to devote the development of new radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine application and methods of quality assurance stressing the pharmaceutical aspects. Preparation, distribution, storage and use of radiopharmaceuticals involves a number of pharmaceuticals and radiation protection problems emphasized by the rapidly increasing use of this type of drug relevant for the patient, for the staff and for the environment. To study the pharmaceutical aspects of rad...

  6. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166)

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose...

  7. Robust diffusion imaging framework for clinical studies

    CERN Document Server

    Maximov, Ivan I; Neuner, Irene; Shah, N Jon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diffusion imaging requires short acquisition times and good image quality to permit its use in various medical applications. In turn, these demands require the development of a robust and efficient post-processing framework in order to guarantee useful and reliable results. However, multiple artefacts abound in in vivo measurements; from either subject such as cardiac pulsation, bulk head motion, respiratory motion and involuntary tics and tremor, or imaging hardware related problems, such as table vibrations, etc. These artefacts can severely degrade the resulting images and render diffusion analysis difficult or impossible. In order to overcome these problems, we developed a robust and efficient framework enabling the use of initially corrupted images from a clinical study. At the heart of this framework is an improved least trimmed squares diffusion tensor estimation algorithm that works well with severely degraded datasets with low signal-to-noise ratio. This approach has been compared with other...

  8. Porcelain veneering of titanium--clinical and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Per

    2011-01-01

    Gold and other alloys have long been used for the production of crowns and bridges as replacements for damaged or lost teeth. However, doubts have arisen on the suitability of using these materials for dental restorations, as gold has also shown a capacity to cause side-effects such as allergic reactions. This is especially valid for alloys, which during the last decades have been used as porcelain-fused-to metal restorations. This fact has led to an interest in using titanium instead of these alloys. Trials to use titanium for this purpose were initiated in Japan in the early 1980s. Titanium as an unalloyed metal differs in two aspects from the above named alloys: it has a phase transformation at 882 degrees C, which changes its outer and inner properties, and it has an expansion that lies between that of the porcelain types available on the market at the time. In Japan a technique for casting titanium was developed, where the after-treatment of the casting was elaborate, to re-establish the original properties of titanium. The porcelain developed for veneering had shortcomings as the rendering produced a rough surface and non satisfactory esthetics. In Sweden a new concept was introduced in 1989. Here the processing of titanium was performed by industrial methods such as milling, spark erosion and laser welding. The idea behind this was to avoid phase transformation. During the 1990s a number of porcelain products were launched and a vast number of both laboratory and clinical studies were performed and published, with varying results. In the first study of this thesis a prospective clinical trial was performed at a public dental health clinic in Sweden. Twenty-five patients were provided with 40 copings of pure titanium, which were veneered with porcelain. After 2 years 36 of these crowns were evaluated and the patients were also interviewed regarding problems such as shooting pains or difficulties in cleaning around the teeth that were crowned. This evaluation

  9. Learning the structure of image collections with latent aspect models

    OpenAIRE

    Monay, Florent

    2007-01-01

    The approach to indexing an image collection depends on the type of data to organize. Satellite images are likely to be searched with latitude and longitude coordinates, medical images are often searched with an image example that serves as a visual query, and personal image collections are generally browsed by event. A more general retrieval scenario is based on the use of textual keywords to search for images containing a specific object, or representing a given scene type. This requires th...

  10. Quantitative imaging for clinical dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardiès, Manuel; Flux, Glenn; Lassmann, Michael; Monsieurs, Myriam; Savolainen, Sauli; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2006-12-01

    Patient-specific dosimetry in nuclear medicine is now a legal requirement in many countries throughout the EU for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) applications. In order to achieve that goal, an increased level of accuracy in dosimetry procedures is needed. Current research in nuclear medicine dosimetry should not only aim at developing new methods to assess the delivered radiation absorbed dose at the patient level, but also to ensure that the proposed methods can be put into practice in a sufficient number of institutions. A unified dosimetry methodology is required for making clinical outcome comparisons possible.

  11. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging aspects of hemorrhagic strokes in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the years, veterinary medicine has made great technological advances, allowing, thus, aid in the diagnosis of many diseases that resulted in increased animals life expectancy. As a result of this new situation, there was an increase of older animals clinical care. Thus, illnesses considered unusual in the past, began to be better identified, as is the case of strokes. Recently, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, have been used as aid tools in the diagnosis of many diseases, enabling the identification and evaluation of the central nervous tissue lesions. Information is provided regarding the size, shape and location of the lesion, and the magnitude of tissue compression and its side effects. This review aims to present the main aspects of hemorrhagic strokes in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in dogs. (author)

  12. Pressure Ulcer or Decubitus : clinical and etiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU), also called bedsores or decubitus, present a significant problem in healthcare. This thesis addresses some aspects of the aetiology of PU. The possible benefit of interventions with nutrional supplementation and the use of a risk assessment tool are evaluated. The role of react

  13. Clinical aspects of acquired aphasia and dysarthria in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. van Dongen (Hugo)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractFor the last decade, it has been a common clinical belief that the prognosis of acquired childhood aphasia is good. However, our own clinical experiences were rather conflicting on this point. As a consequence, we re-examined all the children (15) with an acquired aphasia who in a period

  14. Barrett's esophagus: clinical features, obesity, and imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2011-09-01

    The following includes commentaries on clinical features and imaging of Barrett\\'s esophagus (BE); the clinical factors that influence the development of BE; the influence of body fat distribution and central obesity; the role of adipocytokines and proinflammatory markers in carcinogenesis; the role of body mass index (BMI) in healing of Barrett\\'s epithelium; the role of surgery in prevention of carcinogenesis in BE; the importance of double-contrast esophagography and cross-sectional images of the esophagus; and the value of positron emission tomography\\/computed tomography.

  15. Clinical and tomographic aspects of macular microholes; Aspectos clinicos e tomograficos dos microburacos maculares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, Fernando Jose de [Hospital de Olhos Sadalla Amin Ghanem, Joinville, SC (Brazil)], e-mail: Fernando.novelli@gmail.com; Maia Junior, Otacilio de Oliveira [Fundacao Monte Tabor, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Hospital Sao Rafael; Nobrega, Mario Junqueira [Universidade da Regiao de Joinville (UNIVILLE), Joinville, SC (Brazil); Garrido Neto, Theodomiro [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Takahashi, Walter Yukihiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Oftalmologia

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To describe the clinical aspects and evaluate optical coherence tomography of macular microholes. Methods: Seven patients were assessed (8 eyes) with microholes of the macula. All patients underwent complete eye examination, fundus photography, fluorescent angiography and OCT-3 imaging. Results: Ages ranged from 26 to 69 years. Six patients were female (85.7%) and five of them had microhole in the right eye. The presenting symptom was decrease in visual acuity (71.3%) and central scotoma in (14.3%). Five eyes (71.4%) had no defects shown by fluorescent angiography. A defect in the outer retina was demonstrated in all eyes on optical coherence tomography. The lesions were nonprogressive. Conclusion: Macular microholes are small lamellar defects in the outer retina. The condition is nonprogressive, generally unilateral and compatible with good visual acuity. Fundus biomicroscopy associated with an optical coherence tomography are the main elements in the diagnosis and study of this pathology. (author)

  16. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:26254550

  17. An Update on Hidradenitis Suppurativa (Part I): Epidemiology, Clinical Aspects, and Definition of Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, A; García-Martínez, F J; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Pascual, J C; Pereyra-Rodriguez, J; Salgado, L; Vilarrasa, E

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory disorder that has attracted increasing attention in recent years due to underestimations of prevalence and the considerable impact of the condition on interpersonal relationships, physical appearance, self-esteem, and body image. Although hidradenitis suppurative has a significant psychological impact on patients and can even cause physical limitations when thick scarring results in limb mobility limitation, until very recently little evidence was available relating to its epidemiology, etiology, or pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the latest advances in our understanding of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of hidradenitis suppurativa. We will also look at the different classification systems for hidradenitis suppurativa and discuss the emergence of skin ultrasound as a promising technique for monitoring the course of this chronic inflammatory disease.

  18. New aspects in the clinical spectrum of neonatal lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurinaviciene, Rasa; Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Bygum, Anette

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal lupus erythematosus (NLE) is a rare, passively acquired autoimmune disease, caused by maternal autoantibodies. Characteristic clinical features of NLE are transient rash and congenital heart block (CHB), but also hematological abnormalities and hepatobiliary dysfunction may occur...

  19. [The oral aspects of osteogenesis imperfecta. A clinical case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniaci, D; Migliario, M; Flecchia, G; Re, G

    1989-10-01

    The oral symptoms observable in patients with imperfect osteogenesis are described and a clinical case that makes a contribution to our knowledge of a rarely encountered pathology is reported. PMID:2615733

  20. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    OpenAIRE

    Boers, M.; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F.; Cats, A.; Weening, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and no...

  1. Renal findings in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical aspects of 132 necropsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, M; Croonen, A M; Dijkmans, B A; Breedveld, F C; Eulderink, F; Cats, A; Weening, J J

    1987-09-01

    Renal abnormalities in 132 necropsied patients with rheumatoid arthritis were studied. Clinical findings before death included extra-articular manifestations of the disease (86% of patients), systemic vasculitis (6%), and uraemia (23%). Necropsy findings included nephrosclerosis (90%), systemic vasculitis (14%) with kidney involvement in 8%, amyloidosis (11%), membranous glomerulopathy (8%), and focal glomerular disease (8%). Association with clinical data suggests that both rheumatoid and non-rheumatoid disease may play a part in the cause of these abnormalities. PMID:3675007

  2. Coryneform bacteria in infectious diseases: clinical and laboratory aspects.

    OpenAIRE

    Coyle, M B; Lipsky, B A

    1990-01-01

    Coryneform isolates from clinical specimens frequently cannot be identified by either reference laboratories or research laboratories. Many of these organisms are skin flora that belong to a large number of taxonomic groups, only 40% of which are in the genus Corynebacterium. This review provides an update on clinical presentations, microbiological features, and pathogenic mechanisms of infections with nondiphtheria Corynebacterium species and other pleomorphic gram-positive rods. The early l...

  3. A digital image capture method: legal and criminalistic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Šiurna, Žilvinas

    2007-01-01

    The graduating paper focuses on the digital image capture method in criminalistic and also on its legal regulation and practical resort in the law enforcement institutions‘ investigations of criminal acts. The digital image capture is one of the methods of digital image capture in criminalistic. Its structure contains digital photography and digital video recording. The digital photography is used for strategical and investigative photography. The usage of the digital image capture method inv...

  4. Tularemia in Arkhangelsk region: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Titova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to analyze epidemiological and clinical features of tularemia cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with complications.Methods: We conducted retrospective cohort study including all patients hospitalized with tularemia between 2010 and 2014.Results: Most of tularemia cases were diagnosed in July (20,8% and August (57,1% among adult females (63,6%. The most common forms were bubonic and ulcer-bubonic (89,6%. Buboes were commonly found in the upper femoral and groin regions (92,2%. Diagnostic errors were revealed in 54,1% of cases. The most frequent misdiagnoses were lymphadenitis and fever of unknown origin. Delay in effective antibiotic therapy was associated with an increased rate of complications.Conclusion: Tularemia has a diversity of clinical presentations. Doctors need to memorize the most common clinical signs of tularemia (fever and lymphadenitis to make timely diagnosis.

  5. Clinical, Pathological and Immunological Aspects of Transplacental PRRS Virus Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PRRSV in the previously unaffected Danish pig population. Acute PRRS like disease was observed in non-vaccinated as well as in vaccinated herds, and it was demonstrated that the vaccine strain had reverted to virulence. By experimental infection of late term pregnant sows, we demonstrated that a field...... isolate of PRRS vaccine-derived virus (VDV) could cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS, thus confirming the etiological role of VDV. Since the complex pathology following in utero infection with PRRSV indicates impairment of the immune system of congenitally infected pigs, we studied various aspect...

  6. Clinical efficiency, image quality and dosimetric considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three decades have passed since the first clinical use of the famous EMI Computed Axial Tomography (Cat) scanner. At the time, the prospects for clinical success of this innovative idea were not very good. Time, however, has proven otherwise as what is now simply known as Computed tomography (CT) has been boosted in each one of these decades for different reasons. In the 1970s, technological progress augmented by the realization of the importance of tomographic imaging got everything started; in the 1980s, the boom in health care demand in the US solidified its position and in the 1990s the technological explosion in computers and the imperative need to lower costs in the health care industry have prompted the most dramatic changes in the wy CT is utilized in the year 2000. Thus, different motivations have led the way of progress in CT at various times, and in spite of amazing developments in other crucial imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound, digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging, CT maintains its rightful place as the premiere imaging modality in the modern radiology department. This work covers the basic principles of tomographic image reconstruction, and how axial CT scanners progressed historically in the first two decades. Developments in X-ray tubes, and detection systems are highlighted, as well as the impact of clinical efficiency, image quality and patient doses. The basic construction of translate-rotate (1st and 2nd generation, rotate-rotate (3rd generation) and detector ring (4th generation) scanners are described. The so-called 5th generation scanner, the electron beam scanner, is also described, with its clinical and technical advantages and its inherent financial and maintenance disadvantages, which brought the advent of spiral and multi-slice scanners. These most recent developments in CT technology have opened a new era in the clinical use of CT; and although image quality has reached an expected

  7. Biological and clinical aspects of autoimmune inner ear disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, A J

    1992-01-01

    The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of autoimmune inner ear disease are reviewed. Recent studies indicating an autoimmune etiology and pathogenesis are discussed, along with a comparative analysis of several promising new animal models. Further studies to define the natural history, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of the disease are suggested.

  8. Research and clinical aspects of the late effects of poliomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halstead, L.S.; Wiechers, D.O.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 selections. Some of the titles are: Late effects of Polio: Historical Perspectives; Sleep-Disordered Breathing as a Late Effect of Poliomyelitis; Clinical Subtypes, DNA Repair Efficiency, and Therapeutic Trials in the Post-Polio Syndromes; and Post-Polio Muscle Function.

  9. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, D A

    1995-12-01

    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  10. [Sudeck disease--pathology, clinical aspects and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R H; Buch, K

    1998-06-01

    In our opinion the etiology of Sudeck's disease (acute reflex bone atrophy) plays a decisive role in therapeutic planning. The therapy is based on clinical and radiological findings. Physiotherapy addresses the symptom complex of pain, hyperemia, edema formation, and limitations of movement which act in a vicious circle and its intensity is modified according to the prevailing clinical and possibly also radiological findings. A strict coupling of the therapy to a classification according to stage is not recommended. Pharmacological therapy is merely a supporting element and focuses on the sympathetic overexcitability. The best therapy for Sudeck's disease is prophylaxis. Interventions collected under the general term early functional mobilization are, especially after surgical measures, a major factor in the avoidance of neurovegetative dysregulation in the sense of sympathetic reflex dystrophy. PMID:9738286

  11. Epidemiological, clinical and immunological aspects of neuromyelitis optica (NMO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, Nasrin

    2013-10-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS) and probably the most common non-multiple sclerosis (MS) CNS IDD. Serum immunoglobulin G autoantibodies have been identified in the majority of NMO patients with the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) as their main target autoantigen. Previous studies have suggested ethnicity-based prevalence differences of NMO. The genetic background for these putative differences is not known. An HLA-association with NMO has been identified, but the association is not very pronounced. Human and experimental studies support that anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG are involved in the pathogenesis of NMO. Previous experimental animal models have reported induction of NMO-like histopathology in animals by transfer of human anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG. A main goal of this PhD thesis was to perform a population-based study in a predominantly Caucasian population (in the Region of Southern Denmark) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of NMO and describe the clinical phenotypes in this population. Furthermore the aims were to investigate whether autoimmunity underlies or contributes to the pathogenesis of NMO with specific clinical, immunogenetic and experimental perspectives. The yearly incidence rate of NMO in the population was estimated to be 0.4 per 105 person-years (95% CI 0.30-0.54) and the prevalence was 4.4 per 105 (95% CI 3.1-5.7). The results indicated that NMO is more common in a Caucasian population than earlier believed. Clinical, radiologic and serological data were reviewed in order to establish the diagnostic accuracy of anti-AQP4 antibodies/NMO-IgG for specific syndromes in NMO. We observed assay characteristics with a sensitivity of 62% and a specificity of 100%. The diagnosis of NMO based on either the Wingerchuk 2006 criteria or the United States National Multiple Sclerosis Society 2008 criteria could be made purely on clinical grounds in a high proportion (64

  12. Pericoronitis: a reappraisal of its clinical and microbiologic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, D W; Tal, O; Sela, M N; Shteyer, A

    1985-07-01

    Pericoronitis is an infectious disease of the operculum overlying an erupting or semi-impacted tooth. It manifests itself mainly in late adolescence and young adulthood and nearly always occurs around the lower third molar. The distinctive location, age, clinical picture, and link with predisposing factors warranted a reappraisal of pericoronitis and its etiology. Spirochetes and fusobacteria proved prevalent at all stages of the disease. The presence of these microbacteria may provide a clue as to the late appearance, particular location, and singular clinical picture of pericoronitis. The fact that spirochetes and fusobacteria are also found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, and have been associated with alveolar osteitis, indicates a possible relationship between these disorders and pericoronitis.

  13. Clinical Aspects of Type 3 Long QT Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilde, Arthur A M; Moss, Arthur J; Kaufman, Elizabeth S;

    2016-01-01

    sodium-channel mutations; 391 patients were known to be event free during the first year of life and were the focus of our study. Clinical, electrocardiographic, and genetic parameters were acquired on patients from 7 participating LQT3 registries. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate......BACKGROUND: -Risk stratification in patients with type 3 long QT syndrome (LQT3) by clinical and genetic characteristics and effectiveness of ß-blocker therapy have not been studied previously in a large LQT3 population. METHODS: -The study population included 406 LQT3 patients with 51 different......), with a significant gender x ß-blocker interaction (p=0.04). Each 10ms increase in QTc duration up to 500ms was associated with a 19% increase in CE's. Prior syncope doubled the risk for life-threatening events (plife-threatening CE's. ß...

  14. Clinical aspects of MR colonography as a diagnostic tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Since first described in 1997, MR colonography (MRC) has since been labelled as a promising new, non-invasive technique for examining the colon. At present time, the examination is ready to be implemented as a supplement to incomplete colonoscopy or preoperative colonic evaluation. Furthermore, MRC...... and that polypectomy might be curative. Colonoscopy remains the gold standard for full colon evaluation. However, the result of our studies can justify clinical use of MRC on selected indications, e.g. in the cases where colonoscopy is incomplete or technically difficult. Since up to 54% of all preoperative colon...... evaluations in patients with colorectal cancer and up to 17-23% of regular colonoscopies are incomplete, the clinical potential of MRC is evident. Furthermore, in our studies we have shown the insufficiency of preoperative colonic evaluation by CC. In addition, considering the invasiveness, the serious...

  15. Pediatric Flexible Flatfoot; Clinical Aspects and Algorithmic Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Flatfoot constitutes the major cause of clinic visits for pediatric foot problems. The reported prevalence of flatfoot varies widely due to numerous factors. It can be divided into flexible and rigid flatfoot. Diagnosis and management of pediatric flatfoot has long been the matter of controversy. Common assessment tools include visual inspection, anthropometric values, footprint parameters and radiographic evaluation. Most flexible flatfeet are physiologic, asymptomatic, and require no treatm...

  16. Epidemiological, clinical and genetic aspects of neurofibromatoses in Northern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Pöyhönen, M. (Minna)

    1999-01-01

    Abstract A population-based study to investigate the epidemiological, genetic and clinical features of neurofibromatoses (NF) in Northern Finland was carried out between 1989–1996. The area concerned was that served by Oulu University Hospital, with a total population of 733 037. A total of 197 patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), five with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and eight with segmental neurofibromatosis (NF5) fulfilling the diagnostic criteria were identified among s...

  17. [Compatibility of science and clinical aspects. Between realism and utopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, R; Perl, M; Münzberg, M; Histing, T

    2013-01-01

    The working environment for young residents in orthopedic surgery has changed tremendously over the past 10 years. Due to cumulative clinical requirements and increasing demands on work-life balance research activity has become less attractive. Successful incorporation of research into the career of residents is a challenging project for the future. The young forum of the German Association for Orthopedics and Traumatology (DGOU) provides different approaches to enhance the quality of research and to help young orthopedists and trauma surgeons. PMID:23325157

  18. Clinical Aspects and Management of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Tambasco; Simone Simoni; Erica Marsili; Elisa Sacchini; Donatella Murasecco; Gabriela Cardaioli; Aroldo Rossi; Paolo Calabresi

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, one of the most troublesome dilemmas is the treatment of levodopa-induced dyskinesia. After a few years, chronic treatment with levodopa is associated with the development of dyskinesias. Strategies to delay or to reduce dyskinesias are based on the change of levodopa dosing or the early use of dopamine agonists. Dopamine agonists with different pharmacological profile are available. Our paper was aimed to analyse the clinical impact and the management of dyskinesias w...

  19. Injury to the Developing Lung: experimental and clinic al aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Reiss, Irwin

    2008-01-01

    textabstractInjury to the developing lung or disturbance of normal lung development may lead to a chronic lung disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which may have long-term effects. BPD is characterized by an arrest of development of the lung and the pulmonary vascular system and occurs in around 20% of ventilated newborns. In the first part of this thesis, different factors that influence the development of BPD are studied, both in an experimental and a clinical setting. We found that ...

  20. ASPECTS OF THE AMLODIPINE PLEIOTROPY IN BIOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND CLINICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasma Vitolina, Aivars Krauze, Gunars Duburs and Astrida Velena*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amlodipine is the third generation calcium antagonist, 1,4-dihydropyridine derivative with the prolonged duration of the antihypertensive action, especially blocking L-type Ca2+ ion channels. It promotes beneficial therapeutic effect by coronary and other blood vessel diseases and thus delays development of the atherosclerosis. It has several known trade names, the most mentioned is Norvasc. Amlodipine is well tolerated in the clinics, it could be used in combinations with other drugs – diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, statins. Amlodipine at nanomolar concentrations binds to the voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels. It possesses optimal lipophylicity. Amlodipine also influences the NO-dependent metabolic processes, stimulates NO synthesis and prolongs NO action duration. Results of the studies of the amlodipine pharmacological and clinical properties are summarized in several reviews. The present review contains opinion from the scientific works of the last decades about the multisided or pleiotropic amlodipine mechanisms of action, it contains information about sometimes controversial clinical studies of the amlodipine vaso- and cardioprotective activity.

  1. Biosimilar monoclonal antibodies: preclinical and clinical development aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, João; Araújo, Filipe; Cutolo, Maurizio; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2016-01-01

    Biological drugs and their originated biosimilars are large, highly complex molecules derived from living cells or organisms. Traditional medicines, by contrast, are usually simple molecules of low molecular weight, synthesised by chemical means. The distinct complexities and methods of manufacture create an important difference between biosimilars and conventional generic drugs: while chemical generics can be fully characterised as identical to the originator product, biosimilars cannot. In addition, biological therapies are inherently variable, creating unavoidable differences between even subsequent batches of the same product. An expiring patent does not necessarily mean that the manufacturing process of the originator product becomes available to the biosimilar developers (for instance, the relevant cell line clone and growth medium). Therefore, it cannot be guaranteed that biosimilar products are identical to their reference product on a molecular level. This difference has important implications for the regulation and licensing of biosimilars. While conventional generic drugs require only a limited comparison and demonstration of identical chemical structure to the reference product, biosimilars require far more rigorous testing. In general, there must be a thorough comparison of structural and functional characteristics between biosimilar and originator drug. Stepwise nonclinical in vitro and in vivo approaches are recommended to evaluate the similarity of both drugs and any identified micro-heterogeneities must then be assessed for their impact on safety and clinical performance. Subsequently, clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies need to be performed in order to demonstrate a similar PK profile, prior to conducting clinical efficacy trials. PMID:27383278

  2. Clinical aspects and dynamics of auricular parasitosis in Gir cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia V.B. Leite

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the dynamics of ear infestations caused by Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp., which were correlated with animal age, intensity of clinical signs and climate factors. Sixty-four Gir cattle were distributed into three groups: GA - 23 calves with 4 to 6 months of age; GB - 18 calves with 7 to 12 months of age; and GC - 23 heifers with 13 to 33 months of age. Five samplings, defined as S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5 were performed every three months from August 2008 to August 2009. The ear secretion was collected using the auricular washing method for the right ear and a swab for the left ear. A clinical assessment of the animals was performed, and they were classified according to the presence and severity of otitis. The highest relative frequency of rhabditosis was 52.2% in GC at the last sampling. In the first sampling, 42.2% of the animals were infested by Raillietia spp. The older cattle were more susceptible to infestations by both parasites. No correlation of Rhabditis spp. and Raillietia spp. parasitism with climate factors was found. The results showed that both parasites could infest Gir cattle, and in most cases, there was no co-infestation. Only older animals parasitized by the nematode showed clinical signs of the disease.

  3. Autoimmune thyroiditis goitrogenic. Aspects of clinical and laboratorial diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To asses the accuracy achieved by the A.C.A.T. and other clinical and laboratorial criterion in the diagnoses of T.A.I.B. we investigated twenty patients with goiter and antimicrossomal antibodies titres of 1/1.600 or more. Analysing the parameters useful in the diagnosis, we found a significant correlation between the antimicrossomal antibodies titres and the basal TSH concentration, an elevated basal TSH and an exaggerated response to TRH independent of the patient clinical status reflecting in the majority of the cases a state of subclinical hypotyroidism; an irregular appearance of the radioisotope thyroid scan and a positive response to a perchlorate discharge test. We conclude that from the parameters useful in the T.A.I.B. diagnosis, the A.C.A.T. detection mainly the antimicrossomal antibodies, is an excellent tool to detect patients with a clinical suspect of thyroid auto-immune disease and when we found high tires in a patient with goiter and an elevated basal TSH concentration we can suggest T.A.I.B. diagnosis. (author)

  4. Physical aspects to consider in radiometric calibration of satellite images

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    It does a revision about the physical principles involved in digital processing of satellite images, more specifically in radiometric calibration of them. It shows a conceptual description of the interaction between radiation and atmosphere and radiation and soil in order to help the reader understand in more detail which means the information contained in satellite images.

  5. Serrated polyposis syndrome: Molecular, pathological and clinical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carla Guarinos; Cristina Sánchez-Fortún; María Rodríguez-Soler; Cristina Alenda; Artemio Payá; Rodrigo Jover

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplastic polyps have traditionally been considered not to have malignant potential.New pathological classification of serrated polyps and recent discoveries about the serrated pathway of carcinogenesis have revolutionized the concepts and revitalized the research in this area.Until recently,it has been thought that most colorectal cancers arise from conventional adenomas via the traditional tumor suppressor pathway initiated by a mutation of the APC gene,but it has been found that this pathway accounts for only approximately 70%-80%of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases.The majority of the remaining colorectal cancer cases follow an alternative pathway leading to CpG island methylator phenotype carcinoma with BRAF mutation and with or without microsatellite instability.The mechanism of carcinomas arising from this alternative pathway seems to begin with an activating mutation of the BRAF oncogene.Serrated polyposis syndrome is a relatively rare condition characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps of the colon.Clinical characteristics,etiology and relationship of serrated polyposis syndrome to CRC have not been clarified yet.Patients with this syndrome show a high risk of CRC and both sporadic and hereditary cases have been described.Clinical criteria have been used for diagnosis and frequent colonoscopy surveillance should be performed in order to prevent colorectal cancer.In this review,we try to gather new insights into the molecular pathogenesis of serrated polyps in order to understand their possible clinical implications and to make an approach to the management of this syndrome.

  6. Weber-Christian disease (idiopathic panniculitis: Clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Egorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weber-Christian disease (WCD, or idiopathic panniculitis, refers to rare diseases from a group of systemic connective tissue diseases. To verify the diagnosis of WCD is a difficult task, for there are no precise diagnostic tests for this disease.Objective: to study the clinical features and additional investigation data of WCD as one of the variants of lobular panniculitis (LP.Subjects and methods. Nineteen patients (2 men and 17 women aged 32 to 71 years with WCD were examined. The average disease duration was 65.1±11.3 months.Results. The medical history data of 12 patients could identify three suspected factors of disease development: surgical intervention (n = 6; supercooling (n=4, and acute respiratory viral infection (n=2. In 10 (53% patients aged 47–71 years, the Quetelet index was as high as 31.8±7.2 cm/kg, which allowed grade 2 obesity to be diagnosed. According to its clinical manifestations, there were 3 WCD forms: nodular (n=10, plaque (n=6, and infiltrative (n=3. The saucer symptom was present in 74%, including in all cases of the chronic course (p=0.02. The number of affected areas significantly differed in the nodular and plaque forms (p=0.01. ROC analysis showed that the optimal values of sensitivity (80% and specificity (83% on visual analog scale (VAS in patients with these forms corresponded to a separation point of 60 mm, with the prognostic value of a positive result being 0.89 (CI 0.71–1.1; p=0.011. The infiltrative form showed a typical clinical picture (VAS, 83.1±12.5 mm in 3 patients, one of them was found to have mesenteric panniculitis. The level of C-reactive protein was shown to be correlated with the form of the disease; the former being maximal in infiltrative WCD. The pathomorphological examination of skin and subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens from the nodule of all the patients detected diffuse leukolymphocytic infiltration, single multinucleated cells, necrotic foci, and lipocyte proliferation

  7. [Coronary microvascular dysfunction : Clinical aspects, diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, P; Sechtem, U

    2016-06-01

    Just as in epicardial coronary stenosis, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) also leads to an imbalance of myocardial oxygen supply and demand. The dysfunction is located at the level of the coronary microcirculation with vessel diameters channel blockers. Patients with CMD have an elevated risk for coronary events and death of approximately 1.7 % per year. Moreover, there is an increased morbidity with frequent presentations in practices and emergency admissions. Clinical research efforts should aim at a better characterization of the underlying mechanisms of CMD in order to develop targeted treatment approaches. PMID:27255117

  8. CONGENITAL CRYPTORCHIDISM - ITS ANATOMICAL ASPECTS, EMBRYOGENESIS AND CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Chakravarthi

    2013-01-01

    The testes are a pair of male reproductive organs. The testicular variations are unusual and can result in multiple clinical conditions. Congenital cryptorchidism is a condition in which one or both the testes have not passed down the scrotal sac. During a routine cadaveric dissection of a middle aged male cadaver, in the left side of the pelvic part of the abdomen an unusual undescended testis was noted near the deep inguinal ring. Additional to this we also noted a thick band of ligament co...

  9. Clinical Applications of Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Saksena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, advances in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI have led to the design of numerous innovative imaging techniques. These techniques have not only facilitated structural visualization of anatomy, but also have provided a wealth of functional information regarding biological processes. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI is one such MRI technique that has generated tremendous amount of interest both in the clinical and laboratory fields. DTI attempts to analyze the magnitude and orientation of random microscopic motion of water molecules in brain tissue. It is based upon the phenomenon of water diffusion known as Brownian motion. This technique pro- vides details on tissue microstructure and organization well beyond the usual image resolution. With diffusion tensor MR imaging, diffusion anisotropy can be quantified and subtle white matter changes not normally seen on conventional MRI can be detected. These features have encouraged scientists to evaluate the integrity and direction of the fiber tracts in various pathological conditions using DTI. Tissue maladies studied by DTI in this review include cerebral ischemia and wallerian degeneration, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, metabolic disorders, infections and brain tumors. We have only included the common clinical conditions to keep this review precise.

  10. Theoretical aspects of implementation of kilovoltage cone-beam CT onboard linear accelerator for image-guided radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cordón, Marta; Ferrer Albiach, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) equipment is to reduce and correct inherent errors in external radiotherapy processes. At the present time, there are different IGRT systems available, but here we will refer exclusively to the kilovoltage cone-beam CT onboard linear accelerator (CBkVCT) and the different aspects that, from a clinical point of view, should be taken into consideration before the implementation of this equipment.

  11. PATHOLOGIC AND IMPENDING FRACTURES: BIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL ASPECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, M S; Campi, S; Sacchetti, F M; Rossi, B; Di Martino, A; Giannini, S; Piccioli, A

    2015-01-01

    Bone metastases from carcinomas are epidemiologically rising because of the increased survival rate of oncologic patients, related to several factors such as improvement of primary and secondary screening, advancement of medical research and technology and the better understanding of mechanisms underlying bone metastases origination from primary tumor. Skeletal Related Events (SREs) can seriously affect quality of life in patients with metastatic disease. These events include the necessity of radiotherapy or bone surgery, malignant hypercalcemia, pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression. Among the SREs, pathologic fractures are the most disabling events and represent an emergency in these delicate patients. A pathologic fracture is defined as a fracture that occurs at the level of a pre-existing bone lesion (that is often a tumor), spontaneously or as the result of low-energy trauma (1). The pre-existence of the metastatic lesion in the bone, its evaluation and the assessment of progression can make these complications predictable and preventable. Pathologic fractures imply several severe consequences, including patient immobilization (in the case of fractures involving the lower limbs), loss of autonomy, anaemia, need of blood transfusion, discontinuation of medical therapies or radiotherapy and protracted hospitalization. Secondary effects of prolonged immobilization and loss of autonomy further lengthen this list of complications in patients who are already significantly limited in their activities. In the present paper, the authors present a review on the main aspects involved in bone metastastic disease: biology, quality of life, economic impact and survival. PMID:26652492

  12. Review: Clinical aspects of hereditary DNA Mismatch repair gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijmons, Rolf H; Hofstra, Robert M W

    2016-02-01

    Inherited mutations of the DNA Mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 can result in two hereditary tumor syndromes: the adult-onset autosomal dominant Lynch syndrome, previously referred to as Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC) and the childhood-onset autosomal recessive Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome. Both conditions are important to recognize clinically as their identification has direct consequences for clinical management and allows targeted preventive actions in mutation carriers. Lynch syndrome is one of the more common adult-onset hereditary tumor syndromes, with thousands of patients reported to date. Its tumor spectrum is well established and includes colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer and a range of other cancer types. However, surveillance for cancers other than colorectal cancer is still of uncertain value. Prophylactic surgery, especially for the uterus and its adnexa is an option in female mutation carriers. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer with aspirin is actively being investigated in this syndrome and shows promising results. In contrast, the Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency syndrome is rare, features a wide spectrum of childhood onset cancers, many of which are brain tumors with high mortality rates. Future studies are very much needed to improve the care for patients with this severe disorder. PMID:26746812

  13. Psychological aspects of prostate cancer: a clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, A; Sonavane, S; Mehta, J

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in men. It is fraught with both physical and psychological symptomatology. Depression, anxiety, stress, fatigue, pain and psychosocial factors all affect the patient with prostate cancer. Impotence, erectile dysfunction, sexual issues and incontinence in these patients complicate matters further. Anxiety may exist both before testing and while awaiting test results. Confusion over choosing from various interventions often adds to anxiety and depression in these patients. Various demographic factors and the developmental stage of the couple affect these psychological symptoms. The caregiver may undergo significant psychological turmoil while caring for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer, which is addressed. The role of nurses in the management of prostate cancer is discussed. The present review looks at psychological issues in patients with prostate cancer from a clinical perspective, with the aim of highlighting these issues for the clinical urologist dealing with these patients. It also explores the consultation-liaison relationship between psychiatrists, psychologists and urologists as a team for the multimodal management of prostate cancer. PMID:22212706

  14. Achalasia in central Israel, 1973-83: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arber, N; Grossman, A; Tiomny, E; Rattan, J; Kadish, U; Novis, B; Neuman, G; Lilos, P; Rozen, P; Gilat, T

    1994-12-01

    In the framework of an epidemiologic study we collected data on all the 162 patients with achalasia in central Israel. The mean (+/- SD) follow-up was 9.9 +/- 8.7 years (range 1-52). At the last, as compared to the initial examination, the clinical condition of the patients had improved: 38% were without dysphagia as compared to 0% initially, 67% did not vomit and 92% did not complain of aspiration as compared to 17% and 68% initially, and 67% did not complain of chest pain as against 36% initially. In contrast, X-ray examinations, endoscopy as well as manometry did not show major changes. Esophageal retention of a semisolid radiolabeled meal 10 min after ingestion was 46 +/- 25% initially and 34 +/- 26% at last examination (NS). Medical therapy was given to 99 patients and a beneficial response was initially noted in 65% of them. About 88.7% had a beneficial response to surgery and 82.7% to pneumatic dilatations which were associated with a 7.3% perforation rate. Overall the clinical course of this unselected, regional group of patients was better than expected.

  15. Clinical, radiographic and scintigraphic aspects of the trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis occurs mainly in women during the menopausal period. It is related to manual activities and is usually bilateral. The onset is insidious and the evolution is slow and progressive. It is characterized by of strength and pain in the basis of the thumb resulting in limitation of the use and function of the hand. The diagnosis of this condition is based on the physical examination. The manouver of compression axial-rotation of the trapezimetacarpal joint is a common positive finding. Typical findings of osteoarthritis are present in the radiological studies. Scintigraphic images have a predictive value. The early diagnosis is important to avoid the risk factors and to prevent disabilities of the hand. (author)

  16. [Familial Mediterranean fever--from gene test to clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeck, H

    2000-10-26

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a genetically defined disease affecting mostly families of jewish, turkish or armenian origin whose ancestors originate from the mediterranean basin. The first officially acknowledged description was given by SIEGAL in 1945 but previous cases were reported since 1908. The main clinical signs which are very varying in intensity and appearance are periodic attacks of fever with peritonitis, pleurisy and arthritis. The classical but not always found complication is amyloidosis with renal failure which is preventable by lifelong colchicine therapy. By using a novel genetest it is now possible to definitely diagnose FMF instead of relying on a diagnosis made merely by exclusion. This will emphasize the use of colchicine and should bring us nearer to the pathophysiology of this interesting disease. PMID:11103618

  17. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  18. [Clinical-epidemiological aspects of gastric and duodenum ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larichev, A B; Maĭorov, M I; Favstov, S V; Shalop'ev, A G

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of reporting and statistical data showed the considerable changes in clinical-epidemiological indices of gastric and duodenum ulcer at the period from 1998 to 2012. The prevalence of the disease and the number of primary patients decreased in 2-3 times. The reduction of the rate of perforations and ulcerous bleeding had been observed. However, the authors noted, that a tendency of frequency of occurrence increased and efficacy indices reduced in the last years. The rate of postoperative lethality raised in the cases of perforated ulcer. On this basis, the authors recommend to reconsider the existing opinion about further extension of out-patient treatment of patients with given pathology.

  19. Newer endovascular tools: a review of experimental and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Thomas; Brinjikji, Waleed; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The history of treatment of intracranial aneurysms dates back to the late 18th century. These early physicians largely based their crude techniques around "wire insertion alone, galvanopuncture (electrothrombosis), and fili-galvanopuncture (wire insertion together with electrothrombosis)," albeit with overwhelmingly unfavorable outcomes. By the end of the 20th century, treatment options progressed to include two highly effective, and safe, procedures: surgical clipping and endovascular coiling. These methods have been found to be effective treatments for a large portion of aneurysms, but there still exists a subset of patients that do not respond well to these therapies. While much progress has been made in stent-assisted coiling including the development of newer stents aimed at keep the coil ball from protruding into the parent vessel, the introduction of flow diverters has characterized a new phase in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. This treatment paradigm is rapidly becoming the treatment of choice for large and complex aneurysms internal carotid artery. Intrasaccular flow diverters such as the Woven EndoBridge device (WEB) and Luna device are showing promise in the treatment of wide neck bifurcation aneurysms. Other newer devices including the pCONus Bifurcating Aneurysm Implant and Endovascular Clip Systems (eCLIPs) are showing promise in small clinical and preclinical studies. As technology improves, newer devices with ingenious designs are constantly being introduced into the clinical arena. Most of these devices try to address the limitations of traditional endovascular methods in regard to providing a safe and effective treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms. Several large prospective studies are underway and once completed, the role of these newer devices will be better defined. It is easy to anticipate that with advances in 3D techniques and printing, a future in which customized devices are designed based on the individual

  20. Algorithmic aspects of converting surface mesh data to volumetric images

    OpenAIRE

    Plougonven, Erwan; Léonard, Angélique

    2015-01-01

    In image analysis, some processes might imply a change or conversion in the structure of the data. The structure types will depend on the processing method and applications, and can consist of pixel data, point sets, finite elements, vector fields, implicit surfaces, graphs, basic shapes (spheres, cylinders, or cubes), etc. The work presented here discusses the problem of converting a triangulated surface mesh to a 3D image, a need that arises for example when using active surface-type segmen...

  1. Intracranial Infections: Clinical and Imaging Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiologist plays a crucial role in identifying and narrowing the differential diagnosis of intracranial infections. A thorough understanding of the intracranial compartment anatomy and characteristic imaging findings of specific pathogens, as well incorporation of the clinical information, is essential to establish correct diagnosis. Specific types of infections have certain propensities for different anatomical regions within the brain. In addition, the imaging findings must be placed in the context of the clinical setting, particularly in immunocompromised and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. This paper describes and depicts infections within the different compartments of the brain. Pathology-proven infectious cases are presented in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients, with a discussion of the characteristic findings of each pathogen. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characteristics for several infections are also discussed

  2. Clinical application of several tumor imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Neoplasms is one of the main diseases for harming health.It is difficult to prevent the neoplasms because the factors of bringing out them are complex.To raise survival rate the early diagnosis of tumors is very important.Radionuclide imaging is useful to detect recurrent or residual diseaseand to identificate benign or malignant tumor.Several tumorimaging agents as following have clinical significance indiagnosing tumors.

  3. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala, E-mail: fabio_torri@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Urologica; Campos, Rodrigo Sousa Madeira [Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Urologia; Gil, Antonio Otero [Instituto Dante Pazanezzi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  4. Metanephric Adenoma: clinical, imaging, and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metanephric adenoma (MA), also designated nephrogenic nephroma or renal epithelial tumor resembling immature nephron, has just been recently recognized as a special type of benign renal epithelial tumor. Only few reports are found in the literature regarding this rare renal tumor. The purpose of this paper is to describe our clinical, imaging and histological / immunohistochemical observations of MA diagnosed in two patients and compare these data to previous information reported in medical databases (author)

  5. Spinal cord ischemia: aetiology, clinical syndromes and imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidauer, Stefan [Frankfurt Univ., Sankt Katharinen Hospital Teaching Hospital, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Hattingen, Elke; Berkefeld, Joachim [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology; Nichtweiss, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse MR imaging features and lesion patterns as defined by compromised vascular territories, correlating them to different clinical syndromes and aetiological aspects. In a 19.8-year period, clinical records and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of 55 consecutive patients suffering from spinal cord ischemia were evaluated. Aetiologies of infarcts were arteriosclerosis of the aorta and vertebral arteries (23.6 %), aortic surgery or interventional aneurysm repair (11 %) and aortic and vertebral artery dissection (11 %), and in 23.6 %, aetiology remained unclear. Infarcts occurred in 38.2 % at the cervical and thoracic level, respectively, and 49 % of patients suffered from centromedullar syndrome caused by anterior spinal artery ischemia. MRI disclosed hyperintense pencil-like lesion pattern on T2WI in 98.2 %, cord swelling in 40 %, enhancement on post-contrast T1WI in 42.9 % and always hyperintense signal on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) when acquired. The most common clinical feature in spinal cord ischemia is a centromedullar syndrome, and in contrast to anterior spinal artery ischemia, infarcts in the posterior spinal artery territory are rare. The exclusively cervical location of the spinal sulcal artery syndrome seems to be a likely consequence of anterior spinal artery duplication which is observed preferentially here. (orig.)

  6. Brain-Mind Operational Architectonics Imaging: Technical and Methodological Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper deals with methodological and technical foundations of the Operational Architectonics framework of brain and mind functioning. This theory provides a framework for mapping and understanding important aspects of the brain mechanisms that constitute perception, cognition, and eventually consciousness. The methods utilized within Operational Architectonics framework allow analyzing with an incredible detail the operational behavior of local neuronal assemblies and their joint a...

  7. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  9. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, Christopher J. [St James' s University Hospital, Department of Community Paediatrics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bilo, Robert A.C. [Netherlands Forensic Institute, Department of Forensic Pathology, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-05-15

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  10. Nonaccidental trauma: clinical aspects and epidemiology of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiologists play a key role in the recognition of child abuse. In the last century, radiologists pioneered the identification of nonaccidental injuries, including fractures and brain injury, and together with colleagues in paediatrics advocated the protection of children from abuse. Prevalence studies in many countries have revealed the widespread and hidden nature of child maltreatment. New and complex forms of abuse, e.g. fabricated or induced illness, have been recognized. Physical abuse affects 7-9% of children in the UK, although fewer suffer the severe or life-threatening injuries seen by radiologists. A high index of suspicion of nonaccidental trauma is required where known patterns of injury or inconsistencies of presentation and history are detected. In many cases the diagnosis is readily made, although some cases remain contentious or controversial and consume much clinical time and energy. Differences of view between doctors are tested in the courts. Adverse publicity has made this work unpopular in the UK. Knowledge of the differential diagnosis of unexplained or apparent injury is essential for accurate diagnosis, vital where errors in either direction can be disastrous. New UK radiological guidelines will assist radiologists in achieving best evidence-based practice. (orig.)

  11. [Syphilis. Part 1: Introduction, pathology and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Flaig, B; Rode, S

    2013-10-01

    In Germany more than 3,500 people become infected with syphilis annually. As elsewhere in Western Europe there is a low level endemicity with a concentration among population subgroups with high rates of partner exchange, such as men who have sex with other men. In Germany after initially reduced numbers of cases, the incidence rate has increased after the turn of the millennium. In 2011 the incidence reached 4.5 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, which is the highest incidence since the introduction of the Infection Protection Act of 2001. Syphilis, like other sexually transmitted infections and diseases with its manifold clinical manifestations and complex diagnostics, is a large global problem for public health systems. The recent resurgence of syphilis presents a challenge for all physicians but particularly for dermatologists and venereologists because the skin and adjacent mucous membranes are initially affected. Rapid diagnosis, differential diagnosis, consequent treatment and monitoring can cure the disease. Prevention of misdiagnosis is essential otherwise severe, sometimes fatal cardiovascular complications, neurosyphilis and transfer to unborn and newborn children can occur. The synergy of syphilis and sexually transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of special importance. Syphilis together with genital herpes and other sexually transmitted genital and oral ulcers is an important pacemaker for HIV. PMID:24150827

  12. Endodontic retreatment. Aspects of decision making and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, T

    2001-01-01

    regardless of assessment method. Compared with Standard gamble Visual Analogue Scale systematically produced lower ratings. U-values were found to change considerably in both the short and long-term. Any significant correlation between endodontists' U-values and retreatment prescriptions could not be demonstrated. Surgical and nonsurgical retreatment were randomly assigned to 95 "failed" root filled teeth in 92 patients. Cases were followed clinically and radiographically for four years postoperatively. At the 12-month recall a statistically significant higher healing rate was observed for teeth retreated surgically. At the final 48-month recall no systematic difference was detected. Patients were found to be more subject to postoperative discomfort when teeth were retreated surgically compared with nonsurgically. Consequently, surgical retreatment tended to be associated with higher indirect costs than a nonsurgically approach. In the final part of the thesis it is argued that retreatment decision making in everyday clinical practice normally should be based on simple principles. It is suggested that in order to achieve the best overall consequence a periapical lesion in a root filled tooth that is not expected to heal should be retreated. Arguments to withhold retreatment should be based on (i) respect for patient autonomy, (ii) retreatment risks or (iii) retreatment costs. PMID:11288682

  13. Clinical biophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anbar, M.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.

    1985-01-01

    Chapters are included on clinical decision making, principles of biomedical engineering, computers and their medical uses, clinical radiobiology, diagnostic x-ray radiology, clinical applications of ultrasonics, nuclear medicine, NMR imaging, diagnostic imaging, bioelectric techniques in diagnosis and therapy, biophysical aspects of the clinical laboratory, and biophysical aspects of modern surgery.

  14. Clinical imaging of multidrug resistance in cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Vecchi, S.; Ciarmiello, A.; Salvatore, M. [Naples Univ. Federico 2. (Italy). Medicina Nucleare. Dipt. di Scienze Biomorfologiche e Funzionali

    1999-06-01

    The most well-characterized mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) involves P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane protein acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The recognition of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi and other lipophilic cations as transport substrates for Pgp provided the necessary tool for the clinical assessment of Pgp function in patients with cancer. Many clinical studies from different institutions and trials including variety of malignancies indicate that both tumor uptake and clearance of {sup 9}9mTc-Sestamibi are correlate with Pgp expression and may be used for the phenotypic assessment of multidrug resistance. Although both parameters may predict tumor responsible to chemotherapy, the extraction of efflux rate constants appeared o provide a more direct index of Pgp function as compared tp tracer uptake ratio allowing to trace a continuous spectrum of drug transport activity. Preliminary studies the use of MDR imaging agents to monitor the modulating ability of revertant compounds. Although the results support the feasibility of this approach, the alteration of tracer pharmacokinetics induced by the modulators certainly constitute a challenge in the development of a simple functional test suitable in clinical practice. The extension of the acquired imaging methodology to tumors with redundant intrinsic resistant mechanism. Due to multifactorial nature of phenomenon, the development of new tracers with substrate specificity for other known the complex array of cellular mechanisms contributing to treatment failure.

  15. 2011 New lung adenocarcinoma multidisciplinary classification: imaging aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new classification of lung adenocarcinoma has been proposed by International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society in 2011. This new classification proposes a series of new concepts, such as lung adenocarcinoma in situ replacing the old term bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma and subtypes of invasive adenocarcinoma. This paper reviews the major advances of this new classification and its effect on imaging evaluation of lung adenocarcinoma and CT appearances of various subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. (authors)

  16. Complementary aspects of diffusion imaging and fMRI; I: structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkern, Robert V; Davis, Peter E; Haker, Steven J; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Panych, Lawrence P; Maier, Stephan E; Rivkin, Michael J

    2006-05-01

    Studying the intersection of brain structure and function is an important aspect of modern neuroscience. The development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the last 25 years has provided new and powerful tools for the study of brain structure and function. Two tools in particular, diffusion imaging and functional MRI (fMRI), are playing increasingly important roles in elucidating the complementary aspects of brain structure and function. In this work, we review basic technical features of diffusion imaging and fMRI for studying the integrity of white matter structural components and for determining the location and extent of cortical activation in gray matter, respectively. We then review a growing body of literature in which the complementary aspects of diffusion imaging and fMRI, applied as separate examinations but analyzed in tandem, have been exploited to enhance our knowledge of brain structure and function. PMID:16677953

  17. Aerial imaging for FABs: productivity and yield aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englard, Ilan; Cohen, Yaron; Elblinger, Yair; Attal, Shay; Berns, Neil; Shoval, Lior; Ben-Yishai, Michael; Mangan, Shmoolik

    2009-03-01

    The economy of wafer fabs is changing faster for 3x geometry requirements and below. Mask set and exposure tool costs are almost certain to increase the overall cost per die requiring manufacturers to develop productivity and yield improvements to defray the lithography cell economic burden. Lithography cell cost effectiveness can be significantly improved by increasing mask availability while reducing the amount of mask sets needed during a product life cycle. Further efficiency can be gained from reducing send-ahead wafers and qualification cycle time, and elimination of inefficient metrology. Yield is the overriding die cost modulator and is significantly more sensitive to lithography as a result of masking steps required to fabricate the integrated circuit. Thus, for productivity to increase with minimal yield risk, the sample space of reticle induced source of variations should be large, with shortest measurement acquisition time possible. This paper presents the latest introduction of mask aerial imaging technology for the fab, Aera2TM for Lithography with IntenCTM, as an enabler for efficient lithography manufacturing. IntenCD is a high throughput, high density mask-based critical dimension (CD) mapping technology, with the potential for increasing productivity and yield in a wafer production environment. Connecting IntenCD to a feed forward advance process control (APC) reduces significantly the amount of traditional CD metrology required for robust wafer CD uniformity (CDU) correction and increases wafer CD uniformity. This in turn improves the lithography process window and yield and contributes to cost reduction and cycle time reduction of new reticles qualification. Advanced mask technology has introduced a new challenge. Exposure to 193nm wavelength stimulates haze growth on the mask and imposes a regular cleaning schedule. Cleaning eventually causes mask degradation. Haze growth impacts mask CD uniformity and induce global transmission fingerprint

  18. Photogrammetric and image processing aspects in quantitative flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacek, Matthias; Rosgen, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    The development of a measurement system for the visualization, topological classification, and quantitative analysis of complex flows in large-scale wind tunnel experiments is described. A new approach was sought in which the topological features of the flow (e.g., stream lines, separation and reattachment regions, stagnation points, and vortex lines) were extracted directly and preferably visualized in real-time in a virtual wind tunnel environment. The system was based on a stereo arrangement of two CCD cameras. A frame rate of 120 fps allowed measurements at high flow velocities. The paper focuses on the problem of fast and accurate reconstruction of path lines of helium filled soap bubbles in three dimensions (3D). A series of simple algorithmic steps was employed to ensure fast data processing. These included fast image segmentation, a spline approximation of the path lines, a camera model, point correspondence building, calculation of path line points in 3D and creation of a three-dimensional spline representation. The path lines, which contained both velocity and topological information, were analyzed to extract the relevant information. PMID:12495995

  19. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Bo-ram; Choi, Da-Hye; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Choi, Soon-Chul; Bae, Kwang-Hak; Lee, Sam-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Materials and Methods Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the p...

  20. Clinical Aspects of Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis: PARA-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. de Man (Yael)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn this PhD thesis, embedded in the PARA (Pregnancy-induced Amelioration of Rheumatoid Arthritis) study, several clinical aspects of the spontaneously occurring pregnancy-induced improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are addressed. An overview is given of inflammatory rheumatic disea

  1. The Clinical Aspects of Mirror Therapy in Rehabilitation: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothgangel, Andreas Stefan; Braun, Susy M.; Beurskens, Anna J.; Seitz, Rudiger J.; Wade, Derick T.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of mirror therapy (MT) interventions after stroke, phantom limb pain and complex regional pain syndrome. A systematic literature search of the Cochrane Database of controlled trials, PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PEDro, RehabTrials and Rehadat, was made by two…

  2. Tendons in the plantar aspect of the foot: MR imaging and anatomic correlation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Rodrigo [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Fleury Medical Center, Radiology, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aguiar, Rodrigo; Trudell, Debra; Resnick, Donald [University of California San Diego, Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this anatomic imaging study was to illustrate the normal complex anatomy of tendons of the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic correlation in cadavers. Seven fresh cadaveric feet (obtained and used according to institutional guidelines, with informed consent from relatives of the deceased) were studied with intermediate-weighted fast-spin-echo MR imaging. For anatomic analysis, cadaveric specimens were sectioned in 3-mm-thick slices in the coronal and axial planes that approximated the sections acquired at MR imaging. The entire courses of the tendons into the plantar aspect of the foot were analyzed. The tibialis posterior tendon has a complex distal insertion. The insertions in the navicular, second, and third cuneiforms bones were identify in all cases using axial and coronal planes. A tendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons was identified in five of our specimens (71%). The coronal plane provided the best evaluation. The peroneus longus tendon changes its direction at three points then obliquely crosses the sole and inserts in the base of the first metatarsal bone and the plantar aspect of the first cuneiform. MR imaging provides detailed information about the anatomy of tendons in the plantar aspect of the ankle and foot. It allows analysis of their insertions and the intertendinous connection between the flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus tendons. (orig.)

  3. Physics aspects of prostate tomotherapy: Planning optimization and image-guidance issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorino, Claudio; Alongi, Filippo; Broggi, Sara (Medical Physics, S. Raffaele Inst., Milano (Italy)) (and others)

    2008-08-15

    Purpose. To review planning and image-guidance aspects of more than 3 years experience in the treatment of prostate cancer with Helical Tomotherapy (HT). Methods and materials. Planning issues concerning two Phase I-II clinical studies were addressed: in the first one, 58 Gy in 20 fractions were delivered to the prostatic bed for post-prostatectomy patients: in the second one, a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach was applied for radical treatment, delivering 71.4-74.2 Gy to the prostate in 28 fractions. On-line daily MVCT image guidance was applied: bone match was used for post-operative patients while prostate match was applied for radically treated patients. MVCT data of a large sample of both categories of patients were reviewed. Results. At now, more than 250 patients were treated. Planning data show the ability of HT in creating highly homogeneous dose distributions within PTVs. Organs at risk (OAR) sparing also showed to be excellent. HT was also found to favorably compare to inversely-optimized IMAT in terms of PTVs coverage and dose distribution homogeneity. In the case of pelvic nodes irradiation, a large sparing of bowel was evident compared to 3DCRT and conventional 5-fields IMRT. The analysis of MVCT data showed a limited motion of the prostate (about 5% of the fractions show a deviation =3 mm in posterior-anterior direction), due to the careful application of rectal emptying procedures. Based on phantom measurements and on the comparison with intra-prostatic calcification-based match, direct visualization prostate match seems to be sufficiently reliable in assessing shifts =3 mm. Conclusions. HT offers excellent planning solutions for prostate cancer, showing to be highly efficient in a SIB scenario. Daily MVCT information showed evidence of a limited motion of the prostate in the context of rectal filling control obtained by instructing patients in self-administrating a rectal enema

  4. Design and implementation of a radiotherapy programme: Clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely acknowledged that the clinical aspects (diagnosis, decision, indication for treatment, follow-up) as well as the procedures related to the physical and technical aspects of patient treatment must be subjected to careful control and planning in order to ensure safe, high quality radiotherapy. Whilst it has long been recognized that the physical aspects of quality assurance in radiotherapy are vital to achieve and effective and safe treatment, it has been increasingly acknowledged only recently that a systematic approach is absolutely necessary to all steps within clinical and technical aspects of a radiotherapy programme as well. The need to establish general guidelines at the IAEA, taking into account clinical medical physics, radiation protection and safety considerations, for designing and implementing radiotherapy programmes in Member States has been identified through the Member States' increased interest in the efficient and safe application of radiation in health care. Several consultants and advisory group meetings were convened to prepare a report providing a basis for establishing a programme in radiotherapy. The present TECDOC is addressed to all professionals and administrators involved in the development, implementation and management of a radiotherapy programme in order to establish a common and consistent framework where all steps and procedures in radiotherapy are taken into account

  5. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ1-regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  6. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzheng Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ 1 -regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance.

  7. Aspect-Aided Dynamic Non-Negative Sparse Representation-Based Microwave Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinzheng; Yang, Qiuyue; Liu, Miaomiao; Jia, Yunjian; Liu, Shujun; Li, Guojun

    2016-01-01

    Classification of target microwave images is an important application in much areas such as security, surveillance, etc. With respect to the task of microwave image classification, a recognition algorithm based on aspect-aided dynamic non-negative least square (ADNNLS) sparse representation is proposed. Firstly, an aspect sector is determined, the center of which is the estimated aspect angle of the testing sample. The training samples in the aspect sector are divided into active atoms and inactive atoms by smooth self-representative learning. Secondly, for each testing sample, the corresponding active atoms are selected dynamically, thereby establishing dynamic dictionary. Thirdly, the testing sample is represented with ℓ 1 -regularized non-negative sparse representation under the corresponding dynamic dictionary. Finally, the class label of the testing sample is identified by use of the minimum reconstruction error. Verification of the proposed algorithm was conducted using the Moving and Stationary Target Acquisition and Recognition (MSTAR) database which was acquired by synthetic aperture radar. Experiment results validated that the proposed approach was able to capture the local aspect characteristics of microwave images effectively, thereby improving the classification performance. PMID:27598172

  8. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF APIXABAN USE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: VIEW POINT OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apixaban is a "new" oral anticoagulant, direct Xa factor inhibitor with a good evidence base of the efficacy in the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The article is devoted to apixaban use in clinical practice: examination before apixaban administration, clinical situation when laboratory control and monitoring are needed, drugs interactions (at the level of CYP3A4, P-gp, management of patients with bleeding because of apixaban therapy (including antidotes application, perioperative management of patients receiving apixaban.

  9. Target acquisition performance : Effects of target aspect angle, dynamic imaging and signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, J.A.; Bijl, P.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.

    2008-01-01

    In an extensive Target Acquisition (TA) performance study, we recorded static and dynamic imagery of a set of military and civilian two-handheld objects at a range of distances and aspect angles with an under-sampled uncooled thermal imager. Next, we applied signal processing techniques including DS

  10. Method for 3D Object Reconstruction Using Several Portion of 2D Images from the Different Aspects Acquired with Image Scopes Included in the Fiber Retractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Method for 3D object reconstruction using several portions of 2D images from the different aspects which are acquired with image scopes included in the fiber retractor is proposed. Experimental results show a great possibilityfor reconstruction of acceptable quality of 3D object on the computer with several imageswhich are viewed from the different aspects of 2D images.

  11. PHILOSOPHICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF SOUND AND IMAGE ONTICS IN THE DIGITAL ART CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloviev Alexander V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to philosophical and cultural aspects of sound and image ontics in the digital art context. The current situation of cultural genesis is characterized by the transition from the domination of analog technology to the domination of digital technology, and it is represented in crisis of traditional typology of arts and in revision of sound and visual image ontics as crucial elements of social-cultural reality. Sounds and images constitute the autonomous databases and flows, manifest simulation, seriality and fragmentation as their basic features.

  12. Small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung. High resolution CT analysis and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Eiji; Kuriyama, Keiko; Kido, Shoji [Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases (Japan)] [and others

    1999-01-01

    Since 1986, we have experienced 52 cases of resected small bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs) less than 2 cm in diameter. All cases were compatible with type A or type B, using the histologic classification based on tumor growth patterns reported by Noguchi et al. We retrospectively reviewed their high-resolution CT findings. The characteristics of type A tumors (localized BACs) include well-defined margin, little air-bronchogram, little vascular indentation and marked areas of ground-glass opacities (GGO). Those of type B tumors (localized BACs with foci of collapse of alveolar structure) include ill-defined margin, marked air-bronchogram, marked vascular indentation and fewer areas of GGO than type A. Patients with localized BACs exhibit no significant differences in clinical aspects between type A and type B. The common clinical aspects include no gander dominance, lack of symptoms, few lymph node metastasis and no remote metastasis. (author)

  13. Small bronchioloalveolar carcinoma of the lung. High resolution CT analysis and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1986, we have experienced 52 cases of resected small bronchioloalveolar carcinomas (BACs) less than 2 cm in diameter. All cases were compatible with type A or type B, using the histologic classification based on tumor growth patterns reported by Noguchi et al. We retrospectively reviewed their high-resolution CT findings. The characteristics of type A tumors (localized BACs) include well-defined margin, little air-bronchogram, little vascular indentation and marked areas of ground-glass opacities (GGO). Those of type B tumors (localized BACs with foci of collapse of alveolar structure) include ill-defined margin, marked air-bronchogram, marked vascular indentation and fewer areas of GGO than type A. Patients with localized BACs exhibit no significant differences in clinical aspects between type A and type B. The common clinical aspects include no gander dominance, lack of symptoms, few lymph node metastasis and no remote metastasis. (author)

  14. Perinatal clinical and imaging features of CLOVES syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Pineda, Israel [Virgen del Rocio Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Seville (Spain); Fajardo, Manuel [Virgen del Rocio Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Seville (Spain); Chaudry, Gulraiz; Alomari, Ahmad I. [Children' s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    We report a neonate with antenatal imaging features suggestive of CLOVES syndrome. Postnatal clinical and imaging findings confirmed the diagnosis, with the constellation of truncal overgrowth, cutaneous capillary malformation, lymphatic and musculoskeletal anomalies. The clinical, radiological and histopathological findings noted in this particular phenotype help differentiate it from other overgrowth syndromes with complex vascular anomalies. (orig.)

  15. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W.M. Faber (Frank)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radi

  16. Photoacoustic Imaging in Oncology: Translational Preclinical and Early Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluru, Keerthi S; Wilson, Katheryne E; Willmann, Jürgen K

    2016-08-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has evolved into a clinically translatable platform with the potential to complement existing imaging techniques for the management of cancer, including detection, characterization, prognosis, and treatment monitoring. In photoacoustic imaging, tissue is optically excited to produce ultrasonographic images that represent a spatial map of optical absorption of endogenous constituents such as hemoglobin, fat, melanin, and water or exogenous contrast agents such as dyes and nanoparticles. It can therefore provide functional and molecular information that allows noninvasive soft-tissue characterization. Photoacoustic imaging has matured over the years and is currently being translated into the clinic with various clinical studies underway. In this review, the current state of photoacoustic imaging is presented, including techniques and instrumentation, followed by a discussion of potential clinical applications of this technique for the detection and management of cancer. (©) RSNA, 2016. PMID:27429141

  17. Clinical, psychophysiological and psychological aspects of risk factors of periodontal disease development in clinically healthy persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Nikulina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to determine risk factors of periodontal disease development, psychophysiological personal types and their interrelations in clinically healthy persons. 47 first-year cadets of St.-Petersburg Military School of radio electronics have been examined. This group of respondents has been chosen by presence of such social stressor as change of place of living (97,9% cadets have arrived in St.-Petersburg from other cities and republics of the Russian Federation and strict disciplinary conditions. The research has revealed a low level of oral hygiene, cases of mild gingivitis in most respondents. The general mental state of group under study is characterized by raised level of personal anxiety and low indices of reactive anxiety. The examined group has demonstrated anxiety, tension, indecision and lowered stress stability. Clinically healthy persons are more liable to develop inflammatory and inflammatory-destructive periodontal diseases. It was possible to determine psychophysiological features correlated with physiological parameters of risk degree of periodontal diseases. It may have a great significance in defining of periodontal disease etiology and pathogenesis

  18. Clinical applications of choroidal imaging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chhablani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroid supplies the major blood supply to the eye, especially the outer retinal structures. Its understanding has significantly improved with the advent of advanced imaging modalities such as enhanced depth imaging technique and the newer swept source optical coherence tomography. Recent literature reports the findings of choroidal changes, quantitative as well as qualitative, in various chorioretinal disorders. This review article describes applications of choroidal imaging in the management of common diseases such as age-related macular degeneration, high myopia, central serous chorioretinopathy, chorioretinal inflammatory diseases, and tumors. This article briefly discusses future directions in choroidal imaging including angiography.

  19. Clinical anatomy of the canine brain using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Edmund J; Mackillop, Edward; Robertson, Ian D; Hudson, Lola C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce an magnetic resonsnce (MR) image atlas of clinically relevant brain anatomy and to relate this neuroanatomy to clinical signs. The brain of a large mixed breed dog was imaged in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes using a 1.5 T MR unit and the following pulse sequences: Turbo (fast) spin echo (TSE) T2, T1, and T2- weighted spatial and chemical shift-encoded excitation sequence. Relevant neuroanatomic structures were identified using anatomic texts, sectioned cadaver heads, and previously published atlases. Major subdivisions of the brain were mapped and the neurologic signs of lesions in these divisions were described. TSE T2-weighted images were found to be the most useful for identifying clinically relevant neuroanatomy. Relating clinical signs to morphology as seen on MR will assist veterinarians to better understand clinically relevant neuroanatomy in MR images. PMID:18418990

  20. Vertigo Imaging; Clinical Radiology'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    ;' and anxiety in psychiatry. "n- Clinical differentiating of peripheral and central vestibular lesion should be done by separating harmonic and disharmonic vestibular syndrome. "n- Examination of the patient with vertigo '' laboratory and imaging'' "n•Electronystagmography "n•Video-oculography "n•Audiometry "n•BAEP "n•CT "n•MRI "n - Common cause of vertigo '' all by image '' "nPeripheral: Physiological '' motion sickness'', benign paroxysmal positional vertigo , vestibular neuronitis , labyrinthitis , meniere disease , perilymph fistula. "nCentral: Brain stem TIA/infarct , post. fossa tumors , M.sclerosis, syringobulbia ,Arnold -chiari , temporal lobe epilepsy and basilar migraine. "nOthers: Cardiac , GI , psycogenic , mediacations , anemia and  hypotension , toxin and drugs: "n''aminoglycoside antibiotics,anticonvulsants,salycilates , alcohol , sedatives , antihistamins , antidepressants '' , cervical spondylosis , sensory deprivation ''neuropathy , visual impairment '',anemia , hypoglycemia , orthostatic hypotension and hyperventilation.  

  1. Pulmonary thromboembolic disease – clinical and etiological aspects in internal medicine department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazilu Laura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE represents the third most frequent vascular disease following acute myocardial ischemic disease and stroke. It is a common and potentially lethal disease. Aim: We observed etiological spectrum, clinical aspects and diagnostic tests for patients with PE. Material and methods: Retrospective observational study that included 53 patients diagnosed with PE between 01.01.2009- 31.12.2013. We followed epidemiological aspects, risk factors, clinical manifestations and methods for positive diagnosis. Results: 53 patients which represents 0.66% from the patients admitted in our department (n=8,011, were diagnosed with PE. The main risk factor for PE was malignancy (n=16. Twenty patients with PE presented deep venous thrombosis (DVT and 12 patients arterial thrombosis (AT. Main clinical syndromes of patients with PE were pulmonary infarction (n=32, isolated dyspnea (n=11 and circulatory collapse (n=10. A lot of paraclinical investigation sustained positive diagnosis,mainly by high performance techniques. Four cases were diagnosed postmortem.

  2. Ultrasound Image Quality Assessment: A framework for evaluation of clinical image quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov;

    2010-01-01

    Improvement of ultrasound images should be guided by their diagnostic value. Evaluation of clinical image quality is generally performed subjectively, because objective criteria have not yet been fully developed and accepted for the evaluation of clinical image quality. Based on recommendation 500...... and is applicable for clinical use. The free access to all system parameters enables the ability to capture standardized images as found in the clinic and experimental data from new processing or beamformation methods. The length of the data sequences is only restricted by the memory of the external PC. Data may...

  3. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using clinical ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is a potential hybrid imaging modality which is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, they are not suitable for clinical applications owing to their high cost, large size. Also, their low pulse repetition rate (PRR) of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in real-time PAT. So, there is a growing need for an imaging system capable of real-time imaging for various clinical applications. In this work, we are using a nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to obtain the photoacoustic imaging. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with energy of ~1.4 mJ per pulse. So far, the reported frame rate for photoacoustic imaging is only a few hundred Hertz. We have demonstrated up to 7000 frames per second framerate in photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of fast moving obje ct. Phantom experiments were performed to test the fast imaging capability and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be used for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  4. Differentiation of true anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia using neuroradiological imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali; Riza; Cenk; Celebi; Hadi; Sasani

    2014-01-01

    Anophthalmia is a condition of the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit.It is associated with many known syndromes.Clinical findings,as well as imaging modalities and genetic analysis,are important in making the diagnosis.Imaging modalities are crucial scanning methods.Cryptophthalmos,cyclopia,synophthalmia and congenital cystic eye should be considered in differential diagnoses.We report two clinical anophthalmic siblings,emphasizing the importance of neuroradiological and orbital imaging findings in distinguishing true congenital anophthalmia from clinical anophthalmia.

  5. International Clinical Guidelines for the Adoption of Digital Pathology: A Review of Technical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial

    2016-01-01

    Digital slides, also called whole-slide images, are being evaluated to replace conventional microscopy, and several guidelines have been published. This paper reviews technical specifications of digital pathology systems that have been included in the guidelines and position papers from the Canadian Association of Pathologists, the College of American Pathologists, the American Telemedicine Association, the Digital Pathology Association, the Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, the European Commission, the Spanish Society of Anatomic Pathology, The Royal College of Pathologists and The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. In conclusion, most technical aspects are well covered by these guidelines, although they offer limited information regarding image quality and compression, and file formats.

  6. Clinical Aspects of Patients with Febrile Convulsion: A survey in Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Heydarian F; Hamedi A; Khalesi M; Hoseini Noude S; Rahmani Sh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Febrile seizures (FS) happen in 2-5% of children aged 6 months to 5 years. Several studies have confirmed that between 2 to 7% of children with FS, develop epilepsy later in life. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical aspects of patients with febrile seizure in our region. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study that was performed in the pediatric ward of Ghaem hospital in Mashhad, Iran from Sep. 2004 to March 2005. 68 patients...

  7. Stüve-Wiedemann Syndrome: Update on Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Bertola, Débora; Honjo, Rachel S; Baratela, Wagner A R

    2016-04-01

    Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowed long bones, joint restrictions, dysautonomia, and respiratory and feeding difficulties, leading to death in the neonatal period and infancy in several occasions. Since the first cases in 1971, much has been learned about this condition, including its molecular basis - mutations in the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor gene (LIFR) -, natural history and management possibilities. This review aims to highlight the clinical aspects, radiological features, molecular findings, and management strategies in Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome. PMID:27194968

  8. Cerebral Blood Volume ASPECTS Is the Best Predictor of Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective, Combined Semi-Quantitative and Quantitative Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Padroni

    Full Text Available The capability of CT perfusion (CTP Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS to predict outcome and identify ischemia severity in acute ischemic stroke (AIS patients is still questioned.62 patients with AIS were imaged within 8 hours of symptom onset by non-contrast CT, CT angiography and CTP scans at admission and 24 hours. CTP ASPECTS was calculated on the affected hemisphere using cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV and mean transit time (MTT maps by subtracting 1 point for any abnormalities visually detected or measured within multiple cortical circular regions of interest according to previously established thresholds. MTT-CBV ASPECTS was considered as CTP ASPECTS mismatch. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT, recanalization status and reperfusion grade at 24 hours, final infarct volume at 7 days and modified Rankin scale (mRS at 3 months after onset were recorded.Semi-quantitative and quantitative CTP ASPECTS were highly correlated (p<0.00001. CBF, CBV and MTT ASPECTS were higher in patients with no HT and mRS ≤ 2 and inversely associated with final infarct volume and mRS (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.00001. CTP ASPECTS mismatch was slightly associated with radiological and clinical outcomes (p values: from p<0.05 to p<0.02 only if evaluated quantitatively. A CBV ASPECTS of 9 was the optimal semi-quantitative value for predicting outcome.Our findings suggest that visual inspection of CTP ASPECTS recognizes infarct and ischemic absolute values. Semi-quantitative CBV ASPECTS, but not CTP ASPECTS mismatch, represents a strong prognostic indicator, implying that core extent is the main determinant of outcome, irrespective of penumbra size.

  9. Hallux Valgus and the First Tarsometatarsal Joint: Clinical and Biomechanical Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Frank

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a series of cadaver, experimental, radiographic and clinical studies on the relation between a hallux valgus deformity and mobility of the first tarsometatarsal joint. Hypermobility of stiffnes of the joint was determined by Doppler imaging of vibrations and by radiographic stress measurement. With neither method a sharp distinction between hypermobility and non-hypermobility of the joint could be made. Comparison of the Hohmann surgical procedure with the La...

  10. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  11. The Eurosdr Project "RADIOMETRIC Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric IMAGES" - Results of the Empirical Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkavaara, E.; Arbiol, R.; Markelin, L.; Martínez, L.; Bovet, S.; Bredif, M.; Chandelier, L.; Heikkinen, V.; Korpela, I.; Lelegard, L.; Pérez, F.; Schläpfer, D.; Tokola, T.

    2011-09-01

    This article presents the empirical research carried out in the context of the multi-site EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" and provides highlights of the results. The investigations have considered the vicarious radiometric and spatial resolution validation and calibration of the sensor system, radiometric processing of the image blocks either by performing relative radiometric block equalization or into absolutely reflectance calibrated products, and finally aspects of practical applications on NDVI layer generation and tree species classification. The data sets were provided by Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC and the participants represented stakeholders in National Mapping Authorities, software development and research. The investigations proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance calibration and equalization of photogrammetric image block data provided promising accuracy and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. The reflectance calibration methods provided up to 5% accuracy without any ground reference. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate multi-view photogrammetric imagery.

  12. Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Clinical and epidemiological aspects, and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga Gómez, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the movement of populations and with globalization, some infections and diseases have changed from endemic to epidemic in certain regions. Such is the case of chikungunya virus (CHIKV, a re-emerging arbovirus that has triggered global alarm. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, until January 2015, there had been case reports from 42 countries in the Caribbean, and Central, South, and North America, with more than one million suspected cases and about thirty thousand laboratory-confirmed cases. The latest report in Colombia by Instituto Nacional de Salud refers to a total of 231.392 clinically confirmed cases (suggestive symptoms associated with CHIKV, 1.528 cases confirmed by laboratory, and 3.848 suspected cases, for an overall total of 236.768. In this review, the following aspects of CHIKV infection are included: virology, transmission by vector, pathogenesis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, preventive measures and future prospects.

  13. A review on biological, nutraceutical and clinical aspects of French maritime pine bark extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoona, Alya; Naeem, Ismat; Saddiqe, Zeb; Jameel, Khalid

    2011-01-27

    Bark extract of Pinus pinaster has a long history of ethnomedicinal use and is available commercially as herbal dietary supplement with proprietary name pycnogenol. It is used as a food supplement to overcome many degenerative disorders. Rohdewald (2002) wrote the first comprehensive review of extract highlighting its antioxidative nature and its role in different diseases. Later, Watson (2003) and Gulati (2005) in their reviews about cardiovascular health, described the extract as a best neutraceutical agent in this regard. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on this extract in terms of extraction methods, its pharmacological, toxicological and nutraceutical effects and clinical studies. Web sites of Google Scholar, Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals from 2006 to 2009 and sixty-nine research articles were extracted. Of these, two are about extraction advancement and analysis while the rest relate to its clinical, biological and nutraceutical aspects. PMID:21044675

  14. PET Imaging - from Physics to Clinical Molecular Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stan

    2008-03-01

    From the beginnings many years ago in a few physics laboratories and first applications as a research brain function imager, PET became lately a leading molecular imaging modality used in diagnosis, staging and therapy monitoring of cancer, as well as has increased use in assessment of brain function (early diagnosis of Alzheimer's, etc) and in cardiac function. To assist with anatomic structure map and with absorption correction CT is often used with PET in a duo system. Growing interest in the last 5-10 years in dedicated organ specific PET imagers (breast, prostate, brain, etc) presents again an opportunity to the particle physics instrumentation community to contribute to the important field of medical imaging. In addition to the bulky standard ring structures, compact, economical and high performance mobile imagers are being proposed and build. The latest development in standard PET imaging is introduction of the well known TOF concept enabling clearer tomographic pictures of the patient organs. Development and availability of novel photodetectors such as Silicon PMT immune to magnetic fields offers an exciting opportunity to use PET in conjunction with MRI and fMRI. As before with avalanche photodiodes, particle physics community plays a leading role in developing these devices. The presentation will mostly focus on present and future opportunities for better PET designs based on new technologies and methods: new scintillators, photodetectors, readout, software.

  15. Self-image and eating disorder symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsén Mantilla, Emma; Bergsten, Katja; Birgegård, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders (ED) are psychiatric disorders of multifactorial origin, predominantly appearing in adolescence. Negative self-image is identified as risk factor, but the association between self-image and ED in adolescents or sex differences regarding such associations remains unclear. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between specific self-image aspects and ED symptoms in normal and clinical adolescents, including sex differences. Participants included 855 ED patients (girls=813, boys=42) and 482 normal adolescents (girls=238, boys=244), 13-15 years. Stepwise regression demonstrated strong associations between self-image and ED in normal adolescents (girls: R(2)=.31, boys: R(2)=.08), and stronger associations in patients (girls: R(2)=.64, boys: R(2)=.69). Qualitative sex differences were observed in patients. Connections between specific self-image aspects and ED have implications for clinical management of ED. The strong link between self-image variables and ED symptoms in normal girls, but not boys, is discussed in terms of the continuity-discontinuity hypothesis. PMID:24411765

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinically-definite multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis were examined by magnetic resonance imaging using a 1.5-T instrument. Magnetic resonance imaging detected an abnormality in 90% of patients. In four patients, no lesions were demonstrated. The number, size and site of the lesions by magnetic resonance imaging were compared with the patients' clinical status and other variables. The Kurtzke disability status scale score increased in patients with corpus callosum atrophy, brainstem and basal ganglia lesions, and correlated with the total number of lesions. No correlation was shown between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and disease duration, age, sex or pattern-reversal visual-evoked potentials. The variety of magnetic resonance images that could be obtained in patients with clinically-definite multiple sclerosis is highlighted. 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  17. Implementational Aspects of the Contourlet Filter Bank and Application in Image Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong T. Nguyen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the implementational aspects of the contourlet filter bank (or the pyramidal directional filter bank (PDFB, and considered its application in image coding. First, details of the binary tree-structured directional filter bank (DFB are presented, including a modification to minimize the phase delay factor and necessary steps for handling rectangular images. The PDFB is viewed as an overcomplete filter bank, and the directional filters are expressed in terms of polyphase components of the pyramidal filter bank and the conventional DFB. The aliasing effect of the conventional DFB and the Laplacian pyramid to the directional filters is then considered, and the conditions for reducing this effect are presented. The new filters obtained by redesigning the PDFBs satisfying these requirements have much better frequency responses. A hybrid multiscale filter bank consisting of the PDFB at higher scales and the traditional maximally decimated wavelet filter bank at lower scales is constructed to provide a sparse image representation. A novel embedded image coding system based on the image decomposition and a morphological dilation algorithm is then presented. The coding algorithm efficiently clusters the significant coefficients using progressive morphological operations. Context models for arithmetic coding are designed to exploit the intraband dependency and the correlation existing among the neighboring directional subbands. Experimental results show that the proposed coding algorithm outperforms the current state-of-the-art wavelet-based coders, such as JPEG2000, for images with directional features.

  18. Technical aspects on magnetic resonance imaging of the spine at 1.5 tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical aspects on surface coil magnetic resonance imaging of the spine using a superconducting system with a field strength of 1.5 tesla are described. By using a flat surface coil instead of the body coil the image quality was markedly improved and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) was increased approximately 2.6 times. Small voxels resulted in low S/N. The best image quality was achieved with a slice thickness of 5 mm, a field of view of 20 to 24 cm and a matrix of 256 x 256. Interleaved slices provided superior image quality compared with contiguous slices at the expense of acquisition time. For sagittal images the phase encoding gradient should be in the cranio-caudal direction to minimize motion artifacts. To obtain T1 and T2 images of high quality, spin echo pulse sequences with TR 600/TE 20 ms and TR 2000/TE 40 to 80 ms are useful. (orig.)

  19. Clinical perspectives and fundamental aspects of local cardiovascular and renal renin-angiotensin systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmor eDe Mello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the potential role of organ specific cardiovascular renin-angiotensin systems (RAS has been demonstrated experimentally and clinically with respect to certain cardiovascular and renal diseases. These findings have been supported by studies involving pharmacological inhibition during ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure; hypertension associated with left ventricular (LV ischemia, myocardial fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH; structural and functional changes of the target organs associated with prolonged dietary salt excess; and intrarenal vascular disease associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Moreover, the severe structural and functional changes induced by these pathological conditions, can be prevented and reversed by agents producing RAS inhibition (even when not necessarily coincident with alterations in arterial pressure.In this review, we discuss specific fundamental and clinical aspects and mechanisms related to the activation or inhibition of local renin angiotensin systems and their implications for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Fundamental aspects involving the role of angiotensins on cardiac and renal functions including the expression of RAS components in the heart and kidney and the controversial role of ACE2 on angiotensin peptide metabolism in humans, were discussed.

  20. Liver imaging. Clinical applications and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases affect several millon people each year. The main imaging modalities to detect and assist diagnosis of primary and secondary liver tumours include MR imaging, CT, and US. The value of these techniques is further increased by the use of contrast agents which increase the sensitivity, and sometimes also the specificity, of the investigations. The relative advantages and drawbacks of the different contrast agents and imaging modalities in the detection and characterisation of liver tumours are discussed. Currently there is no consensus amongst investigators as to which is superior, due to the technical complexities and number of combinations possible within each of the different modalities. There continues to be advances in the hardware and software of imaging equipment, as well as a trend to develop new contrast agents with more organ-specificity. These include those targeting the hepatocytes, such as mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP, Teslascan), and those with reticuloendothelial cell specificity, such as the superparamagnetic iron oxides. These developments have the potential for making significant contributions to the diagnostic value of imaging procedures and, by reducing the number of investigations necessary to reach a final diagnosis, having a significant and beneficial impact on the pharmaco-economics of patient health care. (orig.)

  1. Clinical skin imaging using color spatial frequency domain imaging (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Moy, Austin J.; Reichenberg, Jason; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-02-01

    Skin diseases are typically associated with underlying biochemical and structural changes compared with normal tissues, which alter the optical properties of the skin lesions, such as tissue absorption and scattering. Although widely used in dermatology clinics, conventional dermatoscopes don't have the ability to selectively image tissue absorption and scattering, which may limit its diagnostic power. Here we report a novel clinical skin imaging technique called color spatial frequency domain imaging (cSFDI) which enhances contrast by rendering color spatial frequency domain (SFD) image at high spatial frequency. Moreover, by tuning spatial frequency, we can obtain both absorption weighted and scattering weighted images. We developed a handheld imaging system specifically for clinical skin imaging. The flexible configuration of the system allows for better access to skin lesions in hard-to-reach regions. A total of 48 lesions from 31 patients were imaged under 470nm, 530nm and 655nm illumination at a spatial frequency of 0.6mm^(-1). The SFD reflectance images at 470nm, 530nm and 655nm were assigned to blue (B), green (G) and red (R) channels to render a color SFD image. Our results indicated that color SFD images at f=0.6mm-1 revealed properties that were not seen in standard color images. Structural features were enhanced and absorption features were reduced, which helped to identify the sources of the contrast. This imaging technique provides additional insights into skin lesions and may better assist clinical diagnosis.

  2. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (58). Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, G J; Sitoh, Y Y

    2001-02-01

    A 36-year-old Korean man presented with a history of epilepsy. MR imaging of the brain revealed multiple conglomerated round nodules that were hypointense on both T1-and-T2 weighted images. These were located at the left temporal and occipital lobes and had surrounding encephalomalacia. CT scan confirmed the presence of large calcified nodules in the corresponding regions. These imaging findings were typical of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. The clinical, CT and MR features of cerebral paragonimiasis are reviewed.

  3. Preoperative Imaging for Clinical Staging Prior to Radical Cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugen, Cory M; Duddalwar, Vinay; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2016-09-01

    The importance of patient selection for quality outcomes following radical cystectomy is critical. Clinical staging is one of the key elements necessary for patient selection, and staging relies on accurate preoperative imaging. Many imaging modalities are available and have been utilized for preoperative staging with published operating characteristics. In this update, we review recently published literature for advances in preoperative imaging prior to radical cystectomy. PMID:27432379

  4. Evaluation of non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on aspects related to ionizing radiation in imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: to assess the non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on the use of ionizing radiation in imaging. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional study utilizing an anonymous questionnaire responded by physicians in clinical and surgical specialties, divided into two parts as follows: one including questions about the physicians' characteristics, frequency of imaging studies requests and participation in professional updating events, and another part including multiple choice questions approaching general knowledge about radiation, optimization principles and radioprotection. Results: from a total of 309 questionnaires, 120 (38.8%) were responded, 50% by physicians in surgical specialties and 50% in clinical specialties; respectively 45% and 2.5% of physicians responded that magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography use ionizing radiation. Overall, the average grade was higher for surgical specialists with no significant difference, except for the question about exposure in pregnant women (p = 0.047). Physicians who are professionally updated, particularly those attending clinical meetings (p = 0.050) and participating in teaching activities (p = 0.047), showed statistically superior knowledge about ionizing radiation as compared with others. Conclusion: the non-radiologist physicians' is heterogeneous and in some points needs to be improved. Multidisciplinary clinical meetings and teaching activities are important ways to disseminate information on the subject. (author)

  5. Identity and individuality in the nouveau-religious patient: theoretical and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, M H

    1987-02-01

    Revitalized interest in the clinical complexities of psychotherapy with religious patients (for example, Bradford 1984; Lovinger 1984; Spero 1985a; Stern 1985) has drawn attention to the need for perspectives on religious personality development that account for healthy and adaptational aspects as well as psychopathological aspects of particular forms and levels of religious beliefs, enabling more creative, enriching psychotherapy. This search represents movement beyond the significance of infantile wish-fulfillment aspects of religiosity toward the broader domain of ego functioning and quality of object relations. Rizzuto (1976, 1979) and McDargh (1983) emphasize qualitative similarities between interpersonal object representations and God representations. Elkind (1971), using a Piagetian model, views religious beliefs and rituals as forms of constructive adaptation to normal cognitive needs for conservation, representation, symbols of relation, and comprehension. Meissner (1984) highlights the role of God concepts as transitional phenomena. In earlier papers, I have demonstrated the relationship between patients' use of religious themes and legends, quality of psychosexual and object relational achievements, and the consolidation of religious identity (Spero 1982a,b, 1986a,b). Throughout the preceding there is unequivocal recognition that religious development recapitulates many important aspects of healthy psychological development, and that in the case of pathological or dysfunctional religiosity something has gone wrong in an otherwise normal process. There is need to understand and if necessary distinguish between the development of religious belief in individuals whose ideological commitment is relatively constant from earliest childhood and its development in those who adopt or modify religious belief in later life, in conjunction with the many technical implications for psychotherapy. Clinical experience has taught that the process of religious change in

  6. Clinical value of ventilation perfusion imaging for pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and clinical value of ventilation perfusion (VP) imaging in 434 patients is reported. Pulmonary arteriography has been performed independently in 47 of these patients. Pulmonary arteriography provides the only specific test for intraluminal thrombus in pulmonary vessels. It is, however, invasive, time consuming and expensive, and has a significant morbidity and occasional mortality. For these reasons, VP imaging has been widely adopted as a screening test for pulmonary embolism (PE). The non-specific nature of perfusion abnormalities of lung demonstrated by this technique are a drawback, and controversy has been generated concerning the value of VP imaging to clinicians who must make decisions on clinical management. It is found that VP imaging provides valuable information in two-thirds of all patients referred to Nuclear Medicine with a clinical suspicion of PE. Among these patients, VP imaging confirmed the clinical suspicion in one-third, clarified or corrected the clinical diagnosis in one-third, and was non-diagnostic in one-third. It is concluded that VP imaging is a safe, reliable and valuable screening test in a significant number of patients suspected of having PE

  7. Automated spectral imaging for clinical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, John; Heffelfinger, David M.; Pettipiece, Ken; Tsai, Chris; Eden, Peter; Greene, Richard A.; Sorensen, Karen J.; Stubblebine, Will; Witney, Frank

    1998-04-01

    Bio-Rad Laboratories supplies imaging equipment for many applications in the life sciences. As part of our effort to offer more flexibility to the investigator, we are developing a microscope-based imaging spectrometer for the automated detection and analysis of either conventionally or fluorescently labeled samples. Immediate applications will include the use of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology. The field of cytogenetics has benefited greatly from the increased sensitivity of FISH producing simplified analysis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. FISH methods for identification lends itself to automation more easily than the current cytogenetics industry standard of G- banding, however, the methods are complementary. Several technologies have been demonstrated successfully for analyzing the signals from labeled samples, including filter exchanging and interferometry. The detection system lends itself to other fluorescent applications including the display of labeled tissue sections, DNA chips, capillary electrophoresis or any other system using color as an event marker. Enhanced displays of conventionally stained specimens will also be possible.

  8. State of the art in both in vitro and in vivo aspects of small animal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    for practical reasons (with the advent of genomics and combinatorial chemistry, gene knock-out mice, transgene mice and cloned human receptors, drug discovery departments could be rapidly flooded with new active compounds making the selection for further development becoming more and more critical). Until recently, it was felt that PET and SPECT radioisotopic imaging methodologies were too expensive and that their resolution was too poor to be used in small laboratory animals like mice and rats. With the development of high-resolution and relatively low-cost imaging systems dedicated to small animals, that perception is changing. Another anticipated benefit of the use of small animal imaging techniques is that they provide a sophisticated way to work with the many transgenic mouse models of disease that have become more and more important in the drug development process. Using these in vivo imaging systems, it is now possible to repeat the same study on a single mouse allowing, for example, to monitor the response to drugs as a function of time. In a near future these small animal-imaging techniques could be used to monitor gene therapy (using radiolabelled oligonucleotides or therapy genes monitored with the reporter gene/radiolabelled reporter probe system). Animal PET/SPECT systems are unique tools to provide information on the mechanism of action of drugs and as such are more and more used as rapid screening procedures for selecting new drugs and for optimising treatment protocols. The use of small animal imaging systems is particularly valuable in small animal studies with a longitudinal or interventional design. The high-performance, application-specific research PET and SPECT systems, designed for use with small animals, should facilitate quantitative accurate research data to be translated more effectively from pharmacological labs to clinical medicine and clinical trials. PET and SPECT for small-animal imaging provide a bridge between preclinical drug

  9. [Vertical condylar hyperplasia, clinical and histologic aspects. Apropos of 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, R; Martinez, B; Encina, S; Cortes, J; Argandoña, J

    1994-01-01

    Condylar hyperplasia is a pathologic condition associated with an overgrowing of the condylar cartilage. It is possible to distinguish two clinical forms; vertical and horizontal when the lesion is unilateral. We have reported two cases of vertical condylar hyperplasia, both of them treated by simple condylectomy, in our opinion the selected treatment. Histopathological images show an increase of the growth and maturation layers of the condylar cartilage and inclusions of cartilaginous tissue, with appearance of glove fingers into the underlying cancellous bone. PMID:7939358

  10. Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality (SCIWORA) – Clinical and Radiological Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury Without Radiographic Abnormality) was first developed and introduced by Pang and Wilberger who used it to define “clinical symptoms of traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic or computed tomographic features of spinal fracture or instability”. SCIWORA is a clinical-radiological condition that mostly affects children. SCIWORA lesions are found mainly in the cervical spine but can also be seen, although much less frequently, in the thoracic or lumbar spine. Based on reports from different authors, SCIWORA is responsible for 6 to 19% and 9% to 14% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively. Underlying degenerative changes, including spondylosis or spinal canal stenosis, are typically present in adult patients. The level of spinal cord injury corresponds to the location of these changes. With recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially in magnetic resonance imaging, and with increasing availability of MRI as a diagnostic tool, the overall detection rate of SCIWORA has significantly improved

  11. Imaging and Data Acquisition in Clinical Trials for Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Thomas J; Bishop-Jodoin, Maryann; Followill, David S; Galvin, James; Knopp, Michael V; Michalski, Jeff M; Rosen, Mark A; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Shankar, Lalitha K; Laurie, Fran; Cicchetti, M Giulia; Moni, Janaki; Coleman, C Norman; Deye, James A; Capala, Jacek; Vikram, Bhadrasain

    2016-02-01

    Cancer treatment evolves through oncology clinical trials. Cancer trials are multimodal and complex. Assuring high-quality data are available to answer not only study objectives but also questions not anticipated at study initiation is the role of quality assurance. The National Cancer Institute reorganized its cancer clinical trials program in 2014. The National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) was formed and within it was established a Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Organization. This organization is Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core, the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Group, consisting of 6 quality assurance centers that provide imaging and radiation therapy quality assurance for the NCTN. Sophisticated imaging is used for cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management as well as for image-driven technologies to plan and execute radiation treatment. Integration of imaging and radiation oncology data acquisition, review, management, and archive strategies are essential for trial compliance and future research. Lessons learned from previous trials are and provide evidence to support diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy data acquisition in NCTN trials.

  12. CT-guided Bipolar and Multipolar Radiofrequency Ablation (RF Ablation) of Renal Cell Carcinoma: Specific Technical Aspects and Clinical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, C. M., E-mail: christof.sommer@med.uni-heidelberg.de [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lemm, G.; Hohenstein, E. [Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology (Germany); Bellemann, N.; Stampfl, U. [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Goezen, A. S.; Rassweiler, J. [Clinic for Urology, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH (Germany); Kauczor, H. U.; Radeleff, B. A. [University Hospital Heidelberg, INF 110, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Pereira, P. L. [Minimally Invasive Therapies and Nuclear Medicine, SLK Kliniken Heilbronn GmbH, Clinic for Radiology (Germany)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of CT-guided bipolar and multipolar radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and to analyze specific technical aspects between both technologies. Methods. We included 22 consecutive patients (3 women; age 74.2 {+-} 8.6 years) after 28 CT-guided bipolar or multipolar RF ablations of 28 RCCs (diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.8 cm). Procedures were performed with a commercially available RF system (Celon AG Olympus, Berlin, Germany). Technical aspects of RF ablation procedures (ablation mode [bipolar or multipolar], number of applicators and ablation cycles, overall ablation time and deployed energy, and technical success rate) were analyzed. Clinical results (local recurrence-free survival and local tumor control rate, renal function [glomerular filtration rate (GFR)]) and complication rates were evaluated. Results. Bipolar RF ablation was performed in 12 procedures and multipolar RF ablation in 16 procedures (2 applicators in 14 procedures and 3 applicators in 2 procedures). One ablation cycle was performed in 15 procedures and two ablation cycles in 13 procedures. Overall ablation time and deployed energy were 35.0 {+-} 13.6 min and 43.7 {+-} 17.9 kJ. Technical success rate was 100 %. Major and minor complication rates were 4 and 14 %. At an imaging follow-up of 15.2 {+-} 8.8 months, local recurrence-free survival was 14.4 {+-} 8.8 months and local tumor control rate was 93 %. GFR did not deteriorate after RF ablation (50.8 {+-} 16.6 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} before RF ablation vs. 47.2 {+-} 11.9 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} after RF ablation; not significant). Conclusions. CT-guided bipolar and multipolar RF ablation of RCC has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates. At short-term follow-up, clinical efficacy is high without deterioration of the renal function.

  13. Patients' attitudes to medical and psychosocial aspects of care in fertility clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Holstein, B E; Boivin, J;

    2003-01-01

    services for both men and women was high infertility-related stress in the marital, personal and social domain. CONCLUSIONS: A supportive attitude from medical staff and the provision of both medical and psychosocial information and support should be integral aspects of medical care in fertility clinics......BACKGROUND: The aims were (i) to identify gender differences in motivations to seek assisted reproduction and gender differences in expectations about medical and psychosocial services and (ii) to examine factors that predict the perceived importance of, and intention to use, psychosocial services...... information and patient-centred care as important. Fewer respondents (women 10.0-20.8%, men 4.1-8.9%) felt that professional psychosocial services were important and/or had the intention to use these services. The main predictor of perceived importance of patient-centred care and professional psychosocial...

  14. Clinical aspects of acute post-operative pain management & its assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  15. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF ACUTE POST-OPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT & ITS ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.R Murthy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of postoperative pain relieve suffering and leads to earlier mobilization, shortened hospital stay, reduced hospital costs, and increased patient satisfaction. An effective postoperative management is not a standardized regime rather is tailored to the needs of the individual patient, taking into account medical, psychological, and physical condition; age; level of fear or anxiety; surgical procedure; personal preference; and response to therapeutic agents given. The major goal in the management of postoperative pain is to minimize the dose of medications to lessen side effects & provide adequate analgesia. Postoperative pain is still under managed due to obstacles in implementation of Acute Pain Services due to insufficient education, fear of complications associated with available analgesic drugs, poor pain assessment and inadequate staff. This review reflects the clinical aspects of postoperative pain & its assessment & management with an emphasis on research for new analgesic molecules & delivery system.

  16. Review of tick-borne encephalitis and vaccines: clinical and economical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmit, Renata; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) disease is an increasing burden not only locally but also globally. In most endemic countries, vaccination coverage is too low to reduce the TBE burden significantly; however, vaccination is the most effective protection against TBE, with various vaccines currently available. In spite of rising awareness of TBE, little attention is directed toward the health economics of the disease. The purpose of the present review is to compile information on TBE and its explicit clinical and economical aspects. Given the scarcity of studies, the authors conclude that more attention is needed for health economics of TBE. Notably, this would help establish guidance on efficient policies for TBE prevention, reduce disease burden and achieve population health benefits. PMID:25427237

  17. Clinical image: MRI during migraine with aura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeal, A.C. [Brooklyn VA Medical Center, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Migraine refers to severe headaches that are usually unilateral, throbbing, and associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and phonophobia. Migraine with aura (formerly called {open_quotes}classic migraine{close_quotes}) consists of the headache preceded or accompanied by neurological dysfunction. This dysfunction (aura) usually involves visual and sensory symptoms. The patient described herein experienced migraine with aura. MRI during and after the attack showed a reversible abnormality of the right posterior cerebral artery, with no parenchymal lesions. This appears to be the first report of abnormal MR vascular imaging during migraine with aura. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of cardiomyopathies: a critical review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangiorgi, Mario

    2003-02-01

    Five years after the second report of the WHO/ISFC Task Force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies (CM), a critical review of the matter appears well-timed. The need for a correct definition of myocardial diseases is emphasized by considering them the result of a 'direct' injury due to different known and unknown causes and not a consequence of ischemic disease or of pressure and/or volume overload. This is in order to eliminate terms like ischemic CM, valvular CM, and hypertensive CM, which are a source of confusion. The concept of myocardial injury is also reviewed. This should not only include the structural/organic macroscopic injury, but also the subcellular, ultrastructural, and molecular damage (mostly of genetic origin) of the contracting element proteins, of citosol, sarcolemma and cell membrane ion channels. As the myocardium is a complex structure, made of common fibers and of specific conduction tissue, injury may be clinically identified either by ventricular function impairment or by bioelectric function defects, i.e. tachyarrhythmias and/or bradyarrhythmias, which sometimes are the unique manifestation of the disease (arrhythmogenic CM, in the strict sense). On the basis of the morpho-functional alterations, CMs may be classified as dilated CM (which could be better identified as hypokinetic CM, referring to the functional aspect, because the morphologic aspect is not always present), hypertrophic CM, restrictive CM, and arrhythmogenic CM (including not only arrhythmogenic right ventricular CM, but also other forms, like the so-called arrhythmias of the 'apparently' healthy heart, due to 'occult' myocardial injury). Moreover, these forms may present in association, like mixed CM (dilated-arrhythmogenic, dilated-hypertrophic, etc.). From an etiologic point of view, it is advisable to maintain the distinction between specific CM, due to a known cause, and primary or idiopathic CM, including, together with sporadic forms of an

  19. Clinical and molecular aspects of the live attenuated Oka varicella vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Mark; Breuer, Judy

    2014-07-01

    VZV is a ubiquitous member of the Herpesviridae family that causes varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). Both manifestations can cause great morbidity and mortality and are therefore of significant economic burden. The introduction of varicella vaccination as part of childhood immunization programs has resulted in a remarkable decline in varicella incidence, and associated hospitalizations and deaths, particularly in the USA. The vaccine preparation, vOka, is a live attenuated virus produced by serial passage of a wild-type clinical isolate termed pOka in human and guinea pig cell lines. Although vOka is clinically attenuated, it can cause mild varicella, establish latency, and reactivate to cause herpes zoster. Sequence analysis has shown that vOka differs from pOka by at least 42 loci; however, not all genomes possess the novel vOka change at all positions, creating a heterogeneous population of genetically distinct haplotypes. This, together with the extreme cell-associated nature of VZV replication in cell culture and the lack of an animal model, in which the complete VZV life cycle can be replicated, has limited studies into the molecular basis for vOka attenuation. Comparative studies of vOka with pOka replication in T cells, dorsal root ganglia, and skin indicate that attenuation likely involves multiple mutations within ORF 62 and several other genes. This article presents an overview of the clinical aspects of the vaccine and current progress on understanding the molecular mechanisms that account for the clinical phenotype of reduced virulence. PMID:24687808

  20. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Alwatban, A Z W

    2002-01-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a ...

  1. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  2. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  3. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwatban, Adnan Z.W

    2002-07-01

    The work described in this thesis was carried out at the Magnetic Resonance Centre of the University of Nottingham during the time from May 1998 to April 2001, and is the work of the author except where indicated by reference. The main source of signal changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRJ) is the fluctuation of paramagnetic deoxyhaemoglobin in the venous blood during different states of functional performance. For the work of this thesis, fMRI studies were carried out using a 3 T MR system with an echo planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence. Hearing research utilising fMRI has been previously reported in normal subjects. Hearing fMRI is normally performed by stimulating the auditory cortex via an acoustic task presentation such as music, tone, etc. However, performing the same research on deaf subjects requires special equipment to be designed to allow direct stimulation of the auditory nerve. In this thesis, a new method of direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve is described that uses a transtympanic electrode implanted onto the surface of the cochlea. This approach would however, result in electromotive forces (EMFs) being induced by the time varying magnetic field, which would lead to current flow and heating, as well as deflection of the metallic electrode within the static magnetic field, and image distortion due to the magnetic susceptibility difference. A gold-plated tungsten electrode with a zero magnetic susceptibility was developed to avoid image distortion. Used with carbon leads and a carbon reference pad, it enabled safe, distortion-free fMRI studies of deaf subjects. The study revealed activation of the primary auditory cortex. This fMRI procedure can be used to demonstrate whether the auditory pathway is fully intact, and may provide a useful method for pre-operative assessment of candidates for cochlear implantation. Glucose is the energy source on which the function of the human brain is entirely dependent. Failure to

  4. [Clinical and epidemiological aspects of neurocysticercosis in Brazil: a critical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, Svetlana

    2003-09-01

    With the objective to show the characteristics of neurocysticercosis (NCC) in Brazil, was performed a critical analysis of national literature which showed a frequency of 1.5% in autopsies and 3.0% in clinical studies, corresponding to 0.3% of all admissions in general hospitals. In seroepidemiological studies the positivity of specific reactions was 2.3%. Brazilian patient with NCC presents a general clinical-epidemilogical profile (31-50 years old man, rural origin, complex partial epileptic crisis, increased protein levels or normal CSF, CT showing calcifications, constituting the inactive form of NCC), and a profile of severity (21-40 years old woman, urban origin, vascular headache and intracranial hypertension, typical CSF syndrome of NCC or alteration of two or more CSF parameters, CT showing vesicles and/or calcifications, constituting the active form of NCC). Although two localities from the state of S o Paulo have 72:100000 and 96:100000/habitants as prevalence coefficients, regional and national prevalences are very underestimated. Some aspects related to underestimation of NCC prevalence in Brazil are discussed.

  5. [Neurologic aspects of clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and therapy of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (causalgia, Sudeck's disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, H; Griesser, H J; Hornyak, M

    1991-04-01

    The symptomatology of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD), a diagnostic term which today includes causalgia and M. Sudeck, is characterized clinically by a triad of autonomic (sympathetic), motor and sensory disturbances. They develop following a noxious event--though independent of its nature and location--in a generalized distribution pattern at the distal site of the affected extremity. Pathophysiologically, a complex disturbance of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor system is involved, which mediates the dominant symptoms of RSD, namely the spontaneous pain and the swelling. This disturbance is thought to be initiated by nociceptive impulses, occurring in conjunction with the preceding noxious event, and to be maintained reflexly, in a form of a vicious circle, by means of the typical pain sensation accompanying the RSD-syndrome. From these ideas, an important part of the RSD therapy is deduced; i.e. the early interruption of the neuronal sympathetic activity by means of a sympathetic blockade. Such a blockade can interrupt the pain and at the same time also the vicious circle of RSD. Altogether, for the RSD syndrome there are relevant neurological aspects with respect to its clinical symptomatology, its pathophysiology and its therapy. PMID:1713305

  6. Myasthenia gravis in Ceará, Brazil: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective chart review was performed on patients diagnosed as having myasthenia gravis in Ceará State, Brazil and who were followed from October 1981 to June 2009. Clinical and epidemiologic aspects were evaluated. In this work, 122 patients were studied, of whom 85 (69.7% were females and 37 (30.3% were males. The disease duration ranged from five months to 50 years (8.9±8.1 years. Age at the first symptoms varied from 0 to 74 years (31.9±14.4 years. The first main symptoms and signs were ptosis, diplopia and limb weakness. Generalized myasthenia was the most common clinical presentation, but 5.1% (n=6 persisted as ocular myasthenia. Thymectomy was performed in 42.6% (n=52 of myasthenic patients. A thymoma was present in 10 patients. Serum acetylcholine receptor (AChR antibodies were present in 80% (n=20 of specimens tested. The data presented are similar to those of studies performed in other countries.

  7. Neuropharmacological Aspects of Crocus sativus L.: A Review of Preclinical Studies and Ongoing Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Damanpreet

    2015-01-01

    Crocus sativus L. (Iridaceae) is an important member of the genus Crocus having high medicinal value. Its dried stigmas, known as "saffron" are being widely used form past many centuries as a food additive, coloring agent, flavoring agent and a potential source of traditional medicine. The stigmas along with other botanical parts of Crocus sativus are being extensively used in ethnomedical treatment of varied central nervous system diseases. In line with its ethnomedical importance, several preclinical studies have been carried out to validate its traditional uses, identify active principle(s), understand pharmacological basis of therapeutic action and explore novel medicinal uses. The bioactive components of Crocus sativus have been found to modulate several synaptic processes via direct/indirect interplay with neurotransmitter receptor functions, interaction with neuronal death/survival pathways and alteration in neuronal proteins expression. Many clinical studies proving beneficial effect of Crocus sativus in depressive disorders, Alzheimer's disease and some other neurological abnormalities have also been carried out. Based on the vast literature reports available, an attempt has been made to comprehend the fragmented information on neuropharmacological aspects, chemistry and safety of Crocus sativus. Although the plant has been well explored, but still a large scope of future preclinical and clinical research exist to explore its potential in neurological diseases, that has been discussed in depth in the present review.

  8. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R; Rossi, Ethan A

    2015-06-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2-3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5-0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05-0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3-5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7-1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07-0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing.

  9. Epidemiological, clinical, pathological, and therapeutic aspects of gastric cancer in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Elmajjaoui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Gastric cancer is a relatively frequent cancer and has poor prognosis. The present study is the first Moroccan study to investigate the epidemiological, clinical, pathological, therapeutic characteristics, and outcomes of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including 154 cases of gastric cancer treated at the National Institute of Oncology between January 2007 and December 2007. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years (18-87 years and the sex ratio was 2.14. Risk factors were dominated by tobacco use (30.5% and gastric ulcer (4.5%. The average interval between symptom presentation and consultation was 8.7 months (1-48 months. The clinical symptoms were dominated by epigastric pain (88.7%, vomiting (62.3%, and weight loss (80.5%. Oeso-gastric fibroscopy was performed in all patients and showed an ulcerated aspect in 77.9% of the cases. The location of the tumor was antropyloric in 42.2% of the cases. The most common histology was adenocarcinoma (72.8%, followed by non-Hodgkin lymphoma (22%, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST; 3.2%, and neuroendocrine tumors (NET; 2%. Tumor stage was metastatic in 62% of the cases, locally advanced in 18.5% of the cases, and localized in only 8% of the cases; however, 11.5% of patients were not staged. Also, 46% of the patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 111 were not treated, 6.4% received chemotherapy first (non-resectable (one patient was operated, 20.6% received surgery first followed by adjuvant treatment, 4.5% received chemo-radiotherapy, 5.4% received chemotherapy only, and 27% received palliative chemotherapy. In the sub-group of patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 35, 48.5% received chemotherapy based on Cyclophosphamide, Doxorubicin, Vincristine, and Prednisone (CHOP regimen. In the sub-group diagnosed with GIST (n = 5 histology, all cases received surgery first and 2 cases received adjuvant chemotherapy based on doxorubicin. Finally

  10. Modern Trends in Imaging X: Spectral Imaging in Preclinical Research and Clinical Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Levenson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral imaging methods are attracting increased interest from researchers and practitioners in basic science, pre-clinical and clinical arenas. A combination of better labeling reagents and better optics creates opportunities to detect and measure multiple parameters at the molecular and cellular level. These tools can provide valuable insights into the basic mechanisms of life, and yield diagnostic and prognostic information for clinical applications. There are many multispectral technologies available, each with its own advantages and limitations. This chapter will present an overview of the rationale for spectral imaging, and discuss the hardware, software and sample labeling strategies that can optimize its usefulness in clinical settings.

  11. ASPECTS REGARDING THE FACEBOOK USER IN ROMANIA AS A POTENTIAL DESTINATION IMAGE - VECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAIL-CRISTIAN DIȚOIU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet’s rapid development from the 1.0 version to the 2.0 one has triggered the appearance of social networks. Facebook is Illustrative of them due to the number of users it attracts and its international range of dispersion. Although a beginner in communication, Facebook Romania is prone to contribute highly to the “content generator” market in what concerns its users. In order to create or maintain a brand’s positive image it is necessary to know some elements regarding the demographic aspects of the target public, and its attitudes, predilections or behaviours in general. Thus, web pages created on Facebook can “transform” its users into fans and there is a possibility that afterwards these fans become image -vectors by way of the delivered experiences. This article tries to study the fundamental elements that could make up the profile of a user from the targeted group as a potential destination image- vector.

  12. Imaging retinal ganglion cells: enabling experimental technology for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Corey A; Chauhan, Balwantray C

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in clinical ophthalmic imaging have enhanced patient care. However, the ability to differentiate retinal neurons, such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), would advance many areas within ophthalmology, including the screening and monitoring of glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. Imaging at the single cell level would take diagnostics to the next level. Experimental methods have provided techniques and insight into imaging RGCs, however no method has yet to be translated to clinical application. This review provides an overview of the importance of non-invasive imaging of RGCs and the clinically relevant capabilities. In addition, we report on experimental data from wild-type mice that received an in vivo intravitreal injection of a neuronal tracer that labelled RGCs, which in turn were monitored for up to 100 days post-injection with confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. We were able to demonstrate efficient and consistent RGC labelling with this delivery method and discuss the issue of cell specificity. This type of experimental work is important in progressing towards clinically applicable methods for monitoring loss of RGCs in glaucoma and other optic neuropathies. We discuss the challenges to translating these findings to clinical application and how this method of tracking RGCs in vivo could provide valuable structural and functional information to clinicians. PMID:25448921

  13. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  14. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Global quality control perspective for the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography - Image quality and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systematic monitoring of image quality and radiation dose is an ultimate solution to ensuring the continuously high quality of mammography examination. At present several protocols exist around the world, and different test objects are used for quality control (QC) of the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography. This situation may lead to differences in radiation image quality and dose reported. This article reviews the global QC perspective for the physical and technical aspects of screen-film mammography with regard to image quality and radiation dose. It points out issues that must be resolved in terms of radiation dose and that also affect the comparison. (authors)

  16. Computer-aided diagnosis and artificial intelligence in clinical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Junji; Li, Qiang; Appelbaum, Daniel; Doi, Kunio

    2011-11-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is rapidly entering the radiology mainstream. It has already become a part of the routine clinical work for the detection of breast cancer with mammograms. The computer output is used as a "second opinion" in assisting radiologists' image interpretations. The computer algorithm generally consists of several steps that may include image processing, image feature analysis, and data classification via the use of tools such as artificial neural networks (ANN). In this article, we will explore these and other current processes that have come to be referred to as "artificial intelligence." One element of CAD, temporal subtraction, has been applied for enhancing interval changes and for suppressing unchanged structures (eg, normal structures) between 2 successive radiologic images. To reduce misregistration artifacts on the temporal subtraction images, a nonlinear image warping technique for matching the previous image to the current one has been developed. Development of the temporal subtraction method originated with chest radiographs, with the method subsequently being applied to chest computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine bone scans. The usefulness of the temporal subtraction method for bone scans was demonstrated by an observer study in which reading times and diagnostic accuracy improved significantly. An additional prospective clinical study verified that the temporal subtraction image could be used as a "second opinion" by radiologists with negligible detrimental effects. ANN was first used in 1990 for computerized differential diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in CAD. Since then, ANN has been widely used in CAD schemes for the detection and diagnosis of various diseases in different imaging modalities, including the differential diagnosis of lung nodules and interstitial lung diseases in chest radiography, CT, and position emission tomography/CT. It is likely that CAD will be integrated into picture archiving and

  17. Clinical usefulness of cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the clinical usefulness of cine mode magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) from aspects of image quality and cardiac function. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio in the myocardium was significantly (p<0.05) lower in patients with AF than those with normal sinus rhythm. Two radiologists who did not know any patient's information evaluated the image quality visually by marking method on a scale of 12 points. There was no difference of image quality between the two groups. The standard deviation of R-R interval was significantly (r=-0.92, p<0.001) correlated with the S/N ratio in myocardium. Consequently, it was not favorable to estimate visually cardiac cine MR image in patients with AF, when standard deviation of R-R interval was large. The left ventricular (LV) end diastolic, end systolic and stroke volumes and ejection fraction were closely (r=0.82∼0.95, p<0.05∼0.001) correlated between MR imaging and M-mode echocardiography, respectively. The ability to detect left side valvular regurgitation was almost equal in both MR imaging and color Doppler echocardiography. This result was coincided to previous papers in patients with normal sinus rhythm. In conclusion, cine mode MR imaging was also useful to analyze cardiac function and detect valvular regurgitation in patients with AF. (author)

  18. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of a hepatitis E outbreak in Bangui, Central African Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komas Narcisse P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks of hepatitis E frequently occur in tropical developing countries during the rainy season due to overflowing drains, short-circuiting of networks of clean water and use of contaminated water from wells. Hepatitis E virus (HEV infections are usually accompanied by general symptoms of acute liver disease. This study was conducted to define the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the HEV outbreak that occurred in May 2004 in Bangui. Methods Blood samples were collected from 411 patients aged 1-87 years, most of whom presented with jaundice, asthenia or signs of uncomplicated malaria, for a transversal study from June 2004 to September 2005. Patients were recruited at 11 health care centres, including two referral hospitals, after they had given informed consent. The diagnosis of HEV was made with a commercial ELISA test to detect IgM and/or IgG antibodies. HEV RNA was amplified by RT-PCR to confirm the presence of the viral genome. Results The most frequent clinical signs found were jaundice (93.4%, vomiting (50.7%, hepatalgia (47.4%, hepatomegaly (30.9% and asthenia (26.8%, which are the general clinical signs of hepatic disease. Acute hepatitis E was found in 213 patients (51.8% who were positive for HEV IgM antibodies. The IgG anti-HEV seroprevalence during this outbreak was high (79.5%. The age group 18-34 years was more frequently infected (91.2% than those aged 1-17 (78.0% or over 34 (64.9% (p -6. RT-PCR performed on 127 sera from the 213 IgM-HEV-positive patients was amplified, and the presence of the viral genome was found in 65 samples. Conclusion Although no specific clinical signs exist for hepatitis E infection, people presenting with jaundice, vomiting, hepatalgia, asthenia, hepatomegaly or distended abdomen with no signs of uncomplicated malaria in tropical developing countries should be sent to a laboratory for testing for hepatitis E.

  19. Technical aspects of myocardial SPECT imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.V.; Cooke, C.D.; Van Train, K.F.; Folks, R.; Peifer, J.; DePuey, E.G.; Maddahi, J.; Alazraki, N.; Galt, J.; Ezquerra, N. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-10-16

    Most reports to date using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) sestamibi have used acquisition parameters that were optimized for thallium-201. To fully utilize the superior imaging characteristics of Tc-99m sestamibi, there is a need to optimize the technical aspects of SPECT imaging for this agent. Performance can be enhanced through the careful selection of optimal radiopharmaceutical doses, imaging sequences, acquisition parameters, reconstruction filters, perfusion quantification methods and multidimensional methods for visualizing perfusion distribution. The current report describes theoretical considerations, phantom studies and preliminary patient results that have led to optimized protocols, developed at Emory University and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, for same-day rest-stress studies, given existing instrumentation and recommended dose limits. The optimizations were designed to fit a low-dose-high-dose rest-stress same-day imaging protocol. A principal change in the acquisition parameters compared with previous Tc-99m sestamibi protocols is the use of a high-resolution collimator. The approach is being developed in both prone and supine positions. A new method for extracting a 3-dimensional myocardial count distribution has been developed that uses spherical coordinates to sample the apical region and cylindrical coordinates to sample the rest of the myocardium. New methods for visualizing the myocardial distribution in multiple dimensions are also described, with improved 2-dimensional, as well as 3- and 4-dimensional (3 dimensions plus time) displays. In the improved 2-dimensional display, distance-weighted and volume-weighted polar maps are used that appear to significantly improve the representation of defect location and defect extent, respectively.

  20. [Body dysmorphic disorder: clinical aspects, nosological dimensions and controversies with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Rosa; Arancibia, Marcelo; Heitzer, Cristóbal; Meza, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence about the co-existence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (ED), particularly with anorexia nervosa (AN). An exhaustive review of the specialised literature regarding these disorders was carried out. The results show that their co-occurrence implies a more complex diagnosis and treatment, a more severe clinical symptomatology and a worse prognosis and outcome. Both disorders display common similarities, differences and comorbidities, which allow authors to classify them in different nosological spectra (somatomorphic, anxious, obsessive-compulsive, affective and psychotic). Their crossover involves higher levels of body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, depression, suicidal tendency, personality disorders, substance use/abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, alexithymia and childhood abuse or neglect background. Treatment including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and selective reuptake serotonin inhibitors are effective for both, BDD and ED; nevertheless, plastic surgery could exacerbate BDD. Clinical traits of BDD must be systematically detected in patients suffering from ED and vice versa. PMID:27552014

  1. Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young Ho; Choi, Young Ho [Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients. Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; {+-} 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization. Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil: geographical and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Batista de Matos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to show the situation of paracoccidioidomycosis in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: This study is a descriptive case series developed in two stages. First, a survey of cases originating from the state of Maranhão at the Instituto de Doenças Tropicais Natan Portela, Piauí (IDTNP from 1997 to 2007, and second, the clinical description of 29 cases diagnosed in the Centro de Referências em Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Maranhão (CREDIP from 2004 to 2010. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixteen cases have been cataloged at the IDTNP. West, east, and central regions of the state of Maranhão recorded 90.3% of cases proving to be important areas for study. The western region, with a prevalence of 10.8/100,000 inhabitants, has a significantly higher proportion of cases than the northern, southern, and eastern regions (p < 0.05. The occurrence was higher in men with 89.3% of cases, and the male-to-female ratio was 8.4:1. The majority of patients were older than 20 years, lived in rural areas, and had farming or soil management as main occupation (73.8%. At CREDIP, 29 cases were diagnosed, of which 26 (89.6% had multifocal manifestations. Mucous tissues were involved more (75.8% frequently, followed by lymph nodes, skin, and lungs with 65.5%, 39% and 37.9 %, respectively. The diagnosis was made by combining direct examination, culture, and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows the geographical distribution and the epidemiological and clinical aspects of paracoccidioidomycosis, revealing the significance of the disease to the state of Maranhão.

  3. Frequency of neonatal hyperglycaemia at Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital: Clinical aspects and short term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Monera Mm; Abdel Rahman, Sirageldin Mk

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia has become a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality of the smaller fragile infants surviving the neonatal period. Its risk is inversely related to gestational age, birth weight and baby's clinical condition. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, some clinical aspects and immediate outcome of hyperglycaemia in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, Khartoum. The study was a prospective, descriptive and hospital-based, conducted during the period of 1st January to 31st December 2014. Eighty-five neonates out of 345 had neonatal hyperglycaemia with a frequency rate of (24.6%). Fifty-two (61.2%) were males (male: female ratio=1.6:1), 61.2% of the babies were in the age group (0-7) days, and 25.9% in age group (8-14) days. Forty-two (49.4%) were preterm, while 43 (50.6%) were term babies. Four (4.7%) of the mothers had diabetes, and 6(7.1%) had hypertension. Neonatal sepsis was a predominant risk factor of hyperglycaemia occurring in 67 babies (78.8%), followed by respiratory distress syndrome in 28 (32.9%) babies. Ten babies (11.8%) were diagnosed as acute kidney injury, four babies (4.7%) had hypernatraemic dehydration and seven babies (8.3%) were having hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Out of 85 hyperglycaemic neonates death was reported in 10 babies (11.8%), 75 (88.2%) survived. All cases had transient hyperglycaemia; therefore insulin intervention was not necessary. Currently, at Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital, specific protocol for management of hyperglycaemia is lacking. Further studies are recommended to assess long term sequels of hyperglycaemia in neonates.

  4. Nurse prescribing as an aspect of future role expansion: the views of Irish clinical nurse specialists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lockwood, Emily B

    2008-10-01

    AIM: Nurses and midwives are expanding the scope of their professional practice, assuming additional responsibilities including the management and prescribing of medications. The aim of the study was to discover the attitudes of clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) in Ireland to nurse prescribing and to examine perceived barriers to engaging in this aspect of future role expansion. BACKGROUND: The expansion of the nursing role in relation to nurse prescribing is an ongoing process and is subject to incremental iterations of legislation and professional policy. Nurse prescribing as an expanded role function has become a reality in many countries. Ireland has addressed the matter in a formal and systematic way through legislation. METHOD: A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 283 CNSs practising in a variety of care settings in Ireland. Attitudes were measured using Likert-type attitudinal scales, designed specifically for the study. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the majority of clinical nurse specialists were positively disposed toward nurse prescribing as a future role expansion. The fear of litigation was identified as the most significant barrier to nurse prescribing. The majority of respondents equated nurse prescribing with increased autonomy and holistic care. The findings indicate that there is a need for further examination of the educational requirements of the CNS in relation to nurse prescribing. The legislative implications for nurse prescribing and fear of legal consequences need to be considered prior to any implementation of nurse prescribing. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: While senior clinicians are willing to embrace future role expansion in the area of nurse prescribing, their Nurse Managers should recognize that facilitation of nurse prescribing needs to address the legal and educational requirements for such activity. Failure to address these requirements can represent a barrier to role expansion. This paper offers

  5. Toward carbon nanotube-based imaging agents for the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, Mayra; Zaibaq, Nicholas G; Wilson, Lon J

    2016-09-01

    Among the many applications for carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their use in medicine has drawn special attention due to their potential for a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic applications. As progress toward clinical applications continues, monitoring CNTs in vivo will be essential to evaluate their biodistribution, potential toxicity, therapeutic activity, and any physiological changes that the material may induce in specific tissues. There are many different imaging modalities to visualize and track CNTs in vivo, yet only a few are full-body penetrating, a central characteristic that widens their clinical utility. In order to visualize CNTs, chemical modification is often required for the material to be used as a platform to carry imaging agents compatible with one or more of the clinical imaging techniques. Here, we focus on the most recent work involving the use of CNTs as imaging agents for the non-invasive, full-body penetrating clinical modalities of MRI, PET, SPECT, and X-ray CT. The synthesis and modification of the CNT materials are discussed, as well as relevant preclinical studies. PMID:27294540

  6. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  7. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  8. D-SPECT, a semiconductor camera: Technical aspects and clinical applications;La camera a semi-conducteur D-Spect: aspects techniques et applications cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlin, C.; Bertrand, S.; Kelly, A.; Veyre, A.; Mestas, D.; Cachin, F. [CLCC Jean-Perrin, Service de medecine nucleaire, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Motreff, P.; Levesque, S. [CHU Gabriel-Montpied, Service de cardiologie, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Cachin, F. [Universite d' Auvergne, UMR 990 Inserm, 63 - Clermont-Ferrand (France); Askienazy, S. [Cyclopharma, biopole Clermont-Limagne, 63 -Saint-Beauzire (France)

    2010-03-15

    Clinical practice in nuclear medicine has largely changed in the last decade, particularly with the arrival of PET/CT and SPECT/CT. New semiconductor cameras could represent the next evolution in our nuclear medicine practice. Due to the resolution and sensitivity improvement, this technology authorizes fast speed acquisitions, high contrast and resolution images performed with low activity injection. The dedicated cardiology D-SPECT camera (Spectrum Dynamics, Israel) is based on semiconductor technology and provides an original system for collimation and images reconstruction. We describe here our clinical experience in using the D-SPECT with a preliminary study comparing D-D.P.E.C.T. and conventional gamma camera. (authors)

  9. Clinical Aspects of Patients with Febrile Convulsion: A survey in Mashhad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydarian F

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Febrile seizures (FS happen in 2-5% of children aged 6 months to 5 years. Several studies have confirmed that between 2 to 7% of children with FS, develop epilepsy later in life. This study was performed to evaluate the clinical aspects of patients with febrile seizure in our region. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study that was performed in the pediatric ward of Ghaem hospital in Mashhad, Iran from Sep. 2004 to March 2005. 68 patients aged 6 months to 5 years were evaluated. Results: Most patients were male and aged between 1 to 3 years. 25% had a past history of febrile seizures. Upper respiratory tract infections and gastroenteritis were among the most common causes of febrile seizures, respectively. Simple febrile seizures were seen in 64.7% of the cases. Most of such patients had body temperature above 38.5˚c at the time of seizure occurrence. Conclusion: Febrile seizures were more frequently seen in boys aged 1 to 3 years. It most commonly occurred following an upper respiratory tract infection and due to rise in body temperature above 38.5 ۫c.

  10. Meteorological and agricultural effects on airborne Alternaria and Cladosporium spores and clinical aspects in Valladolid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Estefanía Sánchez; de la Cruz, David Rodríguez; Merino, Ma Eugenia Sanchís; Sánchez, José Sánchez

    2009-01-01

    The aeropalynological monitoring was carried out from 1 February 2005-31 January 2007. The total number of spores collected during the main spore season (MSS) in 2005 was 4,500 for Alternaria and 93,744 in the case of Cladosporium, whereas in 2006 values were increased (8,385 for Alternaria and 150,144 for Cladosporium), reaching the maximum concentrations on 18 July and 17 June 2006 with 344 and 5,503 spores, respectively. The influence of the main meteorological parameters on spore concentrations was studied, resulting in a positive correlation with temperature. Rainfall, relative humidity and frequency of calms obtained negative correlations in the case of Alternaria, and positive for Cladosporium, the total daily hours of sunshine having an inverse influence on them. The intra-diurnal pattern was very similar for both genera, with a greater representation towards the central hours of the day and at night. Finally, some clinical aspects for the Alternaria spore type were analyzed, with a low percentage of sensitized patients though (9.5%). Only one patient showed positive skin test reaction to Cladosporium.

  11. Progesterone and Related Compounds in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Basic and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tsung Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the third most common cause of cancer mortality. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC accounts for 85% to 90% of primary liver cancers. Major risk factors for HCC include infection with HBV or HCV, alcoholic liver disease, and most probably nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In general, men are two to four times more often associated with HCC than women. It can be suggested that sex hormones including progesterone may play some roles in HCC. Rather, very limited information discusses its potential involvement in HCC. This paper thus collects some recent studies of the potential involvement of progesterone and related compounds in HCC from basic and clinical aspects. In addition, two synthetic progestins, megestrol acetate (MA and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, will be discussed thoroughly. It is noted that progesterone can also serve as the precursor for androgens and estrogens produced by the gonadal and adrenal cortical tissues, while men have a higher incidence of HCC than women might be due to the stimulatory effects of androgen and the protective effects of estrogen. Eventually, this paper suggests a new insight on the associations of progesterone and related compounds with HCC development and treatment.

  12. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment. PMID:22941984

  13. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  14. Dual energy imaging using a clinical on-board imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual energy (DE) imaging consists of obtaining kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images at two different diagnostic energies and performing a weighted subtraction of these images. A third image is then produced that highlights soft tissue. DE imaging has been used by radiologists to aid in the detection of lung malignancies. However, it has not been used clinically in radiotherapy. The goal of this study is to assess the feasibility of performing DE imaging using a commercial on-board imaging system. Both a simple and an anthropomorphic phantom were constructed for this analysis. Planar kV images of the phantoms were obtained using varied imaging energies and mAs. Software was written to perform DE subtraction using empirically determined weighting factors. Tumor detectability was assessed quantitatively using the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Overall DE subtraction suppressed high density objects in both phantoms. The optimal imaging technique, providing the largest SDNR with a dose less than our reference technique was 140 kVp, 1.0 mAs and 60 kVp, 3.2 mAs. Based on this analysis, DE subtraction imaging is feasible using a commercial on-board imaging system and may improve the visualization of tumors in lung cancer patients undergoing image-guided radiotherapy. (paper)

  15. Phase-contrast x-ray imaging of the breast: recent developments towards clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coan, P.; Bravin, A.; Tromba, G.

    2013-12-01

    Breast imaging is one of the most demanding and delicate radiological applications. Mammography is the primary diagnosis tool in breast cancer detection and national screening programmes. Recognition of breast cancer depends on the detection of subtle architectural distortion, masses showing near normal breast tissue density, skin thickening and microcalcifications. The small differences in attenuation of x-rays between normal and malignant tissue result in low contrast and make cancer detection difficult in conventional x-ray absorption mammography. Because of these challenging aspects, breast imaging has been the first and most explored diagnostic field in phase-contrast imaging research. This novel imaging method has been extensively used and has demonstrated a unique capability in producing high-contrast and sensitive images at quasi-histological resolution. The most recent and significant technical developments are introduced and results obtained by the application of various phase-contrast imaging techniques for breast imaging are reported. The first phase-contrast mammography clinical trials project is also presented and the short- and long-term future perspectives of the method are discussed.

  16. Matching the Clinical Question to the Appropriate Imaging Procedure: What a Cardiologist Wants from Cardiac Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wann

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern medicine, we too often become enamored with technology and lose focus on the reason for per-forming a diagnostic study. Cardiac imaging may have advanced to point of replacing the physical ex-amination, but there is still no substitute for thought-ful planning of a diagnostic approach based on a hier-archy of clinical data, an appreciation of the pre-test likelihood of disease, realistic expectation from vari-ous imaging procedures, and a rational plan for utiliz-ing the information gained. Team work is required to effectively utilize all the capabilities of the modern medical environment. Communication is essential if patients are to receive the best care. As the power and complexity of imag-ing has increase, so has its over-utilization. This lec-ture will focus on maximizing useful diagnostic yield, while minimizing redundancy and excessive costs. While evidence based medical practice is ideally based on controlled randomized trials to show im-proved patient outcomes. Medical imaging has his-torically developed by improving the quality of im-ages, comparing new to existing technologist. Exam-ples will be given of applications of various imaging techniques to common clinical problems, pointing out areas where true evidence is lacking. Appropriate imaging in these situations must be defined by con-sensus of expert opinion. A variety of clinical vi-gnettes will be presented.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer clinical application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Li; Yong Du; Hanfeng Yang; Yayong Huang; Jun Meng; Dongmei Xiao

    2013-01-01

    As prostate cancer is a biologically heterogeneous disease for which a variety of treatment options are available,the major objective of prostate cancer imaging is to achieve more precise disease characterization.In clinical practice,magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the imaging tools for the evaluation of prostate cancer,the fusion of MRI or dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is improving the evaluation of cancer location,size,and extent,while providing an indication of tumor aggressiveness.This review summarizes the role of MRI in the application of prostate cancer and describes molecular MRI techniques (including MRSI and DCE-MRI)for aiding prostate cancer management.

  18. Clinical imaging of vascular disease in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Alan A; Covic, Adrian; London, Gerard; Vervloet, Marc; Goldsmith, David; Gorriz, Jose Luis; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-06-01

    Arterial wall calcification, once considered an incidental finding, is now known to be a consistent and strong predictor of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency. It is also commonly encountered in radiologic examinations as an incidental finding. Forthcoming bench, translational, and clinical data seek to establish this and pre-calcification changes as surrogate imaging biomarkers for noninvasive prognostication and treatment follow-up. Emerging paradigms seek to establish vascular calcification as a surrogate marker of disease. Imaging of pre-calcification and decalcification events may prove more important than imaging of the calcification itself. Data-driven approaches to screening will be necessary to limit radiation exposure and prevent over-utilization of expensive imaging techniques. PMID:26898824

  19. Somatosensory-evoked spikes on electroencephalography (EEG): longitudinal clinical and EEG aspects in 313 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; Tedrus, Gloria M A S

    2012-01-01

    Somatosensory-evoked spikes (ESp) are high-voltage potentials registered on the EEG, which accompany each of the percussions on the feet or hands. The objective of this research was to study the longitudinal clinical and EEG aspects of children with ESp. A total of 313 children, 53.7% male, showing ESp on the EEG and with an average initial age of 6.82 (range from 2 to 14 years) were followed for a mean period of 35.7 months. In the initial evaluation, 118 (37.7%) had a history of nonfebrile epileptic seizures (ES). Epileptiform activity (EA) was observed on the EEG in 61% and showed a significantly greater occurrence in children with ES than in those without (P = .000). Of the 118 showing seizures from the start, 53 (44.9%) continued to have seizures; of the 195 without seizures at the start, only 13 (6.67%) developed them. Thus, only 66 (21.1%) children showed ES during the follow-up. ESp disappeared in 237 (75.7%) cases and EA in 221 (70.6%). In the children with ES, it was found that the presence of EA on the first EEG did not indicate continuation of the ES throughout the remaining period, while the 13 children who presented their first ES in a later period showed a greater occurrence of EA on the initial EEG than those who did not develop ES (P = .001). Evidence of brain injury was observed in 43 (13.7%) children and was associated with a greater continuity of the ES during the study (P = .018). ESp, EA, and ES tend to disappear, suggesting an age-dependent phenomenon. The finding of ESp, particularly in the absence of any evidence of brain injury, indicates a low association with ES and benign outcome.

  20. Cutaneous approach towards clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia by ATR FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikje, Natalja Skrebova; Sota, Takayuki; Aizawa, Katsuo

    2007-07-01

    Attempts were made to non-invasively detect glucose-specific spectral signals in the skin by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. In vivo spectra were collected from the inner wrists of healthy, prediabetes and diabetes subjects in the 750-4000 cm -1 region, with a closer assessment of the glucose-related region between 1000 and 1180 cm -1. Spectra in vivo showed glucose-specific peaks at 1030, 1080, 1118 and 1151 cm -1, as a variety of glucose solutions are found in vitro. Based on the differences of intensities at 1030 and 1118 cm -1 two spectral patterns were seen: I 1118 > I 1030 for a diabetes and I 1030> I 1118 for non-diabetes subjects. The peak at 1030 cm -1 was used to assess glucose concentrations in the skin due to its good correlation with glucose concentrations in vitro. Calculated mean values of the peak at 1030 cm -1 showed evidence of correlation with blood glucose levels when grouped as = 200 mg/dL, though there was no constant correlation between them when compared before/after OGTT or at the fasting/postprandial states. Absorbances at 1030 cm -1 were not only increased in a dose-dependent manner in a diabetes patient, but were also generally higher than in non-diabetes subjects at 30 min OGTT assessment. Also we could monitor absorbances at 1030 cm -1 and determine their changes in the skin tissue at different times of OGTT. We assume that our approach to in vivo measurement and monitoring of glucose concentrations at 1030 cm -1 may be one of the indicators to assess glucose activity level and its changes in the skin tissue, and has further implications in the study of clinical and pathophysiological aspects of hyperglycemia in diabetes and non-diabetes subjects by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Nuclear Breast Imaging: Clinical Results and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Wendie A

    2016-02-01

    Interest in nuclear breast imaging is increasing because of technical improvements in dedicated devices that allow the use of relatively low doses of radiotracers with high sensitivity for even small breast cancers. For women with newly diagnosed cancer, primary chemotherapy is often recommended, and improved methods of assessing treatment response are of interest. With widespread breast density notification, functional rather than anatomic methods of screening are of increasing interest as well. For a cancer imaging technology to be adopted, several criteria must be met that will be discussed: evidence of clinical benefit with minimal harm, standardized interpretive criteria, direct biopsy guidance, and acceptable cost-effectiveness.

  2. Clinical task performance and imaging task performance compared for two different commercial electronic portal imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper reports on the investigation and comparison of performance of a Varian Portal Vision system and a Siemens Beamview Plus system using the framework outlined by ICRU Report 54. Radiation Therapy EPI (Electronic Portal Imaging) systems are one of the main applications of digital imaging technology in a radiation therapy department. Radiation Therapy EPI systems may produce images of a lesser quality than the diagnostic radiology equivalent. It is therefore important to optimise the system to obtain the best performance possible. Contrasting opinion on the performance of EPI by clinicians, radiation therapists, medical physicists and engineers often exists, even when the same system and even the same image are being evaluated. Differing opinion occurs because of differences in task end points and task assessment methods of two broad groups of individuals, the human-observer group and the technical-measurement group. Each group uses different task criteria and methodology for assessing performance. The human-observer group is primarily interested in system performance that assures a high level clinical-task performance while the technical-measurement group is concerned with system performance that assures a high level of imaging-task performance. The technical-measurement group tends to be closely associated with imaging system technology, testing, adjustment and optimisation tasks which are couched in terms imaging-task criteria. The human-observer group is usually attempting to optimise performance using clinical-task criteria. The challenge is to provide a balanced evaluation using complementary imaging-task performance and clinical-task performance assessments. Comparison of the systems is on the basis of imaging-task performance i.e. technical-measurement through physical performance assessments such as spatial resolution and noise level, and clinical-task performance i.e. human-observer measurements through the application of psychophysical

  3. Clinical aspects, outcome assessment, and management of ankylosing spondylitis and postenteric reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, S; van der Heijde, D

    2000-07-01

    The cause of ankylosing spondylitis remains unclear. Proof that this disorder is an autoimmune disease attributable to crossreactivity between bacteria and HLA-B27 is still lacking. Differences in endogenous peptide presentation by HLA-B27 subtypes might be relevant in the etiopathogenesis. Fractures of the osteoporotic spine contribute to morbidity. Spinal cord injury may occur. MR imaging enables identifying sacroiliitis earlier than plain radiography. Sweet syndrome has now been described in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn disease. Progress has been made in the assessment of ankylosing spondylitis. There are now core sets for different settings and validated instruments for functioning and disease activity that will enable demonstrating efficacy of new therapeutic interventions. The debate continues on classification of postinfectious and reactive arthritis. Bacterial antigens may be found in the inflamed joints; occasionally 16S ribosomal RNA is also demonstrated. Antibiotics seem not to be effective in postenteric reactive arthritis. More than 25 years have now elapsed since the association between ankylosing spondylitis and HLA-B27 was first described in 1973. The cause of this disease is still unknown, but a lot of progress has been made regarding the molecular structure of HLA-B27, the spectrum of disease, the clinical and radiographic assessment of ankylosing spondylitis, and its treatment. Recent advances in research on ankylosing spondylitis are reviewed here. PMID:10910177

  4. A review of methods of clinical image quality evaluation in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Consistency in evaluation of mammography images in research and clinical practice is dependent on a standardised clinical image quality evaluation system. Currently two such systems are available-one developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the other by the European Commission (EU guidelines). The purpose of this study was to review mammography clinical evaluation methods in research studies and their adherence to these systems. Method: A total of 23 research articles were reviewed from the period 2000-2006, 11 of these studies used digital images. The focus of the review was the criteria and rating scales used. Results: Only 5 studies used either the ACR (3) or EU guidelines (2). The remainder included aspects of these systems together with a range of other criteria and rating scales. Variation was found in the categories of criteria used, number of criteria, the descriptors of the criteria and the instructions used to evaluate the criteria. Instructions were frequently not specific and open to individual interpretation. Although breast density is an important criterion of image quality and contributes to perception of breast lesions, inclusion of this criterion was not universal, and even when used the area of breast density to be evaluated was not identified, thus enhancing inter-observer variability. Scales that were absolute or relative were used for evaluation, all of which incorporated inconsistent numbers of steps. Conclusion: Low adherence to ACR and EU Guidelines has resulted in considerable variation in the evaluation methods used in research studies. The implications of this variability are considerable both for evaluation of image quality in research outcomes and clinical practice.

  5. Breast imaging with SoftVue: initial clinical evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, Neb; Littrup, Peter; Li, Cuiping; Roy, Olivier; Schmidt, Steven; Cheng, Xiaoyang; Seamans, John; Wallen, Andrea; Bey-Knight, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    We describe the clinical performance of SoftVue, a breast imaging device based on the principles of ultrasound tomography. Participants were enrolled in an IRB-approved study at Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. The main research findings indicate that SoftVue is able to image the whole uncompressed breast up to cup size H. Masses can be imaged in even the densest breasts with the ability to discern margins and mass shapes. Additionally, it is demonstrated that multi-focal disease can also be imaged. The system was also tested in its research mode for additional imaging capabilities. These tests demonstrated the potential for generating tissue stiffness information for the entire breast using through-transmission data. This research capability differentiates SoftVue from the other whole breast systems on the market. It is also shown that MRI-like images can be generated using alternative processing of the echo data. Ongoing research is focused on validating and quantifying these findings in a larger sample of study participants and quantifying SoftVue's ability to differentiate benign masses from cancer.

  6. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Achiam, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. MATERIA...... screening before the appendectomy. It may prevent unnecessary surgeries. The fast MRI examination can be adequately performed on an MRI unit of broad range of field strengths...

  7. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (90). Childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, B K; Chong, C L; Tan, A M; Hwang, W S

    2003-10-01

    An 11-year-old boy presented with a nasopharyngeal mass that was thought to represent a juvenile angiofibroma based on the initial clinical and radiological evaluation. Partial tumour resection was performed. Resected specimen revealed histological diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. Further evaluation of the tumour including MR imaging, radioisotope bone scan, CT thorax and abdomen were performed. Differential diagnoses of childhood nasopharyngeal masses were discussed. The differences between childhood NPC and adult NPC, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant lymphoma and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma were also discussed.

  8. Clinical benefits of diffusion tensor imaging in hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sira, Liat; Goder, Noam; Bassan, Haim; Lifshits, Shlomi; Assaf, Yaniv; Constantini, Shlomi

    2015-08-01

    OBJECT The object of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to evaluate and characterize white matter changes in hydrocephalus. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of DTI in a cohort of patients with hydrocephalus (n = 35), 19 of whom had both pre- and postsurgical imaging studies. These patient's DTI values were compared with values extracted from age-dependent trend lines computed from a healthy subject group (n = 70, age span 14 months-14 years). Several DTI parameters in different regions of interest (ROIs) were evaluated to find the most sensitive parameters for clinical decision making in hydrocephalus. RESULTS Compared with healthy controls, patients with active hydrocephalus had a statistically significant change in all DTI parameters. The most sensitive and specific DTI parameter for predicting hydrocephalus was axial diffusivity (λ1) measured at the level of the corona radiata. Diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlated with several conventional radiological parameters in the assessment of hydrocephalus but were not superior to them. There was no convincing correlation between clinical disease severity and DTI parameters. When examining the pre- and postsurgical effect, it was found that DTI may be a sensitive tool for estimating tissue improvement. CONCLUSIONS This large-cohort study with a multidisciplinary approach combining clinical, neurological, radiological, and multiple DTI parameters revealed the most sensitive DTI parameters for identifying hydrocephalus and suggested that they may serve as an important tool for the disorder's quantitative radiological assessment.

  9. Moxifloxacin: Clinically compatible contrast agent for multiphoton imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taejun; Jang, Won Hyuk; Lee, Seunghun; Yoon, Calvin J.; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Bumju; Hwang, Sekyu; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Yoon, Yeoreum; Lee, Gilgu; Le, Viet-Hoan; Bok, Seoyeon; Ahn, G.-One; Lee, Jaewook; Gho, Yong Song; Chung, Euiheon; Kim, Sungjee; Jang, Myoung Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae; Kim, Myoung Joon; So, Peter T. C.; Kim, Ki Hean

    2016-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a nonlinear fluorescence microscopic technique widely used for cellular imaging of thick tissues and live animals in biological studies. However, MPM application to human tissues is limited by weak endogenous fluorescence in tissue and cytotoxicity of exogenous probes. Herein, we describe the applications of moxifloxacin, an FDA-approved antibiotic, as a cell-labeling agent for MPM. Moxifloxacin has bright intrinsic multiphoton fluorescence, good tissue penetration and high intracellular concentration. MPM with moxifloxacin was demonstrated in various cell lines, and animal tissues of cornea, skin, small intestine and bladder. Clinical application is promising since imaging based on moxifloxacin labeling could be 10 times faster than imaging based on endogenous fluorescence.

  10. Clinical study of imaging skin cancer margins using polarized light imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samatham, Ravikant; Lee, Ken; Jacques, Steven L.

    2012-02-01

    Skin cancer is most commons type of cancer in United States that occur on sun-exposed cosmetically sensitive areas like face, neck, and forearms. Surgical excision of skin cancer is challenging as more than one-third the actual margins extend beyond the clinically determined margins. Polarized light camera (polCAM) provides images of the superficial layers of the tissue with enhanced contrast which was used to image skin cancer margins. In a NIH-funded pilot study polCAM was used to image skin cancer in patients undergoing Mohs micrographic surgery for skin cancer. Polarized light imaging utilizes the polarization properties of light to create an image of a lesion comprised only of light scattering from the superficial layers of the skin which yields a characteristic "fabric pattern" of the putative lesion and the surrounding normal tissue. In several case studies conducted with a system developed for the clinic, we have found that skin cancer disrupts this fabric pattern, allowing the doctor a new means of identifying the margins of the lesion. Data is acquired before the patient underwent surgery. The clinically determined skin cancer margins were compared with margins determined by examination of the polCAM images. The true margins were provided by the dermatophathologist on examination of the frozen sections. Our initial data suggests that the contrast due to polarization changes associated with cancerous lesions can elucidate margins that were not recognized by the surgeon under normal conditions but were later confirmed by the pathologist.

  11. Different aspects of dysexecutive syndrome in patients with moyamoya disease and its clinical subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lingling; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Qian; Chan, Raymond C K; Wang, Rong; Wan, Weiqing

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Dysexecutive syndrome is common in patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), a chronic cerebrovascular disease that is characterized by stenosis of the bilateral internal carotid arteries and progressive collateral revascularization, and MMD can be classified as ischemic or hemorrhagic according to the disease presentation and history. In this study, the authors aimed to determine which aspects of executive function are impaired in patients with MMD, in addition to the specific dysexecutive functions present among its clinical subtypes and the mechanisms underlying dysexecutive function in these patients. METHODS The authors administered 5 typical executive function tests (the Stroop test, the Hayling Sentence Completion Test [HSCT], the verbal fluency [VF] test, the N-back test, and the Sustained Attention to Response Task [SART]) to 49 patients with MMD and 47 IQ-, age-, education-, and social status-matched healthy controls. The dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX) was also used to assess participants' subjective feelings about their executive function. A total of 39 of the patients were evaluated by CT perfusion (CTP) before the assessments were performed, and the correlations among the performances of the patients on the above tests with the parameters of cerebral blood volume, cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time-to-peak (TTP) in the frontal lobes of these patients were also analyzed. RESULTS Many aspects of executive function in the patients with MMD were significantly poorer than those in the healthy controls, and the patients performed particularly poorer on the VF test, HSCT, N-back test, and SART. The patients with hemorrhagic MMD exhibited worse executive inhibition, executive processing, and semantic inhibition compared with those with ischemic MMD, but the latter group presented a worse working memory and poorer sustained attention. There were no significant differences in the DEX scores between the patients with MMD and

  12. Imaging and clinical analysis of 12 cases with melioidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Imaging and clinical manifestations of melioidosis were analyzed in order to improve our understanding of the disease and to reduce the rate of misdiagnosis. Methods: From 2001 to 2006, 12 melioidosis cases were confirmed by blood, pus and sputum culture. All cases were examined with radiography, and nine of them with CT and 2 with US. The imaging and clinical data were assessed retrospectively. Results: Ten of 12 cases revealed lung abnormalities, the main organ involved by melioidosis in the body. The appearances were observed as follows: diffused sheets and sheets fused partly in bilateral fields of the lungs can be seen on chest radiograph; homogeneous dense shadow of the lobe or segment were observed on plain chest film and CT; blurred strips radiated from hilum were revealed on plain chest film; multitude nodules in 2 lungs showed on CT; cavity with air and liquid be seen on plain chest film and CT; patches and granules in superior and middle fields or (and) inferior fields be seen on plain chest film and CT; arc shadow of water attenuation in dorsal thorax showed on CT. Infections outside the lung can be observed in orbital, lumbar muscle, liver and spleen in 1 case, and thighbone osteomyelitis with multi abscesses in one case. Conclusion: Alhough medioidosis has no characteristic imaging appearances, the disease's location, extent, severity and quantity objectively can be demonstrated by imaging, final confirmation is necessary using the culture of blood, pus and sputum. (authors)

  13. Building blocks for a clinical imaging informatics environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Marc D; Warnock, Max; Daly, Mark; Toland, Christopher; Meenan, Chris; Nagy, Paul G

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, imaging informatics has been driven by the widespread adoption of radiology information and picture archiving and communication and speech recognition systems. These three clinical information systems are commonplace and are intuitive to most radiologists as they replicate familiar paper and film workflow. So what is next? There is a surge of innovation in imaging informatics around advanced workflow, search, electronic medical record aggregation, dashboarding, and analytics tools for quality measures (Nance et al., AJR Am J Roentgenol 200:1064-1070, 2013). The challenge lies in not having to rebuild the technological wheel for each of these new applications but instead attempt to share common components through open standards and modern development techniques. The next generation of applications will be built with moving parts that work together to satisfy advanced use cases without replicating databases and without requiring fragile, intense synchronization from clinical systems. The purpose of this paper is to identify building blocks that can position a practice to be able to quickly innovate when addressing clinical, educational, and research-related problems. This paper is the result of identifying common components in the construction of over two dozen clinical informatics projects developed at the University of Maryland Radiology Informatics Research Laboratory. The systems outlined are intended as a mere foundation rather than an exhaustive list of possible extensions.

  14. 'Ready-access' CT imaging for an orthopaedic trauma clinic.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cawley, D

    2011-03-01

    \\'Ready-Access\\' to CT imaging facilities in Orthopaedic Trauma Clinics is not a standard facility. This facility has been available at the regional trauma unit, in Merlin Park Hospital, Galway for the past four years. We reviewed the use of this facility over a 2-year period when 100 patients had CT scans as part of their trauma clinic assessment. The rate of CT scan per clinic was 0.6. The mean waiting time for a CT scan was 30 minutes. 20 (20%) new fractures were confirmed, 33 (33%) fractures were out-ruled, 25 (25%) fractures demonstrated additional information and 8 (8%) had additional fractures. 20 (20%) patients were discharged and 12 (12%) patients were admitted as a result of the CT scan. It adds little time and cost to CT scanning lists.

  15. Human cystic echinococcosis:epidemiologic, zoonotic, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha Deb Mandal

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This review represents an updated scenario on the transmission cycle, epidemiology, clinical features and pathogenicity, diagnosis and treatment, and prevention and control measures of a cestode parasiteEchincoccus granulosus (E. granulosus)infection causing cystic echinococcosis (CE) in humans. Human CE is a serious life-threatening neglected zoonotic disease that occurs in both developing and developed countries, and is recognized as a major public health problem. The life cycle of E. granulosus involves a definitive host (dogs and other canids) for the adult E. granulosus that resides in the intestine, and an intermediate host (sheep and other herbivores) for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. Humans are only incidentally infected; since the completion of the life cycle ofE. granulosus depends on carnivores feeding on herbivores bearing hydatid cysts with viable protoscoleces, humans represent usually the dead end for the parasite. On ingestion ofE. granulosus eggs, hydatid cysts are formed mostly in liver and lungs, and occasionally in other organs of human body, which are considered as uncommon sites of localization of hydatid cysts. The diagnosis of extrahepatic echinococcal disease is more accurate today because of the availability of new imaging techniques, and the current treatments include surgery and percutaneous drainage, and chemotherapy (albendazole and mebendazole). But, the wild animals that involve in sylvatic cycle may overlap and interact with the domestic sheep-dog cycle, and thus complicating the control efforts. The updated facts and phenomena regarding human and animal CE presented herein are due to the web search of SCI and non-SCI journals.

  16. CLINICAL ASPECTS OF PATIENT SELECTION FOR CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY IN NON-ST ELEVATION ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kireev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Own clinical experience in the selection of patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome for coronary angiography based on clinical guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (2011 is presented.

  17. Clinical value of imaging techniques in childhood osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The traditional approach to investigating suspected osteomyelitis in children includes conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. The roles of US, CT and MR imaging are controversial. Our objective was to determine whether the additional use of these modalities would yield information likely to lead to treatment modification. Material and Methods: Sixty-five children with clinically suspected osteomyelitis took part in a prospective study. All patients underwent conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. In addition to this, US, CT and MR imaging were all performed in 33 patients; the remaining 32 patients were examined with various combinations of these three modalities. The value of the additional information obtained was estimated retrospectively by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon in terms of possible modification of treatment. Results: MR imaging was the modality with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting osteomyelitis. MR yielded information likely to influence treatment in the greatest proportion of patients (45%) followed by US (30%). Conclusion: The standard investigation protocol with the addition of US (because of its ability to detect subperiosteal abscesses early and simply) is adequate in uncomplicated cases. When additional imaging is required to outline a lesion, or in complicated cases, and when bone scintigraphy is inconclusive, MR imaging should also be performed. CT should be considered when MR investigation is not available or when anesthesia is required but cannot be provided. (orig.)

  18. Clinical value of imaging techniques in childhood osteomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, S.; Jorulf, H. [Karolinska Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children`s Hospital, Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Stockholm (Sweden); Hirsch, G. [Karolinska Hospital, Astrid Lindgren Children`s Hospital, Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    Purpose: The traditional approach to investigating suspected osteomyelitis in children includes conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. The roles of US, CT and MR imaging are controversial. Our objective was to determine whether the additional use of these modalities would yield information likely to lead to treatment modification. Material and Methods: Sixty-five children with clinically suspected osteomyelitis took part in a prospective study. All patients underwent conventional radiography and bone scintigraphy. In addition to this, US, CT and MR imaging were all performed in 33 patients; the remaining 32 patients were examined with various combinations of these three modalities. The value of the additional information obtained was estimated retrospectively by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon in terms of possible modification of treatment. Results: MR imaging was the modality with the highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting osteomyelitis. MR yielded information likely to influence treatment in the greatest proportion of patients (45%) followed by US (30%). Conclusion: The standard investigation protocol with the addition of US (because of its ability to detect subperiosteal abscesses early and simply) is adequate in uncomplicated cases. When additional imaging is required to outline a lesion, or in complicated cases, and when bone scintigraphy is inconclusive, MR imaging should also be performed. CT should be considered when MR investigation is not available or when anesthesia is required but cannot be provided. (orig.)

  19. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized. PMID:26785413

  20. Quasi 3D Geoelectrical Imaging as a new application for permafrost investigations: Some methodological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, A.; Kneisel, C.

    2009-04-01

    packages, mainly Res2Dinv, Res3Dinv (both Geotomo Software) and Slicer Dicer (Pixotec). The processing software Res2Dinv and Res3Dinv perform a smoothness-constrained inversion using finite difference forward modeling and quasi-Newton inversion techniques to model the subsurface conditions, whereas the Slicer Dicer software is used for visualization of the three-dimensional data. The first model consists of 22 merged two-dimensional surveys, 10 along the x-axes and 12 along the y-axes. 36 electrodes were involved in each survey-line, the spacing between the electrodes is 5m, the geometric configuration is the Wenner array. The distance between each survey-line in the x- and y-plain is 15m (triple electrode spacing). So a grid of 175m x 175m was built up, with 792 electrode positions and 4356 data points. The second image consists of 17 combined surveys, 10 along the x-axes and 7 along the y-axes. The spacing between the 36 electrodes is 2m, the geometric configuration is the Wenner Schlumberger array. The distance between each survey-line in the x-plain is 8m (quadruple electrode spacing) and range in the y-plain between 24m and 8m, the result is a higher resolution in the central part of the 72m x 72m grid with 612 electrode positions and 4896 data points. Data acquisition, data processing and problems to generate the quasi 3D images as well as the positive and negative aspects of this new approach in geophysical modeling of the subsurface in mountainous periglacial environments will be the main focus of this contribution.

  1. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  2. Imaging vascular function for early stage clinical trials using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, M.O.; Orton, M. [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Morgan, B. [Univ. of Leicester, College of Medicine, Biological Sciences and Psychology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Tofts, P.S. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Univ. of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Sussex (United Kingdom); Buckley, D.L. [University of Leeds, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Huang, W. [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Advanced Imaging Research Centre, Portland, OR (United States); Horsfield, M.A. [Medical Physics Section, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Dept. of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester (United Kingdom); Chenevert, T.L. [Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Collins, D.J. [Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cancer Research UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jackson, A. [Univ. of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Withington, Manchester, M20 3LJ (United Kingdom); Lomas, D. [Univ. of Cambridge, Dept. of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Whitcher, B. [Unit 2 Greenways Business Park, Mango Solutions, Chippenham (United Kingdom); Clarke, L. [Cancer Imaging Program, Imaging Technology Development Branch, Rockville, MD (United States); Plummer, R. [Univ. of Newcastle Upon Tyne, The Medical School, Medical Oncology, Northern Inst. for Cancer Research, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Judson, I. [Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom); Jones, R. [Beatson West of Scotland Cancer Centre, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Alonzi, R. [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood (United Kingdom); Brunner, T. [Gray Inst. for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, Oxford (United Kingdom); Koh, D.M. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Diagnostic Radiology, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)] [and others

    2012-07-15

    Many therapeutic approaches to cancer affect the tumour vasculature, either indirectly or as a direct target. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) has become an important means of investigating this action, both pre-clinically and in early stage clinical trials. For such trials, it is essential that the measurement process (i.e. image acquisition and analysis) can be performed effectively and with consistency among contributing centres. As the technique continues to develop in order to provide potential improvements in sensitivity and physiological relevance, there is considerable scope for between-centre variation in techniques. A workshop was convened by the Imaging Committee of the Experimental Cancer Medicine Centres (ECMC) to review the current status of DCE-MRI and to provide recommendations on how the technique can best be used for early stage trials. This review and the consequent recommendations are summarised here. (orig.)

  3. Noninvasive imaging in acute coronary disease. A clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous highly complex and sensitive noninvasive imaging techniques have enhanced the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Optimum use requires specific objectives to be defined in advance, including a review of the potential impact of the test on subsequent decisions. An additional issue that is subject to scrutiny in the current climate of cost containment relates to the incremental value of a specific examination. The imaging modality to be used will partially depend on other issues, including accessibility, cost, and interindividual or institutional expertise with a particular technique. Major applications in noninvasive imaging in the acute coronary syndromes include the following: (1) diagnosis, including identification of associated diseases and contraindications for acute reperfusion; (2) evaluation and management of complications; (3) determination of prognosis (both early and late); (4) estimation of myocardial viability; (5) assessment of therapeutic efficacy; (6) investigational approaches, including 99mTc-sestamibi tomographic imaging, ultrafast cine computed tomographic scanning, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Previous studies in the prethrombolytic era have documented the powerful impact of radionuclide stress testing on prognosis, but this needs to be reevaluated in the light of the changing current population undergoing stress testing. Preliminary data imply that the prognostic accuracy of stress testing after thrombolytic therapy is diminished. Moreover, the role of the open infarct-related artery in traditional estimates of prognosis requires further study. Noninvasive imaging has multiple applications in the diagnosis and management of patients with acute coronary disease, but the decision to use a specific technology in a particular circumstance mandates good clinical judgment and selectivity. 82 references

  4. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot Thing, Rune; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; Hansen, Olfred; Brink, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Projection image based artefact corrections of image lag, detector scatter, body scatter and beam hardening are described and applied to CBCT images of five lung cancer patients. Image quality is evaluated through visual appearance of the reconstructed images, HU-correspondence with the planning CT images, and total volume HU error. Artefacts are reduced and CT-like HUs are recovered in the artefact corrected CBCT images. Visual inspection confirms that artefacts are indeed suppressed by the proposed method, and the HU root mean square difference between reconstructed CBCTs and the reference CT images are reduced by 31% when using the artefact corrections compared to the standard clinical CBCT reconstruction. A versatile artefact correction method for clinical CBCT images acquired for IGRT has been developed. HU values are recovered in the corrected CBCT images. The proposed method relies on post processing of clinical projection images, and does not require patient specific optimisation. It is thus a powerful tool for image quality improvement of large numbers of CBCT images.

  5. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.; Budinger, T.F.

    1985-08-01

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Biological effects and physical safety aspects of NMR imaging and in vivo spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An assessment is made of the biological effects and physical hazards of static and time-varying fields associated with the NMR devices that are being used for clinical imaging and in vivo spectroscopy. A summary is given of the current state of knowledge concerning the mechanisms of interaction and the bioeffects of these fields. Additional topics that are discussed include: (1) physical effects on pacemakers and metallic implants such as aneurysm clips, (2) human health studies related to the effects of exposure to nonionizing electromagnetic radiation, and (3) extant guidelines for limiting exposure of patients and medical personnel to the fields produced by NMR devices. On the basis of information available at the present time, it is concluded that the fields associated with the current generation of NMR devices do not pose a significant health risk in themselves. However, rigorous guidelines must be followed to avoid the physical interaction of these fields with metallic implants and medical electronic devices. 476 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Left-sided gallbladder: Its clinical significance and imaging presentations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the importance of preoperative diagnosis and presentation of left-sided gallbladder using ultrasound (US), CT and angiography.METHODS: Retrospective review of 1482 patients who underwent enhanced CT scanning was performed. Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed if a right-sided ligamentum teres was present. The image presentations on US, CT and angiography were also reviewed.RESULTS: Left-sided gallbladder was diagnosed in nine patients. The associated abnormalities on CT imaging included portal vein anomalies, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe of the liver,club-shaped portal vein in the right lobe of the liver, and difficulty in identifying segment Ⅳ. Angiography in six of nine patients demonstrated abnormal portal venous system (trifurcation type in four of six patients). The main hepatic arteries followed the portal veins in all six patients. The segment Ⅳ artery was identified in four of six patients using angiography, although segment Ⅳ was difficult to define on CT imaging. Hepatectomy was performed in three patients with concomitant liver tumor and the diagnosis of left-sided gallbladder was confirmed intraoperatively.CONCLUSION: Left-sided gallbladder is an important clinical entity in hepatectomy due to its associated portal venous and biliary anomalies. It should be considered in US, CT and angiography images that demonstrate no definite segment IV, absence of umbilical portion of the portal vein in the left lobe, and club-shaped right anterior portal vein.

  8. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  9. Functional imaging in oncology. Clinical applications. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Antonio [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology; MRI Health Time Group, Jaen (Spain); Vilanova, Joan C. [Girona Univ. (Spain). Clinica Girona - Hospital Sta. Caterina; Hygino da Cruz, L. Celso Jr. (ed.) [CDPI and IRM, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology; Rossi, Santiago E. [Centro de Diagnostico, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    Easy-to-read manual on new functional imaging techniques in oncology. Explains current clinical applications and outlines future avenues. Includes numerous high-quality illustrations to highlight the major teaching points. In the new era of functional and molecular imaging, both currently available imaging biomarkers and biomarkers under development are expected to lead to major changes in the management of oncological patients. This two-volume book is a practical manual on the various imaging techniques capable of delivering functional information on cancer, including diffusion MRI, perfusion CT and MRI, dual-energy CT, spectroscopy, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, PET, and hybrid modalities. This second volume considers the applications and benefits of these techniques in a wide range of tumor types, including their role in diagnosis, prediction of treatment outcome, and early evaluation of treatment response. Each chapter addresses a specific malignancy and is written by one or more acclaimed experts. The lucid text is complemented by numerous high-quality illustrations that highlight key features and major teaching points.

  10. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (166). Nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Lin Wah; Chinchure, Dinesh; Lim, Tze Chwan

    2016-03-01

    A 68-year-old woman with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus presented to the emergency department with choreoathetoid movements affecting the upper and lower left limbs. Computed tomography of the brain did not show any intracranial abnormalities. However, subsequent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed an increased T1 signal in the right basal ganglia, raising the suspicion of nonketotic hyperglycaemic chorea-hemiballismus. Management consisted of adjusting her insulin dose to achieve good glycaemic control. The patient subsequently recovered and was discharged after eight days. There are many causes of basal ganglia T1 hyperintensity, including hyperglycaemia in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. This case emphasises the importance of MR imaging in the early diagnosis of hyperglycaemia as a cause of chorea-hemiballismus, to enable early treatment and a better clinical outcome. PMID:26996977

  11. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  12. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  13. Evaluation of different imaging chains in clinical chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manninen, H.; Terho, E.O.; Wiljasalo, M.; Wiljasalo, S.; Soimakallio, S. (Kuopio Central Hospital (Finland))

    1984-11-01

    Six imaging techniques in clinical chest radiography have been evaluated: four film-screen combinations in the conventional grid technique and two combinations in the air gap technique. Five parameters characterising the quality of a chest radiograph were evaluated by three radiologists and one chest physician by using a nominal grading scale from -2 to +2 compared with the standard technique. The quality parameters judged were: the visibility of peripheral lung vessels, lung parenchyme, the pulmonary hilum, and lung structure behind the heart shadow, as well as the visibility of miscellaneous findings of clinical interest. The air gap technique was shown to be superior to the ordinary grid technique. The diagnostic quality of chest radiography does not necessarily deteriorate with the screen speed. However, statistically significant differences were noticed, even between techniques which had equal speed and physical resolution.

  14. Functional Imaging of Breast Tissue and Clinical Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach to image hemoglobin concentration(ΔDhb) and oxygen saturation (ΔDoxy) of breast tissue is presented. The scenograph of dual-wavelength (760 and 850 nm) near infrared lights through breast tissue is acquired by high sensitive charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The evaluation criterion of the difference of ΔDhb and ΔDoxy between detected and referenced breast tissue can be obtained by a calculation formula without complicate caculation. This approach is applied to clinic detection in breast tissue. The ongoing clinical experiments indicate that malignant tumor usually exhibits characterize of "higher ΔDhb and lower ΔDoxy", while benign lesion often shows "lower ΔDhb and higher ΔDoxy" or other characters. So it is useful to assist the diagnosis of breast disease.

  15. MR imaging assessment of clinical problems in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Jose A.; Roca, Yolanda; Aguilera, Carlos [Department of CT and MR Imaging, Hospital Duran i Reynals, Universitaria de Bellvitge, Barcelona (Spain); Narvaez, Javier [Department of Medicine, Delfos Medical Center, Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Although MR imaging has been increasingly recognized as a useful tool in the diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in the assessment of disease activity, these applications have not yet been usually included in the routine management of this condition. Our goal is to review the current role of MRI in the everyday clinical management of patients with RA. The usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of articular and para-articular changes in specific locations, mainly the craniocervical region and the temporomandibular joint, are reviewed. Clinical problems derived from local extra-articular involvement, such as tenosynovitis, ''rice-bodies'' bursitis, and Baker's cyst rupture, are also described. Finally, we also review the value of MRI in evaluation of some complications of RA such as tendinous rupture, osteonecrosis, stress fracture, and septic arthritis/osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  16. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Achiam, Michael;

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. MATERIALS...... radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. RESULTS: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14...... patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate (kappa=0.51) and fair (kappa=0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute...

  17. Epidemiological and clinical aspects of snAkebite in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska Teixeira CAIAFFA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of 310 hospitalized snakebite patients and 310 matched controls were described, over a seven years period, from an emergency hospital in Belo Horizonte, Southeast Brazil. The diagnosis was based upon clinical picture or actual snake identification. Fifty six percent of victims were bitten by the snakes of genus Bothrops, 32.0% by Crotalus, 1.0% by Lachesis and 10.0% undetermined. During the study period, stable number of cases and marked seasonal variation were noted. In comparing cases of snakebite and controls, those from a rural area or who were involved in agricultural labor activity were identified as a high risk group, with an odds ratio (OR of 14.7 and 6.7, respectively, in favor of being bitten. Upon treatment, snakebite patients were 13.5 times more likely to have had early anaphylactic reactions than their controls, with a higher association in the age group ³ 20 years (OR = 30.3. Increased risks were also detected for pyrexia (OR = 11.7, with a marked association in the group under 19 years old (OR = 16.6. Severe cases of snakebite are an important treatable cause of morbidity in Brazil but therapy may be potentially life threatening. The higher case-fatality ratio encountered, compared to national statistics may be due the representativeness of the more severe cases who sought hospitalization. Preventing snakebite and early referral of those who are bitten is proposedAspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos de acidentes ofídicos atendidos em hospital referência em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil (1980-1986 Um estudo clínico-epidemiológico, comparando 310 pacientes hospitalizados por acidentes ofídicos (casos e 310 pacientes hospitalizados por outras causas (controles, pareados por idade e sexo, durante um período de sete anos, foi conduzido em um hospital de emergências em Belo Horizonte, MG. O diagnóstico dos casos foi baseado no quadro clínico ou na identificação do ofídio. Destes

  18. Multimodality imaging in cranial blastomycosis, a great mimicker: Case-based illustration with review of clinical and imaging findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet S Kochar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging data of three patients who are proven cases of blastomycosis with cranial involvement. In this review, we discuss the imaging features of cranial blastomycosis with relevant clinical case examples including computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and advanced MR imaging techniques like magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS and MR perfusion. Literature is reviewed for modern-day diagnosis and treatment of this fatal intracranial infection, if not diagnosed promptly and managed effectively.

  19. Retrospective study of clinical and hematological aspects associated with dogs naturally infected by Hepatozoon canis in Ludhiana, Punjab, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sushma Chhabra; Sanjeev Kumar Uppal; Lachhman Das Singla

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate clinical and hematological aspects of dogs naturally infected withHepatozoon canis (H. canis) presented at the Small Animal Clinics of Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana. Methods: Blood films of 34 naturally infected dogs were examined for haematological alterations and parasitaemia. Signalment and clinical signs were recorded from the animals. Clinical histories were filled out during the consultation. Results: Of the 34 positive dogs by Giemsa stained peripheral blood films, 88.23% presented parasitaemia by H. canis only, while 11.77% had the combination ofH. canis, Babesia sp. and Ehrlichia sp. Young male dogs less than one-year-old, of non-descript breed, were the most commonly affected. And 26.47% were presented with anorexia/inappetence as the only clinical symptom. Other clinical symptoms were mild to moderate fever, pale mucosae and lethargy; a few were also showing the signs of vomiting and diarrhoea. Haematological alterations showed mainly normochromic-normocytic anaemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Conclusions: The findings of this study substantiate that H. canis caused clinical and haematological alterations of the varied intensity in dogs, even with low parasitaemia, should be taken into consideration.

  20. Yoga and Mindfulness: Clinical Aspects of an Ancient Mind/Body Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Paul; Lush, Elizabeth; Jablonski, Megan; Sephton, Sandra E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Yoga and other complementary healthcare interventions for both clinical and non-clinical populations has increased substantially in recent years. In this context, we describe the implementation of Hatha Yoga in the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program of Kabat-Zinn and colleagues. This is embedded in a more general…

  1. Comparison of clinical and physics scoring of PET images when image reconstruction parameters are varied

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the quantitative and qualitative image quality (IQ) measurements with clinical judgement of IQ in positron emission tomography (PET) were compared. The limitations of IQ metrics and the proposed criteria of acceptability for PET scanners are discussed. Phantom and patient images were reconstructed using seven different iterative reconstruction protocols. For each reconstructed set of images, IQ was scored based both on the visual analysis and on the quantitative metrics. The quantitative physics metrics did not rank the reconstruction protocols in the same order as the clinicians' scoring of perceived IQ (Rs = -0.54). Better agreement was achieved when comparing the clinical perception of IQ to the physicist's visual assessment of IQ in the phantom images (Rs = +0.59). The closest agreement was seen between the quantitative physics metrics and the measurement of the standard uptake values (SUVs) in small tumours (Rs = +0.92). Given the disparity between the clinical perception of IQ and the physics metrics a cautious approach to use of IQ measurements for determining suspension levels is warranted. (authors)

  2. Differences in the Nature of Body Image Disturbances between Female Obese Individuals with versus without a Comorbid Binge Eating Disorder: An Exploratory Study Including Static and Dynamic Aspects of Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Betz, Sabrina; Puigcerver, Maria Jose Baguena; Benecke, Andrea; Troje, Nikolaus F.; Ruddel, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Various components of body image were measured to assess body image disturbances in patients with obesity. To overcome limitations of previous studies, a photo distortion technique and a biological motion distortion device were included to assess static and dynamic aspects of body image. Questionnaires assessed cognitive-affective aspects, bodily…

  3. Sinusitis and intracranial sepsis: the CT imaging and clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CT imaging and clinical presentation in 14 children with coexistent intracranial sepsis and sinusitis were reviewed. A routine CT head scan (10-mm thick semi-axial slices through the cranium done before and after intravenous contrast medium administration) was found to be an inadequate initial investigation as the intracranial collection was missed in four patients and the abnormal sinuses not shown in six. In half the children the dagnosis of sinusitis was unsuspected at the time of admission. The dominant clinical features were fever, intense headache and facial swelling in early adolescent males. In this clinical setting we recommend: (1) The routine scan is extended through the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses and photographed at a window level and width showing both bone detail and air/soft tissue interfaces; (2) direct coronal projections are performed through the anterior cranial fossa if no collection is seen on the routine study; (3) an early repeat scan within 48 h if the initial study shows no intracranial pathology but the fronto-ethomoidal sinuses are abnormal and there is a high clinical supicion of intracranial sepsis; and (4) in the presence of intracranial sepsis the vault is viewed at bone window settings to exclude cranial osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  4. Sinusitis and intracranial sepsis: the CT imaging and clinical presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxton, V.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Boldt, D.W. [Dept. of Radiology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia); Shield, L.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-11-01

    The CT imaging and clinical presentation in 14 children with coexistent intracranial sepsis and sinusitis were reviewed. A routine CT head scan (10-mm thick semi-axial slices through the cranium done before and after intravenous contrast medium administration) was found to be an inadequate initial investigation as the intracranial collection was missed in four patients and the abnormal sinuses not shown in six. In half the children the dagnosis of sinusitis was unsuspected at the time of admission. The dominant clinical features were fever, intense headache and facial swelling in early adolescent males. In this clinical setting we recommend: (1) The routine scan is extended through the frontal and ethmoidal sinuses and photographed at a window level and width showing both bone detail and air/soft tissue interfaces; (2) direct coronal projections are performed through the anterior cranial fossa if no collection is seen on the routine study; (3) an early repeat scan within 48 h if the initial study shows no intracranial pathology but the fronto-ethomoidal sinuses are abnormal and there is a high clinical supicion of intracranial sepsis; and (4) in the presence of intracranial sepsis the vault is viewed at bone window settings to exclude cranial osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  5. Dopamine transporter imaging in clinically unclear cases of parkinsonism and the importance of Scans Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficit (SWEDDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. T. Utiumi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD is susceptible to misdiagnosis, especially in the earlier stages of the disease. Recently, in vivo imaging techniques assessing the presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT have emerged as a useful tool in PD diagnosis, improving its accuracy. OBJECTIVE: It was to illustrate the clinical usefulness of a brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT DAT ligand, and highlight relevant aspects of scans without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDDs in this context. CASES: We described four representative patients with clinically unclear parkinsonian syndromes who underwent [99mTc]-TRODAT-1 SPECT and reviewed the clinical implications. CONCLUSION: DAT-SPECT is an important, cost-effective, technique for the differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes. Additionally, SWEDD cases present clinical and paraclinical peculiarities that may retrospectively identify them as essential/dystonic tremor. The lack of histopathological data limits further conclusions.

  6. Clinical aspects and perspectives of erlotinib in the treatment of patients with biliary tract cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . The epidermal growth factor receptor system is upregulated in many cancers and can be targeted by the protein kinase inhibitor erlotinib. Erlotinib has demonstrated a clinically applicable effect in pancreatic and lung cancer Areas covered: In this review, the author presents the published clinical...... erlotinib was negative, but suggested improved progression free survival in cholangiocarcinoma patients when added to gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. There is no clinical, radiological or molecular marker to guide therapy, but genomic profiling and basket or umbrella trials may be useful in identifying the...

  7. Clinical aspects of a multicenter clinical trial of implant-retained mandibular overdentures in patients with severely resorbed mandibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, ME; Boerrigter, EM; VanWaas, MAJ; vanOort, RP

    1996-01-01

    In a multicenter clinical trial treatment, the effects of overdentures on different implant systems in patients with severely resorbed mandibles were compared 1 year after the insertion of new dentures. The implant systems used were the transmandibular implant (TMI), the IMZ (IMZ), and the Branemark

  8. Optical correlation aspect of holography: from ghost-imaging to static phase-conjugation holographic associative memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyanskii, P. V.; Husak, Ye. M.

    2013-12-01

    We highlight the milestones of fifty-year history of emerging holographic associative memory as the chronologically first proposed practical application of the laser holographic techniques (van Heerden, 1963). Holographic associative memories are considered here as an important aspect of correlation optics, and the forming associative response is interpreted with account of fine phase relations among numerous partial images involved into discrimination mechanism of reconstruction. Three main approaches proposed for implementation of holographic associative memories are discussed and compared, namely, classical 'linear' ghost-image holography, the associateve memories based on resonator architectures using optical feedback and thresholding algorithms, and the quadric (second-order) hologrambased associative memories.

  9. [Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma. Clinical aspects and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, P M; Junquera, L M; Albertos, J M; Molina, R; Gonzalez, S; Villarreal, P M

    1998-02-01

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a rare odontogenic tumor. It is formed by proliferation of epithelial odontogenic elements combined with ectomesechimal tissue. The presence of dentine, enamel and osteoid like tissue can be identified. Cases of sarcomatous degeneration have been described. In this work, we present two new cases of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, analyzing the most important aspects of their differential diagnosis, with a review of literature.

  10. Epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical aspects of canine lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa B. Neuwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the epidemiological, clinical and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine lymphomas diagnosed in the region of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Thirty dogs were enrolled in the study; most of them were male (60%, mixed-breed (23% and middle-aged or older. The majority (87% of affected dogs showed the multicentric form. The B-cell phenotype was most frequently detected (62%; 37% of the animals were in clinical stage IV, and 83% were classified as sub-stage "b". Lymphadenopathy was observed in 67% of the cases, and dyspnea, prostration, decreased appetite and vomiting were the most common clinical signs encountered. Anemia was a frequently encountered laboratory alteration (57%, as were leukocytosis (40%, thrombocytopenia (33%, lymphopenia (30%, hyperglobulinemia (20% and hypercalcemia (13%. The results of this study indicate that the clinical features of dogs with lymphoma in the region of Porto Alegre are similar to those observed worldwide.

  11. Stress fractures: pathophysiology, clinical presentation, imaging features, and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, George R; Mahanty, Scott R; Skalski, Matthew R; Patel, Dakshesh B; White, Eric A; Gottsegen, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Stress fracture, in its most inclusive description, includes both fatigue and insufficiency fracture. Fatigue fractures, sometimes equated with the term "stress fractures," are most common in runners and other athletes and typically occur in the lower extremities. These fractures are the result of abnormal, cyclical loading on normal bone leading to local cortical resorption and fracture. Insufficiency fractures are common in elderly populations, secondary to osteoporosis, and are typically located in and around the pelvis. They are a result of normal or traumatic loading on abnormal bone. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the hip or knee may cause acute pain that may present in the emergency setting. Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of stress injury of the tibia related to activity and is a clinical syndrome encompassing a range of injuries from stress edema to frank-displaced fracture. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture associated with long-term bisphosphonate therapy is also a recently discovered entity that needs early recognition to prevent progression to a complete fracture. Imaging recommendations for evaluation of stress fractures include initial plain radiographs followed, if necessary, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is preferred over computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy. Radiographs are the first-line modality and may reveal linear sclerosis and periosteal reaction prior to the development of a frank fracture. MRI is highly sensitive with findings ranging from periosteal edema to bone marrow and intracortical signal abnormality. Additionally, a brief description of relevant clinical management of stress fractures is included. PMID:27002328

  12. Aspects of the continuous clinical measurement of arterial blood pressure and cardiac output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors try to classify circulatory measurements as to certain characteristics such as ''activeness'', ''invasivenesss'', etc. Next they turn to defining some fundamental measurements in the blood circulation and focus attention on the continuous measurement of systemic arterial pressure and flow to finally emphasize the inaccuracy of clinical cardiac output methods. The conclusion is that clinical circulatory measurement methods have accuracies at least an order of magnitude worse than common physical methods used in electrical or mechanical engineering. (Auth.)

  13. Behavioral aspects of clinical trials. An integrated framework from behavior theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, G R; Hickok, J T; Burish, T G

    1994-11-01

    A less-than-optimal proportion of patients with cancer are entered into National Cancer Institute-sponsored clinical trials. This article reviews the literature on accrual in oncology clinical trials to characterize the extent of the problem, identify reasons for low accrual, and suggest ways to promote accrual. Four well known theories of health behavior (the Health Belief Model, Subjective Expected Utility Theory, Protection Motivation Theory, and the Theory of Reasoned Action) point to central concepts involved in understanding patient health-related behavior: (1) the probability that an unwelcomed health event will happen to a patient, (2) the severity of that event if it does occur, (3) the effectiveness of a particular behavior (such as taking part in a clinical trial) to modify the severity, and (4) the cost of adopting that behavior. These concepts form a framework for integrating the available information about accrual to clinical oncology trials. Patient and physician factors previously related to clinical trials suggest specific recommendations for increasing accrual to clinical oncology trials. PMID:7954285

  14. Longitudinal PBL in Undergraduate Medical Education Develops Lifelong-Learning Habits and Clinical Competencies in Social Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yumiko; Matsushita, Susumu; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Yoshioka, Toshimasa; Nitta, Kosaku

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is popular in medical education in Japan. We wished to understand the influence of PBL on the clinical competence of medical residents, using self-assessment and observer assessment. Tokyo Women's Medical University (TWMU) implemented PBL longitudinally (long-time) for four years, and on this basis we analyzed whether long-time PBL education is useful for clinical work. A self-assessment questionnaire was sent to junior and senior residents who were alumni of several schools, and an observation-based assessment questionnaire to senior doctors instructing them. Respondents were asked if they had used the PBL process in daily clinical tasks, and if so in what processes. Senior doctors were asked whether TWMU graduates perform differently from graduates of other schools. TWMU graduates answered "used a lot" and "used a little" with regard to PBL at significantly higher rates than other graduates. As useful points of PBL, they mentioned extracting clinical problems, solving clinical problems, self-directed leaning, positive attitude, collaboration with others, presentation, doctor-patient relations, self-assessment, and share the knowledge with doctors at lower levels and students. Observer assessments of TWMU graduates by senior doctors represented them as adaptive, good at presenting, good at listening to others' opinions, practical, selfish, and eager in their instructional practice. Longitudinal PBL can be a good educational method to develop lifelong-learning habits and clinical competencies especially in terms of the social aspect. PMID:26725844

  15. The conceptual images of erotic relations in Spanish. Analysis of some linguistic aspects of The Turkish passion by Antonio Gala

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Popek-Bernat

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual images of erotic relations in Spanish. Analysis of some linguistic aspects of The Turkish passion by Antonio GalaIn this paper we try to systematize the contemporary Spanish expressions related to the erotic relations. The corpus is based on the novel by Antonio Gala The Turkish Passion (orig. La pasión turca) which, thanks to its plot with higly erotic content, constitutes an important source of linguistic material for our investigation. The analysis we propose reflects the me...

  16. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs

  17. Clinical applications of cobalt-radionuclides in neuro-imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H.M.L

    1998-04-01

    The aim of the studies embodied in this thesis was to investigate the clinical applicability of Co in euro-imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). To this purpose, a set of closely related pilot studies were performed in patients suffering from several neurological diseases affecting the brain. Chapter 2 discusses the physiological role of Co and both indications and complications of Co-administration in the past. The probable deposition mechanism of Co is described, potential (absence of) evidence of Co mimicking Ca in vivo is discussed, a comparison is made with other tracer-analogues (Ga, TI, Rb) and several hypotheses with respect to the pharmacokinetic behaviour of Co and the role of (inflammatory) proteins and cells are forwarded. The etiologic mechanism(s), clinical symptoms, Ca-related pathophysiology and (most recent) imaging techniques are reviewed of Multiple Sclerosis, cerebrovascular stroke, traumatic brain injury and primary brain tumours. The major goal of these respective reviews is both a rough outline of present insights and near-future developments and an assessment of the (im)possibilities in visualising the actual substrate of disease. Since Co is assumed to reflect (the common pathway of) Ca, an application of Co (based on cell-decay and inflammation) may be hypothesised in all of the diseases mentioned. These considerations served as a theoretical basis for our further studies in clinical practice. Chapter 3 (Original reprints) presents the actual results, whil Chapter 4 (General discussion) reflects on lessons that can be learned from the present work and consequently formulates some suggestions for future (extended) studies. The contours of possible new emerging areas of interest (dementia of the Alzheimer type; vascular dementia; stunned myocardium) are drawn in continuation of the foregoing studies. 47 refs.

  18. Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging: technology and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Bradford C

    2007-07-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) is a valuable method for use by clinical investigators to study task-related brain activation in patients with neurological or neuropsychiatric illness. Despite the relative infancy of the field, the rapid adoption of this functional neuroimaging technology has resulted from, among other factors, its ready availability, its relatively high spatial and temporal resolution, and its safety as a noninvasive imaging tool that enables multiple repeated scans over the course of a longitudinal study, and thus may lend itself well as a measure in clinical drug trials. Investigators have used fMRI to identify abnormal functional brain activity during task performance in a variety of patient populations, including those with neurodegenerative, demyelinating, cerebrovascular, and other neurological disorders that highlight the potential utility of fMRI in both basic and clinical spheres of research. In addition, fMRI studies reveal processes related to neuroplasticity, including compensatory hyperactivation, which may be a universally-occurring, adaptive neural response to insult. Functional MRI is being used to study the modulatory effects of genetic risk factors for neurological disease on brain activation; it is being applied to differential diagnosis, as a predictive biomarker of disease course, and as a means to identify neural correlates of neurotherapeutic interventions. Technological advances are rapidly occurring that should provide new applications for fMRI, including improved spatial resolution, which promises to reveal novel insights into the function of fine-scale neural circuitry of the human brain in health and disease.

  19. Clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lin

    2006-01-01

    @@ Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)has been widely used in basic research in the past decade, and more clinically in recent years.Unlike conventional MRI that demonstrates the anatomy and morphology of the brain, fMRI provides the functional information of the brain, including neuronal activation, perfusion, diffusion, metabolism,and fiber connection. Since the publication of the pioneer study by Ogawa et al1 in 1990, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) technique has been adopted by neuroscientists and psychologists in research into the mechanisms of motion, vision,hearing, language, memory, and functions of the brain. Soon after, clinical studies with BOLD technique were conducted in some fields like surgery (surgical planning). In China, however, basic and clinical studies on fMRI in the early years were limited by the shortage of funding, difficulty in integrating personnel of different disciplines from different institutions, and long-term use of MR scanners. In recent years, the studies on fMRI in this country have been flourishing as the conditions are greatly improved, and the number of published papers has increased because more and more radiologists and clinicians are involved.

  20. Hemicrania Continua: Functional Imaging and Clinical Features With Diagnostic Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Kristen

    2013-04-10

    This review focuses on summarizing 2 pivotal articles in the clinical and pathophysiologic understanding of hemicrania continua (HC). The first article, a functional imaging project, identifies both the dorsal rostral pons (a region associated with the generation of migraines) and the posterior hypothalamus (a region associated with the generation of cluster and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing [SUNCT]) as active during HC. The second article is a summary of the clinical features seen in a prospective cohort of HC patients that carry significant diagnostic implications. In particular, they identify a wider range of autonomic signs than what is currently included in the International Headache Society criteria (including an absence of autonomic signs in a small percentage of patients), a high frequency of migrainous features, and the presence of aggravation and/or restlessness during attacks. Wide variations in exacerbation length, frequency, pain description, and pain location (including side-switching pain) are also noted. Thus, a case is made for widening and modifying the clinical diagnostic criteria used to identify patients with HC.

  1. 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine PET in neuroendocrine tumors : Basic aspects and emerging clinical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Pieter L.; Chirakal, Raman; Marriott, Christopher J.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Gulenchyn, Karen Y.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, 6-L-(18)F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine ((18)F-DOPA) PET has emerged as a new diagnostic tool for the imaging of neuroendocrine tumors. This application is based on the unique property of neuroendocrine tumors to produce and secrete various substances, a process that requires the upt

  2. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  3. The Cerebrospinal Fluid in Severe Pain Conditions : Clinical, Pharmacological and Proteomic Aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Bäckryd, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of both cancer pain and non-cancer chronic pain is still suboptimal. The overall aim of this PhD thesis was to conduct translational pain research at the interface between clinical pain medicine and the field of human proteomics, using the practice of intrathecal analgesia at our institution as a starting point. Hence, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is at the centre of the present dissertation, both as a target for infusing analgesics (Papers I and II – clinical and pharmacologic...

  4. [Clinical aspects of use of preparations from seaweeds for caries and gingivitis prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilova, T V; Zenovskiĭ, V P; Deviatkova, M A

    2005-01-01

    Clinical application of seaweed's preparations has shown the appreciable preventive effect, which is connected, first of all, with structure of a water solution of a laminaria's mineral concentrate. This perspective direction contains the following ways of perfection of primary prevention of dental caries: improvement of salivary glands function, optimization of saturation of oral liquid by mineral components, amplification of autopurification of oral cavity, increase of dental tissue's resistance. Application of a fususe's water solution extract improves clinical condition of paradontium, reduces quantity of pathogenic microorganisms that testifies to high anti-inflammatory efficiency of an extract.

  5. Stereoscopic Height Estimation from Multiple Aspect Synthetic Aperture Radar Images; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image is a two-dimensional projection of the radar reflectivity from a 3-dimensional object or scene. Stereoscopic SAR employs two SAR images from distinct flight paths that can be processed together to extract information of the third collapsed dimension (typically height) with some degree of accuracy. However, more than two SAR images of the same scene can similarly be processed to further improve height accuracy, and hence 3-dimensional position accuracy. This report shows how

  6. Clinical, FDG and amyloid PET imaging in posterior cortical atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tarun D; Josephs, Keith A; Machulda, Mary M; Drubach, Daniel A; Apostolova, Liana G; Lowe, Val J; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the clinical, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and amyloid-PET findings in a large cohort of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) patients, to examine the neural correlates of the classic features of PCA, and to better understand the features associated with early PCA. We prospectively recruited 25 patients who presented to the Mayo Clinic between March 2013 and August 2014 and met diagnostic criteria for PCA. All patients underwent a standardized set of tests and amyloid imaging with [(11)C] Pittsburg compound B (PiB). Seventeen (68 %) underwent FDG-PET scanning. We divided the cohort at the median disease duration of 4 years in order to assess clinical and FDG-PET correlates of early PCA (n = 13). The most common clinical features were simultanagnosia (92 %), dysgraphia (68 %), poly-mini-myoclonus (64 %) and oculomotor apraxia (56.5 %). On FDG-PET, hypometabolism was observed bilaterally in the lateral and medial parietal and occipital lobes. Simultanagnosia was associated with hypometabolism in the right occipital lobe and posterior cingulum, optic ataxia with hypometabolism in left occipital lobe, and oculomotor apraxia with hypometabolism in the left parietal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus. All 25 PCA patients were amyloid positive. Simultanagnosia was the only feature present in 85 % of early PCA patients. The syndrome of PCA is associated with posterior hemisphere hypometabolism and with amyloid deposition. Many of the classic features of PCA show associated focal, but not widespread, areas of involvement of these posterior hemispheric regions. Simultanagnosia appears to be the most common and hence sensitive feature of early PCA. PMID:25862483

  7. Inheritance Pattern and Clinical Aspects of 93 Iranian Patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fattahi, Fatemeh; Badalzadeh, Mohsen; Sedighipour, Leyla; Movahedi, Masoud; Fazlollahi, Mohammad Reza; Mansouri, Seyed Davood; Khotaei, Ghamar Taj; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Behmanesh, Fatemeh; Hamidieh, Amir Ali; Bazargan, Nasrin; Mamishi, Setareh; Zandieh, Fariborz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Mohammadzadeh, Iraj; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Tabatabaei, Seyed Ahmad; Kalantari, Najmeddin; Tajik, Shaghayegh; Maddah, Marzieh; Pourpak, Zahra; Moin, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare immunodeficiency due to a genetic defect in one of the NADPH-oxidase components. We studied CGD inheritance forms (autosomal recessive (AR) or X-linked (XL)) and AR-CGD subtypes in Iran. Clinical and functional investigations were conducted in 93 Iranian

  8. Clinical genetic aspects of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helderman-van den Enden, Apollonia Theodora Josina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Dystrophinopathies include the well known Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD). This thesis is a collection of several clinical and genetic studies on dystrophinopathies with implications for genetic counselling of patients and their families and for future therapy (

  9. Clinical aspects of type 1 posterior laryngeal clefts: literature review and a report of 31 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doef, H.P. van der; Yntema, J.L.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den; Marres, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The clinical relevance of posterior laryngeal clefts (PLCs) of type 1 has only recently been highlighted in the medical literature. We present a review of the literature and a report of a contributive series of 31 type 1 PLC patients. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a MEDLINE sear

  10. Molecular aspects of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma : genetic alterations underlying clinical behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, Maria Sophia van (Marloes)

    2012-01-01

    The research described in the thesis is focused at identifying molecular aberrations contributing to the pathogenesis of CTCL. In search for differences in chromosomal alterations underlying the different clinical behavior and prognosis of patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (Sz

  11. Generalized odontodysplasia in a 5-year-old patient with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome: clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography findings, and conservative clinical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Juliana Ximenes; Couto, José Luciano Pimenta; Alves, Karla Shangela da Silva; Chaves, Cauby Maia; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Pimenta, Alynne de Menezes Vieira; Fonteles, Cristiane Sá Roriz

    2014-08-01

    This article aims to report the main clinical aspects, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) findings, and conservative oral rehabilitation in a child born from a consanguineous marriage who presented with Hallermann-Streiff syndrome (HSS) and generalized odontodysplasia. A 5-year-old girl presented with a diagnosis of HSS for oral evaluation. Radiographically, all teeth showed wide pulp chambers and roots with thin dentinal walls and open apices, resembling ghost teeth and indicating a diagnosis of odontodysplasia. Oral rehabilitation consisted of partial dentures that were regularly adjusted to conform the device with the pattern of growth and development of the child. CBCT scan provided great insight into HSS, allowing a detailed view of the morphologic aspects and associated trabecular bone pattern. Treatment of these 2 rare conditions in young children must consider the stage of growth and development. Although extremely rare in HSS, odontodysplasia should be investigated and conservatively managed in young children.

  12. SUEX process optimization for ultra-thick high-aspect ratio LIGA imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Donald W.; Goettert, Jost; Singh, Varshni; Yemane, Dawit

    2011-04-01

    oven, taken out and cooled to RT then relaxed up to 3 days before development to reduce stress. Development was done in PGMEA for up to 3 hours for the 1000μm thick samples followed by a short IPA rinse and drying in air. Very high aspect ratios of 100 or more have been routinely patterned with nearly perfectly straight sidewalls (~1-1.5μm deviation for a 1mm tall structure) and excellent image fidelity.

  13. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  14. Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Image of God as a Core Aspect of Religiousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke; Sizoo, B.; Schothorst-Van Roekel, J.; Corveleyn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and the image of God were studied among adult mental health outpatients with ASD (N = 78) and compared to a psychiatric and a nonclinical norm group. The God image, which refers to the personal meaning that God/the divine has to the individual, of

  15. Lumbar spinal imaging in radicular pain and related conditions. Understanding diagnostic images in a clinical context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmink, Jan T. [University Hospital Maastricht (Netherlands). Dept. Radiology

    2010-07-01

    There is general agreement that lumbosacral nerve root compression is a prime factor in the pathogenesis of sciatica and neurogenic claudication, although humoral and vascular factors certainly play a role as well. This book focuses on imaging of the various ways in which nerve root compression can come about, and assessing which anatomic features are reliably associated with the occurrence of radicular pain, as opposed to morphologic findings which are probably coincidental. After a discussion of the nature of radicular pain and related symptoms, spinal imaging techniques and options are reviewed, with emphasis on the role of MR myelography in assessing the condition of the intradural nerve roots. A chapter on normal topographic, sectional, and functional (dynamic) radiologic anatomy is followed by a presentation on pathologic anatomy, addressing the various mechanisms of nerve root compression. In the chapter on pre- and postoperative imaging, features which may help to predict the evolution of the symptoms are discussed, with an eye to selecting candidates for surgical treatment. This is followed by a discussion of the role and limitations of imaging studies in various adverse postoperative conditions. In illustrations involving patient studies, imaging features are linked where possible to the clinical symptoms and history of the individuals involved. (orig.)

  16. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV and Chikungunya (CHIKV and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult.The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9% were tested and 119 (45.4% were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype.This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364 and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119. We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added to the PAHO case definition, while fever could be given less

  17. Hounsfield unit recovery in clinical cone beam CT images of the thorax acquired for image guided radiation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Rune Slot; Bernchou, Uffe; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto;

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive artefact correction method for clinical cone beam CT (CBCT) images acquired for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on a commercial system is presented. The method is demonstrated to reduce artefacts and recover CT-like Hounsfield units (HU) in reconstructed CBCT images of five...

  18. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: clinically relevant imaging in diagnosis and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southwood, Tauny [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Rheumatology, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The role of plain radiographs in monitoring the disease process in JIA is being increasingly superseded by MRI. The use of ultrasound by clinicians is contentious, but has the potential to corroborate and supplement the clinical impression of individual joint inflammation and it can be very useful for localising intra-articular treatment at the bedside. There are exciting developments in MRS technology which may eventually allow in vivo evaluation of the acute inflammatory process, measurement of early responses to treatment and detection of residual inflammation. The aim of this article is to describe a clinician's view of the current role of imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of JIA. (orig.)

  19. SLAP lesions: Anatomy, clinical presentation, MR imaging diagnosis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Debra [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States); MedRay Imaging and Fraser Health Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)], E-mail: cbchung@ucsd.edu; Mohana-Borges, Aurea; Borso, Maya; Chung, Christine B. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, 200 W. Arbor Drive, San Diego, CA 92103 (United States); VA Healthcare System San Diego, Department of Radiology, 3350 La Jolla Village Drive, La Jolla, CA 92161 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    ABSTRACT: Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) tears are an abnormality of the superior labrum usually centered on the attachment of the long head of the biceps tendon. Tears are commonly caused by repetitive overhead motion or fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP lesions can lead to shoulder pain and instability. Clinical diagnosis is difficult thus imaging plays a key diagnostic role. The normal anatomic variability of the capsulolabral complex can make SLAP lesions a diagnostic challenge. Concurrent shoulder injuries are often present including rotator cuff tears, cystic changes or marrow edema in the humeral head, capsular laxity, Hill-Sachs or Bankart lesion. The relevant anatomy, capsulolabral anatomic variants, primary and secondary findings of SLAP tears including MR arthrography findings, types of SLAP lesions and a practical approach to labral lesions are reviewed.

  20. Indian perspective on clinical aspects, usage, and guidelines of folic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paayal, Chobe; Ganesh, Uchit; Shaantanu, Donde

    2014-10-01

    Folic acid (pteroylmonoglutamic acid) is the stable, fully oxidized form of folate which is used in food fortification and supplements. Keen interest has been generated in folic acid due to its suggested role in prevention of various disorders. Strong evidence from clinical trials indicates preventive effect of folic acid on both occurrence and recurrence of neural tube defects. It also plays a significant role in mitigating the risk of cardiovascular disorders through homocysteine regulation. In addition, the beneficial effect of folic acid in various types of cancers, neurological disorders, conditions affecting pregnancy, and other clinical conditions has been reported in literature. Various guidelines reinforce the need for women to obtain adequate amount of folic acid either through food fortification or supplements. In India, national guidelines on the proper dose of folic acid to pregnant women are not available. Given its significant beneficial effects on health, awareness should be spread among communities on the usage and benefits of folic acid.

  1. Burkitt's lymphoma: a child's case presenting in the maxilla. Clinical and radiological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Salas, Borja; Dean-Ferrer, Alicia; Alamillos-Granados, Francisco-Jesús

    2010-05-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a neoplasm which, despite its very aggressive behaviour is potentially curable. It typically affects the paediatric population. BL belongs to the non-Hodgkin lymphomas group, and is the first human tumour undoubtedly related to a viral origin (Epstein-Barr virus). Two main clinical subtypes are recognized: endemic or African type, and sporadic type; HIV associated BL constitutes a third type. Although common in endemic BL, maxillary involvement is rare in sporadic cases. This, together with the clinical lack of specificity associated to this location, makes diagnosis difficult. New chemotherapeutic protocols achieve a high survival rate. Most important prognostic factors are location and tumour stage. We report a paediatric case of BL presenting in the maxilla, with a review and a description of the characteristics of the disease.

  2. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising. PMID:17493851

  3. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  4. Clinical aspects of eosinophilic meningitis and meningoencephalitis caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gerald S; Johnson, Stuart

    2013-06-01

    Angiostrongylus Eosinophilic Meningitis is caused by human infection with larvae of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. The clinical presentation includes a spectrum of disease, from meningitis through radiculitis, cranial nerve abnormalities, ataxia, encephalitis, coma, and rarely death. The condition is diagnosed by recognizing the triad of: the clinical syndrome, eosinophils in the cerebrospinal fluid or blood, and exposure history. A history of eating raw or poorly cooked snails is classic, but ingestion of other intermediate hosts or unwashed produce (such as lettuce) harboring hosts is not uncommon. Several serologic tests exist but none has yet been fully validated. There is good evidence that a 2 week course of high dose corticosteroids shortens the duration and severity of symptoms. There is somewhat weaker evidence that albendazole reduces symptoms. The combination of prednisolone and albendazole is being used more commonly for treatment. Some suggestions for future research are given.

  5. Radiographic and clinical aspects of endodonty of the central incisor, in maxilla: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors in the current report introduce a study of the present features when of agenesis of dental elements on the maxilla-mandibular complex. They relate a case of right upper central incisor's hypodontia, describing its clinical and radiographic appearances. Through a large revision of literature about this field, they found out that a disappearance of this element on the human dentition is rare, associating for this: genetic, familiar, nutrient, hormonal, infections and traumatic agents. Finally, they alert for the fact that an accurate clinical examination, complemented by a exact radiographic survey, will make possible a precocious diagnosis and execution of more efficient therapeutic manipulations that reduce the problems of functional, esthetic and phonetics order. (author)

  6. Cow's milk protein allergy and intolerance in infancy. Some clinical, epidemiological and immunological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1994-01-01

    symptoms. In exclusively breast-fed infants with CMPA/CMPI severe atopic eczema is a predominant symptom. Debut of CMPA/CMPI after 12 months is extremely rare. The basic treatment is complete avoidance of CMP. In infancy a proven hypoallergenic CM substitute is needed. Due to clinically important residual...... allergenicity in some hypoallergenic formulae controlled clinical testing is necessary in each case before use. Goat's milk proteins share identity with CMP Raw untreated cow's milk and unhomogenized cow's milk is as allergenic as normal pasteurized and homogenized milk products. The prognosis of CMPA....../CMPI is good with a remission rate about 45-50% at one year, 60-75% at two years, and 85-90% at three years. Associated adverse reactions to other foods develop in about 50%, and allergy against inhalants in 50-80% before puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)...

  7. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. ETIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF 262 CASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢祖能; 汤晓芙

    1995-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-two patients with carpal turmel syndrome (CTS) were analyzed retrospeetively. Results showed that middia-and older-age women were more apt to have CTS than men, and that the dominant hand was more frequently affected. Hormonal changes, repetitive and forceful movements, awkward positions of hand and wrist, and other factors may be associated with CTS. Typical clinical manifestations include pain and pareathesia in the median nerve territory, worsening at night or in the early morning, and being relieved by shaking the hand. Although the patients may localize the discomfort beyond the territory, sensory changes are variable and not entirely reliable. Conduction abnormalities often appeared selectively in the median nerve distal to the wriat in CTS. If the patient who is clinically suggestive of CTS shows normal conduction with conventional methods, palmar stimulation and inching technique is recommended. The diagnosis of CTS requires confirmation of illness history, symptoms and signs with objective electrodiagnostic tests.

  8. The biology, pathogenesis and clinical aspects of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P; Bhansali, R; Izraeli, S; Hijiya, N; Crispino, J D

    2016-09-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at a 20-fold increased risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (DS-ALL). Although the etiology of this higher risk of developing leukemia remains largely unclear, the recent identification of CRLF2 (cytokine receptor like factor 2) and JAK2 mutations and study of the effect of trisomy of Hmgn1 and Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A) on B-cell development have shed significant new light on the disease process. Here we focus on the clinical features, biology and genetics of ALL in children with DS. We review the unique characteristics of DS-ALL on both the clinical and molecular levels and discuss the differences in treatments and outcomes in ALL in children with DS compared with those without DS. The identification of new biological insights is expected to pave the way for novel targeted therapies. PMID:27285583

  9. Clinical and imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the clinical and imaging features of chlamydial pneumonia in newborns. Methods: Medical records,chest X-Ray and CT findings of 17 neonates with chlamydia pneumonia were reviewed. The age was ranged from 9.0 to 28.0 days with mean of (16.8 ± 5.8) days. There were 11 males and 6 females. Sixteen were full term infants and one was born post term. All babies were examined with chest X-ray film, and 13 patients also underwent chest CT scan. Serologic test using immunofluorescence method for Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies were performed in all patients. Results: All newborns presented with cough but without fever. Positive results of the serologic tests were demonstrated. Chest films showed bilateral hyperventilation in 10 patients, diffuse reticular nodules in 10 patients including nodules mimicking military tuberculosis in 7 patients, and accompanying consolidation in 9 patients. CT features included interstitial reticular nodules in 13 patients with size, density, and distribution varied. Subpleural nodules (11 patients) and fusion of nodules (10 patients) predominated. Bilateral hyperinflation was found in 10 patients, which combined with infiltration in 12 patients, thickening of bronchovascular bundles in 10 patients, and ground glass sign in 5 patients. No pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy was detected in any patient. Conclusions: Bilateral hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial reticular nodules were the most common imaging features of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia. The main clinical characteristic of neonatal chlamydial pneumonia is respiratory symptoms without fever, which is helpful to its diagnosis. (authors)

  10. Imaging tissue hypoxia: clinical and pre-clinical experience with {sup 123}IAZA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, L.I. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada). Noujaim Institute for Pharmaceutical Oncology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underline the selective binding of iodazomycin arabinoside, IAZA, and related nitromidazoles are reviewed as a basis for interpretation of preclinical and clinical data for hypoxic binding of radioiodinated IAZA. Clinical data are presented for {sup 123}IAZA uptake in a number of pathologies including metastatic tumours, peripheral vascular disease in diabetes, muscle stress and rheumatoid arthritis. The results of studies to determine the influence of tumour type on uptake of {sup 123} I-IAZA in patients with a variety of deep-seated solid tumours will be presented. Correlations of hypoxia-dependent binding with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO perfusion images will be reviewed and early correlations of uptake to treatment response in cancer will be presented. Unusual features of {sup 123}I-IAZA biodistribution will also be discussed together with detailed pharmacokinetic and radiation dosimetry data for `2{sup 123}I- IAZA in normal volunteers 27 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Imaging tissue hypoxia: clinical and pre-clinical experience with 123IAZA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The molecular mechanisms that underline the selective binding of iodazomycin arabinoside, IAZA, and related nitromidazoles are reviewed as a basis for interpretation of preclinical and clinical data for hypoxic binding of radioiodinated IAZA. Clinical data are presented for 123IAZA uptake in a number of pathologies including metastatic tumours, peripheral vascular disease in diabetes, muscle stress and rheumatoid arthritis. The results of studies to determine the influence of tumour type on uptake of 123 I-IAZA in patients with a variety of deep-seated solid tumours will be presented. Correlations of hypoxia-dependent binding with 99mTc-HMPAO perfusion images will be reviewed and early correlations of uptake to treatment response in cancer will be presented. Unusual features of 123I-IAZA biodistribution will also be discussed together with detailed pharmacokinetic and radiation dosimetry data for '2123I- IAZA in normal volunteers

  12. Clinical - cardiologic data of 170 dogs - general aspects of diagnosis and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an actual continuous cardiologic follow up study on 170 unselected dogs. Each proband underwent a complete cardiologic examination (history, auscultation, ECG, radiologic examination, in some cases also echocardiography). Data were grouped by age, sex, breed, congenital and acquired cardiac diseases, and by therapy. 81 (47.65 percent) of the 170 dogs were suffering from an acquired, 25 (14.70 percent) from a congenital cardiac disease. 64 dogs (37.65 percent) showedno clinical signs of heart disease

  13. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Cesaretli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3% while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%. Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2% and systemic effects (24.7%. Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2% of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents.

  14. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Cesaretli; O. Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake enveno...

  15. Practical aspects of the use of FMEA tool in clinical laboratory risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Elizabete Mendes; Pérsio de Almeida Rezende Ebner; Paschoalina Romano; Maurílio Pacheco Neto; Alexandre Sant’anna; Nairo Massakazu Sumita

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) tool in a clinical laboratory through the introduction of new technology for blood gas and serum ionized calcium in multi-parameter analyzers such as Point of Care Testing (POCT). OBJECTIVE: To present FMEA as a tool for risk managing and improvement with the introduction of new technologies in a public laboratory. METHODS: The change of multiparameter gas analyzer type POCT was defined and described as a process....

  16. Prostate cancer risk and recurrence: the role of nutrition and clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, D.E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in Western countries. Knowledge on prostate cancer aetiology is required for identification of high-risk groups, optimization of treatment strategies, and development of prevention programs. The aim of this thesis was toobtain insight into nutritional and clinical factors relevant to different stages of prostate cancer. Methods and results First, an inventory of potential risk factors for prostate cancer was made by asking 956 pat...

  17. Practical aspects of genetic identification of hallucinogenic and other poisonous mushrooms for clinical and forensic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalczyk, Marek; Sekuła, Andrzej; Mleczko, Piotr; Olszowy, Zofia; Kujawa, Anna; Zubek, Szymon; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim To assess the usefulness of a DNA-based method for identifying mushroom species for application in forensic laboratory practice. Methods Two hundred twenty-one samples of clinical forensic material (dried mushrooms, food remains, stomach contents, feces, etc) were analyzed. ITS2 region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) was sequenced and the sequences were compared with reference sequences collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information gene bank (GenBank). Sporological ide...

  18. Mass spectrometry-based hepcidin measurements in serum and urine: analytical aspects and clinical implications.

    OpenAIRE

    Kemna, E.; Tjalsma, H.; Podust, V N; Swinkels, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Discovery of the central role of hepcidin in body iron regulation has shed new light on the pathophysiology of iron disorders. Information is lacking on newer analytical approaches to measure hepcidin in serum and urine. Recent reports on the measurement of urine and serum hepcidin by surface-enhanced laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) necessitate analytical and clinical evaluation of MS-based methodologies. METHODS: We used SELDI-TOF MS, i...

  19. Maternal near miss in the intensive care unit: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Leonam Costa; da Costa, Aurélio Antônio Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the epidemiological clinical profile of women with maternal near miss according to the new World Health Organization criteria. Methods A descriptive crosssectional study was conducted, in which the records of patients admitted to the obstetric intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital in Recife (Brazil) over a period of four years were analyzed. Women who presented at least one near miss criterion were included. The variables studied were age, race/color, civil status, e...

  20. Reconsidering Risk for Reoffense in Intrafamilial Child Molesters: New Aspects on Clinical and Criminological Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhard Eher; Thomas Ross

    2006-01-01

    Intrafamilial child molesters are generally seen to be at lower risk for reoffense than extrafamilial child molesters. There is, however, good reason to question this assumption. The literature usually does not take into account some clinical and criminological data, that might indicate a higher relative risk for reoffending in intrafamilial child molesters than generally assumed. On two groups of intrafamilial (n=157) and extrafamilial (n=131) child molesters, this study tested some of the a...

  1. Biodegradable device applied in flatfoot surgery: Comparative studies between clinical and technological aspects of removed screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruozi, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.ruozi@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Belletti, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.belletti@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Manfredini, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe626@virgilio.it [Orthopaedic and Traumatologic Clinic, University Hospital of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena Italy, Director Prof. F. Catani, Via del Pozzo 71, Policlinico, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Tonelli, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.tonelli@unimore.it [CIGS, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Sena, Paola, E-mail: paola.sena@unimore.it [Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, Policlinico, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Vandelli, Maria Angela, E-mail: mariaangela.vandelli@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Forni, Flavio, E-mail: flavio.forni@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy); Tosi, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.tosi@unimore.it [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, 41100 Modena, MO (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most used polymers for biomedical application; its use in sutures and other implants has been widely investigated. Although the knowledge of PLLA biodegradation and biocompatibility features is deep, PLLA screws used to correct the flat foot deformity have deserved attention since they are not degraded in most of cases after a long period of years (3–7) from the implantation. In this article, a clinical and radiological evaluation (NMR, histological and clinical outcomes) on patients was correlated with physico-chemical characterization (by SEM, DSC, GPC and XRD analysis at different temperatures) on both native and patient-recovered screws together with the theoretical degradation processes of PLLA-based implants. The data demonstrated the need for crossing the biodegradation and bioabsorption of the polymer with the characteristics of both the device (geometry, structure and fabrication process) and the implantation site. Highlights: ► Resorbable PLLA screws were proposed for arthroereisis in pediatric flatfoot. ► Satisfactory clinical results were obtained almost in the totality of patients. ► The bioabsorption period is slightly longer than what is expected. ► Patient-recovered screws were analyzed to evaluate the biodegradation stage. ► Degradability/structural integrity during implantation should be ameliorated.

  2. Clinical Aspects of Thyrotoxicosis in 592 Patients: A Single Center Experience from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Baydur Şahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the main causes of thyrotoxicosis and to compare the clinical and biochemical fetaures of the patients according to the underlying cause of thyrotoxicosis. Material and Method: Five hundred ninety-two patients, who were consecutively diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis, were retrospectively analysed. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free T3 and free T4 levels, anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody (TGAb, anti-thyroid peroxidase autoantibody (TPOAb and ultrasonographic features were recorded. To determine the cause of thyrotoxicosis, Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy was performed in all patients except for pregnant women. The clinical and biochemical results were compared between the patients with different diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Results: 40.9% of patients were diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG. The other main causes of thyrotoxicosis were: Graves’ disease (GD (22%, thyroiditis (14.8%, gestational thyrotoxicosis (12.7%, and toxic adenoma (9.6%. The clinical presentation and severity of thyrotoxicosis varied according to the underlying cause. Weight loss was more frequently observed in patients with GD (p=0.0001, while cardiac arrhythmia dominated in patients with TMNG (p=0.0001. Moderate (27% or severe (23.9% thyrotoxicosis was more common in patients with GD than in patients with other forms of thyrotoxicosis (p=0.0001. Discussion: Toxic multinodular goiter is the most common cause of thyrotoxicosis in our region.

  3. Circulatory support devices: fundamental aspects and clinical management of bleeding and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susen, S; Rauch, A; Van Belle, E; Vincentelli, A; Lenting, P J

    2015-10-01

    Circulatory support devices are increasingly being used to overcome cardiac or respiratory failure. Long-term devices are used either as a 'bridge to transplant' to support patients who are unable to wait any longer for a heart transplant, or, more recently, as 'destination therapy' for older patients suffering from end-stage heart failure and who have contraindications to heart transplantation. Short-term support devices for high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention, or as a 'bridge for decision' for patients suffering from refractory cardiogenic shock, have also been developed. The clinical benefit of such assist devices has been demonstrated in several important studies, but, unfortunately, thrombotic and bleeding complications are two major clinical issues in patients requiring these devices. Overcoming these issues is of major importance to allow the safe and broad use of these devices, and to consider them as true alternatives to heart transplantation. The present review focuses on thrombotic and bleeding complications, and describes how the risk of thrombosis and bleeding may vary according to the clinical indication, but also according to the type of device. We describe the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of these complications, provide some guidance for choosing the most appropriate anticoagulation regimen to prevent their occurrence for each type of device and indication, and provide some recommendations for the management of patients when the complication occurs.

  4. Berberine: New Insights from Pharmacological Aspects to Clinical Evidences in the Management of Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliceti, Cristiana; Franco, Placido; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roda, Aldo; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2016-01-01

    Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids found in such plants as gender Berberis. Berberine is recognised to improve glucose and lipid metabolism disorders and preliminary clinical evidences suggest the ability of berberine to reduce endothelial inflammation improving vascular health, even in patients already affected by cardiovascular diseases, suggesting a possible interesting role of berberine and its metabolites in clinical practice. However, its physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetic, and metabolism are not fully elucidated and contradictory data have been reported. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacological and biological features of berberine, with a focus on berberine as well as their pharmacologically active metabolites and the different mechanisms underlying their activities in order to clarify the correct use of berberine supplementation, alone or in association with other nutraceuticals, for the management of metabolic disorders associated to increased cardiovascular disease risk. A particular attention has also been given to the available clinical trials assessing its short- and middle- term use tolerability, safety and efficacy in various conditions, such as dyslipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27063256

  5. Cerebellar disorders: clinical/radiologic findings and modern imaging tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Habas, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar disorders, also called cerebellar ataxias, comprise a large group of sporadic and genetic diseases. Their core clinical features include impaired control of coordination and gait, as well as cognitive/behavioral deficits usually not detectable by a standard neurologic examination and therefore often overlooked. Two forms of cognitive/behavioral syndromes are now well identified: (1) the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, which combines an impairment of executive functions, including planning and working memory, deficits in visuospatial skills, linguistic deficiencies such as agrammatism, and inappropriate behavior; and (2) the posterior fossa syndrome, a very acute form of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome occurring essentially in children. Sporadic ataxias include stroke, toxic causes, immune ataxias, infectious/parainfectious ataxias, traumatic causes, neoplasias and paraneoplastic syndromes, endocrine disorders affecting the cerebellum, and the so-called "degenerative ataxias" (multiple system atrophy, and sporadic adult-onset ataxias). Genetic ataxias include mainly four groups of disorders: autosomal-recessive cerebellar ataxias, autosomal-dominant ataxias (spinocerebellar ataxias and episodic ataxias), mitochondrial disorders, and X-linked ataxias. In addition to biochemical studies and genetic tests, brain imaging techniques are a cornerstone for the diagnosis, clinicoanatomic correlations, and follow-up of cerebellar ataxias. Modern radiologic tools to assess cerebellar ataxias include: functional imaging studies, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, volumetric studies, and tractography. These complementary methods provide a multimodal appreciation of the whole long-range cerebellar network functioning, and allow the extraction of potential biomarkers for prognosis and rating level of recovery after treatment. PMID:27432679

  6. Clinical imaging centers: The role of state radiation control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection is mandated in all 50 states. Regulatory control over naturally occurring and accelerator produced radioactive materials use is exclusively by state government. Although states are independent bodies there are many similarities in their regulatory approaches. Differences in the degree of regulatory control are minimized through use of the Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation and other guidance documents provided by the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc. This paper discusses the general requirements to obtain a license and/or registration to produce radioactive material in an accelerator, prepare an imaging agent and/or operate an imaging clinic. These requirements include minimum standards for training and experience of all principal users, equipment specifications, facilities design and construction, specific operating and emergency procedures, radiation protection surveys and monitoring of personnel exposures, ongoing training of staff, and a commitment to ALARA (the philosophy of keeping radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable). The nature and frequency of routine inspections to ensure adequate protection of workers and the public is also covered

  7. Novel Preclinical and Radiopharmaceutical Aspects of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC: A New PET Tracer for Imaging of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Eder

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection of prostate cancer lesions by PET imaging of the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA has gained highest clinical impact during the last years. 68Ga-labelled Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx-HBED-CC ([68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC represents a successful novel PSMA inhibitor radiotracer which has recently demonstrated its suitability in individual first-in-man studies. The radiometal chelator HBED-CC used in this molecule represents a rather rarely used acyclic complexing agent with chemical characteristics favourably influencing the biological functionality of the PSMA inhibitor. The simple replacement of HBED-CC by the prominent radiometal chelator DOTA was shown to dramatically reduce the in vivo imaging quality of the respective 68Ga-labelled PSMA-targeted tracer proving that HBED-CC contributes intrinsically to the PSMA binding of the Glu-urea-Lys(Ahx pharmacophore. Owing to the obvious growing clinical impact, this work aims to reflect the properties of HBED-CC as acyclic radiometal chelator and presents novel preclinical data and relevant aspects of the radiopharmaceutical production process of [68Ga]Ga-PSMA-HBED-CC.

  8. Aspectos clínicos da epidermodisplasia verruciforme Clinical aspects of epidermodysplasia verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmar Roncalli Pereira de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A epidermodisplasia verruciforme (EV é genodermatose rara, caracterizada por infecção disseminada por tipos específicos de vírus papiloma humano (HPV, desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos e distúrbios imunológicos. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar aspectos clínicos em 13 doentes com EV, na tentativa de contribuir para melhor conhecimento da enfermidade. MÉTODOS:Avaliação clínica de 13 doentes com EV durante o período de três anos. O diagnóstico clínico foi confirmado pelo exame histopatológico e imuno-histoquímico. RESULTADOS: A EV teve início na infância com lesões de verruga plana-símile e/ou máculas eritematosa na face e região cervical. A consangüinidade foi observada na maioria dos doentes (12/13. Clinicamente, o polimorfismo das lesões foi intenso, caracterizado por lesões de verruga plana-símile, pitiríase versicolor-símile, máculas eritematosas e lesões de queratose seborréica-símile. A transformação maligna das lesões foi observada em oito doentes (62%. O crescimento tumoral provocou perda tecidual importante em 50% dos casos, e em 25% foi registrado óbito pelas metástases. CONCLUSÃO: A EV apresenta alta incidência familiar e provável transmissão autossômica recessiva. O intenso polimorfismo clínico das lesões não afeta o couro cabeludo e mucosas. A apresentação clínica "maligna" foi a mais freqüente (62%, seguida pela "benigna" (23% e "mista" (15%. Os tumores cutâneos malignos são freqüentes, múltiplos, destrutivos, geram metástases e provocam morte.BACKGROUND: Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV is a rare genodermatosis characterized by disseminated infection caused by specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV, development of cutaneous malignant tumors and immunological disturbances. OBJECTIVE: To correlate the clinical features of a group of 13 patients with EV aiming to contribute to knowledge of disease. METHOD: The clinical evaluation of 13 EV patients during

  9. Clinical and immunohistopathological aspects of venous ulcers treatment by Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila Santana, Luísiane; Alves, José Marcos; Andrade, Thiago Antônio Moretti; Kajiwara, João Kazuyuki; Garcia, Sérgio Britto; Gomes, Fernanda Guzzo; Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani

    2013-04-01

    The immunological mechanisms that are triggered by Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound (LIPUS) in wound healing are unknown. In the present study, experimental groups were used to assess the treatment of chronic venous ulcers with 30mW/cm(2) SATA peripheral LIPUS three times per week compared to a daily treatment of 1% silver sulfadiazine (SDZ). The ulcers of the SDZ group (n=7) (G1) and LIPUS group (n=9) (G2) were photographed five times three months, and the images were analyzed using ImageJ software to quantify the total area (S), fibrin/sphacel area (yellow) and granulation area (red). The healing process was evaluated by the wound healing rate (WHR), granulation tissue rate (GTR) and fibrin/sphacel tissue rate (FTR). The ulcers were biopsied on days 1 and 45 and stained for collagen fiber quantification (picrosirius) and CD68(+) protein and VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression using HRP-streptavidin (horseradish peroxidase-streptavidin). On day 90, G2 had a mean 41% decrease in the ulcer area, while no decrease was observed in G1 (pcollagen fibers and VEGF (p>0.05) was observed in G2 compared to G1, and the number of CD68(+) cells was greater in G2 than in G1 (p<0.05). LIPUS presents superior activity compared to SDZ in stimulating the inflammatory and proliferative (angiogenesis and collagenesis, respectively) phases of chronic venous wound healing. PMID:23294989

  10. Clinical and laboratory aspects of a trichinellosis outbreak in Izmir, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk M.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data were collected during an outbreak of trichinellosis, which occurred in Izmir, Turkey, between January and March 2004. The source of the infection was raw meatballs made with a mixture of uncooked beef and pork. Of 474 persons who were admitted at the Ataturk Training and Research Hospital during this period with a history of raw meatball consumption, the diagnosis of trichinellosis was confirmed for 154 (32.5 %, 87 males and 67 females; mean age 31 years, range 6-67 years. Among persons with a confirmed diagnosis, 79 % had myalgia, 77 % weakness and malaise, 63 % arthralgia, 40 % jaw pain, 68 % fever, 63 % periorbital and/or facial oedema, 49 % oedema at the trunk and limb, 42 % abdominal pain, 40 % nausea and vomiting, 28 % diarrhoea, 23 % subconjunctival haemorrhage, 25 % macular or petechial rash, 4 % subungual haemorrhage, 15 % cardiac complaints and 0.2 % neurological complaints. Nine patients (5.8 % were hospitalised due to severe myalgia (n = 2, high fever (n = 3, neurological manifestations (n = 1, thrombophlebitis (n = 2 and palmar erythema (n = 1. Eosinophilia was present in 88 % of the confirmed cases at the admission. Elevated levels of serum creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were detected in 72 %, 70 % and 16 % of the confirmed cases, respectively. The seroconversion occurred in most of the infected people between the 4th and 6th weeks after the infection. All of the confirmed cases were treated with mebendazole. People with severe symptoms were treated also with prednisolone (60 mg/day for three days and those with a moderately severe clinical pattern received a non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug (naproxen sodium, 550 mg/day. All confirmed cases recovered without any clinical sequela.

  11. SOX4 expression in bladder carcinoma: clinical aspects and in vitro functional characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Aaboe; Birkenkamp-Demtröder, Karin; Wiuf, Carsten;

    2006-01-01

    The human transcription factor SOX4 was 5-fold up-regulated in bladder tumors compared with normal tissue based on whole-genome expression profiling of 166 clinical bladder tumor samples and 27 normal urothelium samples. Using a SOX4-specific antibody, we found that the cancer cells expressed the...... strongly impaired cell viability and promoted apoptosis. To characterize downstream target genes and SOX4-induced pathways, we used a time-course global expression study of the overexpressed SOX4. Analysis of the microarray data showed 130 novel SOX4-related genes, some involved in signal transduction (MAP...

  12. [Carcinoma with low malignant potential (borderline tumor) of the ovary: immunomorphology and clinical aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunteufel, W; Gitsch, G; Schieder, K; Kölbl, H; Breitenecker, G

    1989-01-01

    Four of 28 patients with borderline tumors of the ovary died of intercurrent disease. Twenty-four are alive without clinical evidence of disease, despite the fact that six of them were stage III; joined with the invasive carcinomas they would distort the survival rates. The development of monoclonal antibodies specific to borderline tumors could improve the value of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of borderline tumors. Our results show that the rates of expression of CA 125, CA 19-9, and CEA indicate that borderline tumors are an independent group between benign and malignant ovarian tumors.

  13. Serological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of Lyme borreliosis in Mures County, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Țilea Brîndușa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Borrelioza Lyme (BL este cea mai frecventă infecţie transmisă de căpuşe din genul Ixodes, atât în Statele Unite ale Americii (SUA, cât şi în Europa. Obiectivele studiului au constat în monitorizarea incidenţei şi a manifestărilor clinice ale bolii în judeţul Mureș. Material şi metodă. Studiul s-a efectuat pe o perioadă de 2 ani, 1 ianuarie 2010 - 31 decembrie 2011, pe un număr de 120 pacienţi. Diagnosticul cert sau probabil al BL s-a stabilit pe baza criteriilorCenters for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, SUA şi European Union Concerted Action on Lyme Borreliosis (EUCALB şi anume epidemiologice, clinice şi serologice. Pentru identificarea anticorpilor antiBb IgM, IgG din ser şi LCR s-au utilizat tehnicile ELISA şi Western-Blot. Rezultate. În anul 2010 s-au înregistrat 44 cazuri, iar în anul 2011, 76 cazuri. Conform definiţiei de caz, 106 cazuri au fost confirmate, 14 probabile. BL a fost evidenţiată cu o frecvenţă mai ridicată la copii, adulţi tineri şi adulţi, comparativ cu grupa de vârstă peste 60 ani. Incidenţa afecţiunii a fost mai ridicată la sexul feminin, 68 pacienţi (56,66% faţă de sexul masculin 52 pacienţi (43,33%, cu o pondere, mai crescută la persoanele din mediul urban, 78 pacienţi (65,0%, comparativ cu cele din mediul rural 42 pacienţi (35,0%. Manifestările clinice au fost acute de tipul eritemului migrator (EM la 64,16 din pacienţi, neurologice la 22,50% pacienţi, articulare la 1,66% pacienţi şi cardiace la 0,83% din cazuri. Concluzii. În judetul Mureș s-a constatat o incidenţă în creştere a bolii în anul 2011 comparativ cu anul 2010. Manifestările clinice predominante au fost cele acute dermatologice, neurologice.

  14. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  15. Clinical and psychological aspects of rehabilitation of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Berezantsev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of 110 women on various stages of follow-up care after radical surgery for breast cancer are stated in this article. Border- line mental disorders are diagnosed for 68.18 % of patients, prenosological mental disorders — for the others. Interrelations between clinical factors, individually-personal features and parameters of quality of a life and social adaptation are ascertained. The reduction of psycho- pathological semiology and improvement of subjective parameters of patients’ quality of life in the course of individually selected psycho- therapy is marked.

  16. Nonmotor Symptoms in Parkinson’s Disease in 2012: Relevant Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Bonnet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmotor symptoms (NMSs of Parkinson’s disease (PD are common, but they are often underrecognized in clinical practice, because of the lack of spontaneous complaints by the patients, and partly because of the absence of systematic questioning by the consulting physician. However, valid specific instruments for identification and assessment of these symptoms are available in 2012. The administration of the self-completed screening tool, NMSQuest, associated with questioning during the consultation, improves the diagnosis of NMSs. NMSs play a large role in degradation of quality of life. More relevant NMSs are described in this review, mood disorders, impulse control disorders, cognitive deficits, hallucinations, pain, sleep disorders, and dysautonomia.

  17. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  18. Clinical and pathological aspects of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Giaretta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an outbreak of chronic Senecio spp. poisoning in grazing sheep in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, causing the death of 10 out of 860 adult sheep. Eight sick ewes were euthanized and necropsied. Cattle from this farm were also affected. Clinical signs included progressive weight loss, apathy and photosensitization. Four out of seven tested sheep had increased gamma-glutamyl transferase serum activity and two of them presented serum elevation of alkaline phosphatase. At necropsy, three out of eight ewes presented slightly irregular toughened livers with multifocal nodules, two out of eight ewes had a whitish liver with thickened fibrotic Glisson's capsule partially adhered to the diaphragm, and three out of eight ewes had smooth and grossly normal livers. Necropsy findings attributed to liver failure included hydropericardium (7/8, ascites (5/8, icterus (2/8, hydrothorax (1/8, and edema of mesentery (1/8. The main hepatic histological findings that allowed the establishment of the diagnosis were megalocytosis, proliferation of bile ducts and fibrosis. Spongy degeneration was observed in the brains of all eight necropsied sheep and was more severe at the cerebellar peduncles, mesencephalon, thalamus, and pons. These are suggested as the portions of election to investigate microscopic lesions of hepatic encephalopathy in sheep with chronic seneciosis. The diagnosis of Senecio spp. poisoning was based on epidemiology, clinical signs, laboratory data, necropsy and histological findings.

  19. Practical aspects of the use of FMEA tool in clinical laboratory risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elizabete Mendes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper presents the failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA tool in a clinical laboratory through the introduction of new technology for blood gas and serum ionized calcium in multi-parameter analyzers such as Point of Care Testing (POCT. OBJECTIVE: To present FMEA as a tool for risk managing and improvement with the introduction of new technologies in a public laboratory. METHODS: The change of multiparameter gas analyzer type POCT was defined and described as a process. Subsequently, the criteria were presented to the risk assessment and its quantification. We studied the failure modes that might occur in this process. We established three action plans involving improvements to be made in the technological change. FMEA was applied in two stages: at the beginning of the project and after the implementation of the proposed measures. RESULTS: The first plan involved administrative measures related to the bidding process; the second preventive action involved the possibility of which supplier would win the bid by studying the efficiency of the analyzer and its impact on productivity; the third set of actions was directed to improvements in the relationship with the clinical staff in order to minimize occasional complaints. The last actions referred to employing new employees to meet the growing demand. CONCLUSION: FMEA proved to be a reliable tool for performance improvement, which proactively identifies, prioritizes and mitigates patient risks.

  20. [The clinical aspects of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryaninova, O Yu; Chainzonov, E L; Litvyakov, N V

    2016-01-01

    This review was designed to focus on the prevalence and the magnitude of infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) among healthy subjects and patients presenting with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. We compare the data on the relative frequency of HPV-positive and HPV-negative cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx in different populations, peculiarities of the clinical course of this pathology, and methods of its treatment. Much emphasis is placed on the specific clinical and morphological features of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx. The general and relapse-free survival rates are considered with special reference to the outcome and prognosis of this disease. The currently accepted approaches to the treatment of HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx are discussed. It is concluded that HPV-positive cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx should be regarded as an autonomous pathological condition requiring specific approaches to its management, such as the application of adequate treatment schemes and algorithms.

  1. Mental health of children and adolescents with epilepsy: analysis of clinical and neuropsichological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Souza Moreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy compromises the development of cognitive and social skills and represents a risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: To compare psychopathological symptoms in children with epilepsy and in a healthy group, and to correlate the results with neuropsychological and clinical variables. Method: Forty five children with idiopathic epilepsy and sixty five healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and their caregivers replied to a psychopathology questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist – CBCL. Results: There were significant differences in CBCL, with poorer results showed mainly by patients with epilepsy. There was no significant association between any psychopathological symptom and disease duration or amount of antiepileptic drugs used. There was positive correlation between intelligence quocient and CBCL on items such as sluggish cognitive tempo, aggressive behavior, attention problems and activities and a negative relation between academic achievement, conduct and rule-breaking behavior. Conclusion: Children with epilepsy had the worse results in the psychopathology evaluation. Certain psychopathological variables are related to the cognitive profile, with no relation to clinical variables.

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from various tissues: Biological, clinical and cryopreservation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; McGann, Locksley E; Elliott, Janet A W

    2015-10-01

    Originally isolated from bone marrow, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have since been obtained from various fetal and post-natal tissues and are the focus of an increasing number of clinical trials. Because of their tremendous potential for cellular therapy, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, it is desirable to cryopreserve and bank MSCs to increase their access and availability. A remarkable amount of research and resources have been expended towards optimizing the protocols, freezing media composition, cooling devices and storage containers, as well as developing good manufacturing practices in order to ensure that MSCs retain their therapeutic characteristics following cryopreservation and that they are safe for clinical use. Here, we first present an overview of the identification of MSCs, their tissue sources and the properties that render them suitable as a cellular therapeutic. Next, we discuss the responses of cells during freezing and focus on the traditional and novel approaches used to cryopreserve MSCs. We conclude that viable MSCs from diverse tissues can be recovered after cryopreservation using a variety of freezing protocols, cryoprotectants, storage periods and temperatures. However, alterations in certain functions of MSCs following cryopreservation warrant future investigations on the recovery of cells post-thaw followed by expansion of functional cells in order to achieve their full therapeutic potential. PMID:26186998

  3. Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sporadic Non-Medullar Thyroid Cancer

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    U Rumjanzeva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatic mutations in sporadic thyroid cancer is unclear today. Probably they coming out as aetiological factors in carcinogenesis as well as, respectfully to many authors, can to participate in TC pathogenesis and to determine the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. For today as main oncogenes taking part in initiation of thyroid malignant tumors are considered: RET/PTC, TRK, PTEN, P53, RAS, MET, PPARγ. By means of genetic investigations scientists are trying to solve problems with thyroid cancer differentiated diagnostics (cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, mesothelial cells antigen (Hector Battifora MEsotelial (cell or HBME-1, loss of heterozigitoty (LOH in short arm of 3 chromosome (gene VHL -von Hippel Lindau, 3р26. Recently in foreign literature appeared reports of activated mutations in gene BRAF which most frequently are occurred in melanoma and papillary TC. Prognosis of thyroid cancer may reflected by the LOH as a biological breakage as well as changes of tumor suppressive gene P53 which fraught with decrease of disease prognosis. Thus, both researchers and clinicians have many questions concerning the role of genome, particularly in order to precise of genetic abnormality influence on tumor growth and therefore for assessment of clinical prognosis and with aim to chose adequate treatment tactic in each case.

  4. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in dogs in Brazil: epidemiology, co-infection, and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F S; Wenceslau, A A; Albuquerque, G R; Munhoz, A D; Gross, E; Carneiro, P L S; Oliveira, H C; Rocha, J M; Santos, I A; Rezende, R P

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an endemic disease present in 98 countries. In Brazil, the northeast region accounts for approximately half of the cases in humans, and has experienced an increased number of positive cases in dogs. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology of canine leishmaniasis in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia, using serological and molecular techniques and evaluated the possible environmental risk factors and associated clinical signs. Blood samples were collected from 560 dogs in urban and peri-urban areas in Ilhéus, northeastern Brazil. Genomic DNA was extracted from the selected animals and subjected to molecular analysis using Leishmania species-specific primers and diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi. A total of 54.72% of dogs were positive for Leishmania braziliensis, and animals positive for both Leishmania infantum and T. cruzi were not identified. Hematologic variables were not statistically associated with cases of L. braziliensis. However, the positive animal group showed lower red blood cell and platelet counts and higher levels of urea and serum creatinine. Few dogs presented clinical signs compatible with the presence of Leishmania. Age of more than 2 years and specific hair colors were associated with positive results for L. braziliensis. The geoclimatic characteristics of the region may improve parasite survival, reproduction, and vectors. This may explain the higher rate of dogs identified as positive in this study. PMID:26505353

  5. Myocardial ischemic conditioning: Physiological aspects and clinical applications in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousselmi, Radhouane; Lebbi, Mohamed Anis; Ferjani, Mustapha

    2014-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion is a major determinant of myocardial impairment in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The main goal of research in cardioprotection is to develop effective techniques to avoid ischemia-reperfusion lesions. Myocardial ischemic conditioning is a powerful endogenous cardioprotective phenomenon. First described in animals in 1986, myocardial ischemic conditioning consists of applying increased tolerance of the myocardium to sustained ischemia by exposing it to brief episodes of ischemia-reperfusion. Several studies have sought to demonstrate its effective cardioprotective action in humans and to understand its underlying mechanisms. Myocardial ischemic conditioning has two forms: ischemic preconditioning (IPC) when the conditioning stimulus is applied before the index ischemia and ischemic postconditioning when the conditioning stimulus is applied after it. The cardioprotective action of ischemic conditioning was reproduced by applying the ischemia-reperfusion stimulus to organs remote from the heart. This non-invasive manner of applying ischemic conditioning has led to its application in clinical settings. Clinical trials for the different forms of ischemic conditioning were mainly developed in cardiac surgery. Many studies suggest that this phenomenon can represent an interesting adjuvant to classical cardioprotection during on-pump cardiac surgery. Ischemic conditioning was also tested in interventional cardiology with interesting results. Finally, advances made in the understanding of mechanisms that underlie the cardioprotective action of ischemic conditioning have paved the way to a new form of myocardial conditioning which is pharmacological conditioning.

  6. I Brazilian Registry of Heart Failure - Clinical Aspects, Care Quality and Hospitalization Outcomes

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    Denilson Campos de Albuquerque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart failure (HF is one of the leading causes of hospitalization in adults in Brazil. However, most of the available data is limited to unicenter registries. The BREATHE registry is the first to include a large sample of hospitalized patients with decompensated HF from different regions in Brazil. Objective: Describe the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of hospitalized patients admitted with acute HF. Methods: Observational registry study with longitudinal follow-up. The eligibility criteria included patients older than 18 years with a definitive diagnosis of HF, admitted to public or private hospitals. Assessed outcomes included the causes of decompensation, use of medications, care quality indicators, hemodynamic profile and intrahospital events. Results: A total of 1,263 patients (64±16 years, 60% women were included from 51 centers from different regions in Brazil. The most common comorbidities were hypertension (70.8%, dyslipidemia (36.7% and diabetes (34%. Around 40% of the patients had normal left ventricular systolic function and most were admitted with a wet-warm clinical-hemodynamic profile. Vasodilators and intravenous inotropes were used in less than 15% of the studied cohort. Care quality indicators based on hospital discharge recommendations were reached in less than 65% of the patients. Intrahospital mortality affected 12.6% of all patients included. Conclusion: The BREATHE study demonstrated the high intrahospital mortality of patients admitted with acute HF in Brazil, in addition to the low rate of prescription of drugs based on evidence.

  7. VHF volume-imaging radar observation of aspect-sensitive scatterers tilted in mountain waves above a convective boundary layer

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    R. M. Worthington

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin stable atmospheric layers cause VHF radars to receive increased echo power from near zenith. Layers can be tilted from horizontal, for instance by gravity waves, and the direction of VHF "glinting" is measurable by spatial domain interferometry or many-beam Doppler beam swinging (DBS. This paper uses the Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar, Shigaraki, Japan as a volume-imaging radar with 64-beam DBS, to show tilting of layers and air flow in mountain waves. Tilt of aspect-sensitive echo power from horizontal is nearly parallel to air flow, as assumed in earlier measurements of mountain-wave alignment. Vertical-wind measurements are self-consistent from different beam zenith angles, despite the combined effects of aspect sensitivity and horizontal-wind gradients.

  8. The role of Ikaros transcriptional factor in normal hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis: biological and clinical aspects

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    V. S. Vshivkoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the pathogenesis and factors effecting recurrence, progression and drug resistance in acute leukemia (AL remains a major challenge for hematology and other related areas. The role of more than 50 genes and proteins in the AL pathogenesis has been shown, including the well-studied tumor suppressor (CDKN2A/CDKN2B, RB1, PTEN, p53, and classical fusion genes (BCR/ABL1, TEL/AML1, E2A/PBX, MLL translocations. In addition, high frequency of aberrations in genes responsible for lymphoid differentiation have been identified such as transcription factors (PAX5, IKZF1 and EBF1, transcriptional regulation of the genes (ETV6, ERG, and signaling pathways of antigen receptors (BTLA, CD200, TOX, BLNK, VPREB1, as well as genes involved in chemoresistance of leukemia cells (NR3C1. In recent studies, Ikaros abnormalities have been reported to be frequently associated with AL. Ikaros is a member of a Kruppel-like family of zinc finger transcription factors that also includes IKZF2 (Helios, IKZF3 (Aiolos, Eos and Pegasus, and encoded by the IKZF1 gene. In hematopoietic cells Ikaros functions as a transcription factor, a key protein controlling T-, B-, NK-, and dendritic cells early differentiation. At the early hematopoiesis stages, it represses the myeloid and erythroid lineages, and stimulates the lymphoid differentiation. Ikaros also normally modulates immune response and plays role of a tumor suppressor in lymphoid malignances. Data from numerous clinical studies confirmed an association between the presence of IKZF1 aberrations and B-cell and, to a lesser extent, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL development. Besides, loss of Ikaros function was associated with progression of myeloproliferative diseases to acute myeloid leukemia (AML in children. From clinical point of view, particular intragenic IKZF1 deletions and a short (non-functional protein Ikaros isoforms, which may occur as a result of intragenic deletions or aberrant splicing

  9. Evaluation of non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on aspects related to ionizing radiation in imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrigano, Renata Rodrigues [Hospital Santa Helena, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Abrao, Karen Cristine; Regacini, Rodrigo, E-mail: regacini@gmail.com [Universidade Anhembi Morumbi, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Puchnick, Andrea [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina

    2014-07-15

    Objective: to assess the non-radiologist physicians' knowledge on the use of ionizing radiation in imaging. Materials and Methods: cross-sectional study utilizing an anonymous questionnaire responded by physicians in clinical and surgical specialties, divided into two parts as follows: one including questions about the physicians' characteristics, frequency of imaging studies requests and participation in professional updating events, and another part including multiple choice questions approaching general knowledge about radiation, optimization principles and radioprotection. Results: from a total of 309 questionnaires, 120 (38.8%) were responded, 50% by physicians in surgical specialties and 50% in clinical specialties; respectively 45% and 2.5% of physicians responded that magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography use ionizing radiation. Overall, the average grade was higher for surgical specialists with no significant difference, except for the question about exposure in pregnant women (p = 0.047). Physicians who are professionally updated, particularly those attending clinical meetings (p = 0.050) and participating in teaching activities (p = 0.047), showed statistically superior knowledge about ionizing radiation as compared with others. Conclusion: the non-radiologist physicians' is heterogeneous and in some points needs to be improved. Multidisciplinary clinical meetings and teaching activities are important ways to disseminate information on the subject. (author)

  10. Fabrication of high aspect grating using bonded substrate for X-ray refraction imaging by Talbot-Lau interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Takuji; Murakoshi, Dai; Ishii, Hiroyasu; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Kaneko, Yasuhisa; Ito, Wataru; Agano, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the image quality of X-ray refraction images using a Talbot-Lau interferometer, we have been attempting to fabricate gratings with high aspect ratio. In our attempt, deep grooves of grating structure were channeled on a Si substrate bonded by Au diffusion bonding method, and the grooves were filled with Au where the Au layer used for the bonding Si substrate was acting as a seed layer of Au electroplating. From the results of a visibility measurement and a cross sectional SEM image, it was confirmed that the grooves with a pitch of 5.8 μm and a depth of 100 μm could be successfully filled with Au over a large area of 72×80 mm2. Using this grating, the X-ray refraction images for the cartilage of a knee joint of a livestock pig could be obtained where SPS method was employed for the single-shot image acquisition.

  11. Demographic variables, clinical aspects, and medicolegal implications in a population of patients with adjustment disorder

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    Anastasia A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annalisa Anastasia,1 Chiara Colletti,1 Valentina Cuoco,1 Adele Quartini,1 Stefania Urso,2 Raffaella Rinaldi,2 Giuseppe Bersani1 1Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 2Department of Anatomical, Istological, Forensic and Locomotor System Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: Although adjustment disorder (AD is considered as residual diagnosis and receives little attention in research, it plays an important role in clinical practice and also assumes an increasingly important role in the field of legal medicine, where the majority of diagnostic frameworks (eg, mobbing often refer to AD. Our study aimed to look for specific stressor differences among demographic and clinical variables in a naturalistic setting of patients with AD.Methods: A restrospective statistical analysis of the data of patients diagnosed with AD from November 2009 to September 2012, identified via manual search from the archive of the outpatient setting at the University Unit of Psychiatry “A. Fiorini” Hospital, Terracina (Latina, Italy, was performed.Results: The sample consisted of 93 patients (46 males and 47 females, aged between 26 and 85, with medium–high educational level who were mainly employed. In most cases (54.80%, a diagnosis of AD with mixed anxiety and depressed mood was made. In all, 72% of the sample reported a negative family history for psychiatric disorders. In 22.60%, a previous history of psychopathology, especially mood disorders (76.19%, was reported. The main stressors linked to the development of AD were represented by working problems (32.30%, family problems (23.70%, and/or somatic disease (22.60% with significant differences with respect to age and sex. Half of the patients were subjected to a single first examination; 24.47% requested a copy of medical records.Conclusion: Confirming previous data from previous reports, our results

  12. [Clinical aspects and course of drug-induced upper digestive hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournut, R; Pascal, J P; Frexinos, J; Suduca, P; Legrand, G; Benarous, J J; Ribet, A

    1976-11-23

    In a series of 500 patients admitted to hospital for upper digestive hemorrhage, the authors studied the influence of taking drugs on the clinical characteristics and course of the original disease. Taking aspirin is exceptional before rupture of esophageal varices. One may isolate a homogenous group of elderly women consuming aspirin and another anti-inflammatory drug, and bleeding from a gastric ulcer. One may also isolate another group of men, bleeding from acute gastro-duodenal lesions after taking aspirin alone. If one considers apart portal hypertension, owing to its extreme gravity, one may note that the prognosis depends on the age. One patient out of five, dies of hemorrhage after the age of 60 years. Taking an anti-inflammatory drug at this age is thus not harmless.

  13. Practical aspects of apixaban use in clinical practice: continuing the theme

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    S. N. Bel'diev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are no generally accepted guidelines for the use of apixaban together with CYP3A4 and/or P-glycoprotein (P-gp inhibitors. Analysis of clinical and pharmacological studies suggests that apixaban dose should be reduced to 2.5 mg twice daily when co-administered with a strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors, such as azole antimycotics, HIV protease inhibitors and clarithromycin. However, it is preferred to avoid apixaban combination with strong CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibitors in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl <30 mL/min. According to preliminary calculations, apixaban dose should also be adjusted in patients with CrCl <70-80 ml/min, receiving less potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and/or P-gp, such as diltiazem, naproxen, verapamil, amiodarone and quinidine. 

  14. Insulin resistance and clinical aspects of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Naresh; Sharma, Barjesh Chander

    2005-10-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver disorders. This is highly prevalent in obese and diabetic subjects. Persons with central obesity are at particular risk. Other clinical predictors are age more than 40-50 years and hyperlipidemias, but none of these factors is invariable for causation of NASH. Other reported associations are, celiac disease, Wilson's Disease and few other metabolic diseases. Drugs, particularly amiodarone, tamoxifen, nucleoside analogues and methotrxate have also been linked to NASH. The disease is evenly distributed in both sexes but advanced disease is more common in women. Ethnic variation exists and African Americans are less affected than Hispanic Americans. Specific clinical features of NASH are infrequent. Patients usually come to clinical attention by elevated liver enzymes found on routine evaluation but on history, about two third of patients will admit to have mild fatigue and about half will report right upper quadrant pain. Rarely, patient may present with a complication of cirrhosis. Physical examination may reveal hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Research in last few years has stressed that development of steatosis, stetohepatitis, fibrosis with subsequent cirrhosis are most probably the result of insulin resistance. Therefore, clinical features may reflect existence of insulin resistance. Obesity, particularly central obesity is most important of these. Patients may have sleep apnea syndrome. Hypertension and manifestations of diabetes mellitus like polyuria, polydypsia, and neurological deficits may occur. Patients may have varying combination of obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and impaired fibrinolysis (syndrome X). Children with insulin resistance may show acanthosis nigricance. Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, which consists of insulin resistance, diabetes, obesity, hirsutism, oligo or polymenorrha and hyperlipidemia may have NASH. Other rare manifestations of insulin

  15. Reconsidering Risk for Reoffense in Intrafamilial Child Molesters: New Aspects on Clinical and Criminological Issues

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    Reinhard Eher

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Intrafamilial child molesters are generally seen to be at lower risk for reoffense than extrafamilial child molesters. There is, however, good reason to question this assumption. The literature usually does not take into account some clinical and criminological data, that might indicate a higher relative risk for reoffending in intrafamilial child molesters than generally assumed. On two groups of intrafamilial (n=157 and extrafamilial (n=131 child molesters, this study tested some of the assumptions generally made about these offender groups. We found that there are indeed differences that can not be interpreted in line with the general literature on this topic. Most importantly, the time from onset of offense until official conviction is much longer in intrafamilial than extrafamilial offenders, rendering the former considerable more opportunity to consistently recidivate that the latter. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of treatment needs for both groups of individuals.

  16. A clinical report of Type III dens invaginatus: relevant aspects of a combined therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva E Souza, Patricia de Almeida Rodrigues; de Almeida, Bruno Vila Nova; Tartari, Talita; Alves, Ana Claudia Braga Amoras; Tuji, Farbicio Mesquita; Silva E Souza, Mario Honorato

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus is a developmental abnormality that alters dental morphology; as a result, treating this condition is a challenge for endodontic practices. This article describes how a combination of nonsurgical and surgical therapies was utilized to treat a maxillary central incisor with Type III dens invaginatus and vital pulp. The treatment plan included using computed tomography (CT) for a detailed analysis of the dental anatomy and periapical area, endodontic and surgical procedures, and a 4-year follow-up period that included periodic clinical and radiographic examinations. The follow-up examinations revealed a regression of the apical lesion and no other signs or symptoms. Based on the present case report, the authors concluded that this combination of surgical and nonsurgical approaches was effective and that CT is a valuable auxiliary tool for the study of dental anatomy.

  17. Clinical and pathological aspects of multicentric hemangiosarcoma in a Pinscher dog

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    B.D.C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year-old female Pinscher dog was presented with a history of lameness and pain in hind limbs for one week which acutely progressed to non-ambulatory paraparesis. The dog had been apathetic and anorexic during the six days prior to presentation. The neurological findings were compatible with upper motor neuron signs to the left hind limb due to a spinal cord compressive mass on the twelfth thoracic vertebral body. On the other hand, signs of lower motor neurons to the right hind limb were due to a mass with a pathological fracture in the right proximal femur, compressing the sciatic nerve. A histopathological analysis of all organs revealedthe proliferation of endothelial cells showingin filtrative growth and organization into vascular structures with a solid pattern. In addition, immunohistochemycal analysis revealed low proliferation index and citoplasmatic positivity for CD-31, confirming the vascular nature of the neoplasm. Clinical, histopathological and immunophenotipical findings were consistent with hemangiosarcoma.

  18. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009: epidemiological, clinical and prevention aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Jai P; Kumar, Rajesh; Bhatia, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    The influenza pandemic caused by the new H1N1 virus has by now affected all the continents of the world. However, the extent and likely impact are still uncertain. Like seasonal flu, the illness is mild and self-limiting in a great majority of cases, with only 1%-2% of patients requiring hospitalization. In a few cases, the clinical course can deteriorate in a matter of hours, leading to severe complications and eventually death. The risk of complications is higher among those who have preexisting diseases, such as asthma, heart disease and kidney disease, and among pregnant women. In such cases, antiviral treatment should not be delayed pending laboratory confirmation. The preferred antiviral drug is oseltamivir, and zanamivir is an alternative. Antiviral treatment is not necessary for those who are otherwise healthy, and have mild or uncomplicated illness. It is beneficial for patients with progressive lower respiratory tract disease or pneumonia, and those with underlying medical conditions and pregnant patients. As the supply of antivirals is limited, they should be used judiciously and where appropriate. There is a limited supply of pandemic influenza vaccine available in a few countries and efforts to produce it in India are presently underway. Effective personal preventive measures include shielding one's mouth and nose while coughing and sneezing, frequent washing of hands with soap, avoiding mass gatherings and voluntary isolation by symptomatic individuals. While at present the virus is causing a mild disease, the next wave may be more severe. Hence, enhanced surge capacity of health services is required for the clinical management of an increased patient load. PMID:20334046

  19. Epidemiological, clinical and pharmacological aspects of headache in a university undergraduate population in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweileh, W M; Sawalha, A F; Zyoud, S H; Al-Jabi, S W; Shamseh, F F B; Khalaf, H S

    2010-04-01

    Headache is one of the most common complaints in clinical practice. Few studies regarding headache in university students have been conducted in the Middle East. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence, clinical characteristics, triggering factors and treatment options of headaches in university undergraduate students in Palestine/Middle East. Data were collected by interviewing a sample of 1900 students. The Headache Assessment Quiz was used to measure quality and severity of headache and to collect data on triggering factors and symptom management. A total of 1808 (95.2%) reported having at least one headache episode in the previous year. A positive family history of headache was found in 40% of students. The prevalence rate of frequent headache (tow or more episodes/month) was found in 1096 (60.9%) students; 613 women (55.9%). Of those having frequent headaches, 228 (20.8%) experienced moderate to severe episodes, 341 (31.2%) had pulsating, throbbing and pounding pain, and 274 (25%) had unilateral pain. The most common triggering factors among students with frequent headaches were: tension/stress (78.2%) and sleep deprivation (75.4%). Less than 5% of students sought medical assistance during headache episodes. Most students (79.1%) reported self-therapy with a single analgesic (53.4%), herbs (10.2%) or combination (15.5%), while 20.9% reported using no medication of any type to decrease pain. Paracetamol (48.5%) followed by ibuprofen (4.9%) were the most commonly used non-prescription analgesic drugs. Headache is a prevalent symptom in the college age population. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of specific types of headaches. Healthcare providers are required to educate this population as well as to assist students in properly diagnosing and treating headache types. PMID:19673913

  20. [Criminalistic-identification aspect of image diagnosis of skeleton pathology characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliszczak, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author showed possibilities for adaptation of the most present-day medical achievements in the field of noninvasive diagnosis of individual characteristics of human skeleton pathology--at crime detection and during criminalistic identification particularly. The identification value of image diagnosis for individual characteristics of the pathologically changed skeleton has been exemplified with: X-ray radiography, both conventional and computer-assisted tomography, scintigraphy, ultrasonography and nuclear magnetic resonance tomography. The paper's conclusion is formulating of new definitions for identification method of individuals, based on image diagnosis--named osteopathoscopy--which can be an alternative method to controversial radiology. PMID:14669691

  1. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

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    Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horses naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5% have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8% were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25% followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20% and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%. Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion

  2. Strangles in Arabian horses in Egypt: Clinical, epidemiological, hematological, and biochemical aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamat-Allah, Ahmed N. F.; Damaty, Hend M. El

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Respiratory tract infections are considered the major problem of equine worldwide. Strangles is an infectious and highly contagious respiratory bacterial disease of equine caused by Streptococcus equi. This study is aimed to evaluate some clinical and epidemiological investigation associated with strangles and to study the hematological and biochemical changes in 20 Arabian horse naturally infected with S. equi during the disease and after 10 days from treatment by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 Arabian horses have been examined, 120 (24.5%) have been clinically diagnosed as strangles. Under complete aseptic conditions, nasal swabs and pus samples from those were collected for bacterial culture. 20 horses from the positive infected with S. equi have been treated by 6 mg/kg b.wt procaine penicillin with 4.5 mg/kg b.wt benzathine penicillin deep intramuscular injection/twice dose/4 days interval. Results: 102 horses (20.8%) were found positive for S. equi. Horses with age group under 1 year were the most prone to strangles (32.25%) followed by horses of the age group from 1 to 2 years (20%) and finally of the age group over 2-4 years (11.89%). Hematological parameters revealed anemia in the infected horses, while leucogram revealed a significant increase in the total leucocytic, granulocytic and monocytic counts without a significant change in the lymphocytic count. Biochemical parameters revealed a significant increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, globulins, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and potassium. In other side, hypoalbuminemia and hyponatremia have been reported, whereas alanine aminotransferase activity and creatinine level showed non-significant changes. Respiratory acidosis has been exhibited in the infected horses. Treatment of horses by procaine penicillin with benzathine penicillin revealed improvement of these parameters toward the healthy horses. Conclusion: S. equi easily

  3. Novel APC mutations in Czech and Slovak FAP families: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesela Kamila

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the adenomatous polyposis gene (APC result in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP. FAP is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder predisposing to colorectal cancer. Typical FAP is characterized by hundreds to thousands of colorectal adenomatous polyps and by several extracolonic manifestations. An attenuated form of polyposis (AFAP is characterized by less than 100 adenomas and later onset of the disease. Methods Here, we analyzed the APC gene for germline mutations in 59 Czech and 15 Slovak FAP patients. In addition, 50 apparently APC mutation negative Czech probands and 3 probands of Slovak origin were screened for large deletions encompassing the APC gene. Mutation screening was performed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and/or protein truncation test. DNA fragments showing an aberrant electrophoretic banding pattern were sequenced. Screening for large deletions was performed by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification. The extent of deletions was analyzed using following microsatellite markers: D5S299, D5S82, D5S134 and D5S346. Results In the set of Czech and Slovak patients, we identified 46 germline mutations among 74 unrelated probands. Total mutation capture is 62,2% including large deletions. Thirty seven mutations were detected in 49 patients presenting a classical FAP phenotype (75,5% and 9 mutations in 25 patients with attenuated FAP (36%. We report 20 novel germline APC mutations and 3 large deletions (6% encompassing the whole-gene deletions and/or exon 14 deletion. In the patients with novel mutations, correlations of the mutation localization are discussed in context of the classical and/or attenuated phenotype of the disease. Conclusion The results of the molecular genetic testing are used both in the establishment of the predictive diagnosis and in the clinical management of patients. In some cases this study has also shown the difficulty to classify clinically

  4. Sustainable clinical research, health economic aspects and medical marketing: drivers of product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Ferdinand; Klassen-Wigger, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Marketing-driven innovation in the field of pediatric nutrition, in particular in the infant formula segment is not sustainable. New benefits of products must be scientifically proven and safety and efficacy of new formulae established in clinical trials. The scientific innovation process of three infant formulae is described. Improvement in protein quality allowed to reduce the protein concentration in whey-based infant formula. Weight gain and BMI of infants fed those formulae corresponds to breastfed infants and is lower than in infants fed traditional formulae with higher protein concentration. A meta-analysis indicates associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and obesity later in life. If infants cannot be exclusively breastfed until 4-6 months of age, feeding low-protein formulae may contribute to positive long-term health outcome with potentially important health economic effects. A partially hydrolyzed whey based formula for prevention of allergic symptoms in children with hereditary risk for allergic diseases was developed more than 25 years ago. The most recent meta-analysis which included 15 randomized clinical trials indicates that the risk of all allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis/eczema is significantly reduced in infants at risk when the partially hydrolyzed formula is fed. The partially hydrolyzed formula had the same protective effect as casein-based high-degree extensively hydrolyzed formula. Because of substantial price differences between the two formulae, feeding the partially hydrolyzed whey formula is cost saving. Hypoallergenic claims can be made in many countries, and international nutrition committees have positively commented the preventive effect of those formulae. Acidified formulae have been widely used during the last decade in replacement feeding programs for infants whose mothers are HIV positive. The formula was innovated by improving whey protein quality and lowering protein concentration. The bacteriostatic

  5. Clinical relevance of imaging proliferative activity in lung nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Andreas K.; Schirrmeister, Holger; Kratochwil, Clemens; Wahl, Andreas; Glatting, Gerhard; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Neumaier, Bernd; Reske, Sven N. [University of Ulm, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Hetzel, Martin [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine II - Pulmonary Medicine, Ulm (Germany); Halter, Gisela [University of Ulm, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Moeller, Peter; Mattfeldt, Torsten [University of Ulm, Department of Pathology, Ulm (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Recently, the thymidine analogue 3'-deoxy-3'[{sup 18}F]fluorothymidine (FLT) has been introduced for imaging proliferation with positron emission tomography (PET). In this prospective study, we examined the accuracy of FLT for differentiation of benign from malignant lung lesions and for tumour staging. A total of 47 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary nodules on chest CT suspicious for malignancy were examined with FLT-PET in addition to routine staging procedures. A total of 43 patients also underwent 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET imaging. Within 2 weeks, patients underwent resective surgery or core biopsy of the pulmonary lesion. Histopathology revealed malignant lung tumours in 32 patients (20 non-small cell lung cancer, 1 small cell lung cancer, 1 pulmonary carcinoid, 1 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, nine metastases from extrapulmonary tumours) and benign lesions in 15 patients. Increased FLT uptake was exclusively related to malignant tumours. FLT-PET was false negative in two patients with non-small cell lung cancer, in the patient with a pulmonary carcinoid and in three patients with lung metastases. The sensitivity of FLT-PET for detection of lung cancer was 90%, the specificity 100% and the accuracy 94%. Fifteen out of 21 patients with lung cancer had mediastinal lymph node metastases. FLT-PET was true positive in 7/15 patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 53% for N-staging (specificity 100%, accuracy 67%). Clinical TNM stage was correctly identified in 67% (20/30) patients, compared to 85% (23/27) with FDG-PET. FLT-PET has a high specificity for the detection of malignant lung tumours. Compared with FDG, FLT-PET is less accurate for N-staging in patients with lung cancer and for detection of lung metastases. FLT-PET therefore cannot be recommended for staging of lung cancer. (orig.)

  6. CNS Cavernous Hemangioma; Imaging, Clinical Presentation and Related Anatomophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalal Shokouhi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nClinical and imaging judgement or decision: "n- Is it a CH “CM, CA“? "n- Is it solitary, multiple or familial? "n- Is there an associated venous malformation? "n- Are there risks and consequences of hemorrhage? "n- Is the anatomic location critical and life threatening? "nCavernous malformation is a low pressure, slow flowing malformation and composes 10 – 15 % of vascular malformations. Cavernous angioma consists of enlarged sinusoidal vascular spaces, a compact mass in the brain and spinal cord, the endothelial lining is weak and blood element leakage is frequent.Calcification is possible "X – ray CT ". 75% located in the brain and 25 % in the posterior fossa and brain stem. "nAll 50% of cases are multiple and this form is familial in 80 % of cases “possibility combined with cord cavernoma“. "nExtra – medullary and extra – paranchymal forms are rare. "n- 40-60 % of the patients demonstrate seizure because of hemorrhage inside the cavernoma. "n10 – 15 % of complicated patients show significant clinical signs especially in the brain stem."n Imaging: "n1- X-ray CT: Isodense or hyperdense with frequent and heavy calcification . "nEnhanced CT may show the degree of enhancement. "n2 – By MRI: T1 may be isointense but in case of hemorrhage there is bright methemoglobin inside. By T2 and flair a thin capsule and a rim of hemosiderin – ferritin "popcorn or mulberries" and shows enhancement "GD-GRE-MRI pulse". "nCompanion of venous angioma and cavernoma is possible. "nBleeding is more likely from cavernous malformations during pregnancy. "nConclusion: CT and MRI demonstrate all forms and sites of brain and spinal cord cavernomas. "nAttention is necessary for brain stem lesions especially during pregnancy."n Treatment: 1- Medial and serial MRI controls. "n2- Radiosurgery "Gama-knife", rare. "n3- Microsurgery, very rare Multiple forms of these lesions are demonstratable in 55 patients.  

  7. Clinical, endoscopic and prognostic aspects of primary gastric non-hodgkin's lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamar Eulira Fontes Rezende

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastric non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is a co-morbidity that can be observed during the clinical course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical-evolutive aspects and form of endoscopic presentation of primary gastric NHL associated with AIDS. Two hundred and forty-three HIV patients were submitted to upper digestive endoscopy, with evaluation of clinical, endoscopic and histological data. A CD4 count was made by flow cytometry and viral load was determined in a branched-DNA assay. Six cases (five men; mean age: 37 years; range: 29-46 years of primary gastric NHL were detected. The median CD4 count was 140 cells/mm³ and the median viral load was 40,313 copies/mL. Upper digestive endoscopy revealed polypoid (in four patients ulcero-infiltrative (two patients and ulcerated (two patients lesions and combined polypoid and ulcerated lesions (two patients. Histology of the gastric lesions demonstrated B cell NHL (four patients and T cell NHL (two patients. Five of the six patients died of complications related to gastric NHL. We concluded that primary gastric NHL is an important cause of mortality associated with AIDS.

  8. The Clinical Characteristics and Imaging Findings of Morning Glory Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun HU

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the features of CT, ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA) of morning glory syndrome, the data on CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were retrospectively analyzed in 8 cases of morning glory syndrome (MGS).Among those cases, 6 were examined with CT, 4 with FFA and 8 with A/B-scan ultrasonography.Results showed that the characteristics of CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA in MGS included:(1) The attachment spot of optic nerve became thin and vitreous body protruded to the posterior wall of eyeball with a spherical shape on CT image; (2) in the early period of FFA, hypofluorescence appeared on the optic, the abnormal arteriae and veins around the optic papilla were displayed clearly and in the late period, optic disc was stained with fluorescein; (3) on B-scan ultrasonogram, the vitreous cavity extended to the posterior pole and optic papilla, and projected to the basal part of muscle cones and thus the posterior part of vitreous cavity looked like an upside-down bottleneck. Sometimes the echogenic band of retinal detachment could also be seen. On A-scan ultrasonogram, both vitreous cavity and bottleneck showed no ultrasonic echoes and presented a base line without any evident wave crest. It is concluded that CT, A/B-scan ultrasonography and FFA could show the imageological features of MGS from different aspects, which helps clinicians to differentiate it from other diseases such as optic disc coloboma. CT and A/B-scan ultrasonography, in particular, are considered to be reliable imageological methods for the accurate diagnosis of MGS and are superior to the traditional techniques.

  9. Clinical and pharmacologic aspects of blinatumomab in the treatment of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portell CA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Craig A Portell, Candice M Wenzell, Anjali S Advani Leukemia Program, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults remains a challenging disease to treat, and novel therapies are needed. Precursor-B ALL comprises 80% of cases, and the CD19 antigen is expressed in nearly all precursor-B ALL patients. Bispecific T-cell-engaging antibodies are novel bioengineered proteins. The bispecific T-cell-engaging antibody blinatumomab engages polyclonal T cells to CD19-expressing B cells. By binding to both CD3 and CD19, blinatumomab physically brings these T cells in close proximity to malignant B cells and potentiates T-cell-induced cytotoxic cell kill. Blinatumomab requires continuous intravenous infusion due to its short half-life, the need for continuous exposure for the drug to exert sufficient efficacy, and lessened toxicity. A phase II trial of B-cell ALL patients with persistent or relapsed minimal residual disease demonstrated an 80% rate of complete molecular remission. Cytokine-release syndrome and central nervous system events, such as seizures and encephalopathy, are reversible toxicities. Promising results in B-cell ALL with minimal residual disease have led to further evaluation of this drug in newly diagnosed and relapsed B-cell ALL. Keywords: blinatumomab, B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, CD19, BiTE antibodies

  10. Therapeutic and clinical aspects of portal vein thrombosisin patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complicationin cirrhosis, particularly in advanced stages of thedisease. As for general venous thromboembolism, riskfactors for PVT are slow blood flow, vessel wall damageand hypercoagulability, all features of advanced cirrhosis.Actually, the old dogma of a hemorrhagic tendency incirrhosis has been challenged by new laboratory toolsand the clinical evidence that venous thrombosis alsooccurs in cirrhosis. The impaired hepatic synthesis ofboth pro- and anticoagulants leads to a rebalancedhemostasis, more liable to be tipped towards thrombosisor even bleeding. Conventional anticoagulant drugs(low molecular weight heparin or vitamin K antagonists)may be used in cirrhosis patients with PVT, particularlyin those eligible for liver transplantation, to preventthrombosis progression thus permitting/facilitating livertransplant. However, several doubts exist on the levelof anticoagulation achieved as estimated by coagulationtests, on the efficacy of treatment monitoring and onthe correct timing for discontinuation in non-transplantcandidates, while in transplant candidates there isexpert consensus on continuing anticoagulation untiltransplantation. The recent introduction of direct actingoral anticoagulant drugs (DOACs) in other clinicalsettings generates much interest on their possibleapplication in patients with cirrhosis and PVT. However,DOACs were not evaluated yet in patients with liverdisease and cannot be recommended for the presenttime.

  11. [Pulmonary CO/NO transfer: physiological basis, technical aspects and clinical impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degano, B; Perrin, F; Soumagne, T; Agard, C; Chambellan, A

    2014-05-01

    Diseases affecting the alveolar-capillary membrane or the capillary blood vessels can impair pulmonary gas exchanges and lung diffusion. The single-breath transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TL,CO) is the classical technique for measuring gas transfer from the alveolus to the pulmonary capillary blood. Pulmonary gas exchanges can also be explored by the transfer factor of the lung for nitric oxide (TL,NO). TL,NO represents a better index for the diffusing capacity of the alveolar-capillary membrane whereas TL,CO is more influenced by red blood cell resistance. Membrane diffusing capacity (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) derivated from TL,CO and TL,NO by the Roughton-Forster equation can give additional insights into pulmonary pathologies. The clinical impact of the CO/NO transfer has still to be precised even if this measurement seems to provide an alternative way of investigating the alveolar membrane and the blood reacting with the gas. PMID:24314829

  12. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of parvovirus B19 infections in Ireland, January 1996-June 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicolay, N

    2009-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 infection may be mistakenly reported as measles or rubella if laboratory testing is not performed. As Europe is seeking to eliminate measles, an accurate diagnosis of fever\\/rash illnesses is needed. The main purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological pattern of parvovirus B19, a common cause of rash, in Ireland between January 1996 and June 2008, using times series analysis of laboratory diagnostic data from the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Most diagnostic tests for presumptive parvovirus B19 infection were done in children under the age of five years and in women of child-bearing age (between 20-39 years-old). As a consequence, most of the acute diagnoses of B19 infection were made in these populations. The most commonly reported reasons for testing were: clinical presentation with rash, acute arthritis, influenza-like symptoms or pregnancy. The time series analysis identified seasonal trends in parvovirus B19 infection, with annual cycles peaking in late winter\\/spring and a six-year cycle for parvovirus B19 outbreaks in Ireland.

  13. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Emanuele; Drosera, Massimo; Gasparini, Giulia; Parodi, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp's syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5-10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia. PMID:24649358

  14. Serology of Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation between Immunopathological Features and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cozzani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disease characterized by the aberrant production of a broad and heterogenous group of autoantibodies. Even though the presence of autoantibodies in SLE has been known, for more than 60 years, still nowadays a great effort is being made to understand the pathogenetic, diagnostic, and prognostic meaning of such autoantibodies. Antibodies to ds-DNA are useful for the diagnosis of SLE, to monitor the disease activity, and correlate with renal and central nervous involvements. Anti-Sm antibodies are highly specific for SLE. Anti-nucleosome antibodies are an excellent marker for SLE and good predictors of flares in quiescent lupus. Anti-histone antibodies characterize drug-induced lupus, while anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies are associated with neonatal lupus erythematosus and photosensitivity. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies play a role in neuropsychiatric lupus, but their association with clinical manifestations is still unclear. Anti-phospholipid antibodies are associated with the anti-phospholipid syndrome, cerebral vascular disease, and neuropsychiatric lupus. Anti-C1q antibodies amplify glomerular injury, and the elevation of their titers may predict renal flares. Anti-RNP antibodies are a marker of Sharp’s syndrome but can be found in SLE as well. Anti-PCNA antibodies are present in 5–10% of SLE patients especially those with arthritis and hypocomplementemia.

  15. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition - Assessment of Zinc Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the limiting and vulnerable zinc pool has not been identified, it becomes a challenge to determine which of the many zinc pools is most susceptible to deficiency. As a consequence, defining and assessing zinc status in the individual patient is a somewhat uncertain process. Laboratory analysis of zinc status is difficult because no single biochemical criterion can reliably reflect zinc body stores. Many indexes have been examined in the hopes of discovering a method for the assessment of zinc nutriture. None of the methods currently used can be wholeheartedly recommended because they are fraught with problems that affect their use and interpretation. However, these methods remain in use for clinical and research purposes, though their benefits and drawbacks must always be acknowledged. Until an acceptable method of analysis is discovered, clinicians must rely for confirmation of zinc deficiency on a process of supplementing with zinc and observing the patient’s response. The main indexes (plasma/serum, erythrocyte, leukocyte, neutrophil, urine, hair and salivary zinc levels, taste acuity and oral zinc tolerance tests, and measurement of metallothionein levels are reviewed. Measurement of plasma or erythrocyte metallothionein levels shows promise as a future tool for the accurate determination of zinc status.

  16. BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, CLINICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Bejaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Beta-thalassemia major (TM remains to be one of the major health problems particularly in developing countries. Tunisia is a part of the Mediterranean countries mostly affected by this disease which is highly concentrated in small towns in families with low-income earners. The main objectives of this study are to provide a description of the demographic, clinical features and transfusion-related complications in patients with TM living in Tunisia. A standardized questionnaire was sent to clinicians throughout 33 different medical institutions caring for thalassemic patients. 391 transfusion dependant thalassemic patients with a median age of 10.7 years (range 3 months- 31 years were included in the study.The majority were originated from the north west of the country .A moderate overload between 1501 and 2500ng/ml was found in 61patients, while 81 patients (26.9% had ferritin level more than 2500 ng/ml and greater than 5000ng/ml in 21 patients (6.9%. 51 patients died from complications related to their disease. Heart failure was the main cause of death. The incidence of cardiac, endocrine, and infectious complications will be reviewed. Preventive measures such as health education, carrier screening and premarital screening remain the best ways for lowering the incidence of these diseases, which might be reflected in financial saving, social benefits and health benefits.

  17. Epilepsy in Prader-Willi syndrome:clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Verrotti; Claudia Soldani; Daniela Laino; Renato d'Alonzo; Salvatore Grosso

    2014-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy associated with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) represents an early and important complication, often not clearly reported and described in the literature. Consequently, there are controversial data about the clinical characteristics of epilepsy and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities found in these patients. Data sources: Based on recent original publications, we have reviewed the different types of seizures and EEG findings in PWS patients, the response to antiepileptic treatment, and the prognosis of epilepsy. Results: The frequency of epilepsy in PWS patients ranges from 4% to 26%. The types of seizure include generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, atypical absence, staring spells, and myoclonic, tonic and hemiclonic seizures, but the most frequent type is focal epilepsy. Status epilepticus has never been reported. EEG abnormalities are not typical but variable in different patients. However, generalized and focal discharges are the most frequently reported findings. There is no evidence of relationship between the course of epilepsy and frequency, morphology and spread of EEG discharges. However, epilepsy in PWS patients is usually responsive to antiepileptic monotherapy with rapid seizure control and a good outcome. Conclusions: The frequency of epilepsy is higher in PWS patients than in general populations and this complication can be a challenge for the clinicians of these patients. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the good long-term prognosis.

  18. On Some Aspects of Conditional Power Evaluation In Two-phase Clinical Trials Under Linear Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Hedayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} We investigate the conditional power under the framework of linear regression models so that it can be applied to most actual clinical trials in which multiple treatment effects and covariate effects are included. It is well known that the standard power of a regular test for a treatment contrast depends on unknown parameters only through the contrast itself. However it is not true in general for conditional power. Conditions for this to happen are established here and some instances are illustrated. We also show that similar arguments can be made about the sufficient statistics for the conditional power.

  19. [Noma in children in a hospital environment in Bobo-Dioulasso: epidemiologic, clinical and management aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tall, F; Ki-Zerbo, G; Ouedraogo, I; Guigma, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study covering ten years (1987-1996) was conducted to assess the epidemiology, clinical features and management of cancrum oris (noma) in children from Burkina Faso. Fifty nine (59) children were admitted with cancrum oris at the paediatrics and maxillo-facial surgery units of Bobo-Dioulasso, the second town of Burkina Faso. The hospital prevalence of noma is 1.5/1000. 81% of the cases were in the 1 to 5 years age group and 58% were females. Predisposing factors include poverty, lack of immunization, malnutrition, bad oral hygiene, measles and parasitic diseases. The cheek was involved in 31% of the cases. Cure was obtained in 80% of patients after medical and surgical treatment. However, many sequels were observed. Post operative outcome is complicated by the children's growth and often results in retractions, recurrence of ulcers or constriction. Psychological and social problems are associated. Management is difficult in our setting because of the lack of information, cost of the treatment and the absence of well-equipped plastic surgery units.

  20. Respiratory viruses in the pediatric intensive care unit: prevalence and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selir M Straliotto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in two pediatric intensive care units in hospitals in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in order to monitor the main respiratory viruses present in bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia and their involvement in the severity of viral respiratory infections. Viral respiratory infection prevalence was 38.7%. In bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was detected in 36% of the cases. In pneumonia, the prevalence rates were similar for adenovirus (10.3% and RSV (7.7%. There was a difference among the viruses detected in terms of frequency of clinical findings indicating greater severity. Frequency of crackles in patients with RSV (47.3% showed a borderline significance (p = 0.055, Fisher's exact test as compared to those with adenovirus (87.5%. The overall case fatality rate in this study was 2.7%, and adenovirus showed a significantly higher case fatality rate (25% than RSV (2.8% (p = 0.005. Injected antibiotics were used in 49% of the children with RSV and 60% of those with adenovirus. Adenovirus was not detected in any of the 33 children submitted to oxygen therapy.

  1. Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism and diabetes mellitus: Pathophysiology assumptions, clinical aspects and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, André Gustavo P; Cabral, João Victor de Sousa; El-Feghaly, William Batah; de Sousa, Luísa Silva; Nunes, Adriana Bezerra

    2016-03-10

    Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) frequently develop electrolyte disorders, including hyperkalemia. The most important causal factor of chronic hyperkalemia in patients with diabetes is the syndrome of hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism (HH), but other conditions may also contribute. Moreover, as hyperkalemia is related to the blockage of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and HH is most common among patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency due to diabetic nephropathy (DN), the proper evaluation and management of these patients is quite complex. Despite its obvious relationship with diabetic nephropathy, HH is also related to other microvascular complications, such as DN, particularly the autonomic type. To confirm the diagnosis, plasma aldosterone concentration and the levels of renin and cortisol are measured when the RAAS is activated. In addition, synthetic mineralocorticoid and/or diuretics are used for the treatment of this syndrome. However, few studies on the implications of HH in the treatment of patients with DM have been conducted in recent years, and therefore little, if any, progress has been made. This comprehensive review highlights the findings regarding the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management recommendations for HH in patients with DM to clarify the diagnosis of this clinical condition, which is often neglected, and to assist in the improvement of patient care.

  2. Unenhanced MR Imaging in adults with clinically suspected acute appendicitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elcha@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Balslev, Ingegerd, E-mail: inbal@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Achiam, Michael, E-mail: micach01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Nielsen, Yousef W., E-mail: yujwni01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Adamsen, Sven, E-mail: svad@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Gocht-Jensen, Peter, E-mail: petgoc01@heh.reginh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Brisling, Steffen K., E-mail: stkibr01@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Logager, Vibeke B., E-mail: viloe@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S., E-mail: heth@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate unenhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of appendicitis or another surgery-requiring condition in an adult population scheduled for emergency appendectomy based on a clinical diagnosis of suspected acute appendicitis. Materials and methods: The prospective study included 48 consecutive patients (29 female, 19 male, 18-70 years old, mean age = 37.1 years). MRI examination was designed to be comfortable and fast; no contrast was administered. The sequences were performed during quiet respiration. The MRI findings were reviewed by two radiologists and one surgeon independent of each other and compared with surgical and pathological records. Results: According to the surgical and histopathological findings 30 of 48 patients (63%) had acute appendicitis. Of the remaining 18 patients, 4 patients had no reasons for the clinical symptoms and 14 patients had other pathology. For the three reviewers the performance of MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis showed the following sensitivity, specificity and accuracy ranges: 83-93%, 50-83% and 77-83%. Moderate ({kappa} = 0.51) and fair ({kappa} = 0.31) interobserver agreements in the MR diagnosis of acute appendicitis were found between the reviewers. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy values for overall performance of MRI in detecting pelvic abnormalities were 100%, 75% (3 of 4 healthy patients were identified by MRI) and 98%, respectively. Conclusion: Unenhanced fast MRI is feasible as an additional fast screening before the appendectomy. It may prevent unnecessary surgeries. The fast MRI examination can be adequately performed on an MRI unit of broad range of field strengths.

  3. Advances on the clinical applications of the image fusion techniques in coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of coronary heart disease increasingly depends on referring and combining the information from a variety of imaging techniques. The fusion imaging of the anatomy and function provides a convenient 'one stop' examination which improves the existing imaging examination process. The development of the image fusion techniques, such as SPECT/coronary angiography, SPECT/CT, especially PET/CT, has shown a larger value in the diagnosis, risk stratification, clinical treatment guidance and efficacy prognosis of coronary heart disease than a single imaging examination, while the more complete data of the image and the quantitative analysis provide more useful information for the clinic. (authors)

  4. Psychosocial Aspects of Body Mass and Body Image among Rural American Indian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Denise L.; Sontag, Lisa M.; Salvato, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the psychosocial risks associated with body weight (BMI) and body image in a southeastern, rural Lumbee American Indian community. A total of 134 adolescents (57% female) were surveyed over 2 years at ages of 13 and 15 years. On average, boys (55%) were more likely to be overweight or obese than were girls (31%). BMI was…

  5. Joint Probability Models of Radiology Images and Clinical Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Corey Wells

    2009-01-01

    Radiology data, in the form of images and reports, is growing at a high rate due to the introduction of new imaging modalities, new uses of existing modalities, and the growing importance of objective image information in the diagnosis and treatment of patients. This increase has resulted in an enormous set of image data that is richly annotated…

  6. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  7. [Gender medicine. Sex- and gender-specific aspects of clinical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzky-Willer, A

    2014-09-01

    Gender medicine studies sex- and gender-based differences in the development and prevention of diseases, the awareness and presentation of symptoms, and the effectiveness of therapy. Gender medicine is part of personalized medicine, considering differences in biological and psychosocial factors individually. There are differences in genes, chromosomes, hormones, and metabolism as well as differences in culture, environment, and society. Lifelong interactions between physical and psychosocial factors will influence the health and ill-health of men and women in different ways. Epigenetic modifications provide evidence of the impact of environment and lifestyle during vulnerable phases on biological processes, effecting future generations. Maternal lifestyle and environmental factors during pregnancy can impact the health of offspring in later life already in utero in a sex-specific way. Pain, stress, and coping styles differ between men and women. Women experience more dramatic physical changes during their lifetime, which are associated with specific burdens and psychosocial alterations. Women with multiple roles and responsibilities suffering from stress develop depression more frequently. However, men are often not diagnosed and treated appropriately in cases of depression or osteoporosis, diseases that are typically considered "female." There are prominent differences between men and women in medicine regarding the immune system, inflammation, and noncommunicable diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Women experience more often autoimmune diseases and suffer more frequently from (chronic) pain, neurodegenerative changes, and functional disabilities. Men have shorter life expectancy but relatively more healthy years of life, which is in greater part ascribed to psychosocial determinants. State-of-the-art clinical medicine comprises individual risk factors based on sex- and gender-sensitive health programs in order to

  8. [Immune-mediated neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome)--clinical aspects and pathomechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu

    2010-04-01

    Neuromyotonia occurs due to several causes such as hereditary, immune-mediated and degenerative neurological disorders. Isaacs' syndrome (immune-mediated neuromyotonia) is an antibody-mediated potassium channel disorder (channelopathy). Clinical symptoms of Isaacs' syndrome are characterized by muscle cramp, slow relaxation following muscle contraction (pseudomyotonia), and hyperhidrosis; these symptoms are due to hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerve, including autonomic nerve. These symptoms are relieved by the administration of Na channel blocker and immunotherapy. Recent studies show that this disease is not infrequently associated with neoplasm, especially thymoma. The target channel proteins of the antigens are voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs), specifically dendrotoxin-sensitive fast potassium channels. The suppression of voltage-gated outward K+ current by antibodies induces the hyper- excitability of the peripheral nerve. The findings of patch clamp studies show that antibodies may not directly block the kinetics of VGKCs, but may decrease channel density. From the electrophysiologic, pharmacologic and immunologic view points, the site of origin of spontaneous discharges is located principally in the distal portion of the motor nerve and/or within the terminal arborization. Anti-VGKC antibodies were also found to be positive in patients with Morvan's syndrome, limbic encephalitis and temporal epilepsy. Thus, an increasing number of immune-mediated neurological disorders with anti-VGKC antibodies are being identified. However, except in Morvan's syndrome, it is rare to find symptoms pertaining to involvement of both the peripheral and central nervous system in the same patient with anti-VGKC antibodies. The differences in the pathomechanism of Isaacs' syndrome and limbic encephalitis are still unclear. PMID:20420181

  9. Resurgence of pertussis at the age of vaccination: clinical, epidemiological, and molecular aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela S.L.A. Torres

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Report the incidence, epidemiology, clinical features, death, and vaccination status of patients with whooping cough and perform genotypic characterization of isolates of B. pertussis identified in the state of Paraná, during January 2007 to December 2013.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 1,209 patients with pertussis. Data were obtained through the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação - SINAN and molecular epidemiology was performed by repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR; DiversiLab(r, bioMerieux, France.RESULTS: The incidence of pertussis in the state of Paraná increased sharply from 0.15-0.76 per 100,000 habitants between 2007-2010 to 1.7-4.28 per 100,000 between 2011-2013. Patients with less than 1 year of age were more stricken (67.5%. Fifty-nine children (5% developed pertussis even after receiving three doses and two diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP boosters vaccine. The most common complications were pneumonia (14.5%, otitis (0.9%, and encephalopathy (0.7%. Isolates of B. pertussis were grouped into two groups (G1 and G2 and eight distinct patterns (G1: P1-P5 and G2: P6-P8.CONCLUSION: The resurgence of pertussis should stimulate new research to develop vaccines with greater capacity of protection against current clones and also encourage implementation of new strategies for vaccination in order to reduce the risk of disease in infants.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging. Multicentre study for a clinical and economic evaluation. Summary. Kernspintomographie. Multizentrische Studie zur klinischen und oekonomischen Evaluierung. Kurzfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beer, A.; Bielke, G.; Bockenheimer, S.; Brenner, G.; Dieringer, H.; Esswein, H.; Hopf, H.; Koch, H.; Meves, M.; Nagel, F.; Oberstein, A.; Ostheimer, E.; Pfaff, M.; Schlaps, D.; Schopka, H.J.; Seiderer, M.

    1990-01-01

    The study investigates three points of main interest: (1) The clinical efficacy of MR imaging as a routine method, if possible to be assessed in comparison to comparable imaging methods, and referring to a broad spectrum of available types of equipment and modes of operation, to be expressed in terms of diagnostic value and indication of therapy. (2) Specific economic aspects, considering different sites of operation and application conditions. (3) Results of clinical application with regard to individual cases (patient careers), in order to establish a nationwide basis for economic cost-benefit assessment of this diagnostic tool. Another aspect taken into account whenever available data allow so, is substitutional or additional application of MR imaging. The survey is performed on the basis of data accumulated by more than 21.000 MR examinations, and of data describing the application environment, furnished by 25 users from university hospitals, general hospitals, or private practice. (orig./HP).

  11. Psychological and behavioural aspects of patients with Turner syndrome from childhood to adulthood: a review of the clinical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulos, P; Deligeoroglou, E; Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Creatsas, G

    2008-03-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal abnormality, which occurs in approximately one of every 2500 female births. Short stature, infertility, additional physical abnormalities, skeletal and medical problems may be present. Genetic, hormonal, and medical problems associated with TS are likely to affect psychosexual development of female adolescent patients, and thus influence their psychological functioning, behavior patterns, social interactions and learning ability. Although TS constitutes a chronic medical condition, with possible physical, social and psychological complications in a woman's life, hormonal and estrogen replacement therapy and assisted reproduction, are treatments that can be helpful for TS patients and improve their quality of life. Authors report on a review of the research literature clinical aspects of the syndrome as well as the beneficial effect of hormonal therapy in such patients.

  12. Tolerability of a fully maturated cheese in cow's milk allergic children: biochemical, immunochemical, and clinical aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Alessandri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From patients' reports and our preliminary observations, a fully maturated cheese (Parmigiano-Reggiano; PR seems to be well tolerated by a subset of cow's milk (CM allergic patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To biochemically and immunologically characterize PR samples at different maturation stage and to verify PR tolerability in CM allergic children. Seventy patients, with suspected CM allergy, were enrolled. IgE to CM, α-lactalbumin (ALA, β-lactoglobulin (BLG and caseins (CAS were tested using ImmunoCAP, ISAC103 and skin prick test. Patients underwent a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with CM, and an open food challenge with 36 months-maturated PR. Extracts obtained from PR samples were biochemically analyzed in order to determine protein and peptide contents. Pepsin and trypsin-chymotrypsin-pepsin simulated digestions were applied to PR extracts. Each PR extract was investigated by IgE Single Point Highest Inhibition Achievable assay (SPHIAa. The efficiency analysis was carried out using CM and PR oral challenges as gold standards. RESULTS: The IgE binding to milk allergens was 100% inhibited by almost all PR preparations; the only difference was for CAS, mainly α(S1-CAS. Sixteen patients sensitized to CM tolerated both CM and PR; 29 patients tolerated PR only; 21 patients, reacted to both CM and PR, whereas 4 patients reactive to CM refused to ingest PR. ROC analysis showed that the absence of IgE to BLG measured by ISAC could be a good marker of PR tolerance. The SPHIAa using digested PR preparations showed a marked effect on IgE binding to CAS and almost none on ALA and BLG. CONCLUSIONS: 58% of patients clinically reactive to CM tolerated fully maturated PR. The preliminary digestion of CAS induced by PR maturation process, facilitating a further loss of allergenic reactivity during gut digestion, might explain the tolerance. This hypothesis seems to work when no IgE sensitization to ISAC BLG is detected.

  13. Clinical-pharmacokinetic aspects of prolonged effect duration as illustrated by beta2-agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Johan

    2002-07-01

    Regularity is a key element of maintenance drug treatment; compliance is crucial for treatment success. Once- or twice-daily intake of a drug is always easier to comply with than regimens requiring more frequent dosing. Bronchodilating treatment was used as an example to illustrate how sustained duration of effect can be achieved by two different approaches: oral administration of the terbutaline prodrug bambuterol and inhalation of formoterol. Bioanalytical methods were employed to monitor the kinetic fate of bambuterol and formoterol in plasma, urine, or faeces. Generated terbutaline in plasma was used as a marker of effect for bambuterol. Established clinical laboratory tests were used to assess local and systemic effects of inhaled formoterol compared with salbutamol. Recommended doses of bambuterol, 10-20 mg once daily in adults, normally produced plasma concentrations of the active moiety terbutaline within therapeutically relevant limits. Dose proportionality for terbutaline makes dosing with bambuterol predictable. Compared with adults, children should be given higher doses than indicated by their lower body weight. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that absorption of bambuterol was slow and multi-phasic and that slow biotransformation to terbutaline occurred both presystemically and systemically. Systemically circulating formoterol was rapidly eliminated, the inactive (S;S)-formoterol more rapidly than the active (R;R)-formoterol. An inactive phenol glucuronide was the main metabolite, and a previously unknown sulphate metabolite was discovered. Duration of systemically mediated cardiovascular or metabolic side-effects of inhaled formoterol seemed not to differ from those of an inhaled systemically equieffective dose of salbutamol. There was a trend suggesting that the magnitude of systemic side-effects may be less pronounced after inhalation of formoterol compared with a locally equieffective dose of inhaled salbutamol. Both approaches to sustaining

  14. A review of the epidemiological and clinical aspects of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray TJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Gray,1 Cameron E Webb2,31Department of Infectious Diseases, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Medical Entomology, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and Pathology West - Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead, NSW, Australia; 3Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America and Europe in recent years has raised the concerns of local authorities and highlighted that mosquito-borne disease is not restricted to tropical regions of the world. WNV is maintained in enzootic cycles involving, primarily, Culex spp. mosquitoes and avian hosts, with epizootic spread to mammals, including horses and humans. Human infection results in symptomatic illness in approximately one-fifth of cases and neuroinvasive disease in less than 1% of infected persons. The most consistently recognized risk factor for neuroinvasive disease is older age, although diabetes mellitus, alcohol excess, and a history of cancer may also increase risk. Despite the increasing public health concern, the current WNV treatments are inadequate. Current evidence supporting the use of ribavirin, interferon α, and WNV-specific immunoglobulin are reviewed. Nucleic acid detection has been an important diagnostic development, which is particularly important for the protection of the donated blood supply. While effective WNV vaccines are widely available for horses, no human vaccine has been registered. Uncertainty surrounds the magnitude of future risk posed by WNV, and predictive models are limited by the heterogeneity of environmental, vector, and host factors, even in neighboring regions. However, recent history has demonstrated that for regions where suitable mosquito vectors and reservoir hosts are present, there will be a risk of major epidemics. Given the potential for these outbreaks to

  15. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  16. The relationship between sociosexuality and aspects of body image in men and women: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammsayer, Thomas H; Troche, Stefan J

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the association between individual differences in sociosexual orientation and four aspects of body image in 156 male and 136 female students. While men were characterized by a less restricted sociosexual orientation, higher self-perceived physical attractiveness, and more pronounced self-rated physical assertiveness, women placed more emphasis on accentuation of body presentation. Structural equation modeling revealed significant positive relationships between sociosexual attitudes and physical attractiveness and accentuation of body presentation as well as between sociosexual behavior and physical attractiveness for the total sample. When introducing sex as a grouping variable, the attitudinal and behavioral components of sociosexuality were reliably related to both physical attractiveness and accentuation of body presentation as two aspects of body image in men, but not in women. Furthermore, our findings suggest that accentuation of body presentation represents a goal-directed behavior in men to increase the likelihood of having uncommitted sex but serves additional functions widely unrelated to unrestrictive sociosexual behavior in women. PMID:23716198

  17. Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students

    OpenAIRE

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Krupa, Magdalena; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Hay, Phillipa

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to investigate orthorexia nervosa, or the phenomenon of being preoccupied with consuming healthy food. Specific aims were to explore relationships between orthorexia features and attitudes towards body image, fitness and health in normal weight female and male university students with high levels of healthy food preoccupation, i.e. orthorexia nervosa. Methods Participants were 327 female (N = 283) and male (N = 44) students aged 18 to 25 years. All pa...

  18. Carcinoma in ectopic breast tissue: imaging aspects (mammography, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging); Carcinoma em tecido mamario ectopico: aspectos de imagem (mamografia, ultrasonografia e ressonancia magnetica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Vanessa Sales; Francisco, Marina Celli; Abud, Thiago Giansante; Goldman, Susan Menasce; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: vanvilar76gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Over the last three years 30,000 mammograms were performed in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo/Escola Paulista de Medicina. Accessory breast tissue was observed in 0.23% of the individuals. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman presenting a hard nodule adhered to the subcutaneous tissue in right inframammary topography. At ultrasonography, a hypoechogenic solid nodule with irregular contour measuring 1.4 cm was observed. Magnetic resonance imaging showed type II (plateau) dynamic curve. Breast adenocarcinoma was subsequently diagnosed by biopsy. Accessory breast carcinomas generally present with an ill-defined histopathological aspect and early dissemination. Early detection is essential to begin treatment in the initial stages, with better chances of cure. (author)

  19. Unique roles of SPET brain imaging in clinical and research studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing availability of PET imaging in Nuclear medicine expands the armamentarium of clinical and research tools for improving diagnosis and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. Nonetheless, the role of SPEC imaging remains critical to both research and clinical practice. The development of rational strategies for guiding the selection of imaging modalities flows from primarily the nature of the clinical or research question and the availability of appropriate radiopharmaceuticals. There has been extensive SPECT and PET work in Parkinson's disease (PD) which highlights the value of both these scintigraphic modalities. Three main areas of interest in PD include imaging for improving diagnostic accuracy, for monitoring the progression of disease, and for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of drugs with neoroprotective potential. The demands of the clinical or research question posed to imaging dictates the selection of radiotracer and imaging modality. Diagnosis of PD represents the easiest challenge with many imaging bio markers showing high sensitivity for detecting abnormal reduction of dopaminergic function based on qualitative review of images. On the other hand, using imaging to evaluate treatments which purportedly slow the rate of disease progression, indicated by the reduction of the rate of loss in a quantitative imaging signal in patients studied over time, represents the most rigorous requirement of the imaging measure. In each of these applications presynaptic markers of dopaminergic function using SPECT and PET have been extremely valuable. Review of neuroimaging studies of PD provides a useful example of optimized approaches to clinical and research studies in neuropsychiatric disorders

  20. [Clinical-pharmacological aspects to accelerate the development process from the preclinical to the clinical phase/1st communication: The contribution of clinical pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    To improve the transition from research to development a critical evaluation of the individual project by research and disease area teams is required to include input from pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, galenics, clinical pharmacology, clinical as well as regulatory experts and marketing. Decisions on the individual development strategy should be made prior to the start of development and all projects should be reviewed at predefined stages throughout the product development life cycle. This ensures consistency of decision-making not only during the development of individual products but throughout the entire development pipeline. Studies in the exploratory stage of drug development should be designed for decision making in contrast to later clinical trials in the confirmatory stage that require power for proof-of-safety and proof-of-efficacy. The more thorough and profound studies have been carried out during this exploratory stage of drug development, the earlier a decision can be made on the continuation or discontinuation of further development, thus saving development time and money and assessing and considerably reducing the risk for the patients and increasing the success rate of the project in the later confirmatory effectiveness trial with an adequate number of subjects receiving the new therapy under typical conditions of use. Strategies which may be helpful to improve the quality of decisions in drug discovery and drug development are: discovery experiments should be done to critically evaluate the compound, the "killer" experiments should be done as early as possible, continuous effort on preclinical disease models is necessary to improve predictability of efficacy in patients ("humanized" research): genomic technology should be used to identify novel, disease-related targets and to characterise preclinical test systems, improvement of knowledge and experience concerning the relevance of new technologies for the clinical picture; genotyping

  1. [Clinical-pharmacological aspects to accelerate the development process from the preclinical to the clinical phase/1st communication: The contribution of clinical pharmacology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    To improve the transition from research to development a critical evaluation of the individual project by research and disease area teams is required to include input from pharmacology, toxicology, pharmacokinetics, galenics, clinical pharmacology, clinical as well as regulatory experts and marketing. Decisions on the individual development strategy should be made prior to the start of development and all projects should be reviewed at predefined stages throughout the product development life cycle. This ensures consistency of decision-making not only during the development of individual products but throughout the entire development pipeline. Studies in the exploratory stage of drug development should be designed for decision making in contrast to later clinical trials in the confirmatory stage that require power for proof-of-safety and proof-of-efficacy. The more thorough and profound studies have been carried out during this exploratory stage of drug development, the earlier a decision can be made on the continuation or discontinuation of further development, thus saving development time and money and assessing and considerably reducing the risk for the patients and increasing the success rate of the project in the later confirmatory effectiveness trial with an adequate number of subjects receiving the new therapy under typical conditions of use. Strategies which may be helpful to improve the quality of decisions in drug discovery and drug development are: discovery experiments should be done to critically evaluate the compound, the "killer" experiments should be done as early as possible, continuous effort on preclinical disease models is necessary to improve predictability of efficacy in patients ("humanized" research): genomic technology should be used to identify novel, disease-related targets and to characterise preclinical test systems, improvement of knowledge and experience concerning the relevance of new technologies for the clinical picture; genotyping

  2. Disrupting P-glycoprotein function in clinical settings: what can we learn from the fundamental aspects of this transporter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Francisco S; Santiago, Jayson S; Jesus, Miguel Francisco M De; Trinidad, Camille V; See, Melvin Floyd E

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is one of the most well-studied drug transporters, significant for its role in cancer multiple drug resistance. However, using P-gp inhibitors with the aim of enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of anti-cancer drugs has led to disappointing outcomes. Furthermore, several lead compounds suggested by in vitro and pre-clinical studies have shown variable pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacies when applied in the clinical setting. This review will highlight the need to revisit a sound approach to better design and apply P-gp inhibitors in light of safety and efficacy. Challenges confronting the issue hinge upon myriad studies that do not necessarily represent the heterogeneous target population of this therapeutic approach. The application of P-gp modulators has also been complicated by the promiscuous substrate-binding behaviour of P-gp, as well as toxicities related to its intrinsic presence in healthy tissue. This review capitalizes on information spanning genetics, energetics, and pharmacology, bringing to light some fundamental aspects that ought to be reconsidered in order to improve upon and design the next generation of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:27648351

  3. [The pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process in the young males: clinical and therapeutical aspects in 160 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, P A; Gueye, S M; Ndoye, A; Sylla, C; Abdallahi, M O; Diame, A A; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to describe the clinical and therapeutical aspects of pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process. We have performed a retrospective study including 160 patients operated between January 1990 up to December 1996. Mean age at diagnosis was 8 years, ranged from 1 month to 13 years old. All patients were male. The abnormality was located in the right side in 60% of cases and was bilateral in 6.7% of cases. The main clinical features were scrotal mass (81%) and scrotal pain (13.46%). The diagnosis was made at birth only in 20% of cases. A maldescended testis was associated in 7.5% of cases. A groin incision have been used in 91.25% of patients. The average hospital stay after surgery was 1 day. Thus, the pathology of the peritoneo-vaginal process is common and apparently banal. Need for treatment through a groin incision owing to the possibility of associated maldescended testis. PMID:15779188

  4. [Clinical and therapeutic aspects of pyelo-ureteral junction abnormalities at the University Hospital of Point G].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembely, Aly; Kassogué, Amadou; Berthé, Honoré; Ouattara, Zanafon

    2016-01-01

    This study is meant to analyze the clinical and therapeutic aspects of abnormalities ureteropelvic junction. Cross-sectional and descriptive study on 35 cases of abnormalities of the AUPJ collected the Urology Department of the University Hospital of Point G for a period of 4 years (January 2010 to December 2014). Data were collected on the survey forms, medical records and records of the block. The socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic data were entered into Microsoft Word 2007 and Excel 2007 and analyzed on SPSS 18.0. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 35 cases of AUPJ were collected. The average age was 29.3 years. The back pain was the most frequent reason for consultation or 40%. 20% of patients were consulting for the first time 10 years symptomatic evolution. Kidney destruction was observed in 28.6%. The association Ultrasound + IVU has established the diagnosis in 37.1%. A urinary tract infection was found in 60%. The gallstone complication was present in 17.1% of patients. 51.4% of patients received open pyeloplasty by Anderson Kuss. The anomaly of the ureteropelvic junction in our study was marked by a consultation with delay formidable complications. The open surgery has been the gold standard with satisfactory results. The endopyéloplasty, the treatment of laparoscopic minimally invasive joint surgeries are not available to us but to encourage and incorporate in the therapeutic arsenal. PMID:27516821

  5. Clinical PET-MR Imaging in Breast Cancer and Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Samuel L; Friedman, Kent P

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid imaging systems have dramatically improved thoracic oncology patient care over the past 2 decades. PET-MR imaging systems have the potential to further improve imaging of thoracic neoplasms, resulting in diagnostic and therapeutic advantages compared with current MR imaging and PET-computed tomography systems. Increasing soft tissue contrast and lesion sensitivity, improved image registration, reduced radiation exposure, and improved patient convenience are immediate clinical advantages. Multiparametric quantitative imaging capabilities of PET-MR imaging have the potential to improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cancer and treatment effects, potentially guiding improvements in diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27593245

  6. Image artifacts from MR-based attenuation correction in clinical, whole-body PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H; Holm, Søren; Hansen, Adam E;

    2013-01-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MRI tomographs have become available. PET/MR imaging has the potential to supplement, or even replace combined PET/CT imaging in selected clinical indications. However, this is true only if methodological pitfalls and image artifacts arising from novel MR-based attenuation...

  7. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging at 7000 frames per second using clinical ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramanian, Kathyayini; Pramanik, Manojit

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic tomography, a hybrid imaging modality combining optical and ultrasound imaging, is gaining attention in the field of medical imaging. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser is used to excite the tissue and generate photoacoustic signals. But, such photoacoustic imaging systems are difficult to translate into clinical applications owing to their high cost, bulky size often requiring an optical table to house such lasers. Moreover, the low pulse repetition rate of few tens of hertz prevents them from being used in high frame rate photoacoustic imaging. In this work, we have demonstrated up to 7000 Hz photoacoustic imaging (B-mode) and measured the flow rate of a fast moving object. We used a ~140 nanosecond pulsed laser diode as an excitation source and a clinical ultrasound imaging system to capture and display the photoacoustic images. The excitation laser is ~803 nm in wavelength with ~1.4 mJ energy per pulse. So far, the reported 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging is only a few tens of frames per second using a clinical ultrasound system. Therefore, this is the first report on 2-dimensional photoacoustic B-scan imaging with 7000 frames per second. We have demonstrated phantom imaging to view and measure the flow rate of ink solution inside a tube. This fast photoacoustic imaging can be useful for various clinical applications including cardiac related problems, where the blood flow rate is quite high, or other dynamic studies.

  8. STRUCTURAL ASPECTS REGARDING TO THE IMAGE OF ICE HOTEL BALEA LAC BREND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian ZAHARIA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying a poll-based survey provides important information regarding the tourist offer particulars in Bâlea Lac area. On the day the survey is performed its main advantage is also outlined: the fact that this information display a good accuracy, are obtained in a short time span and involving relatively low expenses. Data collection and centralization of the answers provided by interviewed tourists regarding tourism practice in the Bâlea Lac area have led to drawing up distributions that are presented in the paper. Based on the respective information, statistics methods adequate to the study of tourist opinion on the Bâlea Lac Ice Hotel brand image. Several issues have been outlined, regarding the types of respondents based on their category, Romanian or foreigners, from Romania and based on destination countries, function of: the type of stay; the means of information; their answers referring to their first arrival at Bâlea Lac; the degree of destination assessment; their opinion on host reception; their preference for Bâlea Lac; appreciating value for money; age groups; gender; social and professional standing. The image created through the attractions and services provided in the Bâlea Lac tourist area by tourism activities closely related to the Ice Hotel is well appreciated, so that they have opened up a rather favourable expectancy for those willing to come back and for those tempted to try and spend their holidays in the presented hotel.

  9. Digital Airborne Photogrammetry—A New Tool for Quantitative Remote Sensing?—A State-of-the-Art Review On Radiometric Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj Veje

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition from film imaging to digital imaging in photogrammetric data capture is opening interesting possibilities for photogrammetric processes. A great advantage of digital sensors is their radiometric potential. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on the radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images. The analysis is based on a literature research and a questionnaire submitted to various interest groups related to the photogrammetric process. An important contribution to this paper is a characterization of the photogrammetric image acquisition and image product generation systems. The questionnaire revealed many weaknesses in current processes, but the future prospects of radiometrically quantitative photogrammetry are promising.

  10. Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Oral Imaging Centre, Faculty of Medicine, School of Dentistry, Oral Pathology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Leuven (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Radiology Section, Department of Medical Diagnostic Sciences, Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    A review of modern imaging techniques commonly used in dental practice and their clinical applications is presented. The current dental examinations consist of intraoral imaging with digital indirect and direct receptors, while extraoral imaging is divided into traditional tomographic/panoramic imaging and the more recently introduced cone beam computed tomography. Applications, limitations and current trends of these dental ''in-office'' radiographic techniques are discussed. (orig.)

  11. PET/SPECT molecular imaging in clinical neuroscience: recent advances in the investigation of CNS diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Feng-Mei; Yuan, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Molecular imaging is an attractive technology widely used in clinical practice that greatly enhances our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. It is a novel multidisciplinary technique that can be defined as real-time visualization, in vivo characterization and qualification of biological processes at the molecular and cellular level. It involves the imaging modalities and the corresponding imaging agents. Nowadays, molecular imaging in n...

  12. An observer study for direct comparison of clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To directly compare clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images. Methods and Materials: An observer study was designed to compare clinical efficacy of electronic to film portal images acquired using a liquid matrix ion-chamber electronic portal imaging device and a conventional metal screen/film system. Both images were acquired simultaneously for each treatment port and the electronic portal images were printed on gray-level thermal paper. Four radiation oncologists served as observers and evaluated a total of 44 sets of images for four different treatment sites: lung, pelvis, brain, and head/neck. Each set of images included a simulation image, a double-exposure portal film, and video paper prints of electronic portal images. Eight to nine anatomical landmarks were selected from each treatment site. Each observer was asked to rate each landmark in terms of its clinical visibility and to rate the ease of making the pertinent verification decision in the corresponding electronic and film portal images with the aid of the simulation image. Results: Ratings for the visibility of landmarks and for the verification decision of treatment ports were similar for electronic and film images for most landmarks. However, vertebral bodies and several landmarks in the pelvis such as the acetabulum and pubic symphysis were more visible in the portal film images than in the electronic portal images. Conclusion: The visibility of landmarks in electronic portal images is comparable to that in film portal images. Verification of treatment ports based only on electronic portal images acquired using an electronic portal imaging device is generally achievable

  13. Retrieving clinically relevant diabetic retinopathy images using a multi-class multiple-instance framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandakkar, Parag S.; Venkatesan, Ragav; Li, Baoxin

    2013-02-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a vision-threatening complication from diabetes mellitus, a medical condition that is rising globally. Unfortunately, many patients are unaware of this complication because of absence of symptoms. Regular screening of DR is necessary to detect the condition for timely treatment. Content-based image retrieval, using archived and diagnosed fundus (retinal) camera DR images can improve screening efficiency of DR. This content-based image retrieval study focuses on two DR clinical findings, microaneurysm and neovascularization, which are clinical signs of non-proliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The authors propose a multi-class multiple-instance image retrieval framework which deploys a modified color correlogram and statistics of steerable Gaussian Filter responses, for retrieving clinically relevant images from a database of DR fundus image database.

  14. Clinical data compression with a picture archiving and communications system image workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The picture archiving communications system (PACS) started in 1985 at Kyoto University Hospital has been working for 4 years in a clinical environment. Three x-ray CT, MR imaging, chest radiography, and digital subtraction angiography (DSAs) units have already been linked with the system. Because the long-term archiving of the image data and the increase in the number of image modalities have caused system overload, efforts should be made to reduce the image data. This paper reports on an image workstation with a personal computer to create an image summary with reporting system

  15. Leprosy Reactions in Patients Coinfected with HIV: Clinical Aspects and Outcomes in Two Comparative Cohorts in the Amazon Region, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Andréa Avelar; Jucá Neto, Fernando Octávio Machado; de Albuquerque, Nahima Castelo; Macedo, Geraldo Mariano Moraes; Batista, Keila de Nazaré Madureira; Xavier, Marília Brasil

    2015-01-01

    Background Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, can lead to scarring and deformities. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a lymphotropic virus with high rates of replication, leads to cell death in various stages of infection. These diseases have major social and quality of life costs, and although the relevance of their comorbidity is recognized, several aspects are still not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cohorts of patients with leprosy in an endemic region of the Amazon were observed. We compared 40 patients with leprosy and HIV (Group 1) and 107 leprosy patients with no comorbidity (Group 2) for a minimum of 2 years. Group 1 predominantly experienced the paucibacillary classification, accounting for 70% of cases, whereas Group 2 primarily experienced the multibacillary classification (80.4% of cases). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of leprosy reactions among the two groups (37.5% for Group 1 vs. 56.1% for Group 2), and the most frequent reaction was Type 1. The appearance of Group 1 patients’ reversal reaction skin lesions was consistent with each clinical form: typically erythematous and infiltrated, with similar progression as those patients without HIV, which responded to prednisone. Patients in both groups primarily experienced a single episode (73.3% in Group 1 and 75% in Group 2), and Group 1 had shorter reaction periods (≤3 months; 93.3%), moderate severity (80%), with 93.3% of the patients in the state of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and 46.7% presenting the reaction at the time of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions/Significance This study used a large sample and makes a significant contribution to the clinical outcomes of patients in the reactive state with comorbid HIV and leprosy. The data indicate that these diseases, although concurrent, have independent courses. PMID:26029928

  16. Frequency of neonatal hyperglycaemia at Gaafar Ibnauf Children’s Hospital: Clinical aspects and short term outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Monera MM

    2016-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia has become a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality of the smaller fragile infants surviving the neonatal period. Its risk is inversely related to gestational age, birth weight and baby’s clinical condition. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency, some clinical aspects and immediate outcome of hyperglycaemia in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Gaafar Ibnauf Children’s Hospital, Khartoum. The study was a prospective, descriptive and hospital-based, conducted during the period of 1st January to 31st December 2014. Eighty-five neonates out of 345 had neonatal hyperglycaemia with a frequency rate of (24.6%). Fifty-two (61.2%) were males (male: female ratio=1.6:1), 61.2% of the babies were in the age group (0—7) days, and 25.9% in age group (8—14) days. Forty-two (49.4%) were preterm, while 43 (50.6%) were term babies. Four (4.7%) of the mothers had diabetes, and 6(7.1%) had hypertension. Neonatal sepsis was a predominant risk factor of hyperglycaemia occurring in 67 babies (78.8%), followed by respiratory distress syndrome in 28 (32.9%) babies. Ten babies (11.8%) were diagnosed as acute kidney injury, four babies (4.7%) had hypernatraemic dehydration and seven babies (8.3%) were having hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Out of 85 hyperglycaemic neonates death was reported in 10 babies (11.8%), 75 (88.2%) survived. All cases had transient hyperglycaemia; therefore insulin intervention was not necessary. Currently, at Gaafar Ibnauf Children’s Hospital, specific protocol for management of hyperglycaemia is lacking. Further studies are recommended to assess long term sequels of hyperglycaemia in neonates. PMID:27651553

  17. Evaluation of clinical image processing algorithms used in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Jacobs, Jurgen; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Claus, Filip; Celis, Valerie; Geniets, Catherine; Provost, Veerle; Pauwels, Herman; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2009-03-01

    Screening is the only proven approach to reduce the mortality of breast cancer, but significant numbers of breast cancers remain undetected even when all quality assurance guidelines are implemented. With the increasing adoption of digital mammography systems, image processing may be a key factor in the imaging chain. Although to our knowledge statistically significant effects of manufacturer-recommended image processings have not been previously demonstrated, the subjective experience of our radiologists, that the apparent image quality can vary considerably between different algorithms, motivated this study. This article addresses the impact of five such algorithms on the detection of clusters of microcalcifications. A database of unprocessed (raw) images of 200 normal digital mammograms, acquired with the Siemens Novation DR, was collected retrospectively. Realistic simulated microcalcification clusters were inserted in half of the unprocessed images. All unprocessed images were subsequently processed with five manufacturer-recommended image processing algorithms (Agfa Musica 1, IMS Raffaello Mammo 1.2, Sectra Mamea AB Sigmoid, Siemens OPVIEW v2, and Siemens OPVIEW v1). Four breast imaging radiologists were asked to locate and score the clusters in each image on a five point rating scale. The free-response data were analyzed by the jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) method and, for comparison, also with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. JAFROC analysis revealed highly significant differences between the image processings (F = 8.51, p < 0.0001), suggesting that image processing strongly impacts the detectability of clusters. Siemens OPVIEW2 and Siemens OPVIEW1 yielded the highest and lowest performances, respectively. ROC analysis of the data also revealed significant differences between the processing but at lower significance (F = 3.47, p = 0.0305) than JAFROC. Both statistical analysis methods revealed that the

  18. Evaluation of clinical image processing algorithms used in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Jacobs, Jurgen; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Claus, Filip; Celis, Valerie; Geniets, Catherine; Provost, Veerle; Pauwels, Herman; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2009-03-01

    Screening is the only proven approach to reduce the mortality of breast cancer, but significant numbers of breast cancers remain undetected even when all quality assurance guidelines are implemented. With the increasing adoption of digital mammography systems, image processing may be a key factor in the imaging chain. Although to our knowledge statistically significant effects of manufacturer-recommended image processings have not been previously demonstrated, the subjective experience of our radiologists, that the apparent image quality can vary considerably between different algorithms, motivated this study. This article addresses the impact of five such algorithms on the detection of clusters of microcalcifications. A database of unprocessed (raw) images of 200 normal digital mammograms, acquired with the Siemens Novation DR, was collected retrospectively. Realistic simulated microcalcification clusters were inserted in half of the unprocessed images. All unprocessed images were subsequently processed with five manufacturer-recommended image processing algorithms (Agfa Musica 1, IMS Raffaello Mammo 1.2, Sectra Mamea AB Sigmoid, Siemens OPVIEW v2, and Siemens OPVIEW v1). Four breast imaging radiologists were asked to locate and score the clusters in each image on a five point rating scale. The free-response data were analyzed by the jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) method and, for comparison, also with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. JAFROC analysis revealed highly significant differences between the image processings (F = 8.51, p < 0.0001), suggesting that image processing strongly impacts the detectability of clusters. Siemens OPVIEW2 and Siemens OPVIEW1 yielded the highest and lowest performances, respectively. ROC analysis of the data also revealed significant differences between the processing but at lower significance (F = 3.47, p = 0.0305) than JAFROC. Both statistical analysis methods revealed that the

  19. Planar scintigraphic imaging of the gastrointestinal tract in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Michael L; Strober, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, nuclear medicine has paralleled other imaging fields with the development of 3-dimensional techniques, including single-photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography. However, conventional nuclear medicine planar scintigraphy remains a common procedure at most imaging centers. Gastrointestinal studies constitute a significant portion of these planar procedures. The most common gastrointestinal studies, including hepatobiliary, gastric emptying, and gastrointestinal bleeding evaluations, resemble their original protocol. However, serial improvements have optimized the diagnostic efficacy of these procedures. Conventional Technetium-99m sulfur colloid liver/spleen imaging and hepatic blood pool imaging with labeled red blood cells now mainly serve an adjunctive role in the evaluation of equivocal findings on computed tomography. Salivary gland imaging is a less commonly requested evaluation, but can be used to evaluate functional capacity in some disease entities. PMID:22117811

  20. Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izhar Haq

    Full Text Available Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images employs a 3 × 3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG, Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270 × 290 pixels having 24 dB 'salt and pepper' noise, it detected very few (22 false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931, Prewitt (2741, LOG (3102, Roberts (1451 and Canny (1045 false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images.

  1. Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Izhar; Anwar, Shahzad; Shah, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Tahir; Shah, Shaukat Ali

    2015-01-01

    Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images) employs a 3 × 3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270 × 290 pixels having 24 dB 'salt and pepper' noise, it detected very few (22) false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931), Prewitt (2741), LOG (3102), Roberts (1451) and Canny (1045) false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images.

  2. Focus on the controversial aspects of 64Cu-ATSM in tumoral hypoxia mapping by PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde eColombié

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mapping tumor hypoxia is a great challenge in Positron Emission Tomography (PET imaging as the precise functional information of the biological processes is needed for many effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor hypoxia has been widely reported as a poor prognostic indicator and is often associated with tumor aggressiveness, chemo and radio resistance. An accurate diagnosis of hypoxia is a challenge and is crucial for providing accurate treatment for patients’ survival benefits. This challenge has led to the emergence of new and novel PET tracers for the functional and metabolic characterization of tumor hypoxia non-invasively. Among these tracers, copper semicarbazone compound, [64Cu]- diacetyl-bis(N4 methylthiosemicarbazone (=64Cu-ATSM has been developed as a tracer for hypoxia imaging. This review focuses on 64Cu-ATSM PET imaging and the concept is presented in two sections. The first section describes its in vitro development and pre-clinical testing and particularly its affinity in different cell lines. The second section describes the controversial reports on its specificity for hypoxia imaging. The review concludes that 64Cu-ATSM - more than a hypoxic tracer, exhibits tracer accumulation in tumor which is linked to the redox potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS. The authors concluded that 64Cu-ATSNM is a marker of over-reduced cell state and thus an indirect marker for hypoxia imaging. The affinity of 64Cu-ATSM for over reduced cells was observed to be a complex phenomenon. And to provide a definitive and convincing mechanism, more in vivo studies are needed to prove the diagnostic utility of 64Cu-ATSM.

  3. Focus on the Controversial Aspects of (64)Cu-ATSM in Tumoral Hypoxia Mapping by PET Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Mathilde; Gouard, Sébastien; Frindel, Mathieu; Vidal, Aurélien; Chérel, Michel; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bourgeois, Mickaël

    2015-01-01

    Mapping tumor hypoxia is a great challenge in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging as the precise functional information of the biological processes is needed for many effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor hypoxia has been widely reported as a poor prognostic indicator and is often associated with tumor aggressiveness, chemo- and radio-resistance. An accurate diagnosis of hypoxia is a challenge and is crucial for providing accurate treatment for patients' survival benefits. This challenge has led to the emergence of new and novel PET tracers for the functional and metabolic characterization of tumor hypoxia non-invasively. Among these tracers, copper semicarbazone compound [64Cu]-diacetyl-bis(N (4)-methylthiosemicarbazone) (=64Cu-ATSM) has been developed as a tracer for hypoxia imaging. This review focuses on 64Cu-ATSM PET imaging and the concept is presented in two sections. The first section describes its in vitro development and pre-clinical testing and particularly its affinity in different cell lines. The second section describes the controversial reports on its specificity for hypoxia imaging. The review concludes that 64Cu-ATSM - more than a hypoxic tracer, exhibits tracer accumulation in tumor, which is linked to the redox potential and reactive oxygen species. The authors concluded that 64Cu-ATSNM is a marker of over-reduced cell state and thus an indirect marker for hypoxia imaging. The affinity of 64Cu-ATSM for over-reduced cells was observed to be a complex phenomenon. And to provide a definitive and convincing mechanism, more in vivo studies are needed to prove the diagnostic utility of 64Cu-ATSM. PMID:26380261

  4. Focus on the Controversial Aspects of 64Cu-ATSM in Tumoral Hypoxia Mapping by PET Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Mathilde; Gouard, Sébastien; Frindel, Mathieu; Vidal, Aurélien; Chérel, Michel; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Rousseau, Caroline; Bourgeois, Mickaël

    2015-01-01

    Mapping tumor hypoxia is a great challenge in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging as the precise functional information of the biological processes is needed for many effective therapeutic strategies. Tumor hypoxia has been widely reported as a poor prognostic indicator and is often associated with tumor aggressiveness, chemo- and radio-resistance. An accurate diagnosis of hypoxia is a challenge and is crucial for providing accurate treatment for patients’ survival benefits. This challenge has led to the emergence of new and novel PET tracers for the functional and metabolic characterization of tumor hypoxia non-invasively. Among these tracers, copper semicarbazone compound [64Cu]-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (=64Cu-ATSM) has been developed as a tracer for hypoxia imaging. This review focuses on 64Cu-ATSM PET imaging and the concept is presented in two sections. The first section describes its in vitro development and pre-clinical testing and particularly its affinity in different cell lines. The second section describes the controversial reports on its specificity for hypoxia imaging. The review concludes that 64Cu-ATSM – more than a hypoxic tracer, exhibits tracer accumulation in tumor, which is linked to the redox potential and reactive oxygen species. The authors concluded that 64Cu-ATSNM is a marker of over-reduced cell state and thus an indirect marker for hypoxia imaging. The affinity of 64Cu-ATSM for over-reduced cells was observed to be a complex phenomenon. And to provide a definitive and convincing mechanism, more in vivo studies are needed to prove the diagnostic utility of 64Cu-ATSM. PMID:26380261

  5. Learning clinically useful information from images: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueckert, Daniel; Glocker, Ben; Kainz, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    Over the last decade, research in medical imaging has made significant progress in addressing challenging tasks such as image registration and image segmentation. In particular, the use of model-based approaches has been key in numerous, successful advances in methodology. The advantage of model-based approaches is that they allow the incorporation of prior knowledge acting as a regularisation that favours plausible solutions over implausible ones. More recently, medical imaging has moved away from hand-crafted, and often explicitly designed models towards data-driven, implicit models that are constructed using machine learning techniques. This has led to major improvements in all stages of the medical imaging pipeline, from acquisition and reconstruction to analysis and interpretation. As more and more imaging data is becoming available, e.g., from large population studies, this trend is likely to continue and accelerate. At the same time new developments in machine learning, e.g., deep learning, as well as significant improvements in computing power, e.g., parallelisation on graphics hardware, offer new potential for data-driven, semantic and intelligent medical imaging. This article outlines the work of the BioMedIA group in this area and highlights some of the challenges and opportunities for future work. PMID:27344105

  6. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution ultrasound imaging: a clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lianjie; Labyed, Yassin; Hanson, Kenneth; Sandoval, Daniel; Pohl, Jennifer; Williamson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Imaging breast microcalcifications is crucial for early detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. It is challenging for current clinical ultrasound to image breast microcalcifications. However, new imaging techniques using data acquired with a synthetic-aperture ultrasound system have the potential to significantly improve ultrasound imaging. We recently developed a super-resolution ultrasound imaging method termed the phase-coherent multiple-signal classification (PC-MUSIC). This signal subspace method accounts for the phase response of transducer elements to improve image resolution. In this paper, we investigate the clinical feasibility of our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method for detecting breast microcalcifications. We use our custom-built, real-time synthetic-aperture ultrasound system to acquire breast ultrasound data for 40 patients whose mammograms show the presence of breast microcalcifications. We apply our super-resolution ultrasound imaging method to the patient data, and produce clear images of breast calcifications. Our super-resolution ultrasound PC-MUSIC imaging with synthetic-aperture ultrasound data can provide a new imaging modality for detecting breast microcalcifications in clinic without using ionizing radiation.

  7. Computed tomography image of the mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes in clinically sound Rottweilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina B. Fonseca Pinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Trough computed tomography (CT, it is possible to evaluate lymph nodes in detail and to detect changes in these structures earlier than with radiographs and ultrasound. Lack of information in the veterinary literature directed the focus of this report to normal aspects of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes of adult dogs on CT imaging. A CT scan of 15 normal adult male and female Rottweilers was done. To define them as clinically sound, anamnesis, physical examination, complete blood count, renal and hepatic biochemistry, ECG, and thoracic radiographs were performed. After the intravenous injection of hydrosoluble ionic iodine contrast medium contiguous 10mm in thickness thoracic transverse images were obtained with an axial scanner. In the obtained images mediastinal and axillary lymph nodes were sought and when found measured in their smallest diameter and their attenuation was compared to musculature. Mean and standard deviation of: age, weight, body length and the smallest diameter of the axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes were determined. Mean and standard deviation of parameters: age 3.87±2.03 years, weight 41.13±5.12, and body length 89.61±2.63cm. Axillary lymph nodes were seen in 60% of the animals, mean of the smallest diameter was 3.58mm with a standard deviation of 2.02 and a minimum value of 1mm and a maximum value of 7mm. From 13 observed lymph nodes 61.53% were hypopodense when compared with musculature, and 30.77% were isodense. Mediastinal lymph nodes were identified in 73.33% of the dogs; mean measure of the smallest diameter was 4.71mm with a standard deviation of 2.61mm and a minimum value of 1mm, and a maximum value of 8mm. From 14 observed lymph nodes 85.71% were isodense when compared with musculature and 14.28% were hypodense. The results show that it is possible to visualize axillary and mediastinal lymph nodes in adult clinically sound Rottweilers with CT using a slice thickness and interval of 10mm. The

  8. Recent advances in computational methods and clinical applications for spine imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Glocker, Ben; Klinder, Tobias; Li, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.

  9. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Polguj; Łukasz Chrzanowski; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Ludomir Stefańczyk; Mirosław Topol; Agata Majos

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinical...

  10. New directions in clinical imaging of cortical dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Neel; Grant, P Ellen

    2009-10-01

    Neuroimaging is essential in the work-up of patients with intractable epilepsy. In pediatric patients with medically refractory epilepsy, cortical dysplasias account for a large percentage of the epileptogenic substrate. Unfortunately, these are also the most subtle lesions to identify. For this reason, there has been ongoing interest in utilizing new advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to improve the ability to identify, diagnose, characterize, and delineate cortical dysplasias. Technologic gains such as multichannel coils (32 phased array and beyond) and higher field strengths (3T, 7T, and greater) coupled with newer imaging sequences such as arterial spin labeling (ASL), susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and diffusion tensor/spectrum imaging (DTI/DSI) are likely to increase yield. Improved MRI techniques coupled with a multimodality approach including magnetoencephalography (MEG), positron emission tomography (PET), and other techniques will increase sensitivity and specificity for identifying cortical dysplasias. PMID:19761449

  11. Early neurological deterioration after thrombolysis: Clinical and imaging predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Claus Z; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Hjørringgaard Madsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale is the most common scale used in stroke patients. An increase of four points or more within 24 h signifies early neurological deterioration. We aimed to establish how often early neurological deterioration occurs in a cohort selected...... by magnetic resonance imaging and which factors predicted early neurological deterioration. METHODS: In this single-center study, we collected epidemiological, imaging and outcome data on 569 consecutive patients undergoing reperfusion therapy after magnetic resonance imaging selection. RESULTS: Of these, 33...... (5.8%) experienced early neurological deterioration. Seven were due to a symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, 23 were caused by extension of ischemia on follow-up imaging and three were due to progression on the basis of small vessel disease. Early neurological deterioration was predicted...

  12. Clinical software VIII for magnetic resonance imaging systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohno, Satoru; Takeo, Kazuhiro [Medical Applications Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation, Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-02-01

    This report describes the latest techniques of MRA (magnetic resonance angiography) and the brain attack diagnosis protocol which are now effectively utilized in the Shimadzu-Marconi MAGNEX ECLIPSE MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) system (1.5 tesla type) and the MAGNEX POLARIS MRI system (1.0 tesla type). As for the latest techniques for MRA, this report refers to the SLINKY (sliding interleaved ky) technique, which provides high-resolution images over a wide range in the direction of slice, without using contrast agent, and to the iPass technique which enables highly reliable CE-MRA (contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography), through easy and simple operation. Also reported are the techniques of diffusion imaging and perfusion imaging, utilized for stroke assessment. (author)

  13. Assessing image-guided implant surgery in today's clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, Frederic J; Ganeles, Jeffrey; Zfaz, Samuel; Modares, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    As implant dentistry has progressed, greater emphasis has been placed on natural-looking tooth replacement, minimally invasive techniques, and better cost efficiencies, with implant positioning being guided by the desired prosthetic outcome. Image-guided surgery is a technique that merges preoperative diagnostic imaging with computer-based planning tools to facilitate surgical and restorative plans and procedures. This article discusses the intricacies of guided implant surgery, including 3-dimensional presurgical planning and the challenges of maintaining guide stability during surgical execution.

  14. The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) – Clinical Trials of Diagnostic Imaging and Image-Guided Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hillman, Bruce J.; Gatsonis, Constantine

    2008-01-01

    The American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) is the youngest of the NCI cooperative groups. ACRIN trials are directed towards evaluating the applications of diagnostic imaging and image-guided treatment to cancer. As ACRIN begins its third funding cycle, the organization is increasingly emphasizing several themes: linking imaging surveillance to pre-imaging testing for disease to improve the efficiency of cancer screening; the evaluation of imaging tests as biomarkers for molecul...

  15. A Dynamic Imaging Database for 3-D Morphologic Analysis and Clinical Assessment in Diagnostic Radiology

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, Gabriela; Toni, Louay; Foran, David J.; Nosher, John L.; DeMarco, J. Kevin

    2002-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques such as MRI and CT have become invaluable clinical and research tools for visualizing internal organs and anatomic structures, non-invasively. We present a dynamic imaging database for performing comparative morphologic studies in diagnostic radiology to facilitate clinical assessment. The prototype system utilizes a double elliptic Fourier transform to characterize shape in three dimensions. A prototype system was used to evaluate neuroanatomy from MR brain scans of...

  16. [Lipomodelling for correction of breast conservative treatment sequelae. Medicolegal aspects. Expert opinion on five problematic clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosset, J; Flageul, G; Toussoun, G; Guérin, N; Tourasse, C; Delay, E

    2008-04-01

    In our unit, breast cancer patients suffering mild sequelae of conservative cancer treatment receive fat transfer (lipomodelling), following a precise protocol, based on mammographic and ultrasound examinations and MRI. Available data do not seem to indicate any deleterious impact on patient outcome, notably in view of radiological images, but recurrence (or rather occurrence of new ipsilateral or contralateral cancer) is frequent. The correlation between new or recurrent breast cancer and lipomodelling is high; misinterpretations are possible and frequently arise. The present paper is a description of five complex clinical cases and a discussion of the medicolegal issues that may possibly arise; it also provides tentative expert evaluation of the cases. Clinical findings are reported and analyzed. The second step is a discussion of the radiological impact of lipomodelling, and of the problems caused by the transfer of potentially malignant cells when no preoperative diagnosis of recurrence is made; the morphological and esthetic benefits of the method are described, as well as the potential beneficial impact of fat transfer, notably associated with lower breast density and injections of fat stem cells. Our conclusion is that specialized radiologists, as well as plastic surgery and oncology experts should address the question of fat transfer in operated breast cancer patients and give their reasoned opinion about potentially litigious cases. This would help minimize or solve the conflicts between patients, doctors and experts. Establishing common ground between the different stakeholders would allow the development of the technique, as lipomodelling is, according to our experience, a tremendous advance in the treatment of sequelae from conservative breast cancer surgery.

  17. Distinguishing clinical and imaging features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia and large regenerative nodules of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, J.T. [Departments of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Federle, M.P., E-mail: federle@stanford.ed [Departments of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Chopra, K. [Departments of Gastroenterology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Aim: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) and large regenerative nodules (LRN) are distinct types of hepatocellular nodules that have been confused in the radiology literature. However, distinction is critical because their clinical significance is quite different. Our purpose was to review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with NRH and LRN in order to identify distinguishing clinical and imaging features. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series. The clinical and imaging features were compared in 36 patients with pathological proof of NRH and 23 patients with pathological evidence of LRN. Results: NRH and LRN have different predisposing factors and imaging findings. NRH is often associated with organ transplantation, myeloproliferative disease, or autoimmune processes. Livers with NRH typically do not have enhancing nodules; none of the present patients with NRH had enhancing liver masses. In contrast, LRN are often associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Enhancing liver masses were noted in 19 (83%) of the 23 patients with LRN. The p values for the comparisons were less than 0.001 for both enhancing liver masses and hepatic vein thrombosis. Conclusion: NRH and LRN can have distinct clinical presentations and imaging appearances. LRN often result in enhancing liver nodules, whereas NRH usually does not. Clinical and imaging information enables the distinction of LRN and NRH in many cases.

  18. Distinguishing clinical and imaging features of nodular regenerative hyperplasia and large regenerative nodules of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) and large regenerative nodules (LRN) are distinct types of hepatocellular nodules that have been confused in the radiology literature. However, distinction is critical because their clinical significance is quite different. Our purpose was to review the clinical and imaging findings in a series of patients with NRH and LRN in order to identify distinguishing clinical and imaging features. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series. The clinical and imaging features were compared in 36 patients with pathological proof of NRH and 23 patients with pathological evidence of LRN. Results: NRH and LRN have different predisposing factors and imaging findings. NRH is often associated with organ transplantation, myeloproliferative disease, or autoimmune processes. Livers with NRH typically do not have enhancing nodules; none of the present patients with NRH had enhancing liver masses. In contrast, LRN are often associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome. Enhancing liver masses were noted in 19 (83%) of the 23 patients with LRN. The p values for the comparisons were less than 0.001 for both enhancing liver masses and hepatic vein thrombosis. Conclusion: NRH and LRN can have distinct clinical presentations and imaging appearances. LRN often result in enhancing liver nodules, whereas NRH usually does not. Clinical and imaging information enables the distinction of LRN and NRH in many cases.

  19. MR imaging of the lungs. Clinical applications and potential research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging of the lung is handicapped by three negative influences. First, the low proton spin density in lung tissue results in a low signal-to-noise ratio relative to the surrounding structures. Second, cardiac and respiratory motion induce artifacts that tend to obscure fine structural detail in the lung. Third, a considerable magnetic susceptibility gradient, arising from the large surface areas of air and tissue interfaces, produces a very low value for T2*. MR imaging can be used to stage the activity of interstitial lung disease and for the diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia and pulmonary infarction. In combination with MR angiography, perfusion MR imaging might eventually become a test for pulmonary embolisms. (authors)

  20. Clinics in diagnostic imaging. 141. Complete anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hollie M Y; Peh, Wilfred C G

    2012-09-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with right knee pain and swelling following a football injury. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear and lateral meniscal tears. The torn ACL was repaired with a graft obtained from the semitendinosus muscle, and the menisci were debrided. The mechanisms of injury to the ACL are varied and may be due to direct or indirect contact with the knee as well as with twisting injuries. Knowledge of the ACL's normal anatomy, together with MR imaging technique and understanding of the appearance of the lesion on MR examination, is crucial to aid in the identification of an ACL tear. Diagnosis of an ACL tear should be based on direct MR imaging signs, although indirect signs may be helpful, particularly in chronic tears. Other associated injuries to be aware of include meniscal and other ligamentous injuries. Normal ACL graft and post-ACL graft reconstruction complications are also briefly discussed. PMID:23023908